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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 20-F

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

 

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from _________ to _________.

 

OR

 

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Date of event requiring this shell company report:

 

Commission file number: 001-41444

 

INTELLIGENT LIVING APPLICATION GROUP INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

 

Unit 2, 5/F, Block A, Profit Industrial Building

1-15 Kwai Fung Crescent, Kwai Chung

New Territories, Hong Kong

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

Bong Lau, Chief Executive Officer

Unit 2, 5/F, Block A, Profit Industrial Building

1-15 Kwai Fung Crescent, Kwai Chung

New Territories, Hong Kong

+ 852 2481 7938

Email: info@i-l-a-g.com

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile Number and Address of Company Contact Person)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class    Trading Symbol(s)    Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary Shares, par value $0.0001   ILAG   Nasdaq Capital Market

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

None

(Title of Class)

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

 

None

(Title of Class)

 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

 

As of December 31, 2023, there were 18,060,000 ordinary shares issued and outstanding, par value US$0.0001 per share.

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐    Non-accelerated filer    Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

†The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

 

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP    ☐ International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the
International Accounting Standards Board
   ☐ Other

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow: Item 17 ☐ Item 18 ☐

 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 

Yes ☐ No

 

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes ☐ No ☐

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

       Page
Introduction   ii
Forward-looking Statements   iii
       
  PART I   1
       
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers   1
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable   1
Item 3. Key Information   1
Item 4. Information On The Company   37
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments   59
Item 5. Operating And Financial Review And Prospects   59
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management And Employees   72
Item 7. Major Shareholders And Related Party Transactions   81
Item 8. Financial Information   81
Item 9. The Offer And Listing   82
Item 10. Additional Information   82
Item 11. Quantitative And Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk   92
Item 12. Description Of Securities Other Than Equity Securities   92
       
  PART II   93
       
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages And Delinquencies   93
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights Of Security Holders And Use Of Proceeds   93
Item 15. Controls And Procedures   93
Item 16. [Reserved]   94
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert   94
Item 16B. Code Of Ethics   94
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services   94
Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards For Audit Committees   95
Item 16E. Purchases Of Equity Securities By The Issuer And Affiliated Purchasers   95
Item 16F. Change In Registrant’s Certifying Accountant   95
Item 16G. Corporate Governance   95
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure   95
Item 16I. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections.   95
Item 16J. Insider Trading Policy   95
Item 16K. Cybersecurity   95
       
  PART III   96
       
Item 17. Financial Statements   96
Item 18. Financial Statements   96
Item 19. Exhibits   96

 

i

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

In this annual report on Form 20-F, unless otherwise indicated, “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company”, “Intelligent Living”, “Registrant” and “ILAG” refer to Intelligent Living Application Group Inc., a company organized in the Cayman Islands, its predecessor entities and its subsidiaries.

 

Unless indicated otherwise, references to:

 

“Bamberg” are to Bamberg (HK) Limited, which was incorporated under the laws of Hong Kong and is a wholly owned subsidiary of ILAG BVI; “China” or the “PRC” are to the People’s Republic of China;

 

“EIT” are to PRC enterprise income tax; “Hing Fat” are to Hing Fat Industrial Limited, which was incorporated under the laws of Hong Kong and is a wholly owned subsidiary of ILAG BVI;

 

“Hong Kong” are to Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China;

   
 “HK$” or “Hong Kong dollars” refers to the legal currency of Hong Kong;
   
 “Intelligent Living,” “we,” “us,” “our company,” “ILAG,” and “our” are to Intelligent Living Application Group Inc., a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability, and its subsidiary and consolidated entity;
   
 “ILAG BVI” are to Intelligent Living Application Group Limited, a holding company incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands and a wholly owned subsidiary of Intelligent Living Application Group Inc.;

 

“Kambo Hardware” are to Kambo Hardware Limited, which was incorporated under the laws of Hong Kong and is a wholly owned subsidiary of ILAG BVI;

   
 “Kambo Locksets” are to Kambo Locksets Limited, which was incorporated under the laws of Hong Kong and is a wholly owned subsidiary of ILAG BVI

 

“MOFCOM” are to the Ministry of Commerce of the PRC;

 

“Ordinary Share(s)” are to our ordinary shares with a par value of US$0.0001 per share;

 

“Preferred Share(s)” are to our preferred shares with a par value of US$0.0001 per share;

 

“RMB” and “Renminbi” refer to the legal currency of China;

 

“SAFE” are to the State Administration of Foreign Exchange;

 

“US$,” “U.S. dollars,” “$” and “dollars” are to the legal currency of the United States; and

 

Xingfa are to Dongguan Xingfa Hardware Products Co. Ltd., which was incorporated under the laws of China and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hing Fat.

 

Our business is primarily conducted in Hong Kong and China, an all of our revenues are received and denominated in HK$ and RMB. RMB is not freely convertible into foreign currency and all foreign exchange transactions must take place through authorized institutions. This annual report contains translations of HK$ and RMB amounts into U.S. dollars at specified rates solely for the convenience of the reader. We make no representation that the Renminbi, HK$ or U.S. dollar amounts referred to in this report could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars, HK$ or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all.

 

We completed an initial public offering of our ordinary shares at an initial offering price of US$4.00 per share on July 15, 2022. Our ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share, are traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ILAG”.

 

ii

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This report contains “forward-looking statements” for purposes of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 that represent our beliefs, projections and predictions about future events. Known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under “Risk Factors,” may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical fact are “forward-looking statements,” including any projections of earnings, revenue or other financial items, any statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations, any statements concerning proposed new projects or other developments, any statements regarding future economic conditions or performance, any statements of management’s beliefs, goals, strategies, intentions and objectives, and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. Words such as “may”, “will”, “should”, “could”, “would”, “predicts”, “potential”, “continue”, “expects”, “anticipates”, “future”, “intends”, “plans”, “believes”, “estimates” and similar expressions, as well as statements in the future tense, identify forward-looking statements.

 

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:

 

our goals and strategies;

 

our future business development, financial conditions and results of operations fluctuations in interest rates;

 

our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our products and services;

 

projections of revenue, earnings, capital structure and other financial items;

 

competition in our industry;

 

relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry; and

 

general economic and business conditions in the markets in which we operate.

 

These forward-looking statements involve various risks and uncertainties. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect. Our actual results could be materially different from our expectations. Important risks and factors that could cause our actual results to be materially different from our expectations are generally set forth in “Risk Factors” and other sections in this report. You should thoroughly read this report and the documents that we refer to with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

This report contains certain data and information that we obtained from various government and private publications. Statistical data in these publications also include projections based on a number of assumptions. Our industry may not grow at the rate projected by market data, or at all. Failure of this market to grow at the projected rate may have a material and adverse effect on our business and the market price of our ordinary shares. In addition, the rapidly changing nature of the lockset and hardware marketplace industry results in significant uncertainties for any projections or estimates relating to the growth prospects or future condition of our market. Furthermore, if any one or more of the assumptions underlying the market data are later found to be incorrect, actual results may differ from the projections based on these assumptions. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

 

The forward-looking statements made in this report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this report and the documents that we refer to in this report and any exhibits filed to this report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

 

iii

 

 

PART I

 

ITEM 1.IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

 

Not Applicable.

 

ITEM 2.OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

 

Not Applicable.

 

ITEM 3.KEY INFORMATION

 

Our Holding Company Structure and Operations in Hong Kong and China

 

We are a Cayman Islands holding company without any operation and our operations are conducted by our wholly owned subsidiaries in Hong Kong and China and this structure involves unique risks to investors.

 

1

 

 

There are legal and operational risks associated with being based in and having all our operations in Hong Kong and China. The Chinese government recently took regulatory actions on certain U.S. listed Chinese companies and made statement that it will exert more oversight and control over offerings and listings by Chinese companies that are conducted overseas, such as those related to the use of variable interest entities and data security or anti-monopoly concerns. On July 6, 2021, the General Office of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued an announcement to crack down on illegal activities in the securities market and promote the high-quality development of the capital market, which, among other things, requires the relevant governmental authorities to strengthen cross-border oversight of law-enforcement and judicial cooperation, to enhance supervision over China-based companies listed overseas, and to establish and improve the system of extraterritorial application of the PRC securities laws. On December 28, 2021, Cybersecurity Review Measures were published by Cyberspace Administration of China or the CAC, National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of State Security, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Commerce, People’s Bank of China, State Administration of Radio and Television, China Securities Regulatory Commission (“CSRC”), State Secrecy Administration and State Cryptography Administration and became effective on February 15, 2022, which provides that, Critical Information Infrastructure Operators (“CIIOs”) that purchase internet products and services and Online Platform Operators engaging in data processing activities that affect or may affect national security shall be subject to the cybersecurity review by the Cybersecurity Review Office. On November 14, 2021, CAC published the Administration Measures for Cyber Data Security (Draft for Public Comments), or the “Cyber Data Security Measure (Draft)”, which requires cyberspace operators with personal information of more than 1 million users who want to list abroad to file a cybersecurity review with the Office of Cybersecurity Review. On July 7, 2022, CAC promulgated the Measures for the Security Assessment of Data Cross-border Transfer, effective on September 1, 2022, which requires the data processors to apply for data cross-border security assessment coordinated by the CAC under the following circumstances: (i) any data processor transfers important data to overseas; (ii) any critical information infrastructure operator or data processor who processes personal information of over 1 million people provides personal information to overseas; (iii) any data processor who provides personal information to overseas and has already provided personal information of more than 100,000 people or sensitive personal information of more than 10,000 people to overseas since January 1st of the previous year; and (iv) other circumstances under which the data cross-border transfer security assessment is required as prescribed by the CAC. On February 17, 2023, the CSRC released the Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Enterprises (the “New Overseas Listing Rules”) with five interpretive guidelines, which took effect on March 31, 2023. The New Overseas Listing Rules require Chinese domestic enterprises to complete filings with relevant governmental authorities and report related information under certain circumstances, such as: a) an issuer making an application for initial public offering and listing in an overseas market; b) an issuer making an overseas securities offering after having been listed on an overseas market; c) a domestic company seeking an overseas direct or indirect listing of its assets through single or multiple acquisition(s), share swap, transfer of shares or other means. According to the Notice on Arrangements for Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Enterprises, published by the CSRC on February 17, 2023, a company that (i) has already completed overseas listing or (ii) has already obtained the approval for the offering or listing from overseas securities regulators or exchanges but has not completed such offering or listing before effective date of the new rules and also completes the offering or listing before September 30, 2023 is considered as an existing listed company and is not required to make any filing until it conducts a new offering in the future. Furthermore, upon the occurrence of any of the material events specified below after an issuer has completed its offering and listed its securities on an overseas stock exchange, the issuer shall submit a report thereof to the CSRC within 3 business days after the occurrence and public disclosure of the event: (i) change of control; (ii) investigations or sanctions imposed by overseas securities regulatory agencies or other competent authorities; (iii) change of listing status or transfer of listing segment; or (iv) voluntary or mandatory delisting. The New Overseas Listing Rules provide that the determination as to whether a domestic company is indirectly offering and listing securities on an overseas market shall be made on a substance over form basis, and if the issuer meets the following conditions, the offering and listing shall be determined as an indirect overseas offering and listing by a Chinese domestic company: (i) any of the revenue, profit, total assets or net assets of the Chinese domestic entity is more than 50% of the related financials in the issuer’s audited consolidated financial statements for the most recent fiscal year; and (ii) the senior managers in charge of business operation and management of the issuer are mostly Chinese citizens or with regular domicile in China, the main locations of its business operations are in China or main business activities are conducted in China. The New Overseas Listing Rules also stipulate the legal consequences to the companies for breaches, including failure to fulfill filing obligations or filing documents having false statement or misleading information or material omissions, which may result in a fine ranging from RMB1 million to RMB10 million, and in cases of severe violations, the relevant responsible persons may also be barred from entering the securities market. On February 24, 2023, the CSRC, the Ministry of Finance, the National Administration of State Secretes Protection and the National Archives Administration released the Provisions on Strengthening the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Related to the Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies, or the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions, which took effect on March 31, 2023. PRC domestic enterprises seeking to offer securities and list in overseas markets, either directly or indirectly, shall establish and improve the system of confidentiality and archives work, and shall complete approval and filing procedures with competent authorities, if such PRC domestic enterprises or their overseas listing entities provide or publicly disclose documents or materials involving state secrets and work secrets of state organs to relevant securities companies, securities service institutions, overseas regulatory agencies and other entities and individuals. It further stipulates that (i) providing or publicly disclosing documents and materials which may adversely affect national security or public interests, and accounting records or photocopies thereof to relevant securities companies, securities service institutions, overseas regulatory agencies and other entities and individuals shall be subject to corresponding procedures in accordance with relevant laws and regulations; and (ii) any working papers formed in the territory of the PRC by securities companies and securities service agencies that provide domestic enterprises with securities services relating to overseas securities issuance and listing shall be stored in the territory of the PRC, the outbound transfer of which shall be subject to corresponding procedures in accordance with relevant laws and regulations. As of the date of this prospectus, these new laws and guidelines have not impacted the Company’s ability to conduct its business, accept foreign investments, or list and trade on a U.S. We are headquartered in Hong Kong and our major operational activities are carried out in Hong Kong, our main places of business are located in Hong Kong, and none of the senior managers in charge of operation and management of the Company is Chinese citizen or domiciled in China. Hong Kong is a special administrative region of the PRC and the basic policies of the PRC regarding Hong Kong are reflected in the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, or the Basic Law, providing Hong Kong with a high degree of autonomy and executive, legislative and independent judicial powers, including that of final adjudication under the principle of “one country, two systems”. Also, all the senior managers in charge of business operation and management of the Company and its manufacturing subsidiary in China are non- Chinese citizens and do not have regular domicile in China, the main location of the business operations or business activities of the Company are in Hong Kong instead of mainland China and our manufacturing subsidiary in China only supplies its products to its affiliates in Hong Kong and does not sell them in mainland China. According to the advice by our Chinese legal counsel Guangdong Wesley Law Firm, we believe the New Overseas Listing Rules by CSRC do not apply to the Company. The Company owns 100% equity interest of all its subsidiaries including the manufacturing subsidiary in China and does not have a VIE structure. Our subsidiary in China manufactures and sells locksets to its affiliate in Hong Kong and is not a cyberspace operator with personal information of more than 1 million users or activities that affect or may affect national security and it does not have documents and materials which may adversely affect national security or public interests. However, there are uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of these new laws and guidelines, which could materially and adversely impact our business and financial outlook, may impact our ability to accept foreign investments, offer our securities to investors or continue to list on a U.S. or other foreign exchange, and could impact our ability to conduct our business. If there is significant change to current political arrangements between mainland China and Hong Kong, companies operated in Hong Kong may face similar regulatory risks as mainland Chinese companies. Any change in foreign investment regulations, and other policies in China or related enforcement actions by China government could result in a material change in our operations and the value of our securities and could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer our securities to investors or cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or be worthless. The Company’s auditor is headquartered in the U.S. and it is not subject to the determinations announced by the PCAOB on December 16, 2021, which determinations were vacated on December 15, 2022, and Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act and related regulations currently do not affect the Company as the Company’s auditor is subject to PCAOB’s inspection on a regular basis.

 

2

 

 

Permissions Required from the PRC Authorities for Our Operations

 

Our wholly owned subsidiary Dongguan Xingfa Hardware Products Co. Ltd. (“Xingfa”) is incorporated and operating in mainland China. Xingfa has received all permission required to obtain from Chinese authorities to operate its current business in China or issue the ordinary shares of the Company to foreign investors, including Business license, Customs Registration Certificate, Bank Account Open Permit and Approval regarding Environmental Protection. Currently, the Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations in China or any securities offering at any time, which could result in a material change in our operations and our ordinary shares could decline in value or become worthless. Other than these permits, we are not required to obtain permit and approval from Chinese authorities to operate our business and to offer the securities being registered to foreign investors. We or our subsidiaries are not covered by permissions requirements from the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC), Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) or any other governmental agency that is required to approve our business and operations. We manufacture and sell lockset products and our products and services do not pose national security risks, based on the advice of our PRC counsel, we are not subject to the report requirement under Cybersecurity Review Measures published by Cyberspace Administration of China, National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of State Security, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Commerce, People’s Bank of China, State Administration of Radio and Television, China Securities Regulatory Commission, State Secrecy Administration and State Cryptography Administration on December 28, 2021, which became effective on February 15, 2022.

 

As of the date of this report, we (1) are not required to obtain permissions from any PRC authorities to issue our ordinary shares to foreign investors, (2) are not subject to permission requirements from CSRC, CAC or any other entity that is required to approve of our operations in China, and (3) have not received or were denied such permissions by any PRC authorities. We are headquartered in Hong Kong with our chief executive officer, chief financial officer, chief operating officer and all members of the board of directors based in Hong Kong who are not Chinese citizens and most of our revenues and profits are generated by our subsidiaries in Hong Kong. Although we don’t believe we are a Chinese domestic entity as defined in the New Overseas Listing Rules published by CSRC on February 17, 2023, it is not certain whether we might be determined as a Chinese entity under new rules, which will require us to file the offering related documents with CSRC. Also, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued the “Opinions on Severely Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities According to Law,” or the Opinions, which were made available to the public on July 6, 2021. The Opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities, and the need to strengthen the supervision over overseas listings by Chinese companies. Given the current PRC regulatory environment, it is uncertain when and whether our PRC subsidiary, will be required to obtain permission from the PRC government in connection with our listing on U.S. exchanges in the future, and even when such permission is obtained, whether it will be denied or rescinded. If we or our subsidiaries do not receive or maintain such permissions or approvals, inadvertently conclude that such permissions or approvals are not required, or applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change and we are required to obtain such permissions or approvals in the future, it could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities to investors and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless.

 

3

 

 

Transfer of Cash To and From Our Subsidiaries

 

We mainly conduct our marketing and sales, research and development and design activities through our wholly owned subsidiaries in Hong Kong and manufacturing activities through our wholly owned subsidiary in China, Dongguan Xingfa Hardware Products Co., Limited. As a result, almost all of our sales revenues are received by our Hong Kong subsidiaries which make payment to Xingfa for the cost of products and reasonable markups. Transfers of funds among our Hong Kong subsidiaries or from our Hong Kong subsidiaries to the holding company are free of restrictions. Remittances of funds from our Hong Kong subsidiaries to Xingfa are subject to review and conversion of HK$ or US$ to Renminbi Yuan (“RMB”) through Xingfa’s bank in China, which represents the SAFE to monitor foreign exchange activities. Under the existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, such as profit distributions and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements with the banks. Currently, we don’t have any intentions to distribute earnings or settle amounts owed under our operating structure other than the agreements entered under normal business operation as discussed above.

 

Intelligent Living Application Group Inc. (“ILAG”) is incorporated in Cayman Islands as a holding company with no actual operations and it currently conducts its business through its subsidiaries in Hong Kong and China. There has been no cash flows and transfers of other assets between the holding company and its subsidiaries, other than that as of December 31, 2022, Kimbo Locksets and Intelligent Living Application Group Limited (BVI), both wholly owned subsidiaries of ILAG have paid approximately $1,671,000 for expenses related to the public offering of ILAG as intercompany loans and not as the dividend payment or distribution. During 2023, ILAG BVI has paid approximately $972,000 for general and administration expenses as intercompany loans and not as the dividend payment or distribution. None of our subsidiaries has made any dividend payment or distribution to our holding company as of the date this report and they have no plans to make any distribution or dividend payment to the holding company in the near future. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has made any dividends or distributions to U.S. investors as of the date of this report.

 

At operational level, Xingfa has sold products with markups to Hing Fat, in the amount of approximately $6.54 million and $11.56 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Hing Fat has sold products with markups to Kambo Locksets in the amount of approximately $6.31 million and $11.01 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Hing Fat has made payment to Xingfa approximately $6.45 million and $12.12 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Kambo Locksets has made payment to Hing Fat for approximately $5.47 million and $12.14 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

All transfers of cash are related to the operations of the subsidiaries in the ordinary course of business. For our Hong Kong subsidiaries, our subsidiary in British Virgin Islands and the holding company (“Non-PRC Entities”), there is no restrictions on foreign exchange for such entities and they are able to transfer cash among these entities, across borders and to US investors. Also, there is no restrictions and limitations on the abilities of Non-PRC Entities to distribute earnings from their businesses, including from subsidiaries to the parent company or from the holding company to the U.S. investors as well as the abilities to settle amounts owed. However, PRC may impose greater restrictions on our Hong Kong subsidiaries’ abilities to transfer cash out of Hong Kong and to the holding company, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Regarding cash transfer to and from Xingfa, we are able to have such transfer through banks in China under current account items, such as profit distributions and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, which can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements with the banks. However, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where RMB is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. PRC laws and regulations allow an offshore holding company to provide funding to our wholly owned subsidiary in China only through loans or capital contributions, subject to the filing or approval of government authorities and limits on the amount of capital contributions and loans. Subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration and approval requirements, we may extend inter-company loans to our wholly owned subsidiary in China or make additional capital contributions to fund Xingfa’s capital expenditures or working capital. For an increase of its registered capital, Xingfa needs to file such change of registered capital with the MOFCOM or its local counterparts. If the holding company provide funding to Xingfa through loans, the total amount of such loans may not exceed the difference between the entity’s total investment as approved by the foreign investment authorities and its registered capital. Such loans must be registered with SAFE or its local branches. Under PRC law, Xingfa is also required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund certain statutory reserve funds until such reserve funds reach 50% of its registered capital.

 

4

 

 

Selected Financial Data

 

In the table below, we provide you with historical selected financial data for our company. The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 and the selected consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are included in this annual report beginning on page F-1. The selected consolidated balance sheet data for the year ended December 31, 2021 have been derived from our audited consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2021, which is not included in this annual report. Our historical results do not necessarily indicate results expected for any future periods. The selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” below. Our audited consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with US GAAP.

 

   December 31, 2023   December 31, 2022 
Current assets  $12,102,160   $16,015,777 
Total non-current assets  $6,181,698   $5,786,297 
Total assets  $18,283,858   $21,802,074 
Total current liabilities  $1,390,963   $1,813,936 
Total non-current liabilities  $490,502   $536,327 

 

   For the years ended December 31, 
   2023   2022   2021 
Revenue  $6,443,357   $12,158,102   $12,543,556 
Operating expenses  $4,527,090   $4,461,258   $3,109,966 
Net loss  $(3,501,518)  $(1,655,903)  $(1,386,515)

 

   For the years ended December 31, 
   2023   2022   2021 
Net cash used in operating activities  $(3,163,187)  $(4,170,876)  $(1,038,967)
Net cash used in investing activities  $(1,360,274)  $(4,181,724)  $(9,758)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities  $(154,976)  $17,397,802   $876,334 
Net increase (decrease) in cash  $(4,681,921)  $9,034,522   $(171,311)

 

3.A. [Reserved]

 

3.B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

 

Not Applicable.

 

3.C. Reasons For The Offer And Use Of Proceeds

 

Not Applicable.

 

3.D. Risk Factors

 

An investment in our ordinary shares involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all other information contained in this annual report, including the matters discussed under the headings “Forward-Looking Statements” and “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” before you decide to invest in our ordinary shares. We are a holding company with substantial operations in Hong Kong and China and are subject to a legal and regulatory environment that in many respects differs from the United States. If any of the following risks, or any other risks and uncertainties that are not presently foreseeable to us, actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and our future growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

 

5

 

 

Summary of Risk Factors

 

An investment in our ordinary shares involves significant risks. Below is a summary of material risks we face, organized under relevant headings. These risks are discussed more fully in Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors.

 

Risks Related to Our Business

 

We face risks related to health epidemics and other outbreaks, including the coronavirus (COVID-19), which has caused and may continue to cause business disruptions, resulting in a material adverse impact to our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may not be able to successfully introduce smart lock and security and internet of things (IoT) products that are in research and development. 

 

We incurred net losses for the year ended December 31, 2023 and the past two years and may not be able to generate sufficient operating cash flows and working capital from operation. Failure to manage our liquidity and cash flows may materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. As a result, we may need additional capital, and financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

 

Fluctuations in the price, availability or quality of raw materials used in our products could cause manufacturing delays, adversely affecting our ability to provide goods to our customers or increase costs, any of which could decrease our sales or earnings.

 

Xingfa may experience material disruptions to its manufacturing operations in China that could result in material delays, quality control issues, increased costs and loss of business opportunities, which may negatively impact our sales and financial results.

 

Changes in U.S. trade policies could significantly reduce the volume of export goods into the United States, which may materially reduce our profit margin and our sales in the United States.

 

Environmental regulations impose substantial costs and limitations on our operations and violation of environmental regulations might subject us to fines, penalties or suspension of production which could have material negative impact on our financial results.

 

We are obligated to develop and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting. We may not complete our analysis of our internal control over financial reporting in a timely manner, or these internal controls may not be determined to be effective, which may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our Ordinary Shares.

 

We do not have any business insurance coverage.

 

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

 

Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 

Uncertainties and quick change in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations with little advance notice could result in a material and negative impact on our business operation, decrease the value of our ordinary shares and limit the legal protections available to us.

 

Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

 

6

 

 

Regulatory bodies of the United States may be limited in their ability to conduct investigations or inspections of our operations in China.

 

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, and the related regulations are evolving quickly. Further implementations and interpretations of or amendments to the HFCA Act or the related regulations, or a PCOAB’s determination of its lack of sufficient access to inspect our auditor, might pose regulatory risks to and impose restrictions on us because of our operations in mainland China. A potential consequence is that our ordinary shares may be delisted by the exchange. The delisting of our ordinary shares, or the threat of our ordinary shares being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct full inspections of our auditor deprives our investors of the benefits of such inspections.

 

Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the newly enacted PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance, business operations and financial results.

 

Any change of regulations and rules by Chinese government, including the limitations on usage of power, additional environmental protection requirements, moving technology in and out of the PRC or restriction on cash transfer out of PRC, may intervene or influence our operations in China at any time and any additional control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in issuers with Chinese operations could result in a material change in our business operations and/or the value of our ordinary shares and could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer our ordinary shares to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

 

Risks Related to Doing Business in Hong Kong

 

It will be difficult to acquire jurisdiction and enforce liabilities against us, our officers, directors and assets based in Hong Kong and China.

 

The Hong Kong legal system embodies uncertainties which could negatively affect our listing on Nasdaq and limit the legal protections available to you and us.

 

We cannot foresee the recently passed legislation of Basis Law Article 23 (Safeguarding National Security Ordinance) will create any legal impact on us, our business, our officers, our directors and assets based in Hong Kong and China. However, we cannot predict if our customers in the US may have special prospectus in doing business with us.

 

Risks Related to Our Ordinary Shares

 

Our ordinary shares may be thinly traded and you may be unable to sell at or near ask prices or at all if you need to sell your shares to raise money or otherwise desire to liquidate your shares.

 

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests as a shareholder, as Cayman Islands law provides substantially less protection when compared to the laws of the United States and it may be difficult for a shareholder of ours to effect service of process or to enforce judgements obtained in the United States courts.

 

In addition, please see “Risk Factors” below, and other information included in this report, for a discussion of these and other risks and uncertainties that we face.

 

7

 

 

Risks Related to Our Business

 

We face risks related to health epidemics and other outbreaks, including the coronavirus (COVID-19), which has caused and may continue to cause business disruptions, resulting in a material, adverse impact to our financial condition and results of operations.

 

In recent years, there have been outbreaks of epidemics in various countries. The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has spread throughout the world, especially in China, the United States and Europe. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a global pandemic. The pandemic has resulted in quarantines, travel restrictions, and the temporary closure of office buildings and facilities in China and in the U.S. Our results of operations were materially adversely affected by the outbreak of COVID-19.

 

In 2022, there were outbreaks of the Omicron variant of the COVID-19 in Hong Kong where our headquarters are located and other cities in China, including Shenzhen, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Taiyuan, Changchun as well as Dongguan city where Xingfa is located, and travel restrictions, mandatory COVID-19 tests, quarantine requirements and/or temporary closure of office buildings and facilities were imposed by local governments. China eased the strict lockdown procedures in early December 2022, which led to surge in COVID infections in December 2022 and January 2023 and caused disruption our business operations as our migrant workers from other provinces in the manufacturing factory had to leave and go home early for the new year holidays and did not come back until March 2023. Although our operations have resumed to normal, we cautiously prepare for the government authorities may issue new orders of office closure, travel and transportation restrictions in China if there is any new variants or resurgence of the COVID-19, which will have material negative impact to our business and financial conditions.

 

In general, our business could be materially adversely affected by the effects of epidemics or pandemic, including, but not limited to, the COVID-19, avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the influenza A virus, Ebola virus, or other outbreaks. In response to an epidemic or other outbreaks, government and other organizations may adopt regulations and policies that could lead to severe disruption to our daily operations, including temporary closure of our offices and other facilities. These severe conditions may cause us and/or our partners to make internal adjustments, including but not limited to, temporarily closing down businesses, limiting business hours, and setting restrictions on travel and/or visits with clients and partners for a prolonged period of time. Various impacts arising from a severe condition may cause business disruptions, resulting in a material, adverse impact to our financial condition and results of operations.

 

8

 

 

The growth of our business depends on our ability to accurately predict consumer trends and demand and successfully introduce new products and product line extensions and improve existing products.

 

Our growth depends, in part, on our ability to successfully introduce new products and product line extensions and improve and reposition our existing products to meet the requirements of property owners and builders. This, in turn, depends on our ability to predict and respond to evolving consumer trends, demands and preferences. The development and introduction of innovative new products and product line extensions involve considerable costs. In addition, it may be difficult to establish new supplier relationships and determine appropriate product selections when developing a new product or product line extension. Any new product or product line extension may not generate sufficient customer interest and sales to become a profitable product or to cover the costs of its development and promotion and may negatively affect our operating results and damage our reputation. If we are not able to anticipate, identify or develop and market products to respond to the changes in the requirements and preferences of property owners and builders, or if our new product introductions or repositioned products fail to gain consumer acceptance, we may not grow our business as anticipated, our sales may decline and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

 

We may not be able to successfully introduce smart lock and security and internet of things (IoT) products that are current in research and development.

 

We have invested our efforts, time and resources in the research and development of smart locks in the past couple years and the outcome is uncertain whether such development will be successful. We will continue to invest in the development of the software of smart locks and equipment and machineries to manufacture parts and assembly line to produce smart locks. In early 2023, we have engaged a Hong Kong based technology company to conduct research and development in a series of smart home products and devices as a part of our smart lock, security and IoT products development strategy. Having considered the availability of talents and cost-benefit efficiency, we will incur costs to outsource information technology developer(s) to develop software application and support functions of such new products. In additional, we will incur marketing costs to generate customer interest and sales of such products in enough volume to make it a profitable product. If we fail to design and develop appropriate functions for our smart locks to attract enough customers and establish commercial manufacturing capabilities or if our smart lock products can’t meet the regulatory requirements, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. If we fail to obtain and maintain patent, trade secret and other intellectual property protection and regulatory exclusivity for our new smart locks or if we are unable to ensure that we do not infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate the valid patent, trade secret or other intellectual property rights of third parties regarding smart locks on the market, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

 

We may not be able to successfully implement our growth strategy on a timely basis or at all.

 

Our future success depends, in large part, on our ability to implement our growth strategy, including expanding distribution and improving placement of our products in the stores of our retail customers, attracting new consumers to our brands, introducing new products and product line extensions and expanding into new markets. Our ability to implement this growth strategy depends, among other things, on our ability to:

 

enter into distribution and other strategic arrangements with current and new retailers and other potential distributors of our products;

 

continue to effectively compete in our distribution channels;

 

increase our brand recognition by effectively implementing our marketing strategy and advertising initiatives;

 

create and maintain brand loyalty;

 

develop new products and product line extensions that appeal to consumers;

 

maintain and, to the extent necessary, improve our high standards for product quality, safety and integrity;

 

maintain sources for the required supply of quality raw materials and ingredients to meet our growing demand; and

 

identify and successfully enter and market our products in new geographic areas and market segments.

 

9

 

 

We may not be able to successfully implement our growth strategy and may need to change our strategy from time to time. If we fail to implement our growth strategy or if we invest resources in a growth strategy that ultimately proves unsuccessful, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

 

We incurred net losses for the year ended December 31, 2023 and the past two years and may not be able to generate sufficient operating cash flows and working capital from operation. Failure to manage our liquidity and cash flows may materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. As a result, we may need additional capital, and financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

 

We incurred net losses of $3,501,518, $1,655,903 and $1,386,515 for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As a result, we have generated negative cash flows from operating activities of approximately $3.2 million, $4.1million and approximately $1.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021. We can offer no assurance that we will operate profitably or that we will generate positive cash flows in the next twelve months, given our substantial expenses in relation to our revenue at this stage of our Company. Inability to collect our accounts receivable in a timely and sufficient manner, or the inability to offset our expenses with adequate revenue, may adversely affect our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations. We completed our public offering with net proceeds of approximately $16.86 million in July 2022. We believe that our cash on hand and anticipated cash flows from operating activities will be sufficient to meet our anticipated working capital requirements and capital expenditures in the ordinary course of business for the next 12 months, we cannot assure you this will be the case.

 

If and when we are unable to generate sufficient cash flows from operations to meet our working capital requirements and various operating needs, we may need to raise additional funds for our operations and such funds may not be available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. If we are unable to raise funds on acceptable terms, we may not be able to execute our business plan, take advantage of future opportunities, or respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated requirements. This may seriously harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we are unable to achieve or maintain profitability, the market price of our shares may significantly decrease.

 

Any damage to our reputation or our brand may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We have long business relationships with our customers by maintaining high quality and quick service response. Maintaining our strong reputation with consumers and our suppliers is critical to our success. Our brands may suffer if our marketing plans or product initiatives are not successful. The importance of our brands may increase if competitors offer products with designs and functions similar to ours. Further, our brands may be negatively impacted due to real or perceived quality issues or if consumers perceive us as being untruthful in our marketing and advertising, even if such perceptions are not accurate. The failure to maintain high standards for product quality and integrity, including raw materials obtained from suppliers, or allegations of product quality issues, even if untrue or caused by our raw material suppliers, may reduce demand for our products or cause production and delivery disruptions. We maintain guidelines and procedures to ensure the quality and integrity of our products. However, we may be unable to detect or prevent product quality issues, particularly in instances of the attempts to cover up or obscure deviations from our guidelines and procedures. If any of our products become unfit for use or cause injury, we may have to engage in a product recall and/or be subject to liability. In addition, if our products have quality issues, we could incur significant expenses related to the replacement of our products. Damage to our reputation or our brands or loss of consumer confidence in our products for any of these or other reasons could result in decreased demand for our products and increased costs and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

 

10

 

 

To the extent our customers purchase products in excess of consumer demand in any period, our sales in a subsequent period may be adversely affected as our customers seek to reduce their inventory levels.

 

From time to time, our customers may purchase more products than they expect to sell during a particular time period. Our customers may grow their inventory in anticipation of, or during, our promotional events, which typically provide for reduced prices during a specified time or other customer incentives. Our customers may also grow inventory in anticipation of a price increase for our products, or otherwise over-order our products as a result of overestimating demand for our products. If a customer increases its inventory during a particular reporting period as a result of a promotional event, anticipated price increases or otherwise, then sales during the subsequent reporting period may be adversely impacted as our customers seek to reduce their inventory to customary levels. This effect may be particularly pronounced when the promotional event, price increase or other event occurs near the end or beginning of a reporting period or when there are changes in the timing of a promotional event, price increase or similar event, as compared to the prior year. To the extent our customers seek to reduce their usual or customary inventory levels or change their practices regarding purchases in excess of consumer demand, our net sales and results of operations may be materially adversely affected in that period.

 

We operate in a highly competitive industry and may lose market share or experience margin erosion if we are unable to compete effectively.

 

We compete on the basis of product quality, design and performance, brand awareness and loyalty, product variety, reputation, price and promotional efforts. We compete with a significant number of companies of varying sizes, including divisions or subsidiaries of larger companies who may have greater financial resources and larger customer bases than we have. As a result, these competitors may be able to identify and adapt to changes in consumer preferences more quickly than us due to their resources and scale. They may also be more successful in marketing and selling their products, better able to increase prices to reflect cost pressures and better able to increase their promotional activity, which may impact us and the entire lockset manufacturing industry. If these competitive pressures cause our products to lose market share or experience margin erosion, our business, financial conditions and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

 

Fluctuations in the price, availability or quality of raw materials used in our products could cause manufacturing delays, adversely affect our ability to provide goods to our customers or increase costs, any of which could decrease our sales or earnings.

 

Our major raw material purchases include copper, iron, zinc alloy and packaging materials comprised of paper and plastic. We depend on outside suppliers for these raw materials and must obtain sufficient quantities of quality raw materials from these suppliers at acceptable prices and in a timely manner. We do not maintain fixed supply contracts with our suppliers. Unfavorable fluctuations in the price, quality or availability of required raw materials could negatively affect our ability to meet the demands of our customers. Our inability to meet customers’ demands could result in the loss of future sales.

 

The profitability of our products depends in part upon the margin between the cost to us of certain raw materials and our fabrication costs associated with converting such raw materials into assembled products, as compared to the selling price of our products. We intend to continue to base the selling prices of our products in part upon their associated raw material costs. However, we may not be able to pass all increases in raw material costs or increases in the costs associated with taking possession of raw materials through to our customers in the future. The inability to offset price increases of raw materials by sufficient product price increases could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

We do not engage in hedging transactions to protect against raw material fluctuations but attempt to mitigate the short-term risks of price swings by purchasing raw materials in advance based on production needs or reaching agreements with some of our suppliers to keep the cost of raw materials stable. We also attempt to lower consumption of raw materials by lowing waste rate and recycled materials without compromising product quality.

 

11

 

 

Xingfa may experience material disruptions to its manufacturing operations in China that could result in material delays, quality control issues, increased costs and loss of business opportunities, which may negatively impact our sales and financial results.

 

We rely primarily upon our manufacturing facilities of Xingfa, which is located in Shatian Town, Dongguan City, Guangdong Province, China, to produce our products. While we seek to operate our facilities in compliance with applicable rules and regulations and take measures to minimize the risks of disruption at our facilities, a material disruption at our manufacturing facilities could prevent us from meeting customer demand, reduce our sales and negatively impact our financial results. Our manufacturing facilities, or any of our machines, could cease operations unexpectedly due to a number of events, including: prolonged power failures; equipment failures; disruptions in the transportation infrastructure including roads, bridges, railroad tracks; fires, floods, earthquakes, health epidemics, acts of war, or other catastrophes, which could also pose a risk to injury or damage to personnel, the property of others, which in turn could lead to considerable financial costs and may also have negative legal consequences. Our future growth strategy may include an expansion of our manufacturing capacity to meet increasing demand for our existing products. Any projects undertaken by us to increase such capacity may not be constructed on the anticipated timetable or within budget. We may also experience quality control issues as we implement these manufacturing upgrades and ramp up production. Any such material disruption may prevent us from shipping our products on a timely basis, reduce our sales and market share and negatively impact our financial results.

 

We face risks associated with managing operations in China, any of which could decrease our sales or earnings and could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer our ordinary shares to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

 

All of our manufacturing operations currently are conducted in China. There are a number of risks inherent in doing business in China, including the following: unfavorable political or economic factors; fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; potentially adverse tax consequences; unexpected legal or regulatory changes; lack of sufficient protection for intellectual property rights; difficulties in recruiting and retaining personnel, and managing international operations; and less developed infrastructure. Furthermore, changes in the political, economic and social conditions in China from which these risks are derived could make it more difficult to provide products to our customers. Our inability to manage these risks successfully could adversely affect our business and manufacturing operations and could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer our ordinary shares to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

 

Changes in U.S. trade policies could significantly reduce the volume of export goods into the United States, which may materially reduce our profit margin and our sales in the United States.

 

The U.S. administration and members of Congress have made public statements indicating possible significant changes in U.S. trade policy and have taken certain actions that have impacted the U.S. and China trade relationship, including imposing tariffs on certain goods imported into the United States from China. The increase of tariffs for products made in China has triggered retaliatory actions from China, resulting in “trade wars” and increased costs for goods imported into the United States, which have and may continue to reduce customer demand for our products if the importers who pay for those tariffs add such tariff amounts to their selling prices. We have reduced our sales price and profit margin to absorb some of the tariffs, however, importers may still reduce their orders. Such reductions have caused and may continue to materially and adversely affect our sales, profit margin and our business. Although the U.S. has started to review and remove the increased tariff previously imposed on certain items importing from China, it has not impacted our products sold to the U.S. and if we can’t establish new manufacturing facilities outside of China, continue to reduce our production costs and/or develop new products to attract customers who are willing to pay higher prices, our business and profits will be materially and adversely affected.

 

12

 

 

We have a substantial customer concentration, with a limited number of customers accounting for a substantial portion of our revenues.

 

We derive a significant portion of our revenues from a few major customers. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, four customers accounted for 88.2% and 85.7% of our revenues, respectively. In addition, our five largest customers in aggregate accounted for approximately 92% and 91% of our revenues for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. There are inherent risks whenever a large percentage of total revenues are concentrated with a limited number of customers. It is not possible for us to predict the future level of demand for our products that will be generated by these customers or the future demand for our products by these customers in the end-user marketplace. If any of these customers experience declining or delayed sales due to market, economic or competitive conditions, we could be pressured to reduce our prices or they could decrease the purchase quantity of our products, which could have an adverse effect on our margins and financial position, and could negatively affect our revenues and results of operations. If any of our three largest customers terminates the purchase of our products, such termination would materially negatively affect our revenues, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Our operating results may fluctuate significantly and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business.

 

Our operating results, including the levels of our net revenues, expenses, net (loss)/income and other key metrics, may vary significantly in the future due to a variety of factors, some of which are outside of our control, and period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. Accordingly, the results for any one period are not necessarily an indication of future performance. Fluctuations in results may adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares. Factors that may cause fluctuations in our financial results include:

 

our ability to attract new customers and retain existing customers;

 

changes in our mix of products and introduction of new products;

 

the amount and timing of operating expenses related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations and infrastructure;

 

Increase the cost of raw materials and/or labor;

 

our decision to manage order volume growth during the period;

 

the impact of competitors or competitive products;

 

increases in our costs and expenses that we may incur to grow and expand our operations and to remain competitive;

 

changes in the legal or regulatory environment or proceedings, including enforcement by government regulators, fines, orders or consent decrees;

 

increase of tariffs, general economic, industry and market conditions, including changes in Chinese, U.S. or global business or macroeconomic conditions;

 

the timing of expenses related to the development or acquisition of technologies or businesses; and

 

the additional costs related to being a public company.

 

13

 

 

Despite our marketing efforts, we may not be able to promote and maintain our brand in an effective and cost-efficient way and our business and results of operations may be harmed accordingly.

 

We believe that developing and maintaining awareness of our brand effectively is critical to attracting new and retaining existing customers. Successful promotion of our brand and our ability to attract quality customers depends largely on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts and the success of the channels we use to promote our products. Our efforts to promote our sales and to build our brand have caused us to incur selling and marketing expenses in the amount of approximately $60,000, $105,000 and approximately $150,000 for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Our COO has taken a marketing trip recently to promote our products in the US for new and potential customers. Despite our marketing efforts, it is likely that our future marketing efforts will require us to incur significant additional expenses. These efforts may not result in increased revenues in the immediate future or at all and, even if they do, any increases in revenues may not offset the expenses incurred. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand while incurring substantial expenses, our results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected, which may impair our ability to grow our business.

 

If we fail to manage our inventory effectively, our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our inventories are mostly raw materials, such as copper, iron, zinc alloy and packaging materials comprised of paper and plastic, which require us to manage our inventory effectively. We depend on our demand forecasts for various kinds of raw materials and pre-made products to make purchase decisions and to manage our inventory. Such demand, however, can change significantly between the time inventory is ordered and the date by which we hope to sell it. Demand may be affected by seasonality, the economy, new product launches, pricing and discounts, product defects, changes in customer spending patterns, changes in customer tastes and other factors, and our customers may not order products in the quantities that we expect. The acquisition of certain types of inventory may require significant lead time and prepayment.

 

Furthermore, as we plan to continue expanding our product offerings, we expect to include a wider variety of products and raw materials in our inventory, which will make it more challenging for us to manage our inventory and logistics effectively. We cannot guarantee that our inventory levels will be able to meet the demands of customers, which may adversely affect our sales. If we fail to manage our inventory effectively, we may be subject to a heightened risk of inventory obsolescence resulting in a decline in inventory value, and significant inventory write-downs or write-offs. Any of the above may materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. On the other hand, if we underestimate demand for our products, or if our suppliers fail to supply quality raw materials and pre-made products in a timely manner, we may experience inventory shortages, which might result in diminished brand loyalty and lost revenues, any of which could harm our business and reputation.

 

We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.

 

We regard our trademarks, domain names, know-how, proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on a combination of intellectual property laws and contractual arrangements, including confidentiality and non-compete agreements with our employees and others to protect our proprietary rights. Thus, we cannot assure you that any of our intellectual property rights would not be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or misappropriated, or such intellectual property will be sufficient to provide us with competitive advantages. In addition, because of the rapid pace of technological change, parts of our business rely on Internet of Things (IoT) technology, the network of physical objects that feature an IP address for internet connectivity, and the communication that occurs between these objects and other Internet-enabled devices and systems which will alert the users under pre-set conditions, developed or licensed by third parties, and we may not be able to obtain or continue to obtain licenses and technologies from these third parties on reasonable terms, or at all.

 

14

 

 

It is often difficult to register, maintain and enforce intellectual property rights in China. Statutory laws and regulations are subject to judicial interpretation and enforcement and may not be applied consistently due to the lack of clear guidance on statutory interpretation. Confidentiality, invention assignment and non-compete agreements may be breached by counterparties, and there may not be adequate remedies available to us for any such breach. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or to enforce our contractual rights in China. Preventing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly and the steps we take may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our intellectual property. In the event that we resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, such litigation could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our managerial and financial resources. We can provide no assurance that we will prevail in such litigation. In addition, our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become available to, or be independently discovered by, our competitors. To the extent that our employees or consultants use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in related know-how and inventions. Any failure in protecting or enforcing our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims, which may be expensive to defend and may disrupt our business and operations.

 

We cannot be certain that our operations or any aspects of our business do not or will not infringe upon or otherwise violate trademarks, patents, copyrights, know-how or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. We may be from time to time in the future be subject to legal proceedings and claims relating to the intellectual property rights of others. In addition, there may be third-party trademarks, patents, copyrights, know-how or other intellectual property rights that are infringed by our products, services or other aspects of our business without our awareness. Holders of such intellectual property rights may seek to enforce such intellectual property rights against us in China, Hong Kong, the United States or other jurisdictions. If any third-party infringement claims are brought against us, we may be forced to divert management’s time and other resources from our business and operations to defend against these claims, regardless of their merits.

 

Additionally, the application and interpretation of China’s intellectual property right laws and the procedures and standards for granting trademarks, patents, copyrights, know-how or other intellectual property rights in China are still evolving and are uncertain, and we cannot assure you that PRC courts or regulatory authorities would agree with our analysis. If we were found to have violated the intellectual property rights of others, we may be subject to liability for our infringement activities or may be prohibited from using such intellectual property, and we may incur licensing fees or be forced to develop alternatives of our own. As a result, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

From time to time we may evaluate and potentially consummate strategic investments or acquisitions, which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business and adversely affect our financial results.

 

We may evaluate and consider strategic investments, combinations, acquisitions or alliances to further increase the value of our marketplace and better serve our customers. These transactions could be material to our financial condition and results of operations if consummated. If we are able to identify an appropriate business opportunity, we may not be able to successfully consummate the transaction and, even if we do consummate such a transaction, we may be unable to obtain the benefits or avoid the difficulties and risks of such transaction.

 

Strategic investments or acquisitions will involve risks commonly encountered in business relationships, including:

 

difficulties in assimilating and integrating the operations, personnel, systems, data, technologies, products and services of the acquired business;

 

inability of the acquired technologies, products or businesses to achieve expected levels of revenue, profitability, productivity or other benefits;

 

difficulties in retaining, training, motivating and integrating key personnel;

 

diversion of management’s time and resources from our normal daily operations;

 

15

 

 

difficulties in successfully incorporating licensed or acquired technology and rights into our product offerings;

 

difficulties in maintaining uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies within the combined organizations;

 

difficulties in retaining relationships with customers, employees and suppliers of the acquired business;

 

risks of entering markets in which we have limited or no prior experience;

 

regulatory risks, including remaining in good standing with existing regulatory bodies or receiving any necessary pre-closing or post-closing approvals, as well as being subject to new regulators with oversight over an acquired business;

 

assumption of contractual obligations that contain terms that are not beneficial to us, require us to license or waive intellectual property rights or increase our risk for liability;

 

failure to successfully further develop the acquired technology;

 

liability for activities of the acquired business before the acquisition, including intellectual property infringement claims, violations of laws, commercial disputes, tax liabilities and other known and unknown liabilities;

 

potential disruptions to our ongoing businesses; and

 

unexpected costs and unknown risks and liabilities associated with strategic investments or acquisitions.

 

We may not make any investments or acquisitions, or any future investments or acquisitions may not be successful, may not benefit our business strategy, may not generate sufficient revenues to offset the associated acquisition costs or may not otherwise result in the intended benefits. In addition, we cannot assure you that any future investment in or acquisition of new businesses or technology will lead to the successful development of new or enhanced products or that any new or enhanced products, if developed, will achieve market acceptance or prove to be profitable.

 

Our business depends on the continued efforts of our senior management. If one or more of our key executives were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, our business may be severely disrupted.

 

Our business operations depend on the continued services of our senior management, particularly the executive officers named in this report. While we have the ability to provide different incentives to our management, we cannot assure you that we can continue to retain their services. If one or more of our key executives were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to replace them easily or at all, our future growth may be constrained, our business may be severely disrupted and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected, and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel. In addition, although we have entered into confidentiality and non-competition agreements with our management, there is no assurance that any member of our management team will not join our competitors or form a competing business. If any dispute arises between our current or former officers and us, we may have to incur substantial costs and expenses in order to enforce such agreements in China or we may be unable to enforce them at all.

 

The relative lack of public company experience of our management team may put us at a competitive disadvantage.

 

Our management team lacks public company experience, which could impair our ability to comply with legal and regulatory requirements such as those imposed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, (“Sarbanes-Oxley”). Our senior management does not have much experience managing a publicly traded company. Such responsibilities include complying with federal securities laws and making required disclosures on a timely basis. Our senior management may be unable to implement programs and policies in an effective and timely manner or that adequately respond to the increased legal, regulatory and reporting requirements associated with being a publicly traded company. Our failure to comply with all applicable requirements could lead to the imposition of fines and penalties, distract our management from attending to the management and growth of our business, result in a loss of investor confidence in our financial reports and have an adverse effect on our business and stock price.

 

16

 

 

We lease our facilities from third parties and there is no assurance that we will be able to renew our leased facilities on favorable terms, or at all.

 

We currently lease all of the properties we use to operate our business. Our headquarters are located in Hong Kong comprising office premises of approximately 300 m2. Our production facilities are located in Dongguan, Guangdong Province of China, where Xingfa leases a total floor area of approximately 17,560 m2. The lease terms on these premises expire on February 28, 2026. In October 2022, Xingfa acquired an electroplating production line which is on a 2,033 m2 floor area premise in an environmental protection industrial park in Dongguan, which is specially approved for infrastructures such as electroplating and other high pollution productions. The lease term on this premise expires on October 31, 2026. If we are unable to renew these leases on favorable terms, or at all, we would be required to find new leased space, which space may be more expensive to lease than our current facilities. Also, the lease may be terminated early due to unexpected change of land usage by the local government.

 

Moreover, the lessor of Xingfa has not provided us with a real estate ownership certificate for the manufacturing facility. Under the relevant PRC laws and regulations, if the lessor is unable to obtain certificate of title, such lease contract may be recognized as void and as a result, Xingfa may be required to vacate the relevant properties. Although the lessor agreed to compensate Xingfa’s loss or provide Xingfa with other properties for its current business operation, we might not be able to recover all the losses and our business might be negatively impacted.

 

Competition for employees is intense, and we may not be able to attract and retain the qualified and skilled employees needed to support our business.

 

We believe our success depends on the efforts and talent of our employees, including engineering, risk management, information technology, financial and marketing personnel. Our future success depends on our continued ability to attract, develop, motivate and retain qualified and skilled employees. Competition for highly skilled marketing, engineering, information technology, risk management and financial personnel is extremely intense. We may not be able to hire and retain these personnel at compensation levels consistent with our existing compensation and salary structure. Some of the companies with which we compete for experienced employees have greater resources than we have and may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment.

 

In addition, we invest significant time and expenses in training our employees, which increases their value to competitors who may seek to recruit them. If we fail to retain our employees, we could incur significant expenses in hiring and training their replacements, and the quality of our products could diminish, resulting in a material adverse effect to our business.

 

Increases in labor costs in the PRC may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

The economy in China has experienced increases in inflation and labor costs in recent years. As a result, average wages in the PRC are expected to continue to increase. In addition, Xingfa is required by PRC laws and regulations to pay various statutory employee benefits, including pension, housing fund, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit of our employees. The relevant government agencies may examine whether an employer has made adequate payments to the statutory employee benefits, and those employers who fail to make adequate payments may be subject to late payment fees, fines and/or other penalties. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will continue to increase. Unless we are able to control our labor costs or pass on these increased labor costs to our customers or end users by increasing the prices of our products, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

If we cannot maintain our corporate culture as we grow, we could lose the innovation, collaboration and focus that contribute to our business.

 

We believe that a critical component of our success is our corporate culture, which we believe fosters innovation, encourages teamwork and cultivates creativity. As we develop the infrastructure of a public company and continue to grow, we may find it difficult to maintain these valuable aspects of our corporate culture. Any failure to preserve our culture could negatively impact our future success, including our ability to attract and retain employees, encourage innovation and teamwork and effectively focus on and pursue our corporate objectives.

 

17

 

 

Environmental regulations impose substantial costs and limitations on our operations and violation of environmental regulations might subject us to fines, penalties or suspension of production which could have material negative impact on our financial results.

 

Xingfa uses a variety of chemicals and produce significant emissions and powder dust in our lockset manufacturing operations. The stamping and casting machines in the manufacturing facility create high decibel noise. As such, Xingfa is subject to various national and local environmental laws, occupational safety and health (“OSH”) laws and regulations in China concerning issues such as air emissions, wastewater discharge, and solid waste management and disposal. These laws and regulations can restrict or limit our operations and expose us to liability and penalties for non-compliance. For example, in April 2018, Xingfa was ordered by Dongguan Environmental Protection Bureau to pay a fine of RMB100,000 (approximately $15,000) for failure to meet the air emission requirement, which Xingfa has paid and corrected the non-compliance emission. While we believe that Xingfa’s facilities are in material compliance with all applicable environmental and OSH laws and regulations, the risks of substantial unanticipated costs and liabilities related to compliance with these laws and regulations are an inherent part of our business. It is possible that future conditions may develop, arise or be discovered that create new environmental compliance or remediation liabilities and costs. While we believe that we can comply with existing environmental legislation and regulatory requirements and that the costs of compliance have been included within budgeted cost estimates, compliance may prove to be more limiting and costly than anticipated. If Xingfa fails to comply with the environmental regulations, it could face fines, penalties and our production facility-y(-ies) operations might be suspended until we comply, which could have material negative impact on our operation and financial results.

 

In addition to our core production facility, we acquire an electroplating production line. It is a result of polluted water drainage requirements are more stringent. This pushes cost of electroplating increase. As a result, we acquired a licensed production line. However, we may expose to sudden change in environmental regulations to require additional remediation costs for the electroplating production line, which would have material negative impact to our operation and financial results.

 

We are obligated to develop and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting. We may not complete our analysis of our internal control over financial reporting in a timely manner, or these internal controls may not be determined to be effective, which may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our Ordinary Shares.

 

We are required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for the year ending December 31, 2023, the first fiscal year beginning after our initial public offering. This assessment needs to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting and, after we cease to be an “emerging growth company,” a statement that our independent registered public accounting firm has issued an opinion on our internal control over financial reporting.

 

We are in the early stages of the costly and challenging process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404. We may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion. During the evaluation and testing process, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to assert that our internal controls are effective.

 

If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if, when required, our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion on the effectiveness of our internal controls, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which would cause the price of our Ordinary Shares to decline, and we may be subject to investigation or sanctions by the SEC.

 

To comply with the requirements of being a public company, we may need to undertake various actions, such as implementing new internal controls and procedures and hiring accounting or internal audit staff.

 

At such time that our independent registered public accounting firm is required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, it may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating. Our remediation efforts may not enable us to avoid a material weakness in the future.

 

We do not have any business insurance coverage.

 

Insurance companies in China currently do not offer as extensive an array of insurance products as insurance companies in more developed economies. Currently, we and our subsidiaries do not have any business liability or disruption insurance to cover our operations. We have determined that the costs of insuring for these risks and the difficulties associated with acquiring such insurance on commercially reasonable terms make it impractical for us to have such insurance. Any uninsured business disruptions may result in our incurring substantial costs and the diversion of resources, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

 

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Risks Related to Doing Business in China.

 

Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 

All of our manufacturing operations are located in China. Accordingly, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally and by continued economic growth in China as a whole.

 

The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies and change of enforcement practice of such rules and policies can change quickly with little advance notice. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

 

While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth over the past four decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The Chinese government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall Chinese economy but may have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, China’s economic growth has slowed down significantly, and the recovery has been slow. Any prolonged slowdown in the Chinese economy may reduce the demand for our products and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

Uncertainties and quick change in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations with little advance notice could result in a material and negative impact our business operation, decrease the value of our ordinary shares and limit the legal protections available to us.

 

The PRC legal system is based on written statutes, and prior court decisions have limited value as precedents. Since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties. The enforcement of laws and that rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little advance notice and the risk that the Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations at any time, or may exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China- based issuers, could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our ordinary shares.

 

We cannot rule out the possibility that the PRC government will institute a licensing regime or pre-approval requirement covering our industry at some point in the future. If such a licensing regime or approval requirement were introduced, we cannot assure you that we would be able to obtain any newly required license in a timely manner, or at all, which could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

 

From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published in a timely manner or at all) that may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

 

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We rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

 

We are a holding company, and we rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our subsidiaries for our cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders and service any debt we may incur. If any of our subsidiaries incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us.

 

Under PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiary, as a wholly foreign-owned enterprise in China, may pay dividends only out of its respective accumulated after-tax profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise in China is required to set aside at least 10% of its accumulated after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund certain statutory reserve funds, until the aggregate amount of such funds reaches 50% of its registered capital.

 

Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiary to pay dividends or make other distributions to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends, or otherwise fund and conduct our business.

 

PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of offering to make loans to or make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiary, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

Under PRC laws and regulations, we are permitted to utilize the proceeds from offerings to fund our PRC subsidiary by making loans to or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiary, subject to applicable government registration and approval requirements.

 

Any loans to our PRC subsidiary, which are treated as foreign-invested enterprises under PRC laws, are subject to PRC regulations and foreign exchange loan registrations. For example, loans by us to our PRC subsidiary to finance its activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with the local counterpart of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE. The statutory limit for the total amount of foreign debts of a foreign-invested company is the difference between the amount of total investment as approved by China’s Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM”) or its local counterpart and the amount of registered capital of such foreign-invested company.

 

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We may also decide to finance our PRC subsidiary by means of capital contributions. These capital contributions must be filed with the MOFCOM or its local counterpart. In addition, SAFE issued a circular in September 2008, SAFE Circular 142, regulating the conversion by a foreign-invested enterprise of foreign currency registered capital into RMB by restricting how the converted RMB may be used. SAFE Circular 142 provides that the RMB capital converted from foreign currency registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise may only be used for purposes within the business scope approved by the applicable government authority and unless otherwise provided by law, may not be used for equity investments within the PRC. Although on July 4, 2014, SAFE issued the Circular of the SAFE on Relevant Issues Concerning the Pilot Reform in Certain Areas of the Administrative Method of the Conversion of Foreign Exchange Funds by Foreign-invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 36, which launched a pilot reform of the administration of the settlement of the foreign exchange capitals of foreign-invested enterprises in certain designated areas from August 4, 2014 and some of the restrictions under SAFE Circular 142 will not apply to the settlement of the foreign exchange capitals of the foreign-invested enterprises established within the designate areas and such enterprises mainly engaging in investment are allowed to use its RMB capital converted from foreign exchange capitals to make equity investment, our PRC subsidiary is not established within the designated areas. On March 30, 2015, SAFE promulgated Circular 19, to expand the reform nationwide. Circular 19 came into force and replaced both Circular 142 and Circular 36 on June 1, 2015. Circular 19 allows foreign-invested enterprises to make equity investments by using RMB funds converted from foreign exchange capital. However, Circular 19 continues to prohibit foreign-invested enterprises from, among other things, using RMB fund converted from its foreign exchange capitals for expenditure beyond its business scope, providing entrusted loans or repaying loans between non-financial enterprises. In addition, SAFE strengthened its oversight of the flow and use of the RMB capital converted from foreign currency registered capital of a foreign-invested company. The use of such RMB capital may not be altered without SAFE’s approval, and such RMB capital may not in any case be used to repay RMB loans if the proceeds of such loans have not been used. Violations of these Circulars could result in severe monetary or other penalties. These circulars may significantly limit our ability to use RMB converted from the net proceeds of any offering to fund the establishment of new entities in China by our PRC subsidiary, to invest in or acquire any other PRC companies through our PRC subsidiary, or to establish variable interest entities in the PRC.

 

In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans to our PRC subsidiary or future capital contributions by us to our PRC subsidiary. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use the proceeds we expect to receive from any offering to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

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PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may limit our PRC subsidiary’s ability to increase its registered capital or distribute profits to us or otherwise expose us or our PRC resident beneficial owners to liability and penalties under PRC law.

 

SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Relating to Domestic Resident’s Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, in July 2014 that requires PRC residents or entities to register with SAFE or its local branch in connection with their establishment or control of an offshore entity established for the purpose of overseas investment or financing. In addition, such PRC residents or entities must update their SAFE registrations when the offshore special purpose vehicle undergoes material events relating to any change of basic information (including change of such PRC citizens or residents, name and operation term), increases or decreases in investment amount, transfers or exchanges of shares, or mergers or divisions. SAFE Circular 37 was issued to replace the Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for PRC Residents Engaging in Financing and Roundtrip Investments via Overseas Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 75. SAFE promulgated the Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving the Administration of the Foreign Exchange Concerning Direct Investment in February 2015, which took effect on June 1, 2015. This notice has amended SAFE Circular 37 requiring PRC residents or entities to register with qualified banks rather than SAFE or its local branch in connection with their establishment or control of an offshore entity established for the purpose of overseas investment or financing.

 

If our shareholders who are PRC residents or entities do not complete their registration as required, our PRC subsidiary may be prohibited from distributing its profits and proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to us, and we may be restricted in our ability to contribute additional capital to our PRC subsidiary. Moreover, failure to comply with the SAFE registration described above could result in liability under PRC laws for evasion of applicable foreign exchange restrictions.

 

Currently, to our knowledge, all our 5% or more shareholders are not PRC citizens or residents, however, we cannot assure you whether our other shareholders or beneficial owners will include the PRC residents or entities in the future and whether they will comply with, and make or obtain any applicable registrations or approvals required by, SAFE regulations. Failure by such shareholders or beneficial owners to comply with SAFE regulations, or failure by us to amend the foreign exchange registrations of our PRC subsidiary, could subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities, limit our PRC subsidiary’s ability to make distributions or pay dividends to us or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.

 

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

 

Substantially all of our manufacturing and expenditures are denominated in RMB, whereas our reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. As a result, fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and RMB will affect the relative purchasing power in RMB terms of our U.S. dollar assets and the proceeds from any offering. Our reporting currency is the U.S. dollar while the functional currency for our PRC subsidiary is RMB. Gains and losses from the remeasurement of assets and liabilities that are receivable or payable in RMB are included in our consolidated statements of operations. The remeasurement has caused the U.S. dollar value of our results of operations to vary with exchange rate fluctuations, and the U.S. dollar value of our results of operations will continue to vary with exchange rate fluctuations. A fluctuation in the value of RMB relative to the U.S. dollar could reduce our profits from operations and the translated value of our net assets when reported in U.S. dollars in our financial statements. This could have a negative impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations as reported in U.S. dollars. If we decide to convert our RMB into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our ordinary shares or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the RMB would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us. In addition, fluctuations in currencies relative to the periods in which the earnings are generated may make it more difficult to perform period-to-period comparisons of our reported results of operations.

 

There remains significant international pressure on the PRC government to adopt a flexible currency policy. Any significant appreciation or depreciation of the RMB may materially and adversely affect our revenues, earnings and financial position, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, our ordinary shares in U.S. dollars. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we receive from our initial public offering into RMB to pay our operating expenses, appreciation of the RMB against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the RMB amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, a significant depreciation of the RMB against the U.S. dollar may significantly reduce the U.S. dollar equivalent of our earnings, which in turn could adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares.

 

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Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert RMB into foreign currency. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.

 

Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our net revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment.

 

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the RMB into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. Under our current corporate structure, our company in the Cayman Islands may rely on dividend payments from our PRC subsidiary to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, such as profit distributions and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. Therefore, our PRC subsidiary is able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to us without prior approval from SAFE, subject to the condition that the remittance of such dividends outside of the PRC complies with certain procedures under PRC foreign exchange regulation, such as the overseas investment registrations by the beneficial owners of our Company who are PRC residents. But approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where RMB is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. The PRC government may also at its discretion restrict access in the future to foreign currencies for current account transactions. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders.

 

Failure to make adequate contributions to various employee benefit plans as required by PRC regulations may subject us to penalties.

 

Xingfa is required under PRC laws and regulations to participate in various government sponsored employee benefit plans, including certain social insurance, housing funds and other welfare-oriented payment obligations, and contribute to the plans in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of its employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time at locations where Xingfa operate its businesses. The requirement of employee benefit plans has not been implemented consistently by the local governments in China given the different levels of economic development in different locations. As of the date of this report, we believe that Xingfa has made employee benefit payments in material aspects. If Xingfa fails to make adequate payments in the future, it may be required by the social security premium collection agency to make or supplement contributions within a stipulated period, and shall be subject to a late payment fine computed from the due date at the rate of 0.05% per day; where payment is not made within the stipulated period, the relevant administrative authorities shall impose a fine ranging from one to three times the amount of the amount in arrears. If Xingfa is subject to fines in relation to the underpaid employee benefits, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

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Non-compliance with labor-related laws and regulations of the PRC may have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operation.

 

Xingfa has been subject to stricter regulatory requirements in terms of entering into labor contracts with its employees and paying various statutory employee benefits, including pensions, housing fund, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit of its employees. Pursuant to the PRC Labor Contract Law, or the Labor Contract Law, that became effective in January 2008 and was amended in December 2012 and became effective on July 1, 2013, and its implementing rules that became effective in September 2008, employers are subject to stricter requirements in terms of signing labor contracts, minimum wages, paying remuneration, determining the term of employees’ probation and unilaterally terminating labor contracts. In the event that Xingfa decides to terminate some of its employees or otherwise change its employment or labor practices, the Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules may limit our ability to effect those changes in a desirable or cost-effective manner, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. We believe Xingfa’s current practice complies with the Labor Contract Law and its amendments. However, the relevant governmental authorities may take a different view and impose fines on us.

 

As the interpretation and implementation of labor-related laws and regulations are still evolving, our employment practices could violate labor-related laws and regulations in China, which may subject us to labor disputes or government investigations. If Xingfa is deemed to have violated relevant labor laws and regulations, Xingfa could be required to provide additional compensation to its employees and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

 

In February 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly-Listed Company, replacing earlier rules promulgated in March 2007. Pursuant to these rules, PRC citizens and non-PRC citizens who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year who participate in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be the PRC subsidiary of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. In addition, an overseas entrusted institution must be retained to handle matters in connection with the exercise or sale of stock options and the purchase or sale of shares and interests. We and our executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who have resided in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year and who have been granted options or other awards are subject to these regulations. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiary and limit our PRC subsidiary’s ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional incentive plans for our directors, executive officers and employees under PRC law. See “Regulations— Regulations of People’s Republic of China —Employee Stock Incentive Plan.”

 

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If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders.

 

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, an enterprise established outside of the PRC with a “de facto management body” within the PRC is considered a resident enterprise and will be subject to the enterprise income tax on its global income at the rate of 25%. The implementation rules define the term “de facto management body” as the body that exercises full and substantial control over and overall management of the business, productions, personnel, accounts and properties of an enterprise. In April 2009, the State Administration of Taxation issued a circular, known as Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Although this circular only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners like us, the criteria set forth in the circular may reflect the State Administration of Taxation’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of all offshore enterprises. According to Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be regarded as a PRC tax resident by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its global income only if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the primary location of the day-to-day operational management is in the PRC; (ii) decisions relating to the enterprise’s financial and human resource matters are made or are subject to approval by organizations or personnel in the PRC; (iii) the enterprise’s primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholder resolutions, are located or maintained in the PRC; and (iv) at least 50% of voting board members or senior executives habitually reside in the PRC.

 

We believe none of our entities outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. See “Taxation—People’s Republic of China Taxation.” However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body.” As some of our management members are based in or frequently travel to China, it remains unclear how the tax residency rule will apply to our case. If the PRC tax authorities determine that we or any of our subsidiaries outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, then we or such subsidiary could be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 25% on its world-wide income, which could materially reduce our net income. In addition, we will also be subject to PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations. Furthermore, if the PRC tax authorities determine that we are a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, gains realized on the sale or other disposition of our ordinary shares may be subject to PRC tax, at a rate of 10% in the case of non-PRC enterprises or 20% in the case of non-PRC individuals (in each case, subject to the provisions of any applicable tax treaty), if such gains are deemed to be from PRC sources. It is unclear whether non-PRC shareholders of our Company would be able to claim the benefits of any tax treaties between their country of tax residence and the PRC in the event that we are treated as a PRC resident enterprise. Any such tax may reduce the returns on your investment in our ordinary shares.

 

Regulatory bodies of the United States may be limited in their ability to conduct investigations or inspections of our operations in China.

 

From time to time, the Company may receive requests from certain US agencies to investigate or inspect the Company’s operations, or to otherwise provide information. While the Company will be compliant with these requests from these regulators, there is no guarantee that such requests will be honored by those entities who provide services to us or with whom we associate, especially as those entities are located in China. Furthermore, an on-site inspection of our facilities in China by any of these regulators may be limited or entirely prohibited. Such inspections, though permitted by the Company and its affiliates, are subject to the unpredictability of the Chinese enforcers, and may therefore be impossible to facilitate. According to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law which became effective in March 2020, the securities regulatory authority of the State Council may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region, to implement cross-border supervision and administration and no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct an investigation or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC. Accordingly, without the consent of the competent PRC securities regulators and relevant authorities, no organization or individual may provide the documents and materials relating to securities business activities to overseas parties.

 

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The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, and the related regulations are evolving quickly. Further implementations and interpretations of or amendments to the HFCA Act or the related regulations, or a PCOAB’s determination of its lack of sufficient access to inspect our auditor, might pose regulatory risks to and impose restrictions on us because of our operations in mainland China. A potential consequence is that our ordinary shares may be delisted by the exchange. The delisting of our ordinary shares, or the threat of our ordinary shares being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct full inspections of our auditor deprives our investors of the benefits of such inspections

 

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, was enacted on December 18, 2020. In accordance with the HFCA Act, trading in securities of any registrant on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States may be prohibited if the PCAOB determines that it cannot inspect or fully investigate the registrant’s auditor for three consecutive years beginning in 2021, and, as a result, an exchange may determine to delist the securities of such registrant. On June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, which, would amend the HFCA Act and require the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchanges if its auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three, thus reducing the time period before our securities may be prohibited from trading or delisted if our auditor is unable to meet the PCAOB inspection requirement. On December 29, 2022, a legislation entitled “Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023” (the “Consolidated Appropriations Act”), was signed into law by President Biden. The Consolidated Appropriations Act contained, among other things, an identical provision to Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, which reduces the number of consecutive non-inspection years required for triggering the prohibitions under the HFCA Act from three years to two.

 

On November 5, 2021, the SEC adopted the PCAOB rule to implement HFCA Act, which provides a framework for the PCAOB to determine whether it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms located in a foreign jurisdiction because of a position taken by one or more authorities in that jurisdiction.

 

On December 2, 2021, SEC adopted amendments to finalize rules implementing the submission and disclosure requirements in the HFCA Act. The rules apply to registrants the SEC identifies as having filed an annual report with an audit report issued by a registered public accounting firm that is located in a foreign jurisdiction and that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate (the “Commission-Identified Issuers”). A Commission-Identified Issuer will be required to comply with the submission and disclosure requirements in the annual report for each year in which it was identified. If a registrant is identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer based on its annual report for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, the registrant will be required to comply with the submission or disclosure requirements in its annual report filing covering the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.

 

On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued its determinations (the “Determination”) that they are unable to inspect or investigate completely PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and in Hong Kong. The Determination includes lists of public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely.

 

On August 26, 2022, the PCAOB signed a Statement of Protocol with the China Securities Regulatory Commission and the Ministry of Finance of the People’s Republic of China governing inspections and investigations of audit firms based in China and Hong Kong. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB Board determined that the PCAOB was able to secure complete access to inspect and investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and voted to vacate its previous determinations to the contrary. However, should PRC authorities obstruct or otherwise fail to facilitate the PCAOB’s access in the future, the PCAOB Board will consider the need to issue a new determination.

 

The enactment of the HFCA Act and related regulations and any additional actions, proceedings, or new rules resulting from these efforts to increase U.S. regulatory access to audit information could cause investors uncertainty for affected issuers and the market price of our ordinary shares could be adversely affected, and we could be delisted if our auditor is unable to meet the PCAOB inspection requirement.

 

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The lack of access to PCAOB inspections prevents the PCAOB from fully evaluating audits and quality control procedures of the auditors based in China and Hong Kong. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China and Hong Kong makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of these accounting firm’s audit procedures and quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections.

 

Our auditor, Wei, Wei & Co., LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm that is headquartered in the United States, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Our auditor has been inspected by the PCAOB on a regular basis with the last inspection in 2022 and it is not included in the PCAOB Determinations. However, we cannot assure you whether Nasdaq or regulatory authorities would apply additional and more stringent criteria to us after considering the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures and quality control procedures, adequacy of personnel and training, or sufficiency of resources, geographic reach, or experience as it relates to our audit. If it is later determined that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely our auditor because of a position taken by an authority in a foreign jurisdiction or any other reasons, the lack of inspection could cause the trading in our securities to be prohibited under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, and as a result Nasdaq may delist our securities. If our securities are unable to be listed on another securities exchange, such a delisting would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our securities when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with a potential delisting would have a negative impact on the price of our ordinary shares. Further, new laws and regulations or changes in laws and regulations in both the United States and China could affect our ability to list our ordinary shares on Nasdaq, which could materially impair the market for and market price for our securities.

 

Enhanced scrutiny over acquisition transactions by the PRC tax authorities may have a negative impact on potential acquisitions we may pursue in the future.

 

The PRC tax authorities have enhanced their scrutiny over the direct or indirect transfer of certain taxable assets, including, in particular, equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by a non-resident enterprise by promulgating and implementing SAT Circular 59 and Circular 698, which became effective in January 2008, and Circular 698 was abolished and void as of December 1, 2017.

 

Under Circular 698, where a non-resident enterprise conducts an “indirect transfer” by transferring the equity interests of a PRC “resident enterprise” indirectly by disposing of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, the non-resident enterprise, being the transferor, may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, if the indirect transfer is considered to be an abusive use of company structure without reasonable commercial purposes. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of up to 10%. Circular 698 also provides that, where a non-PRC resident enterprise transfers its equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise to its related parties at a price lower than the fair market value, the relevant tax authority has the power to make a reasonable adjustment to the taxable income of the transaction.

 

In February 2015, the SAT issued Circular 7 to replace the rules relating to indirect transfers in Circular 698. Circular 7 has introduced a new tax regime that is significantly different from that under Circular 698. Circular 7 extends its tax jurisdiction to not only indirect transfers set forth under Circular 698 but also transactions involving transfer of other taxable assets, through the offshore transfer of a foreign intermediate holding company. In addition, Circular 7 provides clearer criteria than Circular 698 on how to assess reasonable commercial purposes and has introduced safe harbors for internal group restructurings and the purchase and sale of equity through a public securities market. Circular 7 also brings challenges to both the foreign transferor and transferee (or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer) of the taxable assets. Where a non-resident enterprise conducts an “indirect transfer” by transferring the taxable assets indirectly by disposing of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, the non-resident enterprise being the transferor, or the transferee, or the PRC entity which directly owned the taxable assets may report to the relevant tax authority such indirect transfer. Using a “substance over form” principle, the PRC tax authority may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company if it lacks a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10% for the transfer of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise.

 

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We face uncertainties on the reporting and consequences on future private equity financing transactions, share exchange or other transactions involving the transfer of shares in our Company by investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises. The PRC tax authorities may pursue such non-resident enterprises with respect to a filing or the transferees with respect to withholding obligation and request our PRC subsidiary to assist in the filing. As a result, we and non-resident enterprises in such transactions may become at risk of being subject to filing obligations or being taxed, under Circular 59 and Circular 7, and may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with Circular 59 and Circular 7 or to establish that we and our non-resident enterprises should not be taxed under these circulars, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

The PRC tax authorities have the discretion under SAT Circular 59, and Circular 7 to make adjustments to the taxable capital gains based on the difference between the fair value of the taxable assets transferred and the cost of investment. Although we currently have no specific plans to pursue any acquisitions in China or elsewhere in the world, we may pursue acquisitions in the future that may involve complex corporate structures. If we are considered a non-resident enterprise under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and if the PRC tax authorities make adjustments to the taxable income of the transactions under SAT Circular 59 and Circular 7, our income tax costs associated with such potential acquisitions will be increased, which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the newly enacted PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance, business operations and financial results.

 

On March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress approved the Foreign Investment Law, which came into effect on January 1, 2020 and replaced the trio of existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. The Foreign Investment Law embodies an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. However, since it is relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to its interpretation and implementation and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate governance and business operations in China and financial results of the Company.

 

Any change of regulations and rules by Chinese government including the limitations on usage of power, additional environmental protection requirements, moving technology in and out of the PRC or restriction on cash transfer out of PRC may intervene or influence our operations in China at any time and any additional control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in issuers with Chinese operations could result in a material change in our business operations and/or the value of our ordinary shares and could also significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer our ordinary shares to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

 

Our manufacturing facility and operation in China may be intervened or influenced by the new regulations and policies by Chinese government. For example, between July 2 and July 6, 2021, Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, announced cybersecurity investigations of the business operations of certain U.S.-listed Chinese companies. On July 6, 2021, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued “The Opinions on Severely Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities According to Law”, or “the Opinions”. The Opinions emphasized the needs to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities and the supervision over overseas listings by Chinese companies. According to the Opinions, Measures, including promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems, will be taken to control the risks and manage the incidents from overseas listed Chinese companies.

 

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On February 17, 2023, the CSRC released the Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Enterprises (the “New Overseas Listing Rules”) with five interpretive guidelines, which took effect on March 31, 2023. The New Overseas Listing Rules require Chinese domestic enterprises to complete filings with relevant governmental authorities and report related information under certain circumstances, such as: a) an issuer making an application for initial public offering and listing in an overseas market; b) an issuer making a subsequent overseas securities offering after having been listed on an overseas market; c) a domestic company seeking an overseas direct or indirect listing of its assets through single or multiple acquisition(s), share swap, transfer of shares or other means. The new rules provide that the determination as to whether a domestic company is indirectly offering and listing securities on an overseas market shall be made on a substance over form basis, and if the issuer meets the following conditions, the offering and listing shall be determined as an indirect overseas offering and listing by a Chinese domestic company: (i) any of the revenue, profit, total assets or net assets of the Chinese domestic entity is more than 50% of the related financials in the issuer’s audited consolidated financial statements for the most recent fiscal year; and (ii) the senior managers in charge of business operation and management of the issuer are mostly Chinese citizens or with regular domicile in China, the main locations of its business operations are in China or main business activities are conducted in China. Although we are headquartered in Hong Kong with all our executive officers and directors based in Hong Kong who are not Chinese citizens and most of our revenues and profits are generated by our subsidiaries in Hong Kong, it is not certain whether we might be determined by CSRC as a Chinese entity under New Overseas Listing Rules which will require us to file the offering related documents with CSRC. 

 

On December 28, 2021, Cybersecurity Review Measures published by Cyberspace Administration of China or the CAC, National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of State Security, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Commerce, People’s Bank of China, State Administration of Radio and Television, China Securities Regulatory Commission, State Secrecy Administration and State Cryptography Administration, effective on February 15, 2022, which provides that, Critical Information Infrastructure Operators (“CIIOs”) and Online Platform Operators engaging in data processing activities that affect or may affect national security shall be subject to the cybersecurity review by the Cybersecurity Review Office. In addition, CIIOs and Online Platform Operators that possess personal data of at least one (1) million users must apply for a review by the Cybersecurity Review Office, if they plan to conduct listings in foreign countries. On November 14, 2021, CAC published the Administration Measures for Cyber Data Security (Draft for Public Comments), or the “Cyber Data Security Measure (Draft)”. Cyber Data Security Measure (Draft) provides that data processors shall apply for Cybersecurity Review for certain events, such as the merger, restructuring, division of an internet platform operator that holds a large amount of data relating to national security, economic development or public interests which affects or may affect the national security; overseas listing of a data processor that processes personal data for more than one million individuals; Hong Kong listing of a data processor that affects or may affect national security; other data processing activities that affect or may affect the national security. Although we are not an CIIO or an Online Platform Operator as defined in the Review Measures and do not process personal data for more than one million individuals under Cyber Data Security Measure (Draft), it is not certain whether any future regulations will impose restrictions on the business that we are currently engaging in China, which is manufacturing lockset. As of the date of this report, we have not received any notice from any authorities identifying us as a CIIO, Online Platform Operator or requiring us to undertake a cybersecurity review by the CAC.

 

On July 23, 2021, General Office of the State Council promulgated “Opinions on Further Reducing Students’ Homework Burden and After-school Tutoring Burden at the Stage of Compulsory Education”, pursuant to which the institutions that offer tutoring of school curriculum shall be registered as non-profit organizations and are not allowed to make profits and raise capital. The new regulation also disallows foreign investment in these institutions through acquisitions, franchise or contractual agreements. Although we only manufacture lockset products in China and do not engage in CIIO, Online Platform Operator or any education or tutoring related business, our offering and listing on Nasdaq may be negatively affected by these new regulations as they have materially negatively affected stock prices of the U.S listed Chinese companies which are the CIIOs, Online Platform Operators or in the tutoring business. Any additional restriction, scrutiny or negative publicity of the U.S.-listed Chinese companies could cause the U.S. investors less interested in our ordinary shares, or completely hinder our ability to offer our ordinary shares to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

 

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Furthermore, the PRC government authorities may adopt new rules and regulations and impose additional limitations or restrictions on us based on the industry that we operate in, for example, the “dual control of energy consumption” policy to control the total power consumption and efficiency which has caused disruptions to Xingfa’s production schedule in 2021, or more stringent environmental protection requirements for air emissions, wastewater treatment and solid waste management and disposal which could restrict or limit our operations and expose us to liability and penalties for non-compliance. The new rules or regulations may also impose additional restrictions on us for moving technology in and out of the PRC or restriction on our cash transfer out of PRC from current accounts. Such new rules or actions taken by the PRC government authorities may intervene or influence our operations at any time, which may adversely affect our operations and significantly limit or hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to you and reduce the value of our securities.

 

Uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws and the fact that rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little advance notice, along with the risk that the Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations at any time, or may exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers could result in a material change in our operations, financial performance and/or the value of our ordinary shares or impair our ability to raise money.

 

If we become subject to additional scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity involving U.S.-listed China-based companies, we may have to expend significant resources to investigate and resolve the matter which could harm our business operations, securities offering and our reputation and could result in a loss of your investment in our ordinary shares, especially if such matter cannot be addressed and resolved favorably.

 

Recently, U.S. public companies that have substantial operations in China have been the subject of intense scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity by investors, financial commentators and regulatory agencies. Much of the scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity has centered around financial and accounting irregularities, a lack of effective internal controls over financial accounting, inadequate corporate governance policies or a lack of adherence thereto and, in some cases, allegations of fraud. As a result of the scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity, the publicly traded stock of many U.S.-listed China-based companies has decreased in value and, in some cases, has become virtually worthless. Some of these companies have been subject to shareholder lawsuits and SEC enforcement actions and have conducted internal and external investigations into the allegations. It is not clear what effect this sector-wide scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity will have on us, our business and securities offering. If we become the subject of any unfavorable allegations, whether such allegations are proven to be true or untrue, we will have to expend significant resources to investigate such allegations and/or defend our company. This situation may be a major distraction to our management. If such allegations are not proven to be groundless, our business operations will be severely hindered and your investment in our ordinary shares could be rendered worthless.

 

Risks Related to Doing Business in Hong Kong.

 

The Hong Kong legal system embodies uncertainties which could negatively affect our listing on Nasdaq and limit the legal protections available to you and us.

 

As one of the conditions for the handover of the sovereignty of Hong Kong to China, China had to accept some conditions such as Hong Kong’s Basic Law before its return. The Basic Law ensured Hong Kong will retain its own currency (the Hong Kong Dollar), legal system, parliamentary system and people’s rights and freedom for fifty years from 1997. This agreement has given Hong Kong the freedom to function in a high degree of autonomy. The Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong is responsible for its own domestic affairs including, but not limited to, the judiciary and courts of last resort, immigration and customs, public finance, currencies and extradition. Hong Kong continues using the English common law system.

 

However, if the PRC reneges on its agreement to allow Hong Kong to function autonomously, this could potentially impact Hong Kong’s common law legal system and may in turn bring about uncertainty in, for example, listing our ordinary shares on Nasdaq Stock Exchange.

 

This also could materially and adversely affect our business and operation. Additionally, intellectual property rights and confidentiality protections in Hong Kong may not be as effective as in the United States or other countries. Accordingly, we cannot predict the effect of future developments in the Hong Kong legal system, including the promulgation of new laws, changes to existing laws or the interpretation or enforcement thereof, or the preemption of local regulations by national laws. These uncertainties could limit the legal protections available to us, including our ability to enforce our agreements with our customers.

 

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Any social unrest in Hong Kong may affect our business and financial results.

 

Hong Kong is a special administrative region of the PRC with its own government. Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of autonomy from the PRC under the principle of “one country, two systems.” However, there can be no assurance that our financial condition and results of operations will not be adversely affected as a consequence of the exercise of PRC sovereignty over Hong Kong. In particular, in 2019 and 2020, there has been a series of large demonstrations in Hong Kong that has adversely affected the business volume and operations of local businesses, airports and public transportation systems. On July 14, 2020, the President of U.S. signed an executive order to end the special status enjoyed by Hong Kong under the United States-Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992. Hong Kong’s position and reputation as an international financial and trade center may be further damaged, and our business may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We may be affected by the recently effect by the Basic Law Article 23: Safeguarding National Security Ordinance

 

On March 23, 2024, the Basic Law Article 23: Safeguarding National Security Ordinance was effect. We have accessed the content and believe our business operation in Hong Kong will not be adversely affected. However, we cannot assure our customers in US may have different point of view and this would in turn adversely affect the sales orders from our US customers.

 

We may be affected by the currency peg system in Hong Kong.

 

Since 1983, Hong Kong dollars have been pegged to the US dollars at the rate of approximately HK$7.80 to US$1.00. We cannot assure you that this policy will not be changed in the future. If the pegging system collapses and Hong Kong dollars suffer devaluation, the Hong Kong dollar cost of our expenditures denominated in foreign currency may increase. This would in turn adversely affect the operations and profitability of our business.

 

It will be difficult to acquire jurisdiction and enforce liabilities against us, our officers, directors and assets based in Hong Kong and China.

 

Almost all of our assets are located in Hong Kong and China and our officers and directors currently reside outside of the United States and most of them are in Hong Kong. There are currently no treaties or other arrangements providing for reciprocal enforcement of foreign judgments between Hong Kong and the United States. In a common law action for enforcement of a foreign judgment in Hong Kong, the enforcement is subject to various conditions, including but not limited to, that the foreign judgment is a final judgment conclusive upon the merits of the claim, the judgment is for a liquidated amount in a civil matter and not in respect of taxes, fines, penalties, or similar charges, the proceedings in which the judgment was obtained were not contrary to natural justice, and the enforcement of the judgment is not contrary to public policy of Hong Kong. See Enforceability of Civil Liabilities – Hong Kong. China does not have any treaties or other form of reciprocity with the United States or the Cayman Islands that provide for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. In addition, according to the PRC Civil Procedures Law, courts in the PRC will not enforce a foreign judgment against us or our directors and officers if they decide that the judgment violates the basic principles of PRC law or national sovereignty, security or public interest. See Enforceability of Civil Liabilities – China. As a result, it may be difficult or not possible for United States investors to enforce their legal rights, to effect service of process upon us, our directors or officers or to enforce judgments of United States courts predicated upon civil liabilities and criminal penalties of us, our directors and officers under federal securities laws.

 

Risks Related to Our Ordinary Shares

 

Risks Relating to Our Shares

 

We may fail to meet continued listing requirements on the NASDAQ Capital Market

 

On October 19, 2023, the Company received a letter from the Nasdaq Stock Market (“Nasdaq”) notifying the Company that, because the closing bid price for the Company’s ordinary shares listed on Nasdaq was below $1.00 for 30 consecutive trading days, the Company no longer meets the minimum bid price requirement for continued listing on Nasdaq under Nasdaq Marketplace Rule 5550(a)(2), which requires a minimum bid price of $1.00 per share (the “Minimum Bid Price Requirement”). On April 17, 2024, the Company received a written notification from the NASDAQ Stock Market Listing Qualifications Staff (the “Staff”) indicating that the Company has been granted an additional 180 calendar day period or until October 14, 2024, to regain compliance with the $1.00 minimum closing bid price requirement for continued listing on the NASDAQ Capital Market pursuant to NASDAQ Listing Rule (the “Minimum Bid Price Requirement”).

 

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NASDAQ’s determination was based on the Company meeting the continued listing requirement for market value of publicly held shares and all other applicable requirements for initial listing on the NASDAQ Capital Market, with the exception of the bid price requirement, and the Company’s written notice to NASDAQ of its intention to cure the deficiency during the second compliance period by effecting a reverse stock split, if necessary. If at any time during this additional time period the closing bid price of the Company’s security is at least $1.00 per share for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days, NASDAQ will provide written confirmation of compliance and this matter will be closed. If compliance cannot be demonstrated by October 14, 2024, Staff will provide written notification that the Company’s securities will be delisted. At that time, the Company may appeal the Staff’s determination to a Hearings Panel (the “Panel”) of NASDAQ.

 

This notification from Nasdaq has no immediate effect on the listing or trading of the Company’s ordinary shares, which will continue to trade on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ILAG”. The Company will monitor the closing bid price of its ordinary shares and will consider various options to regain compliance before October 14, 2024.

 

Our ordinary shares may be thinly traded and you may be unable to sell at or near ask prices or at all if you need to sell your shares to raise money or otherwise desire to liquidate your shares.

 

Our ordinary shares may be “thinly-traded,” meaning that the number of persons interested in purchasing our ordinary shares at or near bid prices at any given time may be relatively small or non-existent. This situation may be attributable to a number of factors, including the fact that we are relatively unknown to stock analysts, stock brokers, institutional investors and others in the investment community that generate or influence sales volume, and that even if we came to the attention of such persons, they tend to be risk-averse and might be reluctant to follow an unproven company such as ours or purchase or recommend the purchase of our shares until such time as we became more seasoned. As a consequence, there may be periods of several days or more when trading activity in our shares is minimal or non-existent, as compared to a seasoned issuer which has a large and steady volume of trading activity that will generally support continuous sales without an adverse effect on share price. A broad or active public trading market for our ordinary shares may not develop or be sustained.

 

The market price for our ordinary shares may be volatile.

 

The market price for our ordinary shares may be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations due to factors such as:

 

the perception of U.S. investors and regulators of U.S. listed Chinese companies;

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;

 

changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;

 

negative publicity, studies or reports;

 

conditions in the international lockset, hardware and real estate markets;

 

our capability to catch up with the technology innovations in the industry;

 

changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other lockset and hardware companies;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

addition or departure of key personnel;

 

fluctuations of exchange rates among RMB, HK dollar and the U.S. dollar; and

 

general economic, health or political conditions in Hong Kong, China and worldwide.

 

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In addition, the securities market has from time-to-time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to the operating performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may also materially and adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares.

 

Volatility in our ordinary shares price may subject us to securities litigation.

 

The market for our ordinary shares may have, when compared to seasoned issuers, significant price volatility and we expect that our share price may continue to be more volatile than that of a seasoned issuer for the indefinite future. In the past, plaintiffs have often initiated securities class action litigation against a company following periods of volatility in the market price of its securities. We may, in the future, be the target of similar litigation. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and liabilities and could divert management’s attention and resources.

 

In order to raise sufficient funds to enhance operations, we may have to issue additional securities at prices which may result in substantial dilution to our shareholders.

 

If we raise additional funds through the sale of equity or convertible debt, our current shareholders’ percentage ownership will be reduced. In addition, these transactions may dilute the value of ordinary shares outstanding. We may have to issue securities that may have rights, preferences and privileges senior to our ordinary shares. We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to raise additional funds on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If future financing is not available or is not available on acceptable terms, we may not be able to fund our future needs, which would have a material adverse effect on our business plans, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

 

We are not likely to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

We currently intend to retain any future earnings for use in the operation and expansion of our business. Accordingly, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future but will review this policy as circumstances dictate. Should we determine to pay dividends in the future, our ability to do so will depend upon the receipt of dividends or other payments from our subsidiaries. Our subsidiaries may, from time to time, be subject to restrictions on their ability to make distributions to us, including restrictions on the conversion of RMB into US dollars or other hard currency and other regulatory restrictions.

 

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests as a shareholder, as Cayman Islands law provides substantially less protection when compared to the laws of the United States and it may be difficult for a shareholder of ours to effect service of process or to enforce judgements obtained in the United States courts.

 

Our corporate affairs are governed by our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association and by the Cayman Islands Companies Act (As Revised) (“Companies Act”) and common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take legal action against our directors and us, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from English common law. Decisions of the Privy Council (which is the final court of appeal for British Overseas Territories such as the Cayman Islands) are binding on a court in the Cayman Islands. Decisions of the English courts, and particularly the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and the Court of Appeal are generally of persuasive authority but are not binding on the courts of the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedents in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws as compared to the United States, and provide significantly less protection to investors. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action before the United States federal courts. The Cayman Islands courts are also unlikely to impose liabilities against us in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, based on certain civil liability provisions of United States securities laws.

 

Currently, all of our operations are conducted outside the United States, and substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. All of our directors and officers are nationals or residents of jurisdictions other than the United States and a substantial portion of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for a shareholder to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons, or to enforce against us or them judgments obtained in United States courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

 

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As a result of all of the above, our shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests through actions against us or our officers, directors or major shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the United States.

 

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.

 

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act. As such, we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies. For example:

 

we are not required to provide as many Exchange Act reports, or as frequently, as a domestic public company;

 

for interim reporting, we are permitted to comply solely with our home country requirements, which are less rigorous than the rules that apply to domestic public companies;

 

we are not required to provide the same level of disclosure on certain issues, such as executive compensation;

 

we are exempt from provisions of Regulation FD aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information;

 

we are not required to comply with the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; and

 

we are not required to comply with Section 16 of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and establishing insider liability for profits realized from any “short-swing” trading transaction.

 

We are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we will file reports on Form 6-K as a foreign private issuer. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

 

We are an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and if we take advantage of certain exemptions from disclosure requirements available to emerging growth companies, this could make it more difficult to compare our performance with other public companies.

 

We are an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act. Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such an election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

 

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As an “emerging growth company” under applicable law, we will be subject to reduced disclosure requirements. Such reduced disclosure may make our ordinary shares less attractive to investors.

 

For as long as we remain an “emerging growth company”, as defined in the JOBS Act, we will elect to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies”, including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Because of these lessened regulatory requirements, our shareholders would be left without information or rights available to shareholders of more mature companies. If some investors find our ordinary shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our ordinary shares and our share price may be more volatile.

 

Because we are a foreign private issuer and are exempt from certain NASDAQ corporate governance standards applicable to U.S. issuers, you may have less protection than you would have if we were a domestic issuer.

 

The Nasdaq Listing Rules require listed companies to have, among other things, a majority of its board members be independent. As a foreign private issuer, however, we are permitted to follow home country practice in lieu of the above requirements. On June 23, 2023, the Company has notified Nasdaq that it will follow its home country practice in lieu of the provisions under Rule 5620(a), Rule 5635(a), Rule 5635(c) and Rule 5635(d) of the NASDAQ Stock Market Marketplace Rules (the “Rules”) by relying on the exemption provided for foreign private issuers under Marketplace Rule 5615(a)(3). Rule 5620(a) requires that the Company to hold an annual meeting of shareholders no later than one year after the end of the Company’s fiscal year-end; Rule 5635(a) of the Rules requires shareholder approval for the issuance of securities in connection with the acquisition of the stock or assets of another company; Rule 5635(c) of the Rules requires shareholder approval prior to the issuance of securities when a stock option or purchase plan is to be established or materially amended or other equity compensation arrangement made or materially amended, pursuant to which stock may be acquired by officers, directors, employees; and Rule 5635(d) of the Rules requires shareholder approval prior to an issuance of securities, other than in a public offering, equal to 20% or more of the voting power outstanding at a price less than the lower of: (i) the Nasdaq Official Closing Price (as reflected on Nasdaq.com) immediately preceding the signing of the binding agreement; or (ii) the average Nasdaq Official Closing Price of the common stock (as reflected on Nasdaq.com) for the five trading days immediately preceding the signing of the binding agreement. The corporate governance practice in our home country, the Cayman Islands, does not require the Company to follow or comply with the requirements of Rule 5620(a), Rule 5635(a), Rule 5635(c) and Rule 5635(d). We will comply with other corporate governance requirements of the Nasdaq Listing Rules. However, we may consider following home country practice in lieu of additional requirements under the Nasdaq Listing Rules with respect to certain corporate governance standards in the future which may afford less protection to investors.

 

We will incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, particularly after we cease to qualify as an “emerging growth company.”

 

As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and NASDAQ Capital Market, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act and will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the completion of our initial public offering, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.235 billion, or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our Ordinary Shares that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30th, and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 in the assessment of the emerging growth company’s internal control over financial reporting and permission to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies.

 

Compliance with these rules and regulations increases our legal and financial compliance costs and makes some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. After we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” or until five years following the completion of our initial public offering, whichever is earlier, we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. For example, as a public company, we have increased the number of independent directors and adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures to become a public company. We have incurred additional costs in obtaining director and officer liability insurance. In addition, we incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

 

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Four members of our management team will have substantial influence over our Company and their interests may not be aligned with the interests of our other shareholders.

 

Mr. Bong Lau, our Chief Executive Officer and chairman of the Board and his brother Mr. Bun Lau, our Chief Operating Officer, each owns 12.96% of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares. Mr. Wynn Hui, our Chief Technical Officer and executive director of the Board and his son Mr. Errol Hui, our Vice President of Engineering, each owns 12.96% of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares. As a result of their significant shareholding, Mr. Bong Lau, Mr. Bun Lau, Mr. Wynn Hui and Mr. Errol Hui have, and will continue to have, substantial influence over our business, including decisions regarding mergers, consolidations and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. They may take actions that are not in the best interests of us or our other shareholders. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our Company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and might reduce the market price of our ordinary shares. These actions may be taken even if they are opposed by our other shareholders.

 

We may become a “controlled company” within the meaning of the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules and, as a result, may rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements that provide protection to shareholders of other companies.

 

We do not believe we are a “controlled company” as defined under the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules. However, in the event that four of our principal shareholders, Mr. Bong Lau, Mr. Bun Lau, Mr. Wynn Hui and Mr. Errol Hui, who beneficially own more than 50% of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares, decide to act as a group, we may be deemed to be a “controlled company”. For so long as we are a controlled company under that definition, we are permitted to elect to rely, and may rely, on certain exemptions from corporate governance rules, including:

 

  an exemption from the rule that a majority of our board of directors must be independent directors; an exemption from the rule that the compensation of our chief executive officer must be determined or recommended solely by independent directors; and
     
   an exemption from the rule that our director nominees must be selected or recommended solely by independent directors.

 

As a result, you will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to these corporate governance requirements.

 

Cayman Islands economic substance requirements may have an effect on our business and operations.

 

Pursuant to the International Tax Cooperation (Economic Substance) Act, 2018 of the Cayman Islands, or the ES Act, that came into force on January 1, 2019, a “relevant entity” is required to satisfy the economic substance test set out in the ES Act. A “relevant entity” includes an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands as is our Company. Based on the current interpretation of the ES Act, we believe that our Company, Intelligent Living Applicant Group Inc., is a pure equity holding company since it only holds equity participation in other entities and only earns dividends and capital gains. Accordingly, for so long as our Company, Intelligent Living Applicant Group Inc., is a “pure equity holding company”, it is only subject to the minimum substance requirements, which require us to (i) comply with all applicable filing requirements under the Companies Act; and (ii) has adequate human resources and adequate premises in the Cayman Islands for holding and managing equity participations in other entities. However, there can be no assurance that we will not be subject to more requirements under the ES Law. Uncertainties over the interpretation and implementation of the ES Act may have an adverse impact on our business and operations.

 

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ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

 

A. History and Development of the Company

 

For 40 years, we have manufactured and sold high quality mechanical locksets to customers mainly in the United States and Canada, and we continue to diversify and refine our product offerings to meet our customers’ needs. The predecessor of Hing Fat commenced our business of selling door locksets in 1981. In 1983, we started a small manufacturing workshop in China to produce door locksets with imported materials to fulfill for our customer orders, which becomes our current manufacturing subsidiary, Xingfa. Our mission was “dedicated to manufacture high quality lockset products at affordable prices.”

 

Since 2000, we have offered our products with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Grade 2 and Grade 3 standards, which are developed by Builders Hardware Manufacturing Association (BHMA) for ANSI. Our focus is producing mechanical locksets, including locksets for outdoor uses, such as main entrances and gates, and indoor uses, to promote sustainable growth in our business and competitiveness in the market. To continue driving growth, we have designed our products to go beyond a basic lockset for security purposes; we offer a wide range of ODM door locksets to various customer segments from “Premium Series” to “Economy-oriented Series” with classic to contemporary looks, functions and colors. Currently, our products are sold mainly in the USA, and some in Canada, Macau and China.

 

We sell our products mainly to the US and Canada (“North America”) through one of our Hong Kong registered subsidiaries Kambo Locksets. Another Hong Kong registered subsidiary, Kambo Hardware, targets and distributes locksets and related hardware to countries other than the North America market and serves our customers in the Asian countries including Thailand and Australia.

 

In 1993, as the laws and regulations for processing with imported materials entity had changed in China, we established our wholly foreign owned entity (WFOE) subsidiary, Dongguan Xingfa Hardware Products Limited (“Xingfa”) located in Shatian County, Dongguan City, Guangdong Province of PRC. Xingfa is equipped with various types of machines such as die casting machines, furnace, polishing machines and other machines for metal processing in a 17,560 m2 manufacturing facility. In light of excess production capacity due to current economic conditions, Xingfa has subleased one plant building of approximately 4,300 m2 to reduce our operating costs.

 

  We restructured our corporate organization in 2009 and incorporated Hing Fat Industrial Limited under Hong Kong law (“Hing Fat”), as the holding company of Xingfa to manage the door lockset manufacturing activities of Xingfa and to conduct research and development.
     
  On March 26, 2014, Kambo Locksets Limited (“Kambo Locksets”) was incorporated under Hong Kong law. Kambo Locksets is a trading company focusing on marketing and sales of our products in North America market and became our subsidiary as a result of reorganization.
     
  On February 25, 2015, Kambo Hardware Limited (“Kambo Hardware”) was incorporated under Hong Kong law. Its primary business is to sell our products to markets outside of the North America.
     
  Bamberg (HK) Limited (“Bamberg”) was incorporated on June 24, 2016 under Hong Kong law. Through Bamberg, we started marketing our products under our own brand “Bamberg” to establish and focus on internet sales channels, such as Amazon.com.
     
  On July 17, 2019, the Company issued 500,000,000 ordinary shares to its shareholders. On August 14, 2019, these shareholders surrendered an aggregate of 499,990,000 ordinary shares to the Company at no consideration. The transaction is considered as a recapitalization prior to the Company’s initial public offering.
     
  A reorganization of the Company’s legal entity structure was completed in April 2020. The reorganization involved the incorporation of ILAG in July 2019 and execution of the Share Exchange Agreement between ILAG and ILA BVI in April 2020 (the “Share Exchange Agreement”) whereby ILAG took control of ILA BVI and its wholly owned subsidiaries by acquiring all the outstanding shares of ILA BVI with ordinary shares of ILAG. Pursuant to the Share Exchange Agreement, ILAG and ILA BVI exchanged 2,550,000 shares of ILA BVI for 12,990,000 ordinary shares of ILAG. This transaction was treated as a recapitalization of the Company and the financial statements give retroactive effect to this transaction.

 

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On July 16, 2021, the Board of Directors and Shareholders of the Company approved the Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association of the Company and our authorized share capital currently is $50,000 divided into 500,000,000 shares, comprising of (i) 450,000,000 ordinary shares, par value of $0.0001 each; and (ii) 50,000,000 preferred shares, par value of $0.0001 each.
   
On July 17, 2019, Intelligent Living Application Group Inc. was established as a holding company and it is a Cayman Islands exempted company limited by shares and were incorporated as an offshore holding company for listing purposes and for further expansion flexibility. Intelligent Living Application Group Inc. owns 100% of the equity interest in Intelligent Living Application Group Limited, which was incorporated on March 19, 2014 under the laws of British Virgin Islands.
   
Through Intelligent Living Application Group Limited in BVI, we own 100% of the equity interest in Hing Fat, Kambo Locksets, Kambo Hardware and Bamberg, and through Hing Fat, we own 100% of the equity interest in Xingfa.

 

The Company has subsidiaries in countries and jurisdictions including PRC and Hong Kong. Details of the subsidiaries and VIE of the Company are set out below:

 

Name of Entity  Date of
Incorporation
   Place of
Incorporation
  % of
Ownership
   Principal
Activities
Intelligent Living Application Group Inc.   July 2019   Cayman Islands   100   Holding company
Intelligent Living Application Group Limited   March 2014   BVI   100   Intermediate holding company
Kambo Locksets Limited   March 2014   Hong Kong   100   Trading company
Kambo Hardware Limited   February 2015   Hong Kong   100   Trading company
Bamberg (HK) Limited   June 2016   Hong Kong   100   Sales of self branded products
Hing Fat Industrial Limited   March 2009   Hong Kong   100   Holding Company
Dongguan Xingfa Hardware Products Co. Ltd.   August 1993   PRC   100   Manufacturing

 

On July 15, 2022, the Company closed its initial public offering (“IPO”) of 5,060,000 ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share, priced at $4.00 per share. The aggregate gross proceeds from the IPO were $20.24 million, before deducting underwriting discounts and other related expenses. The ordinary shares of the Company began trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market on July 13, 2022 under the ticker symbol “ILAG.”

 

On October 12, 2022 (the “Effective Date”), Hing Fat Industrial Limited and Dongguan Xingfa Hardware Products Co., Ltd. (“Buyer”) entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “Agreement”) with Hu Xiongjie, a citizen of Singapore (the “Seller”), pursuant to which the Seller agreed to sell to the Buyer an electroplating production line, including but not limited to equipment, machinery, tanks, fixtures, flowlines, improvements and mixed property located in Dongguan City, Guangdong, China (the “Asset”) for an aggregate purchase price (the “Purchase Price”) of $4,500,000 in cash. The Seller’s clientele details, books, accounting records and liabilities are excluded from this transaction. Pursuant to the Agreement, Buyer shall pay a refundable deposit of $2,000,000 on Effective Date and Buyer shall check operational conditions and access the value of the Asset at current market rate within ten (10) days of the Effective Date, and if Buyer accepts the Purchase Price, an intermediate payment of $1,000,000 shall be then paid. Upon closing, Buyer shall pay Seller an additional amount of $1,000,000. A residual of $500,000 shall be held by the Buyer for one (1) year from closing date as quality guarantee for possible tax liabilities, defects or required repair(s) of the Asset. The balance of Purchase Price shall be paid after deduction of costs of repairment related to unidentified defects or problems with the Asset at transfer date. As of the date of this report, the Buyer has paid all $4,500,000 to the Seller.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at Unit 2, 5/F, Block A, Profit Industrial Building, 1-15 Kwai Fung Crescent, Kwai Chung, New Territories, Hong Kong. Our telephone number at this address is +852 2481 7938. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at Cricket Square, Hutchins Drive, P.O. Box 2681, Grand Cayman, KY1-1111. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency, located at 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10168, United States. Investors should contact us for any inquiries through the address and telephone number (852) 2481-7938 of our principal executive offices.

 

The SEC maintains a web site at www.sec.gov that contains reports and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC using its EDGAR system.

 

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See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — B. Liquidity and Capital Resources — Capital Expenditures” for a discussion of our capital expenditures.

 

B. Business Overview

 

Our mission is to make life safer and smarter by designing and producing affordable, high-quality locksets and smart security systems.

 

Headquartered in Hong Kong, we manufacture and sell high quality mechanical locksets to customers mainly in the United States (US) and Canada and have continued to diversify and refine our product offerings in the past 40 years to meet our customers’ needs. We believe Xingfa is one of the pioneers of mechanical lockset manufacturing in China. Since inception, to cope with our development and increase customer satisfaction in quality, we keep investing in self-designed automated product lines, new craftsmanship and developing new products including smart locks. In order to obtain the confidence of our customers, Xingfa has obtained the ISO9001quality assurance certificate.

 

Starting in 2000, we offer products that comply with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Grade 2 and Grade 3 standards that are developed by the Builders Hardware Manufacturing Association (BHMA) for ANSI. Our focus in producing mechanical locksets - including locksets for outdoors (such as main entrances and gates) and indoors - has resulted in sustainable growth in our business and raised our competitiveness. To maintain our growth, our products are beyond a simple lockset for security purposes, we offer a wide range of Original Design Manufacturer (“ODM”) door locksets to various customer segments from “Premium Series” to “Economy-oriented Series” with classic to contemporary looks, functions and colors.

 

To meet increasing consumer needs for smart locks and smart home products, Hing Fat been researching and developing smart locks in the past couple years. Hing Fat has been working on smart locks functions, communication protocols, available designs and have internally worked out a general solution plan including mechanical and electronic parts but still need to further develop the software related parts for such locks which we need external help. Most of our research and development on smart locks have been done internally by our technician and engineers, except that Hing Fat hired outside services for approximately $25,000 in 2017. Because of tariff war and outbreak of COVID-19, we did not further progress on the software for our smart locks until early 2023. Since then, we have reinitiated the process to develop devices and software applications for our smart locks and expect to have first smart lock product by the end of 2024.

 

Currently, approximately 99% of our revenues are from products sold to the US market, and the remaining products are sold to Canadian market. We build our distribution network by working together with our large and small business partners in different geographic areas to sell our products. More information about geographical penetration of our revenues can be found in “Segment reporting in Note 2 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements”.

 

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Our Products

 

We produce various ODM indoor and outdoor locksets mainly for importers, builders and the construction market in the USA. Since 2016, we market our self-branded products, Bamberg, in South-east Asia. In addition, we are selling our self-branded products through reputable online shops.

 

Locksets functions

 

Mechanical locksets are mechanical devices which secure an opening by keeping a door closed until a release mechanism is activated. It can be a lever, knob, key, thumb-turn or button. Mechanical locksets are very common on exterior/interior doors in residential and multi-family applications. There are several types of mechanical locksets, and the most common functions for mechanical locksets are as follows:

 

Deadbolts – are used for front doors and doors which may require an additional security from a deadbolt, combined in a lockset with one of the functions above. It can be locked by a thumb-turn from the inside or by a key from the outside.

 

 

Entry locksets – are used for bedrooms, front doors, and back doors. It can be locked by a thumb-turn from the inside or by a key from the outside.

 

 

Privacy locksets – are used for restrooms or dressing rooms. It can be locked from the inside with a thumb turn for privacy, and it can be unlocked from the outside using a tool, a screwdriver for example, rather than a key.

 

 

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Passage locksets – are used where doors do not need to lock. There is no key and no lock function.

 

 

Storeroom locks – are used for storerooms. It should always be locked from the outside and a key is used to open the door. When the key is removed, the door is locked from the outside again. There is no lock/unlock the door from the inside.

 

 

Our Customized Keying Options

 

One of our value propositions is the ability to customize the keys for our door locksets based on specific customer requests. Below is a summary of our various professional custom-made keying options applicable to our products:

 

Types of Keying Options

 

The term “keying” refers to the way keys will be used to operate the cylinders that are installed in the door locksets. Keys can be assigned to different groups that will and will not open the cylinders. Keying determines which keys work at each opening. A cylinder will contain a certain number of pins generally ranging from 5 pins or more. The pins vary in height. This variation in height and the cuts on the key can generate different keying combinations. It can provide access to the cylinder to lock or unlock the locksets.

 

Keyed Different (KD)

 

Each cylinder is keyed different. It means that each lock is operated by a unique key. A key used at one door cannot be used to open other doors.

 

Keyed Alike (KA)

 

Each cylinder is keyed alike. It means that every lock can be opened by the same key. This is useful in an area where a limited number of keys is required, such as a residential unit area with storage closets or common rooms that only need one key combination.

 

Master Keyed (MK)

 

Each cylinder has its own individual key which cannot open other locksets in the system and all locksets in the system can be opened by one master key. A master keyed system is useful where someone requires a higher level of access authority, such as the building owner.

 

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Construction Keyed (CK)

 

A construction key is needed when contractors need entry to a building during construction. When new homes are under construction, a contractor will provide a general key to carpenters, painters, and other contractors. This allows easy access to several homes without requiring different keys, and prevents duplication and later entry into the homes once a homeowner moves in. Once construction is complete, the owner’s keys will block further access by the contractors. The following diagram shows how it works.

 

 

Our Suppliers

 

In past years, our primary raw materials are brass, iron and zinc alloy. We started to use stainless steel to partially substitute brass from second half of 2021. And we managed to replace substantial usage of brass with stainless steel in 2023. Raw materials by weight of our locksets basing on bill of materials and actual weighting, approximately 50% are iron, approximately 38% are zinc alloy, approximately 1% are brass and 11% are stainless steel for the year ended December 31, 2023, while approximately 49% are iron, approximately 40% are zinc alloy, approximately 6% are brass, and 5% are stainless steel for the same period of 2022. We don’t have long term purchase contracts with our suppliers but only purchase via orders. For procurement purpose, management will get master quote from at least two suppliers for every three (3) months. Management will bargain purchase price by taking into account price trends of brass, iron, zinc alloy, and stainless steel commodity and quantity volume discount. Xingfa has purchased approximately 11 tonnes brass, 490 tonnes iron, 373 tonnes zinc alloy and 103 tonnes stainless steel for the year ended December 31, 2023, while 88 tonnes brass, 697 tonnes iron, 569 tonnes zinc alloy, and 63 tonnes stainless steel for the year ended December 31, 2022.

 

Xingfa purchased iron from five Chinese suppliers in Guangdong province in year 2023.

 

Xingfa purchased zinc alloy from two suppliers. One supplier ships zinc alloy from Shanghai and Dongguan while one Hong Kong supplier ships them from Shenzhen in 2023.

 

Xingfa purchased brass from various subsidiaries of two suppliers in Dongguan and Shanghai in 2023.

 

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Xingfa purchased stainless steel from four suppliers in Guangdong province in 2023.

 

We have business relationships with our iron, zinc alloy and brass suppliers for over 5 years. Some of them are public companies or subsidiaries of public companies listed on Shanghai, Shenzhen or Hong Kong Stock Exchanges and the supplies and availabilities of our raw materials have never been an issued for us in the past. Also, all of our primary raw materials are general commercial commodities. For 2023, total global production of: (i) brass is approximately 22 million tonnes; (ii) iron is approximately 2.5 billion tonnes and (iii) zinc alloy is approximately 12.4 million tonnes; (iii) stainless steel is approximately 60 million tonnes. (source: ResearchAndMarkets.com) There are numbers of suppliers in China of our raw materials. Therefore, even our existing suppliers may be temporarily short in inventory, we can place purchase order to other suppliers without difficulty and price premium.

 

Intellectual Property

 

We regard our trademarks, domain names, know-how, proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on trademark and trade secret law and confidentiality and invention assignment with our employees and others to protect our proprietary rights.

 

We mostly rely on our know-how for production processes and our patents have expired. Currently, Bamberg (HK) Limited has one registered trademark for Bamberg in the U.S. and one registered trademark for Bamberg in Hong Kong, which are utilized for our self-branded products, and the Company has one trademark of ILAG in Hong Kong as our group holding company logo for our general company image and marketing purpose. In addition, we and our subsidiaries have three registered domain names in Hong Kong, namely i-l-a-g.com, kambo.com.hk and bamberggroup.com.

 

Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual properties. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual properties is difficult and costly, and we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent misappropriation of our intellectual properties. From time to time, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources.

 

In addition, third parties may initiate litigation against us alleging infringement of their proprietary rights or declaring their non-infringement of our intellectual property rights. In the event of a successful claim of infringement and our failure or inability to develop non-infringing technology or license the infringed or similar technology on a timely basis, our business could be harmed. Moreover, even if we are able to license the infringed or similar technology, license fees could be substantial and may adversely affect our results of operations.

 

See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.” and “—We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims, which may be expensive to defend and may disrupt our business and operations.”

 

Competition

 

We are facing competition from worldwide brands such as Kwiksets, Schlage, and other domestic manufacturers in Hong Kong and China. The Company positions its products as affordable high-quality mechanical Grade 2 and Grade 3 locksets. In Asia, there are only a few manufacturers in China and South-east Asia that are capable of competing with us on such products.

 

Mechanical lockset companies have been consolidating in the last decade (see table: Competitive Landscaping, below). Sizable multinational companies keep expanding by acquiring or merging with other lockset companies. Currently, the major player in the world is ASSA Abloy AB (ASSA B: STO), a Swedish conglomerate that sells cover products and services ranging from locks, doors, gates and entrance automation, which owns brands such as Abloy, Yale Mul-T-Lock and Medeco. Other well-known brands including Kwikset by the Hardware and Home Improvement (HHI), division of ASSA ABLOY (STO: AAY.ST), Schlage by Allegion PLC (NYSE: ALLE), Defiant by Home Depot (NYSE: HD), and Delaney Hardware in Cumming, USA. The PRC market is fragmented because various international lockset standards are all applicable in China. Thus, various brands of locksets all compete in PRC which makes the Chinese lockset market highly competitive.

 

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We mostly compete with manufacturing subsidiaries and factories of those worldwide brands on product quality as well as the manufacturers in China on price. The key for our sustainability is to maintain high quality, fine craftsmanship and procurement at affordable prices. In additional, high capital expense for building a new locket manufacturing facility and our longtime created reputation set up barriers of entry by new players.

 

Our Competitive Strengths

 

We have four decades of experience in mechanical lockset manufacturing. This gave us the ability to design our own automated production lines to meet our customers’ needs effectively and efficiently. Xingfa is few of manufacturers who is able to finish complicated stamping and casting with few machineries by optimizing production progresses. We are currently offering 108 basic designs of various locksets in our product catalogue (see “Our Products” for sample images) and we also have many other designs stored in the library of engineering department of Hing Fat, all of which enable us to provide our customers with products of many varieties with different functions, outlooks and colors. We have accumulated extensive design and production know-hows of our lock core in the past thirty years. Our experience and expertise in the design of mechanical locksets helps us expand our product lines and quickly respond to the changes of market trends and demands of our customers.

 

To comply with stringent requirements of U.S. standards, Xingfa has obtained ISO9000 certificate, and its manufacturing facility has been reviewed and audited by U.S. customers from time to time for compliance of social responsibility about labor welfare and safety, environmental protection and other requirements from such customers. To serve our customers better, Xingfa has equipped with professional keying machineries which is a very niche service being provided by lockset manufacturers in China and Asia Pacific region. In Asia, we only have a few peer competitors in China and South-east Asia due to high capital expense requirement for the manufacturing facility and professional know-hows of the products and industry.

 

We have launched research in smart locks functions, communication protocols, available designs and suppliers of electronic parts in the market as a part of our R & D process of smart lock products. Our in-depth knowledge in lockset mechanics makes it easier for us to enter into smart locks market by incorporating relevant electronic parts into our locksets after we develop the software system. We expect to launch our first smart lock product by the end of 2024. In additional, our long relationship with our customers makes it quicker for us to introduce new products including future smart locks to the market.

 

With our years of operational history, Xingfa has built a loyal and experienced work force and manufacturing management, which can drive manufacturing facility expansion without additional talent. Along with long-term relationships with reputable customers and recent access to e-commerce channels, we believe we are able to attract customers with our new products.

 

Regulations

 

Regulations of People’s Republic of China

 

This section sets forth a summary of the most significant rules and regulations that affect our business activities in China through our wholly owned subsidiary Xingfa.

 

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Regulations Relating to Foreign Investment

 

Negative List of Industries for Foreign Investment

 

Investment activities in the PRC by foreign investors were principally governed by the Guidance Catalogue of Industries for Foreign Investment, or the Guidance Catalog, which was promulgated and is amended from time to time by the Ministry of Commerce, or MOFCOM, and the National Development and Reform Commission, or NDRC. The Guidance Catalog lays out the basic framework for foreign investment in China, classifying businesses into three categories with regard to foreign investment: “encouraged,” “restricted” and “prohibited.” Industries not listed in the catalog are generally deemed as falling into a fourth category “permitted” unless specifically restricted by other PRC laws. The NDRC and the MOFCOM promulgated the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access (2021 Edition) (the “2021 National Negative List”) and the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access in Pilot Free Trade Zones (2021 Edition) (the “2021 FTZ Negative List”) (collectively the “2021 Negative Lists”) on December 27, 2021, which took effect on January 1, 2022. Industries listed on the 2021 Negative Lists are divided into two categories: restricted and prohibited. Industries not listed on the 2021 Negative Lists are generally deemed as constituting a third “permitted” category. The establishment of wholly foreign-owned enterprises is generally allowed in permitted industries. Some restricted industries are limited to equity or contractual joint ventures, while in some cases, Chinese partners are required to hold the majority interests in such joint ventures. In addition, projects falling under the restricted category are subject to higher-level government approvals. Foreign investors are not allowed to invest in industries in the prohibited category. Industries not listed in the Negative List are generally open to foreign investment unless specifically restricted by other PRC regulations. Any domestic enterprise engaging in businesses prohibited by the 2021 Negative Lists that lists, issues securities and trades shares overseas must obtain pre-approval consent from relevant competent regulator; overseas investors must not engage in the operation and management of the enterprise, and the percentage of foreign shareholding is subject to the relevant provisions in the administrative measures for domestic securities investments by foreign investors.

 

To comply with PRC laws and regulations, we rely on equity investment with our WFOE subsidiary to operate our business in China. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of securities offering to make loans to or make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiary, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.”

 

Foreign Investment Law

 

On March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress approved the Foreign Investment Law, which became effective on January 1, 2020 and replace three existing laws on foreign investments in China, namely, the PRC Equity Joint Venture Law, the PRC Cooperative Joint Venture Law and the Wholly Foreign-owned Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. Furthermore, the Implementing Regulations of the Foreign Investment Law of the PRC, or the Implementing Regulations of FIL, was promulgated on December 26, 2019 and became effective on January 1, 2020. The Foreign Investment Law embodies an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic invested enterprises in China. The Foreign Investment Law establishes the basic framework for the access to, and the promotion, protection and administration of foreign investments in view of investment protection and fair competition.

 

According to the Foreign Investment Law and the Implement the Implementing Regulations of FIL, “foreign investment” refers to investment activities directly or indirectly conducted by one or more natural persons, business entities, or otherwise organizations of a foreign country (collectively referred to as “foreign investor”) within China, and the investment activities include the following situations: (i) a foreign investor, individually or collectively with other investors, establishes a foreign-invested enterprise within China; (ii) a foreign investor acquires stock shares, equity shares, shares in assets, or other like rights and interests of an enterprise within China; (iii) a foreign investor, individually or collectively with other investors, invests in a new project within China; and (iv) investments in other means as provided by laws, administrative regulations, or the State Council.

 

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The NDRC and the MOFCOM promulgated the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access (2021 Edition) (the “2021 National Negative List”) and the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access in Pilot Free Trade Zones (2021 Edition) (the “2021 FTZ Negative List”) (collectively the “2021 Negative Lists”) on December 27, 2021, which took effect on January 1, 2022. Compared to the last Special Administrative Measures for Market Access of Foreign Investment (Negative List) promulgated by the NDRC and the MOFCOM in June 2020, the 2021 Negative Lists cuts down the number of items restricted or prohibited to foreign investors from 33 to 31, widening access to more industries and fields. However, the 2021 Negative Lists prescribe that any domestic enterprise engaging in businesses prohibited by the Negative Lists that lists, issues securities and trades shares overseas must obtain pre-approval consent from relevant competent regulator; overseas investors must not engage in the operation and management of the enterprise, and the percentage of foreign shareholding is subject to the relevant provisions in the administrative measures for domestic securities investments by foreign investors. The Foreign Investment Law provides that foreign invested entities operating in foreign restricted or prohibited industries will require market entry clearance and other approvals from relevant PRC governmental authorities. The current industry entry clearance requirements governing investment activities in the PRC by foreign investors are set out in 2021 Negative Lists.

 

Furthermore, the Foreign Investment Law provides that foreign invested enterprises established according to the existing laws regulating foreign investment may maintain their structure and corporate governance within five years after the implementing of the Foreign Investment Law.

 

In addition, the Foreign Investment Law also provides several protective rules and principles for foreign investors and their investments in the PRC, including, among other things, that local governments shall abide by their commitments to the foreign investors; foreign-invested enterprises are allowed to issue stocks and corporate bonds; except for special circumstances, in which case statutory procedures shall be followed and fair and reasonable compensation shall be made in a timely manner, expropriation or requisition of the investment of foreign investors is prohibited; mandatory technology transfer is prohibited; and the capital contributions, profits, capital gains, proceeds out of asset disposal, licensing fees of intellectual property rights, indemnity or compensation legally obtained, or proceeds received upon settlement by foreign investors within China, may be freely remitted inward and outward in RMB or a foreign currency. Also, foreign investors or the foreign investment enterprise should be subject to legal liabilities for failing to report investment information in accordance with the requirements.

 

Regulations on Intellectual Property Rights

 

The PRC has adopted comprehensive legislation governing intellectual property rights, including copyrights, patents, trademarks and domain names.

 

Copyright. Copyright in the PRC, including copyrighted software, is principally protected under the Copyright Law of the PRC promulgated in February 2010 which took effect in April 2010 (the “Copyright Law”) which has been amended by SCNPC on November 11, 2020 and became effective on June 1, 2021, and related rules and regulations. Under the Copyright Law, the term of protection for copyrighted software of legal persons is 50 years and ends on December 31 of the 50th year from the date of first publishing of the software.

 

Patent. The Patent Law of the PRC promulgated in December 2008, which became effective in October 2009 and recently has been amended by SCNPC on October 17, 2020 and became effective on June 1, 2021, provides for patentable inventions, utility models and designs. An invention or utility model for which patents may be granted shall have novelty, creativity and practical applicability. The State Intellectual Property Office under the State Council is responsible for examining and approving patent applications. The protection period is 20 years for inventions and 10 years for utility models and designs, all of which commence from the date of application of patent rights under current Patent Law of the PRC. The protection period has been slightly amended in recent amendment which became effective on June 1, 2021. The terms of protection for invention and utility patents will still be 20 years and 10 years, respectively, in general. The term of protection for a design patent will be extended from 10 years to 15 years. In addition, for invention patents, in case it is only granted after 4 years or more from its filing date or 3 years or more after a request for substantive examination date, the applicant can request for an extension of protection term for any unreasonable delay.

 

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Trademark. The Trademark Law of the PRC promulgated in August 2013 which took effect in May 2014 (the “Trademark Law”) and it was last amended on April 23, 2019 and the amendments became effective on November 11, 2019. Its implementation rules protect registered trademarks. The Trademark Office of National Intellectual Property Administration, PRC, formerly the PRC Trademark Office of the State Administration of Market Regulation is responsible for the registration and administration of trademarks throughout the PRC. The Trademark Law has adopted a “first-to-file” principle with respect to trademark registration. The validity period of registered trademarks is 10 years from the date of approval of trademark application, and may be renewed for another 10 years provided relevant application procedures have been completed within 12 months before the end of the validity period.

 

Domain Name. Domain names are protected under the Administrative Measures for the Internet Domain Names of the PRC promulgated by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the PRC effective on December 20, 2004 and the Administrative Measures for Internet Domain Names promulgated by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (“MIIT”), effective on November 1, 2017 (the “Domain Name Measures”). MIIT is the major regulatory body responsible for the administration of the PRC internet domain names. The Domain Names Measures has adopted a “first-to-file” principle with respect to the registration of domain names.

 

Regulations on Environmental Protection and Work Safety

 

Regulations on Environmental Protection

 

Pursuant to the Environmental Protection Law of the PRC promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (“SCNPC”) on December 26, 1989, amended on April 24, 2014 and effective on January 1, 2015, any entity which discharges or will discharge pollutants during the course of its operations or other activities must implement effective environmental protection safeguards and procedures to control and properly treat waste gas, waste water, waste residue, dust, malodorous gases, radioactive substances, noise vibrations, electromagnetic radiation and other hazards produced during such activities. The preparation of relevant development and utilization plans and the construction of the projects having impact on environment shall be subject to environmental impact assessment in accordance with the law. Furthermore, the enterprises and business operators on which the management system for the pollutants discharge permit and registration is implemented shall discharge pollutants according to their respective pollutants discharge permits or registrations and shall not discharge pollutants without obtaining a pollutants discharge permit or registration.

 

Environmental protection authorities impose various administrative penalties on persons or enterprises in violation of the Environmental Protection Law. Such penalties include warnings, fines, orders to rectify within the prescribed period, orders to cease construction, orders to restrict or suspend production, orders to make recovery, orders to disclose relevant information or make an announcement, imposition of administrative action against relevant responsible persons, and orders to shut down enterprises. Any person or entity that pollutes the environment resulting in damage could also be held liable under the Civil Code of PRC. In addition, environmental organizations may also bring lawsuits against any entity that discharges pollutants detrimental to the public welfare. In addition, on May 28, 2020, National People’s Congress promulgated the Civil Code of PRC, which took effective on January 1, 2021, to replace the PRC Inheritance Law, Adoption Law, PRC Contract Law, the General Principles of the Civil Law of the PRC, the PRC Marriage Law, the PRC Guarantee Law, the PRC Property Law and the PRC Tort Liability Law. Seven parts are introduced in the Civil Code of PRC, including General Part, Right in Rem, Contracts, Personality Rights, Marriage and Family, Inheritance, Tort Liability.

 

The Law of the PRC on the Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases, or the Occupational Diseases Prevention Law, promulgated by the SCNPC on October 27, 2001, became effective on May 1, 2002, and latest amended on December 29, 2018 is applicable to activities for the prevention and control of diseases contracted by the workers due to their exposure in the course of work to dust, radioactive substances and other toxic and harmful substances. Pursuant to the Occupational Diseases Prevention Law, the employer shall strictly abide by the national occupational health standards and implement the measures for occupational disease prevention and control in accordance with laws and regulations. Violation of the Occupational Diseases Prevention Law may result in the imposition of fines and penalties, the suspension of operation, an order to cease operation, and/or criminal liability in severe cases.

 

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Regulations on Work Safety

 

Under relevant construction safety laws and regulations, including the Work Safety Law of the PRC which was promulgated by the SCNPC on June 29, 2002, amended on August 27, 2009, August 31, 2014 and June 10, 2021, and effective as of September 1, 2021, production and operating business entities must establish objectives and measures for work safety and improve the working environment and conditions for workers in a planned and systematic way. A work safety protection scheme must also be set up to implement the work safety job responsibility system. In addition, production and operating business entities must arrange work safety training and provide their employees with protective equipment that meets the national standards or industrial standards. Automobile and components manufacturers are subject to the aforementioned environment protection and work safety requirements.

 

Regulations Relating to Labor Protection

 

Labor Contract Law

 

The PRC Labor Contract Law, or the Labor Contract Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008 and was amended on December 28, 2012 and became effected on July 1, 2013, is primarily aimed at regulating rights and obligations of employer and employee relationships, including the establishment, performance and termination of labor contracts. Pursuant to the Labor Contract Law, labor contracts shall be concluded in writing if labor relationships are to be or have been established between employers and the employees. Employers are prohibited from forcing employees to work above certain time limits, and employers shall pay employees for overtime work in accordance to national regulations. In addition, employee wages shall be no lower than local standards on minimum wages and must be paid to employees in a timely manner.

 

Interim Provisions on Labor Dispatch

 

Pursuant to the Interim Provisions on Labor Dispatch, or the Labor Dispatch Provisions, promulgated by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security on January 24, 2014, which became effective on March 1, 2014, dispatched workers are entitled to equal pay with full-time employees for equal work. Employers are allowed to use dispatched workers for temporary, auxiliary or substitutive positions, and the number of dispatched workers may not exceed 10% of the total number of employees.

 

Social Insurance and Housing Fund

 

Pursuant to the Social Insurance Law of the PRC implemented on July 1, 2011, amended on December 29, 2018 and became effective on the same day, employers are required to provide their employees in the PRC with welfare benefits covering pension insurance, unemployment insurance, maternity insurance, labor injury insurance and medical insurance. These payments are made to local administrative authorities. Any employer that fails to make social insurance contributions may be ordered to rectify the non-compliance and pay the required contributions within a prescribed time limit and be subject to a late fee. If the employer still fails to rectify the failure to make the relevant contributions within the prescribed time, it may be subject to a fine ranging from one to three times the amount overdue. In accordance with the Regulations on the Management of Housing Fund which was promulgated by the State Council in 1999 and last amended on March 24, 2019 and became effective on the same day, employers must register at the designated administrative centers and open bank accounts for depositing employees’ housing funds. Employers and employees are also required to pay and deposit housing funds, which shall be the product of employees’ average monthly salaries of the previous year multiplied by the contribution rate of the housing provident fund of the employer. Where, in violation of the provisions of these Regulations, an employer is overdue in the contribution of, or underpays, the housing provident fund, the housing provident fund management center shall order it to make the contribution within a prescribed time limit; where the contribution has not been made after the expiration of the time limit, an application may be made to a people’s court for compulsory enforcement.

 

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Employee Stock Incentive Plan

 

Pursuant to the Notice of Issues Related to the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Listed Company, or Circular 7, which was issued by the SAFE on February 15, 2012, employees, directors, supervisors, and other senior management who participate in any stock incentive plan of a publicly-listed overseas company and who are PRC citizens or non-PRC citizens residing in China for a continuous period of no less than one year, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a qualified domestic agent, which may be a PRC subsidiary of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. In addition, the SAT has issued certain circulars concerning employee stock options and restricted shares. Under these circulars, employees working in the PRC who exercise stock options or are granted restricted shares will be subject to PRC individual income tax. The PRC subsidiaries of an overseas listed company are required to file documents related to employee stock options and restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of employees who exercise their stock option or purchase restricted shares. If the employees fail to pay or the PRC subsidiaries fail to withhold income tax in accordance with relevant laws and regulations, the PRC subsidiaries may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other PRC governmental authorities.

 

Regulations Relating to Taxes

 

Income Tax

 

The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, or the EIT Law, imposes a uniform enterprise income tax rate of 25% on all PRC resident enterprises, including foreign-invested enterprises, unless they qualify for certain exceptions. The enterprise income tax is calculated based on the PRC resident enterprise’s global income as determined under PRC tax laws and accounting standards. If a non-resident enterprise sets up an organization or establishment in the PRC, it will be subject to enterprise income tax for the income derived from such organization or establishment in the PRC and for the income derived from outside the PRC but with an actual connection with such organization or establishment in the PRC. The EIT Law and its implementation rules permit certain “high and new technology enterprises strongly supported by the state” that independently own core intellectual property and meet statutory criteria, to enjoy a reduced 15% enterprise income tax rate. In January 2016, the SAT, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the MOF jointly issued the Administrative Rules for the Certification of High and New Technology Enterprises specifying the criteria and procedures for the certification of High and New Technology Enterprises.

 

On April 22, 2009, the SAT issued the Circular of the State Administration of Taxation on Issues Relating to Identification of PRC-Controlled Overseas Registered Enterprises as Resident Enterprises in Accordance With the De Facto Standards of Organizational Management, or the SAT Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Although this circular only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners, the criteria set forth in the circular may reflect the SAT’s general position on how the “de facto management body” text should be applied in determining the tax resident status of all offshore enterprises. According to the SAT Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be regarded as a PRC tax resident by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its global income only if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the primary location of the day-to-day operational management is in the PRC; (ii) decisions relating to the enterprise’s financial and human resource matters are made or are subject to approval by organizations or personnel in the PRC; (iii) the enterprise’s primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholder resolutions, are located or maintained in the PRC; and (iv) at least 50% of voting board members or senior executives habitually reside in the PRC. Further to SAT Circular 82, on July 27, 2011, the SAT issued the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Printing and Distributing the Administrative Measures for Income Tax on PRC-controlled Resident Enterprises Incorporated Overseas (Trial Implementation), or the SAT Bulletin 45, which took effect in September 2011, to provide more guidance on the implementation of SAT Circular 82. SAT Bulletin 45 provides for procedures and administration details for determination of resident status and administration on post-determination matters.

 

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Value-added Tax

 

The Provisional Regulations of the PRC on Value-added Tax, the VAT Regulation, were promulgated by the State Council on December 13, 1993 and came into effect on January 1, 1994 which were subsequently amended from time to time. The Detailed Rules for the Implementation of the Provisional Regulations of the PRC on Value-added Tax (Revised in 2011) was promulgated by the MOF on December 25, 1993 and subsequently amended on December 15, 2008 and October 28, 2011, or collectively, the VAT Law. On November 19, 2017, the State Council promulgated the Decisions on Abolishing the Provisional Regulations of the PRC on Business Tax and Amending the Provisional Regulations of the PRC on Value-added Tax, or the Order 691. On April 4, 2018, MOF and SAT jointly promulgated the Circular on Adjustment of Value-Added Tax Rates, or Circular 32. According to the VAT Law, the Order 691 and the Circular 32, all enterprises and individuals engaged in the sale of goods, the provision of processing, repair and replacement services, sales of services, intangible assets, real property and the importation of goods within the territory of the PRC are the taxpayers of VAT. The VAT tax rates generally applicable are simplified as 16%, 10%, 6% and 0%, and the VAT tax rate applicable to the small-scale taxpayers is 3%. Furthermore, according to the Announcement on Relevant Policies for Deepening Value-added Tax Reform jointly promulgated by the Ministry of Finance, the State Administration of Taxation and the General Administration of Customs, which became effective on April 1, 2019, the taxable goods previously subject to VAT rates of 16% and 10% respectively become subject to lower VAT rates of 13% and 9% respectively starting from April 1, 2019.

 

Dividend Withholding Tax

 

The EIT Law provides that since January 1, 2008, an income tax rate of 10% will normally be applicable to dividends declared to non-PRC resident investors which do not have an establishment or place of business in the PRC, or which have such establishment or place of business but the relevant income is not effectively connected with the establishment or place of business, to the extent such dividends are derived from sources within the PRC.

 

Pursuant to the Arrangement Between the Mainland of China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Incomes, or the Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement, and other applicable PRC laws, if a Hong Kong resident enterprise is determined by the competent PRC tax authority to have satisfied the relevant conditions and requirements under such Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement and other applicable laws, the 10% withholding tax on the dividends the Hong Kong resident enterprise receives from a PRC resident enterprise may be reduced to 5%. However, based on the Circular on Certain Issues with Respect to the Enforcement of Dividend Provisions in Tax Treaties, or the SAT Circular 81, issued on February 20, 2009 by the SAT, if the relevant PRC tax authorities determine, in their discretions, that a company benefits from such reduced income tax rate due to a structure or arrangement that is primarily tax-driven, such PRC tax authorities may adjust the preferential tax treatment. According to the Circular on Several Questions regarding the “Beneficial Owner” in Tax Treaties, which was issued on February 3, 2018 by the SAT and took effect on April 1, 2018, when determining the applicant’s status of the “beneficial owner” regarding tax treatments in connection with dividends, interests or royalties in the tax treaties, several factors, including without limitation, whether the applicant is obligated to pay more than 50% of his or her income in twelve months to residents in third country or region, whether the business operated by the applicant constitutes the actual business activities, and whether the counterparty country or region to the tax treaties does not levy any tax or grant tax exemption on relevant incomes or levy tax at an extremely low rate, will be taken into account, and it will be analyzed according to the actual circumstances of the specific cases. This circular further provides that applicants who intend to prove his or her status of the “beneficial owner” shall submit the relevant documents to the relevant tax bureau according to the Announcement on Issuing the Measures for the Administration of Non-Resident Taxpayers’ Enjoyment of the Treatment under Tax Agreements.

 

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On February 3, 2015, the SAT issued the Public Notice Regarding Certain Enterprise Income Tax Matters on Indirect Transfer of Properties by Non-Tax Resident Enterprises, or the SAT Public Notice 7. The SAT Public Notice 7 extends its tax jurisdiction to cover not only where a non-resident enterprise transfers the equity interests of a PRC resident enterprise indirectly by disposition of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, or an Indirect Transfer, but also to transactions involving transfer of other taxable assets through offshore transfer of a foreign intermediate holding company. The SAT Public Notice 7 also brings challenges to both foreign transferor and transferee (or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer) of taxable assets. Where a non-resident enterprise transfers a taxable asset indirectly by disposing of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, which is an Indirect Transfer, the non-resident enterprise as either transferor or transferee, or the PRC entity that directly owns the taxable assets, may report such Indirect Transfer to the relevant tax authority. Using a “substance over form” principle, the PRC tax authority may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company if it lacks a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC tax. As a result, gains derived from such Indirect Transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10% for the transfer of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise. Both the transferor and the transferee may be subject to penalties under PRC tax laws if the transferee fails to withhold the taxes and the transferor fails to pay the taxes.

 

On October 17, 2017, the SAT issued the Public Notice on Issues Relating to Withholding at Source of Income Tax of Non-resident Enterprises, or the SAT Public Notice 37, which came into effect on December 1, 2017. According to SAT Public Notice 37, where the non-resident enterprise fails to declare its tax payable pursuant to Article 39 of the EIT Law, the tax authority may order it to pay its tax due within required time limits, and the non-resident enterprise shall declare and pay its tax payable within such time limits specified by the tax authority. If the non-resident enterprise voluntarily declares and pays its tax payable before the tax authority orders it to do so, it shall be deemed that such enterprise has paid its tax payable in time.

 

Regulations relating to Foreign Exchange

 

General Administration of Foreign Exchange

 

Under the PRC Foreign Currency Administration Rules promulgated on January 29, 1996 and most recently amended on August 5, 2008 and various regulations issued by the State Administration of Foreign Exchange of the PRC, or the SAFE and other relevant PRC government authorities, Renminbi is convertible into other currencies for current account items, such as trade-related receipts and payments and payment of interest and dividends. The conversion of Renminbi into other currencies and remittance of the converted foreign currency outside the PRC for of capital account items, such as direct equity investments, loans and repatriation of investment, requires the prior approval from the SAFE or its local office.

 

Payments for transactions that take place within the PRC must be made in Renminbi. Unless otherwise approved, PRC companies may not repatriate foreign currency payments received from abroad or retain the same abroad. Foreign-invested enterprises may retain foreign exchange in accounts with designated foreign exchange banks under the current account items subject to a cap set by the SAFE or its local office. Foreign exchange proceeds under the current accounts may be either retained or sold to a financial institution engaged in settlement and sale of foreign exchange pursuant to relevant SAFE rules and regulations. For foreign exchange proceeds under the capital accounts, approval from the SAFE is generally required for the retention or sale of such proceeds to a financial institution engaged in settlement and sale of foreign exchange.

 

Pursuant to the Circular of the SAFE on Further Improving and Adjusting Foreign Exchange Administration Policies for Direct Investment, or the SAFE Circular 59, promulgated by SAFE on November 19, 2012, which became effective on December 17, 2012 and subsequently amended from time to time, approval of SAFE is not required for opening a foreign exchange account and depositing foreign exchange into the accounts relating to the direct investments. The SAFE Circular 59 also simplified foreign exchange-related registration required for the foreign investors to acquire the equity interests of Chinese companies and further improve the administration on foreign exchange settlement for foreign-invested enterprises.

 

The Circular on Further Simplifying and Improving the Foreign Currency Management Policy on Direct Investment, or the SAFE Circular 13, effective from June 1, 2015, cancels the administrative approvals of foreign exchange registration of direct domestic investment and direct overseas investment and simplifies the procedure of foreign exchange-related registration. Pursuant to the SAFE Circular 13, the investors shall register with banks for direct domestic investment and direct overseas investment.

 

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The Circular on Reforming the Management Approach regarding the Settlement of Foreign Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprise, or the SAFE Circular 19, which was promulgated by the SAFE on March 30, 2015 and became effective on June 1, 2015, provides that a foreign-invested enterprise may, according to its actual business needs, settle with a bank the portion of the foreign exchange capital in its capital account for which the relevant foreign exchange administration has confirmed monetary capital contribution rights and interests (or for which the bank has registered the injection of the monetary capital contribution into the account). Pursuant to the SAFE Circular 19, for the time being, foreign-invested enterprises are allowed to settle 100% of their foreign exchange capital on a discretionary basis; a foreign-invested enterprise shall truthfully use its capital for its own operational purposes within the scope of business; where an ordinary foreign-invested enterprise makes domestic equity investment with the amount of foreign exchanges settled, the invested enterprise must first go through domestic re-investment registration and open a corresponding account for foreign exchange settlement pending payment with the foreign exchange administration or the bank at the place where it is registered.

 

The Circular on Reforming and Regulating Policies on the Control over Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital Accounts, or the SAFE Circular 16, which was promulgated by the SAFE and became effective on June 9, 2016, provides that enterprises registered in the PRC may also convert their foreign debts from foreign currency into Renminbi on self-discretionary basis. The SAFE Circular 16 also provides an integrated standard for conversion of foreign exchange under capital account items (including but not limited to foreign currency capital and foreign debts) on self-discretionary basis, which applies to all enterprises registered in the PRC.

 

In January 2017, SAFE promulgated the Circular on Further Improving Reform of Foreign Exchange Administration and Optimizing Genuineness and Compliance Verification, or Circular 3, which stipulates several capital control measures with respect to the outbound remittance of profits from domestic entities to offshore entities, including (i) banks must check whether the transaction is genuine by reviewing board resolutions regarding profit distribution, original copies of tax filing records and audited financial statements, and (ii) domestic entities must retain income to account for previous years’ losses before remitting any profits. Moreover, pursuant to Circular 3, domestic entities must explain in detail the sources of capital and how the capital will be used, and provide board resolutions, contracts and other proof as a part of the registration procedure for outbound investment.

 

On October 23, 2019, SAFE issued Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Further Promoting the Facilitation of Cross-border Trade and Investment, or the Circular 28, which took effect on the same day. Circular 28 allows non-investment foreign-invested enterprises to use their capital funds to make equity investments in China, provided that such investments do not violate the effective special entry management measures for foreign investment (negative list) and the target investment projects are genuine and in compliance with laws. Since Circular 28 was issued only recently, its interpretation and implementation in practice are still subject to substantial uncertainties.

 

Pursuant to the SAFE Circular 13 and other laws and regulations relating to foreign exchange, when setting up a new foreign invested enterprise, the foreign invested enterprise shall register with the bank located at its registered place after obtaining the business license, and if there is any change in capital or other changes relating to the basic information of the foreign-invested enterprise, including without limitation any increase in its registered capital or total investment, the foreign invested enterprise must register such changes with the bank located at its registered place after obtaining approval from or completing the filing with competent authorities. Pursuant to the relevant foreign exchange laws and regulations, the above-mentioned foreign exchange registration with the banks will typically take less than four weeks upon the acceptance of the registration application.

 

According to the Foreign Investment Law, Measures for Reporting of Information on Foreign Investment, promulgated by MOFCOM, and State Administration for Market Regulation, or the SAMR on December 30, 2019 and became effective on January 1, 2020, the Administrative Rules on the Company Registration, which was promulgated by the State Council on June 24, 1994, became effective on July 1, 1994 and latest amended on February 6, 2016, and other laws and regulations governing the foreign invested enterprises and company registrations, the establishment of a foreign invested enterprise and any capital increase and other major changes in a foreign invested enterprise shall be registered with the SAMR, or its local counterparts, and investment information shall be submitted to the competent commerce authorities through the enterprise registration system and the National Enterprise Credit Information Publicity System, if such foreign invested enterprise does not involve special access administrative measures prescribed by the PRC government.

 

Based on the forgoing, if we intend to provide funding to our wholly foreign owned subsidiaries through a capital injection at or after their establishment, we must register the establishment thereof and any follow-on capital increase in our wholly foreign owned subsidiaries with the SAMR or its local counterparts, submit such information via the enterprise registration system and the National Enterprise Credit Information Publicity System and register such with the local banks for the foreign exchange related matters.

 

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Offshore Investment

 

Under the Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration over the Overseas Investment and Financing and Round-trip Investment by Domestic Residents via Special Purpose Vehicles, or the SAFE Circular 37, issued by the SAFE and effective on July 4, 2014, PRC residents are required to register with the local SAFE branch prior to contributing assets or equity interests in an offshore special purpose vehicle, or SPV, which is defined as offshore enterprises directly established or indirectly controlled by PRC residents for investment and financing purposes, with the enterprise assets or interests they hold in China or overseas. The term “control” means obtain the operation rights, right to proceeds or decision-making power of a SPV through acquisition, trust, holding shares on behalf of others, voting rights, repurchase, convertible bonds or other means. An amendment to registration or subsequent filing with the local SAFE branch by such PRC resident is also required if there is any change in basic information of the offshore company or any material change with respect to the capital of the offshore company. At the same time, the SAFE has issued the Operation Guidance for the Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration over Round-trip Investment regarding the procedures for SAFE registration under the SAFE Circular 37, which became effective on July 4, 2014 as an attachment of Circular 37.

 

Under the relevant rules, failure to comply with the registration procedures set forth in the SAFE Circular 37 may result in bans on the foreign exchange activities of the relevant onshore company, including the payment of dividends and other distributions to its offshore parent or affiliates, and may also subject relevant PRC residents to penalties under PRC foreign exchange administration regulations.

 

Regulations on Dividend Distribution

 

The principal laws and regulations regulating the dividend distribution of dividends by foreign-invested enterprises in the PRC include the PRC Company Law, as amended in 1999, 2004, 2005, 2013 and 2018, and Foreign Investment Law and the Implementing Regulations of FIL which replaced the Wholly Foreign-owned Enterprise Law promulgated in 1986 and amended in 2000 and 2016 and its implementation regulations promulgated in 1990 and subsequently amended in 2001 and 2014, the PRC Equity Joint Venture Law promulgated in 1979 and subsequently amended in 1990, 2001 and 2016 and its implementation regulations promulgated in 1983 and subsequently amended in 1986, 1987, 2001, 2011 and 2014, and the PRC Cooperative Joint Venture Law promulgated in 1988 and amended in 2000, 2016 and 2017 and its implementation regulations promulgated in 1995 and amended in 2014 and 2017. Under the current regulatory regime in the PRC, foreign-invested enterprises in the PRC may pay dividends only out of their retained earnings, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. A PRC company is required to set aside as statutory reserve funds of at least 10% of its after-tax profit, until the cumulative amount of such reserve funds reaches 50% of its registered capital unless laws regarding foreign investment provide otherwise. A PRC company shall not distribute any profits until any losses from prior fiscal years have been offset. Profits retained from prior fiscal years may be distributed together with distributable profits from the current fiscal year.

 

Regulations Relating to M&A Rule and Overseas Listing in the PRC

 

On August 8, 2006, six PRC governmental and regulatory agencies, including MOFCOM and CSRC, promulgated the Rules on Acquisition of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, governing the mergers and acquisitions of domestic enterprises by foreign investors that became effective on September 8, 2006 and was revised on June 22, 2009. The M&A Rules, among other things, require that if an overseas company established or controlled by PRC companies or individuals, or PRC Citizens, intends to acquire equity interests or assets of any other PRC domestic company affiliated with the PRC Citizens, such acquisition must be submitted to MOFCOM for approval. The M&A Rules also requires that an offshore SPV that is controlled directly or indirectly by the PRC companies or individuals and that has been formed for overseas listing purposes through acquisitions of PRC domestic interest held by such PRC companies or individuals, shall obtain the approval of CSRC prior to overseas listing and trading of such SPV’s securities on an overseas stock exchange.

 

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On February 17, 2023, the CSRC released the Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Enterprises (the “New Overseas Listing Rules”) with five interpretive guidelines, which took effect on March 31, 2023. The New Overseas Listing Rules require Chinese domestic enterprises to complete filings with relevant governmental authorities and report related information under certain circumstances, such as: a) an issuer making an application for initial public offering and listing in an overseas market; b) an issuer making a subsequent overseas securities offering after having been listed on an overseas market; c) a domestic company seeking an overseas direct or indirect listing of its assets through single or multiple acquisition(s), share swap, transfer of shares or other means. The new rules provide that the determination as to whether a domestic company is indirectly offering and listing securities on an overseas market shall be made on a substance over form basis, and if the issuer meets the following conditions, the offering and listing shall be determined as an indirect overseas offering and listing by a Chinese domestic company: (i) any of the revenue, profit, total assets or net assets of the Chinese domestic entity is more than 50% of the related financials in the issuer’s audited consolidated financial statements for the most recent fiscal year; (ii) the senior managers in charge of business operation and management of the issuer are mostly Chinese citizens or with regular domicile in China, the main locations of its business operations are in China or main business activities are conducted in China. We are headquartered in Hong Kong with all our executive officers and directors based in Hong Kong who are not Chinese citizens and most of our revenues and profits are generated by our subsidiaries in Hong Kong.

 

PRC Laws and Regulations Related to Data Cross-border Transfer and personal information protection

 

Measures for the Security Assessment of Data Cross-border Transfer

 

On July 7, 2022, CAC promulgated the Measures for the Security Assessment of Data Cross-border Transfer, effective on September 1, 2022, which requires the data processors to apply for data cross-border security assessment coordinated by the CAC under the following circumstances: (i) any data processor transfers important data to overseas; (ii) any critical information infrastructure operator or data processor who processes personal information of over 1 million people provides personal information to overseas; (iii) any data processor who provides personal information to overseas and has already provided personal information of more than 100,000 people or sensitive personal information of more than 10,000 people to overseas since January 1st of the previous year and ; and (iv) other circumstances under which the data cross-border transfer security assessment is required as prescribed by the CAC.

 

Personal Information Protection Law of the PRC

 

On August 20, 2021, the SCNPC promulgated the Personal Information Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China (the “Personal Information Protection Law”), effective from November 1, 2021. The Personal Information Protection Law requires, among others, that (i) the processing of personal information should have a clear and reasonable purpose which should be directly related to the processing purpose, in a method that has the least impact on personal rights and interests, and (ii) the collection of personal information should be limited to the minimum scope necessary to achieve the processing purpose to avoid the excessive collection of personal information. Different types of personal information and personal information processing will be subject to various rules on consent, transfer, and security. Entities handling personal information bear responsibilities for their personal information handling activities, and shall adopt necessary measures to safeguard the security of the personal information they handle. Otherwise, the entities handling personal information could be ordered to correct, or suspend or terminate the provision of services, and face confiscation of illegal income, fines or other penalties.

 

Hong Kong Regulations

 

As we conduct business in Hong Kong through our wholly subsidiaries Kambo Locksets, Kambo Hardware, Bamberg and Hing Fat, our business operations are subject to various regulations and rules promulgated by the Hong Kong government. The following is a brief summary of the Hong Kong laws and regulations that currently and materially affect our business. This section does not purport to be a comprehensive summary of all present and proposed regulations and legislation relating to the industries in which we operate.

 

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Hong Kong Laws and Regulations relating to Trade Description

 

Trade Descriptions Ordinance (Chapter 362 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (“TDO”), which came into full effect in Hong Kong on 1 April 1981 aims to prohibit false or misleading trade description and statements to goods and services provided to the customers during or after a commercial transaction. Pursuant to the TDO, any person in the course of any trade or business applies a false trade description to any goods or supply or offers to supply them commits an offence and a person also commits the same offence if he/she is in possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture of any goods with a false description. The TDO also provides that traders may commit an offence if they engage in a commercial practice that has a misleading omission of material information of the goods, an aggressive commercial practice, involves bait advertising, bait and switch or wrong acceptance of payment.

 

Hong Kong Laws and Regulations relating to Sales of Goods

 

Pursuant to Sale of Goods Ordinance (Chapter 26 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (“SOGO”), which came into full effect in Hong Kong on August 1, 1896, in every contract of sale, there is an implied warranty that the goods are free, and will remain free until the time when the property is to pass, from any charge or encumbrance not disclosed or known to the buyer before the contract is made and that the buyer will enjoy quiet possession of the goods except so far as it may be disturbed by the owner or other person entitled to the benefit of any charge or encumbrance so disclosed or known. The SOGO provides that there is an implied condition that the goods shall correspond with the description where there is a contract for the sale of goods by description, and there is any implied condition or warranty as to the quality or fitness for any particular purpose of goods supplied under a contract of sale. Where the seller sells goods in the course of a business, there is an implied condition that the goods supplied under the contract are of merchantable quality.

 

Hong Kong Laws and Regulations relating to Intellectual Properties Rights

 

Trade Marks Ordinance (Chapter 559 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (“TMO”), which came into full effect in Hong Kong on 4 April 2003 provides the framework for the Hong Kong’s system of registration of trademarks and sets out the rights attached to a registered trade mark, including logo and a brand name. The TMO restricts unauthorized use of a sign which is identical or similar to the registered mark for identical and/or similar goods and/or services for which the mark was registered, where such use is likely to cause confusion on the part of the public. The TMO provides that a person may also commit a criminal offence if that person fraudulently uses a trade mark, including selling and importing goods bearing a forged trade mar, or possessing or using equipment for the purpose of forging a trade mark.

 

Patents Ordinance (Chapter 514 of the Laws of Hong Kong), which came into full effect in Hong Kong on June 27, 1997 provides the framework for “re-registration” system of Chinese, UK and European patents in Hong Kong. Pursuant to Patents (Amendment) Ordinance 2016, which came into full effect in Hong Kong on 19 December 2019 provide a new framework for a new patent system - an “original grant patent” system, running in parallel with the “re-registration” system.

 

Copyright Ordinance (Chapter 528 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (“CO”), which came into full effect in Hong Kong on June 27 1997 provides comprehensive protection for recognized categories of underlying works such as literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works. The CO restricts unauthorized acts such as copying and/or making available copies to the public of a copy right work.

 

Hong Kong Laws and Regulations relating to Competition

 

Competition Ordinance (Chapter 619 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (“Competition Ordinance”), which came into full effect in Hong Kong on December 14, 2015 prohibits and deters undertakings in all sectors from adopting anti-competitive conduct which has the object or effect of preventing, restricting or distorting competition in Hong Kong. The key prohibitions include (i) prohibition of agreements between businesses which have the object or effect of preventing, restricting or distorting competition in Hong Kong; and (ii) prohibiting companies with a substantial degree of market power from abusing their power by engaging in conduct that has the object or effect of preventing, restricting or distorting competition in Hong Kong. The penalties for breaches of the Competition Ordinance include, but are not limited to, financial penalties of up to 10% of the total gross revenues obtained in Hong Kong for each year of infringement, up to a maximum of three years in which the contravention occurs.

 

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Hong Kong Laws and Regulations relating to Employment

 

Pursuant to Employment Ordinance (Chapter 57 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (“EO”), which came into full effect in Hong Kong on September 27, 1968, all employees covered by the EO are entitled to basic protection under the EO including but not limited to payment of wages, restrictions on wages deductions and the granting of statutory holidays.

 

Pursuant to Mandatory Provident Fund Schemes Ordinance (Chapter 485 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (“MPFSO”), which came into full effect in Hong Kong on December 1, 2000, every employer must take all practicable steps to ensure that the employee becomes a member of a Mandatory Provident Fund (MPF) scheme. An employer who fails to comply with such a requirement may face a fine and imprisonment. The MPFSO provides that an employer who is employing a relevant employee must, for each contribution period, from the employer’s own funds, contribute to the relevant MPF scheme the amount determined in accordance with the MPFSO.

 

Pursuant to Employees’ Compensation Ordinance (Chapter 282 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (“ECO”), which came into full effect in Hong Kong on December 1, 1953, all employers are required to take out insurance policies to cover their liabilities under the ECO and at common law for injuries at work in respect of all of their employees. An employer failing to do so may be liable to a fine and imprisonment.

 

Pursuant to Minimum Wage Ordinance (Chapter 608 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (“MWO”), which came into full effect in Hong Kong on May 1, 2011, an employee is entitled to be paid wages no less than the statutory minimum wage rate during the wage period. With effect from May 1, 2019, the statutory minimum hourly wage rate is HK$37.5. Failure to comply with MWO constitutes an offence under EO.

 

Cayman Islands Data Protection

 

We have certain duties under the Data Protection Act (as revised) of the Cayman Islands, or the DPA, based on internationally accepted principles of data privacy.

 

Privacy Notice

 

This privacy notice puts our shareholders on notice that through your investment into us you will provide us with certain personal information which constitutes personal data within the meaning of the DPA, or personal data.

 

Investor Data

 

We will collect, use, disclose, retain and secure personal data to the extent reasonably required only and within the parameters that could be reasonably expected during the normal course of business. We will only process, disclose, transfer or retain personal data to the extent legitimately required to conduct our activities of on an ongoing basis or to comply with legal and regulatory obligations to which we are subject. We will only transfer personal data in accordance with the requirements of the DPA, and will apply appropriate technical and organizational information security measures designed to protect against unauthorized or unlawful processing of the personal data and against the accidental loss, destruction or damage to the personal data.

 

In our use of this personal data, we will be characterized as a “data controller” for the purposes of the DPA, while our affiliates and service providers who may receive this personal data from us in the conduct of our activities may either act as our “data processors” for the purposes of the DPA or may process personal information for their own lawful purposes in connection with services provided to us.

 

We may also obtain personal data from other public sources. Personal data includes, without limitation, the following information relating to a shareholder and/or any individuals connected with a shareholder as an investor: name, residential address, email address, contact details, corporate contact information, signature, nationality, place of birth, date of birth, tax identification, credit history, correspondence records, passport number, bank account details, source of funds details and details relating to the shareholder’s investment activity.

 

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Who this Affects

 

If you are a natural person, this will affect you directly. If you are a corporate investor (including, for these purposes, legal arrangements such as trusts or exempted limited partnerships) that provides us with personal data on individuals connected to you for any reason in relation your investment in us, this will be relevant for those individuals and you should transit the content of this Privacy Notice to such individuals or otherwise advise them of its content.

 

How We May Use a Shareholder’s Personal Data

 

We may, as the data controller, collect, store and use personal data for lawful purposes, including, in particular: (i) where this is necessary for the performance of our rights and obligations under any agreements; (ii) where this is necessary for compliance with a legal and regulatory obligation to which we are or may be subject (such as compliance with anti-money laundering and FATCA/CRS requirements); and/or (iii) where this is necessary for the purposes of our legitimate interests and such interests are not overridden by your interests, fundamental rights or freedoms.

 

Should we wish to use personal data for other specific purposes (including, if applicable, any purpose that requires your consent), we will contact you.

 

Why We May Transfer Your Personal Data

 

In certain circumstances we may be legally obliged to share personal data and other information with respect to your shareholding with the relevant regulatory authorities such as the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority or the Tax Information Authority. They, in turn, may exchange this information with foreign authorities, including tax authorities.

 

We anticipate disclosing personal data to persons who provide services to us and their respective affiliates (which may include certain entities located outside the US, the Cayman Islands or the European Economic Area), who will process your personal data on our behalf.

 

The Data Protection Measures We Take

 

Any transfer of personal data by us or our duly authorized affiliates and/or delegates outside of the Cayman Islands shall be in accordance with the requirements of the DPA.

 

We and our duly authorized affiliates and/or delegates shall apply appropriate technical and organizational information security measures designed to protect against unauthorized or unlawful processing of personal data, and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, personal data.

 

We shall notify you of any personal data breach that is reasonably likely to result in a risk to your interests, fundamental rights or freedoms or those data subjects to whom the relevant personal data relates.

 

Contacting the Company

 

For further information on the collection, use, disclosure, transfer or processing of your personal data or the exercise of any of the rights listed above, please contact us through our website at www. i-l-a-g.com or through phone number +852 2481 7938.

 

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C. Organizational structure

 

Below is the Company’s corporate structure chart as of the date of this report.

 

 

D. Property, Plants and Equipment

 

Our headquarter and sales office in Hong Kong are operating in an approximately 300m2 office located in an industrial building. The office is leased from a related company, Kambo Security Products Limited. Kambo Security Products Limited is owned by Mr. Yu Bong Lau (Bong), Mr. Bun Lau, Mr. Wynn Hui and Mr. Po Ching Hui, brother of Mr. Wynn Hui. The rent paid to Kambo Security Products Limited is determined according to the market value of similar property quotes from a Hong Kong property agent. We most recently renewed the lease of the property starting from January 1, 2024 for a term of one year, with annual rent of HK$576,000 (approximately US$74,000).

 

Our manufacturing facility is operated under our WFOE named Dongguan Xingfa Hardware Products Co., Ltd. (“Xingfa”), which is equipped with different types of machines in a 17,560 m2 production facility which is able to produce about 6,000,000 locksets per annum. Xingfa leases 15,810 m2 of land use rights for our factory from March 1, 2024 to February 28, 2026 from Dongguan Shatian Town Hengliu Equity Economic Union, a third party, with annual rent of approximately RMB 3,748,000 (approximately US$529,000).

 

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We have acquired an electroplating production line located at 5/F., Tower A, Shun Hang Environment Projection Industrial Park, Shatian Town, Dongguan, Guangdong. The lease for the factory that the production line is from April 1, 2023 to September 30, 2026 with Dongguan Shun Hang Metal Productions Company Limited, a third party, with annual rent of approximately RMB 660,000 (approximately US$93,000).

 

Currently, we mainly lease the following properties to conduct our business:

 

Property Address   Lessor   Annual Rent   Lease
Expiration
Date
  Purposes/Use  
Unit 2, 5/F, Block A, Profit Industrial Building, 1-15 Kwai Fung Crescent, Kwai Chung, New Territories, Hong Kong   Kambo Security Products Limited   Approx. $74,000   December 31, 2024   Head Quarter Office  
No. 43, Min Tian Main Street, Shatian Town, Dongguan, Guangdong, PRC   Dongguan Shatian Town Hengliu Equity Economic Union   Approx. $529,000   February 28, 2026   Production Plant and Office  
5/F., Tower A, Shun Hang Environment Projection Industrial Park, Shatian Twon, Dongguan, Guangdong, PRC   Dongguan Shun Hang Metal Productions Company Limited   Approx. $93,000   September 30, 2026   Production Plant  

 

We believe that we will be able to obtain adequate facilities, principally through leasing, to accommodate our future expansion plans.

 

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

Not Applicable

 

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

 

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” or in other parts of this annual report on Form 20-F.

 

5A. Operating Results

 

Overview

 

Headquartered in Hong Kong, we manufacture and sell high quality mechanical locksets to customers mainly in the United States (US) and Canada and have continued to diversify and refine our product offerings in the past 40 years to meet our customers’ needs. We believe our wholly owned subsidiary Xingfa is one of the pioneers of mechanical lockset manufacturing in China. Since inception, to cope with our development and increase customer satisfaction in quality, we keep investing in self-designed automated product lines, new craftsmanship and developing new products including smart locks. In order to obtain the confidence of our customers, Xingfa has obtained the ISO9001quality assurance certificate.

 

Starting in 2000, we offer products that comply with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Grade 2 and Grade 3 standards that are developed by the Builders Hardware Manufacturing Association (BHMA) for ANSI. Our focus in producing mechanical locksets - including locksets for outdoors (such as main entrances and gates) and indoors which raised our competitiveness. To maintain our growth, our products are beyond a simple lockset for security purposes, we offer a wide range of Original Design Manufacturer (“ODM”) door locksets to various customer segments from “Premium Series” to “Economy-oriented Series” with classic to contemporary looks, functions and colors.

 

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Currently, approximately 99% of our revenues are from products sold to the US market, and the remaining products are sold to Canadian market. We build our distribution network by working together with our large and small business partners in different geographic areas to sell our products. More information about geographical penetration of our revenues can be found in “Segment reporting in Note 2 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements”.

 

For 40 years, we manufacture and sell high quality mechanical locksets and continue to grow and increase our product offerings. The predecessor of Hing Fat commenced our business of selling door locksets in 1981. In 1983, we started processing door locksets to fulfill orders from US customers with imported materials at a small manufacturing workshop in China which becomes our current manufacturing subsidiary, Xingfa. Since then, our mission is to “produce high quality lockset products at affordable prices.”

 

We sell our products mainly to the US and Canada (“North America”) through one of our Hong Kong registered subsidiaries, Kambo Locksets. Another Hong Kong registered subsidiary, Kambo Hardware, targets and distributes locksets and related hardware to countries other than the US and Canada. And it mainly serves our customers in Asian countries. We will further illustrate our development and group structure in the following paragraphs.

 

In 1993, as the laws and regulations for processing with imported materials entity had changed in China, we established our wholly foreign owned entity (WFOE) subsidiary, Dongguan Xingfa Hardware Products Limited (“Xingfa”) located in Shatian County, Dongguan City, Guangdong Province of PRC. Xingfa is equipped with various types of machines such as die casting machines, furnace, polishing machines and other machines for metal processing in a 17,560 m2 manufacturing facility. In light of excess production capacity due to current economic conditions, Xingfa has subleased one plant building of approximately 4,300 m2 to reduce our operating costs.

 

We restructured our corporate organization in 2009 and incorporated Hing Fat Industrial Limited under Hong Kong law (“Hing Fat”), as the holding company of Xingfa to manage the door lockset manufacturing activities of Xingfa and to conduct research and development.

 

On March 26, 2014, Kambo Locksets Limited was incorporated under Hong Kong law. Kambo Locksets is a trading company focusing on marketing and sales of our products in North America market and became our subsidiary as a result of reorganization.

 

On February 25, 2015, Kambo Hardware Limited was incorporated under Hong Kong law. Its primary business is to sell our products to markets outside of the North America.

 

Bamberg (HK) Limited (“Bamberg”) was incorporated on June 24, 2016 under Hong Kong law. Through Bamberg, we started marketing our products under our own brand “Bamberg” to establish and focus on internet sales channels, such as Amazon.com

 

On July 17, 2019, Intelligent Living Application Group Inc. was established as a holding company and it is a Cayman Islands exempted company limited by shares and were incorporated as an offshore holding company for listing purposes and for further expansion flexibility. Intelligent Living Application Group Inc. owns 100% of the equity interest in Intelligent Living Application Group Limited, which was incorporated on March 19, 2014 under the laws of British Virgin Islands.

 

On July 17, 2019, the Company issued 500,000,000 ordinary shares to its shareholders. On August 14, 2019, these shareholders surrendered an aggregate of 499,990,000 ordinary shares to the Company at no consideration. The transaction is considered as a recapitalization prior to the Company’s initial public offering.

 

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A reorganization of the Company’s legal entity structure was completed in April 2020. The reorganization involved the incorporation of ILAG in July 2019 and execution of the Share Exchange Agreement between ILAG and ILA BVI in April 2020 (the “Share Exchange Agreement”) whereby ILAG took control of ILA BVI and its wholly owned subsidiaries by acquiring all the outstanding shares of ILA BVI with ordinary shares of ILAG. Pursuant to the Share Exchange Agreement, ILAG and ILA BVI exchanged 2,550,000 shares of ILA BVI for 12,990,000 ordinary shares of ILAG. This transaction was treated as a recapitalization of the Company and the financial statements give retroactive effect to this transaction.

 

On July 16, 2021, the Board of Directors and Shareholders of the Company approved the Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association of the Company and our authorized share capital currently is $50,000 divided into 500,000,000 shares, comprising of (i) 450,000,000 ordinary shares, par value of $0.0001 each; and (ii) 50,000,000 preferred shares, par value of $0.0001 each. The Company originally issued 500,000,000 ordinary shares on July 17, 2019. On August 14, 2019, all of existing shareholders of the Company agreed to surrender an aggregate of 499,990,000 ordinary shares to the Company at no consideration.

 

Through Intelligent Living Application Group Limited in BVI, we own 100% of the equity interest in Hing Fat, Kambo Locksets, Kambo Hardware and Bamberg, and through Hing Fat, we own 100% of the equity interest in Xingfa.

 

 

Until 2018, we have maintained a profitable business with steady growth in our revenues and earnings. In 2018, we experienced the sudden impact caused by the tariff war between the US and China that resulted in a decrease in or suspension of orders in late 2018 and first half of 2019. Our sales orders from our customers in the US have stabilized and recovered since the middle of 2019 as the market digested information about the tariff war. However, our factory was temporarily closed in early 2020 and the supply chain and logistic for raw materials and delivery of finished products were disrupted because of COVID-19. In 2022, there were outbreaks of the Omicron variant of the COVID-19 in Hong Kong and many other cities in China, including Shenzhen, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Taiyuan, Changchun as well as Dongguan city where Xingfa is located, and travel restrictions, mandatory COVID-19 tests, quarantine requirements and/or temporary closure of office buildings and facilities were imposed by local governments. China eased the strict lockdown procedures in early December 2022, which led to surge in COVID infections in December 2022 and January 2023 and caused disruption our business operations as our migrant workers from other provinces in the manufacturing factory had to leave and go home early for the new year holidays and did not come back until March 2023. Our recovery from COVID-19 pandemic was negatively impacted high interest rate which has caused a slowdown in real estate market in US, from which we generate most of our revenues. Our revenues were approximately $6.4 million and $12.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

We deployed alternative pricing strategies to alleviate the negative impact from COVID-19 and higher tariffs as we raised our unit product selling price in July 2021. Due to the price increase, slow recovery from COVID-19 and the high interest rate in the US, our revenues decreased by approximately $5.7 million or 47% for the year ended December 31, 2023 comparing to the same period of 2022. Our gross margin decreased to 9.8% for the year ended December 31, 2023 from 18.1% of the same period in 2022. If the idle capacity impact was removed, our profit margin decreased to 15.2% in 2023. The decrease in margin during 2023 was mainly due to the increase of labor costs and raw materials such as zinc alloy and iron.

 

During 2021, three major shareholders and executive directors of the Company forgave and waived their receivable owed by the subsidiaries of the Company for $717,949 ($153,846 in 2020) which have been recognized as shareholders contribution. We renegotiated bank borrowings with lower interest rate to sustain our operation cash needs. Our bank borrowing outstanding as of December 31, 2023 was approximately $0.1 million as compared to approximately $0.6 million as of December 31, 2022. Selling and marketing expenses decreased to $59,841 in 2023 from $105,473 for the same period in 2022, Our general and administrative expenses increased to approximately $4.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 from approximately $4.2 million for the same period of 2022 because of increase in compensation to directors and executive officers and professional fees as a public company. Finance costs were decreased to $26,935 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $147,588 for the same period in 2022. The combination of all above factors, along with decrease in other income and increase of provision for income tax, have resulted in an increase of our net loss of $1,845,615 to $3,501,518 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $1,655,903 for the year ended December 31, 2022.

 

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Currently, our customer and geographical market concentration are high. To mitigate the issues of concentration of customers and geographical markets, we are contacting property developers and hotel/service apartment developers in China and South-east Asia in an attempt to diversify our customer base and reduce our market concentration. The following table shows revenues from customers that accounted for more than 10% of our total operating revenues:

 

   For the years ended December 31, 
   2023   2022   2021 
Customer A  $1,786,656    27.5%  $5,654,248    46.5%  $6,833,866    54.5%
Customer B   888,595    13.7%   1,871,116    15.4%   1,588,156    12.7%
Customer C   1,723,506    26.5%   1,586,681    13.1%   1,310,376    10.5%
Customer D   1,332,746    20.5%   1,306,755    10.7%       %
   $5,731,503    88.2%  $10,418,800    85.7%  $9,732,398    77.7%

 

The following table sets forth the Company’s revenues from customers by geographical areas based on the location of the customers:

 

   For the years ended December 31, 
   2023   2022   2021 
US  $6,364,773   $11,717,347   $12,233,382 
Canada   78,584    440,755    310,174 
Total  $6,443,357   $12,158,102   $12,543,556 

 

Our gross margin was approximately 6.8% due to the tariff war between US and China started in 2018. To mitigate the impact of tariff war, we have launched a series of procurement actions to reduce the costs, and we managed to gradually improve our gross margins, which was 9.8% for 2023, 18.1% for 2022 and 10.5% for 2021. In addition, once market demands resume to normal along with our continuous efforts in expanding product selections and varieties, better procurement of raw materials, ability to improve production efficiency, attracting new customers and initiatives to reduce our overhead costs, we hope to return to profitability. As the permit for electro-plating production is more stringently regulated in China, in 2022, we acquired an electro-plating production line in an industrial park near our Xingfa factory to reduce outsourced electro-plating costs. However, the interest increment cycle and delayed economic recovery have made our customers more cautious in placing more orders. As a result, our gross margin was negatively affected by amortization of idle capacity. To increase the utilization rate, the management is developing electro-plating business to provide services to third parties with our newly acquired plant and also continued the development of new smart lock products for mainland China, Cambodia and Hong Kong markets which expect to launch by the end of 2024.

 

Key Factors Affecting Our Results

 

We believe the key factors affecting our financial condition and results of operations include the followings:

 

Our Relationship with Customers. We rely heavily on customers’ demand to sell our products. Our four largest customers accounted for 88.2% and 85.7% for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. In addition, our five largest customers in aggregate accounted for approximately 92% and 91% for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Our strategy is to attempt to strengthen our direct relationships with these customers to secure and expand the sales orders from these customers in the future.

 

Cost of Goods Sold. Our products are produced in our manufacturing plant Xingfa in Dongguan, Guangdong Province in the PRC. Cost of raw materials, labor costs and manufacturing overhead incurred will affect our product cost, and we generally do not have long-term contractual arrangements with our suppliers. We typically maintain good relationships with our suppliers. Increases to raw material prices, minimum wage requirements of our staff in the PRC and consumables could negatively affect our gross profit margins and results of operations to the extent that we are unable to pass these costs on to our customers. If we experience shortages in the supply of certain raw materials or if we get inferior quality raw materials, we may not be able to find or develop alternative supply sources, which could result in delays, reductions in manufacturing and product shipments and could adversely impact the quality of our products, all of which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. We have not experienced significant shortages of raw materials in the past, and we will continue to monitor the fluctuation of our costs and our relationship with our suppliers.

 

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More Stringent Environmental and OSH Protection Requirements in the PRC. Environmental and OSH protection authorities impose various administrative penalties on persons or enterprises in violation of the Environmental Protection Law and Occupational Safety and Health Law of the PRC and Xingfa is subject to such laws and regulations. Such penalties include warnings, fines, orders to rectify within the prescribed period, orders to cease construction, orders to restrict or suspend production, orders to make recovery, orders to disclose relevant information or make an announcement, imposition of administrative action against relevant responsible persons, and orders to shut down facility. Any person or entity that pollutes the environment resulting in damage could also be held liable under the Tort Law of the PRC. In addition, environmental organizations may also bring lawsuits against any entity that discharges pollutants detrimental to the public welfare. We engaged an independent laboratory to conduct review of the compliance with environmental laws and regulations by Xingfa. We believe Xingfa has established sufficient measures and systems to implement and comply with the requirements of such laws and regulations. We and Xingfa may incur additional costs to ensure compliance with environmental and worker safety and health protection requirements in the PRC. To cope with the green requirements as well as our mission of ESQ achievement, we decided to enhance our production line.

 

Relations Between the US and China. At various times during recent years, the US and China have had significant disagreements over political and economic issues. Controversies may arise in the future between these two countries. These controversies also could make it more difficult for us to provide our products to our customers in the US. The international trade policies of China and the US could adversely affect our business, and the imposition of trade sanctions and tariffs relating to imports, taxes, import duties and other charges on imports from China, including those applied specifically to our products, or the imposition of taxes, import duties or other charges on exports to the U.S. could increase our costs and affect our operating results negatively. The U.S. government currently has suspended the increases of tariffs from 7.5% to 25%, pending the results of US and China trade negotiations. Although the U.S. has started to review and remove the increased tariff previously imposed on certain items importing from China, which is not related to our products sold to the U.S. Starting in January 2021, we stopped absorbing tariffs cost for our U.S. customers and U.S. might further increase the tariffs that will affecting our products.

 

Competition: In order to continue to compete effectively, we must maintain our reputation for innovation and high-quality products and be flexible and innovative in responding to rapidly changing market demands. The number of our direct competitors and the intensity of competition may increase as we expand into other product lines such as smart locksets. Our competitors may enter into business combinations or alliances that strengthen their competitive positions or prevent us from taking advantage of such combinations or alliances. Our competitors also may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, standards or consumer preferences. Our results of operations and market position may be adversely impacted by our competitors and the competitive pressures in the lockset industries.

 

Key Operating Metrics

 

Our management regularly reviews a number of metrics to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends, formulate financial projections and make strategic decisions. The main metrics we consider are the results for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, as set forth in the table below.

 

   For the years ended December 31, 
   2023   2022   2021 
Revenues  $6,443,357   $12,158,102   $12,543,556 
Gross margin   9.8%   18.1%   10.5%
Net loss  $(3,501,518)  $(1,655,903)  $(1,386,515)
Inventory turnover (in days)   294    174    153 
Accounts receivable turnover (in days)   58    41    27 

 

We project our revenue based on purchase orders from our customers, the current principal driver of our business. Then, we will estimate the expected gross profit based on our in-house standard material and cost table in order to determine what our gross profit percentage should be. If there will be a downtrend trend of revenue, we will try to lower our costs such as raw materials and direct labor. Normally, when there is no disruption on logistics such as the ones caused by COVID-19. Raw materials and packaging consumables will be kept at a safe level that may sustain potential production needs for about two months. Potential production needs include quantities from purchase orders received and projected sales. Taking into account production time, inventory turnover and accounts receivable turnover and our cash position, we then project our working capital needs and also identify potential sales sources.

 

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When we see declining trends from purchase orders received, we will start reviewing our material costs and expenses in order to mitigate the impact to our gross margin. Starting in 2018, we saw the number of purchase orders from customers declined because of the US-China tariff war. Before getting the final determination of the tariffs, we suffered a decrease of gross profit margin to 6.8% in 2018. In order to maintain product quality, we do not pay our labor based on production quantity. As a socially responsible organization, we did not lay off employees before the expiration of their employment contacts, but we reduced recruiting of unskilled labor since the beginning of 2019. Also, we reviewed the production processes of Xingfa and were able to decrease our raw material costs and waste to the extent that product quality could be maintained. In 2021, outbreaks of various variants of COVID-19 further created negative impacts on global logistics. The number of purchase orders from our customers for 2023 were lower than those in fiscal year 2022 because of interest rate increase in the US. Units of product shipped during 2023 were approximately 1.3 million units (including approximately 0.1 million units of spare parts) comparing to approximately 2.4 million units (including approximately 0.2 million units of spare parts) in 2022 and approximately 2.8 million units (including approximately 0.2 million units of spare parts) in 2021. Because of product mix shifted and change of combination of metal raw materials, our gross margin was down to 9.8% (if the idle capacity impact was removed, our profit margin decreased to 15.2%) in 2023 from 18.1% in 2022 (10.5% in 2021). In order to enhance gross margin, the management raised product unit sales price and replace brass with stainless steel. In addition, we have not absorbed certain increased tariff cost for our customers since January 2022.

 

Our inventory turnover days increased to approximately 294 days for year ended December 31, 2023, from 174 days for the year ended December 31, 2022. This was caused mainly by impact fewer purchase orders from our customers due to increase of interest rate and slower than expected recovery from COVID-19. Because our spare parts are universally applicable for all models of our product and, in order to ensure utilization of our labor, we have stocked up and meet some short notice purchase orders from potential new customers.

 

Starting in 2020, we are studying and hope to improve our sales mix, namely more ODM and more self-branded products, geographic market mix, namely the US, South-east Asia and China, cost structure and procurement options in order to further optimize our profit performance. However, as the combined effect of slow recovery post COVID-19 and the amortization of our electroplating production line, we have incurred a lower gross margin during the fiscal year 2023. We continue to promote higher value products to our customers in 2023 and developing smart lock product series. Despite our efforts to optimize our product mix and cost structure, purchase orders from our customers were slowed down as the reasons discussed above. As we have to keep our factory operating and utilization of labor, we have stocked up to achieve the expected short delivery time to meet potential new customers demand, therefore, our inventory turnover in days was negatively affected. We believe that we can further reduce our cost of raw materials with new processing techniques, to maintain volume rebates of raw materials and enhance our gross margin as we optimize our product-mix to focus our marketing efforts on higher margin products and new products. To better manage our gross margin in light of rising cost of raw materials, we leverage extensive product quality testing to identify alternative raw materials mix that is designed to lower our production costs. Since the second half of 2021, we have been using stainless steel to substitute brass.

 

Results of Operations

 

The following table summarizes our consolidated statements of operations for the periods indicated. This information should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this report. The operating results in any period are not necessarily of the results that may be expected for any future period.

 

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For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

 

   For the years ended         
   December 31,       Change 
   2023   2022   Change   % 
   USD   USD   USD     
Selected Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss Data:                
Revenues  $6,443,357   $12,158,102   $(5,714,745)   (47.0)%
Cost of goods sold   (5,464,591)   (9,961,988)   4,497,397    (45.1)%
Cost of goods sold – idle capacity   (345,424)           %
Gross profit   633,342    2,196,114    (1,562,772)   (71.2)%
Selling and marketing expenses   (59,841)   (105,473)   45,632    (43.3)%
General and administrative expenses   (4,440,314)   (4,208,197)   (232,117)   5.5%
Finance costs   (26,935)   (147,588)   120,653    (81.7)%
Loss from operations   (3,893,748)   (2,265,144)   (1,628,604)   71.9%
Total other income, net   448,467    609,241    (160,774)   (26.4)%
Loss before provision for income taxes   (3,445,281)   (1,655,903)   (1,789,378)   108.1%
Provision for income taxes   (56,237)       (56,237)   %
Net loss  $(3,501,518)  $(1,655,903)  $(1,845,615)   111.5%
                     
Loss per share - basic and diluted  $(0.19)  $(0.11)  $(0.08)   72.7%

 

Revenues

 

Our revenues from sales of door locksets decreased by $5,714,745, or 47.0% for the year ended December 31, 2023 to $6,443,357 from $12,158,102 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was mainly due to decrease in units sold in 2023. Our total number of products sold was approximately 1.3 million units (including approximately 0.1 million units of spare parts) for the year ended December 31, 2023 comparing to 2.4 million units (including approximately 0.2 million units of spare parts) for the year ended December 31, 2022.

 

Cost of Goods Sold

 

Cost of goods sold was $5,464,591 for the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to $9,961,988 for the same period of 2022. Cost of goods sold was 84.8% and 81.9% of revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The increase in cost of goods sold as a percentage of revenue was mainly caused by the addition of new machinery along with revamped production procedures, increase of labor and decrease of sales due to weak demand in our major market.

 

Cost of goods sold includes the cost of raw materials (mainly copper, stainless steel, iron and zinc alloy), direct labor (including wages and social security contributions), manufacturing overhead (such as packing materials, direct rental expense and utilities) and taxes. As a small business with limited resources, we currently lack the ability to hedge our raw materials position and we monitor raw material price trends closely to manage our production needs.

 

Cost of goods sold – idle capacity

 

Idle capacity consists of direct production costs in excess of charges allocated to the Company’s finished goods in production. Such costs relate primarily to depreciation expense related to the Company’s electroplating equipment that cannot be directly attributable to the production process. Idle capacity expenses amounted to $345,424 and nil for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

Gross Profit

 

Gross profit was $633,342 for the year ended December 31, 2023, a decrease of $1,562,772, or 71.2% from $2,196,114 for the same period of 2022. Gross margin was 9.8% for the year ended December 31, 2023, decrease from 18.1% for the same period of 2022 as a result of depreciation expense of new machinery, increase in direct labor cost and weak demand of our major market in the US, during the year ended December 31, 2023.

 

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We believe that we can enhance our gross margin as we are researching new processing procedures to use durable but lower cost materials.

 

Selling and marketing expenses

 

Major components of selling and marketing expenses are transportation, custom declarations, sales commissions. Selling and marketing expenses decreased by $45,632, or 43.3% to $59,841 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $105,473 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was due mainly to reduction in freight and transportation fees.

 

General and Administrative Expenses

 

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel costs for our accounting and administrative support personnel and executives as well as legal and professional fees, depreciation and amortization of non-production property and equipment. General and administrative expenses increased by $232,117, or 5.5%, to $4,440,314 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $4,208,197 for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase was due mainly to additional amortization on leasehold improvement and stock options granted to officers and employees of the company under the Company’s 2022 Omnibus Equity Plan (the “Equity Plan”).

 

Finance Costs

 

Finance costs decreased by $120,653, or 81.7%, to $26,935 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $147,588 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was mainly due to reduce in interest payment for a short-term loan to a third party during the year ended December 31, 2023. During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, interest expense related to bank borrowings was $18,859 and $26,836, respectively.

 

Provision for Income Taxes

 

Provision for income tax was $56,237 in the fiscal year of 2023, an increase of $56,237 from $nil for fiscal year of 2022.

 

Our PRC entity in 2023 and 2022 was subject to the statutory PRC enterprise income tax rate of 25.0%. Our subsidiaries in Hong Kong are subject to Hong Kong taxation on income derived from their activities conducted in Hong Kong at a rate of 16.5%.

 

Net loss and Loss per Share

 

Net loss increased $1,845,615 to $3,501,518 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $1,655,903 for the year ended December 31, 2022.

 

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For the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021

 

   For the years ended         
   December 31,       Change 
   2022   2021   Change   % 
   USD   USD   USD     
Selected Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss Data:                
Revenues  $12,158,102   $12,543,556   $(385,454)   (3.1)%
Cost of goods sold   (9,961,988)   (11,231,253)   1,269,265    (11.3)%
Gross profit   2,196,114    1,312,303    883,811    67.3%
Selling and marketing expenses   (105,473)   (150,152)   44,679    (29.8)%
General and administrative expenses   (4,208,197)   (2,902,040)   (1,306,157)   45.0%
Finance costs   (147,588)   (57,774)   (89,814)   155.5%
Loss from operations   (2,265,144)   (1,797,663)   (467,481)   26.0%
Total other income, net   609,241    411,148    198,093    48.2%
Loss before provision for income taxes   (1,655,903)   (1,386,515)   (269,388)   19.4%
Provision for income taxes               %
Net loss  $(1,655,903)  $(1,386,515)  $(269,388)   19.4%
                     
Loss per share - basic and diluted  $(0.11)  $(0.11)  $    %

 

Revenues

 

Our revenues from sales of door locksets slightly decreased by $385,454, or 3.1% for the year ended December 31, 2022 to $12,158,102 from $12,543,556 for the year ended December 31, 2021. The decrease was mainly due to decrease in units sold in 2022 as we raise the prices for our products. Our total number of products sold was approximately 2.4 million units (including approximately 0.2 million units of spare parts) for the year ended December 31, 2022 comparing to 2.8 million units (including approximately 0.2 million units of spare parts) for the year ended December 31, 2021.

 

Cost of Goods Sold and Gross Profit

 

Our cost of goods sold includes cost of raw materials (such as copper, iron and zinc alloy), direct labor (including wages and social security contributions), manufacturing overhead (such as packing materials, direct rental expense and utilities) and other taxes. As a small business with limited resources, we currently don’t have the ability to hedge our raw materials position, and we must monitor raw material price trends closely to manage our production needs.

 

Cost of goods sold was 81.9% and 89.5% of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 respectively. The 11.3% decrease was mainly caused by new combination of meatal raw materials since the 2nd half of 2021.

 

As a result for the reasons discussed above, our gross margin increased to 18.1% in 2022 from 10.5% in 2021. The management’s actions taken to further lower our cost of goods sold even to offset external factors that caused increase of costs mainly due to COVID-19.

 

Our gross margin has been significantly impacted by the trade war that started in 2018. We believe that we can further reduce our cost of raw materials as we negotiate for volume rebates and enhance our gross margin as we optimize our product-mix to focus our marketing efforts on higher margin products and COVID-19 is gradually under control in the U.S. and globally. In order to enhance gross margin level, the management raised product unit sales price since second half of 2021. In addition, we have decided that we would not absorb certain increased tariff cost for our customers starting in January 2022.

 

Selling and marketing expenses

 

Major components of selling and marketing expenses are transportation, custom declarations, sales commissions. Selling and marketing expenses decreased by $44,679, or 29.8% to $105,473 for the year ended December 31, 2022 from $150,152 for the year ended December 31, 2021. The decrease was due mainly to reduction in business travelling and sales commissions.

 

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General and Administrative Expenses

 

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel costs for our accounting and administrative support personnel and executives as well as legal and professional fees, depreciation and amortization of non-production property and equipment. General and administrative expenses increased by $1,306,157, or 45.0%, to $4,208,197 for the year ended December 31, 2022 from $2,902,040 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was due mainly to additional professional fees and depreciation and amortization of equipment.

 

Finance Costs

 

Finance costs increased $89,814, or 155.5%, to $147,588 for the year ended December 31, 2022 from $57,774 for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was mainly due to interest from short-term loan of $112,142 in year 2022. Also, the increased cost was partially offset by decrease in borrowing interests. During the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, interest expense related to bank borrowings was $26,836 and $48,910, respectively.

 

Loss before Provision for Income Taxes and Loss per Share

 

Loss before provision for income taxes increased $269,388 to $1,655,903 for the year ended December 31, 2022 from $1,386,515 for the years ended December 31, 2021.

 

5B. Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We conduct our operations primarily through our subsidiaries in Hong Kong and China. As a result, our ability to pay dividends depends upon dividends paid by our subsidiaries. If our subsidiaries incur debt on their behalf in the future, the instruments governing their debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends to us. In addition, Xingfa is permitted to pay dividends in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Under PRC law, Xingfa is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund certain statutory reserve funds until such reserve funds reach 50% of its registered capital. Additionally, Xingfa may allocate a portion of its after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to its enterprise expansion fund and staff bonus and welfare funds, at its discretion. Xingfa may also allocate a portion of its after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to a discretionary surplus fund at its discretion. The statutory reserve funds and the discretionary funds are not distributable as cash dividends. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior SAFE approval as long as certain routine procedural requirements are fulfilled. However, capital account transactions, which include foreign direct investment and loans, must be approved by and/or registered with SAFE and its local branches.

 

Our cost structure is relatively fixed and our working capital requirements are generally influenced by our order backlog. We need substantial operating funds to pay for raw materials; maintain an appropriate level of work-in-process inventory; and keep the production facility open. To support our working capital needs, we maintain a credit facility with the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Limited for approximately $897,000 since 2021 compared to approximately $769,000 in 2020, which is guaranteed by our directors and their personal properties. In 2021, a shareholder and director forgave an advance of $717,948 ($153,846 in 2020) to the Company and treated as a shareholder contribution.

 

Our working capital was $10,711,197, $14,201,841 and $2,213,523 as of December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021. Our cash and cash equivalents were $4,483,730, $9,165,651 and $131,129 as of December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. While our business has been negatively impacted by the tariffs, COVID-19 and high interest rate in all 2023, 2022 and 2021, we believe we are able to obtain sufficient operating funds from our existing shareholders, potential investors or extend Hong Kong government guaranteed low interest bank borrowing to operate our business.

 

On July 15, 2022, we closed our initial public offering, raising net proceeds of approximately $16.86 million after deducting underwriting commission and offering expenses. We believe that our current working capital is sufficient to support our operations for the next twelve months. We may, however, need additional cash resources in the future if we experience changes in business conditions or other developments, or if we find and wish to pursue opportunities for investment, acquisition, capital expenditure or similar actions. If we determine that our cash requirements exceed the amount of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash we have on hand at the time, we may seek to issue equity or debt securities or obtain credit facilities. The issuance and sale of additional equity would result in further dilution to our shareholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed obligations and could result in operating covenants that would restrict our operations. Our obligation to bear credit risk for certain financing transactions we facilitate may also strain our operating cash flow. We cannot assure you that financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

 

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Cash Flows

 

A summary of the sources and uses of cash and cash equivalents is as follows:

 

   For the years end December 31, 
   2023   2022   2021 
   USD   USD   USD 
Selected Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows Data:            
Net cash (used in) operating activities  $(3,163,187)  $(4,170,876)  $(1,038,967)
Net cash (used in) investing activities   (1,360,274)   (4,181,724)   (9,758)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities   (154,976)   17,397,802    876,334 
Effect of exchange rate on cash   (3,484)   (10,680)   1,080 
Net decrease in cash   (4,681,921)   9,034,522    (171,311)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year   9,165,651    131,129    302,440 
                
Cash and cash equivalents at end of year  $4,483,730   $9,165,651   $131,129 

 

Operating Activities

 

Net cash used in operating activities was $3,163,187 for the year ended December 31, 2023 and was primarily attributable to (i) the net loss of $3,501,518; (ii) an increase in inventory of $586,551; (iii) an increase in deposits of $ 71,188; (iv) an decrease in accounts payable of $67,945; (v) a increase in prepayment of $ 1,412,318; (vi) a decrease in other payables and accruals of $ 50,253; (vii) a decrease in advance from customers of $6,364; and being offset by (i) a decrease in account receivables of $1,119,804; (ii) non-cash item of $693,531 of depreciation and amortization and $667,016 of options issued for equity compensation plan; (iii) increase in taxes payable of $31,972; (iv) an increase in cash flow by other elements of $20,627.

 

Net cash used in operating activities was $4,170,876 for the year ended December 31, 2022 and was primarily attributable to (i) the net loss of $1,655,903; (ii) a decrease in accounts payable of $1,631,595; (iii) an increase in accounts receivable of $697,873; (iv) a decrease of the advance from customers of $216,269; (v) an increase in prepayment of $180,974; (vi) a decrease in other payables and accruals of $960,292; (vii) a decrease in cash flow by other elements of $42,771; and being offset by (i) a decrease in other receivables of $268,621; (ii) non-cash item of $408,473 including $303,269 of depreciation and amortization, $105,204 of bad-debt being offset; (iii) decrease in inventory of $535,182; (iv) an increase in cash flow by other elements of $2,525.

 

Net cash used in operating activities was $1,038,967 for the year ended December 31, 2021 and was primarily attributable to (i) the net loss of $1,386,515; (ii) non-cash item of $259,122 of depreciation and amortization; (iii) an increase in accounts receivable of $199,392; (iv) an increase in inventory of $712,854; (v) an increase in prepayment of $140,151; (vi) an increase in other receivables of $134,161; (vii) an increase in accounts payable of $530,221; (viii) an increase in other payables and accruals of $545,903; (ix) an increase of the advance from customers of $222,633, and (x) a decrease in cash flow by other elements of $23,773.

 

Investing Activities

 

Net cash used in investing activities was $1,360,274 for the year ended December 31, 2023 was primarily attributable to leasehold improvement and purchase of property and equipment for electroplating production.

 

Net cash used in investing activities was $4,181,724 for the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily attributable to purchase of property and equipment for electroplating production.

 

Net cash used in investing activities was $9,758 for the year ended December 31, 2021 was primarily attributable to purchase of property and equipment.

 

Financing Activities

 

Net cash used in financing activities was $154,976 for the year ended December 31, 2023 and was primarily attributable to repayments of bank borrowings.

 

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Net cash provided by financing activities was $17,397,802 for the year ended December 31, 2022 and was primarily attributable to proceeds from public offering of $18,048,369; offset by (i) payments of finance lease liability of $8,391, and (ii) repayment of bank borrowings of $642,176.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities was $876,334 for the year ended December 31, 2021 and was primarily attributable to (i) payments of finance lease liability of $32,954, offset by an increase of bank borrowings of $191,339 and (ii) cash proceeds from shareholder capital contribution of $717,949.

 

Capital Expenditures

 

We had capital expenditures of $1,360,274 and $4,181,724 for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Our capital expenditures were mainly used for purchases of production equipment and office equipment. We intend to fund our future capital expenditures with lease financing, if available, proceeds from our offering and other financing alternatives. We will continue to make capital expenditures to support the growth of our business.

 

Bank Facility

 

On November 3, 2017, Kambo Locksets Limited obtained banking facilities from the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Limited pursuant to which it may borrow up to HK$ 6.0 million (approximately $0.8 million) for working capital purposes. On June 24, 2021, this banking facilities was increased to HK$ 7.0 million (approximately $0.9 million). The credit facility bears interest at 5.5% and it is personally guaranteed by Mr. Wynn Hui and Mr. Bong Lau (both major shareholders and directors of the Company). The credit facility does not have an expiration date and is collateralized by a property owned by Kambo Security Products Limited, a related party.

 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

We have not entered into any financial guarantees or other commitments to guarantee the payment obligations of any third parties. We have not entered into any derivative contracts that are indexed to our shares and classified as shareholders’ equity or that are not reflected in our consolidated financial statements.

 

5C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, etc.

 

See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview —”Intellectual Property.”

 

D. Trend Information

 

Other than as disclosed elsewhere in this annual report, we are not aware of any trends, uncertainties, demands, commitments or events for the period from January 1, 2023 to December 31, 2023 that are reasonably likely to have a material effect on our net revenues, income, profitability, liquidity or capital resources, or that would cause the disclosed financial information to be not necessarily indicative of future operating results or financial conditions.

 

E. Critical Accounting Estimates

 

An accounting estimate is considered critical if it requires assumptions to be made based on assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time such estimate is made and if different accounting estimates that reasonably could have been used, or changes in the accounting estimates that are reasonably likely to occur, could materially impact the consolidated financial statements. We believe that the following accounting estimates involve a higher degree of judgment and complexity in their application of assumptions.

 

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP, which requires us to make judgments, estimates and assumptions. We continually evaluate these estimates and assumptions based on the most recently available information, our own historical experiences and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Since the use of estimates is an integral component of the financial reporting process, actual results could differ from our expectations as a result of changes in our estimates.

 

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Revenue recognition

 

The Company follows FASB ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers in accounting for its revenues. The core principle of the revenue standard is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The following five steps are applied to achieve that core principle:

 

Step 1: Identify the contract with the customer

 

Step 2: Identify the performance obligations in the contract

 

Step 3: Determine the transaction price

 

Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract

 

Step 5: Recognize the allocated revenue when the company satisfies a performance obligation

 

The Company derives substantially all of its revenue from product sales, specifically sale of door locksets, locksets and related hardware to customers. Revenue from product sales is recognized when control passes to the customer, which generally occurs at a point in time when products are delivered FOB (freight on board). Revenue is recorded net of tariffs, VAT and discounts.

 

Leases

 

The Company follows FASB ASU 2016-02, “Leases” (Topic 842) and measures the lease liability based on the present value of the lease payments discounted by the relevant borrowing rate and reduces the carrying value of the lease liability for lease payments made.

 

The Company accounts for all significant leases as either operating or finance leases. At lease inception, if the lease meets any of the following five criteria, the Company will classify it as a finance lease: (i) the lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the Company by the end of the lease term, (ii) the lease grants the Company an option to purchase the underlying asset that the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise, (iii) the lease term is for the major part of the remaining economic life of the underlying asset, (iv) the present value of the sum of the lease payments and any residual value guaranteed by the lessee that is not already reflected in the lease payments equals or exceeds substantially all (90% or more) of the fair value of the underlying asset, or (v) the underlying asset is of such a specialized nature that it is expected to have no alternative use to the lessor at the end of the lease term. Otherwise, the lease will be treated as an operating lease.

 

For leases with a term of 12 months or less, the Company is permitted to and did make an accounting policy election by class of underlying assets not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company recognized lease expense for such leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

 

Income taxes

 

The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with FASB ASC Section 740. The Company is subject to the tax laws of the PRC and Hong Kong (a special administrative region of PRC). The charge for taxation is based on actual results for the year as adjusted for items that are non-assessable or disallowed; and it is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. The Company is not currently subject to tax in the Cayman Islands or the British Virgin Islands.

 

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Deferred taxes are accounted for using the asset and liability method in respect of temporary differences arising from differences between the carrying amount of assets and liabilities in the Company’s consolidated financial statements and the corresponding tax basis used in the computation of assessable tax profit of loss. In principle, deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable income can be utilized with deferred tax liabilities and/or net operating loss carry forwards. Deferred tax is calculated using tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realized, or the liability is settled. Deferred tax is charged or credited in the statement of operations, except when it is related to items credited or charged directly to equity, in which case the deferred tax is also dealt with in equity. Net deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the net deferred tax assets will not be realized. Current income taxes are provided for in accordance with the laws of the relevant taxing authorities.

 

An uncertain tax position is recognized as a benefit only if it is “more likely than not” that the tax position would be sustained in a tax examination, with a tax examination being presumed to occur. The amount recognized is the largest amount of tax benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized on examination. For tax positions not meeting the “more likely than not” test, no tax benefit is recorded. Penalties and interest incurred related to uncertain tax positions are classified in income tax expense in the period incurred. Tax returns filed for the years ended December 31, 2020 to 2023 in the PRC and Hong Kong are subject to examination by the applicable tax authorities.

 

ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

 

6.A. Directors and Executive Officers

 

The following table sets forth information regarding our executive officers and directors as of the date of this report.

 

Directors and Executive Officers   Age   Position/Title
Bong Lau (Yu Bong Lau)   46   Chief Executive Officer, Chairman of the Board and Director
Frederick Wong (Ching Wan Wong)   56   Chief Financial Officer
Bun Lau (Yu Bun Lau)   44   Chief Operations Officer and Director
Wynn Hui (Po Wang Hui)   73   Chief Technical Officer and Director
Errol Hui (Shun Hong Hui)   35   Vice President of Engineering
Tony Zhong (Wei Zhong)   41   Vice President of Finance
Monique Ho(1)(2)(3) (Ting Mei Ho)   49   Independent Director
Chun Fai (Kenneth) Liu (1)(2)(3)(4)   35   Independent Director
Carina Chui(1)(2)(3) (Wan Yee Carina Chui)   45   Independent Director
Henry Yeung (Wing Hang Yeung)(5)   40   Independent Director

 

(1) Member of audit committee.

(2) Member of compensation committee.

(3) Member of nominating and corporate governance committee.

(4) Mr. Kenneth Liu was appointed as a director on July 4, 2023 to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Mr. Jochen Koehler.

(5). Mr. Yeung was appointed on January 15, 2024.

 

Bong Lau, Chief Executive Office and Chairman of the Board of the Directors of the Company (the “Board”)

 

Mr. Bong Lau was appointed as a director of the Board on July 17, 2019 and Chairman of the Board on June 1, 2020. Mr. Lau joined the Company in 1999 and has over 20 years of extensive experience in managing door security hardware businesses. Mr. Lau also works well together with our large and small partners geographically to build solid distribution networks, implements marketing and business expansion strategies. He is primarily responsible for the overall sales strategy, distribution management and corporate strategies of the Company. In 1996, Mr. Lau studied in Civil Engineering at the University of Alberta for 2 years.

 

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Frederick Wong, Chief Financial Officer