Company Quick10K Filing
Innovative Industrial Properties
Price95.74 EPS1
Shares11 P/E80
MCap1,088 P/FCF43
Net Debt25 EBIT18
TEV1,113 TEV/EBIT62
TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios
10-Q 2020-03-31 Filed 2020-05-07
10-K 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-03-02
10-Q 2019-09-30 Filed 2019-11-07
10-Q 2019-06-30 Filed 2019-08-08
10-Q 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-05-09
10-K 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-03-14
10-Q 2018-09-30 Filed 2018-11-08
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-08-13
10-Q 2018-03-31 Filed 2018-05-10
10-K 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-03-29
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-11-09
10-Q 2017-06-30 Filed 2017-08-10
10-Q 2017-03-31 Filed 2017-05-11
10-K 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-03-23
8-K 2020-05-06 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2020-03-09 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2020-03-03 Enter Agreement, Exhibits
8-K 2020-02-26 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2020-02-24 Enter Agreement, Exhibits
8-K 2020-01-24 Enter Agreement, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2020-01-16 Enter Agreement, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2020-01-14 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2020-01-03 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2020-01-01 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-12-31 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2019-12-16 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-11-18 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2019-11-06 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-10-30 Enter Agreement, M&A, Exhibits
8-K 2019-09-24 Enter Agreement, Exhibits
8-K 2019-09-20 Enter Agreement, Exhibits
8-K 2019-08-09 Enter Agreement, M&A, Exhibits
8-K 2019-08-07 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-07-11 Enter Agreement, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-07-02 Officers
8-K 2019-06-26 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-06-13 Enter Agreement, Exhibits
8-K 2019-05-21 Officers, Shareholder Vote, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-05-09 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-03-13 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-03-13 Enter Agreement, M&A, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-15 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Sale of Shares, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-22 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-16 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-07 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-03 Enter Agreement, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-04 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-10 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-02 Enter Agreement, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-31 Enter Agreement, M&A, Regulation FD, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-23 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-05-09 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-28 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-18 Enter Agreement, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-08 Officers, Exhibits

IIPR 10Q Quarterly Report

Part I
Item 1. Financial Statements
Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Part II
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 5. Other Information
Item 6. Exhibits
EX-10.5 iipr-20200331xex10d5.htm
EX-31.1 iipr-20200331xex31d1.htm
EX-31.2 iipr-20200331xex31d2.htm
EX-32.1 iipr-20200331xex32d1.htm

Innovative Industrial Properties Earnings 2020-03-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
0.70.60.40.30.10.02017201820192020
Assets, Equity
0.10.10.10.00.00.02016201720182020
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
0.20.10.0-0.0-0.1-0.22017201820192020
Ops, Inv, Fin

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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED MARCH 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM _________ TO _________

Commission file number: 001-37949

Innovative Industrial Properties, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

Maryland

81-2963381

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.) 

organization) 

1389 Center Drive, Suite 200

Park City, UT 84098

(858) 997-3332

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Registrant’s telephone number)

Not Applicable

(Former Name, Former Address and Former Fiscal Year, if Changed Since Last Report)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbols (s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

 

IIPR

 

New York Stock Exchange

Series A Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share

 

IIPR-PA

 

New York Stock Exchange

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

As of May 7, 2020 there were 17,035,674 shares of common stock outstanding.

Table of Contents

INNOVATIVE INDUSTRIAL PROPERTIES, INC.

FORM 10-Q – QUARTERLY REPORT

MARCH 31, 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I

Item 1.

Financial Statements (Unaudited)

3

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

3

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income

4

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

5

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

6

 

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

7

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

19

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

30

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

30

PART II

2

Table of Contents

PART I

ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Innovative Industrial Properties, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(Unaudited)

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

March 31, 

December 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

Assets

Real estate, at cost:

 

  

 

  

Land

$

51,712

$

48,652

Buildings and improvements

 

464,267

 

382,035

Tenant improvements

 

173,974

 

87,344

Total real estate, at cost

 

689,953

 

518,031

Less accumulated depreciation

 

(17,077)

 

(12,170)

Net real estate held for investment

 

672,876

 

505,861

Cash and cash equivalents

 

108,261

 

82,244

Restricted cash

23,032

35,072

Short-term investments, net

 

272,907

 

119,595

Right of use office lease asset

1,147

1,202

Other assets, net

 

2,247

 

1,883

Total assets

$

1,080,470

$

745,857

Liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

 

  

Exchangeable senior notes

$

135,154

$

134,654

Tenant improvements and construction funding payable

 

41,185

 

24,968

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

 

1,305

 

3,417

Dividends payable

 

17,407

 

12,975

Office lease liability

1,204

1,202

Rent received in advance and tenant security deposits

 

25,236

 

20,631

Total liabilities

 

221,491

 

197,847

Commitments and contingencies (Notes 6 and 11)

 

 

  

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

  

Preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, 50,000,000 shares authorized: 9.00% Series A cumulative redeemable preferred stock, $15,000 liquidation preference ($25.00 per share), 600,000 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019

 

14,009

 

14,009

Common stock, par value $0.001 per share, 50,000,000 shares authorized: 17,035,674 and 12,637,043 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively

 

17

 

13

Additional paid-in capital

 

870,433

 

553,932

Dividends in excess of earnings

 

(25,480)

 

(19,944)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

858,979

 

548,010

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

1,080,470

$

745,857

See the accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

3

Table of Contents

Innovative Industrial Properties, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income

(Unaudited)

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

For the Three Months Ended

March 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

Revenues:

 

  

 

  

Rental (including tenant reimbursements)

$

21,130

$

6,823

Total revenues

 

21,130

 

6,823

Expenses:

 

 

Property expenses

 

600

 

247

General and administrative expense

 

3,346

 

1,918

Depreciation expense

 

4,907

 

1,218

Total expenses

 

8,853

 

3,383

Income from operations

 

12,277

 

3,440

Interest and other income

 

1,444

 

993

Interest expense

 

(1,849)

 

(792)

Net income

 

11,872

 

3,641

Preferred stock dividend

 

(338)

 

(338)

Net income attributable to common stockholders

$

11,534

$

3,303

Net income attributable to common stockholders per share (Note 8):

 

 

Basic

$

0.72

$

0.34

Diluted

$

0.72

$

0.33

Weighted average shares outstanding:

 

 

Basic

 

15,784,296

 

9,664,775

Diluted

 

15,898,091

 

9,797,676

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

4

Table of Contents

Innovative Industrial Properties, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

(Unaudited)

(In thousands, except share amounts)

Series A

Shares of

Additional

Dividends in

Total

Preferred

Common

Common

Paid-In-

Excess of

Stockholders’

    

Stock

    

Stock

    

Stock

    

Capital

    

Earnings

    

Equity

Balance, December 31, 2019

$

14,009

12,637,043

$

13

$

553,932

$

(19,944)

$

548,010

Net income

 

 

 

 

11,872

 

11,872

Net proceeds from sale of common stock

 

4,411,251

 

4

 

317,841

 

 

317,845

Exchange of exchangeable senior notes

14

1

1

Net issuance of unvested restricted stock

 

(12,634)

 

 

(2,166)

 

 

(2,166)

Preferred stock dividend

 

 

 

 

(338)

 

(338)

Common stock dividend

 

 

 

 

(17,070)

 

(17,070)

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

825

 

 

825

Balance, March 31, 2020

$

14,009

 

17,035,674

$

17

$

870,433

$

(25,480)

$

858,979

Series A

Shares of

Additional

Dividends in

Total

Preferred

Common

Common

Paid-In-

Excess of

Stockholders’

    

Stock

    

Stock

    

Stock

    

Capital

    

Earnings

    

Equity

Balance, December 31, 2018

$

14,009

9,775,800

$

10

$

260,540

$

(10,267)

$

264,292

Net income

 

 

 

3,641

 

3,641

Equity component of exchangeable senior notes

5,569

5,569

Net issuance of unvested restricted stock

 

30,394

 

(939)

 

 

(939)

Preferred stock dividend

 

 

 

(338)

 

(338)

Common stock dividend

 

 

 

(4,412)

 

(4,412)

Stock-based compensation

 

 

563

 

 

563

Balance, March 31, 2019

$

14,009

 

9,806,194

$

10

$

265,733

$

(11,376)

$

268,376

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

5

Table of Contents

Innovative Industrial Properties, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(Unaudited)

(In thousands)

For the Three Months Ended

March 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

Cash flows from operating activities

 

  

 

  

Net income

$

11,872

$

3,641

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities

 

 

Depreciation

 

4,907

 

1,218

Stock-based compensation

 

825

 

563

Amortization of discounts on short-term investments

 

(1,009)

 

(841)

Amortization of debt discounts and issuance costs

 

501

 

208

Other non-cash adjustments

74

Changes in assets and liabilities

 

 

Other assets, net

 

(93)

 

(89)

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

 

(2,112)

 

(744)

Rent received in advance and tenant security deposits

 

4,605

 

647

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

19,570

 

4,603

Cash flows from investing activities

 

 

Purchases of investments in real estate

 

(72,457)

 

(7,410)

Reimbursements of tenant improvements and construction funding

 

(82,698)

 

(6,832)

Deposits in escrow for acquisitions

 

(838)

 

(1,601)

Purchases of short-term investments

 

(254,803)

 

(116,945)

Maturities of short-term investments

 

102,500

 

40,500

Net cash used in investing activities

 

(308,296)

 

(92,288)

Cash flows from financing activities

 

 

Issuance of common stock, net of offering costs

 

317,845

 

Net proceeds from issuance of exchangeable senior notes

 

 

138,557

Dividends paid to common stockholders

 

(12,638)

 

(3,421)

Dividends paid to preferred stockholders

 

(338)

 

(338)

Taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards

 

(2,166)

 

(939)

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

302,703

 

133,859

Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

13,977

 

46,174

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of period

 

117,316

 

13,050

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period

$

131,293

 

59,224

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:

Cash paid during the period for interest

$

2,695

$

Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing cash flow information:

 

 

Accrual for reimbursements of tenant improvements and construction funding

$

41,185

$

3,201

Accrual for common and preferred stock dividends declared

 

17,408

 

4,750

Deposits applied for acquisitions

550

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

6

Table of Contents

Innovative Industrial Properties, Inc.

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

March 31, 2020

(Unaudited)

1. Organization

As used herein, the terms “we”, “us”, “our” or the “Company” refer to Innovative Industrial Properties, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and any of our subsidiaries, including IIP Operating Partnership, LP, a Delaware limited partnership (our “Operating Partnership”).

We are an internally-managed real estate investment trust (“REIT”) focused on the acquisition, ownership and management of specialized properties leased to experienced, state-licensed operators for their regulated state-licensed cannabis facilities. We have acquired and intend to continue to acquire our properties through sale-leaseback transactions and third-party purchases. We have leased and expect to continue to lease our properties on a triple-net lease basis, where the tenant is responsible for all aspects of and costs related to the property and its operation during the lease term, including structural repairs, maintenance, taxes and insurance.

We were incorporated in Maryland on June 15, 2016. We conduct our business through a traditional umbrella partnership real estate investment trust, or UPREIT structure, in which our properties are owned by our Operating Partnership, directly or through subsidiaries. We are the sole general partner of our Operating Partnership and own, directly or through subsidiaries, 100% of the limited partnership interests in our Operating Partnership.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Procedures and Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Basis of Presentation. The condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. They do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements.

The Company considered the impact of COVID-19 on its assumptions and estimates used and determined that there were no material adverse impacts on the Company's results of operations and financial position at March 31, 2020. A prolonged outbreak could have a material adverse impact on the financial results and business operations of the Company. See Note 12 for further discussion.

This interim financial information should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019. Any references to square footage or occupancy percentage, and any amounts derived from these values in these notes to condensed consolidated financial statements, are outside the scope of our independent registered public accounting firm’s review.

Management believes that all adjustments of a normal, recurring nature considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included. This interim financial information does not necessarily represent or indicate what the operating results will be for the year ending December 31, 2020.

Federal Income Taxes. We believe that we have operated our business so as to qualify to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Under the REIT operating structure, we are permitted to deduct dividends paid to our stockholders in determining our taxable income. Assuming our dividends equal or exceed our taxable net income, we generally will not be required to pay federal corporate income taxes on such income. The income taxes recorded on our condensed consolidated statements of income represent amounts paid for city and state income and franchise taxes and are included in general and administrative expenses in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of income.

Use of Estimates. The preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make a number of estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ materially from these estimates and assumptions.

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Reportable Segment. We are engaged in the business of providing real estate for the regulated cannabis industries. Our properties are similar in that they are leased to the state-licensed operators on long-term triple-net basis, consist of improvements that are reusable and have similar economic characteristics. Our chief operating decision makers review financial information for our entire consolidated operations when making decisions related to assessing our operating performance. We have aggregated the properties into one reportable segment as the properties share similar long-term economic characteristics and have other similarities, including the fact that they are operated using consistent business strategies. The financial information disclosed herein represents all of the financial information related to our one reportable segment.

Acquisition of Real Estate Properties. Our investment in real estate is recorded at historical cost, less accumulated depreciation. Upon acquisition of a property, the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed are initially measured based upon their relative fair values. We estimate the fair value of land by reviewing comparable sales within the same submarket and/or region, the fair value of buildings on an as-if vacant basis and may engage third-party valuation specialists. Acquisition costs are capitalized as incurred. All of our acquisitions to date were recorded as asset acquisitions.

Depreciation. We are required to make subjective assessments as to the estimated useful lives of our depreciable assets. We consider the period of future benefit of the assets to determine the appropriate estimated useful lives. Depreciation of our assets is charged to expense on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives. We depreciate each of our buildings and improvements over its estimated remaining useful life, generally not to exceed 40 years. We depreciate tenant improvements at our buildings over the shorter of the estimated useful lives or the terms of the related leases.

We depreciate office equipment and furniture and fixtures over estimated useful lives ranging from three to six years. We depreciate the leasehold improvements at our corporate office over the shorter of the estimated useful lives or the initial lease term.

Provision for Impairment. On a quarterly basis, we review current activities and changes in the business conditions of all of our properties prior to and subsequent to the end of each quarter to determine the existence of any triggering events or impairment indicators requiring an impairment analysis. If triggering events or impairment indicators are identified, we review an estimate of the future undiscounted cash flows for the properties, including, if necessary, a probability-weighted approach if multiple outcomes are under consideration.

Long-lived assets are individually evaluated for impairment when conditions exist that may indicate that the carrying amount of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable. The carrying amount of a long-lived asset to be held and used is not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset. Impairment indicators or triggering events for long-lived assets to be held and used are assessed by project and include significant fluctuations in estimated net operating income, occupancy changes, significant near-term lease expirations, current and historical operating and/or cash flow losses, construction costs, estimated completion dates, rental rates, and other market factors. We assess the expected undiscounted cash flows based upon numerous factors, including, but not limited to, construction costs, available market information, current and historical operating results, known trends, current market/economic conditions that may affect the property, and our assumptions about the use of the asset, including, if necessary, a probability-weighted approach if multiple outcomes are under consideration. Upon determination that an impairment has occurred, a write-down is recognized to reduce the carrying amount to its estimated fair value. We may adjust depreciation of properties that are expected to be disposed of or redeveloped prior to the end of their useful lives. No impairment losses were recognized during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019.

Revenue Recognition. Our leases are and future tenant leases are expected to be triple-net leases, an arrangement under which the tenant maintains the property while paying us rent. We account for our current leases as operating leases and anticipate that future leases will be accounted for as operating leases. Under this method, leases that have fixed and determinable rent increases are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term, unless the collectability of minimum lease payments is not reasonably predictable. Rental increases based upon changes in the consumer price index are recognized only after the changes in the indexes have occurred and are then applied according to the lease agreements. Contractually obligated reimbursements from tenants for recoverable real estate taxes and operating expenses are included in rental revenue in the period when such costs are incurred. Contractually obligated real estate taxes that are paid directly by the tenant to the tax authorities are not reflected in our condensed consolidated financial statements.

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We record revenue for each of our properties on a cash basis due to the uncertain regulatory environment in the United States relating to the regulated cannabis industry and the uncertainty of collectability of lease payments from each tenant due to its limited operating history.

Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash. We consider all highly-liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, $96.8 million and $60.1 million, respectively, were invested in short-term money market funds, obligations of the U.S. government with an original maturity at the time of purchase of less than or equal to three months and certificates of deposit.

Restricted cash relates to cash held in an escrow account for the reimbursement of tenant improvements for a tenant in accordance with the lease agreement at one of our properties.

Investments. Investments consist of obligations of the U.S. government and certificates of deposit with an original maturity at the time of purchase of greater than three months. Investments are classified as held-to-maturity and stated at amortized cost.

Exchangeable Notes. The “Debt with Conversion and Other Options” Topic of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification requires the liability and equity components of exchangeable debt instruments that may be settled in cash upon exchange, including partial cash settlement, to be separately accounted for in a manner that reflects the issuer’s nonexchangeable debt borrowing rate. The initial proceeds from the sale of exchangeable notes are allocated between a liability component and an equity component in a manner that reflects interest expense at the rate of similar nonexchangeable debt that could have been issued at such time. The equity component represents the excess initial proceeds received over the fair value of the liability component of the notes as of the date of issuance. We measured the estimated fair value of the debt component of our Exchangeable Senior Notes (as defined below) as of the respective issuance dates based on our estimated nonexchangeable debt borrowing rate with the assistance of a third-party valuation specialist as we do not have a history of borrowing arrangements and there is limited empirical data available related to the Company’s industry due to the regulatory uncertainty of the cannabis market in which the Company’s tenants operate. The equity component of our Exchangeable Senior Notes is reflected within additional paid-in capital on our condensed consolidated balance sheets, and the resulting debt discount is amortized over the period during which the Exchangeable Senior Notes are expected to be outstanding (through the maturity date) as additional non-cash interest expense. The additional non-cash interest expense attributable to our Exchangeable Senior Notes will increase in subsequent periods through the maturity date as the Exchangeable Senior Notes accrete to the par value over the same period.

Deferred Financing Costs. The deferred financing costs that are included as a reduction in the net book value of the related liability on our condensed consolidated balance sheets reflect issuance and other costs related to our Exchangeable Senior Notes. These costs are amortized as non-cash interest expense using the effective interest method over the life of the Exchangeable Senior Notes.

Stock-Based Compensation. Stock-based compensation for equity awards is based on the grant date fair value of the equity awards and is recognized over the requisite service period. If awards are forfeited prior to vesting, we reverse any previously recognized expense related to such awards in the period during which the forfeiture occurs and reclassify any non-forfeitable dividends and dividend equivalents previously paid on these awards from retained earnings to compensation expense. Forfeitures are recognized as incurred.

Lease Accounting. As lessee, at March 31, 2020, we recognized a liability to account for our future obligations related to our corporate office lease, which has a remaining lease term of approximately five years, excluding the extension option that we are not reasonably certain to exercise, and a corresponding right-of-use asset. The initial lease liability was measured based on the present value of the future lease payments discounted using the estimated incremental borrowing rate of 7.25%, which is the interest rate that we estimate we would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term for an amount equal to the lease payments. Subsequently, the lease liability is accreted by applying a discount rate established at the lease commencement date to the lease liability balance as of the beginning of the period and is reduced by the payments made during the period.

The right-of-use asset was initially measured based on the corresponding lease liability. We did not incur any initial direct leasing costs or any other consideration exchanged with the landlord prior to the commencement of the lease. Subsequently, the right-of-use asset is amortized on a straight-line basis during the lease term. For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, we recognized office lease expense of approximately $58,000 and $21,000,

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respectively, which are included in general and administrative expense in our condensed consolidated statements of income. For the three months ended March 31, 2020, rent for the office lease was abated. For the three months ended March 31, 2019, approximately $22,000 was paid for our office lease and classified as operating activities in our condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.

As lessor for each of our real estate transactions involving the leaseback of the related property to the seller or affiliates of the seller, we determine whether these transactions qualify as sale and leaseback transactions under the accounting guidance. For these transactions, we consider various inputs and assumptions including, but not necessarily limited to, lease terms, renewal options, discount rates, and other rights and provisions in the purchase and sale agreement, lease and other documentation to determine whether control has been transferred to the Company or remains with the lessee. A transaction involving a sale leaseback will be treated as a purchase of a real estate property if it is considered to transfer control of the underlying asset from the lessee. A lease will be classified as direct-financing if risks and rewards are conveyed without the transfer of control. Otherwise, the lease is treated as an operating lease. These criteria also include estimates and assumptions regarding the fair value of the leased facilities, minimum lease payments, the economic useful life of the facilities, the existence of a purchase option, and certain other terms in the lease agreements. The lease accounting guidance requires accounting for a transaction as a financing in a sale leaseback when the seller-lessee is provided an option to purchase the property from the landlord at the tenant’s option. All of our leases are classified as operating leases. Our tenant reimbursable revenue and property expenses are presented on a gross basis as rental revenue and as property expenses, respectively, on our condensed consolidated statements of income.

One of our leases that was entered into prior to 2019 provides the lessee with a purchase option to purchase the leased property at the end of the initial lease term in September 2034, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions. The purchase option provision allows the lessee to purchase the leased property at the greatest of (a) the fair value; (b) the value determined by dividing the then-current base rent by 8%; and (c) an amount equal to our gross investment in the property (including the purchase price at acquisition and any additional investment in the property made by us during the term of the lease), indexed to inflation. At March 31, 2020, our gross investment in the property with the purchase option was approximately $29.0 million. At March 31, 2020, the purchase option was not exercisable.

Our leases generally contain options to extend the lease terms at the prevailing market rate or at the expiring rental rate at the time of expiration. Certain of our leases provide the lessee with a right of first refusal or right of first offer in the event we market the leased property for sale.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements. In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments — Credit Losses, which changes the impairment model for most financial assets and certain other instruments. For trade and other receivables, held-to-maturity debt securities, loans and other instruments, companies will be required to use a new forward-looking “expected loss” model that generally will result in the earlier recognition of allowances for losses. In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-19, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments — Credit Losses, which among other updates, clarifies that receivables arising from operating leases are not within the scope of this guidance and should be evaluated in accordance with Topic 842. For available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, companies will measure credit losses in a manner similar to what they do today, except that the losses will be recognized as allowances rather than as reductions in the amortized cost of the securities. These standards were effective for the Company on January 1, 2020, and did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.

Concentration of Credit Risk. As of March 31, 2020, we owned 53 properties located in Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Virginia. The ability of any of our tenants to honor the terms of their leases is dependent upon the economic, regulatory, competition, natural and social factors affecting the community in which that tenant operates. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, PharmaCann, LLC (“PharmaCann”) leased five properties from us which comprised approximately 24% of rental revenues (including tenant reimbursements). During the three months ended March 31, 2019, PharmaCann leased two properties from us which comprised approximately 31% of rental revenues (including tenant reimbursements). In addition, during the three months ended March 31, 2020, Ascend Wellness Holdings, LLC’s leases at certain of our properties located in Illinois and Michigan accounted for approximately 9% of our rental revenues (including tenant reimbursements).

At March 31, 2020, we had a property in each of Florida, Illinois, Michigan, and Pennsylvania that individually accounted for approximately 5% of our net real estate held for investment. At December 31, 2019, one of our properties in New York accounted for approximately 6% of our net real estate held for investment.

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We have deposited cash with a financial institution that is insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) up to $250,000. As of March 31, 2020, we had cash accounts in excess of FDIC insured limits. We have not experienced any losses in such accounts.

Reclassifications. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified for consistency with the current period presentation. The reclassifications included the combined presentation of tenant reimbursements with rental revenue on the condensed consolidated statements of income for the three months ended March 31, 2019, the presentation of dividends in excess of earnings separate from additional paid-in-capital, on the condensed consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity for the three months ended March 31, 2019 to conform to the current period presentation and the reclassification between net cash provided by operating activities and net cash used in investing activities in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2019 to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported condensed consolidated results of operations.

3. Common Stock

As of March 31, 2020, the Company was authorized to issue up to 50,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and there were 17,035,674 shares of common stock issued and outstanding.

In January 2020, we issued 3,412,969 shares of common stock, including the exercise in full of the underwriters’ option to purchase an additional 445,170 shares, resulting in net proceeds of approximately $239.6 million.

In September 2019, we entered into equity distribution agreements with three sales agents, pursuant to which we may offer and sell from time to time through an “at-the-market” offering program, or ATM Program, up to $250.0 million in shares of our common stock. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, we sold 998,282 shares of our common stock for net proceeds of approximately $78.2 million under the ATM Program, which includes the payment of approximately $1.6 million to one sales agent as commission for such sales.

4. Preferred Stock

The Company is authorized to issue up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, and there were issued and outstanding 600,000 shares of 9.00% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share (the “Series A Preferred Stock”). Generally, the Company is not permitted to redeem the Series A Preferred Stock prior to October 19, 2022, except in limited circumstances relating to the Company’s ability to qualify as a REIT and in certain other circumstances related to a change of control/delisting (as defined in the articles supplementary for the Series A Preferred Stock). On or after October 19, 2022, the Company may, at its option, redeem the Series A Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time, for cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus all accrued and unpaid dividends on such Series A Preferred Stock up to, but excluding the redemption date. Holders of the Series A Preferred Stock generally have no voting rights except for limited voting rights if the Company fails to pay dividends for six or more quarterly periods (whether or not consecutive) and in certain other circumstances.

5. Dividends

The following table describes the dividends declared by the Company during the three months ended March 31, 2020:

Amount

Per

Dividend

Declaration Date

    

Security Class

    

Share

    

Period Covered

    

Paid Date

    

Dividend Amount

 

(In thousands)

March 13, 2020

Common Stock

$

1.00

January 1, 2020 to March 31, 2020

April 15, 2020

$

17,070

March 13, 2020

Series A preferred stock

$

0.5625

January 15, 2020 to April 14, 2020

April 15, 2020

$

338

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6. Investments in Real Estate

The Company acquired the following properties during the three months ended March 31, 2020 (dollars in thousands):

Rentable

Square

Purchase

Transaction

Property

    

Market

    

Closing Date

    

Feet (1)

    

Price

    

Costs

    

Total

Green Leaf VA

Virginia

January 15, 2020

82,000

$

11,740

72

11,812

(2)

Cresco OH

Ohio

January 24, 2020

50,000

10,600

12

10,612

(3)

GTI OH

Ohio

January 31, 2020

21,000

2,900

23

2,923

(4)

LivWell CO - Retail Portfolio

Colorado

Various

8,000

3,300

23

3,323

(5)

GTI IL

Illinois

March 6, 2020

231,000

9,000

17

9,017

(6)

Parallel FL

Florida

March 11, 2020

373,000

35,300

20

35,320

(7)

Total

 

765,000

$

72,840

$

167

$

73,007

  

(1)Includes expected rentable square feet at completion of construction of certain properties.
(2)The tenant is expected to complete development of the property for which we have agreed to provide reimbursement of up to approximately $8.0 million. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $6.4 million of the development costs, of which we funded approximately $4.5 million.
(3)The tenant is expected to complete redevelopment of the property for which we have agreed to provide reimbursement of up to approximately $1.9 million. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $30,000 of the redevelopment costs, of which none was funded.
(4)The tenant is expected to complete redevelopment of the property for which we have agreed to provide reimbursement of up to $4.3 million. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $3.0 million of the redevelopment costs, of which we funded approximately $2.0 million.
(5)The portfolio consists of two retail properties, with one property closing on February 19, 2020 and one property closing on February 21, 2020. The tenant is expected to complete tenant improvements at one of the properties, for which we agreed to provide reimbursement of up to $850,000. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $49,000 of the redevelopment costs, of which none was funded.
(6)The tenant is expected to complete redevelopment of the property for which we have agreed to provide reimbursement of up to $41.0 million. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $8.0 million of the redevelopment costs, of which we funded approximately $4.9 million.
(7)The tenant is expected to complete redevelopment of the property for which we have agreed to provide reimbursement of up to $8.2 million. As of March 31, 2020, we had not incurred or funded any of the redevelopment costs.

In January 2020, we amended our lease with Green Peak Industries, LLC (“GPI”) which, among other things, canceled the remaining tenant improvement allowance of approximately $15.2 million and adjusted the corresponding base rent. As of March 31, 2020, our total investment in the property was approximately $15.8 million.

In January 2020, we amended our lease with a subsidiary of Vireo Health, Inc. at one of our Pennsylvania properties, making available an additional $4.5 million in funding for tenant improvements at the property. Assuming full payment of the additional funding, our total tenant improvement allowance would be approximately $8.3 million and our total investment in the property would be approximately $14.1 million. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred $5.6 million of the redevelopment costs, of which approximately $4.7 million was funded. Subsequent to quarter end, in April 2020, we amended the lease to decrease the funding for tenant improvements at the property by $300,000; as a result, the total tenant improvement allowance for the property is approximately $8.0 million, and assuming full payment of the allowance, our total investment in the property will be approximately $13.8 million.

In January 2020, we amended our lease with a subsidiary of The Pharm, LLC at one of our Arizona properties, making available an additional $2.0 million in funding for tenant improvements at the property, making the total tenant improvement allowance $5.0 million. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred and funded the full amount of the redevelopment costs, making our total investment in the property $20.0 million.

In January 2020, we amended our lease with the tenant of our Sacramento, California property, making available an additional approximately $1.3 million in funding for tenant improvements at the property. Assuming full payment of the

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additional funding, our total tenant improvement allowance will be approximately $6.0 million and our total investment in the property will be approximately $12.7 million. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $6.0 million of the redevelopment costs, of which approximately $5.8 million was funded.

In February 2020, we amended our lease with a subsidiary of Maitri Medicinals, LLC at one of our Pennsylvania properties, making available an additional $16.0 million in funding for tenant improvements at the property. Assuming full payment of the additional funding, our total tenant improvement allowance will be $16.0 million and our total investment in the property will be approximately $22.3 million. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $9.5 million of the redevelopment costs, of which approximately $8.8 million was funded.

In February 2020, we amended our lease and development agreement with a subsidiary of PharmaCann at one of our Massachusetts properties, making available an additional $4.0 million in construction funding at the property. Assuming full payment of the additional construction funding, our total construction funding will be $27.5 million and our total investment in the property will be approximately $30.5 million. We also canceled the optional commitment to provide construction funding of $4.0 million for PharmaCann at one of our Pennsylvania properties. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $26.0 million of the construction funding at the Massachusetts property, of which approximately $24.2 million was funded.

In March 2020, we amended our lease with Holistic Industries LLC at our Maryland property, making available a $5.5 million tenant improvement allowance at the property. Assuming full payment of the funding, our total tenant improvement allowance will be $5.5 million and our total investment in the property will be $22.4 million. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $1.2 million of the redevelopment costs, of which none was funded.

Including all of our properties, during the three months ended March 31, 2020, we capitalized costs of approximately $98.9 million and funded approximately $82.7 million relating to tenant improvements and construction activities at our properties.

The properties acquired during the three months ended March 31, 2020 generated approximately $766,000 of rental revenue (including tenant reimbursements) and approximately $460,000 of net operating income after deducting property and depreciation expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The properties acquired during the three months ended March 31, 2019 generated approximately $246,000 of rental revenue (including tenant reimbursements) and approximately $200,000 of net operating income after deducting property and depreciation expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2019.

Future contractual minimum rent (including base rent, supplemental base rent (for one of our properties in New York) and property management fees) under the operating leases as of March 31, 2020 for future periods is summarized as follows (in thousands):

Year

    

Contractual
Minimum
Rent

2020 (nine months ending December 31)

$

76,071

2021

 

110,294

2022

 

112,383

2023

 

115,775

2024

 

119,282

Thereafter

 

1,615,224

Total

$

2,149,029

7. Exchangeable Senior Notes

In February 2019, our Operating Partnership issued $143.75 million of 3.75% Exchangeable Senior Notes due 2024 (the "Exchangeable Senior Notes") in a private offering, including the exercise in full of the initial purchasers’ option to purchase additional Notes. The Exchangeable Senior Notes are senior unsecured obligations of our Operating Partnership, are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by us and our Operating Partnership’s subsidiaries and are exchangeable for cash, shares of our common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, at our Operating Partnership’s option, at any time prior to the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the stated maturity date. At March 31, 2020, the exchange rate for the Exchangeable Senior

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Notes  was 14.72989 shares of our common stock per $1,000 principal amount of Notes and the exchange price was approximately $67.889 per share of our common stock. The exchange rate and exchange price are subject to adjustment in certain circumstances. The Exchangeable Senior Notes will pay interest semiannually at a rate of 3.75% per annum and will mature on February 21, 2024, unless earlier exchanged or repurchased in accordance with their terms. Our Operating Partnership will not have the right to redeem the Exchangeable Senior Notes prior to maturity, but may be required to repurchase the Exchangeable Senior Notes from holders under certain circumstances.

Upon our issuance of the Exchangeable Senior Notes, we recorded an approximately $5.8 million discount based on the implied value of the exchange option and an assumed effective interest rate of 4.65%, as well as approximately $5.2 million of initial issuance costs, of which approximately $5.0 million and $200,000 were allocated to the liability and equity components, respectively, based on their relative fair values. Issuance costs allocated to the liability component are being amortized using the effective interest method and recognized as non-cash interest expense over the expected term of the Exchangeable Senior Notes.

The following table details our interest expense related to the Exchangeable Senior Notes (in thousands):

For the Three Months Ended March 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

Cash coupon

$

1,348

$

584

Preferred stock dividend

268

111

Distribution to participating securities

233

97

Total interest expense

$

1,849

$

792

The following table details the carrying value of our Exchangeable Senior Notes on our condensed consolidated balance sheet (in thousands):

    

March 31, 2020

    

December 31, 2019

Principal amount

$

143,749

$

143,750

Unamortized discount

 

(4,610)

 

(4,878)

Unamortized issuance costs

 

(3,985)

 

(4,218)

Carrying value

$

135,154

134,654

Accrued interest payable for the Exchangeable Senior Notes was approximately $225,000 and $1.6 million as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively, and is included in accounts payable and accrued expenses on our condensed consolidated balance sheets.

During the three months ended March 31, 2020, we issued 14 shares of our common stock upon exchange by holders of $1,000 of outstanding principal amount of our Exchangeable Senior Notes.

8. Net Income Per Share

Grants of restricted stock of the Company and restricted stock units in share-based payment transactions are considered participating securities prior to vesting and, therefore, are considered in computing basic earnings per share under the two-class method. The two-class method is an earnings allocation method for calculating earnings per share when a company’s capital structure includes either two or more classes of common stock or common stock and participating securities. Earnings per basic share under the two-class method is calculated based on dividends declared on common shares and other participating securities (“distributed earnings”) and the rights of participating securities in any undistributed earnings, which represents net income remaining after deduction of dividends accruing during the period. The undistributed earnings are allocated to all outstanding common shares and participating securities based on the relative percentage of each security to the total number of outstanding participating securities. Earnings per basic share represents the summation of the distributed and undistributed earnings per share class divided by the total number of shares.

Through March 31, 2020, all of the Company’s participating securities received dividends or dividend equivalents at an equal dividend rate per share or unit. As a result, distributions to participating securities for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 have been included in net income attributable to common stockholders to calculate net income per basic and diluted share. We have considered the dilutive effect of the shares necessary to settle the Exchangeable Senior Notes on the if-exchanged method basis for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, and as this effect

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was anti-dilutive for both periods, these shares necessary to settle the Exchangeable Senior Notes were excluded from diluted earnings per share.

Computations of net income per basic and diluted share (in thousands, except share data) were as follows:

For the Three Months Ended

March 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

Net income

$

11,872

$

3,641

Preferred stock dividend

 

(338)

 

(338)

Distribution to participating securities

 

(115)

 

(64)

Net income attributable to common stockholders used to compute net income per share

$

11,419

$

3,239

Weighted average common share outstanding:

 

  

 

  

Basic

 

15,784,296

 

9,664,775

Diluted

 

15,898,091

 

9,797,676

Net income attributable to common stockholders per share:

 

  

 

  

Basic

$

0.72

$

0.34

Diluted

$

0.72

$

0.33

9. Fair Value of Financial Instruments

Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Accounting guidance also establishes a fair value hierarchy that requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The standard describes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:

Level 1—Observable inputs that reflect quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.

Level 2—Includes other inputs that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace.

Level 3—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activities, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.

The following table presents the carrying value in the condensed consolidated financial statements and approximate fair value of financial instruments at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019:

March 31, 2020

December 31, 2019

    

Carrying Value

    

Fair Value

    

Carrying Value

    

Fair Value

Investments (1)

$

272,907

$

274,399

$

119,595

$

119,673

Exchangeable Senior Notes (2)

$

135,154

$

179,801

$

134,654

$

185,558

(1)Investments consisting of obligations of the U.S. government with an original maturity at the time of purchase of greater than three months are classified as held-to-maturity and valued using Level 1 inputs.
(2)The fair value is determined based upon Level 2 inputs as the Exchangeable Senior Notes were trading in the private market as of March 31, 2020.

At March 31, 2020, cash equivalent instruments consisted of approximately $54.3 million in short-term money market funds that were measured using the net asset value per share that have not been classified using the fair value hierarchy. The fund invests primarily in short-term U.S. Treasury and government securities. Short-term investments consisting of certificate of deposits and obligations of the U.S. government are stated at amortized cost, which approximates their relative fair values due to the short-term maturities and market rates of interest of these instruments.

The carrying amounts of financial instruments such as cash equivalents invested in certificates of deposit, obligations of the U.S. government with an original maturity at the time of purchase of less than or equal to three

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months, accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities approximate their fair values due to the short-term maturities and market rates of interest of these instruments.

10. Common Stock Incentive Plan

Our board of directors adopted our 2016 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “2016 Plan”) to enable us to motivate, attract and retain the services of directors, employees and consultants considered essential to our long-term success. The 2016 Plan offers our directors, employees and consultants an opportunity to own our stock or rights that will reflect our growth, development and financial success. Under the terms of the 2016 Plan, the aggregate number of shares of our common stock subject to options, restricted stock, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock units and other awards, will be no more than 1,000,000 shares. The 2016 Plan has a term of ten years from the date it was adopted by our board of directors.

The following table summarizes our restricted stock activity under the 2016 Plan:

    

    

Weighted-

Unvested

Average

Restricted

Date Fair

Shares

Value

Balance at December 31, 2019

 

139,546

$

37.03

Granted

 

15,918

$

75.11

Vested

 

(45,975)

$

37.01

Forfeited (1)

 

(28,552)

$

19.72

Balance at March 31, 2020

 

80,937

$

50.64

(1)Shares that were forfeited to cover the employees’ tax withholding obligation upon vesting.

As of March 31, 2020, the remaining unrecognized compensation cost of $3.4 million relating to restricted stock awards will be recognized over a weighted-average amortization period of approximately 1.9 years.

The following table summarizes our restricted stock unit activity. Restricted stock units have the same economic rights as shares of restricted stock under the 2016 Plan:

    

Unvested

    

Weighted- Average

Restricted

Date Fair

Stock Units

Value

Balance at December 31, 2019

$

Granted

33,954

$

75.11

Balance at March 31, 2020

33,954

$

75.11

As of March 31, 2020, the remaining unrecognized compensation cost of $2.3 million relating to restricted stock units will be recognized over an amortization period of approximately 2.8 years.

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11. Commitments and Contingencies

Office Lease. The future contractual lease payments for our office lease and the reconciliation to the office lease liability reflected in our condensed consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2020 is presented in the table below (in thousands):

Year

    

Amount

2020 (nine months ending December 31)

$

152

2021

 

235

2022

 

242

2023

 

249

2024

 

256

Thereafter

 

88

Total future contractual lease payments

 

1,222

Effect of discounting

 

(18)

Office lease liability

$

1,204

Tenant Improvement Allowances. As of March 31, 2020, we had approximately $89.0 million of commitments related to tenant improvement allowances, which generally may be requested by the tenants at any time up until a date that is near the expiration of the initial term of the applicable lease. This amount does not include approximately $45.9 million which may be canceled by certain tenants at their option.

Construction Funding. As of March 31, 2020, we had approximately $879,000, $1.5 million and $16.9 million of commitments relating to construction funding for the development of certain properties in Ohio, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, respectively, which the tenant has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to complete by June 13, 2020, July 31, 2020 and February 9, 2021, respectively.

Environmental Matters. We follow the policy of monitoring our properties, both targeted acquisition and existing properties, for the presence of hazardous or toxic substances. While there can be no assurance that a material environmental liability does not exist, we are not currently aware of any environmental liabilities that would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flow, or that we believe would require disclosure or the recording of a loss contingency.

Litigation. We may, from time to time, be a party to legal proceedings, which arise in the ordinary course of our business. We are not aware of any pending or threatened litigation that, if resolved against us, would have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

12. Subsequent Events

Acquisitions

Subsequent to March 31, 2020, we acquired the following properties, including commitments to fund tenant improvements and construction (dollars in thousands):

    

    

    

    

    

Tenant

    

  

Improvement

Rentable

and

Closing

Square

Purchase

Construction

Property

Market

Date

Feet (1)

Price

Commitments

Total (2)

Ascend MA

Massachusetts

April 2, 2020

199,000

$

26,750

$

22,250

$

49,000

(3)

Cresco MI

 

Michigan

April 22, 2020

 

115,000

5,000

11,000

16,000

(4)

Total

 

  

  

 

314,000

$

31,750

$

33,250

$

65,000

  

(1)Includes expected rentable square feet at completion of construction of certain properties.
(2)Excludes transaction costs.
(3)The tenant is expected to complete tenant improvements at the property, for which we agreed to provide reimbursement of up to approximately $22.3 million. As of May 6, 2020, we had not incurred or funded any of the redevelopment costs.

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(4)The tenant is expected to complete tenant improvements at the property, for which we agreed to provide reimbursement of up to $11.0 million. As of May 6, 2020, we had not incurred or funded any of the redevelopment costs.

Lease Amendments Providing for Additional Tenant Improvement Allowances

Subsequent to March 31, 2020, we also amended certain leases at our properties to provide additional funds to tenants for tenant improvements at the applicable properties totaling approximately $1.4 million in the aggregate. As of May 6, 2020, we had funded approximately $579,000 of these tenant improvement allowances.

Lease Amendments Providing for Base Rent and Property Management Fee Deferrals

The current outbreak of the novel coronavirus, or COVID-19 could materially and adversely impact or cause disruption to our tenants and their operations, and in turn our performance, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our operations and those of our tenants will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the scope, severity and duration of the outbreak, the actions taken to contain the outbreak or mitigate its impact, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the outbreak and containment measures, among others. As of May 6, 2020, in light of the current coronavirus pandemic and associated severe economic disruption, we amended certain leases at our properties to provide for temporary base rent and property management fee deferrals. Each of the tenants remains responsible for the payment of all other costs under the applicable lease during the deferral period.

-

We amended each of our leases with Green Peak Industries, LLC (“GPI”) in Michigan to apply a part of GPI’s security deposit at each property for payment of the April 2020 base rent and property management fee, defer the base rent and property management fee for May and June 2020, and amortize the replenishment of the security deposit and payment of the base rent and property management fee deferral over an 18 month period commencing on July 1, 2020.

-

We amended our lease with Maitri Medicinals, LLC (“Maitri”) in Pennsylvania to apply a part of Maitri’s security deposit for payment of the April 2020 base rent and property management fee, defer the base rent and property management fee for May and June 2020, and amortize the replenishment of the security deposit and the base rent and property management fee deferral over an 18 month period commencing on July 1, 2020.

-

We amended each of our leases with affiliates of Medical Investor Holdings LLC (“Vertical”) in southern California to apply a part of Vertical’s security deposit at each property for a partial payment of the March 2020 base rent and property management fee and payment in full of the April 2020 base rent and property management fee, defer the base rent and property management fee for May and June 2020, and amortize the replenishment of the security deposit and payment of the base rent and property management fee deferral over an 18 month period commencing on July 1, 2020.

Pursuant to these amendments, (1) a total of $743,000 of security deposits were applied to the payment of base rent and property management fees for April 2020; (2) a total of $743,000 in base rent and property management fees was deferred for May 2020; (3) a total of $781,000 in base rent and property management fees was deferred for June 2020; and (4) a total of $85,000 per month in replenishment of security deposits and $52,000 per month in repayments of base rent and property management fee deferrals are required to be paid each month over an 18 month period commencing on July 1, 2020.

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ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this report. We make statements in this report that are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In particular, statements pertaining to our capital resources, portfolio performance and results of operations contain forward-looking statements. Likewise, our statements regarding anticipated growth in our funds from operations and anticipated market and regulatory conditions, our strategic direction, demographics, results of operations, plans and objectives are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties, and you should not rely on them as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements depend on assumptions, data or methods which may be incorrect or imprecise, and we may not be able to realize them. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all). You can identify forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates” or “anticipates” or the negative of these words and phrases or similar words or phrases. You can also identify forward-looking statements by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions. The following factors, among others, could cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those set forth or contemplated in the forward-looking statements: our business and investment strategy; our projected operating results; actions and initiatives of the U.S. or state governments and changes to government policies and the execution and impact of these actions, initiatives and policies, including the fact that cannabis remains illegal under federal law; rates of default on leases for our assets; availability of suitable investment opportunities in the medical-use cannabis industry; concentration of our portfolio of assets and limited number of tenants; our understanding of our competition and our potential tenants’ alternative financing sources; the estimated growth in and evolving market dynamics of the medical-use cannabis market; the demand for medical-use cannabis cultivation and processing facilities; the expected medical-use or adult-use cannabis legalization in certain states; shifts in public opinion regarding medical-use cannabis; the additional risks that may be associated with certain of our tenants cultivating and processing adult-use cannabis in our facilities; the impact of widespread health developments, including the recent global coronavirus pandemic, and responses to such developments; financing rates for our assets; our expected leverage; changes in the values of our assets; our expected portfolio of assets; our expected investments; interest rate mismatches between our assets and our borrowings used to fund such investments; changes in interest rates and the market value of our assets; impact of and changes in governmental regulations, tax law and rates, accounting guidance and similar matters; our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; our ability to maintain our exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940; availability of qualified personnel; and market trends in our industry, interest rates, real estate values, the securities markets or the general economy.

The risks included here are not exhaustive, and additional factors could adversely affect our business and financial performance, including factors and risks included in other sections of this report. In addition, we discussed a number of material risks in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and in Part II, Item 1A below. Those risks continue to be relevant to our performance and financial condition. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for management to predict all such risk factors, nor can it assess the impact of all such risk factors on our Company’s business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement made by us speaks only of the date on which we make it. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required by law. Stockholders and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on such forward-looking statements when evaluating the information presented in the Company’s filings and reports.

The purpose of this Management’s Discussion and Analysis (“MD&A”) is to provide an understanding of the Company’s consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes.

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Overview

As used herein, the terms “we”, “us”, “our” or the “Company” refer to Innovative Industrial Properties, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and any of our subsidiaries, including IIP Operating Partnership, LP, a Delaware limited partnership (the “Operating Partnership”).

We are an internally-managed REIT focused on the acquisition, ownership and management of specialized industrial properties leased to experienced, state-licensed operators for their regulated medical-use cannabis facilities. We have leased and expect to continue to lease our properties on a triple-net lease basis, where the tenant is responsible for all aspects of and costs related to the property and its operation during the lease term, including structural repairs, maintenance, taxes and insurance.

We were incorporated in Maryland on June 15, 2016. We conduct our business through a traditional umbrella partnership real estate investment trust, or UPREIT structure, in which our properties are owned by our Operating Partnership, directly or through subsidiaries. We are the sole general partner of our Operating Partnership and own, directly or through subsidiaries, 100% of the limited partnership interests in our Operating Partnership. As of March 31, 2020, we had 15 full-time employees. As of March 31, 2020, we owned 53 properties that were 99.1% (based on square footage) leased to state-licensed medical-use cannabis operators and comprising an aggregate of approximately 3.8 million rentable square feet (including approximately 1.1 million rentable square feet under development/redevelopment) in 15 states, with a weighted-average remaining lease term of approximately 15.8 years. As of March 31, 2020, we had invested approximately $647.3 million in the aggregate (excluding transaction costs) and had committed an additional approximately $138.0 million to reimburse certain tenants and sellers for completion of construction and tenant improvements at our properties. These statistics do not include up to approximately $13.4 million that may be funded in the future pursuant to our lease with a tenant at one of our Illinois properties, or the approximately $32.5 million that may be funded in the future pursuant to our lease with a tenant at one of our Massachusetts properties, as the tenants at those properties may not elect to have us disburse those funds to them and pay us the corresponding base rent on those funds. These statistics also treat our Los Angeles, California property as not leased, due to the tenant’s ongoing default in its obligation to pay rent at that location.

Factors Impacting Our Operating Results

Our results of operations are affected by a number of factors and depend on the rental revenue we receive from the properties that we acquire, the timing of lease expirations, general market conditions, the regulatory environment in the medical-use cannabis industry, and the competitive environment for real estate assets that support the regulated medical-use cannabis industry.

Rental Revenues

We receive income primarily from rental revenue generated by the properties that we acquire. The amount of rental revenue depends upon a number of factors, including:

our ability to enter into leases with increasing or market value rents for the properties that we acquire; and
rent collection, which primarily relates to each of our tenant’s financial condition and ability to make rent payments to us on time.

The properties that we acquire consist of real estate assets that support the regulated medical-use cannabis industry. Changes in federal law and current favorable state or local laws in the cannabis industry may impair our ability to renew or re-lease properties and the ability of our tenants to fulfill their lease obligations and could materially and adversely affect our ability to maintain or increase rental rates for our properties.

Conditions in Our Markets

Positive or negative changes in regulatory, economic or other conditions, drought, and natural disasters in the markets where we acquire properties may affect our overall financial performance.

The current outbreak of the novel coronavirus, or COVID-19, or the future outbreak of any other highly infectious or contagious diseases, could materially and adversely impact or cause disruption to our tenants and their operations, and in turn our performance, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The extent to which COVID-19

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impacts our operations and those of our tenants will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the scope, severity and duration of the outbreak, the actions taken to contain the outbreak or mitigate its impact, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the outbreak and containment measures, among others. As of May 6, 2020, we had granted temporary base rent and property management fee deferrals to certain affected tenants. See Note 12 in the Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding these base rent and property management deferrals.

Competitive Environment

We face competition from a diverse mix of market participants, including but not limited to, other companies with similar business models, independent investors, hedge funds, hard money lenders and other real estate investors, as well as potential tenants (cannabis operators themselves), all of whom may compete with us in our efforts to acquire real estate zoned for cannabis cultivation and production operations. Competition from others may diminish our opportunities to acquire a desired property on favorable terms or at all. In addition, this competition may put pressure on us to reduce the rental rates below those that we expect to charge for the properties that we acquire, which would adversely affect our financial results.

Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses include general and administrative expenses, including personnel costs, stock-based compensation, and legal, accounting, and other expenses related to corporate governance, public reporting and compliance with the various provisions of U.S. securities laws. We generally structure our leases so that the tenant is responsible for taxes, maintenance, insurance, and structural repairs with respect to the premises throughout the lease term. Increases or decreases in such operating expenses will impact our overall financial performance.

Our Qualification as a REIT

We have been organized and operate our business so as to qualify to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Shares of our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock are subject to restrictions on ownership and transfer that are intended, among other purposes, to assist us in qualifying and maintaining our qualification as a REIT. In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, the relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to certain exceptions, no person or entity may own, or be deemed to own, by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of stock or Series A Preferred Stock or more than 9.8% (in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock or any class or series of our outstanding preferred stock.

Results of Operations

We acquired the following properties during the three months ended March 31, 2020 (dollars in thousands):

    

    

    

Rentable

    

    

    

 

Square

Purchase

Transaction

 

Property

Market

Closing Date

Feet (1)

Price

Costs

Total

Green Leaf VA

 

Virginia

January 15, 2020

 

82,000

$

11,740

 

72

 

11,812

(2)

Cresco OH

 

Ohio

January 24, 2020

 

50,000

 

10,600

 

12

 

10,612

(3)

GTI OH

 

Ohio

January 31, 2020

 

21,000

 

2,900

 

23

 

2,923

(4)

LivWell CO - Retail Portfolio

 

Colorado

Various

 

8,000

 

3,300

 

23

 

3,323

(5)

GTI IL

 

Illinois

March 6, 2020

 

231,000

 

9,000

 

17

 

9,017

(6)

Parallel FL

 

Florida

March 11, 2020

 

373,000

 

35,300

 

20

 

35,320

(7)

Total

 

765,000

$

72,840

$

167

$

73,007

(1)Includes expected rentable square feet at completion of construction of certain properties.
(2)The tenant is expected to complete development of the property for which we have agreed to provide reimbursement of up to approximately $8.0 million. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $6.4 million of the development costs, of which we funded approximately $4.5 million.
(3)The tenant is expected to complete redevelopment of the property for which we have agreed to provide reimbursement of up to approximately $1.9 million. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $30,000 of the redevelopment costs, of which none was funded.

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(4)The tenant is expected to complete redevelopment of the property for which we have agreed to provide reimbursement of up to $4.3 million. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $3.0 million of the redevelopment costs, of which we funded approximately $2.0 million.
(5)The portfolio consists of two retail properties, with one property closing on February 19, 2020 and one property closing on February 21, 2020. The tenant is expected to complete tenant improvements at one of the properties, for which we agreed to provide reimbursement of up to $850,000. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $49,000 of the redevelopment costs, of which none was funded.
(6)The tenant is expected to complete redevelopment of the property for which we have agreed to provide reimbursement of up to $41.0 million. As of March 31, 2020, we incurred approximately $8.0 million of the redevelopment costs, of which we funded approximately $4.9 million.
(7)The tenant is expected to complete redevelopment of the property for which we have agreed to provide reimbursement of up to $8.2 million. As of March 31, 2020, we had not incurred or funded any of the redevelopment costs.

In January 2020, we amended our lease with Green Peak Industries, LLC which, among other things, canceled the remaining tenant improvement allowance of approximately $15.2 million and adjusted the corresponding base rent. As of March 31, 2020, our total investment in the property was approximately $15.8 million.

In January 2020, we amended our lease with a subsidiary of Vireo Health, Inc. at one of our Pennsylvania properties, making available an additional $4.5 million in funding for tena