Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Idexx Laboratories
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$222.17 86 $19,120
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-30 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-06-30 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-03-31 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-30 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-06-30 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-03-31 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2019-03-14 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-01 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-01 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-01 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-13 Officers
8-K 2018-05-09 Officers, Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-02-14 Officers
8-K 2018-02-01 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-05 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
LMT Lockheed Martin 87,610
NTES Netease 34,900
NICE Nice 7,990
EPAY Bottomline Technologies 2,060
VLRX Valeritas Holdings 32
CBLI Cleveland Biolabs 17
PAH Platform Specialty Products 0
KERX Keryx Biopharmaceuticals 0
FVTI Fortune Valley Treasures 0
WEYL Weyland Tech 0
IDXX 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for The Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
Note 1. Nature of Business, Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3. Revenue Recognition
Note 4. Acquisitions and Investments
Note 5. Share-Based Compensation
Note 6. Marketable Securities
Note 7. Inventories
Note 8. Property and Equipment, Net
Note 9. Other Current and Long-Term Assets
Note 10. Goodwill and Intangible Assets, Net
Note 11. Accrued Liabilities and Other Long-Term Liabilities
Note 12. Debt
Note 13. Income Taxes
Note 14. Earnings per Share
Note 15. Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees
Note 16. Segment Reporting
Note 17. Fair Value Measurements
Note 18. Hedging Instruments
Note 19. Repurchases of Common Stock
Note 20. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income
Note 21. Preferred Stock
Note 22. Idexx Retirement and Incentive Savings Plan
Note 23. Summary of Quarterly Data (Unaudited)
EX-10.24 exhibit1024.htm
EX-10.25 exhibit1025.htm
EX-10.26 exhibit1026.htm
EX-10.27 exhibit1027.htm
EX-10.28 exhibit1028.htm
EX-21 exhibit21.htm
EX-23 exhibit23.htm
EX-31.1 exhibit311.htm
EX-31.2 exhibit312.htm
EX-32.1 exhibit321.htm
EX-32.2 exhibit322.htm

Idexx Laboratories Earnings 2018-12-31

IDXX 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 idxx201810k.htm 10-K Document


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
 
(Mark One)
T
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
or
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
For the transition period from _______________ to _______________.
COMMISSION FILE NUMBER: 0-19271
idxx-20171231x10kg001.jpg
IDEXX LABORATORIES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
DELAWARE
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation
or organization)
01-0393723
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
ONE IDEXX DRIVE, WESTBROOK, MAINE
(Address of principal executive offices)
04092
(ZIP Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:  207-556-0300
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.10 par value per share
NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes ý No ☐ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý  No ☐
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
ý
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No ý
Based on the closing sale price on June 30, 2018 of the registrant’s Common Stock, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market, the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $18,703,045,028. For these purposes, the registrant considers its directors and executive officers to be its only affiliates.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock was 86,006,526 on February 12, 2019.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III—Specifically identified portions of the Company’s definitive Proxy Statement to be filed in connection with the Company’s 2019 annual meeting of stockholders (the “2019 Annual Meeting”), to be held on May 8, 2019, are incorporated herein by reference.




GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND SELECTED ABBREVIATIONS
Term/Abbreviation
 
Definition
 
 
 
2015 Amended Agreement
 
Amended and Restated Multi-Currency Note Purchase and Private Shelf Agreement executed in June 2015
AOCI
 
Accumulated other comprehensive income or loss
ASC
 
Accounting Standards Codification
ASU 2014-09
 
Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), also referred to as the “New Revenue Standard”
ASU 2016-02
 
ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842); also referred to as the "New Leasing Standard"
ASU 2016-09
 
ASU 2016-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting
CAG
 
Companion Animal Group, a reporting segment that provides veterinarians diagnostic products and services and information management solutions that enhance the health and well-being of pets
cGMP
 
The FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practice regulations
Credit Facility
 
Our $850 million five-year unsecured revolving credit facility under an amended and restated credit agreement that was executed in December 2015, also referred to as line of credit
EMA
 
Extended maintenance agreements
EPA
 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPS
 
Earnings per share, if not specifically stated, EPS refers to earnings per share on a diluted basis
EU
 
European Union
FASB
 
U.S. Financial Accounting Standards Board
FDA
 
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
FeLV
 
Feline leukemia virus
FIV
 
Feline immunodeficiency virus, similar to the virus that leads to AIDS in humans
Instrument rebate programs
 
Our customer instrument rebate programs, previously referred to as IDEXX Instrument Marketing Programs, which require an instrument purchase and provide customers the opportunity to earn future rebates based on the volume of products and services they purchase over the term of the program
IVLS
 
IDEXX VetLab Station, connects and integrates the diagnostic information from all the IDEXX VetLab analyzers and thus provides reference laboratory information management system capability
Kits and consumables
 
Rapid assay kits and IDEXX VetLab consumables
LPD
 
Livestock, Poultry and Dairy, a reporting segment that provides diagnostic products and services for livestock and poultry health and ensures the quality and safety of milk and improve dairy efficiency
Moss
 
Moss Inc., a supplier of certain components used in our SNAP products and certain livestock and poultry testing kits
OCI
 
Other comprehensive income or loss
OPTI Medical
 
OPTI Medical Systems, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of IDEXX Laboratories Inc., located in Roswell, Georgia. This business manufactures and supplies blood gas analyzers and consumables worldwide for the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market. The Roswell facility also manufactures electrolytes slides (instrument consumables) to run Catalyst One®, Catalyst Dx®, and blood gas analyzers and consumables for the veterinary market, and is also referred to as OPTI.
Organic revenue growth
 
A non-GAAP financial measure that represents the percentage change in revenue, as compared to the same period for the prior year, net of the effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, business acquisitions and divestitures. Organic revenue growth should be considered in addition to, and not as a replacement for or as a superior measure to, revenues reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
Ortho
 
Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Inc., a supplier of dry slide consumables used in our Catalyst One and Catalyst Dx Chemistry Analyzers and VetTest Chemistry Analyzer
Up-Front customer loyalty programs
 
Our up-front loyalty programs provides customers with incentives in the form of cash payments or IDEXX Points upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of future products or services
PACS
 
Picture archiving and communication software, our software solution for accessing, storing, and sharing diagnostic images
R&D
 
Research and Development
Reagent rentals
 
Instruments being placed at customer sites at little or no cost in exchange for a long-term customer commitment to purchase instrument consumables
Reported revenue growth
 
The percentage change in revenue reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP, as compared to the same period in the prior year
S&P
 
Standard & Poor’s

2



S&P 500 Health Care Index
 
The index for the S&P 500 Health Care (U.S. companies) measures the performance of companies that are classified as members in the Global Industry Classification Standard of health care services sub-industry
S&P 500 Index
 
The S&P 500 Index is a U.S. stock market index based on the market capitalization of 500 large companies having common stock listed on the New York Stock Exchange or NASDAQ, including IDEXX
SaaS
 
Software-as-a-service
SDMA
 
Symmetrical dimethyl arginine, a biomarker that detects kidney disease
SEC
 
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
Senior Note Agreements
 
Note purchase agreements for the private placement senior notes having an aggregate principal amount of approximately $600 million, referred to as senior notes and long-term debt
T4
 
Thyroxine, a hormone produced by the thyroid gland, tested to indicate thyroid health
2017 Tax Act
 
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted on December 22, 2017, which includes significant changes to the U.S. corporate tax system
U.S. GAAP
 
Accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America
USDA
 
United States Department of Agriculture
Volume commitment programs
 
Programs that provide customers with a free or discounted instrument or system upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of products and services, such as our IDEXX 360 program.
Water
 
Water, a reporting segment that provides water microbiology testing products


3



IDEXX LABORATORIES, INC.
Annual Report on Form 10-K
Table of Contents

Item No.
 
Page No.

 
 

PART I
 

 
 

PART II
 

 
 

PART III
 

 

PART IV
 

 

 
 
 


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The terms “IDEXX,” “Company,” “registrant,” “we,” “us,” and “our” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K mean IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. and all subsidiaries that are consolidated under U.S. GAAP.

We have included certain terms and abbreviations used throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K in the "Glossary of Terms and Selected Abbreviations.” 

Our name, logo and the following terms used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are either registered trademarks or trademarks of IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries: 4Dx®, Animana® Veterinary Software, Catalyst Dx®, Catalyst One®, Coag Dx,  Colilert®,  Colisure®,  Cornerstone®,  DVMAX®,  Enterolert®,  Feline Triple®,  Filta-Max®,  Filta-Max xpress®,  IDEXX I-Vision CR®,  IDEXX I-Vision DR®,  IDEXX I-Vision Mobile,  IDEXX ImageBank  , IDEXX Neo®, IDEXX-PACS, IDEXX SDMA®, IDEXX VetLab®,  IDEXX VPM,  LaserCyte®, LaserCyte® Dx, OPTI®,  PetChek®,  PetDetect®,  Pet Health Network®, Petly® Plans, Practice Profile,  ProCyte Dx®,  Pseudalert®,  Quanti-Tray®, rVetLink®, SediVue Dx®, IDEXX SmartService, Smart Flow, SNAP®,  SNAPduo®,  SNAP Pro®, SNAP® cPL, SNAP® fPL,  SNAPshot Dx®, IDEXX VetAutoread,  VetConnect®, IDEXX VetLab®  UA, VetLINK®,  VetLyte®,  VetStat®,  VetTest® and VetVault®. VetAutoread is a trademark of QBC Diagnostics.
໿



CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, contains statements which, to the extent they are not statements of historical fact, constitute “forward-looking statements.” Such forward-looking statements about our business and expectations within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), include statements relating to future revenue growth rates, future tax benefits; business trends, earnings and other measures of financial performance;  the effect of economic downturns on our business performance; projected impact of foreign currency exchange rates; demand for our products; realizability of assets; future cash flow and uses of cash; future repurchases of common stock; future levels of indebtedness and capital spending; interest expense; warranty expense; share-based compensation expense; the adoption and projected impact of new accounting standards; future commercial efforts; future product launches; and competition. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as “expects,” “may,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “would,” “will,” “plans,” “believes,” “estimates,” “should,” “project,” and similar words and expressions. These forward-looking statements are intended to provide our current expectations or forecasts of future events, are based on current estimates, projections, beliefs, and assumptions, and are not guarantees of future performance. Actual events or results may differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties as more fully described under the heading “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any forward-looking statements represent our estimates only as of the day this Annual Report on Form 10-K was first filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and should not be relied upon as representing our estimates as of any subsequent date. From time to time, oral or written forward-looking statements may also be included in other materials released to the public and they are subject to the risks and uncertainties described or cross-referenced in this section. While we may elect to update forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we specifically disclaim any obligation to do so, even if our estimates or expectations change.

5



PART I
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS

COMPANY OVERVIEW

IDEXX was incorporated in Delaware in 1983. We develop, manufacture, and distribute products and provide services primarily for the companion animal veterinary, livestock and poultry, dairy and water testing markets. We also sell a line of portable electrolytes and blood gas analyzers for the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market. Our primary products and services are:

Point-of-care veterinary diagnostic products, comprised of instruments, consumables, and rapid assay test kits;
Veterinary reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services;
Practice management and diagnostic imaging systems and services used by veterinaries;
Health monitoring, biological materials testing, laboratory diagnostic instruments, and services used by the biomedical research community;
Diagnostic, health-monitoring products for livestock, poultry, and dairy;
Products that test water for certain microbiological contaminants; and
Point-of-care electrolytes and blood gas analyzers used in the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market.

Our purpose guides our strategy: to be a great company that creates exceptional long-term value for our customers, employees, and shareholders by enhancing the health and well-being of pets, people, and livestock.

DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS BY SEGMENT

idxx-20171231x10kg002a01.jpg
    
We operate primarily through three business segments: diagnostic and information technology-based products and services for the veterinary market, which we refer to as the Companion Animal Group (“CAG”); water quality products (“Water”); and diagnostic products and services for livestock and poultry health and to ensure the quality and safety of milk and food, and improve dairy efficiency, which we refer to as Livestock, Poultry and Dairy (“LPD”).  Our Other operating segment combines and presents products for the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market (“OPTI Medical”) with our out-licensing arrangements because they do not meet the quantitative or qualitative thresholds for reportable segments. 

The performance of our business is particularly subject to various risks that are associated with doing business internationally. For the year ended December 31, 2018, sales of products and services to customers outside the U.S. accounted for approximately 39% of our overall revenue. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors”, “Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and "Part II, Item 8, Note 16. Segment Reporting" to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information about our segments and revenue from customers outside of the U.S.

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cagimage1a04.jpg

We believe that the breadth of our full diagnostic solution, including novel products and services developed and made available only by IDEXX, as well as the seamless software integration of our offering provide a unique competitive advantage by giving veterinarians the tools and services to offer advanced veterinary medical care. We believe that with the use of our products and services, veterinary practices significantly improve the quality of veterinary care provided to their patients, increase staff efficiencies, and effectively communicate the value of this medical care to the pet owner. We believe that these capabilities, enabled by the use of IDEXX products and services, improve the financial health of the veterinary practice.

CAG Diagnostics 

We provide diagnostic capabilities that meet veterinarians’ diverse needs through a variety of modalities, including in-clinic diagnostic solutions and outside reference laboratory services. Regardless of modality utilized, veterinarians are provided with clinically relevant data which is integrated within our information management technologies. The result is a comprehensive view of patient diagnostic information that is easily accessible by both the veterinarian and pet owner.
Integrated Diagnostic Information Management
VetConnect PLUS is a cloud-based technology that enables veterinarians to access and analyze patients’ data from all of IDEXX’s diagnostic modalities. These integrated diagnostic results provide the veterinarian with a visualization of patient-specific testing results, allowing the veterinarian to easily see and trend diagnostic results, enabling greater medical insight and enhanced decision-making. In addition, VetConnect PLUS provides instant mobile or browser-based access to results, which can be printed or emailed to pet owners and other veterinarians. In this way, VetConnect PLUS can aid veterinarians and practice staff in engaging the pet owner in the patient’s care, which can support greater compliance with medical recommendations or preventive care protocols. Customers have activated VetConnect PLUS in over 80 countries.


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In-Clinic Diagnostic Solutions

Our in-clinic diagnostic solutions are comprised of our IDEXX VetLab suite of in-clinic chemistry, hematology, immunoassay, urinalysis, and coagulation analyzers, as well as associated proprietary consumable products that provide real-time reference lab quality diagnostic results. Our in-clinic diagnostic solutions also include a broad range of single-use, handheld IDEXX SNAP rapid assay test kits that provide quick, accurate, and convenient point-of-care diagnostic test results for a variety of companion animal diseases and health conditions.

The IDEXX VetLab suite includes several instrument systems, as well as associated proprietary consumable products, all of which are described below. Additionally, we offer extended maintenance agreements in connection with the sale of our instruments.

Blood and Urine Chemistry. We have three blood and urine chemistry analyzers that are used by veterinarians to measure levels of certain enzymes and other substances in blood or urine for monitoring health status and assisting in diagnosing physiologic conditions. We currently sell two of these chemistry analyzers, the Catalyst One Chemistry analyzer and the VetTest Chemistry analyzer. We previously sold the other chemistry analyzer, which is the Catalyst Dx Chemistry analyzer, and continue to support that product as part of the Catalyst platform. These three instruments use consumables manufactured for IDEXX by Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, Inc. (“Ortho”) based on Ortho’s dry slide technology. In addition, the Catalyst analyzers also use dry slide electrolyte consumables manufactured by IDEXX at our Roswell, Georgia facility, as well as certain slides that are manufactured at our Westbrook, Maine facility. Blood tests commonly run on these analyzers include glucose, alkaline phosphatase, ALT (alanine aminotransferase), albumin, calcium, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, and many others. Tests are sold individually and in prepackaged panels, called clips. All three analyzers also run a urine test called urine protein:creatinine ratio, which assists in the detection of renal disease. 

The Catalyst analyzers provide significantly improved throughput, ease of use and test menu relative to the VetTest analyzer (our original chemistry analyzer), including the ability to run electrolytes, phenobarbital, fructosamine, total thyroxine (“T4”), C-reactive protein, and SDMA, as part of one run. Key ease-of-use features include the ability to run a whole blood sample using an on-board centrifuge, the ability to run pre-packaged, multi-slide clips in addition to single chemistry slides and an automated metering system. These analyzers also enable automated dilutions, which is an ease-of-use feature both for certain blood chemistries and the test for urine protein:creatinine ratio. The Catalyst Dx analyzer allows a veterinarian to run multiple patient samples simultaneously and both the Catalyst Dx and Catalyst One analyzers run different sample types including whole blood, plasma, serum, and urine. In addition, the Catalyst Dx and Catalyst One analyzers run a test to measure phenobarbital levels in blood, allowing veterinarians to adjust anticonvulsant medication more quickly and efficiently. Our fructosamine test helps veterinarians to diagnose and manage canine and feline diabetes mellitus, helping to assess insulin treatments, and adjust insulin dosages. We launched our total T4 test globally for use on the Catalyst One and Catalyst Dx analyzers during 2015. T4 testing is essential to assessing and managing thyroid function and is an accepted standard for baseline testing for both sick pets and preventive care in senior pets. We launched the Catalyst SDMA Test globally in 2018, which allows our customers to use the Catalyst One and Catalyst Dx analyzers to screen for SDMA, an innovative proprietary test that detects the onset of canine and feline kidney disease months or years earlier than traditional methods. The Catalyst SDMA Test is also available in a combo kit with T4.

The Catalyst One analyzer, launched in November 2014, is engineered to deliver the same laboratory-quality results and real-time work flow as the Catalyst Dx analyzer. The Catalyst One analyzer currently offers all the same tests as the Catalyst Dx, including an expanded menu of 32 tests.

We also have two other chemistry analyzers, the VetLyte Electrolyte analyzer and the VetStat Electrolyte and Blood Gas analyzer. The VetStat analyzer runs single-use disposable cassettes that are manufactured by IDEXX at our Roswell, Georgia facility.

Sales of consumables to customers who use our chemistry analyzers provide the majority of our instrument consumables revenues from our installed base of IDEXX VetLab instruments.

Hematology. We sell four hematology analyzers that assess the cellular components of blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets (also called a complete blood count). These analyzers include the ProCyte Dx hematology analyzer, the first and only in-clinic analyzer to combine laser-flow cytometry, optical fluorescence, and laminar-flow impedance in its analysis; the LaserCyte Dx hematology analyzer, which uses laser-flow cytometry technology in their analysis; and the IDEXX VetAutoread hematology analyzer, our original hematology analyzer. In addition, the ProCyte Dx hematology analyzer, the LaserCyte Dx hematology analyzer, and the LaserCyte hematology analyzer each have the ability

8



to analyze the components of certain body fluids. We also sell the Coag Dx analyzer, which permits the detection and diagnosis of blood clotting disorders.
 
The ProCyte Dx analyzer, our premier hematology analyzer, provides significantly improved throughput and accuracy and more complete medical information relative to the LaserCyte, LaserCyte Dx and VetAutoread hematology analyzers. The ProCyte Dx analyzer provides up to 26 different blood parameters, including the ability to detect band neutrophils, nucleated red blood cells, and reticulocyte hemoglobin for a more complete picture of a patient’s health. The ProCyte Dx is validated for many animal species (canine, feline, equine, bovine, ferret, rabbit, gerbil, pig, guinea pig, mini pig, llama, alpaca, camel, sheep, goat, dolphin, and hamster). The LaserCyte and LaserCyte Dx analyzers are the only other point of care hematology analyzers in the veterinary market able to report absolute reticulocyte counts.

Immunoassay Testing Instruments. During 2014, we launched the SNAP Pro Analyzer, which automatically activates a SNAP test, properly times the run, and captures an image of the result. This device improves medical care by allowing veterinarians to share the test results with the pet owner on the SNAP Pro Analyzer screen, or via VetConnect PLUS. In addition, the SNAP Pro Analyzer improves staff efficiency and ensures that all SNAP test runs are captured and entered into the patient record for customer billing. In January 2017, we launched ProRead for the SNAP Pro Analyzer. ProRead is a software upgrade that enables the SNAP Pro Analyzer to interpret the test results.

With multiple-patient testing functionality, the SNAPshot Dx analyzer provides quantitative measurements of total T4, cortisol and bile acids to assist in the evaluation of thyroid, adrenal and liver function, respectively. The SNAPshot Dx analyzer also reads, interprets, and records the results of many IDEXX rapid assay SNAP tests, including our canine SNAP 4Dx Plus test, feline SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo test, canine SNAP cPL test, feline SNAP fPL test, and canine SNAP Heartworm RT test.

Urinalysis.  In April 2016, we launched the SediVue Dx urine sediment analyzer in North America. In the fourth quarter of 2016 we launched the SediVue Dx analyzer in the UK and Australia.  During the first half of 2017, we continued our international launch of the SediVue Dx analyzer to include other parts of Europe and New Zealand. We continued to further our international deployment of SediVue Dx in 2018. The SediVue Dx analyzer is designed to provide automated real-time results in a fraction of the time of manual microscope analysis. The SediVue Dx analyzer brings automation, speed and consistency to urinalysis, a traditionally laborious and variable process. Its leading-edge technology allows veterinary staff to perform an urine sediment analysis in approximately 3 minutes. The SediVue Dx analyzer uses proprietary image processing algorithms similar to facial recognition technology to identify clinically relevant particles found in urine and to capture high-contrast digital images that become part of the permanent patient record. The SediVue Dx analyzer leverages its algorithmic software and machine-learning, a type of artificial intelligence, to better identify abnormalities with each result generated, which we refer to as Neural Network 3.0. The IDEXX VetLab UA analyzer provides rapid, automated capture of semi-quantitative chemical urinalysis from IDEXX UA strips and is validated specifically for veterinary use.

IDEXX VetLab Station. The IDEXX VetLab Station (“IVLS”) connects and integrates the diagnostic information from all the IDEXX VetLab analyzers, and thus, provides reference laboratory information management system capability. IVLS securely connects to the Internet, and in this way, enables IDEXX to perform, through its SmartService Solutions wireless services, remote instrument service and software updates to IVLS and certain connected instruments. IVLS also sends all results created on connected instruments instantly to VetConnect PLUS. We sell IVLS as an integral component of the Catalyst One, Catalyst Dx, LaserCyte, LaserCyte Dx and ProCyte Dx analyzers, SNAP Pro Analyzer, SNAPshot Dx analyzer and also as a standalone hardware platform. The IVLS includes a touch screen user interface to simplify laboratory work flow, connect with a practice management system and send information to run the individual analyzers. IVLS also generates one integrated patient report incorporating all of the lab work generated by the IDEXX VetLab suite, stores, retrieves and analyzes historical patient diagnostics data, including SNAP test results, and sends and receives information from practice management systems, including the IDEXX Cornerstone system, as well as a wide variety of third-party systems. 

The SNAP rapid assays are single-use, handheld test kits that can work without the use of instrumentation, although many kits may also be read and recorded automatically by the SNAPshot Dx analyzer or activated and captured automatically by the SNAP Pro Analyzer and interpreted using ProRead, as discussed above. The principal SNAP rapid assay tests are as follows: 
Single-Use Canine Tests:
SNAP 4Dx Plus, which tests for the six vector-borne diseases; Lyme disease, Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys, and canine heartworm;
SNAP Heartworm RT, which tests for heartworm;

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SNAP Parvo, which tests for parvovirus, a virus causing life-threatening damage to the immune system and intestinal tract;
SNAP cPL, which tests for canine pancreatitis;
SNAP Giardia, which is a fecal test for soluble Giardia antigens, a common cause of waterborne infection; and
SNAP Lepto, which tests for leptospirosis, a life-threatening bacterial infection spread through contact with water or soil that has been contaminated by the urine of infected animals.

Sales of canine vector-borne disease tests, including SNAP 4Dx Plus and SNAP Heartworm RT, are greater in the first half of our fiscal year due to seasonality of disease testing in the veterinary practices in the Northern Hemisphere.  

Single-Use Feline Tests:
SNAP Feline Triple, which tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (“FIV”) (which is similar to the virus that leads to AIDS in humans), feline leukemia virus (“FeLV”) and feline heartworm;
SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo Test, which tests for FIV and FeLV;
SNAP fPL, which tests for feline pancreatitis;
SNAP Giardia, which is a fecal test for soluble Giardia antigens; and
SNAP Feline proBNP, which uses a cardiac biomarker (NT proBNP) to test for stretch and stress on the heart.

Outside Reference Laboratory Diagnostic and Consulting Services

We offer commercial reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services to veterinarians in many developed markets worldwide, including customers in the U.S., Europe, Canada, Australia, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, South Korea, and Brazil, through a network of 73 laboratories. We have reference laboratories in Memphis, Tennessee; Louisville, Kentucky and Leipzig, Germany that are strategically located near large logistics hubs of major air cargo carriers. Customers use our services by submitting samples by courier or overnight delivery to one of our facilities. Most test results have same-day or next-day turnaround times.

Our reference laboratories offer a large selection of tests and diagnostic panels to detect a number of disease states and other conditions in animals, including all tests that can be run in-clinic at the veterinary practice with our instruments or rapid assays. This menu of tests also includes a number of specialized and proprietary tests that we have developed that allow practitioners to diagnose increasingly relevant diseases and conditions in dogs and cats, including parasites, heart disease, allergies, pancreatitis, diabetes, and infectious diseases. Canine vector-borne disease testing volumes are greater in the first half of our fiscal year due to seasonality of disease testing in the veterinary practices in the Northern Hemisphere.  

In 2015, we launched the IDEXX SDMA test in North America, an innovative proprietary kidney test that detects the onset of canine and feline kidney disease months or years earlier than traditional methods. During 2016, we launched the IDEXX SDMA test in all of the major European countries and Australia, followed by a full international launch of the IDEXX SDMA test during the remainder of 2016.

In 2015, we also launched hookworm and roundworm antigen tests to all fecal panels that already included the whipworm antigen test. These intestinal parasite panels detect the presence of intestinal worms often undiagnosed by current methods, including finding them earlier in the infection cycle and therefore enabling earlier disease diagnosis and treatment intervention.

Additionally, we provide specialized veterinary consultation, telemedicine, and advisory services, including radiology, cardiology, internal medicine, and ultrasound consulting. These services enable veterinarians to obtain readings and interpretations of test results transmitted by telephone and over the Internet. 

Our diagnostic laboratory business also provides health monitoring and diagnostic testing services to biomedical research customers in North America, Europe, and Asia.

Veterinary Software, Services and Diagnostic Imaging Systems

Veterinary Software and Services.  We develop, market, and sell practice management systems, including hardware, software and services that run key functions of veterinary clinics, including managing patient electronic health records,

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scheduling (including for boarding and grooming), client communication, billing, and inventory management. Our principal practice management systems are Cornerstone, DVMAX, IDEXX Animana and IDEXX Neo. IDEXX Neo, available in North America, and IDEXX Animana, available in Europe, are cloud-based practice management systems. We also support several other practice management systems installed with our customers, including Better Choice, VPM, VetLINK, and BeeFree. Our practice management services include Payment Solutions, Data Backup & Recovery and PetDetect boarding collars.

With our Smart Flow cloud offering, which we acquired in the third quarter of 2018, we are able to improve overall patient management and workflow optimization through coordination and tracking of every step of a patient during a hospital stay. Smart Flow works in conjunction with major veterinary practice management systems, including Cornerstone, DVMAX, IDEXX Animana, IDEXX Neo, and certain third-party practice management systems.

In addition, we offer cloud-based client communication and preventive care plan management software designed to strengthen the relationship between the veterinarian and the pet owner. We commercially launched Pet Health Network Pro in 2013, which is a subscription-based cloud service that permits veterinarians to provide online communication and education to pet owners before, during and after each patient visit, thus strengthening the loyalty between a practice and its clients. Further, veterinarians can share VetConnect PLUS testing results directly with pet owners via Pet Health Network Pro. We also offer Pet Health Network 3D, an educational subscription-based service that replaces cumbersome plastic anatomy models with engaging, three-dimensional anatomical animations on a desktop or mobile device. In 2014, we acquired Petly Plans, a cloud-based software solution for veterinary practices to customize, manage, and monitor a range of monthly payment preventive care plans for their pet owner clients. Petly Plans complements the Pet Health Network suite of client marketing services by making it easier for practices to increase access to the best care and offer plans that spread the cost of that care, including examinations, vaccines, and diagnostics, over the course of the year. Certain of our services are compatible with non-IDEXX practice management systems.

With our acquisition of rVetLink in June 2017, we now also offer a comprehensive referral management solution for specialty care hospitals that streamlines the referral process between primary care and specialty care veterinarians. General practice veterinarians often refer patients to board-certified specialists for advanced care in areas such as cardiology, oncology, dermatology, ophthalmology, surgery, or internal medicine. rVetLink automates the time-consuming process of sharing medical records and images and sending notifications to facilitate generalist-specialist collaboration in the delivery of care. rVetLink’s cloud technology integrates with our other major specialty hospital management systems, including IDEXX Cornerstone Software and IDEXX DVMAX Software.

Diagnostic Imaging Systems.  Our diagnostic imaging systems capture radiographic images in digital form, replacing traditional x-ray film and the film development process, which generally requires the use of hazardous chemicals and darkrooms. We market and sell three diagnostic imaging systems primarily used in small animal veterinary applications: the IDEXX ImageVue DR50, the IDEXX ImageVue DR40, and the IDEXX ImageVue CR20.

Our newest radiography system, the IDEXX ImageVue DR50, was launched in June 2016 and enables low-dose radiation image capture without sacrificing clear, high-quality images, a component in reducing the risk posed by excess radiation exposure for veterinary professionals. The IDEXX ImageVue DR50 system also offers wireless capabilities for flexibility in patient positioning.

Our diagnostic imaging systems employ picture archiving and communication system (“PACS”) software called IDEXX-PACS, which facilitates radiographic image capture and review. IDEXX Web PACS is our cloud-based software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) offering for viewing, accessing, storing, and sharing multi-modality diagnostic images. IDEXX Web PACS is integrated with Cornerstone, IDEXX Neo and IDEXX VetConnect PLUS to provide centralized access to diagnostic imaging results alongside patient diagnostic results from any internet connected device. IDEXX Web PACS updates automatically and offers secure storage for an unlimited number of diagnostic images. The software features advanced radiology measurement tools as well as an interactive collaboration feature that allows veterinarians to collaborate and consult remotely with other practitioners.

IDEXX I-Vision Mobile is a software application that allows veterinarians with IDEXX digital radiography systems the ability to request, view and send images using an iPad®  or an Android mobile tablet. This application integrates with our IDEXX-PACS software. 


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Our principal products are the Colilert, Colilert-18, and Colisure tests, which detect the presence of total coliforms and E. coli in water. These organisms are broadly used as microbial indicators for potential fecal contamination in water. Our products utilize nutrient-indicators that produce a change in color or fluorescence when metabolized by target microbes in the sample. Our water tests are used by government laboratories, water utilities and private certified laboratories to test drinking water in compliance with regulatory standards, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) standards. The tests also are used in evaluating water used in production processes (for example, in beverage and pharmaceutical applications) and in evaluating bottled water, recreational water, wastewater, and water from private wells.

Our Enterolert products detect the presence of enterococci in drinking, waste, and recreational waters. Enterococci, bacteria normally found in human and animal waste, are organisms broadly used as microbial indicators for potential fecal contamination in water. Our Pseudalert products detect the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in pool, spa, and bottled water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen that can cause “hot-tub rash,” “swimmer’s ear”, and potentially fatal infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.  Our Filta-Max and Filta-Max xpress products are used in the detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are parasites that can cause potentially fatal gastrointestinal illness if ingested. We also distribute certain water testing kits manufactured by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. that complement our Cryptosporidium and Giardia testing products.

In July 2016, we launched Legiolert, a simple culture method test for the detection of Legionella pneumophila, the most common Legionella species in water, and the primary cause of Legionnaires’ disease. The Legiolert test is designed to be used on potable or non-potable water sources with results in seven days.

Our Quanti-Tray products, when used in conjunction with our Colilert, Colilert-18, Colisure, Enterolert, Pseudalert, Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) or Legiolert products, provide users quantitative measurements of microbial contamination rather than a presence/absence indication. In 2015, we launched the Quanti-Tray Sealer PLUS, a next generation instrument of the previously available Quanti-Tray Sealer 2X. These instruments are used with the Quanti-Tray products for the determination of bacterial density in water samples. Our SimPlate for HPC product detects the total number of the most common bacteria in a water sample.

We also sell consumables, parts, and accessories to be used with many of our water testing products.

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We sell diagnostic tests, services and related instrumentation that are used to manage the health status of livestock and poultry, to improve dairy efficiency, and to ensure the quality and safety of milk and food. Our livestock and poultry diagnostic products are purchased by government and private laboratories that provide testing services to livestock veterinarians, producers, and processors. Our herd health screening services are offered to livestock veterinarians and producers. Our principal livestock and poultry diagnostic products include tests for Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (“BVDV”) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (“PRRS”). BVDV is a common and contagious viral infection that suppresses the immune system, making the animal susceptible to a host of other infections, impacting beef and dairy production yields as a result. PRRS is a contagious virus causing reproductive problems and respiratory diseases in swine, leading to increased piglet mortality, reduced growth, and vulnerability to secondary infections.

Our principal dairy products use our SNAP test platform and are used by dairy producers and processors worldwide to detect antibiotic drug residue in milk. Our primary product lines are SNAP Beta-Lactam ST and SNAPduo Beta-Tetra ST, which detect certain beta lactam and tetracycline antibiotic residues. We also sell SNAP tests for the detection of certain other contaminants in milk, such as Aflatoxin M1. 

In June 2016, we launched the Rapid Visual Pregnancy Test for cattle, which is a point-of-care test that can detect pregnancy 28 days after breeding. This test provides a quick and accurate identifier using whole blood samples that enables veterinarians to optimize value-added medical consulting services while on farm visits.

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OTHER

OPTI Medical

Through OPTI Medical, we sell point-of-care analyzers and related consumables for use in human medical hospitals and clinics to measure electrolytes, blood gases, acid-base balance, glucose, lactate, blood urea nitrogen and ionized calcium, and to calculate other parameters such as base excess and anion gap. These OPTI analyzers are used primarily in emergency rooms, operating rooms, cardiac monitoring areas and other locations where time-critical diagnostic testing is performed within the hospital setting. Our latest generation OPTI CCA-TS2 Blood Gas and Electrolyte analyzer, which launched in 2013, contains many new features relative to previous generation blood gas analyzers including customized work flows, faster time to result, improved communication, and a multi-level electronic control. Similar to our earlier generation OPTI CCA and OPTI Touch Electrolyte analyzers, the OPTI CCA-TS2 runs whole blood, plasma, and serum samples on single-use disposable cassettes that contain various configurations of analytes.

Other Activities

We own certain drug delivery technology intellectual property, that we continue to seek to commercialize through agreements with third parties, such as pharmaceutical companies, that are included in the Other segment.

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION

We market, sell, and service our products worldwide through our marketing, customer service, sales, and technical service groups, as well as through independent distributors and other resellers. We maintain sales offices outside the U.S. in all major regions including Africa, Asia Pacific, Canada, Europe, Middle East, and Latin America.

Generally, we select the appropriate distribution channel for our products based on the type of product, technical service requirements, number and concentration of customers, regulatory requirements, and other factors. We market our companion animal diagnostic products to veterinarians directly in the U.S. Outside the U.S., we sell our companion animal diagnostic products through our direct sales force and, in certain countries, through distributors and other resellers. We sell our veterinary reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services worldwide, generally through our direct sales force. We market our diagnostic imaging products primarily through our direct sales force in the U.S. and Canada. We market our software products primarily through our direct sales force in the U.S., Canada, Europe, and Australia. We market our Water and LPD products primarily through our direct sales force in the U.S. and Canada. Outside the U.S. and Canada, we market these products through our direct sales force and, in certain countries, through selected independent distributors. We sell our OPTI electrolyte and blood gas analyzers both directly and through independent human medical product distributors in the U.S. and we sell most of the related consumables through the distribution channel. Outside the U.S., we sell our OPTI products primarily through distributors and other resellers.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Our business includes the development and introduction of new products and services and may involve entry into new business areas. We maintain active research and development programs in each of our business segments. Our research and development expenses, which consist of salaries, employee benefits, materials and external consulting and development costs, were $117.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, or 5.3% of our consolidated revenue, $109.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, or 5.5% of our consolidated revenue and $101.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, or 5.7% of our consolidated revenue.

PATENTS AND LICENSES

We actively seek to obtain patent protection in the U.S. and other countries for inventions covering our products and technologies. We also license patents and technologies from third parties. Patents and licenses of patents and technologies from third parties are considered important to the Company based on a variety of factors, including providing protection for the Company’s inventions and other proprietary intellectual property, affording protection from competitors in certain markets, enabling the use of more effective and efficient technologies in the development and production of our products and offerings, strengthening our reputation and standing among customers, employees and key suppliers, and acting as a deterrent against counterfeiters, imitators and other copiers of technologies. 

    

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Important patents and licenses include:

An exclusive license from Tulane University to patents that expire beginning in 2019 and continue into 2020 relating to reagents for the detection of Lyme disease utilized in certain of our SNAP products and a reference laboratory diagnostic test;
An exclusive license from Cornell University to patents covering methods for detecting BVDV that started to expire in 2017 and will continue into 2022;
Patents relating to reagents and methods for the detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum utilized in certain of our SNAP products that started to expire in 2017 and will continue into 2022;
Patents relating to reagents and methods for the detection of Ehrlichia canis utilized in certain of our SNAP products that expire beginning in 2019 and continuing into 2022;
A patent concerning LaserCyte consumables that expires in 2020;
Patents concerning Catalyst consumables that expire beginning in 2023 and continuing into 2029;
Patents concerning Catalyst instruments that expire beginning in 2026 and continuing into 2035;
Patents relating to reagents and methods for the detection of canine pancreatic lipase that expire in 2026; and
Patents relating to reagents and methods for the detection of SDMA that expire in 2029.

In addition, we have pending U.S. patent applications concerning reagents and methods for detecting SDMA. If such applications are granted, we expect the associated patents would have expirations ranging from 2036 to 2038.

While we consider these proprietary technology rights to be important to us, a range of factors help to mitigate the future effects of patent and license expiration on our results of operations and financial position. These factors include publications, including peer-reviewed third-party studies, that demonstrate the accuracy of our products; our brand strength and reputation in the marketplace; the breadth, quality and integration of our product offerings; our existing customer relationships and our customer support; our sales force; our online ordering platform that enables direct ordering of (including establishing automatic reorder schedules for) our consumables, tests and other products by our customers; the applicable regulatory approval status for certain products; our continued investments in innovative product improvements that often result in new technologies and/or additional patents; our investment in diagnostic innovations that results in new product offerings that often are patentable and that expand the test menu for our in-clinic instruments and/or reference laboratory business; and our significant know-how, scale and investments related to manufacturing processes of associated product offerings and certain supply arrangements for consumables that are compatible with our instruments. Although we have several patents and licenses of patents and technologies from third parties that expired during 2018, and are expected to expire in 2019 and beyond, the expiration of these patents, individually or in the aggregate, is not expected to have a material effect on the Company’s financial position or future operations. In addition, we already face notable competition in certain areas as other companies have been successful in bringing competitive products to market, despite the protections afforded by these proprietary technology rights.  

To the extent some of our products may now, or in the future, embody technologies protected by patents, copyrights, or trade secrets of others, we may be required to obtain licenses to such technologies in order to continue to sell our products. These licenses may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our failure to obtain any such licenses may delay or prevent the sale of certain new or existing products. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY

Many of the instruments that we sell are manufactured by third parties. We rely on third parties in our supply chain to supply us, and our direct suppliers, with certain important components, raw materials and consumables used in or with our products. In some cases, these third parties are sole or single source suppliers. From time to time, we seek to qualify alternative suppliers.

Instruments and consumables. Significant products supplied by sole and single source providers include certain Catalyst Dx and Catalyst One consumables (other than electrolyte consumables and the Fructosamine, T4, CRP, and SDMA slides), VetLyte consumables, LaserCyte and LaserCyte Dx consumables, VetTest, VetAutoread and ProCyte Dx analyzers and consumables, SediVue Dx urinalysis instrument and consumables, and components of our SNAP Pro Mobile Device.


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VetTest and certain Catalyst chemistry slides are supplied by Ortho under supply agreements that are currently set to expire in December of 2031. We are required to purchase all of our requirements for our current menu of VetTest and Catalyst chemistry slides from Ortho to the extent Ortho is able to supply those requirements. The agreements provide for pricing based on purchase volumes and a fixed annual inflationary adjustment. The agreements also prohibit Ortho from promoting and selling these chemistry slides in the veterinary market, excluding the EU, other than to IDEXX. 

We purchase other analyzers and consumables under supply agreements with terms extending through 2032, which in some cases may be extended at our option. We have minimum purchase obligations under some of these agreements, and our failure to satisfy these obligations may result in loss of some or all of our rights under these agreements. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

Other components. We purchase certain other products, raw materials, and components from sole and single source suppliers. These products include certain diagnostic imaging systems and certain components used in our SNAP rapid assay and dairy devices, livestock, and poultry testing kits and water testing products.

Certain components incorporated into our SNAP products and certain livestock and poultry testing kits are supplied by Moss, Inc. (“Moss”) under a supply agreement that either party may terminate with 24 months prior written notice. Pursuant to the terms of the supply agreement, Moss has escrowed its manufacturing information relating to the components, which may be released to us upon certain triggering events that would render Moss incapable of supplying the components to us. If such a triggering event occurs, we will make royalty payments to Moss for the use of such information until Moss is able to again begin manufacturing. 

We have been successful in ensuring an uninterrupted supply of products purchased from sole and single source suppliers. However, there can be no assurance that uninterrupted supply can be maintained if these agreements terminate for any reason or our suppliers otherwise are unable to satisfy our requirements for products. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

BACKLOG

We do not generally maintain a significant backlog of orders and believe that our backlog at any particular date historically has not been indicative of future sales.

COMPETITION

We compete with many companies ranging from large human and animal health pharmaceutical and medical diagnostics companies to small businesses focused on animal health. Our companion animal veterinary diagnostic products and services compete with both reference laboratory service and in-clinic product providers. Our competitors vary in our different markets. In some markets, academic institutions, governmental agencies, and other public and private research organizations conduct research activities and may commercialize products or services which could compete with our products, on their own or through joint ventures. Several of our direct and potential competitors have substantially greater capital, manufacturing, marketing, and research and development resources than we do.

Competitive factors in our different business areas are detailed below:

Companion animal diagnostic offerings. We compete primarily on the basis of ease of use and speed of our products, diagnostic accuracy, product quality, breadth of our product line and services, unique product innovations, fully integrated technology, information management capability, availability of medical consultation, effectiveness of our sales and distribution channels, quality of our technical and customer service, and our pricing relative to the value of our products and services in comparison with competitive products and services. Our major competitors in most geographic locations in North America are Antech Diagnostics, a unit of VCA Inc., a division of Mars Inc.; Zoetis Inc. (including its wholly-owned subsidiary Abaxis, Inc.); Heska Corporation; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., and FUJIFILM North America Corporation.  We also compete in certain international markets with Zoetis, Fujifilm Holdings Corporation, Samsung Electronics, Arkray, Inc., and BioNote, Inc.
Water, livestock, poultry, and dairy testing products. We compete primarily on the basis of the ease of use, speed, accuracy, product quality and other performance characteristics of our products and services (including unique tests), the breadth of our product line and services, the effectiveness of our sales and distribution channels, the quality of our technical and customer service, our ability to receive regulatory approvals from governing agencies and our pricing relative to the value of our products in comparison with competitive products and services. Our

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competitors include highly focused smaller companies and multibillion-dollar companies with small livestock and poultry diagnostics and water testing solution franchises.
Veterinary Software, Services and Diagnostic Imaging Systems. We compete primarily on the basis of functionality, connectivity to equipment and other systems, performance characteristics, effectiveness of our implementation, training process and customer service, information handling capabilities, advances in technologies and our pricing relative to the value of our products and services. We sell these products primarily in North America and Europe. Our largest competitor in North America and the U.K. is Covetrus, Inc., which was formed by the merger of Henry Schein, Inc.'s animal health business and Direct Vet Marketing, Inc. (d/b/a Vets First Choice) in February 2019; we expect that following this merger, Covetrus will continue Henry Schein's animal health business, which offers several systems and leverages its animal health distribution business in sales and service. We also compete with numerous focused smaller companies throughout the markets in which we offer veterinary software, including those offering cloud-based solutions.
Electrolyte and blood gas analyzers for the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market. We compete primarily on the basis of the ease of use, menu, convenience, international distribution and service, instrument reliability, and our pricing relative to the value of our products. We compete primarily with large human medical diagnostics companies such as Radiometer A/S, Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics, Instrumentation Laboratory Company, Abbott Diagnostics, a division of Abbott Laboratories and Roche Diagnostics Corporation.

GOVERNMENT REGULATION

Many of our products are subject to comprehensive regulation by U.S. and foreign regulatory agencies that relate to, among other things, product approvals, registrations, manufacturing, import, export, distribution, marketing, and promotion, labeling, recordkeeping, testing, quality, storage, and product disposal. The following is a description of the principal regulations affecting our businesses.

Veterinary diagnostic products. Diagnostic tests kits for animal health infectious diseases, including most of our livestock and poultry products and our rapid assay products, are regulated in the U.S. by the Center for Veterinary Biologics within the United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (“APHIS”). These products must be approved by APHIS before they may be sold in the U.S. The APHIS regulatory approval process involves the submission of product performance data and manufacturing documentation. Following regulatory approval to market a product, APHIS requires that each lot of product be submitted for review before release to customers. In addition, APHIS requires special approval to market products where test results are used in part for government-mandated disease management programs. A number of foreign governments accept APHIS approval, including for the purpose of obtaining product registration, as part of their separate regulatory approvals. However, compliance with an extensive regulatory process is required in connection with importing and marketing diagnostic products in Japan, Germany, Canada, Brazil, the Netherlands, and many other countries. We are also required to have a facility license from APHIS to manufacture USDA-licensed products. We have a facility license for our manufacturing facility in Westbrook, Maine and our distribution center in Memphis, Tennessee. Our LPD manufacturing facility in Montpellier, France has been approved by APHIS and we have a permit to import products manufactured in Montpellier, France to the U.S. for distribution.

Our veterinary diagnostic instrument systems are veterinary medical devices regulated by the FDA under the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act (the “FDC Act”). While the sale of these products does not require premarket approval by the FDA and does not subject us to the FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practices regulations (“cGMP”), these products must not be adulterated, mislabeled, or misbranded under the FDC Act.

In the EU, our veterinary diagnostic instrument systems are not subject to regulation under the European Medical Device Directive or the In Vitro Diagnostic Directive, which are both strictly applicable to human use products. However, these systems are subject to the requirements of the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive, which applies to all electronic or electrical products capable of causing or being disturbed by electromagnetic interference and requires European Conformity marking on our analyzers. In addition, we anticipate our analyzers will be subject to the requirements of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive, or RoHS, which regulates and restricts certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, beginning in July 2019.

Water testing products. Our water tests are not subject to formal premarket regulatory approval. However, before a test can be used as part of a water quality monitoring program in the U.S. that is regulated by the EPA, the test must first be approved by the EPA. The EPA approval process involves submission of extensive product performance data in accordance with an EPA-approved protocol, evaluation of the data by the EPA and publication for public comment of any proposed approval in the Federal Register before final approval. Our Colilert, Colilert-18, Colisure, Quanti-Tray, Filta-Max xpress,

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Enterolert and SimPlate for heterotrophic plate counts products have been approved by the EPA for use under various regulatory programs. Water testing products are subject to similarly extensive regulatory processes in other countries around the world.

Dairy testing products. Dairy products used in National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (“NCIMS”) milk-monitoring programs in the U.S. are regulated by the FDA as veterinary medical devices. However, before products requiring FDA approval can be sold in the U.S., performance data must be submitted in accordance with an FDA-approved protocol administered by an independent body, such as the Association of Analytical Communities Research Institute (“AOAC RI”). Following approval of a product by the FDA, the product must also be approved by NCIMS, an oversight body that includes state, federal and industry representatives. Our SNAP Beta-Lactam antibiotic residue test product has been approved by the FDA, NCIMS and AOAC RI for sale in the U.S. While some foreign countries accept AOAC RI approval as part of their regulatory approval process, many countries have separate regulatory processes.

Human point-of-care electrolyte and blood gas analyzers. Our OPTI instrument systems are classified as Class I and/or Class II medical devices, and their design, manufacture and marketing are regulated by the FDA. Accordingly, we must comply with cGMP in the manufacture of our OPTI products. The FDA’s Quality System regulations further set forth standards for product design and manufacturing processes, require the maintenance of certain records and provide for inspections of our facilities by the FDA. New OPTI products fall into FDA classifications that require notification of and review by the FDA before marketing, and which are submitted as a 510(k) application. OPTI Medical products are also subject to the European Medical Device Directives and regulations governing the manufacture and marketing of medical devices in other countries in which they are sold.

The European Union regulates and restricts the use of certain substances that we currently use in our products or processes. These requirements include the Biocidal Products Regulation, which may require the use of approved biocides in our products prior to being used or sold in the European Union, the European Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances, or REACH, which regulates and restricts the use of certain chemicals in the European Union, and the Restriction of Hazardous Substance or RoHS, which regulates and restricts certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. Compliance with these regulations (and similar regulations that may be adopted elsewhere) may require registration of the applicable substances or the redesign or reformulation of our products.

In addition to the foregoing, our business is generally subject to various U.S. and foreign regulatory authorities, including the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (the “FTC”) and other anti-competition authorities, and we are also subject to anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, import and export laws and regulations, including U.S. import and export control and sanctions laws and laws and regulations governing the collection, use, retention, sharing and security of data. Any acquisitions of new products and technologies may subject us to additional areas of government regulation. These may involve medical device, water-quality and other regulations of the FDA, the EPA, the USDA, the FTC, and other federal agencies, as well as state, local and foreign governments. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

EMPLOYEES

As of February 6, 2019, we had approximately 8,377 employees.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

Our principal executive offices are located at One IDEXX Drive, Westbrook, Maine 04092, our telephone number is 207-556-0300, and our internet address is www.idexx.com. References to our website in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are inactive textual references only and the content of our website should not be deemed incorporated by reference for any purpose.

We make available free of charge at www.idexx.com our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such information with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, copies of our reports filed electronically with the SEC may be accessed at www.sec.gov.

Our Corporate Governance Guidelines and our Code of Ethics are also available on our website at www.idexx.com.

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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS

You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below in addition to the other information included or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in evaluating our company and our business. Our future operating results involve a number of risks and uncertainties and actual events or results may differ materially from those discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, the factors discussed below, as well as those factors discussed elsewhere herein. Any of these factors, in whole or in part, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and stock price. 

Because our business lines are highly attractive, they are also highly competitive. Our failure to successfully execute certain strategies within this competitive environment could have a material negative impact on our future growth and profitability
The companion animal healthcare industry is highly competitive, and we anticipate increasing levels of competition from both existing competitors and new market entrants given our performance and the market’s strong growth and returns. Our ability to maintain or enhance our growth rates and our profitability depends on our successful execution of many elements of our strategy, including:
Developing, manufacturing, and marketing innovative new or improved and cost competitive in-clinic laboratory analyzers that drive sales of IDEXX VetLab instruments, grow our installed base of instruments and increase demand for related recurring sales of consumable products, services, and accessories;
Developing and introducing new proprietary diagnostic tests and services for both our reference laboratories and in-clinic applications that provide valuable medical information to our customers and effectively differentiate our products and services from those of our competitors;
Increasing the value to our customers of our companion animal products and services by enhancing the integration of the information and transactions of these products and the management of diagnostic information derived from our products;
Maintaining premium pricing, including by effectively implementing price increases, for our differentiated products and services through, among other things, effective communication and promotion of the value of our products and services in an environment where many of our competitors promote, market and sell lesser offerings at prices lower than ours;
Providing our veterinary customers with the medical and business tools, information, and resources that enable them to grow their practices and the utilization of our diagnostic products and services, through increased pet visits and enhanced practice of real-time care;
Achieving cost improvements in our worldwide network of reference laboratories by implementing global best practices, including lean processing techniques, incorporating technological enhancements, including laboratory automation and a global laboratory information management system, employing purchasing strategies to maximize leverage of our global scale, increasing the leverage of existing infrastructure and consolidating testing in high volume laboratory hubs;
Achieving cost improvements in the manufacture and service of our in-clinic laboratory analyzers by employing the benefits of economies of scale in both negotiating supply contracts and leveraging manufacturing overhead, and by improving reliability of our instruments;
Continuing to expand, develop, and advance the productivity of our companion animal diagnostic sales, marketing, customer support and logistics organizations in the U.S. and international markets in support of, among other things, our all-direct sales strategies;
Attracting, developing, and retaining key leadership and talent necessary to support all elements of our strategy, which is challenging due to the increasingly competitive and tight labor markets in which we operate;  
Expanding our served market and growing our market share by strengthening our sales and marketing activities both within the U.S. and in geographies outside of the U.S.;  
Identifying, completing, and integrating acquisitions that enhance our existing businesses or create new business or geographic areas for us;
Developing and implementing new technology and licensing strategies; and
Continuing to effectively manage our growth and expansion on a global scale through, among other things, designing and implementing cost-effective improvements to our processes, procedures, and infrastructure.

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If we are unsuccessful in implementing and executing on some or all of these strategies, our rate of growth or profitability may be negatively impacted.

Our dependence on suppliers could limit our ability to sell certain products or negatively affect our operating results

We rely on third-party suppliers to provide components for our products, manufacture products that we do not manufacture ourselves and perform services that we do not provide ourselves, including package-delivery services. Because these suppliers are independent third parties with their own financial objectives, actions taken by them could have a materially negative effect on our results of operations. The risks of relying on suppliers include our inability to enter into contracts with such suppliers on reasonable terms, breach, or termination by suppliers of their contractual obligations, inconsistent or inadequate quality control, relocation of supplier facilities, disruption to suppliers’ business, including work stoppages, suppliers’ failure to comply with complex and changing regulations, and third-party financial failure. Any problems with our suppliers and associated disruptions to our supply chain could materially negatively impact our ability to supply the market, substantially decrease sales, lead to higher costs, or damage our reputation with our customers, and any longer-term disruptions could potentially result in the permanent loss of our customers, which could reduce our recurring revenues and long-term profitability. Disruption to our supply chain could occur as a result of any number of events, including, but not limited to, increases in wages that drive up prices; the imposition of regulations, trade protection measures, tariffs, duties, import/export restrictions, quotas or embargoes on key components; labor stoppages; transportation failures affecting the supply and shipment of materials and finished goods; the unavailability of raw materials; severe weather conditions; natural disasters; climate change-related events; civil unrest, war, terrorism or other geopolitical developments, including the United Kingdom’s June 2016 vote and formal notice in March 2017 to leave the European Union; computer viruses, physical or electronic breaches, or other information system disruptions or security breaches; and disruptions in utility and other services. For more information regarding the risks presented by natural and other disasters and system disruptions and security breaches from cyberattacks, see “Natural and other disasters, information technology system failures and network disruptions and cybersecurity breaches and attacks could adversely affect our business” below.

In addition, we currently purchase many products and materials from sole or single sources. Some of the products that we purchase from these sources are proprietary and, therefore, cannot be readily or easily replaced by alternative sources. These products include the majority of our Catalyst Dx and Catalyst One consumables; VetLyte electrolyte consumables; ProCyte Dx hematology, IDEXX VetAutoread hematology, and VetTest Chemistry analyzers and related consumables and accessories; SediVue Dx urine sediment analyzer and consumables; image capture plates used in our diagnostic imaging systems; and certain components and raw materials used in our SNAP rapid assay kits and SNAP Pro Mobile Device, Catalyst One, LaserCyte and LaserCyte Dx hematology analyzers, livestock and poultry diagnostic tests, dairy testing products, and water testing products. Even where products and materials are available from alternate suppliers, if any becomes unavailable to us for any reason we likely would incur additional costs and delays in identifying or qualifying replacement materials and there can be no assurance that replacements would be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. In certain cases, we may be required to obtain regulatory approval to use alternative suppliers, and this process of approval could delay production of our products or development of product candidates indefinitely.

We seek to mitigate risks associated with sole and single source suppliers, when possible, by entering into long-term contracts that provide for an uninterrupted supply of products at predictable or fixed prices. However, suppliers may decline to enter into long-term contracts for any number of reasons, which would require us to purchase products via short-term contracts or on a purchase order basis. There can be no assurance that suppliers with which we do not have long-term contracts will continue to supply our requirements for products, that suppliers with which we do have long-term contracts will always fulfill their obligations under those contracts, or that any of our suppliers will not experience disruptions in their ability to supply our requirements for products. In cases where we purchase sole and single source products or components under purchase orders, we are more susceptible to unanticipated cost increases or changes in other terms of supply. In addition, under some contracts with suppliers we have minimum purchase obligations, and our failure to satisfy those obligations may result in loss of some or all of our rights under these contracts or require us to compensate the supplier. If we are unable to obtain adequate quantities of products in the future from sole and single source suppliers, or if such sole and single source suppliers are unable to obtain the components or other materials required to manufacture the products, we may be unable to supply the market, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, and any longer-term disruptions could potentially result in the permanent loss of customers, which could reduce our recurring revenues and long-term profitability.

    

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Our biologic products are complex and difficult to manufacture, which could negatively affect our ability to supply the market 

Many of our rapid assay, livestock and poultry diagnostic, water and dairy products are biologic products, which are products that include materials from living organisms, such as antibodies, cells, and sera. Manufacturing biologic products is highly complex due to the inherent variability of biological input materials and the difficulty of controlling the interactions of these materials with other components of the products, samples, and the environment. There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain adequate sources of biological materials or that we will be able to consistently manufacture biologic products that satisfy applicable product release criteria and regulatory requirements. Further, products that meet release criteria at the time of manufacture may fall out of specification while in customer inventory, which could require us to incur expenses associated with recalling products and providing customers with new products, either of which could damage customer relations. Our inability to produce or obtain necessary biological materials or to successfully manufacture biologic products that incorporate such materials could result in our inability to supply the market with these products, which would have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Risks associated with doing business internationally could negatively affect our operating results

For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, approximately 39% of our revenue was attributable to sales of products and services to customers outside the U.S. Although we intend to continue to expand our international operations and business, we may not be able to successfully promote, market, import, export, sell or distribute our products and services outside the U.S. Various risks associated with foreign operations may impact our international sales, including, but not limited to, disruptions in transportation of our products or our supply chain; fluctuations in oil prices; increased border protection and restriction on travel; the differing product and service needs of foreign customers; difficulties in building, staffing and managing foreign operations (including a geographically dispersed workforce); differing protection of intellectual property; trade protection measures, quotas, embargoes, import/export restrictions, tariffs, duties, and regulatory and licensing requirements; natural and other disasters; ongoing instability or changes in a country’s or region’s regulatory, economic or political conditions, including as a result of the United Kingdom’s June 2016 vote and formal notice in March 2017 to leave the European Union; other unfavorable geopolitical conditions; security concerns; and local business and cultural factors that differ from our normal standards and practices, including business practices prohibited by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws and regulations.

Further, prices that we charge to foreign customers may be different than the prices we charge for the same products in the U.S. due to competitive, market or other factors, or changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Our results of operations are also susceptible to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. As a result, the mix of domestic and international sales in a particular period could have an adverse impact on our results of operations for that period.

Various U.S. and foreign government regulations could limit or delay our ability to market and sell our products or otherwise negatively impact our business

As a global business, we sell products and services in more than 175 countries and operate in an increasingly complex legal and regulatory environment. In the U.S., the manufacture and sale of certain of our products are regulated by agencies such as the USDA, the FDA, or the EPA. Our diagnostic tests for animal health applications that involve the detection of infectious diseases, including most rapid assay canine and feline SNAP tests and livestock and poultry diagnostic tests, must be approved by the USDA prior to sale in the U.S. Our dairy testing products as well as the manufacture and sale of our OPTI line of human point-of-care electrolytes and blood gas analyzers require approval by the FDA before they may be sold commercially in the U.S. Our water testing products must be approved by the EPA, as a part of a water quality monitoring program required by the EPA, before they can be used by customers in the U.S. Delays in obtaining regulatory approvals for new products or product upgrades could have a negative impact on our growth and profitability.

The manufacture, import, and sale of our products, as well as our research and development processes, are subject to similar and sometimes more stringent laws in many foreign countries. For example, the European Union regulates the use of certain substances that we currently use in our products or processes. These regulations include the Biocidal Products Regulation, which require approval for the use of certain biocides in our products prior to being manufactured, used, or sold in the European Union, the European Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances, or REACH, which regulates and restricts the use of certain chemicals in the European Union, and the Restriction of Hazardous Substances which regulates and restricts certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. Compliance with these regulations (and similar regulations that may be adopted elsewhere) may require registration of the applicable substances or the redesign or reformulation of our products and may reduce or eliminate the availability of certain parts and components used in our products and services in the event our suppliers are unable to comply with the applicable

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regulations in a timely and cost-effective manner. Any redesign or reformulation or restricted supply of parts and components may negatively affect the availability or performance of our products and services, add testing lead-times for products and reformulated products, reduce our margins, result in additional costs, or have other similar effects. In addition, the costs to comply with these regulations may be significant. Any of these could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations. These legal and regulatory requirements are complex and subject to change, and we continue to evaluate their impact.

In addition, some foreign governments require us to register our products, and these product registration requirements, which vary among the applicable jurisdictions and change from time to time, are often complex and require us to engage in lengthy and costly processes. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain or maintain any product registration required by one or more foreign governments. Any inability to obtain or maintain a required product registration in a jurisdiction could adversely affect our ability to market and sell the applicable product in that jurisdiction, which could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are also subject to a variety of federal, state, local, and international laws and regulations, as well as the associated legal and political environments, concerning, among other things, the importation and exportation of products; our business practices in the U.S. and abroad, such as anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, and anti-competition laws; and immigration and travel restrictions. These legal, regulatory, and political requirements and environments differ among jurisdictions around the world and are rapidly changing and increasingly complex. The costs associated with compliance with these legal and regulatory requirements and adjusting to changing legal and political environments are significant and likely to increase in the future.

Any failure by us to comply with applicable legal and regulatory requirements, or to adjust to changing legal and political environments, could result in fines, penalties, and sanctions; product recalls; suspensions or discontinuations of, or limitations or restrictions on, our ability to design, manufacture, market, import, export or sell our products; and damage to our reputation. Any of these could negatively impact our business.

Increased competition from and technological advances by our competitors could negatively affect our operating results

We face intense competition within the markets in which we sell our products and services, and we expect that future competition may become even more intense as new products, services and technologies become available and new competitors enter the market. Our competitors in the veterinary diagnostic market in the United States and abroad include companies that develop, manufacture, and sell veterinary diagnostic tests and commercial veterinary reference laboratories, certain large and well-funded animal health pharmaceutical companies, as well as corporate hospital chains that operate reference laboratories that serve both their hospitals and unaffiliated hospitals, such as VCA Inc. (formerly named VCA Antech, Inc.), which was acquired in 2017 by Mars, Incorporated, another operator of corporate hospital chains. While we believe that our reference laboratory service offerings are competitively differentiated due to our proprietary products and services, such as the IDEXX SDMA test and VetConnect Plus, there can be no assurance that increased consolidation and reference laboratory vertical integration among our customers would not have a negative impact on our ability to compete successfully. For more information regarding the risks presented by consolidation and reference laboratory vertical integration among our customers, see “Consolidation in our customer base, including through increased corporate hospital ownership, and prevalence of buying consortiums could negatively affect our business” below.

Competition could negatively affect our sales and profitability in a number of ways. New competitors may enter our markets through the development of innovative new technology, the acquisition of rights to use existing technologies or the use of existing technologies when patents protecting such existing technologies expire. New or existing competitors may introduce new, innovative, and competitive products and services, which could be superior, or be perceived by our customers to be superior, to our products and services or lead to the obsolescence of one or more of our products or services. While an important aspect of our strategy is to continue, on a cost-effective and timely basis, to enhance our existing products and services and to develop and introduce new and innovative products and services, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully develop such products and services or that those products or services will be superior to our competitors’ products or services or otherwise achieve market acceptance. Some of our competitors and potential competitors may choose to differentiate themselves by offering products and services perceived in the eyes of customers as similar, at substantially lower sales prices, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations through loss of market share or a decision to lower our own sales prices to remain competitive. In addition, our ability to attract and retain customers depends on the effectiveness of our customer marketing and incentive programs and multiple competitors could bundle product and service offerings through co-marketing or other arrangements, which could enhance their ability to compete with our broad product and service offering. Certain of our competitors and potential competitors, including large diagnostic and pharmaceutical companies, also

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have substantially greater financial and managerial resources than us, as well as greater experience in manufacturing, marketing, research and development, and obtaining regulatory approvals than we do.

Consolidation in our customer base, including through increased corporate hospital ownership, and prevalence of buying consortiums could negatively affect our business 

Veterinarians are our primary customers for our CAG products and services, and the veterinary services industry in the U.S. and abroad has been consolidating over time at an accelerating rate in recent years. In the United States, the number of owners of veterinary hospitals has been declining, and an increasing percentage of veterinary hospitals are owned by corporations that are in the business of acquiring veterinary hospitals and/or opening new veterinary hospitals nationally or regionally. Major corporate hospital owners in the U.S. include Mars, Incorporated (owner of Banfield Pet Hospitals, Blue Pearl Veterinary Partners, Pet Partners and VCA Inc.), and National Veterinary Associates, and are joined by dozens of smaller consolidators. A similar trend exists in other regions such as Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, and China. Furthermore, an increasing percentage of individually-owned veterinary hospitals in the U.S. are participating in buying consortiums. Corporate owners of veterinary hospitals and buying consortiums often seek to improve profitability by leveraging the buying power they derive from their scale to obtain favorable pricing from suppliers, which could have a negative impact on our profitability and results of operations. While we have strong supplier relationships with several corporate hospital groups and buying consortiums, decisions by larger corporate owners and buying consortiums to shift their purchasing of products and services away from us and to a competitor would have a negative impact on our results of operations. In addition, certain corporate owners also operate reference laboratories that serve both their hospitals and unaffiliated hospitals. Any hospitals acquired by these companies generally attempt to shift all or a large portion of their testing to the reference laboratories operated by these companies, and there can be no assurance that hospitals that otherwise become affiliated with these companies would not shift all or a portion of their testing to such reference laboratories. Furthermore, because these companies compete with us in the reference laboratory services marketplace, hospitals acquired by these companies or those that establish other affiliations with these companies may cease to be customers or potential customers of our other companion animal products and services, which would cause our sales of these products and services to decline.

Changes in testing patterns could negatively affect our operating results 

The market for our companion animal, livestock and poultry diagnostic tests and our dairy and water testing products could be negatively impacted by a number of factors impacting testing practices. The introduction or broad market acceptance of vaccines or preventatives for the diseases and conditions for which we sell diagnostic tests and services could result in a decline in testing. Changes in accepted medical protocols regarding the diagnosis of certain diseases and conditions could have a similar effect. Eradication or substantial declines in the prevalence of certain diseases also could lead to a decline in diagnostic testing for such diseases. Our livestock and poultry products business in particular is subject to fluctuations resulting from changes in disease prevalence. Changes in government regulations or in the availability of government funds available for monitoring programs could negatively affect sales of our products that are driven by compliance testing, such as our livestock and poultry, dairy and water products. In addition, changes and trends in local dairy, poultry, or other food markets around the world could negatively affect the related production markets resulting in a decline in demand for our testing products. Declines in testing for any reason, including the reasons described above, along with lost opportunities associated with a reduction in veterinary visits, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Our success is heavily dependent upon proprietary technologies  

We rely on a combination of patent, trade secret, trademark, and copyright laws to protect our proprietary rights. We also license patents and technologies from third parties to enable the use of third-party technologies in the development and production of our products and offerings. If we do not have adequate protection of our proprietary rights or are unable to license third-party patents and technologies on reasonable terms, our business may be affected by competitors who utilize substantially equivalent technologies that compete with us.

We cannot ensure that we will obtain issued patents, that any patents issued or licensed to us will remain valid, or that any patents owned or licensed by us will provide protection against competitors with similar technologies. Even if our patents cover products sold by our competitors, the time and expense of litigating to enforce our patent rights could be substantial and could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, expiration of patent rights could result in substantial new competition in the markets for products previously covered by those patent rights.

In the past, we have received notices claiming that our products infringe third-party patents and we may receive such notices in the future. Patent litigation is complex and expensive, and the outcome of patent litigation can be difficult to predict. We cannot ensure that we will win a patent litigation case or negotiate an acceptable resolution of such a case. If we lose, we

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may be prohibited from selling certain products and/or we may be required to pay damages and/or ongoing royalties as a result of the lawsuit. Any such result could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Natural and other disasters, information technology system failures and network disruptions and cybersecurity breaches and attacks could adversely affect our business

Our business and results of operations could be negatively affected by certain factors beyond our control, such as natural disasters and/or climate change-related events (such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, and floods); civil unrest; negative geopolitical conditions and developments; war, terrorism, or other man-made disasters; and information technology system failures, network disruptions and cybersecurity breaches and attacks. Any of these events could result in, among other things, damage to or the temporary closure of one or more of our manufacturing or distribution facilities or reference laboratories (damage to one of our facilities or the manufacturing equipment we use could be costly and may require substantial lead-time to repair or replace); damage to or closure of one or more facilities of our third-party business partners or suppliers on which we rely; a temporary lack of an adequate work force in one or more markets; an interruption in power supply; a temporary or long-term disruption in our supply chain (including a disruption to our ability to obtain critical components for the manufacture of our products); a temporary disruption in our ability to deliver (or delays in the delivery of) our products or services; and short- or long-term damage to our customers’ businesses (which would adversely impact customer demand for our products and services). For more information regarding the risks presented by disruption to our suppliers’ operations and supply chain, see “Our dependence on suppliers could limit our ability to sell certain products or negatively affect our operating results” above.

We manufacture many of our significant companion animal products, including our rapid assay devices and certain instruments, many of our water testing products and certain of our livestock, poultry, and dairy testing products, at a single facility in Westbrook, Maine. Certain of our companion animal products, as well as our human point-of-care products, are manufactured in Roswell, Georgia. We also manufacture certain of our livestock and poultry testing products in Bern, Switzerland and Montpellier, France. In addition, we maintain major distribution facilities in North America and in the Netherlands and major reference laboratories in Memphis, Tennessee; Ludwigsburg, Germany; Sacramento, California; Elmhurst, Illinois; North Grafton, Massachusetts; East Brisbane, Australia; Markham, Ontario; Wetherby, U.K.; Tokyo, Japan; and Leipzig, Germany. Interruption of operations at any of these facilities due to the occurrence of one or more of the events described above could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

We rely on several information systems throughout our company, as well as our third-party business partners’ and suppliers’ information systems, to provide access to our web-based products and services, keep financial records, analyze results of operations, process customer orders, manage inventory, process shipments to customers, store confidential or proprietary information and operate other critical functions. Although we employ system backup measures and engage in information system redundancy planning and processes, such measures, planning and processes, as well as our current disaster recovery plan, may be ineffective or inadequate to address all eventualities. Further, our information systems and our business partners’ and suppliers’ information systems may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers and other security breaches, including computer viruses and malware, through the internet (including via devices and applications connected to the internet), email attachments and persons with access to these information systems, such as our employees or third parties with whom we do business. As information systems and the use of software and related applications by us, our business partners, suppliers, and customers become more cloud-based and connected to the “Internet of Things,” there has been an increase in global cybersecurity vulnerabilities and threats, including more sophisticated and targeted cyber-related attacks that pose a risk to the security of our information systems and networks and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of data and information. We process credit card payments electronically over secure networks and also offer products and services that connect to and are part of the “Internet of Things,” such as our connected devices (e.g., IDEXX VetLab instruments). Any such attack or breach could compromise our networks and the information stored thereon could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost, or stolen. While we have implemented network security and internal control measures, especially for the purpose of protecting our connected products and services from cyberattacks, and invested in our data and information technology infrastructure, there can be no assurance that these efforts will prevent a system disruption, attack, or security breach and, as such, the risk of system disruptions and security breaches from a cyberattack remains.

If we or our business partners or suppliers were to experience a system disruption, attack or security breach that impacts any of our critical functions, or our customers were to experience a system disruption, attack or security breach via any of our connected products and services, it could result in a period of shutdown of information systems during which we (or our customers) may not be able to operate, the loss of sales and customers, financial misstatement, potential liability for damages to our customers, reputational damage and significant incremental costs, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and profitability. Furthermore, any access to, public disclosure of, or other loss of data or information (including any of our confidential or proprietary information or personal data or information) as a result of an attack or security breach could result in governmental actions or private claims or proceedings, which could damage our reputation, cause a loss of confidence

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in our products and services, damage our ability to develop (and protect our rights to) our proprietary technologies and adversely affect our business.

While we maintain plans to continue business under such circumstances, there can be no assurance that such plans will be successful in fully or partially mitigating the effects of such events. We also maintain property and business interruption insurance to insure against the financial impact of certain events of this nature. However, this insurance may be insufficient to compensate us for the full amount of any losses that we may incur. In addition, such insurance will not compensate us for the long-term competitive effects of being out of the market for the period of any interruption in operations.

Our operations and reputation may be impaired if we, our products, or our services do not comply with our Global Privacy Policy or evolving laws and regulations regarding data privacy and protection

When we collect and use personal data in our operations, we apply state of the art data management and security practices, and we post on our website a comprehensive Global Privacy Policy and Cookie Statement concerning the collection, use and disclosure of personal data. We only use the personal data that we collect as described in our Global Privacy Policy and customer agreements. Our Global Privacy Policy informs our customers, potential customers, vendors, pet owners, website visitors and any other current or potential IDEXX partner that we will not share their personal information with third parties unless required by law or as reasonably necessary with trusted third parties working for or with us to fulfill or administer orders or contracts made with IDEXX or to manage our relationship and marketing activities with the applicable customer.

We collect and use personal data in a variety of ways. We offer products and services that collect and use personal data provided by client practices and individuals, including practice management systems for veterinary practices, online client communication tools and services, VetConnect PLUS and two-way integration technology. Some of these products and services rely on third-party providers for cloud storage. We also engage in e-commerce through various websites and collect contact and other personal data from our customers and visitors to our websites. The privacy, security, retention, sharing and use of the personal data described above are subject to expanding and increasingly complex laws and regulations in the U.S. and abroad, some of which impose significant compliance obligations. Some of these laws and regulations apply broadly to the collection, use, storage, disclosure, sharing and security of personal data that identifies or may be used to identify an individual, such as names, contact information, and sensitive personal data. These laws and regulations are subject to frequent revisions and differing interpretations and have generally become more stringent over time. In many cases, the federal, state, and international laws described above apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between us and our subsidiaries, and among us, our subsidiaries, and other parties with which we have commercial relations. For example, we are subject to the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which became effective in May 2018. The GDPR imposes more stringent operational requirements for processors and controllers of personal data, including expanded disclosures about how personal information is to be used, limitations on retention of information and mandatory data breach notification requirements, and could subject us to increased liability for violations. Additionally, public perception and standards related to the privacy of personal data can shift rapidly, in ways that may affect our reputation or influence regulators in the U.S. and abroad to expand or adopt more stringent regulations and laws.

While we strive to comply with our posted Global Privacy Policy and contractual obligations, as well as all applicable privacy-related laws and regulations (including the GDPR), any failure or perceived failure by us, the third parties with whom we work or our products and services to so comply could result in damage to our reputation or legal proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business. In addition, concerns about our practices with regard to the collection, use, disclosure, or security of personal data or other privacy-related matters, even if unfounded and even if we are in compliance with applicable laws and regulations, could damage our reputation and harm our business.
    
In addition, the laws and regulations related to data privacy and protection continue to develop, are subject to differing interpretations and may be applied inconsistently from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and may be inconsistent with our current Global Privacy Policy and data protection practices. The costs associated with compliance with these evolving legal and regulatory requirements are significant and likely to increase in the future and as a result may cause us to incur substantial costs, require us to change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business or limit our ability to use and share personal data.

Strengthening of the rate of exchange for the U.S. dollar has a negative effect on our business

We are a global business, with 39% of our revenue during the year ended December 31, 2018, attributable to sales of products and services to customers outside of the U.S. Any strengthening of the rate of exchange for the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies, and in particular the euro, British pound, Canadian dollar, Chinese renminbi, Japanese yen, Australian dollar

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and Brazilian real, adversely affects our results, as it reduces the dollar value of sales and profits that are made in those currencies. The strengthening of the U.S. dollar has a greater adverse effect on the profits from products manufactured or sourced in U.S. dollars that are exported to international markets and a lesser effect on profits from foreign sourced products and services due to a natural hedge from international expenses denominated in the corresponding foreign currencies.

For the year ended December 31, 2018, approximately 22% of our consolidated revenue was derived from products manufactured or sourced in U.S. dollars and sold internationally in local currencies, as compared to 21% for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016. A strengthening U.S. dollar could also negatively impact the ability of customers outside the U.S. to pay for purchases denominated in U.S. dollars as well as affect our overall competitiveness in international markets. The accumulated impacts from any continued, longer-term growth in the value of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies may have a material adverse effect on our operating results. See “Part II, Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding currency impact.

Our foreign currency hedging activities (see "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 18. Hedging Instruments" in the accompanying Notes to the consolidated financial statements), which are designed to minimize and delay, but not to eliminate, the effects of foreign currency fluctuations, may not sufficiently offset the adverse financial effect of unfavorable movements in foreign exchange rates on our financial results over the limited time the hedges are in place. In addition, our hedging activities involve costs and risks, such as transactions costs and the risk that our hedging counterparties will default on their obligations.

We primarily hedge intercompany product purchases and sales denominated in the euro, British pound, Canadian dollar, Japanese yen, Australian dollar, and Swiss franc. Other foreign currency exposures related to foreign sourced services and emerging markets may not be practical to hedge. In certain cases, these exposures are not offset by foreign currency denominated costs. As we primarily use foreign currency exchange contracts with durations of less than 24 months and enter into contracts to hedge incremental portions of anticipated foreign currency transactions on a quarterly basis for the current and following year, the effectiveness of our foreign currency hedging activities to offset longer-term appreciation in the value of the U.S. dollar against non-U.S. currencies may be limited. Factors that could affect the effectiveness of our hedging activities include accuracy of sales and other forecasts, volatility of currency markets, and the cost and availability of hedging instruments. Since our hedging activities are designed to minimize volatility, they not only temporarily reduce the negative impact of a stronger U.S. dollar, but they also temporarily reduce the positive impact of a weaker U.S. dollar. Our future financial results could be significantly affected by a strengthening value of the U.S. dollar in relation to the foreign currencies in which we conduct business. The degree to which our financial results are affected for any given time period will depend in part upon our hedging activities.

A weak worldwide economy could result in reduced demand for our products and services or increased customer credit risk

A substantial percentage of our sales are made worldwide to the companion animal veterinary market. Demand for our companion animal diagnostic products and services is driven in part by the number of patient visits to veterinary hospitals and the practices of veterinarians with respect to the recommendations for diagnostic testing, as well as pet owner compliance with these recommendations. Pet owners generally pay cash out of pocket for health care services for their pets from veterinary practices. Economic weakness in our significant markets could cause pet owners to forgo or defer visits to veterinary hospitals or affect their willingness to approve certain diagnostic tests, comply with a treatment plan or, even more fundamentally, continue to own a pet. In addition, concerns about the financial resources of pet owners could cause veterinarians to be less likely to recommend certain diagnostic tests, and concerns about the economy may cause veterinarians to defer purchasing capital items such as our instruments and systems. These conditions, if they continue, could result in a decrease in sales or decrease in sales growth, of diagnostic products and services, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Demand for our water products is driven in part by the availability of funds at government laboratories, water utilities and private certified laboratories that utilize our products. Availability of funds also affects demand by government laboratories and cattle, swine and poultry producers that utilize our livestock and poultry diagnostic products, and by users of our human point-of-care diagnostic instruments. Economic weakness in our markets has caused and could continue to cause our customers to reduce their investment in such testing, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

In all of our markets, a weak economy may also cause deterioration in the financial condition of our distributors and customers, which could inhibit their ability to pay us amounts owed for products delivered or services provided in a timely fashion or at all.
    

26



We sell many products through distributors, which presents risks that could negatively affect our operating results

Some of our product sales in international markets occur through third-party distributors. As a result, we are dependent on these distributors to promote and create demand for our products. Our distributors often offer products from several different companies, and certain of our distributors may carry our competitors’ products and promote our competitors’ products over our own products. We have limited ability, if any, to cause our distributors to devote adequate resources to promoting, marketing, selling, and supporting our products or to maintain certain inventory levels, and changes in our distributors’ inventory levels, as compared to comparable prior periods, could negatively impact our revenue growth rates. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in maintaining and strengthening our relationships with our distributors or establishing relationships with new distributors who have the ability to market, sell and support our products effectively. We may rely on one or more key distributors for a product or a region, and the loss of these distributors could reduce our revenue. Distributors may face financial difficulties, including bankruptcy, which could harm our collection of accounts receivable and financial results. While we maintain a rigorous distribution compliance program, violations of anti-corruption or similar laws by our distributors could have a material impact on our business and reputation, and any termination of a distributor relationship may result in increased competition in the applicable jurisdiction. Failure to manage the risks associated with our use of distributors outside of the U.S. may reduce sales, increase expenses, and weaken our competitive position, any of which could have a negative effect on our operating results.

Future operating results could be negatively affected by changes in tax rates, the adoption of new U.S. or international tax legislation or exposure to additional tax liabilities

The nature of our international operations subjects us to local, state, regional and federal tax laws in jurisdictions around the world. Our future tax expense could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities or changes in tax laws or their interpretation. Additionally, tax rules governing cross-border activities are continually subject to modification as a result of both coordinated actions by governments and unilateral measures designed by individual countries, both intended to tackle concerns over base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) and perceived international tax avoidance techniques.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “2017 Tax Act”) was enacted in the U.S. on December 22, 2017 and includes significant changes to the U.S. federal corporate tax system. Effective January 1, 2018, the 2017 Tax Act reduced the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, and transitioned from a worldwide tax system to a territorial tax system. The 2017 Tax Act introduced new provisions including the Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”), Foreign Derived Intangible Income (“FDII”), Base Erosion Anti-Abuse Tax (“BEAT’), expanded bonus depreciation and changed deductions for executive compensation and interest expense. The U.S. Department of Treasury continues to issue regulations related to the 2017 Tax Act which may increase or decrease our tax liability in future periods. For example, in January 2019, the U.S. Department of Treasury issued final regulations related to the deemed repatriation tax. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 13. Income Taxes" in the accompanying Notes to the consolidated financial statements for more information regarding the impact of the 2017 Tax Act.

We have received tax rulings from various governments that have jurisdictional authority over our operations. If we are unable to meet the requirements of such agreements, or if they expire or are renewed on less favorable terms, the result could negatively impact our future earnings. Additionally, the European Commission has opened formal investigations into specific tax rulings granted by several countries to specific taxpayers. While we believe that our rulings in the Netherlands and Switzerland are different than those being discussed, the ultimate resolution of such activities cannot be predicted and could also have an adverse impact on future operating results.

Our income tax filings are regularly under audit by various tax authorities, and the final determination of tax audits could be materially different than that which is reflected in historical income tax provisions and accruals. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. We regularly assess our exposures related to our worldwide provision for income taxes to determine the adequacy of our provision for taxes. Any reduction in these contingent liabilities or additional assessments would increase or decrease income, respectively, in the period such determination is made.

Our limited experience and small scale in the human point-of-care market could inhibit our success in this market 

We have limited experience in the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market and we operate at a small scale in this market. This market differs in many respects from the veterinary diagnostic market. Significant differences include the impact of third-party reimbursement on diagnostic testing, more extensive regulation, greater product liability risks, larger

27



competitors, a more segmented customer base and more rapid technological innovation. Our limited experience and small scale in the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market could negatively affect our ability to successfully manage the risks and features of this market that differ from the veterinary diagnostic market. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in achieving growth and profitability in the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market comparable to the results we have achieved in the veterinary diagnostic market.

Restrictions in our debt agreements or our inability to obtain financing on favorable terms may limit our activities

Our ability to make scheduled payments and satisfy our other obligations under our Credit Facility and senior notes depends on our future operating performance and on economic, financial, competitive, and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flows to meet these obligations or generate sufficient levels of earnings to satisfy the applicable affirmative, negative, and financial covenants. Our failure to comply with these covenants and the other terms of the Credit Facility and senior notes could result in an event of default and acceleration of our obligations under these agreements, which may require us to seek additional financing or restructure existing debt on unfavorable terms. In addition, adverse changes in credit markets could increase our cost of borrowing and make it more difficult for us to obtain financing.

Our senior notes include provisions which stipulate a prepayment penalty for which we will be obligated in the event that we elect to repay the notes prior to their stated maturity dates. Should we elect to repay some or all of the outstanding principal balance on our senior notes, the prepayment penalty we incur could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.

We fund our operations, capital purchase requirements and strategic growth needs through cash on hand, funds generated from operations, amounts available under our Credit Facility and senior note financings. If we are unable to obtain financing on favorable terms, we could face restrictions that would limit our ability to execute certain strategies, which could have an adverse effect on our revenue growth and profitability.

Fluctuations in our quarterly or annual results may cause our stock price to decline

Our prior operating results have fluctuated due to a number of factors, including seasonality of certain product lines; changes in our accounting estimates; the impact of acquisitions; timing of distributor purchases product launches, operating expenditures, customer marketing and incentive programs; changes in foreign currency exchange rates; timing of regulatory approvals and licenses; litigation and claim-related expenditures; increase in the number and type of competitors; changes in competitors’ product offerings; changes in our sales and distribution model; changes in the economy affecting consumer spending; and other matters. Similarly, our future operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter or year to year due to these and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. If our operating results or projections of future operating results do not meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors in future periods, our stock price may fall.

The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile, and you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the price you paid

The trading price of our common stock may be volatile. Securities markets worldwide experience significant price and volume fluctuations. This market volatility, as well as other general economic, market or political conditions, could reduce the market price of our common stock in spite of our operating performance. The following factors, in addition to other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this Form 10-K, may have a significant impact on the market price of our common stock:
Changes in customer needs, expectations or trends and our ability to maintain relationships with key customers;
Our ability to implement our business strategy;
Our stock repurchase program;
Changes in our capital structure, including the issuance of additional debt;
Public announcements (including the timing of these announcements) regarding our business, financial performance and prospects or new products or services, product enhancements or technological advances by our competitors or us;

28



Trading activity in our stock, including portfolio transactions in our stock by us, our executive officers and directors, and significant stockholders or trading activity that results from the ordinary course rebalancing of stock indices in which we may be included, such as the S&P 500 Index;
Short-interest in our common stock, which could be significant from time to time;
Our inclusion in, or removal from, any stock indices;
Investor perception of us and the industry and markets in which we operate;
Changes in earnings estimates or buy/sell recommendations by securities analysts; 
Whether or not we meet earnings estimates of securities analysts who follow us; and
General financial, domestic, international, economic, and market conditions, including overall fluctuations in the U.S. equity markets.

In addition, broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance, and factors beyond our control may cause our stock price to decline rapidly and unexpectedly. Furthermore, the stock market has experienced extreme volatility that, in some cases, has been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

Not applicable.


29



ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES

Our worldwide headquarters is located on a company-owned, 65-acre site in Westbrook, Maine where we occupy a 647,000 square-foot building utilized for manufacturing, research and development, marketing, sales, and general and administrative support functions. We are currently in the process of expanding our headquarters by approximately 140,000 square feet, including a lease of the adjacent 20 acres for a parking lot and other infrastructure. This construction is expected to be complete at the end of 2019. We are also in the process of building a laboratory facility in Kornwestheim, Germany which is expected to be completed in 2020.

Additional property ownership and leasing arrangements with approximate square footage, purpose and location are as follows:

Additional Properties Owned:
34,200 square feet of laboratory space located in the U.S., used for our Reference Laboratory Diagnostic and Consulting Services line of business of CAG
24,800 square feet of office and laboratory space located in the U.K., used for our Reference Laboratory Diagnostic and Consulting Services line of business of CAG
3,100 square feet of laboratory space located in Canada, used for our Reference Laboratory Diagnostic and Consulting Services line of business of CAG    

Additional Properties Leased:
665,300 total square feet of laboratory, office and warehousing space located throughout the U.S., Europe, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Asia, and South Africa, primarily used for our Reference Laboratory Diagnostic and Consulting Services line of business of CAG
126,200 square feet of distribution, warehousing, and office space in the Netherlands, which serves as our European headquarters
114,400 square feet of industrial space in Tennessee for distribution and warehousing related to various lines of business
92,800 total square feet of office and manufacturing space in France, Switzerland, and Brazil related to our Livestock, Poultry and Dairy line of business
84,300 square feet of office, manufacturing and warehousing space in Georgia related to our CAG and OPTI Medical lines of business
65,000 square feet of office space in Maine for corporate, customer service, and information technology support services
50,300 square feet of office space in Wisconsin related to our Veterinary Software, Services and Diagnostic Imaging Systems line of business of CAG
8,100 square feet of manufacturing space in the U.K. related to our Water line of business
    
We believe that our owned and leased properties are generally in good condition, are well-maintained, and are generally suitable and adequate to carry on our business.

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Due to the nature of our activities, we are at times subject to pending and threatened legal actions that arise out of the ordinary course of business. In the opinion of management, based in part upon advice of legal counsel, the disposition of any such currently pending matters is not expected to have a material effect on our results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows. However, the results of legal actions cannot be predicted with certainty. Therefore, it is possible that our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows could be materially adversely affected in any particular period by the unfavorable resolution of one or more legal actions.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

30



PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

Our common stock is quoted on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol IDXX.

Holders of Common Stock

As of February 12, 2019, there were 432 holders of record of our common stock. Because the majority of our common stock is held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer

During the three months ended December 31, 2018, we repurchased shares of common stock as described below:

Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased
(a)
 
Average Price Paid per Share
(b)
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (1)
(c)
 
Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (1)
(d)

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
October 1, 2018 to October 31, 2018
 
364,975

 
$
216.77

 
364,975

 
3,337,367

November 1, 2018 to November 30, 2018
 
77,442

 
201.94

 
77,442

 
3,259,925

December 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018
 
48,388

 
185.86

 
47,071

 
3,212,854

Total
 
490,805

(2) 
$
211.38

 
489,488

 
3,212,854


(1) As of December 31, 2018, our Board of Directors had approved the repurchase of up to 68 million shares of our common stock in the open market or in negotiated transactions pursuant to the Company’s share repurchase program. The program was approved and announced on August 13, 1999, and the maximum number of shares that may be purchased under the program has been increased by the Board of Directors on numerous occasions; most recently, on May 2, 2017, the maximum level of shares that may be repurchased under the program was increased from 65 million to 68 million shares. There is no specified expiration date for this repurchase program. There were no other repurchase programs outstanding during the three months ended December 31, 2018, and no repurchase programs expired during the period. Repurchases of 489,488 shares were made during the three months ended December 31, 2018, in transactions made pursuant to our repurchase program.

(2) During the three months ended December 31, 2018, we received 1,317 shares of our common stock that were surrendered by employees in payment for the minimum required withholding taxes due on the vesting of restricted stock units and settlement of deferred stock units. In the above table, these shares are included in columns (a) and (b), but excluded from columns (c) and (d). These shares do not reduce the number of shares that may yet be purchased under the repurchase program.

During the year ended December 31, 2018, we repurchased 1,773,238 shares of our common stock in transactions made pursuant to our repurchase program and received 51,460 shares of common stock that were surrendered by employees in payment for the minimum required withholding taxes due on the vesting of restricted stock units and settlement of deferred stock units. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 19. Repurchases of Common Stock" to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.

Dividends

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. From time to time our Board of Directors may consider the declaration of a dividend. However, we have no intention to declare or pay a dividend at this time.


31



Stock Performance

This graph compares our total stockholder returns, the Total Return for the Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 Index, the Total Return for the S&P 500 Health Care Index, and the Total Return for the NASDAQ Stock Market Index (U.S. Companies) prepared by the Center for Research in Security Prices (the “NASDAQ Index”). This graph assumes the investment of $100 on December 31, 2013, in IDEXX’s common stock, the S&P 500 Index, the S&P 500 Health Care Index, and the NASDAQ Index and assumes dividends, if any, are reinvested. Measurement points are the last trading days of the years ended December 2013 to 2018.
a5yearreturna03.jpg 

 
12/31/2013
 
12/31/2014
 
12/31/2015
 
12/31/2016
 
12/31/2017
 
12/31/2018

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.
 
$100.00
 
$139.39
 
$137.11
 
$220.49
 
$294.03
 
$349.76
NASDAQ Index
 
$100.00
 
$114.75
 
$122.74
 
$133.62
 
$173.22
 
$168.30
S&P 500 Index
 
$100.00
 
$113.69
 
$115.26
 
$129.05
 
$157.22
 
$150.33
S&P 500 Health Care Index
 
$100.00
 
$125.34
 
$133.97
 
$130.37
 
$159.15
 
$169.44

32



ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following table sets forth selected consolidated financial data for each of the last five fiscal years. The selected consolidated financial data presented below has been derived from our consolidated financial statements. This financial data should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements, related notes and other financial information appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

On May 6, 2015, we announced a two-for-one split of our outstanding shares of common stock which was effected through a stock dividend that was paid through the issuance of treasury shares on June 15, 2015. All share and per share amounts presented below, for periods prior to June 15, 2015, retroactively reflect the effect of the stock split.

 
For the Years Ended December 31,

 
(in thousands, except per share data)

 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

INCOME STATEMENT DATA:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue
 
$
2,213,242

 
$
1,969,058

 
$
1,775,423

 
$
1,601,892

 
$
1,485,807

Cost of revenue
 
971,700

 
871,676

 
799,987

 
711,622

 
669,691

Gross profit
 
1,241,542

 
1,097,382

 
975,436

 
890,270

 
816,116

Expenses:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Sales and marketing
 
387,406

 
354,294

 
317,058

 
299,955

 
283,708

General and administrative
 
244,938

 
220,878

 
207,017

 
182,510

 
173,890

Research and development
 
117,863

 
109,182

 
101,122

 
99,681

 
98,263

Impairment charge
 

 

 

 
8,212

 

Income from operations
 
491,335

 
413,028

 
350,239

 
299,912

 
260,255

Interest expense, net
 
(33,593
)
 
(31,971
)
 
(28,393
)
 
(26,771
)
 
(13,700
)
Income before provision for income taxes
 
457,742

 
381,057

 
321,846

 
273,141

 
246,555

Provision for income taxes
 
80,695

 
117,788

 
99,792

 
81,006

 
64,604

Net income
 
377,047

 
263,269

 
222,054

 
192,135

 
181,951

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest
 
16

 
125

 
9

 
57

 
45

Net income attributable to IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. stockholders
 
$
377,031

 
$
263,144

 
$
222,045

 
$
192,078

 
$
181,906

Earnings per share:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
 
$
4.34

 
$
3.00

 
$
2.47

 
$
2.07

 
$
1.82

Diluted
 
$
4.26

 
$
2.94

 
$
2.44

 
$
2.05

 
$
1.79

Weighted average shares outstanding:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
 
86,864

 
87,769

 
89,732

 
92,601

 
100,094

Diluted
 
88,470

 
89,567

 
90,884

 
93,649

 
101,503


 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

BALANCE SHEET DATA:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
123,794

 
$
187,675

 
$
154,901

 
$
128,994

 
$
322,536

Marketable securities(1)
 

 
284,255

 
236,949

 
213,591

 

Cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities
 
$
123,794

 
$
471,930

 
$
391,850

 
$
342,585

 
$
322,536

Working capital
 
$
(116,272
)
 
$
(32,582
)
 
$
(88,984
)
 
$
(35,127
)
 
$
(61,508
)
Total assets
 
$
1,537,349

 
$
1,713,416

 
$
1,530,704

 
$
1,474,993

 
$
1,384,211

Total long-term debt
 
$
601,348

 
$
606,075

 
$
593,110

 
$
597,085

 
$
350,000

Total stockholders' equity (deficit)
 
$
(9,233
)
 
$
(53,842
)
 
$
(108,213
)
 
$
(83,995
)
 
$
117,589

໿
(1)
See "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 6. Marketable Securities" to the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding our marketable securities.


33



ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

We have included certain terms and abbreviations used throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K in the "Glossary of Terms and Selected Abbreviations.” 

Description of Business Segments. We operate primarily through three business segments: diagnostic and information technology-based products and services for the veterinary market, which we refer to as the Companion Animal Group (“CAG”); water quality products (“Water”); and diagnostic products and services for livestock and poultry health and to ensure the quality and safety of milk and food, which we refer to as Livestock, Poultry and Dairy (“LPD”). Our Other operating segment combines and presents products for the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market (“OPTI Medical”) with our out-licensing arrangements because they do not meet the quantitative or qualitative thresholds for reportable segments. See "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 16. Segment Reporting" to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for financial information about our segments, including our product and service categories, and our geographic areas.

Certain costs are not allocated to our operating segments and are instead reported under the caption “Unallocated Amounts”. These costs include costs that do not align with one of our existing operating segments or are cost prohibitive to allocate, which primarily consist of our R&D function, regional or country expenses, certain foreign currency revaluation gains and losses on monetary balances in currencies other than our subsidiaries’ functional currency and unusual items. Corporate support function costs (such as information technology, facilities, human resources, finance and legal), health benefits and incentive compensation are charged to our business segments at pre-determined budgeted amounts or rates. Differences from these pre-determined budgeted amounts or rates are captured within Unallocated Amounts.

The following is a discussion of the strategic and operating factors that we believe have the most significant effect on the performance of our business.

idxx-20171231x10kg010a01.jpgCompanion Animal Group

Our strategy is to provide veterinarians with both the highest quality diagnostic information to support more advanced medical care and information management solutions that help demonstrate the value of diagnostics to pet owners and enable efficient practice management. By doing so, we are able to build a mutually successful relationship with our veterinarian customers based on healthy pets, loyal customers and expanding practice revenues.

CAG Diagnostics. We provide diagnostic capabilities that meet veterinarians’ diverse needs through a variety of modalities including in-clinic diagnostic solutions and outside reference laboratory services. Veterinarians that utilize our full line of diagnostic modalities obtain a single view of a patient’s diagnostic results, which allows them to track and evaluate trends and achieve greater medical insight.

Our diagnostic capabilities generate both recurring and non-recurring revenues. Revenues related to capital placements of our in-clinic IDEXX VetLab suite of instruments and our SNAP Pro Analyzer are non-recurring in nature in that they are sold to a particular customer only once. Revenues from the associated proprietary IDEXX VetLab consumables, SNAP rapid assay test kits, reference laboratory and consulting services, and extended maintenance agreements and accessories related to our IDEXX VetLab instruments and our SNAP Pro Analyzer are recurring in nature, in that they are regularly purchased by our customers, typically as they perform diagnostic testing as part of ongoing veterinary care services. Our recurring revenues, most prominently IDEXX VetLab consumables and rapid assay test kits, have significantly higher gross margins than those provided by our instrument sales. Therefore, the mix of recurring and non-recurring revenues in a particular period will impact our gross margins.

Diagnostic Capital Revenue. Revenues related to the placement of the IDEXX VetLab suite of instruments are non-recurring in nature, in that the customer will buy an instrument once over its respective product life cycle, but will purchase consumables for that instrument on a recurring basis as they use that instrument for testing purposes. During the early stage of an instrument’s life cycle, we derive relatively greater revenues from instrument placements, while consumable sales become

34



relatively more significant in later stages as the installed base of instruments increases and instrument placement revenues begin to decline. In the early stage of an instrument’s life cycle, placements are made primarily through sales transactions. As the market for the product matures, an increasing percentage of placements are made in transactions, sometimes referred to as volume commitments, such as our IDEXX 360 program, or reagent rentals, in which instruments are placed at customer sites at little or no cost in exchange for a multi-year customer commitment to purchase recurring products and services.

We place our Catalyst chemistry analyzers through sales, leases, rental, and other programs. In addition, we continue to place VetTest instruments through sales, lease, rental, and other programs, with substantially all of our revenues from that product line currently derived from consumable sales. As of December 31, 2018, our Catalyst and VetTest chemistry analyzers provided for a combined active installed base of approximately 50,800 units globally, as compared to approximately 47,000 units in 2017 and approximately 43,000 units in 2016. As of December 31, 2018, our premium Catalyst chemistry analyzers provided for an active installed base of approximately 37,000 units globally, as compared to approximately 30,000 units in 2017 and approximately 24,500 units in 2016. Approximately 54% of 2018 and 2017 Catalyst analyzer placements were to customers that are new to IDEXX, including customers who had been using instruments from one of our competitors, sometimes referred to as competitive accounts. Generally, placement of an instrument with a new or competitive account has the highest economic value as the entire consumable stream associated with that placement represents incremental recurring revenue, whereas the consumable stream associated with a Catalyst placement at a VetTest customer substitutes a Catalyst consumable stream for a VetTest consumable stream. We have found that the consumables revenues increase when a customer upgrades from a VetTest analyzer to a Catalyst analyzer due to the superior test menu capability, flexibility, and ease of use of the Catalyst analyzers, which leads to additional testing by the customer.

As we continue to experience growth in placements of Catalyst analyzers and in sales of related consumables, we expect this growth to be partly offset by a decline in placements of VetTest analyzers and in sales of related consumables.

The ProCyte Dx analyzer is our latest generation hematology analyzer.  In addition, we sell the LaserCyte Dx and VetAutoread analyzers. As of December 31, 2018, these hematology analyzers provided for a combined active installed base of approximately 35,900 units, as compared to 33,400 units in 2017 and 31,000 units in 2016. As of December 31, 2018, our premium ProCyte Dx and LaserCyte Dx hematology analyzers provided for an active installed base of approximately 29,000 units globally, as compared to approximately 26,000 units in 2017 and approximately 23,500 units in 2016. Approximately 67% of 2018 and 59% of 2017 ProCyte placements were made at competitive accounts. We also continue to place a substantial number of LaserCyte Dx instruments, both new and recertified, as trade-ups from the VetAutoread analyzer and at new and competitive accounts. As we continue to experience growth in placements of ProCyte Dx analyzers and in sales of related consumables, we expect this growth to be partly offset by a decline in placements of LaserCyte Dx and VetAutoread analyzers and a decrease in the associated recurring revenue stream.  

Our SediVue Dx instrument was launched in North America early in 2016 and in the U.K. and Australia in the fourth quarter of 2016. During 2017, we continued to launch SediVue Dx internationally. As of December 31, 2018, our premium SediVue Dx analyzers provided for an active installed base of nearly 6,600 units globally, as compared to approximately 4,000 units in 2017 and approximately 1,500 units in 2016. This instrument and single-use consumable system provides a highly accurate way to automate the process of examining urine under a microscope. We provide customers with SediVue Dx consumables that are charged upon utilization, which we refer to as pay-per-run, as compared to other instruments where we charge upon shipment of consumables.

We seek to enhance the attractiveness and customer loyalty of our SNAP rapid assay tests, including by providing the SNAP Pro Analyzer, which activates SNAP tests, properly times the run, captures, and saves images of the results and, in conjunction with IVLS, records invoice charges in the patient record. Beginning in January of 2017, with our ProRead software, the SNAP Pro Analyzer interprets results. These features promote practice efficiency by eliminating manual entry of test results in patient records and also helps ensure that the services are recorded and accurately invoiced. In addition, SNAP Pro Analyzer results can be shared with pet owners on the SNAP Pro screen or, in conjunction with IVLS, via VetConnect PLUS. We also sell the SNAPshot Dx, which automatically reads certain SNAP test results and, in conjunction with IVLS, records those results in the electronic medical record. We continue to work on enhancing the functionality of our analyzers to read the results of additional tests from our canine and feline family of rapid assay products.

Our long-term success in the continuing growth of our CAG recurring diagnostic product and services is dependent upon; growing volumes at existing customers by increasing their utilization of existing and new test offerings, acquiring new customers, maintaining high customer loyalty and retention, our ability to realize modest annual price increases based on our differentiated products and the growing value of our diagnostic offering. We continuously seek opportunities to enhance the care that veterinary professionals give to their patients and clients through supporting the implementation of real-time care testing work flows, which is performing tests and sharing test results with the client at the time of the patient visit. Our latest

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generation of chemistry and hematology instruments demonstrates this commitment by offering enhanced ease of use, faster time to results, broader test menu and connectivity to various information technology platforms that enhance the value of the diagnostic information generated by the instruments. In addition, we provide marketing tools and customer support that help drive efficiencies in veterinary practice processes and allow practices to increase the number of clients they see on a daily basis.

With all of our instrument product lines, we seek to differentiate our products from our competitors’ products based on time-to-result, ease-of-use, throughput, breadth of diagnostic menu, flexibility of menu selection, accuracy, reliability, ability to handle compromised samples, analytical capability of diagnostics software, integration with the IVLS and VetConnect PLUS, client communications capabilities, education and training, and superior sales and customer service. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to differentiate our products in a way that justifies a premium price.

Recurring Diagnostic Revenue. Revenues from our proprietary IDEXX VetLab consumable products, our SNAP rapid assay test kits, outside reference laboratory and consulting services, and extended maintenance agreements and accessories related to our CAG Diagnostics instruments are considered recurring in nature. For the year ended December 31, 2018, recurring diagnostic revenue, which is both highly durable and profitable, accounted for approximately 75% of our consolidated revenue.

Our in-clinic diagnostic solutions, consisting of our IDEXX VetLab consumable products and SNAP rapid assay test kits, provide real-time reference lab quality diagnostic results for a variety of companion animal diseases and health conditions. Our outside reference laboratories provide veterinarians with the benefits of a more comprehensive list of diagnostic tests and access to consultations with board-certified veterinary specialists and pathologists, combined with the benefit of same-day or next-day turnaround times.

We derive substantial revenues and margins from the sale of consumables that are used in IDEXX VetLab instruments and the multi-year consumable revenue stream is significantly more valuable than the placement of the instrument. Our strategy is to increase diagnostic testing within veterinary practices by placing IDEXX VetLab instruments and increasing instrument utilization of consumables. Utilization can increase due to a greater number of patient samples being run or to an increase in the number of tests being run per patient sample. Our strategy is to increase both drivers. To increase utilization, we seek to educate veterinarians about best medical practices that emphasize the importance of chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis testing for a variety of diagnostic purposes, as well as by introducing new testing capabilities that were previously not available to veterinarians.

Our in-clinic diagnostic solutions also include SNAP rapid assay tests that address important medical needs for particular diseases prevalent in the companion animal population. We seek to differentiate these tests from those of other in-clinic test providers and reference laboratory diagnostic service providers based on critically important sensitivity and specificity, as demonstrated by peer reviewed third-party research, as well as overall superior performance and ease of use by providing our customers with combination tests that test a single sample for up to six diseases at once, including the ability to utilize our SNAP Pro Analyzer. We further augment our product development and customer service efforts with sales and marketing programs that enhance medical awareness and understanding regarding certain diseases and the importance of diagnostic testing.

We believe approximately half of all diagnostic testing by U.S. veterinarians is provided by outside reference laboratories such as IDEXX Reference Laboratories. In certain markets outside the U.S., in-clinic testing may be less prevalent, and an even greater percentage of diagnostic testing is done in reference laboratories. We attempt to differentiate our reference laboratory testing services from those of competitive reference laboratories and competitive in-clinic offerings primarily on the basis of a unique and proprietary test menu, technology employed, quality, turnaround time, customer service and tools such as VetConnect PLUS that demonstrate the complementary manner in which our laboratory services work with our in-clinic offerings.

Profitability in our lab business is supported, in part, by our expanding business scale globally. Profit improvements also reflect benefits from price increases and our ability to achieve operational efficiencies. When possible, we utilize core reference laboratories to service samples from other states or countries, expanding our customer reach without an associated expansion in our reference laboratory footprint. New laboratories that we open typically will operate at a loss until testing volumes achieve sufficient scale. Acquired laboratories frequently operate less profitably than our existing laboratories and acquired laboratories may not achieve the profitability of our existing laboratory network for several years until we complete the implementation of operating improvements and efficiencies. Therefore, in the short term, new and acquired reference laboratories generally will have a negative effect on our operating margin.


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Recurring reference lab revenue growth is achieved both through increased testing volumes with existing customers and through the acquisition of new customers, net of customer losses. We believe the increased number of customer visits by our sales professionals as a result of the growth in our field sales organization has led to increased reference laboratory opportunities with customers who already use one of our in-clinic diagnostic modalities. In recent years, recurring reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting revenues have also been increased through reference laboratory acquisitions, customer list acquisitions, the opening of new reference laboratories, including laboratories that are co-located with large practice customers, and as a result of our up-front customer loyalty programs and our volume commitment programs. Our up-front customer loyalty programs are associated with customer acquisitions and retention and provide incentives to customers in the form of cash payments or IDEXX Points upon entering multi-year contractual agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of products or services, including reference laboratory services. Our volume commitment programs, such as IDEXX 360, provide customers with a free or discounted instrument or system upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of products and services.

Health Monitoring and Biological Materials Testing.  We believe the acquisition of the research and diagnostic laboratory business of the College of Veterinary Medicine from the University of Missouri has allowed us to leverage our expertise in veterinary diagnostics and expand our integrated offering of reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services and in-clinic testing solutions in the adjacent bioresearch market.

Veterinary Software, Services and Diagnostic Imaging Systems.  Our portfolio of practice management offerings is designed to serve the full range of customers within the North American, Australian, and European markets. Cornerstone, DVMAX, IDEXX Animana and IDEXX Neo practice management systems provide superior integrated information solutions, backed by exceptional customer support and education. These practice management systems allow the veterinarian to practice better medicine and achieve the practice’s business objectives, including a quality client experience, staff efficiency and practice profitability. We market Cornerstone, DVMAX and IDEXX Neo practice management systems to customers primarily in North America and Australia. We market our IDEXX Animana offering to customers primarily throughout Europe.

IDEXX Animana and IDEXX Neo practice management systems are subscription-based SaaS offerings designed to provide flexible pricing and a durable, recurring revenue stream, while utilizing cloud technology instead of a client server platform. While we continue to develop, sell, and support our licensed-based Cornerstone and DVMAX software, we are growing our installed base of subscription-based practice management offerings for new customers of IDEXX practice management systems. We believe that once established, this subscription-based model will provide higher profitability as compared to the historical license-based placements. Our Cornerstone and DVMAX customer base continues to be an important driver of growth through enhanced diagnostic integrations and high value add-on subscription services, such as Pet Health Network Pro, Petly Plans, and credit card processing, and we continue to make investments to enhance the customer experience of all of our license-based software offerings. We also offer rVetLink, a comprehensive referral management solution for specialty care hospitals that streamlines the referral process between primary care and specialty care veterinarians. rVetLink’s cloud technology integrates with major specialty hospital management systems, including Cornerstone Software and DVMAX Software.

We differentiate our practice management systems through enhanced functionality, ease of use, and embedded integration with in-clinic IDEXX VetLab instruments and outside reference laboratory test results. Our client communication services create more meaningful pet owner experiences through personalized communication. With our Smart Flow cloud technology, we are able to improve overall patient management through coordination and tracking of every step in a patient workflow. Pet Health Network Pro online client communication and education service complements the entire IDEXX product offering by educating pet owners and building loyalty through engaging the pet owner before, during and after the visit, thereby building client loyalty and driving more patient visits.

Our diagnostic imaging systems offer a convenient radiographic solution that provides superior image quality and the ability to share images with clients virtually anywhere. IDEXX imaging software enables enhanced diagnostic features and streamlined integration with our other products and services. Our newest digital radiography systems, the ImageVue DR50 Digital Imaging System enables low-dose radiation image capture without sacrificing clear, high-quality diagnostic images, reducing the risk posed by excess radiation exposure for veterinary professionals. Placements of imaging systems are important to the growth of revenue streams that are recurring in nature, including extended maintenance agreements and IDEXX Web PACS, which is our cloud-based SaaS offering for viewing, accessing, storing, and sharing multi-modality diagnostic images. We derive relatively higher margins from our subscription-based products. IDEXX Web PACS is integrated with Cornerstone, IDEXX Neo and IDEXX VetConnect PLUS to provide centralized access to diagnostic imaging results alongside patient diagnostic results from any internet connected device. 

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idxx-20171231x10kg008a01.jpgWater

Our strategy in the water testing business is to develop, manufacture, market and sell proprietary products that test primarily for the presence of microbial contamination in water matrices, including drinking water supplies, with superior performance, supported by exceptional customer service. Our customers primarily consist of water utilities, government laboratories and private certified laboratories that highly value strong relationships and customer support. We expect that future growth in this business will be partially dependent on our ability to increase international sales. Growth also will be dependent on our ability to enhance and broaden our product line. Most water microbiological testing is driven by regulation, and, in many countries, a test may not be used for compliance testing unless it has been approved by the applicable regulatory body and integrated into customers’ testing protocols. As a result, we maintain an active regulatory program that involves applying for a growing number of regulatory approvals in a number of countries, primarily in Europe. Further, we seek to receive regulatory approvals from governing agencies as a means to differentiate our products from the competition.

idxx-20171231x10kg009a01.jpgLivestock, Poultry and Dairy

We develop, manufacture, market and sell a broad range of tests and perform services for various livestock diseases and conditions, and have active research and development and in-licensing programs in this area. Our strategy is to offer proprietary tests with superior performance characteristics for use in government programs to control or eradicate disease and disease outbreaks and in livestock and poultry producers’ disease, reproductive, and herd health and production management programs. Disease outbreaks are episodic and unpredictable, and certain diseases that are prevalent at one time may be substantially contained or eradicated at a later time. In response to outbreaks, testing initiatives may lead to exceptional demand for certain products in certain periods. Conversely, successful eradication programs may result in significantly decreased demand for certain products. In addition, increases in government funding may lead to increased demand for certain products and budgetary constraints may lead to decreased demand for certain products. As result, the performance in certain sectors of this business can fluctuate.

Our strategy in the dairy testing business is to develop, manufacture and sell antibiotic residue and contaminant testing products that satisfy applicable regulatory requirements or dairy processor standards for testing of milk and provide reliable field performance. The manufacture of these testing products leverages the SNAP platform and production assets that also support our rapid assay business, which also leverages the SNAP platform. The dairy SNAP products incorporate customized reagents for antibiotic and contaminant detection. To successfully increase sales of dairy testing products, we believe that we need to increase penetration in dairy processors and develop product line enhancements and extensions. Our Rapid Visual Pregnancy Test for cattle can detect pregnancy 28 days after breeding. This test provides a quick and accurate identifier using whole blood samples.

The performance of the business is particularly subject to the various risks that are associated with doing business internationally.  See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

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Other

OPTI Medical. Our strategy in the OPTI Medical business for the human market is to develop, manufacture, and sell electrolyte and blood gas analyzers and related consumable products for the medical point-of-care diagnostics market worldwide, with a focus on small to mid-sized hospitals. We seek to differentiate our products based on ease of use, convenience, international distribution and service and instrument reliability. Similar to our veterinary instruments and consumables strategy, a substantial portion of the revenues from this product line is derived from the sale of consumables for use on the installed base of electrolyte and blood gas analyzers. During the early stage of an instrument’s life cycle, relatively greater revenues are derived from instrument placements, while consumable sales become relatively more significant in later stages as the installed base of instruments increases and instrument placement revenues begin to decline. Our long-term success in this area of our business is dependent upon new customer acquisition, customer retention and increased customer utilization of existing and new assays introduced on these instruments.

Our facility in Roswell, Georgia develops and manufactures the OPTI product lines using the same or similar technology to support the electrolyte needs of the veterinary market. We leverage this facility’s know-how, intellectual property, and manufacturing capability to continue to expand the menu and instrument capability of the VetStat and Catalyst platforms for veterinary applications while reducing our cost of consumables by leveraging experience and economies of scale.

During the first half of 2016, management reviewed the OPTI Medical product offerings. As a result of this review, in March 2016 we discontinued certain development activities in the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market that were devoted to a new platform and focused our efforts on supporting our current generation OPTI CCA-TS2 Blood Gas and Electrolyte analyzer.

The performance of the business is particularly subject to the various risks that are associated with doing business internationally.  See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES AND ASSUMPTIONS

The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We evaluate our estimates on an ongoing basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates. "Part II, Item 8. Note 2 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" to the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K describes the significant accounting policies used in preparation of these consolidated financial statements.

We believe the following critical accounting estimates and assumptions may have a material impact on reported financial condition and operating performance and involve significant levels of judgment to account for highly uncertain matters or are susceptible to significant change.

Revenue Recognition

Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted the New Revenue Standard using the modified retrospective method for all contracts not completed as of the date of adoption. 

Under the New Revenue Standard, revenue is recognized when, or as, performance obligations under the terms of a contract are satisfied, which occurs when control of the promised products or services is transferred to a customer. We exclude sales, use, value-added, and other taxes we collect on behalf of third parties from revenue. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring products or services to a customer. To meet the requirements of the New Revenue Standard and accurately present the consideration received in exchange for promised products or services, we applied the prescribed five-step model outlined below:

1.
Identification of a contract or agreement with a customer
2.
Identification of our performance obligations in the contract or agreement
3.
Determination of the transaction price
4.
Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations
5.
Recognition of revenue when, or as, we satisfy a performance obligation

See "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 3. Revenue Recognition" to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information about our revenue recognition policy and criteria for recognizing revenue.

We enter into contracts that can include various combinations of products and services, which are generally capable of being distinct and accounted for as separate performance obligations. The timing of revenue recognition, billings, and cash collections results in accounts receivable, contract assets as a result of revenue recognized in advance of billings (included within other assets), and contract liabilities or deferred revenue as a result of receiving consideration in advance of revenue recognition within our consolidated balance sheet.

Contracts with Multiple Performance Obligations.  We enter into contracts where customers purchase a combination of IDEXX products and services. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately requires significant judgment. We determine the transaction price for a contract based on the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for the transferred goods or services. To the extent the transaction price includes variable consideration, such as volume rebates or expected price adjustments, we apply judgment in constraining the estimated variable consideration due to factors that may cause reversal of revenue recognized. We evaluate constraints based on our historical and projected experience with similar customer contracts.

We allocate revenue to each performance obligation in proportion to the relative standalone selling prices and recognize revenue when transfer of the related goods or services has occurred for each obligation. We utilize the observable standalone selling price when available, which represents the price charged for the performance obligation when sold separately. When standalone selling prices for our products or services are not directly observable we determine the standalone selling prices using relevant information available and apply suitable estimation methods including, but not limited to, the cost plus a margin approach.


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The following customer programs represent our most significant customer contracts which contain multiple performance obligations:

Customer Commitment Programs. We offer customer incentives upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of products and services.

Up-Front Customer Loyalty Programs. Our up-front loyalty programs provide customers with incentives in the form of cash payments or IDEXX Points upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of future products or services. If a customer breaches its agreement, they are required to refund all or a portion of the up-front cash or IDEXX Points, or make other repayments, remedial actions, or both. Up-front incentives to customers in the form of cash or IDEXX Points are not made in exchange for distinct goods or services and are capitalized as customer acquisition costs within other assets, which are subsequently recognized as a reduction to revenue over the term of the customer agreement. If these up-front incentives are subsequently utilized to purchase instruments, we allocate total consideration, including future committed purchases less up-front incentives and estimates of expected price adjustments, based on relative standalone selling prices to identified performance obligations and recognize instrument revenue and cost at the time of installation and customer acceptance. We estimate, based on historical experience, and apply judgment to predict the amounts of future customer purchases and expected price adjustments related these multi-year agreements. Differences between estimated and actual customer purchases may impact the amount and timing of revenue recognition and a 5% change in these estimates would have increased or reduced other assets and cumulative revenue related to these programs by approximately $0.6 million at December 31, 2018.

Volume Commitment Programs. Our volume commitment programs, such as our IDEXX 360 program, provide customers with a free or discounted instrument or system upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of products and services. We allocate total consideration, including future committed purchases and expected price adjustments, based on relative standalone selling prices to identified performance obligations and recognize instrument revenue and cost in advance of billing the customer at the time of installation and customer acceptance, which is also when the customer obtains control of the instrument based on legal title transfer. Our right to future consideration related to instrument revenue is recorded as a contract asset within other current and long-term assets. The contract asset is transferred to accounts receivable when customers are billed for future products and services over the term of the contract. We estimate, based on historical experience, and apply judgment to predict the amounts of future customer purchases and expected price adjustments related these multi-year agreements. Differences between estimated and actual customer purchases may impact the amount and timing of revenue recognition and a 5% change in these estimates would have increased or reduced contract assets and cumulative revenue related to these programs by approximately $0.8 million at December 31, 2018.

Instrument Rebate Programs. Our instrument rebate programs, previously referred to as IDEXX Instrument Marketing Programs, require an instrument purchase and provide customers the opportunity to earn future rebates based on the volume of products and services they purchase over the term of the program. We account for the customer’s right to earn rebates on future purchases as a separate performance obligation and determine the standalone selling price based on an estimate of rebates the customer will earn over the term of the program. Total consideration allocated to identified performance obligations is limited to goods and services that the customer is presently obligated to purchase and does not include estimates of future purchases that are optional. We allocate total consideration to identified performance obligations, including customer’s right to earn rebates on future purchases, which is deferred and recognized upon the purchase of future products and services, offsetting future rebates as they are earned. We estimate, based on historical experience, and apply judgment to predict the amounts of future customer rebates related these multi-year agreements. Differences between estimated and actual customer rebates may impact the amount and timing of revenue recognition and a 5% change in these estimates would have increased or reduced deferred revenue and cumulative revenue related to these programs by approximately $1.4 million at December 31, 2018.

Reagent Rental Programs. Our reagent rental programs provide our customers the right to use our instruments upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of consumables. These types of agreements include an embedded operating lease for the right to use our instrument and no instrument revenue is recognized at the time of instrument installation. We determine the amount of lease revenue allocated to the instrument based on relative standalone selling prices and determine the pattern of instrument revenue recognition in proportion to the customer’s minimum purchase commitment. The cost of the instrument is removed from inventory and

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capitalized within property and equipment, and is charged to cost of product revenue ratably over the term of the agreement.

Other Customer Incentive Programs. Certain agreements with customers include discounts or rebates on the sale of products and services applied retrospectively, such as volume rebates achieved by purchasing a specified purchase threshold of goods and services. We account for these discounts as variable consideration and estimate the likelihood of a customer meeting the threshold in order to determine the transaction price using the most predictive approach. We typically use the most-likely-amount method, for incentives that are offered to individual customers, and the expected-value method, for programs that are offered to a broad group of customers. Refund obligations related to customer incentive programs are recorded in accrued liabilities for the actual issuance of incentives, incentives earned but not yet issued and estimates of incentives to be earned in the future.
    
IDEXX Points. IDEXX Points may be applied to trade receivables due to us, converted to cash, or applied against the purchase price of IDEXX products and services. We consider IDEXX Points equivalent to cash and IDEXX Points that have not yet been used by customers are included in accrued liabilities until utilized or expired. Breakage is not material because customers can apply IDEXX Points to trade receivables at any time.

Future market conditions and changes in product offerings may cause us to change marketing strategies to increase or decrease customer incentive offerings, possibly resulting in incremental reductions of revenue in future periods as compared to reductions in the current or prior periods. Additionally, certain customer programs require us to estimate, based on historical experience, and apply judgment to predict the amounts of future customer purchases, customer rebates and other incentive payments, and price adjustments related to multi-year agreements. Differences between estimated and actual customer purchases may impact the amount and timing of revenue recognition as described above.

Inventory Valuation

We write down the carrying value of inventory for estimated obsolescence by an amount equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated market value when warranted based on assumptions of future demand, market conditions, remaining shelf life or product functionality. If actual market conditions or results of estimated functionality are less favorable than those we estimated, additional inventory write-downs may be required, which would have a negative effect on results of operations.

Valuation of Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

A significant portion of the purchase price for acquired businesses is generally assigned to intangible assets. Intangible assets other than goodwill are initially valued at fair value. If a quoted price in an active market for the identical asset is not readily available at the measurement date, the fair value of the intangible asset is estimated based on discounted cash flows using market participant assumptions, which are assumptions that are not specific to IDEXX. The selection of appropriate valuation methodologies and the estimation of discounted cash flows require significant assumptions about the timing and amounts of future cash flows, risks, appropriate discount rates, and the useful lives of intangible assets. When material, we utilize independent valuation experts to advise and assist us in determining the fair values of the identified intangible assets acquired in connection with a business acquisition and in determining appropriate amortization methods and periods for those intangible assets. Goodwill is initially valued based on the excess of the purchase price of a business combination over the fair value of acquired net assets recognized and represents the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired that could not be individually identified and separately recognized.

We assess goodwill for impairment annually, at the reporting unit level, in the fourth quarter and whenever events or circumstances indicate impairment may exist. An impairment charge is recorded for the amount, if any, by which the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its implied fair value. Our reporting units are the individual product and service categories that comprise our CAG operating segment, our Water and LPD operating segments and goodwill remaining from the restructuring of our pharmaceutical business in the fourth quarter of 2008. A substantial portion of the goodwill remaining from the pharmaceutical business, included in our “Other Segment”, is associated with intellectual property that has been, or that we expect to be, licensed to third parties. Realization of this goodwill is dependent upon the success of those third parties in developing and commercializing products, which will result in our receipt of royalties and other payments.

As part of our goodwill testing process, we evaluate factors specific to a reporting unit as well as industry and macroeconomic factors that are reasonably likely to have a material impact on the fair value of a reporting unit. Examples of the factors considered in assessing the fair value of a reporting unit include: the results of the most recent impairment test, the competitive environment, the regulatory environment, anticipated changes in product or labor costs, revenue growth trends, the

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consistency of operating margins and cash flows and current and long-range financial forecasts. The long-range financial forecasts of the reporting units, which are based upon management’s long-term view of our markets, are used by senior management and the Board of Directors to evaluate operating performance.    

In the fourth quarters of 2018 and 2017, we elected to bypass the qualitative approach that allows the assessment of qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount and instead proceeded directly to assessing the fair value of all of our reporting units and comparing the fair value of to the carrying value to determine if any impairment is necessary.

We estimate the fair values of applicable reporting units using an income approach based on discounted forecasted cash flows. We make significant assumptions about the extent and timing of future cash flows, growth rates and discount rates. Model assumptions are based on our projections and best estimates, using appropriate and customary market participant assumptions. In addition, we make certain assumptions in allocating shared assets and liabilities to individual reporting units in determining the carrying value of each reporting unit. To validate the reasonableness of our reporting units' estimated fair values, we reconcile the aggregate fair values of our reporting units to our total market capitalization. Valuation assumptions reflect our projections and best estimates, based on significant assumptions about the extent and timing of future cash flows, growth rates and discount rates.

We maintain approximately $6.5 million of goodwill associated with our remaining pharmaceutical intellectual property, out-licensing arrangements, and certain retained drug delivery technologies (collectively “Pharmaceutical Activities”) that we seek to commercialize through arrangements with third parties. Currently, our primary support for the carrying value of this goodwill is royalty revenue associated with the commercialization of certain intellectual property. There is no guarantee that we will be able to maintain or increase revenues from our remaining Pharmaceutical Activities. The results of our goodwill impairment test for these Pharmaceutical Activities indicate an excess of estimated fair value over the carrying amount of this reporting unit by approximately $4.3 million and 66% of the reporting unit’s carrying value. Excluding these Pharmaceutical Activities, the results of our goodwill impairment test indicate an excess of estimated fair value over the carrying amount for each of our reporting units with a minimum of 173% and an average of approximately 820%. 

While we believe that the assumptions used to determine the estimated fair values of each of our reporting units are reasonable, a change in assumptions underlying these estimates could result in a material negative effect on the estimated fair value of the reporting units. Our fair value estimate assumes the achievement of future financial results contemplated in our forecasted cash flows, and there can be no assurance that we will realize that value. We use forecasts to estimate future cash flows and include an estimate of long-term future growth rates based on our most recent views of the long-term outlooks for our reporting units. Actual results may differ from those assumed in our forecasts. The discount rate is based on a weighted average cost of capital derived from industry peers. Changes in market conditions, interest rates, growth rates, tax rates, costs, pricing, or the discount rate would affect the estimated fair values of our reporting units and could result in a goodwill impairment charge in a future period. No goodwill impairments were identified during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016.

A prolonged economic downturn in the U.S. or internationally resulting in lower long-term growth rates and reduced long-term profitability may reduce the fair value of our reporting units. Industry specific events or circumstances could have a negative impact on our reporting units and may also reduce the fair value of our reporting units. Should such events occur, and it becomes more likely than not that a reporting unit’s fair value has fallen below its carrying value, we will perform an interim goodwill impairment test, in addition to the annual impairment test. Future impairment tests may result in an impairment of goodwill, depending on the outcome of future impairment tests. An impairment of goodwill would be reported as a non-cash charge to earnings.

We assess the realizability of intangible assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. If an impairment review is triggered, we evaluate the carrying value of intangible assets based on estimated undiscounted future cash flows over the remaining useful life of the primary asset of the asset group and compare that value to the carrying value of the asset group. The cash flows that are used contain our best estimates, using appropriate and customary assumptions and projections at the time. If the net carrying value of an intangible asset exceeds the related estimated undiscounted future cash flows, an impairment to adjust the intangible asset to its fair value would be reported as a non-cash charge to earnings. If necessary, we would calculate the fair value of an intangible asset using the present value of the estimated future cash flows to be generated by the intangible asset and applying a risk-adjusted discount rate.

We had no impairments of our intangible assets during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. During the first half of 2016, management reviewed our OPTI Medical product offering, which resulted in the discontinuance of our instrument development activities in the human point-of-care medical diagnostics market and a decision to focus our commercial and

43



development efforts to support our latest generation OPTI CCA-TS2 Blood Gas and Electrolyte analyzer. Management identified unfavorable trends in our OPTI Medical business resulting from this change in strategy. We revised our forecasts downward, causing us to assess the realizability of the related tangible and intangible assets and determined the expected future cash flows were less than the carrying value of the OPTI Medical asset group. Non-cash intangible asset impairments of $2.2 million were recognized during the six months ended June 30, 2016. The intangibles associated with our OPTI Medical human point-of-care medical diagnostics market are fully written off.

Our business combinations regularly include contingent consideration arrangements that require additional consideration to be paid based on the achievement of established objectives, most commonly related to the retention or growth of the customer base during the post-combination period. We assess contingent consideration to determine if it is part of the business combination or if it should be accounted for separately from the business combination in the post-combination period. Contingent consideration is recognized at its fair value on the acquisition date. A liability resulting from contingent consideration is remeasured to fair value at each reporting date until the contingency is resolved, with changes in fair value recognized in earnings. Changes in the fair value of contingent consideration and differences arising upon settlement were not material during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016. See "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 4. Acquisitions and Investments" to the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding contingent consideration arising from business acquisitions. 

Share-Based Compensation

Our share-based compensation programs provide for grants of stock options, restricted stock units and deferred stock units, along with the issuance of employee stock purchase rights. The total fair value of future awards may vary significantly from past awards based on a number of factors, including our share-based award practices. Therefore, share-based compensation expense is likely to fluctuate, possibly significantly, from year to year.

We use the Black-Scholes-Merton option-pricing model to determine the fair value of options granted. Option-pricing models require the input of highly subjective assumptions, particularly for the expected stock price volatility and the expected term of options. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield for a duration similar to the expected term at the date of grant. We have never paid any cash dividends on our common stock and we have no intention to pay a dividend at this time; therefore, we assume that no dividends will be paid over the expected terms of option awards. We determine the assumptions to be used in the valuation of option grants as of the date of grant. As such, we use different assumptions during the year if we grant options at different dates. Substantially all our options granted during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 were granted in the first quarter of each year. The weighted average of each of the valuation assumptions used to determine the fair value of each option grant during each of the previous three years is as follows:

 
For the Years Ended December 31,

 
2018
 
2017
 
2016

 
 
 
 

 
 

Expected stock price volatility
 
24
%
 
26
%
 
25
%
Expected term, in years(1)
 
5.8

 
5.8

 
5.7

Risk-free interest rate
 
2.7
%
 
2.0
%
 
1.2
%
(1)
Options granted have a contractual term of ten years.

Changes in these subjective assumptions, particularly for the expected stock price volatility and the expected term of options, can materially affect the fair value estimate. Our expected stock price volatility assumption is based on the historical volatility of our stock over a period similar to the expected term and other relevant factors. Higher estimated volatility increases the fair value of a stock option, while lower estimated volatility has the opposite effect. The total fair value of stock options granted during the year ended December 31, 2018, was $17.6 million. If the weighted average of the stock price volatility assumption was increased or decreased by 1%, the total fair value of stock options awarded during the year ended December 31, 2018, would have increased or decreased by approximately $0.5 million and the total expense recognized for the year ended December 31, 2018, for options awarded during the same period would have increased or decreased by less than $0.1 million.

We derive the expected term assumption for stock options based on historical experience and other relevant factors concerning expected behavior with regard to option exercises. The expected term is determined using a consistent method at each grant date. A longer expected term assumption increases the fair value of stock option awards, while a shorter expected term assumption has the opposite effect. If the weighted average of the expected term was increased or decreased by one year,

44



the total fair value of stock options awarded during the year ended December 31, 2018, would have increased or decreased by approximately $1.7 million, and the total expense recognized for the year ended December 31, 2018, for options awarded during 2018 would have increased or decreased by approximately $0.3 million.

For a significant majority of our awards, share-based compensation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which ranges from one to five years, depending on the award. Share-based compensation expense is recognized on a grade-vesting methodology for performance-based restricted stock units. Share-based compensation expense is based on the number of awards expected to vest and is, therefore, reduced for an estimate of the number of awards that are expected to be forfeited. The forfeiture estimates are based on historical data and other factors; share-based compensation expense is adjusted annually for actual results. Total share-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2018, was $25.2 million, which is net of a reduction of approximately $4.1 million for actual and estimated forfeitures. Fluctuations in our overall employee turnover rate may result in changes in estimated forfeiture rates and differences between estimated forfeiture rates and actual experience and, therefore could have a significant unanticipated impact on share-based compensation expense.

Modifications of the terms of outstanding awards may result in significant increases or decreases in share-based compensation. There were no material modifications to the terms of outstanding options, restricted stock units or deferred stock units during 2018, 2017 or 2016.

The fair value of stock options, restricted stock units, deferred stock units and employee stock purchase rights issued totaled $34.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, $31.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, and $27.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The total unrecognized compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, for unvested share-based compensation awards outstanding at December 31, 2018, was $51.2 million, which will be recognized over a weighted average period of approximately 1.7 years. 

Income Taxes

The 2017 Tax Act was enacted on December 22, 2017, and includes significant changes to the U.S. corporate tax system. Effective January 1, 2018, the 2017 Tax Act reduced the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, and transitioned from a worldwide tax system to a territorial tax system, and eliminated or reduced certain domestic deductions among other changes. The 2017 Tax Act introduced new provisions including the Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”), Foreign Derived Intangible Income (“FDII”), Base Erosion Anti-Abuse Tax (“BEAT"), expanded bonus depreciation and changed deductions for executive compensation and interest expense. See "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 13. Income Taxes" in the accompanying Notes to the consolidated financial statements for more information regarding the impact of the 2017 Tax Act.

The provision for income taxes is determined using the asset and liability approach of accounting for income taxes. Under this approach, deferred taxes represent the estimated future tax effects of temporary differences between book and tax treatment of assets and liabilities and carryforwards to the extent they are realizable.

On a quarterly basis, we assess our current and projected earnings by jurisdiction to determine whether or not our earnings during the periods when the temporary differences become deductible will be sufficient to realize the related future tax benefits. Should we determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax asset in a particular jurisdiction in the future, an adjustment to the deferred tax asset would be charged to income in the period such determination was made. A reduction of net income before taxes in each subsidiary equal to 5% of revenue, compared to the corresponding reported amounts for the year ended December 31, 2018, would not result in the recognition of material incremental valuation allowances.

For those jurisdictions where tax carryforwards are likely to expire unused or the projected operating results indicate that realization is not more likely than not, a valuation allowance is recorded to offset the deferred tax asset within that jurisdiction. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider future taxable income and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. In the event that we determine that we would be able to realize our deferred tax assets in the future in excess of the net recorded amount, a reduction of the valuation allowance would increase income in the period such determination was made. Likewise, should we determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax asset in the future, a reduction to the deferred tax asset would be charged to income in the period such determination was made. 

Our net taxable temporary differences and tax carryforwards are recorded using the enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the periods in which the deferred tax liability or asset is expected to be settled or realized. Should the

45



expected applicable tax rates change in the future, an adjustment to our deferred taxes would be credited or charged, as appropriate, to income in the period such determination was made.

We periodically assess our exposures related to our worldwide provision for income taxes and believe that we have appropriately accrued taxes for contingencies. Any reduction of these contingent liabilities or additional assessment would increase or decrease income, respectively, in the period such determination was made.

We record a liability for uncertain tax positions that do not meet the more likely than not standard as prescribed by the authoritative guidance for income tax accounting. We record tax benefits for only those positions that we believe will more likely than not be sustained. For positions that we believe that it is more likely than not that we will prevail, we record a benefit considering the amounts and probabilities that could be realized upon ultimate settlement. If our judgment as to the likely resolution of the uncertainty changes, if the uncertainty is ultimately settled or if the statute of limitation related to the uncertainty expires, the effects of the change would be recognized in the period in which the change, resolution or expiration occurs. Our net liability for uncertain tax positions was $26.0 million as of December 31, 2018, and $21.8 million as of December 31, 2017, which includes estimated interest expense and penalties. See "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 13. Income Taxes" in the accompanying Notes to the consolidated financial statements for more information.

RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

In addition to the impacts from new accounting pronouncements included above, see "Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (w) and (x)" to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a complete discussion of recent accounting pronouncements adopted and not adopted.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS AND TRENDS

Effects of Certain Factors on Results of Operations

Distributor Purchasing and Inventories.  When selling our products through distributors, changes in distributors’ inventory levels can impact our reported sales, and these changes may be affected by many factors, which may not be directly related to underlying demand for our products by veterinary practices, which are the end users. If during the current year, distributors’ inventories grew by less than those inventories grew in the comparable period of the prior year, then changes in distributors’ inventories would have an unfavorable impact on our reported sales growth in the current period. Conversely, if during the current year, distributors’ inventories grew by more than those inventories grew in the comparable period of the prior year, then changes in distributors’ inventories would have a favorable impact on our reported sales growth in the current period. 

In certain countries, we sell our products through third-party distributors and may be unable to obtain data for sales to end users. We do not believe the impact of changes in these distributors’ inventories had or would have a material impact on our growth rates. See “Part I, Item 1. Business, Marketing and Distribution” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding distribution channels.

Currency Impact. For the year ended December 31, 2018, approximately 22% of our consolidated revenue was derived from products manufactured or sourced in U.S. dollars and sold internationally in local currencies, as compared to 21% for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016.  Strengthening of the rate of exchange for the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies has a negative impact on our revenues derived in currencies other than the U.S. dollar and on profits of products manufactured or purchased in U.S. dollars and sold internationally, and a weakening of the U.S. dollar has the opposite effect. Similarly, to the extent that the U.S. dollar is stronger in current or future periods relative to the exchange rates in effect in the corresponding prior periods, our growth rate will be negatively affected. The impact of foreign currency denominated operating expenses and foreign currency denominated supply contracts partly offsets this exposure. Additionally, our designated hedges of intercompany inventory purchases and sales help delay the impact of certain exchange rate fluctuations on non-U.S. denominated revenues. See “Part II, Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding currency impact. Our future income tax expense could also be affected by changes in the mix of earnings, including as a result of changes in the rate of exchange for the U.S. dollar relative to currencies in countries with differing statutory tax rates. See “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding tax impacts. 

Effects of Economic Conditions.  Pet owners generally pay cash out of pocket for health care services for their pets from veterinary practices. Demand for our products and services is vulnerable to changes in the economic environment,

46



including slow economic growth, high unemployment, and credit availability. Negative or cautious consumer sentiment can lead to reduced or delayed consumer spending, resulting in a decreased number of patient visits to veterinary clinics. Unfavorable economic conditions can impact sales of instruments, diagnostic imaging, and practice management systems, which are larger capital purchases for veterinarians. Additionally, economic turmoil can cause our customers to remain sensitive to the pricing of our products and services. In the U.S., we monitor patient visits and clinic revenue data provided by a subset of our CAG customers. Although this data is a limited sample and susceptible to short-term impacts such as weather, which may affect the number of patient visits in a given period, we believe that this data provides a fair and meaningful long-term representation of the trend in patient visit activity in the U.S., providing us insight regarding demand for our products and services.

Economic conditions can also affect the purchasing decisions of our Water and LPD business customers. Water testing volumes may be susceptible to declines in discretionary testing for existing home and commercial sales and in mandated testing as a result of decreases in home and commercial construction. Testing volumes may also be impacted by severe weather conditions such as drought. In addition, fiscal difficulties can also reduce government funding for water and herd health screening services.

We believe that the diversity of our products and services and the geographic diversity of our markets partially mitigate the potential effects of the economic environment and negative consumer sentiment on our revenue growth rates.

Effects of Patent Expiration. Although we have several patents and licenses of patents and technologies from third parties that expired during 2018, and several that are expected to expire in 2019 and beyond, the expiration of these patents or licenses, individually or in the aggregate, is not expected to have a material effect on our financial position or future operations due to a range of factors as described in "Part I, Item 1. Business, Patents and Licenses”. 

Non-GAAP Financial Measures. The following revenue analysis and discussion focuses on organic revenue growth, and references in this analysis and discussion to “revenue,” “revenues” or “revenue growth” are references to “organic revenue growth.” Organic revenue growth is a non-GAAP financial measure and represents the percentage change in revenue during the current year, as compared to the same period for the prior year, net of the effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, business acquisitions, and divestitures. Organic revenue growth should be considered in addition to, and not as a replacement for, or as a superior measure to, revenues reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies. Management believes that reporting organic revenue growth provides useful information to investors by facilitating easier comparisons of our revenue performance with prior and future periods and to the performance of our peers.

We exclude from organic revenue growth the effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates because changes in foreign currency exchange rates are not under management’s control, are subject to volatility and can obscure underlying business trends. We calculate the impact on revenue resulting from changes in foreign currency exchange rates by applying the difference between the weighted average exchange rates during the current year period and the comparable prior year period to foreign currency denominated revenues for the prior year period. 

We also exclude from organic revenue growth the effect of certain business acquisitions and divestitures because the nature, size and number of these transactions can vary dramatically from period to period, and because they either require or generate cash as an inherent consequence of the transaction, and therefore can also obscure underlying business and operating trends. Effective January 1, 2018, we exclude only acquisitions that are considered to be a business from organic revenue growth. We consider acquisitions to be a business when all three elements of inputs, processes and outputs are present, consistent with ASU 2017-01, “Business Combinations: (Topic 805) Clarifying the Definition of a Business.” In a business combination, if substantially all the fair value of the assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or group of similar identifiable assets, we do not consider these assets to be a business and effective January 1, 2018, we include these acquisitions in organic revenue growth. A typical acquisition that we do not consider a business is a customer list asset acquisition, which does not have all elements necessary to operate a business, such as employees or infrastructure. We believe the efforts required to convert and retain these acquired customers are similar in nature to our existing customer base and therefore are included in organic revenue growth. This change did not have a material impact on organic revenue growth during the year ended December 31, 2018. Prior to January 1, 2018, we excluded all acquisitions from organic revenue growth and we have not restated previously reported organic revenue growth for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, as this change would not have been material.

We also use Adjusted EBITDA, gross debt, net debt, gross debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio and net debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio, all of which are non-GAAP financial measures that should be considered in addition to, and not as a replacement for, financial measures presented according to U.S. GAAP. Management believes that reporting these non-GAAP

47



financial measures provides supplemental analysis to help investors further evaluate our business performance and available borrowing capacity under our Credit Facility. 

Comparisons to Prior Periods. Our fiscal years end on December 31. Unless otherwise stated, the analysis and discussion of our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity, including references to growth and organic growth and increases and decreases, are being compared to the equivalent prior year period. 




48



Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2018, Compared to Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2017

Total Company

The following table presents revenue by operating segment by U.S. markets and non-U.S., or international markets: 
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net Revenue
(dollars in thousands)
 
2018
 
2017
 
Dollar Change
 
Reported Revenue Growth(1)
 
Percentage Change from Currency
 
Percentage Change from Acquisitions
 
Organic Revenue Growth(1)

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 

CAG
 
$
1,935,428

 
$
1,703,377

 
$
232,051

 
13.6
%
 
0.7
%
 
0.1
%
 
12.8
%
United States
 
1,277,146

 
1,125,364

 
151,782

 
13.5
%
 

 
0.1
%
 
13.4
%
International
 
658,282

 
578,013

 
80,269

 
13.9
%
 
2.1
%
 

 
11.7
%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Water
 
125,198

 
114,395

 
10,803

 
9.4
%
 
0.2
%
 

 
9.3
%
United States
 
58,774

 
55,482

 
3,292

 
5.9
%
 

 

 
5.9
%
International
 
66,424

 
58,913

 
7,511

 
12.7
%
 
0.3
%
 

 
12.4
%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LPD
 
130,581

 
128,481

 
2,100

 
1.6
%
 
1.0
%
 

 
0.6
%
United States
 
13,932

 
14,108

 
(176
)
 
(1.3
%)
 

 

 
(1.3
%)
International
 
116,649

 
114,373

 
2,276

 
2.0
%
 
1.1
%
 

 
0.9
%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other
 
22,035

 
22,805

 
(770
)
 
(3.4
%)
 
0.3
%
 

 
(3.7
%)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Company
 
$
2,213,242

 
$
1,969,058

 
$
244,184

 
12.4
%
 
0.7
%
 
0.1
%
 
11.6
%
United States
 
1,357,909

 
1,203,547

 
154,362

 
12.8
%
 

 
0.1
%
 
12.7
%
International
 
855,333

 
765,511

 
89,822

 
11.7
%
 
1.8
%
 

 
9.9
%
(1)
Reported revenue growth and organic revenue growth may not recalculate due to rounding.

Total Company Revenue. The increase in both U.S. and international organic revenues was driven by strong volume gains in CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue, supported by our differentiated diagnostic technologies and expanded commercial organization that are driving increased volumes from new and existing customers in our reference laboratory business and the continued expansion of our CAG Diagnostics instrument installed base. Our Water business also contributed to our international growth, primarily from higher sales volumes of our Colilert test products and related accessories. Total company revenue included approximately $58.3 million in 2018 that was attributed to the New Revenue Standard.

    

49



The following table presents our total Company results of operations:

 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Change
Total Company - Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
 
2018
 
Percent of Revenue
 
2017
 
Percent of Revenue
 
Amount
 
Percentage

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

Revenues
 
$
2,213,242

 
 

 
$
1,969,058

 
 
 
$
244,184

 
12.4
%
Cost of revenue
 
971,700

 
 

 
871,676

 
 
 
100,024

 
11.5
%
Gross profit
 
1,241,542

 
56.1
%
 
1,097,382

 
55.7
%
 
144,160

 
13.1
%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
 
387,406

 
17.5
%
 
354,294

 
18.0
%
 
33,112

 
9.3
%
General and administrative
 
244,938

 
11.1
%
 
220,878

 
11.2
%
 
24,060

 
10.9
%
Research and development
 
117,863

 
5.3
%
 
109,182

 
5.5
%
 
8,681

 
8.0
%
Total operating expenses
 
750,207

 
33.9
%
 
684,354

 
34.8
%
 
65,853

 
9.6
%
Income from operations
 
$
491,335

 
22.2
%
 
$
413,028

 
21.0
%
 
$
78,307

 
19.0
%
    
Gross Profit. Total Company gross profit increase was due to higher sales volumes and a 40 basis point increase in the gross profit percentage. The increase in the gross profit percentage was supported by the net benefit of price increases in our CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue portfolio, the favorable impact of lower product costs and productivity gains. These impacts were partially offset by higher information technology costs, including costs that were previously captured within operating expenses, increased investments in reference laboratory capacity and employee benefits, as well as unfavorable impacts related to instrument program mix under the New Revenue Standard. The impact from foreign currency movements, including the impact of hedge gains in the prior period compared to hedge losses in the current period, did not have a material impact. Gross profit included approximately $22.9 million in 2018 attributed to the New Revenue Standard.

Operating Expenses. The increase in sales and marketing expense was primarily due to increased personnel-related costs as we continue to invest in and grow our global commercial infrastructure. The increase in general and administrative expense resulted primarily from higher personnel-related costs, foreign exchange losses on settlements of foreign currency denominated transactions compared to gains in the prior period, and information technology investments, including ongoing depreciation and maintenance associated with prior year projects. These increases were partially offset by certain information technology costs that are now captured within cost of revenue. Research and development expense increased primarily due to higher personnel-related costs. The overall change in currency exchange rates resulted in an increase in operating expenses of approximately 1%, including foreign exchange losses on settlements of foreign currency denominated transactions recorded within Unallocated Amounts.

50



idxx-20171231x10kg007a01.jpgCompanion Animal Group 

The following table presents revenue by product and service category for CAG: ໿
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net Revenue
(dollars in thousands)
 
2018
 
2017
 
Dollar Change
 
Reported Revenue Growth(1)
 
Percentage Change from Currency
 
Percentage Change from Acquisitions
 
Organic Revenue Growth(1)

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue:
 
$
1,654,530

 
$
1,451,701

 
$
202,829

 
14.0
%
 
0.8
%
 

 
13.2
%
IDEXX VetLab consumables
 
617,237

 
518,774

 
98,463

 
19.0
%
 
0.8
%
 

 
18.1
%
Rapid assay products
 
217,541

 
205,309

 
12,232

 
6.0
%
 
0.4
%
 

 
5.6
%
Reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services
 
746,794

 
660,142

 
86,652

 
13.1
%
 
0.9
%
 

 
12.2
%
CAG Diagnostics services and accessories
 
72,958

 
67,476

 
5,482

 
8.1
%
 
0.8
%
 

 
7.4
%
CAG Diagnostics capital - instruments
 
134,264

 
119,963

 
14,301

 
11.9
%
 
0.6
%
 

 
11.3
%
Veterinary software, services and diagnostic imaging systems
 
146,634

 
131,713

 
14,921

 
11.3
%
 
0.1
%
 
1.3
%
 
10.0
%
Net CAG revenue
 
$
1,935,428

 
$
1,703,377

 
$
232,051

 
13.6
%
 
0.7
%
 
0.1
%
 
12.8
%
(1)
Reported revenue growth and organic revenue growth may not recalculate due to rounding.

CAG Diagnostics Recurring Revenue. The increase in CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue was primarily due to increased volumes in IDEXX VetLab consumables and reference laboratory diagnostic services, supported by our differentiated diagnostic technologies, expanded commercial organization, and to a lesser extent, higher realized prices. CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue included approximately $18.6 million in 2018 that was attributed to the New Revenue Standard.

IDEXX VetLab consumables revenue growth was primarily due to higher sales volumes across all regions for our Catalyst consumables, and to a lesser extent Procyte Dx consumables and SediVue Dx analyzer pay-per-run sales, supported by growth in testing by new and existing customers and our expanded menu of available tests, as well as benefits from higher average unit sales prices. IDEXX VetLab consumables revenue included approximately $12.5 million in 2018 that was attributed to the New Revenue Standard.

The increase in rapid assay revenue resulted from higher sales volumes and average unit prices of canine SNAP® 4Dx Plus tests and higher sales volumes of single analyte SNAP products. Rapid assay revenue included approximately $0.8 million in 2018 that was attributed to the New Revenue Standard.

The increase in reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services revenue was primarily due to the impact of higher testing volumes throughout our worldwide network of laboratories, most prominently in the U.S., resulting from increased testing from new and existing customers, supported by our differentiated diagnostic technologies, such as IDEXX SDMAand fecal antigen testing, and to a lesser extent, higher average unit sales prices. Reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting revenue included approximately $5.6 million in 2018 that was attributed to the New Revenue Standard.

CAG Diagnostic services and accessories revenue growth was primarily a result of the increase in our active installed base of instruments. The New Revenue Standard did not have a material impact on CAG Diagnostic services and accessories revenue in 2018.

CAG Diagnostics Capital – Instruments Revenue. The increase in CAG Diagnostics capital instrument revenue reflects increased placements of Catalyst, SediVue Dx, and to a lesser extent, Procyte Dx analyzers, supported by the introduction of IDEXX 360 in the first quarter of 2018. The success of our IDEXX 360 program caused a shift away from our

51



instrument rebate program, which resulted in increased upfront instrument revenue recognition attributed to the New Revenue Standard. CAG Diagnostics capital instrument revenue included approximately $33.1 million in 2018 that was attributed to the New Revenue Standard.

Veterinary Software, Services, and Diagnostic Imaging Systems Revenue. The increase in revenue was primarily due to increased diagnostic imaging system placements and higher veterinary subscription service revenue, partially offset by lower relative diagnostic imaging system prices. Veterinary software, services and diagnostic imaging revenue included approximately $6.4 million in 2018 attributed to the New Revenue Standard. Our acquisition of a software company in the second half of 2018 and two software companies in the second quarter of 2017 also contributed 1.3% to reported revenue growth.

The following table presents the CAG segment results of operations:

 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Change
Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
 
2018
 
Percent of Revenue
 
2017
 
Percent of Revenue
 
Amount
 
Percentage

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

Revenues
 
$
1,935,428

 
 
 
$
1,703,377

 
 
 
$
232,051

 
13.6
%
Cost of revenue
 
868,919

 
 
 
766,579

 
 
 
102,340

 
13.4
%
Gross profit
 
1,066,509

 
55.1
%
 
936,798

 
55.0
%
 
129,711

 
13.8
%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
 
345,737

 
17.9
%
 
312,497

 
18.3
%
 
33,240

 
10.6
%
General and administrative
 
204,425

 
10.6
%
 
180,907

 
10.6
%
 
23,518

 
13.0
%
Research and development
 
86,864

 
4.5
%
 
79,837

 
4.7
%
 
7,027

 
8.8
%
Total operating expenses
 
637,026

 
32.9
%
 
573,241

 
33.7
%
 
63,785

 
11.1
%
Income from operations
 
$
429,483

 
22.2
%
 
$
363,557

 
21.3
%
 
$
65,926

 
18.1
%

Gross Profit. Gross profit for CAG increased primarily due to higher sales volumes, along with a 10 basis point increase in the gross profit percentage. The net benefit of price increases in our CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue portfolio and the favorable impact of productivity gains were offset by higher information technology costs, including costs that were previously captured within operating expenses, as well as increased investments in reference laboratory capacity and employee benefits, as well as unfavorable impacts related to instrument program mix under the New Revenue Standard. The impact from foreign currency movements had an immaterial impact on the gross profit margin. Gross profit included approximately $22.7 million in 2018 attributed to the New Revenue Standard.

Operating Expenses. The increase in sales and marketing expense was primarily due to increased personnel-related costs as we continue to invest in our global commercial infrastructure, offset by approximately $2.1 million related to net deferred costs to obtain contracts under the New Revenue Standard. The increase in general and administrative expense resulted primarily from higher personnel-related costs, incremental information technology investments, and costs related to the impairment of construction in progress production equipment in connection with the discontinuation of our in-clinic SNAP Fecal product. These increases were partially offset by certain information technology costs that are now captured within cost of revenue. The increase in research and development expense was primarily due to increased personnel-related costs. The overall change in currency exchange rates resulted in an increase in operating expenses of less than 1%.

52



idxx-20171231x10kg008a02.jpgWater

The following table presents the Water segment results of operations:

 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Change
Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
 
2018
 
Percent of Revenue
 
2017
 
Percent of Revenue
 
Amount
 
Percentage

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

Revenues
 
$
125,198

 
 
 
$
114,395

 
 
 
$
10,803

 
9.4
%
Cost of revenue
 
37,106

 
 
 
35,030

 
 
 
2,076

 
5.9
%
Gross profit
 
88,092

 
70.4
%
 
79,365

 
69.4
%
 
8,727

 
11.0
%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
 
15,900

 
12.7
%
 
14,482

 
12.7
%
 
1,418

 
9.8
%
General and administrative
 
13,005

 
10.4
%
 
11,803

 
10.3
%
 
1,202

 
10.2
%
Research and development
 
2,580

 
2.1
%
 
2,464

 
2.2
%
 
116

 
4.7
%
Total operating expenses
 
31,485

 
25.1
%
 
28,749

 
25.1
%
 
2,736

 
9.5
%
Income from operations
 
$
56,607

 
45.2
%
 
$
50,616

 
44.2
%
 
$
5,991

 
11.8
%

Revenue. The increase in revenue was attributable to higher sales volumes of our Colilert test products and related accessories, used in coliform and E. coli testing in North America, Europe, and Latin America, and to a lesser extent, the benefit of price increases. Revenue growth in Latin America includes the impact of our go-direct initiative in Brazil, which contributed approximately 1% to revenue growth, including the impact of reductions in distributor inventories in the first quarter of the prior year. The favorable impact of currency movements increased revenue by approximately 20 basis points. The New Revenue Standard did not have a material impact on Water revenue in 2018.

Gross Profit. Gross profit for Water increased due to higher sales volumes as well as a 100 basis point increase in the gross profit percentage. The increase in the gross profit percentage was primarily due to the net benefit of price increases, and to a lesser extent, decreases in manufacturing costs. The impact from foreign currency movements decreased gross profit margin by approximately 20 basis points, including the impact of hedge losses in the current year compared to hedge gains in the prior year.

Operating Expenses. The increase in sales and marketing expense was primarily due to higher personnel-related costs related to increased head count. The increase in general and administrative expense was primarily due to employee related costs. Research and development expense was relatively unchanged. The overall change in currency exchange rates was immaterial to operating expenses.


53



idxx-20171231x10kg009a02.jpgLivestock, Poultry and Dairy

The following table presents the LPD segment results of operations:

 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Change
Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
 
2018
 
Percent of Revenue
 
2017
 
Percent of Revenue
 
Amount
 
Percentage

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

Revenues
 
$
130,581

 
 
 
$
128,481

 
 
 
$
2,100

 
1.6
%
Cost of revenue
 
55,621

 
 
 
56,341

 
 
 
(720
)
 
(1.3
%)
Gross profit
 
74,960

 
57.4
%
 
72,140

 
56.1
%
 
2,820

 
3.9
%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
 
24,594

 
18.8
%
 
24,801

 
19.3
%
 
(207
)
 
(0.8
%)
General and administrative
 
19,159

 
14.7
%
 
18,723