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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
___________________________
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Transition Period From To
Commission File Number: 001-36307
___________________________
Installed Building Products, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
___________________________
Delaware45-3707650
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
495 South High Street, Suite 50
Columbus, Ohio
43215
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)

(614) 221-3399
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock,$0.01 par value per shareIBPThe New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
___________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x    No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨    No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities
Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x    No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x        No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer 
x
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. x
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ¨    No x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold on June 30, 2023 was $3,313,951,309.
On February 15, 2024, the registrant had 28,366,140 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement relating to the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. Such Definitive Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.

i


Information Regarding Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factors Summary
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws, including with respect to the housing market and the commercial market, industry and economic conditions, our ESG initiatives and goals, our financial and business model, payment of dividends, our efforts to navigate the material pricing environment, our ability to increase selling prices, supply chain and material constraints, our material and labor costs, demand for our services and product offerings, expansion of our national footprint and diversification, our ability to grow and strengthen our market position, our ability to pursue and integrate value-enhancing acquisitions, our ability to improve sales and profitability and expectations for demand for our services and our earnings in 2024. Forward-looking statements may generally be identified by the use of words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “project,” “predict,” “possible,” “forecast,” “may,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “intends,” “plan,” and “will” or, in each case, their negative, or other variations or comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include all matters that are not historical facts. By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that may or may not occur in the future. Any forward-looking statements that we make herein and in any future reports and statements are not guarantees of future performance, and actual results may differ materially from those expressed in or suggested by such forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including, without limitation, general economic and industry conditions; increases in mortgage interest rates and rising home prices; inflation and interest rates; the material price and supply environment; the timing of increases in our selling prices; as well as the factors discussed in the “Risk Factors” section of this Form 10-K, as the same may be updated from time to time in our subsequent filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). Any forward-looking statement made by the Company in this report speaks only as of the date hereof. New risks and uncertainties arise from time to time and it is impossible for the Company to predict these events or how they may affect it. The Company has no obligation, and does not intend, to update any forward-looking statements after the date hereof, except as required by federal securities laws.
Important factors that could cause our results to vary from expectations include, but are not limited to:
our dependence on the economy, the housing market, the level of new residential and commercial construction activity and the credit markets;
the cyclical and seasonal nature of our business;
declines in the economy or slowing of the housing market recovery that could lead to significant impairment charges;
the highly fragmented and competitive nature of our industry;
product shortages or the loss of key suppliers;
changes in the costs and availability of products;
our reliance on key personnel;
our ability to attract, train and retain qualified employees while controlling labor costs;
scrutiny and expectations from stakeholders regarding our environmental, social and governance ("ESG") practices;
a major pandemic or other public health issue and its effect on our business;
our exposure to severe weather conditions;
disruptions in our information technology systems, including cybersecurity incidents;
inability to continue to successfully expand into new products or geographic markets;
inability to successfully acquire and integrate other businesses;
inability to successfully expand into the commercial construction market or other lines of business, including our distribution businesses;
our exposure to claims arising from our operations;
changes in employment and/or immigration laws or failure to properly verify the employment eligibility of our employees;
our exposure to product liability, workmanship warranty, casualty, construction defect and other claims and legal proceedings;
changes in, or failure to comply with, federal, state, local and other laws, regulations or rules;
our ability to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting;
our indebtedness and the restrictions imposed on us by its terms and our exposure to interest rate changes;
the reduction, suspension or elimination of dividend payments;
additional factors discussed under Item 1, Business; Item 1A, Risk Factors; and Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, of this Form 10-K; and
other factors that the Company may not have currently identified or quantified.
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PART I
Item 1.    Business
OUR COMPANY
Installed Building Products, Inc. (“IBP”) and its wholly-owned subsidiaries (collectively referred to as the “Company” and “we,” “us” and “our”) primarily install insulation for residential and commercial builders located in the continental United States. We are also a diversified installer of complementary building products including waterproofing, fire-stopping, fireproofing, garage doors, rain gutters, window blinds, shower doors, closet shelving and mirrors and other products. We offer our portfolio of services from our national network of approximately 250 branch locations serving all 48 continental states and the District of Columbia. In addition, two regional distribution operations serve the Midwest, Mountain West, Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, and we operate a cellulose manufacturing facility.
IBP was formed as a Delaware corporation on October 28, 2011, however our business began in 1977 with one location in Columbus, Ohio. In the late 1990s, we began our acquisition strategy with the goal of creating a national platform and have grown to become one of the nation's largest installers of insulation in the residential new construction market. Since 1999, we have successfully completed and integrated over 190 acquisitions, which has allowed us to generate significant scale and to diversify our product offerings while expanding into some of the most attractive new construction markets in the United States. For a further discussion of our industry and trends affecting our industry, please refer to Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition, "Key Factors Affecting our Operating Results" of this Form 10-K.
OUR OPERATIONS
Segment Overview
We have three operating segments consisting of our Installation, Distribution and Manufacturing operations. The Installation operating segment represents the majority of our net revenue and gross profit and forms our one reportable segment. See Note 11, Information on Segments, in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-K for further information.
Installation Operating Segment
Overview
Substantially all of our Installation segment sales are derived from the service-based installation of various products in the residential new construction, repair and remodel and commercial construction end markets from our national network of branch locations. We estimate we have the number one or two market position for new single-family insulation installation in more than half of the markets in which we operate based on permits issued in those markets. We are committed to delivering quality installation with a commitment to safety, corporate social responsibility and total customer satisfaction.
We manage all aspects of the installation process for our customers, from our direct purchase and receipt of materials from national manufacturers to our timely supply of materials to job sites and quality installation. Installation of insulation is a critical phase in the construction process, as certain interior work cannot begin until the insulation phase passes inspection.
Our business model is differentiated and creates value by streamlining the typical value chain. In a typical building products value chain, manufacturers rely on multiple distributors to purchase product. Distributors serve multiple wholesale and retail accounts who in turn sell to local contractors that perform the installation. We buy most of the products that we use in our business direct from manufacturers which are delivered to our local installation operations.
Insulation
We are a provider of energy efficiency solutions to our customers through our primary line of business of installing insulation. Insulation installation comprised approximately 60%, 61% and 63% of our net revenue of $2.8 billion, $2.7 billion and $2.0 billion for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. We handle every stage of the installation process, including material procurement, project scheduling and logistics, multi-phase professional installation, quality inspection, waste management and recycling.
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Insulation Materials
We offer a wide range of insulation materials consisting of:
Fiberglass and Cellulose Insulation – Fiberglass insulation is made of fibrous glass that is held together by a thermoset resin creating insulating air pockets. It is typically comprised of an average of 50% recycled material, with some products containing up to 80% recycled material. It is primarily available in two forms: batts (also referred to as blankets) and loosefill (also referred to as blown in). Fiberglass is the most widely used residential insulation material in the United States. Cellulose insulation is made primarily of waste paper and cardboard and has a composition of at least 75% recycled content. Cellulose is only available in loosefill form and is blown into the structure with specialized equipment. Fiberglass and cellulose insulation accounted for approximately 82% of our insulation installation sales for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Spray Foam Insulation – Spray foam insulation, which is generally a polyurethane foam, is applied at a job site by mixing two chemical components together in specialized application equipment. While typically having the highest insulating value per inch and sealing effectiveness of all insulation materials that we offer, spray foam is also typically the most expensive on an installed basis. Spray foam insulation accounted for approximately 18% of our insulation installation sales for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Insulation Installation Applications
Local building codes typically require the installation of insulation in multiple areas of a structure. Each of these areas is frequently referred to as a phase of the insulation installation process and requires a separate trip to the job site by our installers at different points in the construction of a structure. Building practice and the inspection process differ geographically and require our involvement at different times during the construction process. We assist the builders with coordinating inspections. We install insulation and sealant materials in many areas of a structure, including:
Basement and Crawl Space – These spaces often account for the second most energy loss in a residential structure.
Building Envelope – We insulate the exterior walls of both residential and commercial structures by applying insulation on the wall or between the studs.
Attic – We insulate the attics of new and existing residential structures. The attic is the area where the most energy may be lost in a home.
Acoustical – Many builder or architect specifications call for acoustical insulation for sound reduction purposes in both residential and commercial structures. This product is generally installed in the interior walls to minimize sound transmission.
In each of these applications, we typically use fiberglass batts, except in attic installations where we typically install loosefill fiberglass or cellulose. We also install a wide variety of advanced caulk and sealant products that control air infiltration in residential and commercial buildings to enhance energy efficiency, improve comfort and meet increasingly stringent energy code requirements.
Waterproofing
Some of our locations install waterproofing, caulking and moisture protection systems for commercial and industrial construction projects. We offer a variety of waterproofing options, including, but not limited to, sheet and hot applied waterproofing membranes, deck coating systems, bentonite systems and air & vapor systems. The installation and service of waterproofing comprised approximately 5% of our net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Shower Doors, Closet Shelving and Mirrors
Some of our locations install a variety of shower enclosures, ranging from basic sliding door designs to complex custom designs. We have the ability to meet our customers’ diverse needs by customizing shower enclosures by size and style according to their specifications, including framing, hardware and glass options. We design and install closet shelving systems in select markets utilizing some of the highest quality products available from national brands. We also offer standard and custom designed mirrors for our customers. Shower doors, closet shelving and mirror installations comprised approximately 7% of our net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023.
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Garage Doors
Some of our locations install and service garage doors and openers for new residential construction builders, homeowners and commercial customers. We offer a variety of options from some of the best-known garage door brands. We offer steel, aluminum, wood and vinyl garage doors as well as opener systems. Unlike the other products we install, the garage door business has an ongoing aftermarket service component, which represented approximately 16% of the net revenue resulting from garage doors for the year ended December 31, 2023. The installation and service of garage doors comprised approximately 6% of our net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Rain Gutters
Some of our locations install a wide range of rain gutters, which direct water from a home’s roof away from the structure and foundation. Rain gutters are typically constructed from aluminum or copper and are available in a wide variety of colors, shapes and widths. They are generally assembled on the job site using specialized equipment. The installation of rain gutters comprised approximately 4% of our net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Fire-stopping and Fireproofing
Some of our locations install fire-stopping systems, including fire-rated joint assemblies, perimeter fire containment, and smoke and fire containment systems. Fire-stopping is a passive fire protection approach that relies on compartmentalization of various building components, including fire-rated walls, joints, and floors. The installation of these products collectively comprised approximately 3% of our net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Window Blinds
Some of our locations install different types of window blinds, including cordless blinds, shades and shutters. The installation of window blinds comprised approximately 2% of our net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Other Building Products
Some of our locations install other complementary building products, none of which is an individually significant percentage of net revenue. Installation of other building products comprised approximately 7% of our net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Distribution Operating Segment
We have two businesses that comprise our distribution platform. AMD Distribution, Inc. ("AMD") is headquartered in Spring Valley, Minnesota and has eight locations which includes distribution centers and bonded warehouses. These locations service several states throughout the Midwest and Mountain West. AMD distributes products and materials purchased wholesale from manufacturers such as spray foam insulation, metal building insulation, residential insulation, and mechanical and fabricated Styrofoam insulation. AMD sells to a diverse group of independent contractors of various sizes working on projects in the residential, commercial and agricultural markets. AMD is also a distributor of accessories and equipment used throughout the insulation installation process.
Central Aluminum Supply Corporation and Central Aluminum Supply of North Jersey, LLC (“CAS”) is a distributor of gutter supplies and accessories headquartered in Trenton, New Jersey. CAS has five locations which primarily sell to high-volume gutter installers and independent contractors in residential, multi-family and commercial markets. The products are primarily used in existing or retrofit construction projects across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions. CAS purchases the majority of its finished painted aluminum from one supplier and is subject to the commodity pricing of aluminum metal.
Our Distribution segment comprised approximately 5% of our net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Manufacturing Operating Segment
Our small manufacturing operation, Advanced Fiber Technology ("AFT"), operates in Bucyrus, Ohio producing cellulose insulation and specialty industrial fibers. AFT's primary product, cellulose insulation, is made of primarily wastepaper and
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helps reduce greenhouse emissions by reducing the wastepaper decomposing in landfills which releases methane and carbon dioxide gases. AFT sells its products to a wide range of customers including distributors, retailers and insulation contractors.
This segment comprised approximately 1% of our net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Sales and Marketing
We seek to attract and retain customers through exceptional customer service, superior installation quality, broad service offerings and competitive pricing. Our strategy is centered on building and maintaining strong customer relationships. We also capitalize on cross-selling opportunities from existing customer relationships and identifying situations where customers may benefit from more than one of our installation service offerings. By executing this strategy, we believe we can continue to generate incremental sales volumes with new and existing customers.
Experienced sales and service professionals are important to our customer growth and increasing our profitability. Retaining and motivating local employees has been an important component of our acquisition and operating strategies. As of December 31, 2023, we employed approximately 700 sales professionals and our sales force has spent an average of approximately eleven years with our operations. The local sales staff, which is generally led by the branch manager, is responsible for maintaining relationships with our customers. These local teams work diligently to increase sales by supporting our existing customers with excellent service and value while also pursuing new customers with competitive offerings. In addition to the efforts of our sales staff, we market our product and service offerings on the internet, in the local yellow pages, on the radio and through advertisements in trade journals. We primarily conduct our marketing using local trademarks and trade names.
COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
We seek to differentiate ourselves in areas where we believe we have a competitive advantage, including:
National scale with a strong local presence. Our national scale gives us access to the best products, training and innovation available, while our local teams provide best in class training and installation services and outstanding customer service. Our customers generally select their building products installer based on quality and timeliness of service, knowledge of local building codes, product application expertise, pricing, relationships and reputation in the market. For these reasons, we emphasize the importance of developing and maintaining strong customer relationships at the local level based on the knowledge and experience of our branch management and staff.
Diversified product lines, end markets and geographies. Diversifying our product line offerings provides us opportunity to increase sales to end customers and leverage our branch costs to improve profitability. We continue to generate revenue synergies by taking advantage of cross-selling opportunities with our existing customers in markets where we install multiple products. We have successfully diversified our product offering from the year ended December 31, 2013, when insulation installation comprised approximately 74% of revenues, to the year ended December 31, 2023, when it comprised 60% of revenues. We service the residential new construction and repair and remodel markets, both of which consist of single-family and multi-family dwellings, as well as the commercial construction market. The multi-family subset of the residential end market can offset decreasing single-family demand during economic downturns or elevated interest rate environments. We have diversified our end customer demographic from the year ended December 31, 2013, when revenue from the commercial end market comprised approximately 11% of revenues, to the year ended December 31, 2023 when it comprised 16% of revenues. Our exposure to commercial end markets diversifies our customer base and makes our business less dependent on residential new construction. Commercial construction is also driven by longer term projects which tends to provide greater revenue visibility. In periods of declining insulation installation volumes, our sales force is able to leverage our diversity of products and reduce the impact of lost insulation sales by growing sales of complementary building products, further enhancing our ability to perform. Distribution sales can also help offset decreasing sales in our installation segment. Our national geographic footprint provides us a balanced business not concentrated in any single region.
Engaged employees. We offer competitive benefits to our employees to ensure an engaged workforce. In addition to offering certain benefits to most employees, including medical insurance, 401k and paid time off, we also offer longevity stock awards, financial wellness training and savings matching in order to recruit and retain employees. Our retention efforts have reduced our employee turnover to a level below industry averages. Opportunity for professional growth, training and advancement are strongly encouraged. We focus on the well-being of our employees through our Positive Production Program. This micro-video program is designed to help employees thrive in all aspects of life through learning and practicing research-backed physical, intellectual and emotional skills. Engaged, long-tenured employees benefit our business by being highly skilled and efficient, which drives profitability and encourages repeat business and customer loyalty. Higher employee retention also benefits our
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business through lower recruitment and training expense. We also consider safety and risk management to be a core business objective. Significant staffing, funding and other resources are allocated to our management systems that enhance safety and quality for our employees and our customers. Our branch managers are held accountable for the safety of employees and quality of workmanship at their locations. We provide our employees with ongoing training and development programs necessary to improve safety performance and work quality. Our regional managers, local branch managers and sales force have significant experience in the industry and have spent an average of more than 12 years with our operations. The Installed Building Products Foundation ("the Foundation") is a separate, not-for-profit organization to help support our employees for their education, financial and philanthropic needs. Our foundation also administers our employee financial assistance program to support our employees who experience financial hardship resulting from an unexpected emergency or disaster.
Financial strength, variable cost structure and strong free cash flow. We believe that we are among the most financially sound companies in our industry. We place an emphasis on having a strong balance sheet which allows us to focus on our strategic initiatives and pursue growth opportunities, drive profitability and generate cash. We have a highly variable cost structure with a significant portion of operating expenses directly linked to volume. Our largest expenses are materials and labor and most of our installation employees are paid by completed job. Our minimal capital expenditure requirements support the generation of strong free cash flow.
Execution excellence. We believe that our ability to consistently complete our installations within a customer’s production schedule is recognized by our customers and is a key component of our high level of service. We have a proven track record of customer satisfaction in managing all aspects of the installation process for our customers. Throughout the construction process, our branch sales and supervisory staff and installation teams make frequent site visits to ensure timely and proper installation and to provide general service support. We believe a high level of service is valued by our customers and generates customer loyalty.
Broad and stable customer base. We benefit from a diverse customer base that includes production and custom homebuilders, multi-family, commercial and agricultural construction firms, homeowners and residential repair and remodeling contractors. We continue to enhance our long-standing relationships with some of the largest builders in the country. While we serve many national and regional builders across multiple markets, we compete for business at the local level. Given our emphasis on quality service, customer turnover is extremely low.
Well established relationships with suppliers. We have strong long-standing relationships with many of the manufacturers of the materials we use in our business, including the largest manufacturers of fiberglass and spray foam. The fiberglass insulation manufacturing market is highly consolidated and primarily served by four major manufacturers. We buy significant volume from all four manufacturers and have relationships with each company spanning more than two decades. Our national scale allows us to purchase volumes that account for a meaningful portion of the production for these suppliers allowing them to better plan their production schedules. Our relationships and purchasing power often allow us to negotiate preferred material supply terms and to keep purchases through distribution and retail to a minimum, giving us an advantage over our competitors.
Highly experienced and incentivized management team. Our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have been directing our strategy for over two decades, and our Chief Operating Officer has worked at the company in various roles since 2010. This team has led us through multiple housing industry cycles, providing valuable continuity and a demonstrated ability to improve operations and grow our business both organically and through acquisitions.
BUSINESS STRATEGY
We believe our geographic footprint, long-standing relationships with national insulation manufacturers, streamlined value chain and proven track record of successful acquisitions provides us with opportunities for continued growth in our existing markets and expansion into new markets. We believe our continued emphasis on expanding our product offering, further expansion into other lines of business, and targeting geographies where we look to grow market share will reduce potential future cyclicality of our operations. Our current strategic objectives include:
capitalize on the new residential and commercial construction markets;
continue to strengthen our market share position by working with the best customers. We seek to work with the most profitable and efficient builders and commercial general contractors in our markets;
recruit, develop and retain an exceptional workforce by investing in our employees and our communities and promoting a family-oriented culture;
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capitalize on our ability to cross-sell products through existing markets as well as new markets entered as a result of organic expansion and acquisitions. In addition to insulation and air infiltration products, we install garage doors, rain gutters, mirrors, shelving, shower doors, waterproofing, fireproofing and fire-stopping, window blinds and various other products;
enhance profitability from our operating leverage and national scale;
pursue value enhancing acquisitions in markets we currently serve as well as markets that are new to us by continuing our disciplined approach to valuations and pricing. We will continue to be selective in identifying acquisition targets at attractive multiples. We target profitable markets and companies with strong reputations and customer bases. As part of our acquisition strategy, we seek to maintain the management teams of the companies we acquire as well as retain their local branding, which further reduces associated risk; and
integrate new acquisitions quickly and seamlessly into our corporate infrastructure, including our accounting and employee systems. In addition, we utilize our internal software technology, jobCORE, to integrate most acquired operations and provide in-depth branch-level operational and financial performance data. We realize near term margin enhancement and revenue growth at acquired branches by applying our national buying power and leveraging relationships with large national homebuilders.
One of our key areas of focus has been diversifying our product and service offerings, customer base, and end markets. We have accomplished this through organic growth as well as acquisitions. We believe the benefits of this diversification include:
margin enhancement by leveraging branch costs across multiple products;
diversified end-market exposure;
a more diverse customer base;
stronger established local relationships; and
reduced cyclicality.
Product and end market diversification has been a primary strategic initiative throughout our history. In addition to acquisition and local market share growth, we typically experience an increased rate of product and end market diversification during periods of reduced demand growth rates in the residential end market. As such, our oldest and most established branches tend to exhibit the greatest diversity of service and product offerings. This diversity in turn contributes to enhanced profitability as compared to branches in our newer, less developed markets.
Given the current economic uncertainty, interest rate volatility and inflationary environment, we can provide no assurance that the positive trends reflected in our recent financial and operating results will continue in 2024.
TRENDS IN THE MARKETPLACE
Our business relies on various market factors, one of which is residential housing demand. Following the late 2000s recession in the U.S. economy, housing starts dropped well below historical averages. Rates returned to early 2000s levels in 2021 and 2022 as each year had 1.6 million non-seasonally adjusted starts according to U.S. Census Bureau data. However, housing starts decreased 9% as compared to 2022 to 1.4 million non-seasonally adjusted starts in 2023. 1.4 million starts are forecasted in 2024 with an overall decrease of 4% according to Wolters Kluwer’s Blue Chip Economic Indicators January 2024 forecast. Elevated inflation, global economic uncertainty and tight Federal Reserve monetary policy affecting interest rates are expected to continue affecting affordability of new homes, all of which are the primary drivers behind the projected decrease in demand for new housing starts forecasted in 2024.
While we anticipate a slight decline in overall housing starts, we expect that this decrease will be concentrated in the multi-family subset of the residential end market. We expect to still benefit from our multi-family business in 2024 thanks to an extended backlog in this end market as well as housing shortages in some of the markets that we service. Commercial demand showed growth in 2023 as supply chain delays and disruptions waned, and the commercial sector is predicted to see a modest 2% decline in starts in 2024 over 2023, according to Dodge Data & Analytics.
Inflation can adversely affect us by increasing the costs of materials, labor and interest rates which, in turn, can have a negative impact on housing affordability, impacting consumer sentiment and increasing market uncertainty. Per the Bureau of Labor Statistics, inflation in the United States averaged 3.4%% in 2023 as measured by the consumer price index, a decrease from the
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8.0% average reported in 2022 which was the highest annual rate since 1981. As a result of the inflationary environment, the materials we buy saw multiple price increases in the last few years. However, we were able to mitigate most of these increases through selling price increases to our customers as evidenced by our increased gross margin. The decrease in housing starts in 2023 alleviated the significant shortages of many of the materials we install and sell which stemmed from the unanticipated demand in previous years. We expect demand pressures on some of our material suppliers will persist into 2024 as some suppliers have announced planned maintenance on factories which will temporarily decrease supply.
The Federal Reserve raised the federal funds rate multiple times in 2022 and 2023 to moderate and stabilize inflation and has signaled plans to hold the current rate with potential rate cuts later in 2024. This caused the average mortgage rate in the United States to increase from recent historic lows and began to curtail housing demand in the second half of 2022 as mortgage financing affordability was reduced. Despite elevated mortgage rates, we believe the demand for our installation services remains high due to the forecasted increase in single family housing starts and the backlog of both units under construction and units not started in the multi-family residential end market. However, the full effects of interest rate changes on the homebuilding market are uncertain as we progress through 2024.
SAFETY AND QUALITY CONTROL
Our quality control process starts with the initial proposal. Our sales staff and managers are knowledgeable about our service offerings and scope of work. They are trained on manufacturers’ guidelines as well as state and local building codes. Our quality control programs emphasize onsite inspections, training by manufacturers and various certification programs.
We consider safety and risk management to be a core business objective and require our installers to wear personal protective equipment in the process of completing their work. Each year, we allocate significant staffing, funding and resources to our management systems that directly impact safety. We have strong workplace safety measures, including our Lead With Safety program, an initiative focused on creating a safer working environment to reduce job site injuries for both our employees and other jobsite personnel through year-round education and training. Additionally, our branch managers are held accountable for the safety of employees and quality of workmanship at their locations.
We track all incidents that occur on our job sites that could result in injury, including minor incidents that may not require first aid or medical treatment. We use this incident information to continually refine and develop our safety training programs for new hires and the continual training and safety knowledge throughout employment at IBP. We believe these programs are having a benefit on the safety and physical well-being of our employees. Our OSHA-defined incident rate per 100 employees was 5.61 for the year ended December 31, 2023, which was below our 5 year average incident rate of 6.32. We also had a 14% decrease in severe incidents from 2022 to 2023 as we had only 7 severe incidents in 2023. We had zero fatalities in 2021, 2022 and 2023, and are continually finding ways to improve our practices throughout the organization in order to improve the health and safety of our workforce.
CUSTOMERS
We serve a broad group of national, regional and local homebuilders, multi-family and commercial construction firms, individual homeowners and repair and remodeling contractors. Our top ten customers, which are primarily a combination of national and regional builders, accounted for approximately 15% of net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023. We install a variety of products in multiple markets for our largest customers, further diversifying our relationship with them. For example, our largest customer is independently serviced by 84 different IBP branches nationwide despite representing approximately 5% of net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023. While our largest customers are homebuilders, our customer base is also diverse. We work on a range of commercial projects including office buildings, airports, sports complexes, museums, hospitals, hotels and educational facilities. Of our top 20 customers, 18 represent homebuilders and two represent commercial customers. We have long-term relationships with many of our customers and have served most of our top 20 customers for at least two decades.
BACKLOG
For contracts that are not complete at the reporting date, we recognize revenue over time utilizing a cost-to-cost input method. When this method is used, we estimate the costs to complete individual contracts and record as revenue that portion of the total contract price that is considered complete based on the relationship of costs incurred to date to total anticipated costs. The costs of earned revenue include all direct material and labor costs and those indirect costs related to contract performance, such as indirect labor, supplies, tools and repairs. Backlog represents the transaction price for contracts for which work has not been performed and excludes unexercised contract options and potential modifications. Backlog is not a guarantee of future revenues
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as contractual commitments may change. There can be no assurance that backlog will result in revenues within the expected timeframe, if at all. We estimate backlog was $115.7 million as of December 31, 2023 and we estimated it to be $162.3 million as of December 31, 2022.
SUPPLIERS
We have long-term relationships with many of our suppliers, and we purchase from manufacturers whenever possible to streamline the typical supply chain. As one of the largest purchasers of insulation in the United States, we believe that we maintain particularly strong relationships with the largest manufacturers of the products we use in our business. The proximity of certain of our branch locations to insulation manufacturers’ facilities provides additional mutual benefits, including opportunities for cost savings and joint planning regarding future production. Due to the limited number of large fiberglass insulation manufacturers, our three largest suppliers in the aggregate accounted for approximately 35% of all material purchases for the year ended December 31, 2023. We also believe that we maintain good relationships with suppliers of the non-insulation products we install. We have found that using multiple suppliers ensures a stable source of materials and favorable purchasing terms as suppliers compete to gain and maintain our business. In addition, our national purchasing volumes provide leverage with suppliers as we pursue additional purchasing synergies. In recent years, the industry experienced manufacturer supply constraints for some of the materials we purchase. We expect these challenges to persist but to a lesser degree in 2024. See Part II, Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, "Key Factors Affecting our Operating Results" of this Form 10-K for more information.
SEASONALITY
We typically have higher sales during the second half of the year as our homebuilder customers complete construction of homes placed under contract for sale in the traditionally stronger spring selling season. In addition, some of our larger branches operate in states impacted by winter weather and, as such, experience a slowdown in construction activity during the first quarter of the calendar year. This winter slowdown contributes to traditionally lower sales and profitability in our first quarter. As a result of this seasonal activity, our quarterly results of operations and financial position for any particular quarter are not necessarily representative of the results seen over a full fiscal year. Supply chain challenges and the resulting lengthening of the homebuilding cycle have altered our typical seasonality in the last few years, but we expect typical seasonality to return in 2024.
The composition and level of our working capital typically change during periods of increasing sales as we carry more inventory and receivables, although these changes are generally offset in part by higher trade payables to our suppliers. Working capital levels increase in the summer and fall seasons due to higher sales during the peak of residential construction activity. Typically, the subsequent collection of receivables and reduction in inventory levels during the winter months has positively impacted cash flow. In the past, we have from time to time utilized our borrowing availability under our credit facilities to cover short-term working capital needs.
COMPETITION
We believe that competition in our industry is based on quality and timeliness of service, knowledge of local building codes, pricing, relationships and reputation in the market. The building products installation industry is highly fragmented. The markets for our non-insulation installation services are even more fragmented than the markets for insulation installation services. Our competitors for our installation services include one other large national contractor, several large regional contractors and numerous local contractors, and our competitors for our distribution services include other distributors of building products, manufacturers of certain products we sell and select retail outlets. We expect to continue to effectively compete in our local markets given our long-standing customer relationships, access to capital, tenure and quality of local staff, quality installation reputation and competitive pricing.
HUMAN CAPITAL RESOURCES
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 10,600 employees, consisting of approximately 7,400 installers, approximately 700 sales professionals, approximately 700 production personnel and approximately 1,800 administrative and management personnel. Less than 4% of our employees are covered under collective bargaining agreements. We have never experienced a work stoppage or strike, and we believe that we have good relationships with our employees. We monitor certain financial and operational statistics related to our workforce. For example, we utilize sales per installer per business day to
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ensure we maintain the proper level of staffing to complete our jobs. We were successful in achieving higher productivity in 2023 as compared to 2022 as evidenced by our annual sales per installer per business day increasing 1%.
Our employees are critical to our continued success and are our most important resource. We focus on attracting and retaining talented and experienced individuals to manage and support our operations. We consider retaining skilled employees to be a competitive advantage and employ various strategies to improve turnover metrics. Our turnover rate is typically better than industry averages. For example, across our installer base, we experienced average monthly turnover of 3.3% in 2023 compared with 4.4% for the U.S. construction industry, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. In addition, we offer many benefits and resources to most employees, some of which are above and beyond what others in our industry offer. See "Competitive Advantages, Engaged employees” above for further details on the benefits we offer.
As described in the Competitive Advantages section above, the Foundation was formed by us primarily to benefit our employees and their families and the communities in which they live and work. We have committed to give back a certain portion of our profits each year to support local communities by partnering with and supporting nonprofit organizations and initiatives focusing on education, housing, and strengthening our communities. In 2023, the Foundation and the Company awarded 172 grants and made contributions totaling $2.5 million in the form of scholarships and financial assistance to our employees as well as donations and matching gifts to various charities supported by our employees. This is an increase from 2019 when the Foundation and the Company awarded 94 grants totaling $1.2 million. We continue to support the Foundation’s mission of supporting our employees for their education, financial and philanthropic needs, as well as providing assistance to employees who have experienced unexpected emergencies or disasters.
Our management team supports the development of our existing workforce by establishing a culture of employee engagement, employee appreciation and the opportunity for promotion from within for many leadership positions. We believe this provides increased retention and promotes a long-term focus to our operations.
We respect and support the diversity of all people within our workforce. We are committed to diversity, equity, inclusion and belonging ("DEI&B") practices and maintaining workplaces free from discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, age, religion, sex, national origin, ancestry, gender, sexual orientation, gender identification, disability, military status, veteran status, or any other status protected by law. We are proud of our strong and diverse workforce, as shown in the table below (workforce data as of February 2024):
Ethnicity
Workforce (%)
American Indian/Alaskan Native
0.3%
Asian
0.8%
Black or African American
5.6%
Hispanic or Latino
49.9%
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
0.5%
Two or more races
0.7%
White
42.2%
Our Hispanic/Latino diversity outpaces the construction industry average, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and our workforce as a whole is comprised of over 50% ethnic minorities. In addition, based on gender, racial, ethnic and orientation diversity, 44% of our board of directors is diverse, which helps drive our strategies for an inclusive workplace. We are committed in policy and practice to providing equal employment opportunities for all applicants and employees based upon their training, experience, and overall qualifications. Employees across all our branches are invited to participate in our regional and national DEI&B committees to determine the standards for how employees should interact with one another and their communities. We do not tolerate inappropriate behavior or harassment.
The health and safety of our employees is of primary importance. See “Safety and Quality Control” above for details on our policies and practices. Our policy is designed to protect against accidents, injuries, and illnesses, in compliance with applicable safety and health laws and regulations. We continuously enhance and evolve our safety protocols to protect our employees’ health and well-being, and to comply with regulations from federal, state and local government agencies.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
JobCORE is our web-enabled internal software technology used by the majority of our branches. The system is designed to operate our business in a highly efficient manner and manage our operations. The jobCORE software provides in-depth real-time job-level operational and financial performance data from each branch to the corporate office. JobCORE provides us, our
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branch managers and our sales personnel with an important operational tool for monitoring branch level performance. It assists management in assessing important business questions, including customer analysis, sales staff analysis, branch analysis and other operating activities.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
We possess intellectual property rights, including trademarks, trade names and know-how and other proprietary rights that are important to our business. In particular, we maintain registered trademarks and trade names, some of which are the trademarks and trade names under which many of our local branches operate and we own or have licensed rights to use jobCORE and other software used in the operation of our business. While we do not believe our business is dependent on any one of our trademarks or trade names, we believe that our trademarks and trade names are important to the development and conduct of our business as well as to the local marketing of our services. We also maintain domain name registrations for each of our local branch websites. We make efforts to protect our intellectual property rights, although the actions we take may be inadequate to prevent others from using similar intellectual property. In addition, third parties may assert claims against our use of intellectual property and we may be unable to successfully resolve such claims.
ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL AND REGULATORY MATTERS
As part of our commitment to socially responsible corporate practices, we have released our annual ESG report since 2021. This ESG report outlines our sustainability targets and objectives and can be found on our corporate website at https://installedbuildingproducts.com/sustainability. The contents of our website are not incorporated by reference in, or otherwise made a part of, this Form 10-K or in any other report or document we file with the SEC, and any references to our website are intended to be inactive textual references only.
Our board of directors plays an active role in overseeing the risks and opportunities presented to our company by climate change. At least twice per year, the board of directors receives an update from our Chief Administrative and Sustainability Officer on our progress in reaching our climate-related targets and goals. Energy efficiency is central to our mission, and climate-related issues have driven and continue to drive our business strategy. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee is responsible for the oversight of ESG matters, including climate matters. Our senior management work closely with this committee to identify and address climate-related risks and opportunities.
Insulation is a critical component in reducing energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions. The Department of Energy, or DOE, states that over half of the energy used in the average American home is for heating and cooling due to many homes not having proper insulation. Per an insulation fact sheet provided by the DOE, inadequate insulation and air leakage are leading causes of energy waste in most homes. Through insulating homes and commercial structures, our industry promotes energy efficiency. Our loose-fill cellulose insulation is manufactured from recycled waste paper and our fiberglass insulation is made from recycled glass which helps reuse resources and reduce our global carbon footprint.
We are committed to socially responsible corporate practices. Through the Foundation and other volunteer opportunities, we give back to the communities we serve. We also provide longevity stock awards and financial wellness training to our employees. We are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations applicable in the jurisdictions in which we operate, including laws and regulations relating to our relationships with our employees, public health and safety, workplace safety, transportation, zoning and fire codes. We strive to operate in accordance with applicable laws, codes and regulations.
We are responsible for adhering to several federal, state and local regulations covering building codes, labor-related regulations covering minimum wage, employee classification and employee safety, and transportation procedures. Our transportation operations are subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Transportation, or DOT, which has broad administrative powers. We are also subject to safety requirements governing interstate operations prescribed by the DOT. In addition, vehicle dimension and weight and driver hours of service are subject to both federal and state regulation. Our operations are also subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration, or OSHA, which has broad administrative powers regarding workplace and jobsite safety.
Our operations and properties are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the use, storage, handling, generation, transportation, treatment, emission, release, discharge and disposal of hazardous or toxic materials, substances, waste and petroleum products and the investigation, remediation, removal and monitoring of the presence or release of such materials, substances, waste and petroleum products, including at currently or formerly owned or occupied premises and off-site disposal locations. We have not previously incurred material costs to comply with environmental laws and regulations. However, we could be subject to material costs, liabilities or claims relating to environmental compliance in the future, especially in the event of changes in existing laws and regulations or in their interpretation or enforcement.
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As the nature of our business involves the use or handling of certain potentially hazardous or toxic substances, including spray foam applications and lead-based paint, we may be held liable for claims alleging injury or damage resulting from the release of or exposure to such substances, as well as claims relating to the presence of mold, fungal growth and moisture intrusion alleged in connection with our business activities. In addition, as owners and lessees of real property, we may be held liable for, among other things, releases of hazardous or toxic substances or petroleum products on, at, under or emanating from currently or formerly owned or operated properties, or any off-site disposal locations, or for any known or newly discovered environmental conditions at or relating to any of our properties, including those arising from activities conducted by previous occupants or at adjoining properties, without regard to whether we knew of or were responsible for such release. We may be required to investigate, remove, remediate or monitor the presence or release of such hazardous or toxic substances or petroleum products and may be held liable by a governmental entity for fines and penalties or to any third parties for damages, including for bodily injury, property damage and natural resource damage in connection with the presence or release of hazardous or toxic substances or petroleum products.
To date, costs to comply with applicable laws and regulations relating to pollution or the protection of human health and safety, the environment and natural resources have not had a material adverse effect on our financial condition or operating results, and we do not anticipate incurring material expenditures to comply with such laws and regulations in the current fiscal year.
In conjunction with our lease agreements and other transactions, we often provide reasonable and customary indemnities relating to various matters, including environmental issues. To date, we have not had to pay a material amount pursuant to any such indemnification obligations.
In addition, our suppliers are subject to various laws and regulations, including environmental laws and regulations. We, through our cellulose manufacturer, are subject to similar laws and regulations that apply to our suppliers.
CORPORATE AND AVAILABLE INFORMATION
Installed Building Products, Inc. is a holding company that derives all of its operating income from its subsidiaries. Our principal executive offices are located at 495 South High Street, Suite 50, Columbus, Ohio 43215. Our main telephone number is (614) 221-3399. Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “IBP.”
We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These filings are available to the public on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
Our corporate website is located at http://www.installedbuildingproducts.com, or http://www.ibp.com, and our investor relations website is located at http://investors.installedbuildingproducts.com. Copies of our Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available, free of charge, on our investor relations website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such material with or furnish it electronically to the SEC.
We webcast our earnings calls and post the materials used in meetings with members of the investment community on our investor relations website. Additionally, we provide notifications of news or announcements regarding our financial performance, including SEC filings, investor events and press and earnings releases on our investor relations website. We have used, and intend to continue to use, our investor relations website as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Further corporate governance information, including our certificate of incorporation, bylaws, governance guidelines, board committee charters and code of business conduct and ethics, is also available on our investor relations website under the heading “Corporate Governance.” The contents of our website are not incorporated by reference in, or otherwise made a part of, this Form 10-K or in any other report or document we file with the SEC, and any references to our website are intended to be inactive textual references only.
Item 1A.    Risk Factors
There are a number of business risks and uncertainties that affect our business. These risks and uncertainties could cause our actual results to differ from past performance or expected results. We consider the following risks and uncertainties to be most relevant to our business activities. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or that we currently believe to be immaterial, may also adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. We urge investors to consider carefully the risk factors described below in evaluating the information contained in this report.
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For a summary of the following risks, please see "Information Regarding Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factors Summary" which appears immediately prior to Item 1, Business, of this Form 10-K.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY
Our business and the industry in which we operate are highly dependent on general and local economic conditions, the housing market, the level of new residential and commercial construction activity and other important factors, all of which are beyond our control.
Our business is cyclical, seasonal and highly sensitive to economic and housing market conditions over which we have no control, including:
the number of new home and commercial building construction starts;
short- and long-term interest rates;
inflation;
employment levels and job and personal income growth;
housing demand from population growth, household formation and other demographic changes;
housing affordability;
rental housing demand;
availability and cost of labor;
availability and cost of land;
changes in material prices;
local zoning and permitting processes, including the length of building cycles from permit to completion, based on local economic or environmental factors;
federal, state and local energy efficiency programs, regulations, codes and standards;
availability and pricing of mortgage financing for homebuyers and commercial financing for developers of multi-family homes and commercial projects;
foreclosure rates;
consumer confidence generally and the confidence of potential homebuyers in particular;
U.S. and global financial system and credit market stability;
federal government economic, trade, and spending laws and policies;
private party and government mortgage loan programs and federal and state regulation, oversight and legal action regarding lending, appraisal, foreclosure and short sale practices;
federal and state personal income tax rates and provisions, including provisions for the deduction of mortgage loan interest payments, state and local income and real estate taxes and other expenses;
general economic conditions, including in the markets in which we compete; and
pandemics, natural disasters, war, acts of terrorism and response to these events.
Unfavorable changes in any of the above conditions could adversely affect consumer spending, result in decreased demand for homes and adversely affect our business generally or be more prevalent or concentrated in particular markets in which we operate. Any deterioration in economic or housing market conditions or continuation of uncertain economic or housing market conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
A continued downturn in the housing market could materially and adversely affect our business and financial results.
In 2023, the U.S. Census Bureau reported an estimated 1.42 million non-seasonally adjusted total housing starts, down from 1.55 million starts in 2022. Mortgage interest rates are affected by the Federal Reserve's monetary polices and significantly impact the affordability of housing. The Federal Reserve has raised interest rates significantly since 2022 to slow rising
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inflation rates experienced in the last two years. This has resulted in higher mortgage interest rates which has contributed to a lower estimate of housing starts for 2024 of 1.37 million, according to Wolters Kluwer’s Blue Chip Economic Indicators. As a result, we began seeing a moderation in housing demand as evidenced by the 8.4% decline in same branch sales in our single-family subset of our new residential end market in 2023.
Any continued decline in new home construction may result in lower demand for our services and products and may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and cash flows. In particular, prolonged periods of higher mortgage interest rates, rising home prices, sustained periods of inflation, or other economic factors can reduce home affordability and may lead to a continued decline in the home construction market. When mortgage rates increase, the cost of owning a home also increases, which can reduce the number of potential homebuyers who can afford to purchase a home. The demand for new home construction could be negatively impacted if the number of renting households increases or if a shortage in the supply of affordable housing occurs, either of which could result in lower home ownership rates. Demand can also be negatively impacted by changing consumer tastes and demographic changes.
Other factors that might impact growth in the homebuilding industry include: uncertainty in financial, credit and consumer lending markets amid slow growth or recessionary conditions; levels of mortgage repayment; limited credit availability; federal and state personal income tax rates and changes to the deductibility of certain state and local taxes; Federal Reserve policy changes; shortages of suitable building lots in many regions; shortages of experienced labor; soft housing demand in certain markets; and rising materials prices. Given these factors, we can provide no assurance that recent growth trends will continue, whether overall or in our markets. The economic downturn in 2007-2010 severely affected our business. Another reduction in housing demand in the future could have a similar effect on our business.
Our business relies on commercial construction activity, which has faced significant challenges and is dependent on business investment.
A portion of the products we install and sell are for the commercial construction market. If this market does not grow in the future, the growth potential of our business, and our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected. The commercial construction market, as measured by investment dollars, increased 20% in 2023 from 2022 per the U.S. Census Bureau.
According to Dodge Data & Analytics, commercial building starts in 2024, measured by investment dollars, are expected to decrease 2% from 2023 while institutional building starts (a subset of the nonresidential construction market in which we participate) are expected to increase 3% from 2023. The primary driver of the projected decrease in 2024 per Dodge Data & Analytics is the forecasted sharp decrease in warehouse starts.
The strength of the commercial construction market depends on business investment which is a function of many national, regional and local economic conditions beyond our control, including capital and credit availability for commercial construction projects, material costs, interest rates, employment rates, demand for office space due to changes in employment practices, vacancy rates, labor and healthcare costs, fuel and other energy costs and changes in tax laws affecting the real estate industry. Adverse changes or continued uncertainty regarding these and other economic conditions could result in a decline or postponement in spending on commercial construction projects, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Weakness in the commercial construction market would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. Continued uncertainty about current economic conditions will continue to pose a risk to our businesses that serve the non-residential markets. If participants in these industries postpone spending in response to tighter credit, negative financial news and declines in income or asset values or other factors, this could have a material negative effect on the demand for our products and services and on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A decline in the economy, a deterioration in expectations regarding the housing market or the commercial construction market, a failure to integrate acquisitions, especially within our distribution operations, and/or a general decline in operations or financial results of any of our segments could cause us to record significant non-cash impairment charges, which could negatively affect our earnings and reduce stockholders’ equity.
We review the goodwill maintained in each of our three reporting units for impairment annually during the fourth quarter. We also review our goodwill and other intangible assets when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. In doing so, we either assess qualitative factors or perform a detailed analysis to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. We did not record any goodwill impairment charges in 2023, 2022, or 2021; however, a decline in the expectation of our future performance, a decline in our market capitalization, sustained periods of economic inflation, prolonged periods of high interest rates, deterioration in expectations
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regarding the general economy and/or the timing and the extent of new home construction, home improvement and commercial construction activity may cause us to recognize non-cash, pre-tax impairment charges for goodwill or other long-lived assets, which are not determinable at this time. In addition, as a result of our acquisition strategy, we have recorded goodwill and may incur impairment charges in connection with prior and future acquisitions. Our distribution businesses maintain significant goodwill balances in a separate reporting unit from our traditional installation business. If we are unable to successfully integrate this platform into our business model and compete effectively, we may be required to recognize impairment charges on our goodwill and other intangible assets within this reporting unit. If the value of goodwill or other intangible assets in this or other reporting units is impaired, our earnings and stockholders’ equity would be adversely affected. As of December 31, 2023, we had goodwill and other intangible assets in an aggregate amount of $667.5 million, or approximately 34% of our total assets.
Our industry is highly fragmented and competitive, and increased competitive pressure may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The building products installation industry is highly fragmented and competitive. We face significant competition from other national, regional and local companies. Any of these competitors may: (i) foresee the course of market development more accurately than we do; (ii) offer services that are deemed superior to ours; (iii) sell building products and services at a lower cost; (iv) develop stronger relationships with homebuilders and suppliers; (v) adapt more quickly to new technologies, new installation techniques, new types of materials or evolving customer requirements; or (vi) have access to financing on more favorable terms than we can obtain in the market. As a result, we may not be able to compete successfully with them. If we are unable to compete effectively, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely affected.
In the event that increased demand leads to higher prices for the products we use in our business, we may have limited, if any, ability to pass on price increases in a timely manner or at all due to the fragmented and competitive nature of our industry. Residential homebuilders have, in the past, placed pressure on their suppliers to keep prices low, also contributing to the possibility of not being able to pass on price increases.
Product shortages or the loss of key suppliers could affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our ability to offer a wide variety of products to our customers depends on our ability to obtain adequate product supply from manufacturers. We do not typically enter into long-term agreements with our suppliers but have done so from time to time. We currently have one long-term agreement with a supplier and may enter into other short- or long-term supply agreements at any time. We have certain agreements that do not qualify as supply agreements due to a lack of a fixed price and/or lack of a fixed and determinable purchase quantity, but nonetheless may require us to purchase certain of our products from certain vendors, depending on the specific circumstances. Generally, our products are available from various sources and in sufficient quantities to meet our operating needs. However, the loss of, or a substantial decrease in the availability of, products from our suppliers or the loss of key supplier arrangements could adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Historically, unexpected events, such as incapacitation of supplier facilities due to extreme weather or fire, have temporarily reduced manufacturing capacity and production. The overall global supply chain can impact our suppliers as evidenced by disruptions we have experienced since 2021 for certain materials we use in our business. We expect these challenges to persist to a certain degree in 2024. In addition, during prior economic downturns in the housing industry, manufacturers have reduced capacity by closing plants and production lines within plants. Even if such capacity reductions are not permanent, there may be a delay in manufacturers’ ability to increase capacity in times of rising demand. If the demand for products from manufacturers and other suppliers exceeds the available supply, we may be unable to source additional products in sufficient quantity or quality in a timely manner and the prices for the products that we use in our business could rise. These developments could affect our ability to take advantage of market opportunities and limit our growth prospects. We continually evaluate our supplier relationships and at any given time may move some or all of our purchases from one or more of our suppliers. There can be no assurance that any such action would have its intended effect.
Failure by our suppliers to continue to provide us with products on commercially favorable terms, or at all, could have a material adverse effect on our operating margins, financial condition, operating results and/or cash flows. Our inability to source materials in a timely manner could also damage our relationships with our customers.
Changes in the costs of the products we use in our business, an inability to increase our selling prices or a delay in the timing of such increases can decrease our profit margins.
The principal building products we use in our business have been subject to price changes in the past, some of which have been significant. For example, sudden changes in demand in our industry have resulted in insulation material allocation in the past,
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leading to increased market pricing. Increased market pricing, regardless of the catalyst, could impact our results of operations in the future to the extent that price increases cannot be passed on to our customers. We will continue to work with our customers to adjust selling prices to offset the aforementioned higher costs whenever prices rise, but there can be no assurance that any such action would have its intended effect. In addition, our results of operations for individual quarterly periods can be, and have been, adversely affected by a delay between when building product cost increases are implemented and when we are able to increase prices for our products and services, if at all. Our supplier purchase prices often depend on volume requirements. If we do not meet these volume requirements, our costs could increase and our margins may be adversely affected. In addition, while we have been able to achieve cost savings through volume purchasing and our relationships with suppliers, we may not be able to continue to receive advantageous pricing for the products that we use in our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our success depends on our key personnel.
Our business results depend largely upon the continued contributions of our senior management team. We do not have employment agreements with any of our executive officers other than Jeff Edwards, our Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer. Although Mr. Edwards’ employment agreement requires him to devote the amount of time necessary to conduct our business and affairs, he is also permitted to engage in other business activities that do not create a conflict of interest or substantially interfere with his service to us, including non-competitive operational activities for his real estate development business. If we lose members of our management team, our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as the market price of our securities, could be adversely affected.
Our business results also depend upon our branch managers and sales personnel, including those of companies recently acquired. While we customarily sign non-competition agreements, which typically continue for two years following the termination of employment, with our branch managers and sales personnel in order to maintain key customer relationships in our markets, such agreements do not protect us fully against competition from former employees. In addition, in January 2023, the Federal Trade Commission proposed a new rule that would prohibit non-competition agreements in most cases and an increasingly number of states have already banned non-competition agreements. If the Federal Trade Commission's rule were to become effective, or more states enact similar rules, it could have a material adverse effect on our retention of key employees and our customer relationships.
We are dependent on attracting, training and retaining qualified employees while controlling labor costs.
The labor market for the construction industry is competitive, including within the sector in which we operate. We must attract, train and retain a large number of qualified employees to install our products while controlling related labor costs. We face significant competition for these employees from our industry as well as from other industries. Tighter labor markets may make it even more difficult for us to hire and retain installers and control labor costs. Our ability to attract qualified employees and control labor costs is subject to numerous external factors, including competitive wage rates and health and other insurance and benefit costs. Additionally, periods of economic inflation can cause wage expectations to increase and we may have difficulty retaining employees if we do not, or cannot, meet these expectations. A significant increase in competition, minimum wage or overtime rates in localities where we have employees could have a significant impact on our operating costs and may require that we take steps to mitigate such increases, all of which may cause us to incur additional costs, expend resources responding to such increases and lower our margins.
Higher labor and health care costs could adversely affect our business.
Our labor costs have increased in recent years and may continue to increase as a result of competition, health and other insurance and benefit costs. In addition, health care coverage requirements, changes in workplace regulations and any future legislation could cause us to experience higher health care and labor costs in the future. Periods of economic inflation can cause these costs to rise more quickly and we may not be able to pass along these increased costs to our customers. Increased labor, health care and insurance costs could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Variability in self-insurance liability estimates could adversely impact our results of operations.
We carry insurance for risks including, but not limited to, workers’ compensation, general liability, vehicle liability, property and our obligation for employee-related health care benefits. In most cases, these risks are insured under high deductible and/or high-retention programs that require us to carry highly subjective liability reserves on our balance sheet. We estimate these insurance liabilities by considering historical claims experience, including frequency, severity, demographic factors and other actuarial assumptions, and periodically analyzing our historical trends with the assistance of external actuarial consultants. Our accruals for insurance reserves reflect these estimates and other management judgments, which are subject to variability. If our
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claim experience differs significantly from historical trends and actuarial assumptions and we then need to increase our reserves, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Increases in union organizing activity and/or work stoppages could delay or reduce availability of products that we use in our business and increase our costs.
Currently, less than 4% percent of our employees are covered by collective bargaining or other similar labor agreements. However, if a larger number of our employees were to unionize, including in the wake of any future legislation that makes it easier for employees to unionize, or if we acquire an entity with a unionized workforce in the future, our business could be negatively affected. Any inability by us to negotiate collective bargaining arrangements could cause strikes or other work stoppages, and new contracts could result in increased operating costs. If any such strikes or other work stoppages occur, or if other employees become represented by a union, we could experience a disruption of our operations and higher labor costs.
We participate in various multiemployer pension plans under collective bargaining agreements in Washington, Oregon, California and Illinois with other companies in the construction industry. We also participate in various multiemployer health and welfare plans that cover both active and retired participants. These plans cover most of our union-represented employees. If a participating employer stops contributing to the multiemployer plan, the unfunded obligations of the plan may be borne by the remaining participating employers. In addition, if a participating employer chooses to stop participating in these multiemployer plans, the employer may be required to pay those plans a withdrawal liability based upon the underfunded status of the plan.
In addition, certain of our suppliers have unionized workforces and certain of our products are transported by unionized truckers. Strikes or work stoppages could result in slowdowns or closures of facilities where the products that we use in our business are manufactured or could affect the ability of our suppliers to deliver such products to us. Any interruption in the production or delivery of these products could delay or reduce availability of these products and increase our costs.
Increases in fuel costs could adversely affect our results of operations.
The price of oil has fluctuated over the last few years, creating volatility in our fuel costs. We do not currently hedge our fuel costs. Increases in fuel costs can negatively impact our cost to deliver our products to our customers and thus increase our cost of sales. If we are unable to increase the selling price of our products to our customers to cover any increases in fuel costs, net income may be adversely affected.
Because we operate our business through highly dispersed locations across the United States, our operations may be materially adversely affected by inconsistent practices and the operating results of individual branches may vary.
We operate our business through a network of highly dispersed locations throughout the United States, supported by executives and services at our corporate office, with local branch management retaining responsibility for day-to-day operations and adherence to applicable local laws. Our operating structure can make it difficult for us to coordinate procedures across our operations in a timely manner or at all. In addition, our branches may require significant oversight and coordination from our corporate office to support their growth. Inconsistent implementation of corporate strategy and policies at the local level could materially and adversely affect our overall profitability, business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
In addition, the operating results of an individual branch may differ from those of another branch for a variety of reasons, including market size, management practices, competitive landscape, regulatory requirements, state and local taxes and local economic conditions. As a result, certain of our branches may experience higher or lower levels of growth than other branches. Therefore, our overall financial performance and results of operations may not be indicative of the performance and results of operations of any individual branch.
In the ordinary course of business, we are required to obtain performance bonds and licensing bonds, the unavailability of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or cash flows.
We are often required to obtain performance bonds and licensing bonds to secure our performance under certain contracts and other arrangements. In addition, the commercial construction end market also requires higher levels of performance bonding.
Our ability to obtain performance bonds and licensing bonds primarily depends on our credit rating, capitalization, working capital, past performance, management expertise and certain external factors, including the overall capacity of the surety market and the underwriting practices of surety bond issuers. The ability to obtain performance bonds and licensing bonds can also be impacted by the willingness of insurance companies to issue performance bonds and licensing bonds. If we are unable to obtain performance bonds and licensing bonds when required, our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or cash flows could be adversely impacted.
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Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from stakeholders regarding our ESG practices may impose additional costs on us or expose us to new or additional risks.
Investor advocacy groups, certain institutional investors, investment funds, lenders and other market participants, shareholders, and customers have focused increasingly on the ESG or “sustainability” practices of companies and have placed increasing importance on the social cost of their investments. If our ESG practices do not meet investor, lender, or other industry stakeholder expectations and standards, which continue to evolve, our access to capital may be negatively impacted based on an assessment of our ESG practices. These limitations, in both the debt and equity markets, may negatively affect our ability to manage our liquidity, our ability to refinance existing debt, grow our businesses, implement our strategies, our results of operations, and the price of our common stock.
We have released our ESG report annually since 2021. The report includes our policies and practices on a variety of social and environmental matters, including, diversity and inclusion initiatives, training and development programs, and employee health and safety practices as well as other sustainable business practices and environmental targets. It is possible that stakeholders may not be satisfied with our ESG practices or the speed of their adoption. We could also incur additional costs and require additional resources to monitor, report, and comply with various ESG practices. Also, our failure, or perceived failure, to meet the standards or targets set forth in the sustainability report could negatively impact our reputation and stock price, employee retention, and the willingness of our customers and suppliers to do business with us.
RISKS TO OUR BUSINESS FROM EXTERNAL THREATS
A major public health issue could adversely impact the U.S. economy as well as our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
The United States has experienced, and may experience again in the future, outbreaks of contagious diseases that affect public health and public perception of health. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic affected the global economy and caused our business significant supply chain disruptions, increased material costs and caused a slowdown in commercial construction demand. The full extent and scope of impact of an outbreak of any contagious disease, including a resurgence of COVID-19, on our business and industry, as well as national, regional and global markets and economies, depends on numerous evolving factors that we may not be able to accurately predict, including the duration and scope of the outbreak, additional government actions taken in response, the impact on construction activity and demand for homes (based on employment levels, consumer spending and consumer confidence). Accordingly, our ability to conduct our business could be materially and negatively affected, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Our business is seasonal and may be affected by adverse weather conditions, climate change, natural disasters or other catastrophic events.
We tend to have higher sales during the second half of the year as our homebuilder customers complete construction of homes placed under contract for sale in the traditionally stronger spring selling season. In addition, some of our larger branches operate in states impacted by winter weather and, as such, experience a slowdown in construction activity during inclement months. This winter slowdown contributes to traditionally lower sales and profitability in our first quarter.
In addition, climate change and/or adverse weather conditions, such as unusually prolonged cold conditions, rain, blizzards, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, other natural disasters, epidemics or other catastrophic events could accelerate, delay or halt construction or installation activity or impact our suppliers. The impacts of climate change may subject us to increased costs, regulations, reporting requirements, standards or expectations regarding the environmental impacts of our business. Most, if not all, of our locations may be vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. For example, we lease facilities in regions that experience extreme weather conditions. Changing market dynamics, global policy developments and increasing frequency and impact of extreme weather events on the U.S. and elsewhere have the potential to disrupt our business. The impact of these types of events on our business may adversely impact quarterly or annual net revenue, cash flows from operations and results of operations. Weather is one of the main reasons for annual seasonality cycles of our business, and any adverse weather conditions can enhance this seasonality.
We may be adversely affected by disruptions in our information technology systems.
Our operations are dependent upon our information technology systems, including our web-enabled internal software technology, jobCORE. The jobCORE software provides in-depth operational and financial performance data from individual branch locations to the corporate office. We rely upon such information technology systems to manage customer orders on a
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timely basis, coordinate our sales and installation activities across locations and manage invoicing. As a result, the proper functioning of our information technology systems is critical to the successful operation of our business. Although our information technology systems are protected through physical and software safeguards, our information technology systems are still vulnerable to natural disasters, power losses, unauthorized access, delays and outages in our service, system capacity limits from unexpected increases in our volume of business, telecommunication failures, computer viruses and other problems. A substantial disruption in our information technology systems for any prolonged time period could result in delays in receiving inventory and supplies or installing our products on a timely basis for our customers, which could adversely affect our reputation and customer relationships.
In the event of a cybersecurity incident, we could experience operational interruptions, lose confidential and proprietary information that harms our business, incur substantial additional costs, become subject to legal or regulatory proceedings or suffer damage to our reputation.
Cybersecurity threats and sophisticated cyberattacks pose a risk to our information technology systems and business operations. We have established security policies, processes and controls designed to help protect, identify and mitigate against the disruption of our operations and the intentional and unintentional misappropriation or corruption of our information technology systems and information in conjunction with identifying threats from new technologies that may disrupt our systems in the future. Despite these efforts, our information technology systems, including but not limited to jobCORE or other operational systems, financial systems, Human Resource and payroll systems, fleet management software, and risk management systems may be damaged, disrupted or shut down due to cyberattacks, unauthorized access to our systems, undetected intrusions, malicious software, computer viruses, ransomware, Trojan horses, worms, hardware or software failures or other events, and in these circumstances our disaster recovery plans may be ineffective or inadequate. These breaches or incidents could lead to business interruption, exposure of proprietary or confidential information, data corruption, damage to our reputation, exposure to legal and regulatory proceedings and other costs. Such events could impair our ability to conduct business and have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. As some of our systems are maintained or operated by third-party providers, including cloud-based systems, our information, operations and systems could be adversely affected if any of our significant providers, customers or suppliers experience a cybersecurity incident, data breach, reputational damage or disruption to their business operations.
As risks associated with cybersecurity threats constantly evolve and become more sophisticated generally, we may be required to incur significant costs to strengthen our systems to protect against or respond to such threats. The continued use of remote work environments, which significantly increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic, may increase our risk of cyberattacks or data breaches. We continue to mitigate these risks in a number of ways, including investing in industry-appropriate measures and technologies designed to protect and monitor data and information technology systems, testing our systems on an ongoing basis for any current or potential threats, training our employees, and assessing the continued appropriateness of insurance coverage. Nevertheless, the measures that we implement to reduce and mitigate these risks may not be effective, and there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent breakdowns, intrusions, incidents or breaches of our or our third-party providers’ databases or systems that could adversely affect our business. While these threats have not had a material impact on our business or operations to date, if such an event occurred, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Terrorist attacks or acts of war against the United States or increased domestic or international instability could have an adverse effect on our operations.
Adverse developments in the war on terrorism, terrorist attacks against the United States or any outbreak or escalation of hostilities between the United States and any foreign power may cause disruption to the economy. Since our business is dependent on the housing and construction industries, such adverse effects on the economy could negatively affect these industries and, therefore, our business, our employees and our customers, which could negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.
RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH OUR GROWTH STRATEGY
We may not be able to continue to successfully expand into new products or geographic markets and further diversify our business, which could negatively impact our future sales and results of operations.
Generally, we seek to acquire businesses that will complement, enhance, or expand our current business or product offerings, or that might otherwise offer us growth opportunities into new or existing lines of business, including the expansion of our national footprint and end markets. Our business depends in part on our ability to diversify and grow our businesses and also
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expand the types of complementary building products that we install and sell. Our product and geographic expansion may not be successful and may not deliver expected results, which could negatively impact our future sales and results of operations.
Our expansion into new geographic markets may present competitive, local market and other challenges that differ from current ones. We may be less familiar with the target customers and may face different or additional risks, as well as increased or unexpected costs, compared to existing operations. Expansion into new geographic markets may also bring us into direct competition with companies with whom we have little or no past experience as competitors. To the extent we rely upon expansion into new geographic markets for growth and do not meet the new challenges posed by such expansion, our future sales growth could be negatively impacted, our operating costs could increase, and our business operations and financial results could be adversely affected.
We may be unable to successfully acquire and integrate other businesses and realize the anticipated benefits of acquisitions.
Acquisitions are a core part of our strategy and we may be unable to continue to grow our business through acquisitions. In addition, acquired businesses may not perform in accordance with expectations, and our business judgments concerning the value, strengths and weaknesses of acquired businesses may not prove to be correct. We may also be unable to achieve expected improvements or achievements in businesses that we acquire. The value of our common stock following the completion of an acquisition could be adversely affected if we are unable to realize the expected benefits from the acquisition on a timely basis or at all. Future acquisitions may result in the incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities, legal liabilities, goodwill impairments, increased interest expense and amortization expense and significant integration costs. In addition, future acquisitions could result in dilution of existing stockholders if we issue shares of common stock as consideration.
Acquisitions involve a number of special risks, including:
our inability to manage acquired businesses or control integration costs and other costs relating to acquisitions;
potential adverse short-term effects on operating results from increased costs, business disruption or otherwise;
diversion of management’s attention;
loss of suppliers, customers or other significant business partners of the acquired business;
failure to retain existing key personnel of the acquired business and recruit qualified new employees at the location;
failure to successfully implement infrastructure, logistics and systems integration;
potential impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets;
risks associated with new lines of business and business models;
risks associated with the internal controls of acquired businesses;
exposure to legal claims for activities of the acquired business prior to acquisition and inability to realize on any indemnification claims, including with respect to environmental, employment and immigration claims;
the risks inherent in the systems of the acquired business and risks associated with unanticipated events or liabilities; and
our inability to obtain financing necessary to complete acquisitions on attractive terms or at all.
Our strategy could be impeded if we do not identify, or face increased competition for, suitable acquisition candidates and our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected if any of the foregoing factors were to occur.
Our continued expansion into the commercial construction end market could affect our revenue, margins, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Our existing branches or any branches we may start or acquire serving the commercial end market involve competitive, operational, financial and accounting challenges and other risks that differ from our traditional residential installation business. In addition, the typical contractual terms and arrangements and billing cycle for the commercial construction end market are different than the residential new construction end market. Our expansion into this market may include opening new branches that have higher start-up costs compared to our acquired branches. These factors and any other challenges we encounter could adversely affect our margins, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
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As of December 31, 2023, our estimated backlog associated with the commercial end market was approximately $115.7 million. In accordance with industry practice, many of our contracts are subject to cancellation, reduction, termination or suspension at the discretion of the customer in respect of work that has not yet been performed. In the event of a project cancellation, we would generally have no contractual right to the total revenue reflected in our backlog but instead would collect revenues in respect of all work performed at the time of cancellation as well as all other costs and expenses incurred by us through such date. Projects can remain in backlog for extended periods of time because of the nature of the project, delays in execution of the project and the timing of the particular services required by the project. Additionally, the risk of contracts in backlog being cancelled, terminated or suspended generally increases at times, including as a result of periods of widespread macroeconomic and industry slowdown, weather, seasonality and many of the other factors impacting our business. Many of the contracts in our backlog are subject to changes in the scope of services to be provided as well as adjustments to the costs relating to the contracts. During periods of high inflation, cost escalators embedded in the contracts may not fully offset the total increase in our expenses which would negatively impact margins and results of operations. The revenue for certain contracts included in backlog are based on estimates. Therefore, the timing of performance on our individual contracts can affect our margins and future profitability. There can be no assurance that backlog will result in revenues within the expected timeframe, if at all.
Our distribution businesses and continued expansion into other new lines of business could affect our revenue, margins, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
We operate two distribution entities under a different business model than our traditional installation business. The distribution businesses, and any other future lines of business we may enter or acquire, involve competitive, operational, financial and accounting challenges and other risks that differ from our traditional residential installation business. For example, particular commodity pricing can affect selling prices and costs for certain products we sell through distribution. Our expansion into these businesses may include opening new branches that have higher start-up costs compared to our acquired branches. These factors and any other challenges we encounter could adversely affect our margins, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
In addition, a significant period of economic deflation could have an adverse impact on our business and financial results. Our two distribution businesses have substantially higher inventory balances, and deflation could cause the value of our inventories to decline.
Certain products our distribution businesses sell are composed of materials with prices that fluctuate based on current market pricing. Fluctuations in market pricing of these materials can affect our selling prices. For example, one of our distribution businesses uses aluminum in many of its products. Aluminum commodity prices have experienced volatile fluctuations in the recent past including a significant decrease during 2022 which reduced our selling prices while related inventory costs remained high. For part of 2022, this led to a temporary decrease in margins, financial condition, operating results and cash flows for this business.
Our customers could purchase materials directly from manufacturers or other sources.
We do not have any exclusivity agreements with the manufacturers of the products that we sell. The manufacturers from whom we acquire products could decide to sell their own products, impacting our ability to grow our business and negatively affecting our future net sales and earnings. Additionally, if we are unable to secure favorable arrangements on the products we sell from our suppliers, we may not be able to offer competitive pricing to our customers.
We may be subject to claims arising from the operations of our various businesses for periods prior to the dates we acquired them.
We have consummated over 190 acquisitions. From time to time we are subject to claims or liabilities arising from the ownership or operation of acquired businesses for the periods prior to our acquisition of them, including environmental, employee-related and other liabilities and claims not covered by insurance. Any future claims or liabilities could be significant. Our ability to seek indemnification from the former owners of our acquired businesses for these claims or liabilities may be limited by various factors, including the specific time, monetary or other limitations contained in the respective acquisition agreements and the financial ability of the former owners to satisfy our indemnification claims. In addition, insurance companies may be unwilling to cover claims that have arisen from acquired businesses or locations, or claims may exceed the coverage limits that our acquired businesses had in effect prior to the date of acquisition. If we are unable to successfully obtain insurance coverage of third-party claims or enforce our indemnification rights against the former owners, or if the former owners are unable to satisfy their obligations for any reason, including because of their financial position, we could be held liable for the costs or obligations associated with such claims or liabilities, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
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LEGAL AND REGULATORY RISKS
Changes in employment laws may adversely affect our business.
Various federal and state labor laws govern the relationship with our employees and impact operating costs. These laws include:
employee classification as exempt or non-exempt for overtime and other purposes;
workers’ compensation rates;
immigration status;
mandatory health benefits;
tax reporting; and
other wage and benefit requirements.
We have significant exposure to changes in laws governing our relationships with our employees, including wage and hour laws and regulations, fair labor standards, minimum wage requirements, overtime pay, unemployment tax rates, workers’ compensation rates, citizenship requirements and payroll taxes, which likely would have a direct impact on our operating costs. Significant additional government-imposed increases in the preceding areas could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business could be adversely affected by changes in immigration laws or failure to properly verify the employment eligibility of our employees.
Some states in which we operate are considering or have already adopted new immigration laws or enforcement programs, and the federal government from time to time considers and implements changes to federal immigration laws, regulations or enforcement programs. These changes may increase our compliance and oversight obligations, which could subject us to additional costs and make our hiring process more cumbersome, or reduce the availability of potential employees. Although we verify the employment eligibility status of all our employees, including through participation in the “E-Verify” program in the states that require it, some of our employees may, without our knowledge, be unauthorized workers. In addition, use of the “E-Verify” program does not guarantee that we will properly identify all applicants who are ineligible for employment. Unauthorized workers are subject to deportation and may subject us to fines or penalties and, if any of our workers are found to be unauthorized, we could experience adverse publicity that negatively impacts our brand and may make it more difficult to hire and retain qualified employees. Termination of a significant number of employees due to work authorization or other regulatory issues may disrupt our operations, cause temporary increases in our labor costs as we train new employees and result in additional adverse publicity. We could also become subject to fines, penalties and other costs related to claims that we did not fully comply with all recordkeeping obligations of federal and state immigration laws. These factors could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Furthermore, immigration laws have been an area of considerable political focus in recent years, and the U.S. Congress, Department of Homeland Security and the Executive Branch of the U.S. government from time to time consider or implement changes to federal immigration laws, regulations or enforcement programs. Changes in immigration or work authorization laws may increase our obligations for compliance and oversight, which could subject us to additional costs and potential liability and make our hiring process more cumbersome, or reduce the availability of potential employees. We are subject to regulations of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, or ICE, and Department of Labor, and we are audited from time to time by these parties for compliance with work authentication requirements. While we believe we are in compliance with applicable laws and regulations, if we are found not to be in compliance as a result of any audits, we may be subject to fines or other remedial actions.
Our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be adversely affected if pending or future legal claims against us are not resolved in our favor.
We are subject to various claims and lawsuits arising in the ordinary course of business, including wage and hour lawsuits. The ultimate resolution of these matters is subject to inherent uncertainties. It is possible that the costs to resolve these matters could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows for the periods in which the matters are resolved. Similarly, if additional claims are filed against us in the future, the negative outcome of one or more of such matters could have a material adverse effect on our results, financial condition and cash flows.
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The nature of our business exposes us to product liability, workmanship warranty, casualty, negligence, health and safety incidents, construction defect, breach of contract and other claims and legal proceedings.
We are subject to product liability, workmanship warranty, casualty, negligence, construction defect, breach of contract and other claims and legal proceedings relating to the products we install or manufacture that, if adversely determined, could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We rely on manufacturers and other suppliers to provide us with most of the products we use in our business. Other than for our manufacturer of cellulose insulation, we do not have direct control over the quality of such products manufactured or supplied by such third-party suppliers. As such, we are exposed to risks relating to the quality of such products.
In addition, we are exposed to potential claims arising from the conduct of our employees, homebuilders and other subcontractors, for which we may be contractually liable. We have in the past been, and may in the future be, subject to fines, penalties and other liabilities in connection with injury or damage incurred in conjunction with the installation of our products. Construction sites are inherently dangerous, and any failure in health and safety performance may have adverse effects on our reputation and relationships with our employees or customers. The nature and extent to which we use hazardous or flammable materials in our manufacturing processes creates risk of damage to persons and property that, if realized, could be material. Although we currently maintain what we believe to be suitable and adequate insurance, we may be unable to maintain such insurance on acceptable terms or such insurance may not provide adequate protection against potential liabilities. In addition, some liabilities may not be covered by our insurance. We maintain our Lead with Safety program to help reduce jobsite, warehouse and plant injuries.
Product liability, workmanship warranty, casualty, negligence, construction defect, breach of contract and other claims and legal proceedings can be expensive to defend and can divert the attention of management and other personnel for significant periods of time, regardless of the ultimate outcome. In addition, lawsuits relating to construction defects typically have statutes of limitations that can run as long as ten years. Claims of this nature could also have a negative impact on customer confidence in us and our services. Current or future claims could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations. For additional information, see Note 17, Commitments and Contingencies, in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-K.
Federal, state, local and other laws and regulations could impose substantial costs and/or restrictions on our operations and could adversely affect our business.
We are subject to various federal, state, local and other laws and regulations, including, among other things, worker and workplace health and safety regulations promulgated by the OSHA, employment regulations promulgated by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and tax regulations promulgated by the Internal Revenue Service and various other state and local tax authorities. Our primary manufacturing facility is also subject to additional laws and regulations which may increase our exposure to health and safety liabilities. In addition, we are subject to increased regulation of data privacy and information security, including the adoption of more stringent laws in states including California, Connecticut, Colorado, Utah and Virginia, with similar laws going into effect in other states in and after 2024. These types of data privacy and security laws, which continue to evolve, create a range of new compliance obligations for us and increase financial penalties for non-compliance. Additional or more burdensome regulatory requirements in these or other areas may increase our expenses, reduce demand for our services or restrict our ability to offer services in certain geographies, all of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Moreover, our failure to comply with any of the regulatory requirements applicable to our business could subject us to substantial fines and penalties that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our transportation operations, which we depend on to transport materials from our locations to job sites or customers, are subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the DOT. The DOT has broad administrative powers with respect to our transportation operations. More restrictive limitations on vehicle weight and size, trailer length and configuration or driver hours of service would increase our costs, which may increase our expenses and adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and/or cash flows. If we fail to comply with DOT regulations or the regulations become more stringent, we could experience increased inspections, regulatory authorities could take remedial action, including imposing fines or shutting down our operations, and we could be subject to increased audit and compliance costs. We organize our transportation operations as a separate legal entity in certain states, including Ohio and Indiana, to take advantage of sales tax exemptions relating to vehicle operating costs. If legislation is enacted that modifies or eliminates these exemptions, our costs may increase. If any of these events were to occur, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely affected.
In addition, the residential construction and commercial construction industries are subject to various federal, state and local statutes, ordinances, rules and regulations concerning zoning, building design and safety, construction, contractors’ licensing, energy conservation and similar matters, including regulations that impose restrictive zoning and density requirements on the
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residential new construction industry or that limit the number of homes that can be built within the boundaries of a particular area. Regulatory restrictions and industry standards may require us to alter our installation processes and our sourcing, increase our operating expenses and limit the availability of suitable building lots for our customers, any of which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in laws, regulations or rules, or a failure to comply with any laws, regulations or rules, may adversely affect our business.
We are subject to laws, regulations and rules enacted by national, regional and local governments and the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). In particular, we are required to comply with certain SEC, NYSE and other legal or regulatory requirements in the U.S. Compliance with, and monitoring of, applicable laws, regulations and rules may be difficult, time consuming and costly.
For example, there is a growing concern from advocacy groups and the general public that the emissions of greenhouse gases and other human activities have caused, or will cause, significant changes in weather patterns and temperatures and the frequency and severity of natural disasters. These concerns have resulted in increasing governmental and societal attention to ESG matters, including expanding mandatory and voluntary reporting, diligence, and disclosure on topics such as climate change, waste production, water usage, human capital, labor, and risk oversight, and could expand the nature, scope, and complexity of matters on which we are required to control, assess, and report. These and other rapidly changing laws, regulations, policies and related interpretations, as well as increased enforcement actions by various governmental and regulatory agencies, may create challenges for us, including for our compliance and ethics programs and by increasing our ongoing costs of compliance, which could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows. For example, we are subject to increased ESG regulation, including California Senate Bills 253 and 261 mandating certain climate disclosure and reporting, which go into effect in 2026.
These laws, regulations or rules and their interpretation and application may also change from time to time and those changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, a failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations or rules, as interpreted and applied, could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial statements.
We are subject to environmental regulation and potential exposure to environmental liabilities.
We are subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations. Although we believe that we operate our business, including each of our locations, in compliance with applicable laws and regulations and maintain all material permits required under such laws and regulations to operate our business, we may be held liable or incur fines or penalties in connection with such requirements. In addition, environmental laws and regulations, including those related to energy use and climate change, may become more stringent over time, and any future laws and regulations could have a material impact on our operations or require us to incur material additional expenses to comply with any such future laws and regulations. For instance, in many U.S. states, emerging regulations are beginning to phase out hydrofluorocarbon based blowing agents which are widely used by our company and other industry participants in closed-cell spray foam applications, due to their high global warming potential. If additional legislation required an accelerated timeline regarding the phase out of hydrofluorocarbon blowing agents to hydrofluoro-olefin blowing agents, we could incur higher costs.
Our primary manufacturing facility is also subject to additional laws and regulations which may increase our exposure to environmental liabilities. Despite providing a benefit to the environment by making structures more energy efficient, certain types of insulation, particularly spray foam applications, require our employees to handle potentially hazardous or toxic substances. While our employees who handle these and other potentially hazardous or toxic materials, including lead-based paint, receive specialized training and wear protective clothing, there is still a risk that they, or others, may be exposed to these substances. Exposure to these substances could result in significant injury to our employees and others, including site occupants, and damage to our property or the property of others, including natural resource damage. Our personnel and others at our work sites are also at risk for other workplace-related injuries, including slips and falls.
In addition, as owners and lessees of real property, we may be held liable for, among other things, hazardous or toxic substances, including asbestos or petroleum products on, at, under or emanating from currently or formerly owned or operated properties, or any off-site disposal locations, or for any known or newly discovered environmental conditions at or relating to any of our properties, including those arising from activities conducted by previous occupants or at adjoining properties, without regard to whether we knew of or were responsible for such release. We may be required to investigate, remove, remediate or monitor the presence or release of such hazardous or toxic substances or petroleum products. We may also be held liable for fines, penalties or damages, including for bodily injury, property damage and natural resource damage in connection with the presence or release of hazardous or toxic substances or petroleum products. In addition, expenditures may be required
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in the future as a result of releases of, or exposure to, hazardous or toxic substances or petroleum products, the discovery of currently unknown environmental conditions or changes in environmental laws and regulations or their interpretation or enforcement and, in certain instances, such expenditures may be material.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR INDEBTEDNESS
We have debt principal and interest payment requirements that may restrict our future operations and impair our ability to meet our obligations.
Our degree of leverage and level of interest expense may have important consequences, including:
our leverage may place us at a competitive disadvantage as compared with our less leveraged competitors and make us more vulnerable in the event of a downturn in general economic conditions or in any of our businesses;
our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our businesses and the industries in which we operate may be limited;
a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations will be dedicated to the payment of interest and principal on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the funds available to us for operations, capital expenditures, acquisitions, future business opportunities or obligations to pay rent in respect of our operating leases; and
Our ability to service our debt and other obligations will depend on our future operating performance, which will be affected by prevailing economic conditions and financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flow, and future financings may not be available to provide sufficient net proceeds, to meet these obligations or to successfully execute our business strategies. See Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, "Liquidity and Capital Resources, Debt." of this Form 10-K.
Restrictions in our existing credit facilities, senior notes, and any future facilities or any other indebtedness we may incur in the future, limit our ability to take certain actions and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and the value of our common stock.
Our credit facilities, or any future facilities we may enter into, the indenture governing our senior notes, or other indebtedness we may incur, impose certain restrictions and obligations on us. Under certain of these instruments, we must comply with defined covenants that limit our ability to, among other things:
incur or guarantee additional debt and issue preferred stock;
make distributions or dividends on or redeem or repurchase shares of common stock;
make certain investments and acquisitions;
make capital expenditures;
incur certain liens or permit them to exist;
enter into certain types of transactions with affiliates;
acquire, merge or consolidate with another company; or
transfer, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets.
Our credit facilities contain, and any future facilities or other debt instruments we may enter into may contain, covenants requiring us to maintain certain financial ratios and meet certain tests, such as an excess cash flow test, fixed charge coverage ratio, leverage ratio or debt to earnings ratio. See Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, "Liquidity and Capital Resources, Credit Facilities." of this Form 10-K. Our ability to comply with those financial ratios and tests can be affected by events beyond our control, and we may not be able to comply with those ratios and tests when required to do so under the applicable debt instruments.
The provisions of our credit facilities, or other debt instruments, may affect our ability to obtain future financing and pursue attractive business opportunities and our flexibility in planning for, and reacting to, changes in business conditions. In addition, a failure to comply with the provisions of our credit facilities, any future credit facility, the indenture governing our senior notes, or other debt instruments could result in a default or an event of default that could enable our lenders or other debt holders to declare the outstanding principal of that debt, together with accrued and unpaid interest, to be immediately due and
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payable. If the payment of our debt is accelerated, our assets may be insufficient to repay such debt in full, and our stockholders could experience a partial or total loss of their investment.
Our use of interest rate hedging instruments could expose us to risks and financial losses that may adversely affect our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
From time to time, we utilize interest rate derivatives to hedge the cash flows associated with existing variable-rate debt. The purpose of these instruments is to substantially reduce exposure to market risks on our Term Loan. We designated our interest rate swaps in existence at the time of this Form 10-K as a cash flow hedge in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 815, Derivatives and Hedging. However, in the future, we may fail to qualify for hedge accounting treatment under these standards for a number of reasons, including if we fail to satisfy hedge documentation and hedge effectiveness assessment requirements or if our derivative instruments are not highly effective. If we fail to qualify for hedge accounting treatment, losses on the swaps caused by the change in its fair value would be recognized as part of net income, rather than being recognized as part of other comprehensive income. Any such adverse developments could result in material liabilities and expense and could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Interest rate derivative instruments can be expensive and we could incur significant costs associated with the settlement or early termination of the agreements. In addition, our hedging transactions may expose us to certain risks and financial losses, including, among other things:
the risk that the other parties to the agreements would not perform;

the risk that the duration or amount of the hedges may not match the duration or amount of the related liability;

the risk that hedging transactions may be adjusted from time to time in accordance with accounting rules to reflect changes in fair values including downward adjustments which would affect our stockholders’ equity; and

the risk that we may not be able to meet the terms and conditions of the hedging instruments, in which case we may be required to settle the instruments prior to maturity with cash payments that could significantly affect our liquidity.
If we default on our obligations under the instruments governing our indebtedness, we may not be able to make payments on our debt and our business and financial condition could be adversely affected.
A failure by us to comply with the agreements governing our indebtedness, including, without limitation, our existing credit facilities or any future facilities, the indenture governing our senior notes and our other contractual obligations (including restrictive, financial and other covenants included therein), to pay our indebtedness and fixed costs or to post collateral (including under hedging arrangements) could result in a variety of material adverse consequences, including a default under our indebtedness and the exercise of remedies by our creditors, lessors and other contracting parties, and such defaults could trigger additional defaults under other indebtedness or agreements.
Any such default under the agreements governing our existing or future indebtedness and the remedies sought by the holders of such indebtedness could make us unable to make payments to pay principal of, or premium, if any, and interest on the senior notes, substantially decrease the market value of the senior notes and result in a cross-default under the senior notes. In the event of a default under our existing credit facilities or any future facilities or in respect of other indebtedness, the holders of such indebtedness may be able to cause all of our available cash flow to be used to pay such indebtedness, may be able to terminate outstanding credit commitments and/or may be able to cease making loans to us and, in any event, could elect to declare all of the funds borrowed under the applicable agreement to be immediately due and payable, together with accrued and unpaid interest, and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation.
If our operating performance declines, we may need to seek waivers from the holders of our indebtedness to avoid being in default under the instruments governing such indebtedness. If we breach our covenants under our indebtedness, we may not be able to obtain a waiver from the holders of such indebtedness on terms acceptable to us or at all. If this occurs, we would be in default under such indebtedness, the holders of such indebtedness and other lenders could exercise their rights as described above, and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation.
Adverse credit ratings could increase our costs of borrowing money and limit our access to capital markets and commercial credit.
Moody’s Investor Service and Standard & Poor’s routinely evaluate our credit profile on an ongoing basis and have assigned ratings for our long-term debt. If these rating agencies downgrade any of our current credit ratings, our borrowing costs could
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increase and our access to the capital and commercial credit markets could be adversely affected. Additionally, these rating agencies have started to incorporate ESG factors into their credit ratings. Unfavorable ESG ratings could have a negative impact on our access to and costs of capital.
Our indebtedness exposes us to interest expense increases if interest rates increase.
If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on our variable rate indebtedness, if any exists at the balance sheet date, would increase even though the amount borrowed would remain the same, and our net income and cash flows would correspondingly decrease. Specifically, we had no outstanding borrowings on our Revolver, as hereinafter defined, as of December 31, 2023, but should we have a balance in the future, we would incur interest based on a rate that varies per the conditions set forth in our agreement.
In addition, advances under our Revolver generally bear interest based on, at our election, either a forward-looking term rate based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“Term SOFR”) or the base rate (which approximated the prime rate) plus a margin based on the type of rate applied and leverage ratio. Our Term Loan, as hereinafter defined, bears interest at either Term SOFR or an alternative base rate plus a margin based on the type of rate applied. Our Term Loan bears interest at a variable rate, however interest rate hedges in place mitigate the risk of interest rate fluctuations associated with a portion of the outstanding debt balance. These derivative instruments are indexed to Term SOFR.
We may require additional capital in the future, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all.
Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including industry and market conditions, our ability to successfully complete future business combinations and expansion of our existing operations. We anticipate that we may need to raise additional funds in order to grow our business and implement our business strategy. We anticipate that any such additional funds may be raised through equity or debt financings. Any equity or debt financing, if available at all, may be on terms that are not favorable to us and will be subject to changes in interest rates and the capital markets environment. Even if we are able to raise capital through equity or debt financings, as to which there can be no assurance, the interest of existing stockholders in our company may be diluted, and the securities we issue may have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to those of our common stock or may otherwise materially and adversely affect the holdings or rights of our existing stockholders. If we cannot obtain adequate capital, we may not be able to fully implement our business strategy and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR SECURITIES
The price of our common stock may fluctuate substantially and your investment may decline in value.
The market price of our common stock may be significantly affected by factors, such as:
market conditions affecting the residential construction, commercial construction and building products industries;
quarterly variations in our results of operations;
changes in government regulations;
the announcement of acquisitions by us or our competitors;
changes in general economic and political conditions;
volatility in the financial markets;
results of our operations and the operations of others in our industry;
changes and volatility in interest rates;
the reduction, suspension or elimination of dividend payments;
threatened or actual litigation and government investigations;
the addition or departure of key personnel;
actions taken by our stockholders, including the sale or disposition of their shares of our common stock;
the extent of short-selling of shares of our common stock and the stock of our competitors; and
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differences between our actual financial and operating results and those expected by investors and analysts and changes in analysts’ recommendations or projections.
These and other factors may lower the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance.
Furthermore, in recent years the stock market and the price of our common stock has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. This volatility has had a significant impact on the market price of securities issued by many companies, including companies in our industry. The changes frequently appear to occur without regard to the operating performance of the affected companies. Hence, the price of our common stock could fluctuate based upon factors that have little or nothing to do with our performance, and these fluctuations could materially reduce the price of our common stock and materially affect the value of your investment.
Our internal controls over financial reporting may not be effective, which could have a significant and adverse effect on our business and reputation.
As a public company, we are required to comply with the SEC’s rules implementing Sections 302 and 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which require management to certify financial and other information in our quarterly and annual reports and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of controls over financial reporting.
To comply with the requirements of being a public company, we may undertake various actions, such as implementing additional internal controls and procedures and hiring additional accounting or internal audit staff.
Testing and maintaining internal controls can divert our management’s attention from other matters that are important to the operation of our business. If we identify material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting or are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 or are unable to assert that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.
Future sales of our common stock, or the perception in the public markets that these sales may occur, may depress our stock price.
The market price of our common stock could decline significantly as a result of sales of a large number of shares of our common stock. These sales, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock or make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.
We have approximately 28.4 million shares of common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2023. The shares of common stock are freely tradable, except for any shares of common stock that may be held or acquired by our directors, executive officers and other affiliates, the sale of which will be restricted under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 1.9 million of the 2.1 million shares of common stock authorized for issuance under the 2023 Omnibus Incentive Plans were available for issuance. These shares will become eligible for sale in the public market in the future, subject to certain legal and contractual limitations. If our existing stockholders sell substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or if the public perceives that such sales could occur, this could have an adverse impact on the market price of our common stock, even if there is no relationship between such sales and the performance of our business.
Jeff Edwards has significant ownership of our common stock and may have interests that conflict with those of our other stockholders.
As of December 31, 2023, Jeff Edwards beneficially owned approximately 16.0% of our outstanding common stock. As a result of his beneficial ownership of our common stock, he has sufficient voting power to significantly influence all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, amendment of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and approval of significant corporate transactions, and he has significant influence over our management and policies. This concentration of voting power may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of us or discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares of common stock, which could prevent stockholders from receiving a premium for their shares of common stock. These actions may be taken even if other stockholders oppose them. The interests of Jeff Edwards may not always coincide with the interests of other stockholders. In addition, under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, Jeff Edwards is permitted to pursue corporate opportunities for himself, rather than for us.
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Provisions of our charter documents and Delaware law could delay, discourage or prevent an acquisition of us, even if the acquisition would be beneficial to our stockholders, and could make it more difficult for our stockholders to change our management.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares of our common stock. In addition, these provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempt by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult to replace or remove members of our board of directors. These provisions include a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms; no cumulative voting in director elections; the exclusive right of our board of directors to fill vacancies on our board; the ability of our board to authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms without stockholder approval; a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent; a requirement that a special meeting of stockholders be called only by a resolution duly adopted by our board; and advance notice procedures that stockholders must comply with in order to nominate candidates to our board of directors or to propose matters to be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting.
As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a person who owns 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person acquired 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, unless the merger or combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Any delay or prevention of a change of control transaction or changes in our board of directors and management could deter potential acquirers or prevent the completion of a transaction in which our stockholders could receive a substantial premium over the then-current market price for their shares of our common stock.
We pay dividends to holders of our common stock, but may reduce, suspend, or eliminate dividend payments in the future.
Our board of directors approves any quarterly or annual cash dividend. However, part of our business strategy includes retaining our future earnings, if any, in order to reinvest in the development and growth of our business, including our continued growth by acquisition strategy, and, therefore, we may reduce, suspend or eliminate dividend payments in the future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, the limits imposed by the terms of our credit facilities, or any then-existing debt instruments, and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant. Accordingly, investors in our common stock may need to sell their shares to realize a return on their investment in our common stock, and investors may not be able to sell their shares at or above the prices paid for them.
If securities analysts do not publish favorable reports about us or if we, or our industry, are the subject of unfavorable commentary, the price of our common stock could decline.
The trading price for our common stock depends in part on the research and reports about us that are published by analysts in the financial industry. Analysts could issue negative commentary about us or our industry, or they could downgrade our common stock. We may also not receive sufficient research coverage or visibility in the market. Any of these factors could result in the decline of the trading price of our common stock, causing investors in our common stock to lose all or a portion of their investment.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 1C.    Cybersecurity
OVERVIEW
Like all modern businesses within the global economy, we are susceptible to cybersecurity threats. Our suppliers, vendors, and customers face similar cybersecurity threats, and a cybersecurity incident impacting us or any of these entities could materially adversely affect our operations, financial position, business strategy, and results of operations. As discussed in more detail below, we have policies and procedures in place as part of our overall risk management strategy to, among other things, monitor our systems, train and raise awareness of cybersecurity threats amongst employees, and detect intrusions on our systems.
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Notwithstanding our efforts at cybersecurity, no system of prevention is impenetrable, and we cannot guarantee that we will be successful in preventing or mitigating a cybersecurity incident that could have a material adverse effect on us. From time to time, we have experienced cybersecurity incidents in the normal course of our business. As of the date of this report, we are not aware of any cybersecurity incident or threat that has materially affected or is reasonably likely to materially affect the Company, including our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. However, future cybersecurity incidents could materially affect our strategy, results of operations or financial condition. See Item 1A. Risk Factors for additional information on how risks could materially affect the Company.
CYBERSECURITY RISK MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGY
As part of our Enterprise Risk Management (“ERM”) program, we maintain processes to assess, identify, manage, mitigate, and respond to material risks from cybersecurity threats. Central to these processes is a committee comprised of our head of Internal Audit, our Chief Information Officer (“CIO”), members of our executive team, and other senior members of management that evaluates cybersecurity risks and designs, and ensure implementation of, appropriate controls, protections and training. This committee periodically reviews overall risks to the Company as part of the ERM program and ensures the alignment of cybersecurity efforts with the overall risk management framework. The committee has identified cybersecurity threats as one of the primary categories of risk to the Company.
Our information systems align with industry security standards. Our cybersecurity program, where appropriate, aligns with the Center of Internet Security (“CIS”) Control framework, which itself is modeled after the National Institute of Standards and Technology's ("NIST") Cybersecurity Framework (“CSF”).
Our policies and procedures concerning cybersecurity matters include processes to safeguard our information systems, monitor these systems, protect the confidentiality and integrity of our data, detect intrusions into our systems, and respond to cybersecurity incidents. We also regularly review our incident response and business continuity plans to ensure readiness if and when an incident does occur, and we test our incident response plan through tabletop exercises. Furthermore, we have established a cyber safety program which consists of a team of employees who concentrate on raising cybersecurity awareness in office and home-office environments to educate employees connected to the systems we use on how to identify and report security threats or breaches.
We continually evaluate cybersecurity risks on an ongoing basis as part of our overall risk management strategy. We assess and identify cybersecurity risks through periodic risk assessments, penetration testing, and vulnerability scans, among other procedures and practices. We also receive cybersecurity alerts and threat intelligence from our peers, government agencies, information sharing and analysis centers and cybersecurity-related groups or associations. These and other measures are used to evaluate cybersecurity risks in a timely manner and to allocate resources in alignment with the overall risk management program. In the event of an incident, we intend to follow our detailed incident response policy, which outlines the steps to be followed from incident detection to eradication, recovery and notification. In addition, we regularly engage various third-parties to assess or test our systems and processes to enhance our detection and management of cybersecurity risks or assist with implementation of our risk management strategies, including consultants who assist with assessing risks, information security experts who conduct tabletop exercises with participation from company management, and our external auditor who performs cybersecurity reviews as part of our annual audit.
Our operations rely on third-party suppliers, vendors, software programs, hardware products, and network systems, including cloud-based technologies, and we have processes to identify and evaluate cybersecurity risks and incidents associated with certain identified third-party providers.
CYBERSECURITY GOVERNANCE

The Board of Directors’ Oversight of Cybersecurity Risks
Our Board of Directors (the “Board”) maintains principal oversight responsibility for our ERM program. This oversight is facilitated primarily through the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors, which is responsible for oversight of our cybersecurity risk management processes. The chairman of our Audit Committee has earned a CERT Certificate in Cybersecurity Oversight from the National Association of Corporate Directors, which aids the Audit Committee’s understanding of cybersecurity risks and assists the Audit Committee in overseeing the risk management program.
The Audit Committee and the Board actively participate in discussions with management and amongst themselves regarding cybersecurity risks. Senior leadership, including our CIO, briefs the Board of Directors and the Audit Committee on cybersecurity risks and the effectiveness of our cybersecurity program as part of updates on our overall ERM program. Our
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head of Internal Audit also provides the Audit Committee with an assessment of any material changes to cybersecurity risks and controls as a result of cybersecurity threats on at least a semi-annual basis.
Management’s Role in Assessing and Managing Material Risks from Cybersecurity Threats
Management is responsible for assessing and managing our cybersecurity risk management program. We have various teams and committees charged with monitoring risks, implementing controls, developing information security policies and procedures, and assessing cyber events. In addition to our Information Technology (IT) department, we have an Information Security (IS) department that provides oversight of our cybersecurity-related controls, including assistance in the development of related policies and procedures. The IT department is overseen by an Chief Technology Officer (CTO) who has an undergraduate degree in network and systems administration as well as significant experience in the development, operation, monitoring and management of information system operations, including but not to limited to cybersecurity oriented controls. The IS department is overseen by a Senior Cybersecurity Manager who holds a Master of Science degree and has varied experience in the field of information technology. Both the IT and IS departments report to the CIO, who holds various certifications in systems and cybersecurity methodologies and has over two decades of experience in the management of various aspects of information systems operations. The CIO approves the information security policies and procedures, implementation of controls, monitoring and detection programs, and employee training on cybersecurity risks. The CIO also is responsible for reporting on cybersecurity matters to the Board.
IT and/or IS inform the CIO concerning cybersecurity risks and events, including any mitigation and remediation efforts. Cybersecurity incidents are escalated to an incident response team (“IRT”), which is headed by the CIO. The IRT is responsible for overseeing our incident response strategy, including remediation. For ongoing events, those responsible for investigating the incident are required to continuously update the IRT and the CIO until the event is considered to be resolved. Significant cybersecurity incidents are referred to a committee responsible for evaluating whether the incident is material using criteria based on our ERM program. This committee is comprised of a cross functional team of various senior members of management including the areas of Finance, Accounting, Legal, IT Security, and Risk.
If a cybersecurity incident is deemed to have the potential for a material impact on the Company, our Incident Response, Reporting and Management Policy dictates procedures for promptly briefing the Audit Committee. In addition, our CIO reports all cybersecurity incidents, whether ongoing or first experienced during the quarter, to the Audit Committee at each quarterly meeting, and more frequently if necessary.

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Item 2.    Properties
Real Property
We lease office and warehouse space in 43 states, including our corporate office in Columbus, Ohio. Our leases are typically short in duration with customary extensions at our option. We believe suitable alternative space is available in all of our markets. We also own our cellulose manufacturing facility in Bucyrus, Ohio. We believe that our facilities are suitable and adequate for present purposes, and that the productive capacity in such facilities is substantially being utilized. The table below summarizes our locations as of December 31, 2023.
StateNumber of LocationsApproximate Total Square
Footage
StateNumber of LocationsApproximate Total Square
Footage
Alabama224,250Nevada115,350 
Arizona229,166New Hampshire1080,640
California26290,719New Jersey8132,037
Colorado14164,148New York9101,430
Connecticut347,057North Carolina18301,034
Delaware445,185North Dakota27,392 
Florida31322,979Ohio11455,416 
Georgia12192,316Oklahoma335,543 
Idaho343,000Oregon232,928 
Illinois785,902Pennsylvania8110,909 
Indiana13255,319Rhode Island431,654 
Kansas274,206South Carolina8116,439 
Kentucky446,330South Dakota255,000 
Louisiana219,535Tennessee7206,786 
Maine338,750Texas22416,260 
Maryland565,110Utah6115,809 
Massachusetts545,223Vermont131,020 
Michigan236,800Virginia797,558 
Minnesota7187,988Washington14203,331 
Missouri215,436 West Virginia12,080 
Montana24,576 Wisconsin9205,808 
Nebraska223,241 
Our Fleet
As of December 31, 2023, our fleet consisted of approximately 6,000 total vehicles that we either leased or owned, including approximately 5,700 installation vehicles that our installers use to deliver and install products from our locations to job sites, and approximately 300 other vehicles that are utilized for various purposes, primarily by our distribution operations, sales staff, branch managers and various senior management personnel. For additional information, see Note 8, Long-term Debt, and Note 17, Commitments and Contingencies, in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-K.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
We are involved in various claims and lawsuits incidental to the conduct of our business in the ordinary course, including wage and hour lawsuits. We carry insurance coverage that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, although insurance may or may not cover any or all of our liabilities in respect to claims and lawsuits. While management currently believes that the ultimate resolution of these matters, individually or in the aggregate, will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows, such matters are subject to inherent uncertainties. See Note 17, Commitments and Contingencies, in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-K for additional information on significant legal proceedings.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information for Common Stock
Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “IBP.”
Holders of Record
As of February 15, 2024, there were 1,231 holders of record of our common stock, one of which was Cede & Co., which is the holder of shares held through the Depository Trust Company.
Dividend Policy
Our board of directors has approved a quarterly cash dividend program since 2021, payable to stockholders of record on specific dates each quarter. In addition to the quarterly cash dividend, our board of directors has approved an annual variable dividend payable since 2022, with the 2024 dividend payable on March 31, 2024 at a rate of $1.60 per common share. Future determinations relating to payments of dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, including our future earnings, capital requirements, financial condition, future prospects, contractual restrictions, legal requirements and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.
Stock Performance Graph
The table below compares the cumulative total shareholder return on our common stock with the cumulative total return of (i) the Russell 2000 Index (“Russell 2000”), (ii) the Standard & Poor’s Industrials Index (“S&P 500 Industrials”) and (iii) the S&P 600 Building Products Index ("S&P 600 Building Products"). The graph assumes investments of $100 in our common stock and in each of the four indices and the reinvestment of dividends for the last five fiscal years through December 31, 2023.
1987
12/31/201812/31/201912/31/202012/31/202112/30/202212/29/2023
IBP100204303419263571
Russell 2000100125150173137161
S&P 500 Industrials100129144174164194
S&P 600 Building Products100143182228190286
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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table shows the stock repurchase activity, including shares surrendered by employees in connection with the vesting of restricted stock awards, for the three months ended December 31, 2023:
Total Number of Shares Purchased (1)
Average Price Paid Per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased under the Plans or Programs (2)
October 1 - 31, 2023 87 $117.70 — $— 
November 1 - 30, 2023 42,491 147.58 42,486 193.7 million
December 1 - 31, 20234,329 185.82 — — 
46,907 $151.07 42,486 $193.7 million

(1) Includes shares surrendered to the Company by employees to satisfy tax withholding obligations arising in connection with the vesting of 5,252 shares of restricted stock awarded under our 2014 and 2023 Omnibus Incentive Plans.

(2)    On February 22, 2023, our board of directors authorized a stock repurchase program that allows for the repurchase of up to $200.0 million of our outstanding common stock. The new program replaced the previous program and is in effect through March 1, 2024. We repurchased $6.3 million of common stock under our stock repurchase program during the year ended December 31, 2023. On February 22, 2024, we announced that our board of directors authorized a new stock repurchase program that allows for the repurchase of up to $300.0 million of our outstanding common stock. This 2024 new program will replace the previous 2023 program and is in effect through March 1, 2025. For further information about our stock repurchase programs, see Note 13, Stockholders' Equity, in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-K.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities; Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities
During 2023, we did not issue or sell any unregistered equity securities.
Item 6.    [Reserved]
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Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
You should read the following in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplemental Data, of Part II of this Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements reflecting current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results and the timing of events may differ materially from those contained in these forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including those discussed in the section captioned “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
OVERVIEW
We are one of the nation’s largest insulation installers for the residential new construction market and are also a diversified installer of complementary building products, including waterproofing, fire-stopping and fireproofing, garage doors, rain gutters, window blinds, shower doors, closet shelving, mirrors and other products throughout the United States. We offer our portfolio of services for new and existing single-family and multi-family residential and commercial building projects in all 48 continental states and the District of Columbia from our national network of approximately 250 branch locations. 94% of our net revenue comes from the service-based installation of these products across all of our end markets and forms our Installation operating segment and single reportable segment. In addition, two regional distribution operations serve the Midwest, Mountain West, Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, and we operate a cellulose manufacturing facility. We believe our business is well positioned to continue to profitably grow due to our strong balance sheet, liquidity and our continuing acquisition strategy.
A large portion of our net revenue comes from the U.S. residential new construction market, which depends upon a number of economic factors, including demographic trends, interest rates, inflation, consumer confidence, employment rates, housing inventory levels and affordability, foreclosure rates, the health of the economy and the availability of mortgage financing. Our strategic acquisitions over the last several years contributed meaningfully to our 4.1% increase in net revenue during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 2022.
We have omitted discussion of 2021 results in the sections that follow where it would be redundant to the discussion previously included in Part II, Item 7, of Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.
2023 Highlights
Net revenues increased 4.1%, or $108.8 million, while gross profit increased 12.4% to $930.7 million during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 2022. The increase in net revenue was primarily driven by the 33.3% growth in same branch multi-family sales, selling price and product mix improvements and the contribution of our recent acquisitions. The 7.7% increase in our price/mix metric for our Installation segment was primarily due to a higher mix of multi-family and commercial jobs. Gross profit margin grew faster than revenue as we continued to prioritize profitability over sales volume. Specifically, gross profit outpaced sales growth due to higher selling prices and resulting leverage gained on material costs compared to the prior year. Certain net revenue and industry metrics we use to monitor our operations are discussed in the "Key Measures of Performance" section below, and further details regarding results of our various end markets are discussed further in the "Net Revenue, Cost of Sales and Gross Profit" section below.
We generated approximately $340.2 million of cash from operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2023. As of December 31, 2023, we had $386.5 million of cash and cash equivalents and we have not drawn on our revolving line of credit. Our liquidity remains strong despite investing $59.6 million in our acquisition strategy, repurchasing $6.3 million of our Company's stock and paying $63.1 million in dividends during the year ended December 31, 2023. See Note 8, Long-term Debt, in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-K for more information on our revolving line of credit.
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we experienced overall and same branch sales growth in our multi-family and commercial end markets. Overall, the strong growth in multi-family and commercial sales helped offset the (5.4)% decrease in the single-family end market, which is our largest end market. Our commercial end market experienced sales growth of 17.2% during the year ended December 31, 2023 primarily through acquisitions and organic growth as the commercial construction cycle returned to normal and project delays experienced in prior periods lessened.
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We continue to diversify our operations through our acquisition strategy as we acquired 8 businesses in 2023 that we expect to contribute approximately $75.0 million in annual aggregate revenues. We expect to meet our goal of acquiring at least $100.0 million in annual aggregate revenue in 2024.
In August 2023, we amended our Term Loan (as defined below) to reprice the applicable interest rate paid by 0.25% below our prior rate (the "Second Amendment"). We expect that this repricing will result in interest rate cost savings exceeding $1.0 million annually through the 2028 maturity date. See Note 8, Long-term Debt, for more information on our Term Loan and the Second Amendment. Additionally, in August 2023 we published our annual ESG report which highlights important milestones and our commitment to the environment, employees, communities and stakeholders.
The residential homebuilding market is forecasted to decline slightly in 2024 primarily due to elevated interest rates, with the decrease concentrated in the multi-family subset of the residential end market. However, we expect to benefit from a forecasted increase in the single-family end market in 2024 over 2023 since over half of our net revenue comes from this end market. While total housing starts are currently projected to be slightly lower in 2024 than 2023, we believe there are several trends that should drive long-term growth in the housing market, even if there are temporary periods of slowed growth. These long-term trends include an aging housing stock, population growth, demographic changes and household formation growth. We expect that our net revenue, gross profit and operating income will benefit from this growth over time although we will be negatively impacted by a slowdown in the homebuilding industry in the near term.

2022 Highlights
Net revenues increased 35.6%, or $701.2 million, while gross profit increased 40.4% to $827.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to 2021. We also generated approximately $277.9 million of cash from operating activities. The increase in net revenue and gross profit was primarily driven by the contribution of our recent acquisitions, selling price and product mix improvements as evidenced by the 23.0% increase in our price/mix metric and increased sales volume of 5.5% on a same branch basis for our Installation segment. Gross profit grew faster than revenue primarily due to higher selling prices and resulting leverage gained on labor and other costs of sales. These synergies were partially offset by higher fuel costs and higher material costs due to increased Distribution segment sales which generally have higher material costs than our other segments. Supply chain constraints and inflationary pressures also contributed to higher material costs in 2022, particularly for spray foam and several complementary installed products, as some products continued to be difficult to source near volume and pricing levels secured in prior periods.
As of December 31, 2022, we had $229.6 million of cash and cash equivalents and we have not drawn on our revolving line of credit. We amended and extended our revolving line of credit in February 2022, increasing the commitment to $250.0 million from $200.0 million. Additionally, we received $25.5 million from amending the maturity dates on our three interest rate swaps in July 2022. Our liquidity remained strong despite repurchasing $137.6 million of our Company's stock and paying our variable and regular quarterly dividends of $62.7 million during the year ended December 31, 2022.
During the year ended December 31, 2022, we experienced overall sales growth in all of our end markets and we achieved 24.6% year-over-year same branch sales growth, with acquisitions contributing the remaining portion of our total sales growth. Our largest end market, the single-family subset of the residential new construction market, grew revenue 33.5% over the same period in 2021. Our commercial end market experienced sales growth of 15.2% during the year ended December 31, 2022 primarily as a result of acquisitions. We experienced commercial project delays in 2022 due to macroeconomic concerns surrounding the pandemic and general economic uncertainty.
Key Measures of Performance
We utilize certain net revenue and industry metrics to monitor our operations. Key metrics include total sales growth and same branch growth metrics for our consolidated results, our Installation reportable segment and our Other category consisting of our Distribution and Manufacturing operating segments. We also monitor sales growth for our Installation segment by end market and track volume growth and price/mix growth.
We believe the revenue growth measures shown in the table that follows are important indicators of how our business is performing, however, we may rely on different metrics in the future. We also utilize gross profit percentage as shown in the following section to monitor our most significant variable costs and to evaluate labor efficiency and success at passing increasing costs of materials to customers.
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The following table shows certain key measures of performance we utilize to evaluate our results:
Years ended December 31,
202320222021
Period-over-period Growth
Consolidated Sales Growth4.1 %35.6 %19.1 %
Consolidated Same Branch Sales Growth (1)
0.2 %24.6 %9.7 %
Installation (2)
Sales Growth (3)
3.7 %29.5 %18.7 %
Same Branch Sales Growth (1)(3)
(0.1)%24.5 %9.4 %
Single-Family Sales Growth (4)
(5.4)%33.5 %22.1 %
Single-Family Same Branch Sales Growth (1)(4)
(9.0)%28.9 %14.4 %
Multi-Family Sales Growth (5)
35.0 %31.8 %14.7 %
Multi-Family Same Branch Sales Growth (1)(5)
33.3 %31.0 %6.7 %
Residential Sales Growth (6)
1.0 %33.2 %20.9 %
Residential Same Branch Sales Growth (1)(6)
(2.3)%29.2 %13.2 %
Commercial Sales Growth (7)
17.2 %15.2 %10.8 %
Commercial Same Branch Sales Growth (1)(7)
11.5 %6.6 %(4.0)%
Other (2)
Sales Growth (8)
12.1 %453.8 %65.1 %
Same Branch Sales Growth (1)(8)
6.7 %41.5 %44.3 %
Same Branch Sales Growth - Installation (2)(9)
Volume Growth (1)(10)
(9.0)%5.5 %7.9 %
Price/Mix Growth (1)(11)
7.7 %23.0 %3.3 %
U.S. Housing Market (12)
Total Completions Growth4.3 %3.7 %4.2 %
Single-Family Completions Growth (2.2)%5.7 %6.1 %
Multi-Family Completions Growth 22.1 %(1.3)%(0.3)%
(1)
Same branch basis represents period-over-period growth for branch locations owned greater than 12 months as of each financial statement date.
(2)
Prior period disclosures have been recast to conform to the current period segment presentation.
(3)
Calculated based on period-over-period growth of all end markets for our Installation segment.
(4)
Calculated based on period-over-period growth in the single-family subset of the residential new construction end market for our Installation segment.
(5)
Calculated based on period-over-period growth in the multi-family subset of the residential new construction end market for our Installation segment.
(6)
Calculated based on period-over-period growth in the residential new construction end market for our Installation segment.
(7)
Calculated based on period-over-period growth in the total commercial end market. Our commercial end market consists of heavy and light commercial projects.
(8)
Calculated based on period-over-period growth in our Other category which consists for our Manufacturing and Distribution operating segments. Our distribution businesses were acquired in December, 2021 and April, 2022.
(9)
The heavy commercial end market, a subset of our total commercial end market, comprises projects that are much larger than our average installation job. The end market is excluded from the volume growth and price/mix growth calculations as to not skew the growth rates given its much larger per-job revenue compared to the average jobs in our remaining end markets.
(10)Calculated based on period-over-period change in the number of completed same branch jobs within our Installation segment for all markets we serve except the heavy commercial end market.
(11)Defined as change in the mix of products sold and related pricing changes and calculated as the change in period-over-period average selling price per same branch jobs within our Installation segment for all markets we serve except the heavy commercial market, multiplied by total current year jobs. The mix of end customer and product would have an impact on the year-over-year price per job.
(12)U.S. Census Bureau data, as revised.
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Net revenue, cost of sales and gross profit
The components of gross profit for 2023, 2022 and 2021 were as follows (in millions):
2023Change2022Change2021
Net revenue$2,778.6 4.1 %$2,669.8 35.6 %$1,968.7 
Cost of sales1,847.9 0.3 %1,842.0 33.6 %1,379.2 
Gross profit$930.7 12.4 %$827.8 40.4 %$589.5 
Gross profit percentage33.5 %31.0 %29.9 %
Net revenue increased during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 primarily due to increased multi-family and commercial sales and price/mix growth as shown in the Key Measures of Performance section above. Acquisitions also meaningfully contributed to our 2023 revenue growth, adding $102.2 million of revenue in 2023. Our residential end market grew 1.0% primarily due to selling price and product mix improvements and the continued success of our acquisition strategy, but that growth was partially offset by the decline in overall same branch job volume. Despite a reduction in installation jobs we completed in the single-family end market, our diverse end market mix allowed us to complete more jobs in other markets, and we continue to prioritize profitability over volume. Our commercial end market continued to improve as evidenced by a 11.5% annual growth rate in same branch sales in 2023.
The remaining overall growth in net revenue for the year December 31, 2023 is attributable to growth in our Distribution and Manufacturing operating segments. These operating segments grew from $162.4 million to $182.0 million in net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023.
As a percentage of net revenue, gross profit increased during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 primarily on the strength of price/mix growth as well as leverage gained on material costs compared to the prior year. The highly inflationary economic environment and supply chain issues, both of which rapidly increased material costs in prior periods, moderated during the year ended December 31, 2023, allowing us to improve and enhance our profit margins. We will continue to work with our suppliers to lessen the impact on our margins and with our customers to offset further cost increases through selling price adjustments.
Operating Expenses
Operating expenses for 2023, 2022 and 2021 were as follows (in millions):
2023Change2022Change2021
Selling$131.810.7 %$119.027.7 %$93.2
Percentage of total net revenue4.7 %4.5 %4.7 %
Administrative$385.314.8 %$335.723.2 %$272.4
Percentage of total net revenue13.9 %12.6 %13.8 %
Gains on acquisition earnouts$— (100.0)%$(16.1)1,456.4 %$(1.1)
Percentage of total net revenue— %(0.6)%(0.1)%
Amortization$44.51.7 %$43.818.0 %$37.1
Percentage of total net revenue1.6 %1.6 %1.9 %
Selling
The dollar increase in selling expenses in 2023 was primarily driven by a year-over-year increase in selling wages and commissions to support our increased net revenue of 4.1% and higher credit loss provisions due to increased sales. Selling expense increased as a percentage of sales primarily due to increased selling wages and bonuses due to higher profitability.
Administrative
The dollar increase in administrative expenses in 2023 was primarily due to an increase in wages and benefits, which was attributable to both acquisitions and organic growth as well as favorable company performance. Facility expense and insurance cost increases due to inflationary pressures also factored into the overall increase in administrative operating expenses. During
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2023, we saw our administrative costs increase as a percentage of sales primarily due to higher salaries and bonuses due to higher profitability.
Gains on acquisition earnouts
Some of our acquisitions have contingent consideration liabilities in the form of earnouts included in the total purchase price of the business. We assess the fair value of the contingent consideration liability at each reporting period, and any changes in the estimated fair value are reflected in gains on acquisition earnouts on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. There were no gains on acquisition earnouts during the year ended December 31, 2023. The gains recorded during the year ended December 31, 2022 were primarily due to a $15.1 million gain on the Central Aluminum Supply Corporation earnout recorded as a result of revised earnout target expectations.
Amortization
Our intangible assets include non-competes, customer relationships, trade names and backlog established upon acquisition of most businesses we acquire. Amortization expense increased in 2023 resulting from the increase in new intangible assets from 2023 acquisitions, with the remaining increase due to a full year of amortization expense attributable to prior year acquisitions. See Note 18, Business Combinations, in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-K for information on our acquisitions.
Other Expense, net
Other expense, net for 2023, 2022 and 2021 was as follows (in millions):
2023Change2022Change2021
Interest expense, net$37.0 (11.0)%$41.6 26.6 %$32.8 
Other(1.0)(288.7)%0.5 (221.3)%(0.4)
Total other expense, net$36.0 (14.5)%$42.1 29.9 %$32.4 
The year-over-year decrease in other expense, net during 2023 was primarily a result of increased interest income earned due to higher yields on cash deposits, partially offset by increased interest expense on variable rate debt. See Note 8, Long-term Debt, in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-K for further information regarding debt balances.
Income Tax Provision
Income tax provision and effective tax rates for 2023, 2022 and 2021 were as follows (in millions):
202320222021
Income tax provision$89.4$79.9$36.7
Effective tax rate26.8 %26.3 %23.6 %
During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, our tax rate was unfavorably impacted by certain expenses not being deductible for income tax reporting purposes.
Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax
Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax for 2023, 2022 and 2021 were as follows (in millions):
202320222021
Unrealized (loss) gain on cash flow hedge, net of taxes$(6.9)$40.8 $8.5 
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we recorded unrealized losses, net of taxes, of $10.2 million on our cash flow hedges primarily due to the market's expectations for interest rates to decline in the future which offset the previous unrealized gains on our existing and forward swaps. We also amortized $4.5 million of the remaining unrealized gains, off-market terms
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and unrealized losses on our terminated cash flow hedges to interest expense, net during the year ended December 31, 2023, not including tax effects of $1.2 million.
During the year ended December 31, 2022, we amended the maturity dates for our three existing interest rate swaps and the amendment created off-market terms due to an other-than-insignificant financing element. We amortized $3.9 million of the remaining unrealized gains, off-market terms and unrealized losses on our terminated cash flow hedges to interest expense, net during the year ended December 31, 2022, not including tax effects of $1.0 million. Also, during the year ended December 31, 2022, we recorded an unrealized gain, net of taxes, of $37.9 million on our cash flow hedges primarily due to the market's expectations for interest rates in the future relative to our three existing interest rate swaps and two forward interest rate swaps.
We amortize the unrealized gains and losses on our terminated cash flow hedges at the time of termination over the course of the originally scheduled settlement dates of the terminated swaps. For more information on our cash flow hedges, see "Liquidity and Capital Resources, Derivative Instruments" below and Note 12, Derivatives and Hedging Activities, in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-K.
KEY FACTORS AFFECTING OUR OPERATING RESULTS
Inflation, Housing Affordability and Interest Rates
Inflation affected the economy as a whole in 2022 and 2023 as consumer price inflation peaked at 40-year highs which negatively impacted consumer sentiment and increased market uncertainty. The Federal Reserve took actions to moderate and stabilize inflation by raising the federal funds rate multiple times in 2022 and 2023. This caused the average mortgage rate in the United States to more than double since the end of 2021. Inflation has moderated, however it is still above the 2% stated target which has led the Federal Reserve to signal plans to keep the federal funds rate higher for longer than the market was anticipating. The Federal Reserve has signaled plans to end the rate hike cycle and to hold current rates with potential rate cuts later in 2024.
Interest rates began to curtail housing demand beginning in the second half of 2022 as mortgage financing affordability was reduced. As a result, the residential homebuilding market began weakening and housing starts declined by 9% in 2023. We expect to be impacted by these economic headwinds in 2024. Our largest customers are publicly traded homebuilders, and these builders have been able to increase affordability by offering mortgage rate buydowns as incentives to their customers.
Trends in the Construction Industry
Higher inflation and interest rates, as discussed above, reduced the demand and affordability of new homes in 2023. According to Wolters Kluwer’s Blue Chip Economic Indicators January 2024 forecast, 1.4 million housing starts are forecasted in 2024 which is a decline of 4% from 2023. We expect this decrease will be concentrated in the multi-family end market, and we expect the single family end market, from which we derive over half of our net revenue, will improve slightly over 2023 levels. Overall, residential housing construction activity remains resilient, despite housing affordability concerns, as stable employment and near historic lows in existing home inventory levels continue to support demand for residential new construction activity. As a result, while we expect cyclicality to continue in the housing industry, we believe the long-term opportunities in our residential and commercial end markets are favorable. We believe the large residential construction backlog of both units under construction and units not started will partially offset these challenges. Additionally, there have been housing shortages in some of the markets we serve and the backlog in our growing multi-family business has helped to partially offset the declines we have faced in the residential homebuilding market. Regarding the repair and remodel markets, many existing homeowners are locked into low interest mortgages, and an aging housing stock exists in many areas of the United States, bolstering demand in this end market. We expect that incentives from the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 will likely support repair and remodel demand in 2024.
Our operating results may vary based on our product mix and the mix of our end markets among new single-family, multi-family and commercial builders and owners of existing homes. We maintain a mix of business among all types of homebuilders ranging from small custom builders to large regional and national homebuilders as well as a wide range of commercial builders. Net revenue derived from our ten largest homebuilder customers in the United States was approximately 15% for the year ended December 31, 2023. The residential new construction and repair and remodel markets represented approximately 78% of our total net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to 80% in the same period in 2022. The remaining portion was attributable to our distribution businesses and the commercial construction end market.
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Cost and Availability of Materials
We typically purchase the materials we use in our business directly from manufacturers. The industry supply of these materials has experienced multiple periods of supply shortages since 2021 due to strong demand and effects from the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to meet customer demand during these shortages, we have purchased a limited amount of materials from distributors and home centers at a premium to what we typically would purchase directly from manufacturers, therefore reducing gross profit. The supply chain issues for some products moderated during the year ended December 31, 2023, however, we expect these challenges to persist to a certain degree in 2024.
In addition, we experience price increases from our suppliers from time to time, including multiple increases over the last four years caused by supply shortages and general economic inflationary pressures. Increased market pricing, regardless of the catalyst, has and could continue to impact our results of operations in 2024, to the extent that price increases cannot be passed on to our customers. Our selling price increases were able to support most material cost increases in 2023 but we may have more difficulty raising prices in 2024 if housing demand slows. We will continue to work with our customers to adjust selling prices to offset higher costs as they occur.
Cost of Labor
Our business is labor intensive. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 10,600 employees, most of whom work as installers on local construction sites. We expect to spend more to hire, train and retain installers to support our growing business in 2024, as tight labor availability continues within the construction industry. Our workers’ compensation costs also continue to rise as we increase our coverage for additional personnel. We were able to keep our labor costs as a percentage of revenue flat during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 2022 due to increased selling prices per job. However, inflation and market competition could increase these costs in the near-term. We were successful in achieving higher labor productivity as evidenced by our annual sales per installer per business day increasing 1% in 2023 as compared to 2022.
Our employee retention rates remained better than industry averages in the year ended December 31, 2023. We believe this is a result of our strong culture and the various programs meant to benefit our employees, including our financial wellness plan, emotional well-being coaching, longevity stock compensation plan and comprehensive benefit packages we offer. We also provide assistance from the Foundation meant to benefit our employees, their families and their communities. While improved retention drives lower costs to recruit and train new employees, resulting in greater installer productivity, these improvements are somewhat offset by the additional costs of these incentives.
Environmental, Social and Governance, Climate Change and Other Factors
According to the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, over $400 billion is spent each year to power homes and commercial structures that consume 75% of all electricity used in the United States and 40% of the nation’s total energy. Insulation is a critical component in the construction of homes and commercial structures and helps increase energy conservation because it is the best way to prevent energy waste in most homes and commercial structures. As a leading installer of insulation products, we help ensure that insulation is properly installed to achieve the desired energy conservation and efficiency.
Beyond our service offerings, we also recognize that as a good corporate citizen, we have a responsibility to support our communities and be stewards of the environment. We continue to proactively work to find new ways to reduce our carbon footprint by formalizing a climate risk management framework to guide our climate strategy. We are committed to reducing CO2 emissions. We have transitioned a large portion of our electricity supply to a carbon-free energy source and entered a national waste management program to increase recycling at our facilities, reducing landfill waste. We also support the industry transition to hydrofluoro-olefin ("HFO") spray foam types which have lower greenhouse gas emissions than hydrofluorocarbon ("HFC") materials. For the first time in 2022, we utilized more HFO materials than HFC materials.
Certain effects of climate change that may cause severe weather events could have a material effect on our operations. Climate change and/or adverse weather conditions such as unusually prolonged cold conditions, rain, blizzards, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, or other natural disasters could accelerate, delay or halt construction or installation activity or impact our suppliers. The impacts of climate change may subject us to increased costs, regulations, reporting requirements, standards or expectations regarding the environmental impacts of our business. Most, if not all, of our locations may be vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Weather is one of the main reasons for annual seasonality cycles of our business, and any adverse weather conditions can enhance this seasonality.
Lastly, we expect our selling and administrative expenses to continue to increase as our business grows, which could impact our future operating profitability.
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SEASONALITY
We tend to have higher sales during the second half of the year as our homebuilder customers complete construction of homes placed under contract for sale in the traditionally stronger spring selling season. In addition, some of our larger branches operate in states impacted by winter weather and as such experience a slowdown in construction activity during the first quarter of the calendar year. This winter slowdown contributes to traditionally lower sales and profitability in our first quarter. See Part I, Item 1, Business, of this Form 10-K for further information.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Our capital resources primarily consist of cash from operations and borrowings under our various debt agreements and capital equipment leases and loans. As of December 31, 2023, we had cash and cash equivalents of $386.5 million as well as access to $250.0 million under our asset-based lending credit facility (as defined below), less $5.8 million of outstanding letters of credit, resulting in total liquidity of $630.7 million. Liquidity may also be limited in the future by certain cash collateral limitations under our asset-based lending credit facility (as defined below), depending on the status of our borrowing base availability.
Short-Term Material Cash Requirements
For at least the next twelve months, our primary capital requirements are to fund working capital needs, operating expenses, acquisitions and capital expenditures and to meet principal and interest obligations and make required income tax payments. We may also use our resources to fund our optional stock repurchase program and pay quarterly and annual dividends. During 2024, we anticipate discretionary spending for capital improvements and quarterly dividends to approximate 2023 levels of approximately $61.6 million and $37.5 million, respectively, as well as approximately $45.0 million for our annual variable dividend to be paid March 31, 2024. In addition, we expect to use cash and cash equivalents to acquire various companies with at least $100.0 million in aggregate net revenue each fiscal year. The amount of cash paid for an acquisition is dependent on various factors, including the size and determined value of the business being acquired.
Firm commitments for funds include $68.1 million in interest and principals payments on long-term debt obligations including our Senior Notes, Term Loan, notes payable to sellers of acquisitions and vehicles purchased under the Master Loan and Security Agreement, the Master Equipment Agreement and the Master Loan Agreements. Additionally, we maintain certain production vehicles under a finance lease structure which will require $3.2 million in interest and principal payments under current agreements in 2024. We lease certain locations, vehicles and equipment under operating lease agreements that will require $31.3 million in funds over the next twelve months. Finally, we have a product supply agreement with a certain vendor that requires us to purchase a minimum quantity of inventory with variable pricing in 2024. Payments for income taxes cannot be estimated at this time, but our effective tax rate was 26.8% for the year ended December 31, 2023.
We expect to meet our short-term liquidity requirements primarily through net cash flows from operations, our cash and cash equivalents on hand and borrowings from banks under the Master Loan and Security Agreement, the Master Equipment Agreement and the Master Loan Agreements. Additional sources of funds, should we need them, include borrowing capacity under our asset-based lending credit facility (as defined below).
We believe that our cash flows from operations, combined with our current cash levels and available borrowing capacity, will be adequate to support our ongoing operations and to fund our business needs, commitments and contractual obligations for at least the next 12 months as evidenced by our net positive cash flows from operations for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021. We believe that we have access to additional funds, if needed, through the capital markets to obtain further debt financing under the current market conditions, but we cannot guarantee that such financing will be available on favorable terms, or at all.
Long-Term Material Cash Requirements
Beyond the next twelve months, our principal demands for funds will be to fund working capital needs and operating expenses, to meet principal and interest obligations on our long-term debts and finance leases as they become due or mature, and to make required income tax payments. Additional funds may be spent on acquisitions, capital improvements and dividend payments, at our discretion.
Known obligations beyond the next twelve months are as follows (in millions):
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2025$87.9 
202684.0 
202770.6 
2028812.7 
Thereafter3.9 
Known obligations above include $997.9 million in interest and principals payments on long-term debt obligations through 2028. In addition, our finance leases will require $7.3 million in interest and principal payments under current agreements through 2028. Operating lease obligations will require $53.9 million in payments beyond the next twelve months. Finally, we have a product supply agreement with a certain vendor that requires us to purchase a minimum quantity of inventory with variable pricing after 2024.
Sources and Uses of Cash and Related Trends
Working Capital
We carefully manage our working capital and operating expenses. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, our working capital, including cash and cash equivalents, was $723.6 million, or 26.0% of net revenue, and $556.4 million, or 20.8% of net revenue, respectively. The increase in working capital year-over-year was driven primarily by cash and cash equivalents increasing $156.9 million resulting from increased profitability, less acquisition and stock repurchase activity and a $13.8 million decrease in inventories due to our supply chain getting closer to normalizing. These increases were partially offset by accounts receivable increasing $26.1 million resulting from higher net revenue as well as increased capital expenditures on property and equipment. We continue to look for opportunities to reduce our working capital as a percentage of net revenue.
The following table presents our cash flows (in millions):
Years ended December 31,
202320222021
Net cash provided by operating activities$340.2 $277.9 $138.3 
Net cash used in investing activities(103.4)(158.7)(278.4)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(79.9)(223.1)242.1 
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Our primary source of cash provided by operations is revenues generated from installing or selling building products and the resulting operating income generated by these revenues. Operating income is adjusted for certain non-cash items, and our cash flows from operations can be impacted by the timing of our cash collections on sales and collection of retainage amounts. Our primary uses of cash from operating activities include payments for installation materials, compensation costs, leases, income taxes and other general corporate expenditures included in net income. Net cash provided by operating activities increased from 2022 to 2023 primarily due to higher net income due to increased operating margins and cash source of $16.5 million due to the decrease in inventory as some supply chain issues subsided and normalized. These increases were partially offset by a $25.1 million increase in accounts receivable due to higher revenues.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
Sources of cash from investing activities consist primarily of proceeds from the sales of property and equipment and, periodically, maturities from short term investments. Cash used in investing activities consists primarily of purchases of property and equipment, payments for acquisitions and, periodically, purchases of short term investments.
Net cash used by investing activities decreased from 2022 to 2023 primarily due to the decrease in payments for acquisitions. We completed eight acquisitions in both 2022 and 2023, but the average size of the acquisitions was larger in the year ended December 31, 2022. The amount of cash paid for an acquisition is dependent on various factors, including the size and determined value of the business being acquired. See Note 18, Business Combinations, in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-K for more information regarding our business acquisitions in 2023, 2022 and 2021.
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Additionally, total cash used to purchase property and equipment increased in 2023, and we expect to continue to support any increases in future net revenue through further capital expenditures. A majority of these capital expenditures were subsequently reimbursed via various vehicle and equipment notes payable, with related cash inflows shown in cash flows from financing activities.
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
Our sources of cash from financing activities consist of proceeds from the issuance of debt and new vehicle and equipment notes payable. Cash used in financing activities consists primarily of debt repayments, acquisition-related obligations, dividends and stock repurchases.
We had a net use of cash in financing activities in both 2023 and 2022 compared to a net inflow of cash in 2021 primarily due to the proceeds on our Term Loan received in 2021. We did not incur any such significant new borrowings during the year ended December 31, 2023. The decrease in cash used in financing activities in 2023 was primarily due to common stock repurchases decreasing to $6.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2023 from $137.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Debt
5.75% Senior Notes due 2028
In September 2019, we issued $300.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 5.75% senior unsecured notes (the “Senior Notes”). The Senior Notes will mature on February 1, 2028 and interest will be payable semi-annually in cash in arrears on February 1 and August 1, commencing on February 1, 2020. The net proceeds from the Senior Notes offering were $295.0 million after debt issuance costs.
The indenture covering the Senior Notes contains restrictive covenants that, among other things, limit the ability of the Company and certain of our subsidiaries (subject to certain exceptions) to: (i) incur additional debt and issue preferred stock; (ii) pay dividends on, redeem or repurchase stock in an aggregate amount exceeding 2.0% of market capitalization per fiscal year, or in an aggregate amount exceeding certain applicable restricted payment baskets; (iii) prepay subordinated debt; (iv) create liens; (v) make specified types of investments; (vi) apply net proceeds from certain asset sales; (vii) engage in transactions with affiliates; (viii) merge, consolidate or sell substantially all of our assets; and (ix) pay dividends and make other distributions from subsidiaries.
Credit Facilities
In February 2022, we amended and extended the term of our asset-based lending credit agreement (the "ABL Credit Agreement"). The ABL Credit Agreement increased the commitment under the asset-based lending credit facility (the "ABL Revolver") to $250 million from $200.0 million, and permits us to further increased the commitment amount up to $300.0 million. The amendment also extends the maturity date from September 26, 2024 to February 17, 2027. The ABL Revolver bears interest at either the base rate or the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("Term SOFR"), at our election, plus a margin of 0.25% or 0.50% in the case of base rate loans or 1.25% or 1.50% for Term SOFR advances (in each case based on a measure of availability under the ABL Credit Agreement). The amendment also allows for modification of specified fees depend upon achieving certain sustainability targets, in addition to making other modifications to the ABL Credit Agreement. Including outstanding letters of credit, our remaining availability under the ABL Revolver as of December 31, 2023 was $244.2 million.
The ABL Revolver provides incremental revolving credit facility commitments of up to $50.0 million. The terms and conditions of any incremental revolving credit facility commitments must be no more favorable than the terms of the ABL Revolver. The ABL Revolver also allows for the issuance of letters of credit of up to $100.0 million in aggregate and borrowing of swingline loans of up to $25.0 million in aggregate.
The ABL Credit Agreement contains a financial covenant requiring the satisfaction of a minimum of fixed charge coverage ratio of 1.0x in the event that we do not meet a minimum measure of availability under the ABL Revolver. The ABL Credit Agreement and the Term Loan Agreement contain restrictive covenants that, among other things, limit the ability of the Company and certain of our subsidiaries (subject to certain exceptions) to: (i) incur additional debt and issue preferred stock; (ii) pay dividends on, redeem or repurchase stock in an aggregate amount exceeding the greater of 2.0% of market capitalization per fiscal year or certain applicable restricted payment basket amounts' (iii) prepay subordinated debt; (iv) create liens; (v) make specified types of investments; (vi) apply net proceeds from certain asset sales; (vii) engage in transactions with affiliates; (viii) merge, consolidate or sell substantially all of our assets; and (ix) pay dividends and make other distributions from subsidiaries.
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In December 2021, we entered into a new $500 million, seven-year term loan facility due December 2028 (the “Term Loan”) under our credit agreement (the “Term Loan Agreement”), dated as of December 14, 2021 with Royal Bank of Canada as the administrative agent and collateral agent thereunder. In April 2023, the Term Loan was amended (the "First Amendment") to implement Term SOFR as the benchmark rate and includes a credit spread adjustment of 0.11%, 0.26% and 0.43% for interest periods of one month, three months and six months, respectively, and it is subject to the same floor as currently set forth in the Term Loan Agreement. In August 2023, we entered into the Second Amendment. The amended Term Loan effects a repricing of the interest rate margin applicable to the existing term loans thereunder from 2.25% to 2.00% that is added to Term SOFR plus the applicable credit spread adjustment. The Second Amendment also establishes an alternate base rate equal to the highest of (i) the federal funds rate plus 1/2 of 1.00%, (ii) the prime rate and (iii) the Term SOFR rate for an interest period of one month plus 1.00%. The Second Amendment also states that there will be a six-month protection provision during which a 1.00% premium would be charged in connection with certain repricing transactions.
As a result of the Second Amendment, the Term Loan amortizes in quarterly principal payments of $1.23 million, with any remaining unpaid balances due on the maturity date of December 14, 2028. As of December 31, 2023, we had $485.6 million, net of unamortized debt issuance costs, due on our Term Loan.
Subject to certain exceptions, the Term Loan will be subject to mandatory prepayments of (i) 100% of the net cash proceeds from issuances or incurrence of debt by the Company or any of its restricted subsidiaries (other than with respect to certain permitted indebtedness (excluding any refinancing indebtedness); (ii) 100% (with step-downs to 50% and 0% based on achievement of specified net leverage ratios) of the net cash proceeds from certain sales or dispositions of assets by the Company or any of its restricted subsidiaries in excess of a certain amount and subject to reinvestment provision and certain other exception; and (iii) 50% (with step-downs to 25% and 0% based upon achievement of specified net leverage ratios) of excess cash flow of the Company and its restricted subsidiaries in excess of $15.0 million, subject to certain exceptions and limitations.
All of the obligations under the Term Loan and ABL Revolver are guaranteed by all of the Company’s existing restricted subsidiaries and will be guaranteed by the Company’s future restricted subsidiaries. Additionally, all obligations under the Term Loan and ABL Revolver, and the guarantees of those obligations, are secured by substantially all of the assets of the Company and the guarantors, subject to certain exceptions and permitted liens, including a first-priority security interest in such assets that constitute ABL Priority Collateral, as defined in the ABL Credit Agreement, and a second-priority security interest in such assets that constitute Term Loan Priority Collateral, as defined in the Term Loan Agreement.
As of December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with all applicable covenants under the Term Loan Agreement, ABL Credit Agreement, and the Senior Notes.
Derivative Instruments
As of December 31, 2023, we had five total interest rate swaps including two forward interest rate swaps. For a summary of notional amounts, maturity dates and interest rates for each of these swaps, see Note 12, Derivatives and Hedging Activities, in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Form 10-K. Together, these five swaps serve to hedge $400.0 million of the variable cash flows on our variable rate Term Loan through maturity. The assets associated with the forward interest rate swap are included in other current and other non-current assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at their fair value amounts as described in Note 10, Fair Value Measurements, in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-K.
Term SOFR is used as a reference rate for our Term Loan and our interest rate swap agreements we use to hedge our interest rate exposure. For more information on Derivatives, see Note 12, Derivatives and Hedging Activities, of this Form 10-K.
Vehicle and Equipment Notes
We have financing loan agreements with various lenders to provide financing for the purpose of purchasing or leasing vehicles and equipment used in the normal course of business. Vehicles and equipment purchased or leased under each financing arrangement serve as collateral for the note applicable to such financing arrangement. Regular payments are due under each note for a period of typically 60 consecutive months after the incurrence of the obligation.
Total outstanding loan balances relating to our master loan and equipment agreements were $83.0 million and $73.0 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Depreciation of assets held under these agreements is included within cost of sales on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. See Note 8, Long-term Debt, in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Form 10-K for more information regarding our Master Loan and Security Agreement, Master Equipment Lease Agreement and Master Loan Agreements.
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Letters of Credit and Bonds
We may use performance bonds to ensure completion of our work on certain larger customer contracts that can span multiple accounting periods. Performance bonds generally do not have stated expiration dates; rather, we are released from the bonds as the contractual performance is completed. In addition, we occasionally use letters of credit and cash to secure our performance under our general liability and workers’ compensation insurance programs. Permit and license bonds are typically issued for one year and are required by certain municipalities when we obtain licenses and permits to perform work in their jurisdictions.
The following table summarizes our outstanding bonds, letters of credit and cash-collateral (in millions):
As of December 31, 2023
Performance bonds$99.5 
Insurance letters of credit and cash collateral67.2 
Permit and license bonds10.7 
Total bonds and letters of credit$177.4 
We have $58.9 million included in our insurance letters of credit in the above table that are unsecured and therefore do not reduce total liquidity.
Critical Accounting Estimates
Management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Certain accounting policies involve judgments and uncertainties to such an extent that there is a reasonable likelihood that materially different amounts could have been reported using different assumptions or under different conditions. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on a regular basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of our assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates and assumptions used in preparation of our consolidated financial statements. We believe the following critical accounting estimates require judgement and estimation in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements and to be fundamental to our results of operations. See Note 2, Significant Accounting Policies included in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for a summary of all of our significant accounting policies and their effect on our financial statements.
Revenue recognition
The majority of our revenues are recognized when we complete our contracts with customers to install building products and the control of the promised good or service is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. For contracts that are not complete at the reporting date, we recognize revenue over time utilizing a cost-to-cost input method as we believe this represents the best measure of when goods and services are transferred to the customer. When this method is used, we estimate the costs to complete individual contracts and record as revenue that portion of the total contract price that is considered complete based on the relationship of costs incurred to date to total anticipated costs. Under the cost-to-cost method, the use of estimated costs to complete each contract is a significant variable in the process of determining recognized revenue and can change throughout the duration of a contract due to contract modifications and other factors impacting job completion. Our cost estimation process is based on the knowledge, significant experience and judgement of project management, finance professionals and operational management to assess a variety of factors to determine revenues on uncompleted contracts. Such factors include historical performance, costs of materials and labor, change orders and the nature of the work to be performed. We generally review and reassess our estimates for each uncompleted contract at least quarterly to reflect the latest reliable information available. Changes in these estimates could favorably or unfavorably impact revenues and their related profits.
Goodwill Impairment
We performed an annual quantitative goodwill impairment test as of October 1, 2023 on our Distribution operating segment which we have determined is also a reporting unit. The estimate of the reporting unit’s fair value was determined by placing an 80% weighting on a discounted cash flow model and a 20% weighting on market-related model using current industry information that involve significant unobservable inputs (Level 3 inputs). Based on the results of this evaluation, we concluded
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that there were no impairments of goodwill as the estimated fair value exceeded its carrying value. The estimated fair value exceeded the Distribution operating segment's carrying value by 11.9%. A 100 basis point change in either the discount rate or residual growth rate, or both, utilized in our discounted cash flow model using our weighted system would not have resulted in an impairment for our Distribution operating segment, nor would any change in the weighting of each method. The estimates and assumptions used in the test are subject to uncertainty due to the professional judgments required.
We elected to perform an annual quantitative goodwill impairment test as of October 1, 2023 on our Installation and Distribution reporting units. Based on the results of these evaluations, we concluded that there were no impairments of goodwill as the estimated fair value significantly exceeded its carrying value. We also performed a qualitative evaluation for our Manufacturing reporting unit and determined that it was more likely than not that the fair value of this reporting unit exceeded its carrying value.
Business combinations
We have recorded a significant amount of finite lived intangible assets associated with the acquisitions of businesses through our growth strategy. These intangible assets consist of customer relationships, backlog, non-competition agreements and business trademarks and trade names. Fair values and estimated useful lives are assigned to the identified intangible assets at the date of acquisition by financial professionals using either the income approach or the market approach along with certain industry information, professional experience and knowledge. In some instances, the process of assigning values and useful lives requires using judgment and other financial professionals may come to different conclusions. We review intangible assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized when estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use of an asset and its eventual disposition are less than its carrying amount. When impairment is identified, the carrying amount of the asset is reduced to its estimated fair value. Impairment losses would negatively affect earnings.
We also record contingent consideration liabilities that arise from future earnout payments to the sellers associated with certain acquisitions and are based on predetermined calculations of certain future results. These future payments can require a significant amount of estimation by considering various factors, including business risk and projections. We have used various estimate techniques and also consult with a third party valuation expert in certain instances. The contingent consideration liabilities are measured at fair value by discounting estimated future payments to their net present value.
Insurance risks
We carry insurance policies for a number of risks, including, but not limited to, workers’ compensation, general liability, vehicle liability, property and our obligation for employee-related health care benefits. Most of our insurance policies contain an element for which we assume a significant portion of the risk by having high deductibles or a large cap on claims. For a description of our different insurance programs, see Note 2, Significant Accounting Policies in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data in this Form 10-K.
Our largest healthcare plan is partially self-funded with an insurance company paying benefits in excess of stop loss limits per individual/family. An accrual for estimated healthcare claims incurred but not reported (“IBNR”) is included within accrued compensation on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and was $3.9 million and $3.8 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
We participate in multiple workers’ compensation plans covering a significant portion of our business. Under these plans, we use a high deductible program to cover losses above the deductible amount on a per claim basis. We accrue for the estimated losses occurring from both asserted and unasserted claims. Insurance claims and reserves include accruals of estimated settlements for known claims, as well as accruals of actuarial estimates of IBNR claims. In estimating these reserves, historical loss experience and judgments about the expected levels of costs per claim are considered. These claims are accounted for based on actuarial estimates of the undiscounted claims, including IBNR. We believe the use of actuarial methods to account for these liabilities provides a consistent and effective way to measure these highly judgmental accruals. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we estimated total short-term and long-term known and IBNR claims for workers' compensation to be $26.5 million and $23.7 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, offsets of these liabilities were $3.0 million and $2.3 million, respectively, with insurance receivables and indemnification assets for claims under fully insured policies or claims that exceeded the stop loss limit.
We also participate in a high retention general liability insurance program and a high deductible auto insurance program. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, general liability and auto insurance reserves included in other current and long-term liabilities were $25.4 million and $25.0 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, offsets of these liabilities were $1.8
46


million and $5.3 million, respectively, with insurance receivables and indemnification assets for claims under fully insured policies or claims that exceeded the stop loss limit.
Liabilities relating to claims associated with these risks are estimated by considering historical claims experience, including frequency, severity, demographic factors and other actuarial assumptions. In estimating our liability for such claims, we periodically analyze our historical trends, including loss development, and apply appropriate loss development factors to the incurred costs associated with the claims with the assistance of external actuarial consultants. While we do not expect the amounts ultimately paid to differ significantly from our estimates, our reserves and corresponding expenses could be affected if future claim experience differs significantly from historical trends and actuarial assumptions.
We have not made any material changes in our methodology used to establish our insurance reserves during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, and none of the adjustments to our estimates have been material.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
For a description of recently issued and/or adopted accounting pronouncements, see Note 2, Significant Accounting Policies, in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-K.
Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
We are exposed to market risks related to fluctuations in interest rates on our outstanding variable rate debt. As of December 31, 2023, we had $485.6 million outstanding on the Term Loan, net of unamortized debt issuance costs, no outstanding borrowings on the ABL Revolver and no outstanding borrowings under finance leases subject to variable interest rates. We had three active interest rate swaps which, when combined with our two forward interest rate swaps, serve to hedge $400.0 million of the variable cash flows on our Term Loan until its maturity as of December 31, 2023. As a result, total variable rate debt of $90.0 million was exposed to market risks as of December 31, 2023. A hypothetical one percentage point increase (decrease) in interest rates on our variable rate debt would increase (decrease) our annual interest expense by approximately $0.9 million. Our Senior Notes accrued interest at a fixed rate of 5.75%.
For variable rate debt, interest rate changes generally do not affect the fair value of the debt instrument, but do impact future earnings and cash flows, assuming other factors are held constant. We have not entered into and currently do not hold derivatives for trading or speculative purposes.
Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the stockholders and the Board of Directors of Installed Building Products, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Installed Building Products, Inc. (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 22, 2024, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Goodwill, Distribution Reporting Unit - Refer to Notes 2 and 7 to the financial statements
Critical Audit Matter Description
The Company’s evaluation of goodwill for impairment involves comparing the carrying value of each reporting unit to the estimated fair value of the reporting unit. The Company’s determination of estimated fair value of the reporting unit is determined by considering both the market approach and the income approach. The determination of the estimated fair value requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions related to the valuation of the reporting unit. Changes in these assumptions could have a significant impact on either the fair value of the reporting unit, the amount of any goodwill impairment charge, or both. The Company’s consolidated goodwill balance was $398.8 million as of December 31, 2023, of which $89.2 million was allocated to the Distribution reporting unit, which is the reporting unit that exhibits significant sensitivity to changes in estimates and assumptions given the limited cushion between the carrying value and estimated fair value. As of December 31, 2023, the estimated fair value of the Distribution reporting unit exceeded its carrying value by approximately 11.9%.
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We identified the valuation of goodwill for the Distribution reporting unit as a critical audit matter because of the significant assumptions made by management to estimate its fair value. Those assumptions included revenue growth rates, forecasted EBITDA, and the selection of the discount rate. Our performance of audit procedures to evaluate the assumptions required a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of audit effort, including the involvement of our fair value specialists.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to testing the fair value of the Distribution reporting unit focused on revenue growth rates, forecasted EBITDA, and the selection of the discount rate and included the following procedures, among others:
We tested the effectiveness of controls over management’s goodwill impairment evaluation, including those over the determination of the fair value of the Distribution reporting unit, such as controls related to the revenue growth rates, forecasted EBITDA, and the selection of an appropriate discount rate.
With the assistance of our fair value specialists, we evaluated the reasonableness of the long-term growth rate, including testing the source information underlying the determination of the long-term growth rate, testing the mathematical accuracy of the calculation, and developing a range of independent estimates and comparing those to the long-term growth rate selected by management.
We assessed the reasonableness of management’s forecast by comparing the forecasted revenue growth rates and forecasted EBITDA information used in the Distribution reporting units historical results and internal communications to management and the board of directors, as well as comparing the forecasted revenue growth rates and EBITDA information to peer company and industry historical revenue growth rates and forecasts.
We considered the impact of changes in the regulatory environment on management’s forecasts of the revenue growth rates.
With the assistance of our fair value specialists, we evaluated the reasonableness of the discount rate, including testing the source information underlying the determination of the discount rate, testing the mathematical accuracy of the calculation, and developing a range of independent estimates and comparing those to the discount rate selected by management.

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP
Columbus, Ohio
February 22, 2024
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2013.
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INSTALLED BUILDING PRODUCTS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in millions, except share and per share amounts)
As of December 31,
20232022
ASSETS
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$386.5 $229.6 
Accounts receivable (less allowance for credit losses of $11.2 and $9.5 at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively)
423.3 397.2 
Inventories162.8 176.6 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets97.4 81.0 
Total current assets1,070.0 884.4 
Property and equipment, net137.2 118.8 
Operating lease right-of-use assets78.1 76.2 
Goodwill398.8 373.6 
Customer relationships, net179.6 192.3 
Other intangibles, net89.1 91.1 
Other non-current assets28.5 42.5 
Total assets$1,981.3 $1,778.9 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities
Current maturities of long-term debt$32.2 $31.0 
Current maturities of operating lease obligations28.3 26.1 
Current maturities of finance lease obligations2.7 2.5 
Accounts payable158.6 149.2 
Accrued compensation59.6 51.6 
Other current liabilities65.0 67.7 
Total current liabilities346.4 328.1 
Long-term debt835.1 830.2 
Operating lease obligations49.9 49.8 
Finance lease obligations6.6 6.4 
Deferred income taxes24.5 28.4 
Other long-term liabilities48.5 42.5 
Total liabilities1,311.0 1,285.4 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 17)
Stockholders’ equity
Preferred Stock; $0.01 par value: 5,000,000 authorized and 0 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
  
Common stock; $0.01 par value: 100,000,000 authorized, 33,587,701 and 33,429,557 issued and 28,367,338 and 28,306,482 shares outstanding at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
0.3 0.3 
Additional paid in capital244.7 228.8 
Retained earnings693.8 513.1 
Treasury stock; at cost: 5,220,363 and 5,123,075 shares at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
(302.2)(289.3)
Accumulated other comprehensive income33.7 40.6 
Total stockholders’ equity670.3 493.5 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,981.3 $1,778.9 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements
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INSTALLED BUILDING PRODUCTS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(in millions, except share and per share amounts)
Years ended December 31,
202320222021
Net revenue$2,778.6 $2,669.8 $1,968.7 
Cost of sales1,847.9 1,842.0 1,379.2 
Gross profit930.7 827.8 589.5 
Operating expenses
Selling131.8 119.0 93.2 
Administrative385.3 335.7 272.4 
Gains on acquisition earnouts (16.1)(1.1)
Amortization44.5 43.8 37.1 
Operating income369.1 345.4 187.9 
Other expense
Interest expense, net37.0 41.6 32.8 
Other (income) expense(1.0)0.5 (0.4)
Income before income taxes333.1 303.3 155.5 
Income tax provision89.4 79.9 36.7 
Net income$243.7 $223.4 $118.8 
Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax:
Net change in cash flow hedges, net of tax benefit (provision) of $2.5, $(14.4) and $(2.8) for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively
(6.9)40.8 8.5 
Comprehensive income$236.8 $264.2 $127.3 
Earnings Per Share:
Basic $8.65 $7.78 $4.04 
Diluted $8.61 $7.74 $4.01 
Weighted average shares outstanding:
Basic28,161,583 28,708,166 29,367,676 
Diluted28,306,313 28,869,501 29,628,527 
Cash dividends declared per share$2.22 $2.16 $1.20 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements
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INSTALLED BUILDING PRODUCTS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in millions, except share and per share amounts)
 Common StockAdditional
Paid In
Capital 
Retained
Earnings
Treasury StockAccumulated
Other
Comprehensive
(Loss) Income
Stockholders’
Equity 
 Shares AmountShares Amount
BALANCE—January 1, 202133,141,879 $0.3 $199.8 $269.4 (3,518,607)$(141.6)$(8.7)$319.2 
Net income118.8 118.8 
Issuance of common stock awards to employees125,550    
Surrender of common stock awards(46,651)(5.6)(5.6)
Share-based compensation expense11.1 11.1 
Share-based compensation issued to directors4,230 0.5 0.5 
Dividends Declared ($1.20 per share)
(35.7)(35.7)
Net change in cash flow hedges, net of tax8.5 8.5 
BALANCE—January 1, 202233,271,659 $0.3 $211.4 $352.5 (3,565,258)$(147.2)$(0.2)$416.8 
Net income223.4 223.4 
Issuance of common stock awards to employees112,389    
Surrender of common stock awards(55,183)(4.5)(4.5)
Share-based compensation expense12.9 12.9 
Share-based compensation issued to directors6,305 0.5 0.5 
Issuance of awards previously classified as liability awards39,204 4.0 4.0 
Dividends Declared ($2.16 per share)
(62.8)(62.8)
Common stock repurchase(1,502,634)(137.6)(137.6)
Net change in cash flow hedges, net of tax40.8 40.8 
BALANCE—January 1, 202333,429,557 $0.3 $228.8 $513.1 (5,123,075)$(289.3)$40.6 $493.5 
Net income243.7 243.7 
Issuance of common stock awards to employees151,606    
Surrender of common stock awards(54,802)(6.6)(6.6)
Share-based compensa