10-K 1 imo-20231231.htm 10-K imo-20231231
FALSEFY00000499382023
(a) Amounts from related parties included in revenues (note 16).13,544 17,042 8,777 
(b) Amounts to related parties included in purchases of crude oil and products
       (note 16).
4,125 3,795 2,737 
(c) Amounts to related parties included in production and manufacturing,
       and selling and general expenses (note 16).
473460420
(d) Amounts to related parties included in financing (note 16).1697828
(a) Accounts receivable - net included net amounts receivable from related parties (note 16). 1,0481,108
(b) Investments and long-term receivables included amounts from related parties (note 16). 283288
(c) Long-term debt included amounts to related parties (note 16). 3,4473,447
(d) Number of common shares authorized (millions) (note 10). 1,1001,100
Number of common shares outstanding (millions) (note 10). 536584
(b)  Included contributions to registered pension plans.(148)(174)(164)
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from    to    
Commission file number 0-12014
IMPERIAL OIL LIMITED
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Canada98-0017682
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
505 Quarry Park Boulevard S.E., Calgary, Alberta, Canada
T2C 5N1
(Address of principal executive offices) (Postal Code)
1-800-567-3776
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbolName of each exchange on which registered
NoneNone
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Common Shares (without par value)
(Title of Class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer (as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act). Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12 b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934). Yes ☐ No
As of the last business day of the 2023 second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was Canadian $12,036,565,437 based upon the reported last sale price of such stock on the Toronto Stock Exchange on that date.
The number of common shares outstanding, as of February 15, 2024, was 535,836,803.
1

Table of contentsPage
PART I
Item 1.Business
Upstream
Disclosure of reserves
Proved undeveloped reserves
Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs
Drilling and other exploratory and development activities
Present activities
Oil and gas properties, wells, operations and acreage
Downstream
Supply and trading
Transportation
Refining
Distribution
Marketing
Chemical
Delivery commitments
Human capital resources
Competition
Government regulations
The company online
Item 1A.Risk factors
Item 1B.Unresolved staff comments
Item 1C.Cybersecurity
Item 2.Properties
Item 3.Legal proceedings
Item 4.Mine safety disclosures
PART II
Item 5.Market for registrant’s common equity, related stockholder matters and issuer purchases of equity securities
Item 7.Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations
Item 7A.Quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk
Item 8.Financial statements and supplementary data
Item 9.Changes in and disagreements with accountants on accounting and financial disclosure
Item 9A.Controls and procedures
Item 9B.Other information
Item 9C.Disclosure regarding foreign jurisdiction that prevents inspections
PART III
Item 10.Directors, executive officers and corporate governance
Item 11.Executive compensation
Item 12.Security ownership of certain beneficial owners and management and related stockholder matters
Item 13.Certain relationships and related transactions, and director independence
Item 14.Principal accountant fees and services
PART IV
Item 15.Exhibits, financial statement schedules
Item 16.Form 10-K summary
SIGNATURES
Financial section
Proxy information section
All dollar amounts set forth in this report are in Canadian dollars, except where otherwise indicated. Note that numbers may not add due to rounding.
2

Forward-looking statements
Statements of future events or conditions in this report, including projections, targets, expectations, estimates, and business plans are forward-looking statements. Similarly, discussion of roadmaps or future plans related to carbon capture, transportation and storage, biofuel, hydrogen, and other future plans to reduce emissions and emission intensity of the company, its affiliates and third parties are dependent on future market factors, such as continued technological progress, policy support and timely rule-making and permitting, and represent forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as believe, anticipate, intend, propose, plan, goal, seek, project, predict, target, estimate, expect, strategy, outlook, schedule, future, continue, likely, may, should, will and similar references to future periods. Forward-looking statements in this report include, but are not limited to, references to estimates, development, timing and recovery of reserves; the improvement of recovery through experimental operations; the development drilling program at Cold Lake; the timing, cost, efficiency and production of the Leming SAGD and Grand Rapids Phase 1 projects at Cold Lake, and associated emissions intensity reductions; the evaluation and pace of the Aspen project; the timing, pace and results from the EBRT field pilot; the continued evaluation of other oil sands leases; future activities with respect to Beaufort Sea licences; the ability for autonomous operations at Kearl to continue capturing productivity improvements, reducing cost and enhancing safety; the impact of the Kearl Boiler Flue Gas heat recovery unit on reducing greenhouse gas emissions; reduced greenhouse gas emissions from LASER technology at Cold Lake; the ability of rail infrastructure to mitigate pipeline capacity constraints; human capital resources strategy and impact; the measures required to comply with environmental regulations; anticipated capital and operating expenditures, including with respect to environmental protection; the structure and effectiveness of the cybersecurity program; continued evaluation of the company’s share purchase program; being well positioned to participate in substantial investments to develop Canadian energy supplies and reduce commodity price risk; the company’s long-term business outlook including demand, supply and energy mix and pathways related to greenhouse gas emissions; the impact of participation in the Pathways alliance; Imperial’s company-wide net-zero goal by 2050 (Scope 1 and 2) and the company’s greenhouse gas emissions intensity goal for 2030 for its oil sands operations; the extent of ongoing effects of global events affecting supply and demand, including inflation, and the company’s ability to mitigate cost impacts in all price environments; upstream focus on optimization within existing assets, cost reduction opportunities and productivity enhancements; the ability of the company’s current investment strategy of value and select volume growth to deliver robust returns and support long term growth; continued evaluation of opportunities such as rail shipments and pace of the Aspen project; segment growth, competitive strategies and benefits from an integrated business model; the impact of Downstream strategies and competitive position; the timing, production and emissions reductions from the renewable diesel facility at Strathcona; potential impacts from environmental risks, carbon policy, climate related regulations and biofuels mandates; Chemical competitive position and the benefits from integration with the Sarnia refinery and relationship with ExxonMobil; capital structure and financial strength as a competitive advantage, for risk mitigation and meeting funding requirements; expected full year capital expenditures of about $1.7 billion for 2024; earnings sensitivities; risks associated with use of derivative instruments; the impact of any pending litigation, accounting standards and unrecognized tax benefits; the effectiveness of the company’s compensation plan in long term performance and mitigating risk; standardized measures of discounted future cash flows; the effectiveness of the company's corporate governance practices, including with respect to risk management and oversight; and the progress and impact of various initiatives including with E3 Lithium and using renewable diesel at Kearl.
Forward-looking statements are based on the company’s current expectations, estimates, projections and assumptions at the time the statements are made. Actual future financial and operating results, including expectations and assumptions concerning future energy demand, supply and mix; commodity prices and foreign exchange rates; production rates, growth and mix across various assets; production life, resource recoveries and reservoir performance; project plans, timing, costs, technical evaluations and capacities, and the company’s ability to effectively execute on these plans and operate its assets, including its investment in the renewable diesel complex at Strathcona, the Leming, Grand Rapids and LASER projects at Cold Lake, and autonomous operations at Kearl; the adoption and impact of new facilities or technologies on reductions to GHG emissions intensity, including technologies using solvents to replace energy intensive steam at Cold Lake, the EBRT project, boiler flue gas technology at Kearl, Strathcona renewable diesel, carbon capture and storage including in connection with hydrogen for the renewable diesel project, recovery technologies and efficiency projects, and any changes in the scope, terms, or costs of such projects; that any required support from policymakers and other stakeholders for various new technologies such as carbon capture and storage will be provided; for renewable diesel, the availability and cost of locally-sourced and grown feedstock and the supply of renewable diesel to British Columbia in connection with its low-carbon fuel legislation; the amount and timing of emissions reductions, including the impact of lower carbon fuels; performance of third party service providers;
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receipt of regulatory and third party approvals in a timely manner, especially with respect to large scale emissions reduction projects; applicable laws and government policies, including with respect to climate change, GHG emissions reductions and low carbon fuels; refinery utilization and product sales; the ability to offset any ongoing inflationary pressures; cash generation, financing sources and capital structure, such as dividends and shareholder returns, including the timing and amounts of share repurchases; progression of COVID-19 and its impacts on Imperial’s ability to operate its assets; capital and environmental expenditures; the capture of efficiencies within and between business lines and the ability to maintain near-term cost reductions as ongoing efficiencies; and general market conditions could differ materially depending on a number of factors.
These factors include global, regional or local changes in supply and demand for oil, natural gas, petroleum and petrochemical products, feedstocks and other market factors, economic conditions and seasonal fluctuations and resulting demand, price, differential and margin impacts; political or regulatory events, including changes in law or government policy, applicable royalty rates, and tax laws including taxes on share repurchases; environmental regulation, including climate change and greenhouse gas regulation and changes to such regulation; environmental risks inherent in oil and gas activities; government policies supporting lower carbon investment opportunities; failure, delay or uncertainty regarding supportive policy and market development for the adoption of emerging lower-emission energy technologies and other technologies that support emissions reductions; the receipt, in a timely manner, of regulatory and third-party approvals, including for new technologies that will help the company meet its lower emissions goals; third-party opposition to company and service provider operations, projects and infrastructure; availability and allocation of capital; availability and performance of third-party service providers; unanticipated technical or operational difficulties; management effectiveness and disaster response preparedness; project management and schedules and timely completion of projects; transportation for accessing markets; commercial negotiations; unexpected technological developments; the results of research programs and new technologies, the ability to bring new technologies to commercial scale on a cost-competitive basis, and the competitiveness of alternative energy and other emission reduction technologies; reservoir analysis and performance; the ability to develop or acquire additional reserves; operational hazards and risks; cybersecurity incidents; currency exchange rates; the occurrence, pace, rate of recovery and effects of public health crises, including the responses from governments; general economic conditions, including inflation and the occurrence and duration of economic recessions or downturns; and other factors discussed in "Item 1A Risk factors" and "Item 7 Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations" in this annual report on Form 10-K.
Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve a number of risks and uncertainties, some that are similar to other oil and gas companies and some that are unique to Imperial Oil Limited. Imperial’s actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by its forward-looking statements and readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on them. Imperial undertakes no obligation to update any forward-looking statements contained herein, except as required by applicable law.
Forward-looking and other statements regarding Imperial's environmental, social and other sustainability efforts and aspirations are not an indication that these statements are material to investors or require disclosure in the company's filings with securities regulators. In addition, historical, current and forward-looking environmental, social and sustainability-related statements may be based on standards for measuring progress that are still developing, internal controls and processes that continue to evolve, and assumptions that are subject to change in the future, including future rule-making.
Energy demand models are forward-looking by nature and aim to replicate system dynamics of the global energy system, requiring simplifications. The reference to any scenario in this report, including any potential net-zero scenarios, does not imply Imperial views any particular scenario as likely to occur. In addition, energy demand scenarios require assumptions on a variety of parameters. As such, the outcome of any given scenario using an energy demand model comes with a high degree of uncertainty. Third-party scenarios discussed in this report reflect the modeling assumptions and outputs of their respective authors, not Imperial, and their use by Imperial is not an endorsement by the company of their underlying assumptions, likelihood or probability. Investment decisions are made on the basis of Imperial’s separate planning process. Any use of the modeling of a third-party organization within this report does not constitute or imply an endorsement by Imperial of any or all of the positions or activities of such organization.
Actions needed to advance the company’s 2030 greenhouse gas emission-reductions plans are incorporated into its medium-term business plans, which are updated annually. The reference case for planning beyond 2030 is based on the ExxonMobil’s Global Outlook (the Outlook) research and publication. The Outlook is reflective of the existing global policy environment and an assumption of increasing policy stringency and technology improvement to 2050. However, the Outlook does not attempt to project the degree of required future policy and
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technology advancement and deployment for the world or the company, to meet net zero by 2050. As future policies and technology advancements emerge, they will be incorporated into the Outlook, and the Company’s business plans will be updated accordingly. References to projects or opportunities may not reflect investment decisions made by the company. Individual projects or opportunities may advance based on a number of factors, including availability of supportive policy, permitting, technological advancement for cost-effective abatement, insights from the company planning process, and alignment with partners and other stakeholders. Capital investment guidance in lower-emission investments is based on our corporate plan; however, actual investment levels will be subject to the availability of the opportunity set, public policy support, and focused on returns.
The term “project” as used in this report can refer to a variety of different activities and does not necessarily have the same meaning as in any government payment transparency reports.

5

PART I
Item 1. Business

Imperial Oil Limited was incorporated under the laws of Canada in 1880 and was continued under the Canada Business Corporations Act (the "CBCA") by certificate of continuance dated April 24, 1978. The head and principal office of the company is located at 505 Quarry Park Boulevard S.E., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2C 5N1. Exxon Mobil Corporation ("ExxonMobil") owns approximately 69.6 percent of the outstanding shares of the company. In this report, unless the context otherwise indicates, reference to the "company" or "Imperial" includes Imperial Oil Limited and its subsidiaries, and reference to ExxonMobil includes Exxon Mobil Corporation and its affiliates, as appropriate.
The company is one of Canada’s largest integrated oil companies. It is active in all phases of the petroleum industry in Canada, including the exploration for, and production and sale of, crude oil and natural gas. In Canada, it is a major producer of crude oil, the largest petroleum refiner, a leading marketer of petroleum products, and a major producer of petrochemicals. The company also pursues lower-emission business opportunities including carbon capture and storage, hydrogen and lower-emission fuels.
The company’s operations are conducted in three main segments: Upstream, Downstream and Chemical. Upstream operations include the exploration for, and production of, crude oil, natural gas, synthetic crude oil and bitumen. Downstream operations consist of the transportation and refining of crude oil, blending of refined products and the distribution and marketing of those products. Chemical operations consist of the manufacturing and marketing of various petrochemicals.
Operating data and financial information about the company’s business segments are contained in this report under the following: "Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations" and the "Financial section" under note 2 to the consolidated financial statements: "Business segments".

6

Upstream
Disclosure of reserves
Summary of oil and gas reserves at year-end
The table below summarizes the net proved reserves for the company, as at December 31, 2023, as detailed in the "Supplemental information on oil and gas exploration and production activities" in the "Financial section" of this report.
All of the company’s reported reserves are located in Canada. The company has reported proved reserves based on the average of the first-day-of-the-month price for each month during the last 12-month period ended December 31. Natural gas is converted to an oil-equivalent basis at six million cubic feet per one thousand barrels. No major discovery or other favourable or adverse event has occurred since December 31, 2023 that would cause a significant change in the estimated proved reserves as of that date.
 
Liquids (a)
Natural gas
Synthetic
crude oil
Bitumen
Total
oil-equivalent
basis
 
millions of
barrels
billions of
cubic feet
millions of
barrels
millions of
barrels
millions of
barrels
Net proved reserves:
Developed 53 242 1,706 1,957 
Undeveloped 8 112 105 218 
Total net proved 61 354 1,811 2,175 
(a)Liquids include crude oil, condensate and natural gas liquids (NGLs). NGL proved reserves are not material and are therefore included under liquids.
The estimation of proved reserve volumes, which is based on the requirement of reasonable certainty, is an ongoing process based on rigorous technical evaluations, commercial and market assessments, detailed analysis of well information such as flow rates and reservoir pressures, and development and production costs, and other factors. Furthermore, the company only records proved reserves for projects which have received significant funding commitments by management made toward the development of the reserves. Although the company is reasonably certain that proved reserves will be produced, the timing and amount recovered can be affected by a number of factors, including completion and optimization of development projects, reservoir performance, regulatory approvals, government policies, consumer preferences, changes in the amount and timing of capital investments, royalty frameworks and significant changes in oil and gas price levels. In addition, proved reserves could be affected by an extended period of low prices which could reduce the level of the company’s capital spending and also impact its partners’ capacity to fund their share of joint projects.
Technologies used in establishing proved reserves estimates
Imperial’s proved reserves in 2023 were based on estimates generated through the integration of available and appropriate geological, engineering and production data, utilizing well established technologies that have been demonstrated in the field to yield repeatable and consistent results.
Data used in these integrated assessments included information obtained directly from the subsurface via wellbores, such as well logs, reservoir core samples, fluid samples, static and dynamic pressure information, production test data, and surveillance and performance information. The data utilized also included subsurface information obtained through indirect measurements, including seismic data, calibrated with available well control information. The tools used to interpret the data included seismic processing software, reservoir modeling and simulation software, and data analysis packages.
In some circumstances, where appropriate analog reservoirs were available, reservoir parameters from these analogs were used to increase the quality of and confidence in the reserves estimates.


7

Preparation of reserves estimates
Imperial has a dedicated reserves management group that is separate from the base operating organization. Primary responsibilities of this group include oversight of the reserves estimation process for compliance with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission rules and regulations, review of annual changes in reserves estimates and the reporting of the company’s proved reserves. This group also maintains the official reserves estimates for Imperial’s proved reserves. In addition, this group provides training to personnel involved in the reserve estimation and reporting processes within Imperial.
The reserves management group maintains a central database containing the company’s official reserves estimates. Appropriate controls, including limitations on database access and update capabilities, are in place to ensure data integrity within this central database. An annual review of the system’s controls is performed by internal audit. Key components of the reserves estimation process include technical evaluations, commercial and market assessments, analysis of well and field performance, and long-standing approval guidelines. No changes may be made to reserves estimates in the central database, including the addition of any new initial reserves estimates or subsequent revisions, unless those changes have been thoroughly reviewed and evaluated by duly authorized personnel within the base operating organization. In addition, changes to reserves estimates that exceed certain thresholds require further review and endorsement by the operating organization and the reserves management group, culminating in reviews with and approval by senior management and the company’s board of directors.
The internal qualified reserves evaluator is a professional geoscientist registered in Alberta, Canada and has 21 years of petroleum industry experience, including 12 years of reserves related experience. The position provides leadership to the internal reserves management group and is responsible for filing a reserves report with the Canadian securities regulatory authorities. The company’s internal reserves evaluation staff consists of 18 persons with an average of 14 years of relevant technical experience in evaluating reserves, of whom 17 persons are qualified reserves evaluators for purposes of Canadian securities regulatory requirements. The company’s internal reserves evaluation management team is made up of 15 persons with an average of 9 years of relevant experience in evaluating and managing the evaluation of reserves.
Proved undeveloped reserves
As at December 31, 2023, approximately 10 percent of the company’s proved reserves were proved undeveloped reflecting volumes of 218 million oil-equivalent barrels. Proved undeveloped reserves are associated with Syncrude, Kearl and Cold Lake. This compared to 240 million oil-equivalent barrels of proved undeveloped reserves reported at the end of 2022. The decrease of 22 million oil-equivalent barrels of proved undeveloped reserves is mainly attributed to the migration of Cold Lake proved undeveloped reserves to proved developed reserves following infill development drilling and the start-up of the Grand Rapids Phase 1 project.
As at December 31, 2023 there were no proved undeveloped reserves that have remained undeveloped for five years or more.
One of the company’s requirements to report resources as proved reserves is that management has made significant funding commitments towards the development of the reserves. The company has a disciplined investment strategy and many major fields require a long lead-time in order to be developed. The company made investments of about $391 million during the year to progress the development of proved undeveloped reserves at Cold Lake, Kearl and Syncrude. These investments represented about 35 percent of the $1,108 million in total reported Upstream capital and exploration expenditures.


8

Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs
Reference is made to the portion of the "Financial section" entitled "Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations" of this report for a narrative discussion on the material changes.
Average daily production of oil
The company’s average daily oil production by final products sold during the three years ended December 31, 2023 was as follows. All reported production volumes were from Canada.

thousands of barrels per day (a)2023 2022 2021 
Bitumen:
Kearl:
- gross (b)
191 172 186 
- net (c)
177 157 178 
Cold Lake:
- gross (b)
135 144 140 
- net (c)
106 106 114 
Total bitumen:
- gross (b)
326 316 326 
- net (c)
283 263 292 
Synthetic crude oil (d):
- gross (b)
76 77 71 
- net (c)
67 63 62 
Liquids (e):
- gross (b)
5 11 
- net (c)
5 10 
Total:
- gross (b)
407 402 408 
- net (c)
355 335 364 
(a)Volume per day metrics are calculated by dividing the volume for the period by the number of calendar days in the period.
(b)Gross production is the company’s share of production (excluding purchases) before deduction of the mineral owners’ or governments’ share or both.
(c)Net production is gross production less the mineral owners’ or governments’ share or both.
(d)The company’s synthetic crude oil production volumes were from the company’s share of production volumes in the Syncrude joint venture and include immaterial amounts of bitumen and other products exported to the operator's facilities using an existing interconnect pipeline.
(e)Liquids include crude oil, condensate and NGLs.
Average daily production and production available for sale of natural gas
The company’s average daily production and production available for sale of natural gas during the three years ended December 31, 2023 are set forth below. All reported production volumes were from Canada and are calculated at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Reference is made to the portion of the "Financial section" entitled "Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations" of this report for a narrative discussion on the material changes.

millions of cubic feet per day (a)2023 2022 2021 
Gross production (b) (c)
33 85 120 
Net production (c) (d) (e)
32 83 115 
Net production available for sale (f)
11 50 81 
(a)Volume per day metrics are calculated by dividing the volume for the period by the number of calendar days in the period.
(b)Gross production is the company’s share of production (excluding purchases) before deduction of the mineral owners’ or governments’ share or both.
(c)Production of natural gas includes amounts used for internal consumption with the exception of the amounts reinjected.
(d)Net production is gross production less the mineral owners’ or governments’ share or both.
(e)Net production reported in the above table is consistent with production quantities in the net proved reserves disclosure.
(f)Includes sales of the company’s share of net production and excludes amounts used for internal consumption.



9

Total average daily oil-equivalent basis production
The company’s total average daily production expressed in an oil-equivalent basis is set forth below, with natural gas converted to an oil-equivalent basis at six million cubic feet per one thousand barrels.

thousands of barrels per day (a)2023 2022 2021 
Total production oil-equivalent basis:
gross (b)
413 416 428 
net (c)
360 349 383 
(a)Volume per day metrics are calculated by dividing the volume for the period by the number of calendar days in the period.
(b)Gross production is the company’s share of production (excluding purchases) before deduction of the mineral owners’ or governments’ share or both.
(c)Net production is gross production less the mineral owners’ or governments’ share or both.
Average unit sales price
The company’s average unit sales price and average unit production costs by product type for the three years ended December 31, 2023 were as follows.

Canadian dollars per barrel2023 2022 2021 
Bitumen67.42 84.67 57.91 
Synthetic crude oil105.57 125.46 81.61 
Liquids (a)
59.30 93.77 59.41 
Canadian dollars per thousand cubic feet
Natural gas2.58 5.69 3.83 
(a)Liquids include crude oil, condensate and NGLs.
In 2023, Imperial's average Canadian dollar realization for bitumen decreased generally in line with Western Canada Select (WCS). The company's average Canadian dollar realizations for synthetic crude oil decreased generally in line with West Texas Intermediate (WTI), adjusted for changes in exchange rates and transportation costs and reflect a premium over WTI driven by supply and demand.
In 2022, Imperial’s average Canadian dollar realization for bitumen increased generally in line with Western Canada Select (WCS). The company’s average Canadian dollar realizations for synthetic crude oil increased generally in line with West Texas Intermediate (WTI), adjusted for changes in exchange rates and transportation costs and reflect a premium over WTI driven by supply and demand.
Average unit production costs

Canadian dollars per barrel2023 2022 2021 
Bitumen32.41 39.05 29.06 
Synthetic crude oil62.57 68.00 61.97 
Total oil-equivalent basis (a)
38.51 44.02 34.32 
(a)Includes liquids, bitumen, synthetic crude oil and natural gas.
In 2023, bitumen unit production costs decreased, primarily driven by lower energy costs and higher Kearl production due to improved reliability, plant capacity utilization, and mine equipment productivity.
In 2023, synthetic crude oil unit production costs decreased, primarily driven by higher net production.
In 2022, bitumen unit production costs increased, primarily driven by higher energy costs.
In 2022, synthetic crude oil unit production costs increased, primarily driven by higher energy costs.

10

Drilling and other exploratory and development activities
The company has been involved in the exploration for and development of crude oil and natural gas in Canada only.
Wells drilled
The following table sets forth the net exploratory and development wells that were drilled or participated in by the company during the three years ended December 31, 2023.

wells2023 2022 2021 
Net productive exploratory — — 
Net dry exploratory — — 
Net productive development32 24 13 
Net dry development — — 
Total32 24 13 
In 2023, wells drilled to add productive capacity include 32 development wells at Cold Lake.
In 2022, wells drilled to add productive capacity include 24 development wells at Cold Lake.
Wells drilling
At December 31, 2023, the company was drilling the following development wells to add productive capacity at Cold Lake. All wells were located in Canada.

2023
WellsGrossNet
Total11 11 
Exploratory and development activities regarding oil and gas resources

Cold Lake
To maintain production at Cold Lake, capital expenditures for additional production wells and associated facilities are required periodically. In 2023, additional wells were drilled on existing phases, as well as development drilling to add productive capacity. In 2024, a development drilling program is planned within the approved development area to add productive capacity. Additionally, in 2022, the company approved the budget for the Leming Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) project that will re-develop the original pilot area of the Cold Lake field, with development activities having commenced in 2023 and start-up planned in 2025.
In August 2018, Imperial received regulatory approval from the Alberta Energy Regulator for an expansion project at Cold Lake to develop the Grand Rapids interval using Solvent Assisted - Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SA-SAGD) technology, capable of producing 50,000 barrels per day before royalties. The company is developing the Grand Rapids reservoir through capital-efficient investments that make use of available steam capacity from existing plants, with the initial phase of Grand Rapids development planned as an extension from the Nabiye plant. In April 2022, the Grand Rapids Phase 1 (GRP1) project was approved by the company's board with a forecasted average production of 15,000 barrels per day before royalties. The initial steam injection phase started in December 2023 and is expected to last until the end of the first quarter of 2024, with production ramping up over the following months.
The company also conducts experimental pilot operations to improve recovery of bitumen from wells by means of new drilling, production or recovery techniques.



11

Aspen and other in-situ oil sands activities
In October 2018, the company received regulatory approval for the Aspen SA-SAGD project from the Alberta Energy Regulator. Development was proposed to occur in two phases, each producing about 75,000 barrels per day, before royalties. The first phase of the project was approved by the company’s board, and appropriated for $2.6 billion. Construction began late in the fourth quarter of 2018. In March 2019, the company slowed the pace of development given market uncertainty stemming from the Government of Alberta’s temporary mandatory production curtailment regulations and other industry competitiveness challenges. Although the Government of Alberta repealed the regulatory authority for imposing temporary production curtailments at the end of 2021, major investment remains on hold due to continued market uncertainty. Aspen’s project pace will continue to be evaluated and remains an important opportunity for Imperial. The Enhanced Bitumen Recovery Technology (EBRT) field pilot on the Aspen lease received funding approval in 2023, with development work underway for pilot startup by 2027. The pilot will test technology that has the potential to deliver higher bitumen production rates and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to industry average SAGD operations.

Work progresses on technical and technology evaluations to support potential Clarke Creek, Corner, Clyden and Chard in-situ development regulatory applications.
The company also has interests in other oil sands leases in the Athabasca region of northern Alberta. Evaluation wells completed on these leased areas established the presence of bitumen. The company continues to evaluate these leases to determine their potential for future development.
Beaufort Sea
The company holds a 25 percent interest in two exploration licences in the Beaufort Sea. In 2016, the Federal Government of Canada declared Arctic waters off limits to new offshore oil and gas licences for five years subject to review at the end of that period. Existing licences were not impacted. In June 2019, the Federal Government approved selective changes to the Canada Petroleum Resources Act to prohibit and freeze the existing licences. In 2023, the Western Arctic - Tariuq (Offshore) Accord was signed and prohibition was extended to December 31, 2028. The Federal Government plans to co-develop a climate and marine science-based review of the moratorium. The company continues to hold the licences while maintaining community engagement and participation in the process.
Exploratory and development activities regarding oil and gas resources extracted by mining methods
The company continues to evaluate other undeveloped, mineable oil sands acreage in the Athabasca region.




12

Present activities
Review of principal ongoing activities
Kearl
Kearl is a joint venture established to recover shallow deposits of oil sands using open-pit mining methods to extract the crude bitumen, which is processed through extraction and froth treatment trains. The company holds a 70.96 percent participating interest in the joint venture and ExxonMobil Canada Properties holds the other 29.04 percent. The product, a blend of bitumen and diluent, is typically shipped to the company’s refineries, Exxon Mobil Corporation refineries and to other third parties. Diluent is natural gas condensate or other light hydrocarbons added to the crude bitumen to facilitate transportation by pipeline and rail.
During 2023, the company’s share of Kearl’s net bitumen production was about 177,000 barrels per day and gross production was about 191,000 barrels per day.
Total gross production for Kearl was about 270,000 barrels per day (191,000 barrels Imperial’s share), up 28,000 barrels per day (19,000 barrels Imperial's share) compared to 2022, as a result of improved reliability, plant capacity utilization, and mine equipment productivity.
In 2023, Kearl completed its multiyear program to convert its 81 haul trucks to autonomous operation. Imperial is now one of the largest autonomous mine fleet operators in the world and continues to capture productivity improvements while also reducing costs and further enhancing operational safety.
In 2023, the company successfully completed its multiyear program to install six Boiler Flue Gas units. This technology recovers waste heat from a boiler’s combustion exhaust to preheat process water and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Cold Lake
Cold Lake is an in-situ heavy oil bitumen operation. The product, a blend of bitumen and diluent, is typically shipped to the company’s refineries, Exxon Mobil Corporation refineries and to other third parties.
In 2023, net bitumen production at Cold Lake was about 106,000 barrels per day. The gross production was about 135,000 barrels per day, which is a decrease of about 9,000 barrels per day compared to 2022.
Cold Lake continues to utilize its commercial application of Liquid Addition to Steam for Enhanced Recovery (LASER), with the technology now being applied to approximately 15 percent of production, resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) technology.
Grand Rapids Phase 1 (GRP1) will be the first SA-SAGD project in the industry and is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions intensity by up to 40 percent compared to existing CSS technology. The initial steam injection phase started in December 2023 and is expected to last until the end of the first quarter of 2024, with production ramping up over the following months.
Syncrude
Syncrude is a joint venture established to recover shallow deposits of oil sands using open-pit mining methods to extract crude bitumen, and then upgrade it to produce a high-quality, light (32 degrees API), sweet, synthetic crude oil. The company holds a 25 percent participating interest in the joint venture. The produced synthetic crude oil is typically shipped to the company’s refineries, Exxon Mobil Corporation refineries and to other third parties.
In 2023, the company’s share of Syncrude’s net production was about 67,000 barrels per day. The gross production was about 76,000 barrels per day, which is a decrease of about 1,000 barrels per day compared to 2022.
The Province of Alberta, in its capacity as lessor of Kearl, Cold Lake, and Syncrude oil sands leases, is entitled to a royalty on production. Royalties are subject to the oil sands royalty regulations which are based upon a sliding scale determined largely by the price of crude oil.
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Oil and gas properties, wells, operations and acreage
Production wells
The company’s production of liquids, bitumen and natural gas is derived from wells located exclusively in Canada. The total number of wells capable of production, in which the company had interests at December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, is disclosed in the following table. The statistics in the table are determined in part from information received from other operators. The total number of wells decreased in 2023 primarily due to the shut-in of multiple non-economical wells.

Year ended December 31, 2023
Year ended December 31, 2022
Crude oilNatural gasCrude oilNatural gas
wells
Gross (a)
Net (b)
Gross (a)
Net (b)
Gross (a)
Net (b)
Gross (a)
Net (b)
Total (c)
4,0844,0802,4117704,2774,2642,419774
(a)Gross wells are wells in which the company owns a working interest.
(b)Net wells are the sum of the fractional working interest owned by the company in gross wells, rounded to the nearest whole number.
(c)Multiple completion wells are permanently equipped to produce separately from two or more distinctly different geological formations. At year-end 2023, the company had an interest in 12 gross wells with multiple completions (2022 - 12 gross wells).
Land holdings
At December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the company held the following oil and gas rights, and bitumen and synthetic crude oil leases, all of which are located in Canada, specifically in the western provinces, in the Canada lands and in the Atlantic offshore.

        Developed      UndevelopedTotal
thousands of acres2023 2022 2023 2022 2023 2022 
Western provinces (a):
Liquids and gas
- gross (b)
422 441 185 185 607 626 
- net (c)
253 260 135 135 388 395 
Bitumen
- gross (b)
196 196 584 584 780 780 
- net (c)
182 182 255 255 437 437 
Synthetic crude oil
- gross (b)
119 119 100 100 219 219 
- net (c)
30 30 25 25 55 55 
Canada lands (d):
Liquids and gas
- gross (b)
2 1,803 1,803 1,805 1,805 
- net (c)
2 496 495 498 497 
Atlantic offshore:
Liquids and gas
- gross (b)
65 65 146 146 211 211 
- net (c)
6 22 22 28 28 
Total (e):
- gross (b)
804 823 2,818 2,818 3,622 3,641 
- net (c)
473 480 933 932 1,406 1,412 
(a)Western provinces include British Columbia and Alberta.
(b)Gross acres include the interests of others.
(c)Net acres exclude the interests of others.
(d)Canada lands include the Arctic Islands, Beaufort Sea / Mackenzie Delta, and other Northwest Territories.
(e)Certain land holdings are subject to modification under agreements whereby others may earn interests in the company’s holdings by performing certain exploratory work (farm-out) and whereby the company may earn interests in others’ holdings by performing certain exploratory work (farm-in).



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Western provinces
The company’s bitumen leases include about 161,000 net acres of oil sands leases near Cold Lake and an area of about 34,000 net acres at Kearl. The company also has about 68,000 net acres of undeveloped, mineable oil sands acreage in the Athabasca region. In addition, the company has interests in other bitumen oil sands leases in the Athabasca areas totalling about 173,000 net acres, which include about 62,000 net acres of oil sands leases in the Clyden area, about 34,000 net acres of oil sands leases in the Aspen area, about 30,000 net acres of oil sands leases in the Corner area, about 29,000 net acres in the Clarke Creek area and about 18,000 net acres in the Chard area. The 173,000 net acres are suitable for in-situ recovery techniques.
The company’s share of Syncrude joint venture leases covering about 55,000 net acres accounts for the entire synthetic crude oil acreage.
Oil sands leases have an exploration period of 15 years and are continued beyond that point by payment of escalating rentals or by production. The majority of the acreage in Cold Lake, Kearl and Syncrude is continued by production.
The company holds interests in an additional 388,000 net acres of developed and undeveloped land in the western provinces related to crude oil and natural gas.
Crude oil and natural gas leases and licences from the western provinces have exploration periods ranging from 2 to 15 years and are continued beyond that point by proven production capability.
Canada lands
Land holdings in Canada lands primarily include exploration licence (EL) acreage in the Beaufort Sea of about 252,000 net acres and significant discovery licence (SDL) acreage in the Mackenzie Delta and Beaufort Sea areas of about 183,000 net acres.
Exploration licences on Canada lands have a finite term. If a significant discovery is made, a SDL may be granted that holds the acreage under the SDL indefinitely, subject to certain conditions.
The company’s net acreage in Canada lands is either continued by production or held through ELs and SDLs.
Atlantic offshore
Exploration licences on Atlantic offshore have a finite term. The Atlantic offshore acreage is continued by production licences or held by SDLs.

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Downstream
Supply and trading
The company supplements its own production of crude oil, condensate and petroleum products with substantial purchases from a number of other sources at negotiated market prices, in addition to undertaking trading activities. Purchases and sales are made under both spot and term contracts from domestic and foreign sources, including ExxonMobil.
Transportation
The company currently transports its crude oil production and third-party crude oil required to supply refineries by contracted pipelines, common carrier pipelines and rail. The company has rail infrastructure to mitigate pipeline capacity constraints.
Refining
The company owns and operates three refineries, which process predominantly Canadian crude oil. The company purchases finished products to supplement its refinery production.
The approximate average daily volumes of refinery throughput and utilization during the three years ended December 31, 2023, and the daily rated capacities of the refineries as at December 31, 2023, were as follows.
 
           Refinery throughput (a)
Rated capacities (b)
 
           Year ended December 31
at December 31
thousands of barrels per day2023 2022 2021 2023 
Strathcona, Alberta186 195 172 197 
Sarnia, Ontario110 113 106 123 
Nanticoke, Ontario111 110 101 113 
Total407 418 379 433 
Utilization of refinery capacity (percent)
94 98 89 
(a)Refinery throughput is the volume of crude oil and feedstocks that is processed in the refinery atmospheric distillation units.
(b)Refining capacity data is based on 100 percent of rated refinery process unit stream-day capacities to process inputs to atmospheric distillation units under normal operating conditions, less the impact of shutdowns for regular repair and maintenance activities, averaged over an extended period of time.


2023
Lower refinery throughput in 2023 primarily reflects the impact of planned turnaround activities at Strathcona and Sarnia refineries.
2022
Improved refinery throughput in 2022 was primarily driven by increased demand and reduced turnaround activity.
Distribution
The company maintains a nationwide distribution system to move petroleum products to market by pipeline, tanker, rail and road transport. The company owns and operates fuel terminals across the country, as well as natural gas liquids and products pipelines in Alberta, Manitoba and Ontario and has interests in the capital stock of two products pipeline companies.

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Marketing
The company markets petroleum products throughout Canada under well-known brand names, most notably Esso and Mobil, to all types of customers.
The company supplies petroleum products through Esso and Mobil-branded sites and independent marketers. At the end of 2023, there were about 2,500 sites operating under a branded wholesaler model, in alignment with Esso and Mobil brand standards, whereby the company supplies fuel to independent third parties.
The company also sells petroleum products, including fuel, asphalt and lubricants, to large industrial and transportation customers, independent marketers, resellers, as well as other refiners. The company serves agriculture, residential heating and commercial markets through branded fuel and lubricant resellers.
The approximate daily volumes of net petroleum products (excluding purchases / sales contracts with the same counterparty) sold during the three years ended December 31, 2023, are set out in the following table.

thousands of barrels per day2023 2022 2021 
Gasolines228 229 224 
Heating, diesel and jet fuels176 176 160 
Lube oils and other products43 47 45 
Heavy fuel oils24 23 27 
Net petroleum product sales471 475 456 
In 2023, lower petroleum product sales were primarily driven by lower wholesale customer volume.
In 2022, improved petroleum product sales primarily reflects increased demand.
Chemical
The company’s Chemical operations manufacture and market benzene, aromatic and aliphatic solvents, plasticizer intermediates, polyethylene resin, and markets refinery grade propylene. Its petrochemical and polyethylene manufacturing operations are located in Sarnia, Ontario, adjacent to the company’s petroleum refinery.
The company’s total petrochemical sales volumes during the three years ended December 31, 2023, were as follows.

thousands of tonnes2023 2022 2021 
Total petrochemical sales820 842 831 
In 2023, sales volumes decreased primarily due to planned maintenance activities.
In 2022, sales volumes increased primarily due to higher sales of propylene and polyethylene, partially offset by lower intermediates.

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Delivery commitments

The company has no material commitments to provide a fixed and determinable quantity of oil or gas under existing contracts and agreements.
                                
Human capital resources
Imperial operates in a complex, competitive and changing business environment where decisions and risks play out over time horizons that are often decades in length. This long-term orientation underpins the company’s philosophy on talent development.
Talent development begins with recruiting exceptional candidates and continues with individually planned experiences and training designed to facilitate broad development and a deep understanding of the company's business across the business cycle. The company’s compensation is market competitive, long-term oriented, and highly differentiated by individual performance. In addition, benefits and workplace programs support the company’s talent management approach, and are designed to attract and retain employees for a long-term career. Overall, this multifaceted approach has resulted in strong employee retention.
Imperial views diversity as an opportunity. The company encourages and respects diversity of thought, ideas, and perspective in its workforce. The company considers diversity through all stages of employment including recruitment, training and development of its employees. The company’s goal is to reflect the mix and diversity of the communities where it operates, and it continues to focus on diverse representation at all levels of the organization.
The number of regular employees was about 5,300 at the end of 2023 (2022 - 5,300, 2021 - 5,400). Regular employees are defined as active executive, management, professional, technical, administrative, and wage employees who work full-time or part-time for the company and are covered by the company’s benefit plans and programs.
Competition
The Canadian energy and petrochemical industries are highly competitive. Competition exists in the search for and development of new sources of supply, the construction and operation of crude oil, natural gas and refined products pipelines and facilities and the refining, distribution and marketing of petroleum products and chemicals. The energy and petrochemical industries also compete with other industries in supplying the energy, fuel and chemical needs of both industrial and individual consumers. Certain industry participants, including Imperial, are expanding investments in lower-emission energy and emission-reduction services and technologies.
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Government regulations
Petroleum, natural gas and oil sands rights
Most of the company’s petroleum, natural gas and oil sands rights were acquired from governments, either federal or provincial. These rights, in the form of leases or licences, are generally acquired for cash or work commitments. A lease or licence entitles the holder to explore for petroleum, natural gas and / or oil sands on the leased lands for a specified period.
In western provinces, the lease holder can produce the petroleum or natural gas discovered on the leased lands and retains the rights based on continued production. Oil sands leases are retained by meeting the minimum level of evaluation, payment of rentals, or by production.
The holder of a licence relating to Canada lands and the Atlantic offshore can apply for a SDL if a discovery is made. If granted, the SDL holds the lands indefinitely subject to certain conditions. The holder may then apply for a production licence in order to produce petroleum or natural gas from the licenced land.
Project approval
Approvals and licences from relevant provincial or federal governmental or regulatory bodies are required for the company to carry out, or make modifications to, its oil and gas activities. The project approval process for major projects can involve, among other things, environmental assessments (including relevant mitigation measures), stakeholder and Indigenous consultation and input regarding project concerns, and public hearings. Approval may be subject to various conditions and commitments arising through these processes.
Approval of large energy projects may be impacted by the environmental assessment framework under Canada's Impact Assessment Act (IAA). The IAA includes broader consideration for social, health, and gender-based impacts, the impact on Canada’s climate change commitments (including a requirement under the Strategic Assessment for Climate Change to provide a credible plan for the project to deliver net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050), reliance on strategic and regional assessments and adjusted regulatory review timelines. In October 2023, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the new federal assessment scheme was unconstitutional in part. Legislative and regulatory amendments have yet to be made to address this decision. The impact of this legislation and its expected amendments is not fully apparent, but it may impact the cost, manner, duration and ability to advance large energy projects and project expansions.
Environmental protection
The company regards protecting the environment in connection with its various operations as a priority. The company is subject to extensive environmental regulations in Canada that apply to all phases of exploration, development, operation, and final closure. These requirements cover the management and monitoring of potential environmental impacts during active operations, including practices for land disturbance, wildlife protection, specifications for equipment operation and material storage and limitations on discharges to the environment. It also includes conducting environmental surveys and collecting continuous operational measurements and sampling to confirm that environmental practices are adequately protecting the environment. These regulations also specify the actions and requirements for final reclamation, abandonment and closure of facilities. The company works in cooperation with government agencies, industry associations and communities to address existing, and to anticipate potential, environmental protection issues. The company also maintains extensive operating procedures, processes and emergency response plans to address environmental risks at its operations.
As discussed in "Item 1A. Risk factors” in this report, compliance with existing and potential future government regulations, including environmental regulations, may have material effects on the capital expenditures, earnings, and competitive position of the company. Imperial takes new and ongoing measures throughout its operations each year to prevent and minimize the impact of its operations on air, land and water. These include significant investments in refining infrastructure and technology to manufacture clean fuels, continued evaluation and implementation of new technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, adherence to federal and provincial greenhouse gas emissions reduction and reporting programs, enhanced water and land management, and expenditures for asset retirement obligations. In the past five years, the company has made capital and operating expenditures of about $5.6 billion on environmental protection and facilities. In 2023, the company’s environmental capital and operating expenditures totalled approximately $1.7 billion, which was spent primarily on activities to protect the air, land and water, including remediation projects. Environmental expenditures are expected to increase to approximately $1.9 billion in 2024, with capital expenditures expected
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to account for approximately 52 percent of the total. Costs for 2025 are anticipated to be approximately $1.5 billion, with capital expenditures expected to account for approximately 43 percent of the total.

Crude oil
Production
The maximum allowable gross production of crude oil from wells in Canada is subject to limitations by various regulatory authorities on the basis of engineering and conservation principles.
Additionally, the Government of Alberta has in the past used temporary mandatory production curtailment regulations to impose production limits on large producers in Alberta, such as those implemented in 2019 and repealed in 2021.
Exports
Export contracts of more than one year for light crude oil and petroleum products and two years for heavy crude oil (including bitumen) require the prior approval of the Canada Energy Regulator (CER) and the Government of Canada. Export contracts of less than one year for light crude oil and petroleum products and two years for heavy crude oil (including bitumen) require an order from the CER.
Natural gas
Production
The maximum allowable gross production of natural gas from wells in Canada is subject to limitations by various regulatory authorities. These limitations are to ensure oil recovery is not adversely impacted by accelerated gas production practices. These limitations do not impact gas reserves, only the timing of production of the reserves and did not have a significant impact on Imperial’s 2023 gas production rates.
Exports
The Government of Canada has the authority to regulate the export price for natural gas. Exports of natural gas from Canada require approval by the CER and the Government of Canada. The Government of Canada allows the export of natural gas by CER order without volume limitation for terms not exceeding 24 months.
Royalties
The Government of Canada and the provinces in which the company produces crude oil and natural gas impose royalties on production from lands where they own the mineral rights. Some producing provinces also receive revenue by imposing taxes on production from lands where they do not own the mineral rights.
Different royalties are imposed by the Government of Canada and each of the producing provinces. Royalties imposed on crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids vary depending on a number of parameters, including well production volumes, selling prices and recovery methods. For information with respect to royalties for Kearl, Cold Lake and Syncrude, see "Upstream" section entitled "Present activities" under Item 1.

Investment Canada Act
The Investment Canada Act requires Government of Canada approval, in certain cases, of the acquisition of control of a Canadian business by an entity that is not controlled by Canadians. The acquisition of natural resource properties may, in certain circumstances, be considered a transaction that constitutes an acquisition of control of a Canadian business requiring Government of Canada approval.
The Act also requires notification of the establishment of new unrelated businesses in Canada by entities not controlled by Canadians, but does not require Government of Canada approval except when the new business is related to Canada’s cultural heritage or national identity. The Government of Canada is also authorized to take any measures that it considers advisable to protect national security, including the outright prohibition of a foreign investment in Canada.
By virtue of the majority stock ownership of the company by ExxonMobil, the company is considered to be an entity which is not controlled by Canadians.
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Competition Act
The Competition Bureau seeks to ensure that Canadian businesses and consumers prosper in a competitive and innovative marketplace. The Competition Bureau is responsible for the administration and enforcement of the Competition Act (the Act). A merger transaction, whether or not notifiable, is subject to examination by the Commissioner of the Competition Bureau to determine whether the merger will have, or is likely to have, the effect of preventing or lessening substantially competition in a definable market. The assessment of the competitive effects of a merger is made with reference to the factors identified under the Act.
An Advance Ruling Certificate (ARC) may be issued by the Commissioner to a party or parties to a proposed merger transaction who want to be assured that the transaction will not give rise to proceedings under section 92 of the Act. An ARC may be issued when the Commissioner is satisfied that there would not be sufficient grounds on which to apply to the Competition Tribunal for an order against a proposed merger. The issuance of an ARC is discretionary. An ARC cannot be issued for a transaction that has been completed, nor does an ARC ensure approval of the transaction by any agency other than the Competition Bureau.
The company online
The company’s website www.imperialoil.ca contains a variety of corporate and investor information free of charge, including the company’s annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to these reports. These reports are made available as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed or furnished to the SEC. The SEC’s website, www.sec.gov, contains reports, proxy and information statements, interactive data files, and other information regarding issuers that are submitted and posted electronically with the SEC.

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Item 1A.     Risk factors
Imperial’s financial and operating results are subject to a variety of risks inherent in oil, gas and petrochemical businesses, and the pursuit of lower-emission business opportunities. Many of these risk factors are not within Imperial’s control and could adversely affect Imperial’s business, financial and operating results, or financial position. These risk factors include:
Supply and demand
The oil, gas, fuels and petrochemical businesses are fundamentally commodity businesses. This means the company’s operations and earnings may be significantly affected by changes in oil, natural gas and petrochemical prices, and by changes in margins on refined products and petrochemicals. Crude oil, natural gas, petrochemical and petroleum product prices and margins depend on local, regional, and global events or conditions that affect supply and demand for the relevant commodity or product. Commodity prices have been volatile, and the company expects that volatility to continue. Any material decline in crude oil prices could have a material adverse effect on the company’s Upstream operations, financial position, proved reserves and the amount spent to develop reserves. On the other hand, a material increase in crude oil prices could have a material adverse effect on the company's Downstream margins, depending on the market conditions for refined products. The company's pursuit of lower-emission business opportunities including carbon capture and storage, hydrogen, and lower-emission fuels also depends on the growth and development of markets for those products and services, including implementation of supportive government policies and developments in technology to enable those products and services to be provided on a cost-effective basis at commercial scale. See "Climate change, energy transition and greenhouse gas restrictions" in this Item 1A. The company may also be impacted by changes in other commodities the company utilizes, such as prices and availability of feedstocks for lower-emission fuels including renewable diesel.
Economic conditions
The demand for energy and petrochemicals is generally linked closely with broad-based economic activities and levels of prosperity. The occurrence of recessions or other periods of low or negative economic growth will typically have a direct adverse impact on the company’s results. Other factors that affect general economic conditions such as changes in population growth rates, government regulation or austerity programs, trade tariffs or broader breakdowns in global trade, security or public health issues and responses, the inability to access debt markets due to rating, banking, or legal constraints, liquidity crises, other events or conditions that impair the functioning of financial markets and institutions also pose risks to the company.
Other demand-related factors
Factors that may affect the demand for crude oil, gas, fuels and petrochemicals, and therefore could impact the company’s results include technological improvements in energy efficiency; seasonal weather patterns, which affect the demand for the company's products, including lower demand for gasoline, impacting Downstream results in the winter; increased competitiveness of, or government policy support for, alternative energy sources; new product quality regulations; technological changes or consumer preferences that alter fuel choices, such as technological advances in energy storage or other critical areas that make wind, solar, hydrogen, nuclear or other alternatives more competitive for power generation; changes in consumer preferences for the company’s products, including consumer demand for alternative fueled or electric transportation or alternatives to plastic products; broad-based changes in personal income levels, interest rates and inflation; and security or public health issues and responses such as epidemics and pandemics. See also "Climate change, energy transition and greenhouse gas restrictions" below.















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Other supply-related factors
Commodity prices and margins also vary depending on a number of factors affecting supply. For example, increased supply from the development of new oil and gas supply sources and technologies to enhance recovery from existing sources tends to reduce commodity prices to the extent such supply increases are not offset by commensurate growth in demand. Similarly, increases in industry refining or petrochemical manufacturing capacity relative to demand tend to reduce margins on affected products. Crude oil, gas and petrochemical supply levels can also be affected by factors that reduce available supplies, such as the level of and adherence by participating countries or others to production quotas established by OPEC or "OPEC+" and other agreements among sovereigns; government policies that restrict oil and gas production or exports, or increase associated costs, including actions intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and previous Government of Alberta curtailment regulations; the occurrence of wars or hostile actions, including disruption of land or sea transportation routes; natural disasters; trade tariffs or broader breakdowns in global trade; disruptions in competitors’ operations; and unexpected pipeline or rail constraints that may disrupt and have in the past disrupted supplies. For example, Russia's military action in Ukraine has impacted global crude oil and gas supply levels and prices, and continues to contribute to a volatile commodity environment, the duration of which is uncertain. Technological change can also alter the relative costs for competitors to find, produce, and refine oil and gas and to manufacture petrochemicals.
Canadian-specific market factors
The market price for western Canadian heavy crude oil is typically lower than light and medium grades of oil, principally due to the higher transportation and refining costs. Western Canadian crude oil may also be subject to limits on transportation capacity to markets. Future crude price differentials between western Canadian crude oil relative to prices in the U.S. Gulf Coast are uncertain and changes in the heavy or light crude oil differentials could have a material adverse effect on the company’s business. In the past, increased differentials have led the Government of Alberta to enact temporary mandatory production curtailment regulations that imposed production limits on large producers in Alberta such as Imperial. Although the regulatory authority to impose curtailments was repealed at the end of 2021, the use of similar curtailment regulations in the future could have an adverse effect on the company’s business. A significant portion of the company’s production is bitumen, which is blended with diluent for transportation and marketability of heavy crude oil. Increases to diluent prices, relative to heavy crude oil prices, could also have an adverse effect on the company’s business.

Other market factors
Market factors may also result in losses from commodity derivatives and other instruments used to hedge price exposures or for trading purposes. Imperial’s future business results, including cash flows and financing needs, may also be affected by the occurrence, severity, pace and rate of recovery of future public health epidemics or pandemics, the responsive actions taken by governments and others, and the resulting effects on regional and global markets and economies. If the company’s mitigation and response efforts prove insufficient, then large outbreaks of epidemics, pandemics or other health crises at operating sites, particularly in remote locations and where work camps are utilized, could materially impact the company’s personnel and its operations, reducing productivity and increasing costs.
Government and political factors
Imperial’s results can be adversely impacted by political, legal or regulatory developments affecting operations and markets. Changes in government policy or regulations, changes in law or interpretation of settled law, challenges to legislative jurisdiction between different levels of government, third-party opposition to company or infrastructure projects, and duration of regulatory reviews could impact the company’s existing operations and planned projects. This includes actions by policy makers, regulators or other actors to delay or deny necessary licences and permits, or restrict the availability of oil and gas leases or the operation of third-party infrastructure that the company relies on, such as pipelines to transport the company’s upstream production to market or that supply feedstock to the company’s refineries. Additionally, changes in environmental regulations, assessment processes or other laws (including but not limited to in respect of climate change and greenhouse gas emissions), regulatory interpretations that exclude or disfavour the company's products under government policies or programs intended to support new or developing markets or technologies or that are otherwise not technology-neutral, and increasing and expanding consultation with stakeholders and Indigenous communities, may increase the cost of compliance or reduce or delay available business opportunities and adversely impact the company’s results.
Other government and political factors that could adversely affect the company’s financial results include increases in taxes or government royalty rates (including retroactive claims or punitive taxes on oil, gas and petrochemical operations) and changes in trade policies and agreements. Changes in taxation policy, such as
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the Government of Canada's proposed tax on repurchases of equity effective from January 1, 2024, could impact the company’s financial results and ability to return surplus cash to shareholders. Further, the adoption of regulations mandating efficiency standards, and the use of alternative fuels or uncompetitive fuel components could affect the company’s operations. Many governments are providing tax advantages and other subsidies to support alternative energy sources or are mandating the use of specific fuels or technologies. Governments are also introducing bans on certain technologies that could impact demand for products, such as the Government of Canada’s regulations to gradually reduce the proportion of permitted sales of new internal combustion engine cars and light trucks from 2026-2034 and ban such sales beginning in 2035. Governments and others are also promoting research into new technologies to reduce the cost and increase the scalability of alternative energy sources, and the success of these initiatives may decrease demand for the company’s products. Actions by policy makers, regulators or others may require changes in the company’s business or strategy that could result in reduced returns.
Governments may establish regulations with respect to the control of the company’s production, such as the Government of Alberta's temporary mandatory production curtailment regulations that were in effect from 2019 through 2021, as discussed in the "Supply and demand" section above. Government intervention in free markets may introduce unintended consequences such as market volatility and uncertainty, misallocation of resources, and erosion of investor confidence.
Environmental risks
All phases of the Upstream, Downstream and Chemical businesses are subject to environmental regulation pursuant to a variety of Canadian federal, provincial, territorial and municipal laws and regulations, as well as international conventions (collectively, "environmental legislation").
Environmental legislation imposes, among other things, restrictions, liabilities and obligations in connection with the generation, handling, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of hazardous substances and waste and in connection with spills, releases and emissions of various substances into the environment. As well, environmental regulations are imposed on the qualities and compositions of the products sold and imported, and include those aimed at reducing consumption or addressing environmental concerns with certain end products. Changes to these requirements could adversely affect the company’s results by impacting commodity prices, increasing costs and reducing revenues.
Environmental legislation also requires that wells, facility sites and other properties associated with the company’s operations be operated, maintained, monitored, abandoned and reclaimed to the satisfaction of applicable regulatory authorities. This includes the requirement for specific approvals for many areas of interaction with the environment, such as land use, air quality, water use, biodiversity protection and waste, including mine tailings management. The failure to operate as anticipated and adhere to conditions, the delay or denial of approvals and changes to conditions or regulations could impact the company’s ability to operate its projects and facilities and adversely affect the company’s results.

Regulation of air, water and land
The implementation of, and compliance with, policies and regulations related to air, water and land, such as Alberta’s Lower Athabasca Regional Plan and Wetland Policy applicable to the company’s oil sands assets, could restrict development in current and future areas of operation. Of note, the first of two court cases brought against the government by Indigenous groups regarding the assessment of cumulative impacts and infringement on exercise of treaty rights in Alberta is scheduled to be heard in 2024. These cases may inform future government decisions and policies regarding land use planning and resource development, and could impact the requirements or willingness to grant regulatory licenses or approvals. The company also depends on water obtained under licences for withdrawal, storage, reuse and discharge in both its Upstream and Downstream businesses, including future projects and expansions. Water use may be limited by regulatory requirements, seasonal fluctuations, regional drought, competing demands, environmental sensitivities, increasingly stringent water management standards, and changes to conditions or availability of licences, which may restrict and adversely affect the company’s operations. Additionally, a number of air quality regulations and frameworks are being developed or have been implemented at the federal and provincial levels, including sulphur dioxide limits for refineries in Ontario, and could impact existing and planned operations and projects through increased capital and operating expenses including retrofits to existing equipment, and could adversely impact the company’s operations and financial results.

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Regulation of wildlife
Federal and provincial legislation aimed at protecting sensitive, threatened or endangered wildlife, such as woodland caribou and species of migratory birds, may also increase restoration and offset costs and impact the company’s projects. If it is determined that such wildlife and their habitat are not sufficiently protected, governments or other parties may take actions to limit the pace or ability to develop in areas of Imperial’s current and future projects.
Regulation of oil sands
The company’s mining operations are subject to tailings management regulations that establish approval, monitoring, reporting and performance criteria for tailings ponds and management plans. A failure or perceived failure to satisfy the requirements or if the company’s tailings management operations do not operate in the manner anticipated by the company or third parties such as the events relating to the environmental protection order at the company’s Kearl operations in 2023 could impact the company's ability to operate its assets, and such impact could be material. Further, the absence or evolving nature of policies and regulations for the timing and closure of tailings ponds, including the approved technologies and methods for closure (such as the use of end pit lakes and water capped tailings), and dam safety directives, regulations, guides and abandonment requirements could have a material impact on conditions for approvals and ultimate mine closure costs. Additionally, successful management and closure requires the release of water to the environment, and although an Alberta water release policy and federal oil sands effluent regulations are being developed, the timing and impact of these regulations is uncertain and the absence of effective regulation could negatively impact the company’s operations and financial results.
Environmental assessments
In addition, certain types of operations, including exploration and development projects and significant changes to certain existing projects, may require the submission and approval of environmental impact assessments. The Government of Canada's environmental assessment framework under the Impact Assessment Act expands assessment considerations beyond the environment to include social, health, economic, and gender-based impacts and the impact on Canada’s climate change commitments (including a requirement under the Strategic Assessment for Climate Change to provide a credible plan for the project to deliver net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050). It also includes a reliance on strategic and regional assessments and adjusted regulatory review timelines. In October 2023, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the new federal assessment scheme was unconstitutional in part. Legislative and regulatory amendments have yet to be made to address this decision. The impact of this legislation and its expected amendments is not fully apparent, but it may impact the cost, manner, duration and ability to advance large energy projects and project expansions.
Compliance costs
Compliance with environmental legislation can require significant expenditures and failure to comply with environmental legislation may result in the cessation of operations, imposition of fines and penalties, and liability for clean-up costs and damages.
The costs of complying with environmental legislation in the future could have a material adverse effect on the company’s financial condition or results of operations. The company anticipates that changes in environmental legislation may require, among other things, reductions in emissions from its operations to the air and water and may result in increased capital expenditures. Changes in environmental legislation (including, but not limited to, application of regulations related to air, water, land, biodiversity and waste, such as mine tailings and the production or use of new or recycled plastics) may increase the cost of operation or compliance or reduce or delay available business opportunities. Future changes in environmental legislation and the enforcement of regulations could occur and result in stricter standards and enforcement, larger fines, penalties and liability, and increased capital expenditures and operating costs, which could have a material adverse effect on the company’s financial condition or results of operations.
Risk Management
There are operational risks inherent in oil and gas exploration and production activities, as well as the potential to incur substantial financial liabilities, if the company does not manage those risks effectively. Environmental hazards and risks, including severe weather, drought, forest fires and geological events, may impact the company’s operational performance. For example, the company's oil sands operations were particularly affected by extreme cold weather in 2022 and wildfires in 2016. The ability to insure risks is limited by the capacity of the applicable insurance markets, which may not be sufficient to cover the likely cost of a major adverse operating event. Accordingly, the company’s primary focus is on prevention, including through its rigorous operations integrity management system. The company’s future results will depend on the continued effectiveness of these efforts.
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Climate change, energy transition and greenhouse gas restrictions
Net-zero scenarios
Driven by concern over the risks of climate change, the provinces and the Government of Canada have adopted or have revised regulatory frameworks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions including emissions from the production and use of oil and gas and their products as well as the use or support for different emission-reduction technologies. These actions are being taken both independently by national and regional governments and within the framework of United Nations Conference of the Parties’ summits under which Canada has endorsed objectives to reduce the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the coming decades, with an ambition ultimately to achieve "net zero". Net zero means that emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities would be balanced by actions that remove such gases from the atmosphere. Expectations for transition of the world’s energy system to lower-emission sources, and ultimately net zero, derive from hypothetical scenarios that reflect many assumptions about the future and reflect substantial uncertainties. The company’s actions with respect to the energy transition, including its announced goal, ultimately, to achieve company-wide net-zero emissions (Scope 1 and 2) from its operated assets with continued technology development and policy support, carries risks that the transition, including underlying technologies, policies, and markets as discussed in more detail below, will not be available or develop at the pace or in the manner estimated by current net-zero scenarios. The success of Imperial's strategy for the energy transition will also depend on its ability to recognize key signposts of changes in the global energy system on a timely basis, and the corresponding ability to direct investment to the technologies and businesses, at the appropriate stage of development, to best capitalize on the company's competitive strengths. Imperial’s results may be impacted if the implementation pace and uncertainty of policy reduces the global competitiveness of the Canadian oil and gas industry and the company’s crude oil and refined products.
Greenhouse gas restrictions
Government actions intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions include adoption of carbon emissions pricing, cap and trade regimes, carbon taxes, emissions limits, increased mileage and other efficiency standards, low carbon fuels standards, mandates for sales of electrical vehicles and incentives or mandates for renewable energy. The Government of Canada has updated its nationally determined contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement on climate change, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions economy-wide by 40 to 45 percent below 2005 levels by 2030, a substantial increase in ambition beyond its original NDC. To implement these goals, the Government of Canada uses a number of policy tools including the Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act (GGPPA), which sets a federal backstop carbon price Canada-wide through a carbon levy applied to fossil fuels ($50 per tonne CO2 equivalent emissions starting in 2022 and increasing by $15 per tonne annually to $170 per tonne in 2030), and an output-based pricing system for large industrial emitters. Under the GGPPA, provinces are required to either adopt the GGPPA, or obtain equivalency by adopting a price-based system (with a minimum of the federal carbon pricing) or a cap and trade system. Further, in 2021 the Government of Canada enacted legislation to formalize Canada’s target to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050 and establish interim emissions reductions targets at five year intervals. Under the Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act, the Government of Canada is required to develop an emissions reduction plan for 2030 consistent with achieving net-zero emissions by 2050.

The Government of Alberta obtained federal equivalency for its Technology Innovation and Emissions Reduction Regulation (TIER) that came into effect in 2020 and applies to facilities with CO2 emissions in excess of 100,000 tonnes per year. TIER is designed to reduce emissions by putting a price on nominally 10 percent of a facility’s emissions in 2020. This percentage of priced emissions increased nominally to 11 percent in 2021 and 12 percent in 2022, with the oil sands mining and upgrading facilities increasing to 17 percent in 2021 and 18 percent in 2022. These percentages increase by 2 percent per year for 2023 to 2028 (inclusive), followed by an increase of 4 percent in 2029 and 2030 for the oil sands sector. Further, the Alberta Oil Sands Emissions Limit Act sets a limit of 100 megatonnes of CO2 per year of emissions in the oil sands sector, but oil sands emissions remain below the limit and it is not yet possible to predict the impact of this act on the company’s future oil sands operations in Alberta. With respect to other provinces, Ontario obtained federal equivalency for its Emissions Performance System, which put a price on 8 percent of a facility’s emissions in 2022. The price increased by 2.4 percent in 2023 and will increase by 1.5 percent per year starting in 2024. British Columbia has carbon pricing in place for all industrial emissions, with pricing that matches the federal carbon pricing schedule since 2022. Increases in carbon pricing could adversely impact the company’s operations and financial results unless the company can adapt its operations through technological innovation and investment in a cost-effective manner or meet compliance through offset credits or other mechanisms.
There are also various low carbon fuel standards being developed or already applicable to the company’s products. In 2022, the Government of Canada finalized the Clean Fuel Regulations, which require the reduction
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in carbon intensity of liquid transportation fuels supplied in Canada starting in July 2023. The regulations require fuel suppliers to reduce the carbon intensity of gasoline and diesel by reducing the GHG emissions within the fossil fuel life cycle, blending in low carbon intensity renewables or fuel switching away from fossil fuels. Similarly, British Columbia introduced a Low Carbon Fuel Standard in 2013, which increased to a 10 percent carbon intensity reduction requirement in 2020. Beginning in 2023, the British Columbia government has further increased the carbon intensity reductions to a total of 30 percent by 2030 (compared to the 2010 baseline). Compliance can be achieved by either blending renewable fuels with low carbon intensity or by purchasing credits.
The Government of Canada's Impact Assessment Act links environmental assessment approvals to climate change-related goals, and has also discussed a goal of establishing legally-binding policies for being carbon-neutral by 2050. Changes and policies related to this act could adversely impact the company’s ability to progress new oil sands projects. Uncertainty exists regarding federal overreach into provincial jurisdiction to implement such changes and policies. In October 2023, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the Impact Assessment Act was unconstitutional in part. Legislative and regulatory amendments have yet to be made to address this decision, and the impact of this legislation and its expected amendments is not fully apparent.
International accords and underlying regional and national regulations covering climate change and greenhouse gas emissions continue to evolve with uncertain timing and outcome, making it difficult to predict their business impact. Such laws and policies could make Imperial’s products more expensive and less competitive, reduce or delay available business opportunities, reduce demand for hydrocarbons, and shift hydrocarbon demand toward lower greenhouse gas emission energy sources. Current and pending greenhouse gas regulations or policies may also increase compliance and abatement costs including taxes and levies, increase abandonment and reclamation obligations and impact decommissioning timelines, lengthen project evaluation and implementation times, impact reserves evaluations and affect operations. Increased costs may not be recoverable in the market place, could negatively affect the company's returns and could reduce the global competitiveness of the company’s crude oil, natural gas and refined products. Governments may also impose restrictions on production of, or emissions from, oil and gas to the extent they view such measures as a viable approach for pursuing national and global energy and climate policies. For example, in December 2023, the Government of Canada published a regulatory framework to pursue a cap on greenhouse gas emissions from upstream oil and gas activities by 2030. Concern over the risks of climate change may lead governments to make laws applicable to the energy industry progressively more stringent over time. Political and other actors and their agents are also increasingly seeking to advance climate change objectives indirectly, such as by seeking to reduce the availability or increase the cost of financing and investment in the oil and gas sector. These actions include delaying or blocking needed infrastructure, utilizing shareholder governance mechanisms against companies or their shareholders or financial institutions in an effort to deter investments in oil and gas activities, and taking other actions intended to promote changes in business strategy for oil and gas companies.
Technology and lower-emission solutions
Achieving societal ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ultimately achieve net-zero will require new technologies to reduce the cost and increase the scalability of alternative energy sources as well as technologies such as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS technologies, focused initially on capturing and sequestering CO2 emissions from high-intensity industrial activities, can assist in meeting society’s objective to mitigate atmospheric greenhouse gas levels while also helping ensure the availability of the reliable and affordable energy the world requires. The company’s future results and ability to succeed through the energy transition while helping meet Canada's emission-reduction goals and meet its own net-zero and emission reduction goals will depend in part on the success of these research and collaboration efforts. It will also rely on the company’s ability to adapt and apply the strengths of its current business model to providing the energy products of the future in a cost-competitive manner.

Policy and market development
The scale of the world’s energy system means that, in addition to developments in technology discussed above, a successful energy transition will require appropriate support from governments and private participants throughout the global economy. The company’s ability to develop and deploy CCS and other lower-emission energy technologies at commercial scale will depend in part on the continued development of supportive government policies and markets. Failure or delay of these policies or markets to materialize or be maintained could adversely impact these investments. Policy and other actions that result in restricting the availability of hydrocarbon products without commensurate reduction in demand may have unpredictable adverse effects, including increased commodity price volatility; periods of significantly higher commodity prices and resulting inflationary pressures; and local or regional energy shortages. Such effects in turn may depress economic
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growth or lead to rapid or conflicting shifts in policy by different actors, with resulting adverse effects on the company’s business.

In addition, the existence of supportive policies in any jurisdiction is not a guarantee that those policies will continue in the future. The company's operations and planned projects that have been developed with regard to current or anticipated policies may become uneconomic or otherwise adversely impacted if such policies change or are not adopted as anticipated. See also the discussion of "Supply and demand", "Government and political factors" and "Management effectiveness" in this Item 1A.
Currency
Prices for commodities produced by the company are commonly benchmarked in U.S. dollars. The majority of Imperial’s sales and purchases are related to these industry U.S. dollar benchmarks. As the company records and reports its financial results in Canadian dollars, to the extent that the value of the Canadian dollar strengthens, the company’s reported earnings will be negatively affected. The company does not currently make use of derivative instruments to offset exposures associated with foreign currency.
Other business risks
Imperial is reliant on a number of key chemicals, catalysts and third-party service providers, including input and output commodity transportation (pipelines, rail, trucking, marine) and utilities providing services, including electricity and water, to various company operations. The lack of availability, capacity or proximity, with respect to pipeline facilities and railcars, could negatively impact the company’s ability to produce at capacity levels. Transportation disruptions, including those caused by events unrelated to the company’s operations, could adversely affect the company’s price realizations, refining operations and sales volumes. This includes outages of key third-party infrastructure, such as pipelines servicing the company’s oil sands assets or pipelines supplying feedstock to its refineries, which could impact the company’s ability to operate its assets or limit the ability to deliver production and products to market. A third-party utilities outage could have an adverse impact on the company’s operations and ability to produce.
The company also enters into contractual relationships with suppliers, partners and other counterparties to procure and sell goods and services, and the company’s operations, market position and financial condition may be adversely impacted if these counterparties do not fulfil their obligations. The company may also be adversely affected by the outcome of litigation resulting from its operations or by government enforcement proceedings alleging non-compliance with applicable laws or regulations. Litigation is subject to uncertainty and success is not guaranteed, and the company may incur significant expenses and devote significant resources in defending litigation.
Current and future increases in operating costs such as energy, transportation and materials, including through shipping, supply chain disruptions and inflationary cost pressures, could adversely affect the company’s financial results if it is unable to control or offset these costs. In addition to direct potential impacts on the company's costs and revenues, market factors such as rates of inflation may indirectly impact results to the extent such factors reduce general rates of economic growth and therefore energy demand, as discussed under "Supply and demand". Further, as underlying inflationary pressures remained in Canada and other countries throughout 2023, governments maintained elevated interest rates which may further impact the company through the availability of financing, cost of debt, and exchange rate fluctuations. Additional information regarding the potential future impact of market factors on the company's businesses is included or incorporated by reference under Item 7A Quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk in this report.
Operational and other factors
In addition to external economic and political factors, Imperial’s future business results also depend on the company’s ability to manage successfully those factors that are at least in part within its control, including its capital allocation into existing and new businesses. The extent to which the company manages these factors will impact its performance relative to competition. For projects in which the company is not the operator such as Syncrude, Imperial depends on the management effectiveness of one or more co-venturers whom the company does not control.

Project management
The nature of the company’s Upstream, Downstream and Chemical businesses depend on complex, long-term, and capital intensive projects that require a high degree of project management expertise to maximize efficiency. This includes development, engineering, construction, commissioning and ongoing operational
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activities and expertise. The company’s results are affected by its ability to develop and operate projects and facilities as planned, and by events or conditions that affect the advancement, operation, cost or results of such projects or facilities. These risks include the company’s ability to obtain the necessary environmental and other regulatory approvals; changes in regulations; the ability to negotiate successfully with joint venturers, partners, governments, suppliers, customers and others; the ability to model and optimize reservoir performance; changes in resources and operating costs including the availability and cost of materials, equipment and qualified personnel; the ability to qualify for certain incentives available under supportive government policies for emerging markets and technologies; the impact of general economic, business and market conditions; and the company’s ability to prevent, to the extent possible, and respond effectively to unforeseen technical difficulties that could delay project start-up or cause unscheduled downtime.
Operational efficiency
An important component of Imperial’s competitive performance, especially given the commodity-based nature of the company’s business, is the ability to operate efficiently, including the company’s ability to manage expenses and improve production yields on an ongoing basis. This requires continuous management focus, including technological integration and improvements, cost control, productivity enhancements and regular reappraisal of the company’s asset portfolio. The company’s operations and results also depend on key personnel and subject matter expertise, the recruitment, development and retention of high caliber employees, and the availability of skilled labour.
Research and development and technical change
Imperial relies upon the research and development organizations of the company and ExxonMobil, with whom the company conducts shared research. Innovation and technology are important to maintain the company’s competitive position, especially in light of the technological nature of Imperial’s business and the need for continuous efficiency improvement.
The company’s research and development organizations must be able to adapt to a changing market and policy environment, including developing technologies to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions intensity. To remain competitive, the company must also continuously adapt and capture the benefits of new technologies including growing the company’s capabilities to utilize digital data technologies to gain new business insights. There are risks associated with projects that rely on new technology, including that the results of implementing the new technology may differ from simulated, piloted or expected results. The failure to develop and adopt new technology may have an adverse impact on the company’s operations, ability to meet regulatory requirements and operational commitments and targets (including environmental sustainability and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions), and financial results.
Safety, business controls and environmental risk management
The scope and nature of the company’s operations present a variety of significant hazards and risks, including operational hazards and risks such as explosions, fires, pipeline ruptures and crude oil spills. Imperial’s operations are also subject to the additional hazards of pollution, releases of toxic gas and environmental hazards and risks, including severe weather (such as extreme cold weather events that impacted the company's oil sands operations in early 2022), drought, forest fires and geological events. The company’s results depend on management’s ability to minimize these inherent risks, to effectively control business activities and to minimize the potential for human error. The company applies rigorous management systems, including a combined program of effective operations integrity management, ongoing upgrades, key equipment replacements, and comprehensive inspection and surveillance. The company also maintains a disciplined framework of internal controls and applies a controls management system for monitoring compliance with this framework. The company’s upstream and downstream operations may experience loss of production, slowdowns or shutdowns and increased costs due to the failure of interdependent systems, and substantial liabilities and other adverse impacts could result if the company’s management systems and controls do not function as intended.
Cybersecurity
The company is regularly subject to attempted cybersecurity disruptions from a variety of sources, including state-sponsored actors. The company’s defensive preparedness includes multi-layered technological capabilities for prevention and detection of cybersecurity disruptions: non-technological measures such as threat information sharing with governmental and industry groups; annual internal training and awareness campaigns including routine testing of employee awareness via mock threats; and an emphasis on resiliency including business response and recovery. See "Item 1C. Cybersecurity" for information on the company's program for managing cybersecurity risks.

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The company has limited ability to influence third parties, including the company's partners, suppliers, service providers (including providers of cloud-based services for the company's data or applications) and customers, to implement strong cybersecurity controls, and the company is exposed to potential harm from cybersecurity events that may affect their operations. During 2023, the company responded to several cyber-attacks on suppliers and joint venture partners, none of which caused a material impact to Imperial. The company’s response included giving technical assistance, loaning equipment, and taking additional defensive measures.
If the measures the company is taking to protect against cybersecurity disruptions prove to be insufficient or if the company’s proprietary data is otherwise not protected, the company, as well as its customers, employees or third parties, could be adversely affected. Cybersecurity disruptions could cause physical harm to people or the environment; damage or destroy assets; compromise business systems; result in proprietary information being altered, lost or stolen; result in employee, customer or third-party information being compromised; or otherwise disrupt the company’s business operations. The company could incur significant costs to remedy the effects of a major cybersecurity disruption, in addition to costs in connection with resulting regulatory actions, litigation or reputational harm.
Preparedness
The company’s operations have been and in the future may be disrupted by severe weather events, natural disasters, human error, and similar events. The company's facilities are designed, engineered, constructed, and operated to withstand a variety of extreme climatic and other conditions, with safety factors built in to cover a number of uncertainties, including those associated with permafrost stability, temperature extremes, extreme rainfall events, earthquakes and other events. The company's consideration of changing weather conditions and inclusion of safety factors in design covers the engineering uncertainties that climate change and other events may potentially introduce. Imperial’s ability to mitigate the adverse impacts of these events depends in part upon the effectiveness of its robust facility engineering, rigorous disaster preparedness and response, and business continuity planning.
Reputation
Imperial’s reputation is an important corporate asset. Factors that could have an impact on the company’s reputation include an operating incident or significant cybersecurity disruption; changes in consumer views concerning the company’s products; a perception by the public that the company is not being fully transparent in the sharing of information regarding its operations that is or may be relevant to community decision-making; actions taken by the company's business partners; a perception by investors or others that insufficient progress is being made with respect to the company’s ambition in the energy transition, or that pursuit of this ambition may result in allocation of capital to investments with reduced returns; and other adverse events such as those described in this Item 1A. Negative impacts on Imperial’s reputation could, in turn, make it more difficult for the company to compete successfully for new opportunities, obtain necessary regulatory approvals, obtain financing, and attract talent, or they could reduce consumer demand for the company’s branded products. Imperial’s reputation may also be harmed by events which negatively affect the image of the industry as a whole, including public and investor perception of Alberta oil sands in relation to greenhouse gas emissions, Indigenous rights and environmental impact.
Reserves
The company’s future production and cash flows from bitumen, synthetic crude oil, liquids and natural gas reserves are highly dependent upon the company’s success in exploiting its current reserves. To maintain production and cash flows over the long term, the company must replace produced reserves, which can be accomplished through exploration discovery of new resources, appraisal and investments in developing discovered resources, or acquisition of reserves. To the extent cash flows from operations are insufficient to fund capital expenditures and external sources of capital become limited or unavailable, the company’s ability to make the necessary capital investments to maintain and grow oil and natural gas reserves will be adversely impacted. In addition, the company may be unable to find and develop or acquire additional reserves to replace oil and natural gas production at acceptable costs.

Estimates of economically recoverable oil and natural gas reserves and future net cash flows involve many uncertainties, including factors beyond the company’s control. Key factors with uncertainty include: geological and engineering estimates, including that additional information obtained through seismic and drilling programs, reservoir analysis and production and operational history may result in revisions to reserves; the assumed effects of regulation or changes to regulation by government agencies, including royalty frameworks and environmental regulations (such as the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions, including accelerated timelines and emission reduction stringency to meet government goals, which could impose significant compliance costs on the company, require new technology, or impact the economic viability of certain projects); future commodity
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prices, where low commodity prices may affect reserves development; abandonment and reclamation costs, including reclamation and tailings requirements for mining operations; and operating costs. Actual production, revenues, taxes and royalties, development costs, abandonment and reclamation costs, and operating expenditures, with respect to reserves, will likely vary from such estimates, and such variances could be material.

Item 1B.    Unresolved staff comments

None.

Item 1C.    Cybersecurity

Imperial recognizes the importance of cybersecurity in achieving its business objectives, safeguarding its assets, and managing its daily operations. Accordingly, the company integrates cybersecurity risks into its overall enterprise risk management system. The board of directors oversees the company’s risk management approach and structure, which includes an annual review of the company’s cybersecurity program.

The company’s cybersecurity program is managed by the Canada IT Manager, with support from cross-functional teams led by information technology (IT) and operational technology cybersecurity operations managers in the company and in Exxon Mobil Corporation and its affiliates (collectively, Cybersecurity Operations Managers). The Cybersecurity Operations Managers are responsible for the day-to-day management and effective functioning of the cybersecurity program, including the prevention, detection, investigation, and response to cybersecurity threats and incidents. The Cybersecurity Operations Managers collectively have many years of experience in cybersecurity operations.

IT management provides updates to the company’s senior management throughout the year, covering, as appropriate, the company’s cybersecurity strategy, initiatives, key security metrics, penetration testing and benchmarking learnings, and business response plans, as well as the evolving cybersecurity threat landscape.

The company’s cybersecurity program includes multi-layered technological capabilities designed to prevent and detect cybersecurity disruptions and leverages industry standard frameworks, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework. The cybersecurity program incorporates an incident response plan to engage cross-functionally and report cybersecurity incidents to appropriate levels of management based on potential impact. The company conducts annual cybersecurity awareness training and routinely tests cybersecurity awareness and business preparedness for response and recovery, which are developed based on real-world threats. In addition, IT management exchanges threat information with governmental and industry groups and proactively engages independent, third-party cybersecurity experts to test, evaluate and recommend improvements on the effectiveness and resiliency of its cybersecurity program through penetration testing, breach assessments, regular cybersecurity incident drill testing, threat information sharing, and industry benchmarking. The company takes a risk-based approach with respect to its third-party service providers, tailoring processes according to the nature and sensitivity of the data or systems accessed by such third-party service providers and performing additional risk screenings and procedures, as appropriate.

As of the date of this report, the company has not identified any risks from known cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any prior cybersecurity incidents, that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the company including its business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition.

While the company believes its cybersecurity program to be appropriate for managing constantly evolving cybersecurity risks, no program can fully protect against all possible adverse events. For additional information on these risks and potential consequences if the measures the company is taking prove to be insufficient or if the company's proprietary data is otherwise not protected, see “Item 1A. Risk factors: Operational and other factors - Cybersecurity” in this report.

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Item 2.    Properties

Reference is made to Item 1 above.

Item 3.     Legal proceedings
Refer to the relevant portions of note 9. "Litigation and other contingencies" of the "Financial section" of this report for additional information on legal proceedings.
Imperial has elected to use a US $1 million threshold for disclosing environmental proceedings.
Item 4.     Mine safety disclosures
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5. Market for registrant’s common equity, related stockholder matters and issuer purchases of equity securities
Market information
The company’s common shares are listed and trade on the Toronto Stock Exchange in Canada, and have unlisted trading privileges and trade on the NYSE American LLC in the United States. The symbol for the company’s common shares on these exchanges is IMO.
As of February 15, 2024 there were 9,026 holders of record of common shares of the company.
Information for security holders outside Canada
Cash dividends paid to shareholders resident in countries with which Canada has an income tax convention are usually subject to a Canadian non-resident withholding tax of 15 percent, but may vary from one tax convention to another.
The withholding tax is reduced to 5 percent on dividends paid to a corporation resident in the U.S. that owns at least 10 percent of the voting shares of the company.
The company is a qualified foreign corporation for purposes of the reduced U.S. capital gains tax rates, which are applicable to dividends paid by U.S. domestic corporations and qualified foreign corporations.
There is no Canadian tax on gains from selling shares or debt instruments owned by non-residents not carrying on business in Canada, as long as the shareholder does not, in any given 60 month period, own 25 percent or more of the shares of the company.
Canada has approved several positions with respect to the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting ("MLI"), which may impact the taxability of dividends and capital gains in Canada if the shareholder’s country of residence has also approved these same positions of the MLI.
During the fourth quarter, the company did not issue or sell any unregistered equity securities.
Securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans
Sections of the company’s management proxy circular are contained in the "Proxy information section", starting on page 112. The company’s management proxy circular is prepared in accordance with Canadian securities regulations.
Reference is made to the section under the "Company executives and executive compensation":
Entitled "Performance graph" within the "Compensation discussion and analysis" section on page 169 of this report; and
Entitled "Equity compensation plan information", within the "Compensation discussion and analysis", on page 182 of this report.


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Issuer purchases of equity securities

 
Total number of
shares purchased
Average price paid
per share
(Canadian dollars)
Total number of
shares purchased
as part of publicly
announced plans
or programs
Maximum number
of shares that may
yet be purchased
under the plans or
programs (a) (b)
October 2023
    
(October 1 - October 31)
11,722,035
81.72
11,722,035
November 2023
    
(November 1 - November 30)
December 2023
   
(December 1 - December 31)
19,108,280
78.50
19,108,280
(a)On June 27, 2023, the company announced by news release that it had received final approval from the Toronto Stock Exchange for a new normal course issuer bid to continue its existing share purchase program. The program enabled the company to purchase up to a maximum of 29,207,635 common shares during the period June 29, 2023 to June 28, 2024. This maximum included shares purchased under the normal course issuer bid and from Exxon Mobil Corporation concurrent with, but outside of, the normal course issuer bid. As in the past, Exxon Mobil Corporation advised the company that it intended to participate to maintain its ownership percentage at approximately 69.6 percent. Imperial accelerated share purchases under the normal course issuer bid program, and the program completed on October 19, 2023 as a result of the company purchasing the maximum allowable number of shares under the program.
(b)On November 3, 2023, the company commenced a substantial issuer bid pursuant to which it offered to purchase for cancellation up to $1.5 billion of its common shares through a modified Dutch auction and proportionate tender offer. The substantial issuer bid was completed on December 13, 2023, with the company taking up and paying for 19,108,280 common shares at a price of $78.50 per share, for an aggregate purchase of $1.5 billion and 3.4 percent of Imperial’s issued and outstanding shares at the close of business on October 30, 2023. This included 13,299,349 shares purchased from Exxon Mobil Corporation by way of a proportionate tender to maintain its ownership percentage at approximately 69.6 percent.

The company will continue to evaluate the renewal of its normal course issuer bid share purchase program in June 2024 in the context of its overall capital activities.
Purchase plans may be modified at any time without prior notice.

Item 7. Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations
Reference is made to the section entitled "Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations" in the "Financial section", starting on page 49 of this report.

Item 7A. Quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk
Reference is made to the section entitled "Market risks" in the "Financial section", starting on page 64 of this report. All statements other than historical information incorporated in this Item 7A are forward-looking statements. The actual impact of future market changes could differ materially due to, among other things, factors discussed in this report.




34

Item 8. Financial statements and supplementary data
Reference is made to the table of contents in the "Financial section" on page 43 of this report:
Consolidated financial statements, together with the report thereon of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PCAOB ID: 271), Calgary, Canada dated February 28, 2024, beginning with the section entitled "Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm" on page 72 and continuing through note 18, "Divestment activities" on page 107;
"Supplemental information on oil and gas exploration and production activities" (unaudited) starting on page 108.

Item 9. Changes in and disagreements with accountants on accounting and financial disclosure
None.

Item 9A. Controls and procedures
As indicated in the certifications in Exhibit 31 of this report, the company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer have evaluated the company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2023. Based on that evaluation, these officers have concluded that the company’s disclosure controls and procedures are effective in ensuring that information required to be disclosed by the company in the reports that it files or submits under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, is accumulated and communicated to them in a manner that allows for timely decisions regarding required disclosures and are effective in ensuring that such information is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms.
Reference is made to page 71 of this report for "Management’s report on internal control over financial reporting" and page 72 for the "Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm" on the company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023.
There has not been any change in the company’s internal control over financial reporting during the last fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the company’s internal control over financial reporting.

Item 9B. Other information
During the three months ended December 31, 2023, none of the company's directors or officers adopted or terminated a "Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangement" or "non-Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangement," as each term is defined in Item 408(a) of Regulation S-K.

Item 9C. Disclosure regarding foreign jurisdiction that prevents inspections
Not applicable.

35

PART III
Item 10. Directors, executive officers and corporate governance
Sections of the company’s management proxy circular are contained in the "Proxy information section", starting on page 112. The company’s management proxy circular is prepared in accordance with Canadian securities regulations.
The company currently has seven directors. The articles of the company require that the board have between five and fifteen directors. Each director is elected to hold office until the close of the next annual meeting. Each of the seven individuals listed in the section entitled "Nominees for director" on pages 113 to 117 of this report have been nominated for election at the annual meeting of shareholders to be held April 30, 2024. All of the nominees, with the exception of N.A. Hansen, are now directors and have been since the dates indicated. M.R. Crocker is a current director and has chosen not to stand for re-election. K.T. Hoeg, J.M. Mintz and D.S. Sutherland retired from the board on May 2, 2023 as they reached the company's mandatory retirement age for directors.
Reference is made to the section under "Nominees for director":
"Director nominee tables", on pages 113 to 117 of this report;
Reference is made to the sections under "Corporate governance disclosure":
"Skills and experience of our board members and nominees", on page 122 of this report.
"Other public company directorships of our board members and nominees", on page 127 of this report.
The table entitled "Audit committee" under "Board and committee structure", on page 137 of this report;
"Ethical business conduct", starting on page 150 of this report;
"Largest shareholder", on page 154 of this report.
Reference is made to the sections under "Company executives and executive compensation":
"Named executive officers of the company" and "Other executive officers of the company", on pages 156 to 157 of this report.

Item 11. Executive compensation
Sections of the company’s management proxy circular are contained in the "Proxy information section", starting on page 112. The company’s management proxy circular is prepared in accordance with Canadian securities regulations.
Reference is made to the sections under "Corporate governance disclosure":
"Director compensation", on pages 141 to 149 of this report; and
"Share ownership guidelines of independent directors and chairman, president and chief executive officer", on page 149 of this report.
Reference is made to the following sections under "Company executives and executive compensation":
"Letter to shareholders", on page 159 of this report; and
"Compensation discussion and analysis", on pages 158 to 187 of this report.

36

Item 12. Security ownership of certain beneficial owners and management and related stockholder matters
Sections of the company’s management proxy circular are contained in the "Proxy information section", starting on page 112. The company’s management proxy circular is prepared in accordance with Canadian securities regulations.
Reference is made to the section under "Company executives and executive compensation" entitled "Equity compensation plan information", within the "Compensation discussion and analysis" section, on page 182 of this report.
Reference is made to the section under "Corporate governance disclosure" entitled "Largest shareholder", on page 154 of this report.
Reference is also made to the security ownership information for directors and executive officers of the company under the preceding Items 10 and 11. The compensation of the directors and executive officers of the company for the year ended December 31, 2023 is described in the sections under "Nominees for director" starting on page 113, "Director compensation" starting on page 141 and "Company executives and executive compensation" starting on page 156. The following table shows the number of Imperial Oil Limited and Exxon Mobil Corporation common shares owned and restricted stock units held by each named executive officer, and the incumbent directors and executive officers as a group, as of February 15, 2024.

          Imperial Oil Limited       Exxon Mobil Corporation
Named executive officer
Common
shares (a)
Restricted
stock units (b)
Common
shares (a)
Restricted
stock units (b)
B.W. Corson— 410,400 129,044 59,700 
D.E. Lyons— 114,400 10,780 4,800 
S.P. Younger— 66,100 11,025 10,300 
B.A. Jolly13,498 76,300 — — 
S.L. Evers2,922 39,600 — — 
Incumbent directors and executive
officers as a group (16 people)
40,921 853,450 175,823 225,123 
(a)No common shares are beneficially owned by reason of exercisable options. None of these individuals owns more than 0.01 percent of the outstanding shares of Imperial Oil Limited or Exxon Mobil Corporation. The directors and officers as a group own less than 0.01 percent of the outstanding shares of Imperial Oil Limited, and less than 0.01 percent of the outstanding shares of Exxon Mobil Corporation. Information not being within the knowledge of the company has been provided by the directors and the executive officers individually.
(b)Restricted stock units do not carry voting rights prior to the issuance of shares on settlement of the awards.

37

Item 13. Certain relationships and related transactions, and director independence
Sections of the company’s management proxy circular are contained in the "Proxy information section", starting on page 112. The company’s management proxy circular is prepared in accordance with Canadian securities regulations.
Reference is made to the section under "Corporate governance disclosure" entitled "Independence of our board members and nominees", on page 123 of this report.
Reference is made to the section under "Corporate governance disclosure" entitled "Transactions with Exxon Mobil Corporation", on page 154 of this report.
As an employee of Exxon Mobil Corporation, M.R. Crocker is deemed a non-independent member of the board of directors and the executive resources committee, safety and sustainability committee, nominations and corporate governance committee and finance committee under the relevant standards. Mr. Crocker has chosen not to stand for re-election. Director nominee N.A. Hansen is an employee of Exxon Mobil Corporation and if elected will also be deemed a non-independent director. As employees of Exxon Mobil Corporation, M.R. Crocker is, and N.A. Hansen will be, independent of the company’s management and able to assist these committees by reflecting the perspective of the company’s shareholders.
38

Item 14. Principal accountant fees and services
Auditor information
The audit committee of the board of directors recommends that PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PwC) be reappointed as the auditor of the company until the close of the next annual meeting. PwC has been the auditor of the company for more than five years and are located in Calgary, Alberta. PwC is a participating audit firm with the Canadian Public Accountability Board and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB).
Auditor fees
The aggregate fees of PwC for professional services rendered for the audit of the company’s financial statements and other services for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022 were as follows:

thousands of Canadian dollars2023 2022 
Audit fees2,200 2,190 
Audit-related fees97 92 
Tax fees — 
All other fees — 
Total fees2,297 2,282 
Audit fees included the audit of the company’s annual financial statements, internal control over financial reporting, and a review of the first three quarterly financial statements in 2023. Audit-related fees consisted of other assurance services including the audit of the company’s retirement plan and royalty statement audits for oil and gas producing entities. The company did not engage the auditor for any other services.
The audit committee formally and annually evaluates the performance of the external auditor, recommends the external auditor to be appointed by the shareholders, recommends their remuneration and oversees their work. The audit committee also approves the proposed current year audit program of the external auditor, assesses the results of the program after the end of the program period and approves in advance any non-audit services to be performed by the external auditor after considering the effect of such services on their independence.
All of the services rendered by the auditor to the company were approved by the audit committee.
Auditor independence
The audit committee periodically discusses with PwC their independence from the company and from management. PwC have confirmed that they are independent with respect to the company within the meaning of the Rules of Professional Conduct of the Chartered Professional Accountants of Alberta, the PCAOB and the rules of the SEC. The company has concluded that the auditor’s independence has been maintained.

39

PART IV
Item 15. Exhibits, financial statement schedules
Reference is made to the table of contents in the "Financial section" on page 43 of this report.
The following exhibits, numbered in accordance with Item 601 of Regulation S-K, are filed as part of this report:

(3)Restated certificate and articles of incorporation of the company (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (3.1) to the company’s Form 8-K filed on May 3, 2006 (File No. 0-12014)).
By-laws of the company (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (3)(ii) to the company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2003 (File No. 0-12014)).
(4)Description of capital stock. (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (4)(vi) of the company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 (File No. 0-12014)).
(10)(ii)(1)Alberta Cold Lake Transition Agreement, effective January 1, 2000, relating to the royalties payable in respect of the Cold Lake production project and terminating the Alberta Cold Lake Crown Agreement dated June 25, 1984. (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (10)(ii)(20) of the company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2001 (File No. 0-12014)).
  Syncrude Bitumen Royalty Option Agreement, dated November 18, 2008, setting out the terms of the exercise by the Syncrude Joint Venture owners of the option contained in the existing Crown Agreement to convert to a royalty payable on the value of bitumen, effective January 1, 2009 (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 1.01(10)(ii)(2) of the company’s Form 8-K filed on November 19, 2008 (File No. 0-12014)).
(iii)(A)(1)Form of Letter relating to Supplemental Retirement Income (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (10)(c)(3) of the company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 1980 (File No. 2-9259)).
(2)Deferred Share Unit Plan for Nonemployee Directors. (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (10)(iii)(A)(6) of the company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 1998 (File No. 0-12014)).
Amended Restricted Stock Unit Plan with respect to Restricted Stock Units granted in 2016 and subsequent years, as amended effective October 26, 2016 (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 9.01(c)[10(iii)(A)(1)] of the company’s Form 8-K filed on October 31, 2016 (File No. 0-12014)).
Amended Restricted Stock Unit Plan with respect to Restricted Stock Units granted in 2020 and subsequent years, as amended effective November 24, 2020 (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (10)(iii)(A)(6) of the company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 (File No. 0-12014)).
Amended Restricted Stock Unit Plan with respect to Restricted Stock Units granted in 2022 and subsequent years, as amended effective November 29, 2022 (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (10)(iii)(A)(7) of the company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 (File No. 0-12014)).
Amended Short Term Incentive Program, as amended effective December 1, 2023.
(21)
Imperial Oil Resources Limited is incorporated in Alberta, Canada and Canada Imperial Oil Limited is incorporated in Canada, and both are wholly-owned subsidiaries of the company. The names of all other subsidiaries of the company are omitted because, considered in the aggregate as a single subsidiary, they would not constitute a significant subsidiary as of December 31, 2023.
40

Certification by principal executive officer of Periodic Financial Report pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a).
Certification by principal financial officer of Periodic Financial Report pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a).
Certification by chief executive officer of Periodic Financial Report pursuant to Rule 13a-14(b) and 18 U.S.C. Section 1350.
Certification by chief financial officer of Periodic Financial Report pursuant to Rule 13a-14(b) and 18 U.S.C. Section 1350.
SEC Rule 10D-1 Policy for the Recovery of Erroneously Awarded Compensation effective December 1, 2023.
(101)Interactive Data Files (formatted as Inline XBRL).
(104)Cover Page Interactive Data File (formatted as Inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101).
Copies of Exhibits may be acquired upon written request of any shareholder to the vice president, investor relations, Imperial Oil Limited, 505 Quarry Park Boulevard S.E., Calgary, Alberta T2C 5N1, and payment of processing and mailing costs.
Item 16. Form 10-K summary
Not applicable.
41

SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf on February 28, 2024 by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

         Imperial Oil Limited
           by_____/s/ Bradley W. Corson
(Bradley W. Corson)
Chairman, president and chief executive officer
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below on February 28, 2024 by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities indicated.

SignatureTitle
/s/ Bradley W. Corson
Chairman, president and
chief executive officer and director
(Principal executive officer)
(Bradley W. Corson)
/s/ Daniel E. Lyons
Senior vice-president,
finance and administration, and controller
(Principal financial officer and principal accounting officer)
 (Daniel E. Lyons)
/s/ David W. Cornhill
Director
(David W. Cornhill)
/s/ Matthew R. Crocker
Director
(Matthew R. Crocker)
/s/ Sharon R. Driscoll
Director
(Sharon R. Driscoll)
/s/ John N. Floren
Director
 (John N. Floren)
/s/ Gary J. Goldberg
Director
 (Gary J. Goldberg)
/s/ Miranda C. Hubbs
Director
(Miranda C. Hubbs)
42

Financial section
Table of contentsPage
Financial information (U.S. GAAP)
Frequently used terms
Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations
Overview
Business environment
Business results
Liquidity and capital resources
Capital and exploration expenditures
Market risks
Critical accounting estimates
Management’s report on internal control over financial reporting
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated statement of income (U.S. GAAP)
Consolidated statement of comprehensive income (U.S. GAAP)
Consolidated balance sheet (U.S. GAAP)
Consolidated statement of shareholders’ equity (U.S. GAAP)
Consolidated statement of cash flows (U.S. GAAP)
Notes to consolidated financial statements
1. Summary of significant accounting policies
2. Business segments
3. Income taxes
4. Employee retirement benefits
5. Other long-term obligations
6. Financial and derivative instruments
7. Share-based incentive compensation programs
8. Investment and other income
9. Litigation and other contingencies
10. Common shares
11. Miscellaneous financial information
12. Financing and additional notes and loans payable information
13. Leases
14. Long-term debt
15. Accounting for suspended exploratory well costs
16. Transactions with related parties
17. Other comprehensive income (loss) information
18. Divestment activities
Supplemental information on oil and gas exploration and production activities (unaudited)

43

Financial information (U.S. GAAP)

millions of Canadian dollars2023 2022 2021 
Revenues50,702 59,413 37,508 
Net income (loss):
Upstream2,512 3,645 1,395 
Downstream2,301 3,622 895 
Chemical164 204 361 
Corporate and other(88)(131)(172)
Net income (loss)4,889 7,340 2,479 
Cash and cash equivalents at year-end864 3,749 2,153 
Total assets at year-end41,199 43,524 40,782 
Long-term debt at year-end4,011 4,033 5,054 
Total debt at year-end4,132 4,155 5,176 
Other long-term obligations at year-end3,851 3,467 3,897 
Shareholders’ equity at year-end22,222 22,413 21,735 
Cash flow from operating activities3,734 10,482 5,476 
Per share information (Canadian dollars)
Net income (loss) per common share - basic8.51 11.47 3.48 
Net income (loss) per common share - diluted8.49 11.44 3.48 
Dividends per common share - declared1.94 1.46 1.03 
44

Frequently used terms
Listed below are definitions of several of the company’s key business and financial performance measures. The definitions are provided to facilitate understanding of the terms and how they are calculated. Certain measures included in this document are not prescribed by U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). These measures constitute "non-GAAP financial measures" under Securities and Exchange Commission Regulation G and Item 10(e) of Regulation S-K, and "specified financial measures" under National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure of the Canadian Securities Administrators.

Reconciliation of these non-GAAP financial measures to the most comparable GAAP measure, and other information required by these regulations, have been provided. Non-GAAP financial measures and specified financial measures are not standardized financial measures under GAAP and do not have a standardized definition. As such, these measures may not be directly comparable to measures presented by other companies, and should not be considered a substitute for GAAP financial measures.
Capital employed
Capital employed is a non-GAAP financial measure that is a measurement of net investment. When viewed from the perspective of how capital is used by the business, it includes the company’s property, plant and equipment and other assets, less liabilities, excluding both short-term and long-term debt. When viewed from the perspective of the sources of capital employed in total for the company, it includes total debt and equity. The most directly comparable financial measure that is disclosed in the financial statements is total assets within the company’s Consolidated balance sheet. Both of these views include the company’s share of amounts applicable to equity companies, which the company believes should be included to provide a more comprehensive measurement of capital employed.
Reconciliation of capital employed

millions of Canadian dollars2023 2022 2021 
From the Consolidated balance sheet
Business uses: asset and liability perspective
Total assets41,199 43,524 40,782 
Less:Total current liabilities excluding notes and loans payable(6,482)(8,776)(5,432)
Total long-term liabilities excluding long-term debt(8,363)(8,180)(8,439)
Add:Imperial’s share of equity company debt21 25 20 
Total capital employed26,375 26,593 26,931 
Total company sources: Debt and equity perspective
Notes and loans payable121 122 122 
Long-term debt4,011 4,033 5,054 
Shareholders’ equity22,222 22,413 21,735 
Add:Imperial’s share of equity company debt21 25 20 
Total capital employed26,375 26,593 26,931 

45

Return on average capital employed (ROCE)
ROCE is a non-GAAP ratio. From the perspective of the business segments, ROCE is annual business segment net income divided by average business segment capital employed (an average of the beginning and end-of-year amounts). Segment net income includes Imperial’s share of segment net income of equity companies, consistent with the definition used for capital employed, and excludes the cost of financing. Capital employed is a non-GAAP financial measure and is disclosed and reconciled above. The company’s total ROCE is net income excluding the after-tax cost of financing divided by total average capital employed. The company has consistently applied its ROCE definition for many years and views it as one of the best measures of historical capital productivity in a capital-intensive, long-term industry. Additional measures, which are more cash flow based, are used to make investment decisions.
Components of return on average capital employed

millions of Canadian dollars2023 2022 2021 
From the Consolidated statement of income
Net income (loss)4,889 7,340 2,479 
Financing (after-tax) including Imperial’s share of equity companies66 55 40 
Net income (loss) excluding financing4,955 7,395 2,519 
Average capital employed26,484 26,762 26,780 
Return on average capital employed (percent) – corporate total
18.7 27.6 9.4 
Cash flows from operating activities and asset sales
Cash flows from operating activities and asset sales is a non-GAAP financial measure that is the sum of the net cash provided by operating activities and proceeds from asset sales reported in the Consolidated statement of cash flows. This cash flow reflects the total sources of cash both from operating the company’s assets and from the divesting of assets. The most directly comparable financial measure that is disclosed in the financial statements is cash flows from (used in) operating activities within the company’s Consolidated statement of cash flows. The company employs a long-standing and regular disciplined review process to ensure that assets are contributing to the company’s strategic objectives. Assets are divested when they no longer meet these objectives or are worth considerably more to others. Because of the regular nature of this activity, the company believes it is useful for investors to consider sales proceeds together with cash provided by operating activities when evaluating cash available for investment in the business and financing activities, including shareholder distributions.
Reconciliation of cash flows from (used in) operating activities and asset sales

millions of Canadian dollars2023 2022 2021 
From the Consolidated statement of cash flows
Cash flows from (used in) operating activities3,734 10,482 5,476 
Proceeds from asset sales86 904 81 
Total cash flows from (used in) operating activities and asset sales3,820 11,386 5,557 

46

Operating costs
Operating costs is a non-GAAP financial measure that are the costs during the period to produce, manufacture, and otherwise prepare the company’s products for sale – including energy costs, staffing and maintenance costs. It excludes the cost of raw materials, taxes and interest expense and are on a before-tax basis. The most directly comparable financial measure that is disclosed in the financial statements is total expenses within the company’s Consolidated statement of income. While the company is responsible for all revenue and expense elements of net income, operating costs represent the expenses most directly under the company’s control and therefore, are useful in evaluating the company’s performance.
Reconciliation of operating costs
millions of Canadian dollars2023 2022 2021 
From the Consolidated statement of income
Total expenses44,600 50,186 34,307 
Less:
        Purchases of crude oil and products32,399 37,742 23,174 
        Federal excise tax and fuel charge2,402 2,179 1,928 
        Financing69 60 54 
Subtotal34,870 39,981 25,156 
Imperial's share of equity company expenses76 71 61 
Total operating costs9,806 10,276 9,212 

Components of operating costs

millions of Canadian dollars2023 2022 2021 
From the Consolidated statement of income
Production and manufacturing6,879 7,404 6,316 
Selling and general857 882 784 
Depreciation and depletion1,907 1,897 1,977 
Non-service pension and postretirement benefit82 17 42 
Exploration5 32 
Subtotal9,730 10,205 9,151 
Imperial's share of equity company expenses76 71 61 
Total operating costs9,806 10,276 9,212 


47

Net income (loss) excluding identified items
Net income (loss) excluding identified items is a non-GAAP financial measure that is total net income (loss) excluding individually significant non-operational events with an absolute corporate total earnings impact of at least $100 million in a given quarter. The net income (loss) impact of an identified item for an individual segment in a given quarter may be less than $100 million when the item impacts several segments or several periods. The most directly comparable financial measure that is disclosed in the financial statements is "Net income (loss)" within the company’s Consolidated statement of income. Management uses these figures to improve comparability of the underlying business across multiple periods by isolating and removing significant non-operational events from business results. The company believes this view provides investors increased transparency into business results and trends, and provides investors with a view of the business as seen through the eyes of management. Net income (loss) excluding identified items is not meant to be viewed in isolation or as a substitute for net income (loss) as prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. All identified items are presented on an after-tax basis.

Reconciliation of net income (loss) excluding identified items

millions of Canadian dollars2023 2022 2021 
From the Consolidated statement of income
Net income (loss) (U.S. GAAP)4,8897,3402,479
Less identified items included in Net income (loss)
Gain/(loss) on sale of assets208
Subtotal of identified items208
Net income (loss) excluding identified items4,8897,1322,479
48

Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations
Overview
The following discussion and analysis of the company’s financial results, as well as the accompanying financial statements and related notes to consolidated financial statements to which they refer, are the responsibility of the management of Imperial Oil Limited.
The company’s accounting and financial reporting fairly reflect its integrated business model involving exploration for, and production of, crude oil and natural gas; manufacture, trade, transport and sale of crude oil, natural gas, petroleum products, petrochemicals and a variety of specialty products; and pursuit of lower-emission business opportunities including carbon capture and storage, and lower-emission fuels.
Imperial, with its resource base, financial strength, disciplined investment approach and technology portfolio, is well-positioned to participate in substantial investments to develop new Canadian energy supplies. The company’s reportable segments are Upstream, Downstream, Chemicals, and Corporate and other. The company’s integrated business model generally reduces the company’s risk from changes in commodity prices. While commodity prices depend on supply and demand and may be volatile on a short-term basis, the company’s investment decisions are grounded on fundamentals reflected in its long-term business outlook, and use a disciplined approach in selecting and pursuing the most attractive investment opportunities. The annual company plan process establishes the economic assumptions used for evaluating investments and sets operating and capital objectives. ExxonMobil's Global Outlook (the Outlook), developed annually, is the foundation for the plan assumptions. Price ranges for crude oil, including price differentials, refinery and chemical margins, volumes, operating costs including greenhouse gas emissions pricing, and foreign currency exchange rates are part of the company plan assumptions developed annually. Company plan volume projections are based on individual field production profiles, which are also updated at least annually. Major investment opportunities are evaluated over a range of potential market conditions. All major investments are reappraised to ensure we learn from our investment decisions, and the development and execution of the project. Lessons learned are incorporated into future projects.
The term "project" as used in this report can refer to a variety of different activities and does not necessarily have the same meaning as in any government payment transparency reports.
49

Business environment
Long-term business outlook
The "Long-term business outlook" is based on Exxon Mobil Corporation’s Global Outlook (the Outlook), which combined with the near-term pathways, is used to help inform the company’s long-term business strategies and investment plans.
The company’s business planning is underpinned by a deep understanding of long-term market fundamentals. These fundamentals include supply and demand trends; the scale and variety of energy needs worldwide; capability, practicality and affordability of energy alternatives, including low-carbon solutions; greenhouse gas emission-reduction technologies; and relevant government policies. The Outlook considers these fundamentals to form the basis for the company’s long-term business planning, investment decisions, and research programs. The Outlook reflects the company’s view of global energy demand and supply through 2050. It is a projection based on current trends in technology, government policies, consumer preferences, geopolitics, and economic development.
The Outlook uses projections and scenarios from reputable third parties such as the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Included in the range of these scenarios are: the IPCC likely below 2°C scenarios and three scenarios from the IEA; IEA Stated Policies Scenario (STEPS), which reflects a sector-by-sector assessment of current policy in place or announced by governments; IEA Announced Pledges Scenario (APS), which reflects aspirational government targets met on time and in full; and IEA Net Zero Emissions by 2050 Scenario (NZE), which the IEA describes as extremely challenging, acknowledging that society is not currently on the IEA NZE pathway. No single transition pathway can be reasonably predicted, given the wide range of uncertainties. Key unknowns include yet-to-be-developed government policies, market conditions, and advances in technology that may influence the cost, pace, and potential availability of certain pathways. Scenarios that employ a full complement of technology options are likely to provide the most economically efficient pathways.
Using the company's own experts and third-party sources, the company monitors a variety of signposts that may indicate a potential shift in the energy transition. For example, the regional pace of the transition could be influenced by the cost of new technologies compared to existing or alternative energy sources.
By 2050, the world’s population is projected to be around 9.7 billion people, or about 2 billion more than in 2021. Coincident with this population increase, the Outlook projects worldwide economic growth to average approximately 2.5 percent per year, with economic output growing by around 110 percent by 2050 compared to 2021. As economies and populations grow, and as living standards improve for billions of people, the need for energy is expected to continue to rise. Even with significant efficiency gains, global energy demand is projected to rise by almost 15 percent from 2021 to 2050. This increase in energy demand is expected to be driven by developing countries (i.e., those that are not member nations of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)).
As expanding prosperity drives global energy demand higher, increasing use of energy-efficient technologies and practices, as well as lower-emission products, will continue to help significantly reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions per unit of economic output over time. Substantial efficiency gains are likely in all key aspects of the world’s economy through 2050, affecting energy requirements for power generation, transportation, industrial applications, and residential and commercial needs.
Under the Outlook, global electricity demand is expected to increase about 80 percent from 2021 to 2050, with developing countries likely to account for over 75 percent of the increase. Consistent with this projection, power generation is expected to remain the largest and fastest growing major segment of global primary energy demand, supported by a wide variety of energy sources. The share of coal-fired generation is expected to decline substantially to approximately 15 percent of the world’s electricity in 2050, versus approximately 35 percent in 2021, in part due to policies to improve air quality as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions to address risks related to climate change. From 2021 to 2050, the amount of electricity supplied using natural gas, nuclear power, and renewables is expected to more than double, accounting for the entire growth in electricity supplies and offsetting the reduction of coal. Electricity from wind and solar is expected to increase more than 550 percent, helping total renewables (including other sources, e.g., hydropower) to account for over 80 percent of the increase in electricity supplies through 2050. Total renewables are expected to reach about 50 percent of global electricity supplies by 2050. Natural gas and nuclear are expected to be about 20 percent and 10 percent, respectively, of global electricity supplies by 2050. Supplies of electricity by energy type will reflect
50

significant differences across regions reflecting a wide range of factors, including the cost and availability of various energy supplies and policy developments.
Energy for transportation - including cars, trucks, ships, trains, and airplanes - is expected to increase by over 30 percent from 2021 to 2050. Transportation energy demand is expected to account for more than 60 percent of the growth in liquid fuels demand worldwide over this period. Light-duty vehicle demand for liquid fuels is projected to peak by around 2025, and then decline to levels seen in the early-2000s by 2050, as the impact of better fuel economy and significant growth in electric cars, led by China, Europe, and the United States, work to offset growth in the worldwide car fleet of almost 70 percent. By 2050, light-duty vehicles are expected to account for around 15 percent of global liquid fuels demand. During the same time period, nearly all the world’s commercial transportation fleets are expected to continue to run on liquid fuels, including biofuels, which are expected to be widely available and offer practical advantages in providing a large quantity of energy in small volumes.
Almost half of the world’s energy use is dedicated to industrial activity. As the global middle class continues to grow, demand for durable products, appliances, and consumable goods will increase. Industry uses energy products both as a fuel and as a feedstock for chemicals, asphalt, lubricants, waxes, and other specialty products. The Outlook anticipates technology advances, as well as the increasing shift toward cleaner forms of energy, such as electricity and natural gas, with coal declining. Demand for oil will continue to grow as a feedstock for industry.
As populations grow and prosperity rises, more energy will be needed to power homes, offices, schools, shopping centers, hospitals, etc. Combined residential and commercial energy demand is projected to rise by around 15 percent through 2050. Led by the growing economies of developing nations, average worldwide household electricity use will rise about 75 percent between 2021 and 2050.
Liquid fuels provide the largest share of global energy supplies today reflecting broad-based availability, affordability, ease of transportation, and fitness as a practical solution to meet a wide variety of needs. By 2050, global demand for liquid fuels is projected to grow to approximately 110 million oil-equivalent barrels per day, an increase of about 15 percent from 2021. The non-OECD share of global liquid fuels demand is expected to increase to nearly 70 percent by 2050, as liquid fuels demand in the OECD is expected to decline by more than 20 percent. Much of the global liquid fuels demand today is met by crude production from conventional sources; these supplies will remain important, and significant development activity is expected to offset much of the natural declines from these fields. At the same time, a variety of emerging supply sources - including tight oil, deepwater, oil sands, natural gas liquids, and biofuels - are expected to grow to help meet rising demand. Timely investments will remain critical to meeting global needs with reliable and affordable supplies.
Natural gas is a lower-emission, versatile and practical fuel for a wide variety of applications. It is expected to grow the most of any primary energy type from 2021 to 2050, meeting about 40 percent of global energy demand growth. Global natural gas demand is expected to rise nearly 25 percent from 2021 to 2050, with greater than 75 percent of that increase coming from the Asia Pacific region. Significant growth in supplies of unconventional gas - the natural gas found in shale and other tight rock formations - will help meet these needs. In total, about 50 percent of the growth in natural gas supplies is expected to come from unconventional sources. At the same time, conventionally-produced natural gas is likely to remain the cornerstone of global supply, meeting around two-thirds of worldwide demand in 2050. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade will expand significantly, meeting about two thirds of the increase in global demand growth, with much of this supply expected to help meet rising demand in Asia Pacific.
The world’s energy mix is highly diverse and will remain so through 2050. Oil is expected to continue as the largest source of energy with its share remaining close to 30 percent in 2050. Coal and natural gas are the next largest sources of energy today, with the share of natural gas growing to more than 25 percent by 2050, while the share of coal falls to about half that of natural gas. Nuclear power is projected to grow, as many nations are likely to expand nuclear capacity to address rising electricity needs as well as energy security and environmental issues. Total renewable energy is expected to exceed 20 percent of global energy by 2050, with other renewables (e.g., biomass, hydropower, geothermal) contributing a combined share of more than 10 percent. Total energy supplied from wind and solar is expected to increase rapidly, growing over 500 percent from 2021 to 2050, when they are projected to be around 10 percent of the world energy mix.
Decarbonization of industrial activities will require a suite of nascent or future lower-carbon technologies and supporting policies. Lower-emission fuels, hydrogen-based fuels, and carbon capture and storage are three key
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lower-carbon solutions needed to support a lower-emission future, in addition to wind and solar. Along with electrification, lower-emission fuels are expected to play an important role in decarbonization of the transportation sector, particularly in hard-to-decarbonize areas, such as aviation. Low-carbon hydrogen will be a key enabler replacing traditional furnace fuel to decarbonize the industrial sector. Hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels like ammonia are also expected to make inroads into commercial transportation as technology improves to lower its cost and policy develops to support the needed infrastructure development. Carbon capture and storage on its own, or in combination with hydrogen production, is among the few proven technologies that could enable CO2 emission reductions from high-emitting and hard-to-decarbonize sectors such as power generation and heavy industries, including manufacturing, refining, and petrochemicals.
To meet projected demand under the Outlook and the IEA's STEPS, the company anticipates that the world’s available oil and gas resource base will grow, not only from new discoveries, but also from increases in previously discovered fields. Technology will underpin these increases. The investments to develop and supply resources to meet global demand through 2050 will be significant and would be needed to meet even rapidly declining demand for oil and gas envisioned in aggressive decarbonization scenarios.
International accords and underlying regional and national regulations covering greenhouse gas emissions continue to evolve with uncertain timing and outcome, making it difficult to predict their business impact. The company’s estimates of potential costs related to greenhouse gas emissions align with applicable provincial and federal regulations. Additionally, the company uses the Outlook as a foundation for estimating energy supply and demand requirements from various energy sources and uses, and the Outlook takes into account policies established to reduce energy related greenhouse gas emissions. The climate accord reached at the 2015 Conference of the Parties (COP 21) in Paris set many new goals, and many related policies are still emerging. The Outlook reflects an environment with increasingly stringent climate policies and is consistent with the successful achievement of the global aggregation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), submitted by the nations that are signatories to the Paris Agreement, as available at the end of 2022. The Outlook assumes success of these NDCs, despite the 2023 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Emissions Gap Report projecting that the G20 members will fall short of their NDCs. The Outlook seeks to identify potential impacts of climate related government policies, which often target specific sectors. For purposes of the Outlook, a proxy cost on energy-related CO2 emissions is assumed, based on regional considerations and relative levels of economic development, and by 2050, reaches up to $150 USD per metric ton for OECD nations and up to $100 USD per metric ton for non-OECD nations. China and other leading non-OECD nations are expected to trail OECD policy initiatives. Nevertheless, as people and nations look for ways to reduce risks of global climate change, they will continue to need practical solutions that do not jeopardize the affordability or reliability of the energy they need. The company continues to monitor the updates to the NDCs that nations provided around COP 28 in Dubai in 2023, as well as other policy developments in light of net-zero ambitions formulated by some nations, including Canada.
The information provided in the Outlook includes ExxonMobil's internal estimates and projections based upon internal data and analyses, as well as publicly available information from external sources including the International Energy Agency.
Progress reducing emissions
Practical solutions to the world’s energy and climate challenges will benefit from market competition in addition to well-informed, well-designed and transparent policy approaches that carefully weigh costs and benefits. Such policies are likely to help manage the risks of climate change while also enabling societies to pursue other high priority goals around the world – including clean air and water, access to reliable and affordable energy, and economic progress for all people. The company encourages sound policy solutions that reduce climate-related risks across the economy at the lowest societal cost. All practical and economically viable energy sources will need to be pursued to continue meeting global energy demand, recognizing the scale and variety of worldwide energy needs, as well as the importance of expanding access to modern energy to promote better standards of living for billions of people.
The company and its industry peers launched the Oil Sands Pathways to Net Zero alliance in 2021, with the goal of working collectively with the federal and Alberta governments to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands operations by 2050 to help Canada meet its climate goals.
As part of the company’s efforts to provide solutions that lower the greenhouse gas emissions intensity of its operations and provide lower life-cycle emissions products to customers, the company has announced a company-wide goal to achieve net zero emissions (Scope 1 and 2) by 2050 in its operated assets through collaboration with government and industry partners. Successful technology development and supportive fiscal
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and regulatory frameworks will be needed to achieve this goal. This work builds on the company’s previously announced net-zero goal for operated oil sands as part of the Pathways Alliance initiative, as well as the company’s emission intensity reduction goal of 30 percent by 2030 for operated oil sands facilities when compared to 2016 levels. The company plans to achieve its net zero goal by applying oil sands recovery technologies that use less steam, implementing carbon capture and storage and implementing efficiency projects including the use of lower carbon fuels at its operations.

Recent business environment
Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, many companies in the industry invested below the levels needed to maintain or increase production capacity to meet anticipated demand. During the COVID-19 pandemic, this decline in investments accelerated as industry revenue collapsed, resulting in underinvestment and supply tightness as demand for petroleum and petrochemical products recovered. These reductions, along with supply chain constraints and a continuation of demand recovery, led to a steady increase in oil and natural gas prices and refining margins through 2022.

Energy markets began to normalize in 2023, down from their 2022 highs. During the first half of 2023, the price of crude oil declined, impacted by higher inventory levels. In the second half, crude oil prices increased modestly from strong demand, and ongoing actions by OPEC+ oil producers to limit supply. In addition, the Canadian WTI/WCS spread began to weaken in the fourth quarter, but remained in line with 2022 on an annual basis. Throughout 2023, strong demand for gasoline and distillate combined with low inventories kept refining margins strong, but short of 2022 levels on an annual basis. In the fourth quarter, refining margins dropped due to higher inventory and lower seasonal demand.
The general rate of inflation in Canada and across many other major countries peaked in 2022, rising from already elevated levels in 2021, due to additional impacts on energy and other commodities from the Russia-Ukraine conflict. Inflation moderated in 2023 as major central banks tightened monetary policy aggressively and global GDP growth slowed. In Canada, it currently remains higher than the Bank of Canada's inflation target. Meanwhile, there are significant variations across OECD and non-OECD in the pace of change in inflation. The company closely monitors market trends and works to mitigate both operating and capital cost impacts in all price environments.
Business results
Consolidated

millions of Canadian dollars2023 2022 2021 
Net income (loss) (U.S. GAAP)
4,889 7,340 2,479 
Identified items1 included in Net income (loss)
   
Gain/(loss) on sale of assets 208 — 
Subtotal of identified items1
 208 — 
  
Net income (loss) excluding identified items1
4,889 7,132 2,479 
2023
Net income in 2023 was $4,889 million, or $8.49 per share on a diluted basis, compared to $7,340 million, or $11.44 per share in 2022.
2022
Net income in 2022 was $7,340 million, or $11.44 per share on a diluted basis, up from $2,479 million, or $3.48 per share in 2021. Results include favourable identified items1 of $208 million after tax, related to the company’s gain on the sale of interests in XTO Energy Canada.






1 non-GAAP financial measure - see "Frequently used terms" section for definition and reconciliation.
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Upstream
Overview
The company produces crude oil and natural gas for sale predominantly into North American markets. The company’s Upstream business strategies guide the company’s exploration, development, production, research and gas marketing activities. These strategies include improving asset reliability, accelerating development and application of high impact technologies, maximizing value by capturing new business opportunities and managing the existing portfolio, as well as pursuing sustainable improvements in organizational efficiency and effectiveness. These strategies are underpinned by a relentless focus on operations integrity, commitment to innovative technologies, disciplined approach to investing and cost management, development of employees and investment in the communities within which the company operates.
The company has a significant oil and gas resource base and a large inventory of potential projects. The company’s current investment strategy is to invest for value and select volume growth, with focus on optimization within existing assets, cost reduction opportunities and productivity enhancements that aim to deliver robust returns at a wide range of prices. The company also continues to evaluate opportunities to support long-term growth. Although actual volumes will vary from year to year, the focus is on value-add, long-term growth opportunities within the context of the factors described in "Item 1A. Risk factors". The company continually evaluates opportunities, including crude shipments by rail and the pace of the development of its Aspen in-situ oil sands project, as economically justified.
Prices for most of the company's crude oil sold are referenced to Western Canada Select (WCS) and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil markets. Additionally, the market price for WCS is typically lower than light and medium grades of oil, and price differentials between WCS and WTI can fluctuate.
The company believes prices over the long term will be driven by market supply and demand, with the demand side largely being a function of general economic activity, alternative energy sources, levels of prosperity, technology advancements, consumer preference and government policies. On the supply side, prices may be significantly impacted by political events, logistics constraints, the actions of OPEC, governments, alternative energy sources, and other factors. To manage the risks associated with price, the company tests the resiliency of its annual plans and all major investments across a range of price scenarios.
Key events
Upstream assets demonstrated strong operational performance in 2023. The company continued to benefit from its actions implemented in prior years to manage the cost structure and improve the reliability of its assets, enabling the Upstream to capture significant value.

Upstream full-year production averaged 413,000 gross oil-equivalent barrels per day.

At Kearl, gross production was about 270,000 barrels per day (191,000 barrels Imperial’s share), up 28,000 barrels per day (19,000 barrels Imperial's share) compared to 2022, as a result of improved reliability, plant capacity utilization, and mine equipment productivity.

At Cold Lake, annual production averaged 135,000 gross oil-equivalent barrels per day.

At Syncrude, annual production averaged 76,000 gross oil-equivalent barrels per day.

As described in more detail in "Item 1A. Risk factors", environmental risks and climate related regulations could have negative impacts on the upstream business.

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Results of operations
2023 Net income (loss) factor analysis
millions of Canadian dollars
96
Price – Lower bitumen realizations were primarily driven by lower marker prices. Average bitumen realizations decreased by $17.25 per barrel, generally in line with WCS, and synthetic crude oil realizations decreased by $19.89 per barrel, generally in line with WTI.

Volumes – Lower volumes were primarily driven by steam cycle timing at Cold Lake, and the absence of XTO Energy Canada production, partially offset by improved reliability, plant capacity utilization, and mine equipment productivity at Kearl.

Royalty – Lower royalties were primarily driven by weakened commodity prices.

Identified Items1 Prior year results included favourable identified items1 related to the company's gain on the sale of interests in XTO Energy Canada.

Other – Includes favourable foreign exchange impacts of about $380 million, and lower operating expenses of about $380 million, primarily due to lower energy prices.
2022 Net income (loss) factor analysis
millions of Canadian dollars
253
Price – Higher realizations were generally in line with increases in marker prices, driven primarily by increased demand. Average bitumen realizations increased by $26.76 per barrel, generally in line with WCS, and synthetic crude oil realizations increased by $43.85 per barrel.

Volumes – Lower volumes were primarily the result of downtime at Kearl in the first half of the year, partly offset by higher production at Syncrude and Cold Lake.

Royalty – Higher royalties primarily driven by improved commodity prices.

Identified items1 – Results include favourable identified items1 related to the company's gain on the sale of interests in XTO Energy Canada.

Other – Higher operating expenses of about $500 million, primarily from higher energy prices, partially offset by favourable foreign exchange impacts of about $270 million, and higher electricity sales at Cold Lake of about $60 million due to increased prices.
1 non-GAAP financial measure - see "Frequently used terms" section for definition and reconciliation.
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Marker prices and average realizations
Canadian dollars, unless otherwise noted2023 2022 2021 
West Texas Intermediate (US$ per barrel)
77.60 94.36 68.05 
Western Canada Select (US$ per barrel)
58.97 76.28 54.96 
WTI/WCS Spread (US$ per barrel)
18.63 18.08 13.09 
Bitumen (per barrel)
67.42 84.67 57.91 
Synthetic crude oil (per barrel)
105.57 125.46 81.61 
Conventional crude oil (per barrel)
59.30 97.45 59.84 
Natural gas liquids (per barrel)
 64.92 35.87 
Natural gas (per thousand cubic feet)
2.58 5.69 3.83 
Average foreign exchange rate (US$)
0.74 0.77 0.80 


Crude oil and natural gas liquids (NGL) - production and sales (a)
thousands of barrels per day202320222021
 grossnetgrossnetgrossnet
Bitumen326 283 316 263 326 292 
Synthetic crude oil (b)
76 67 77 63 71 62 
Conventional crude oil5 5 10 
Total crude oil production407 355 401 334 407 363 
NGLs available for sale  
Total crude oil and NGL production407 355 402 335 408 364 
Bitumen sales, including diluent (c)
442 424 451 
NGL sales (d)
 — 

Natural gas - production and production available for sale (a)
millions of cubic feet per day202320222021
 grossnetgrossnetgrossnet
Production (e) (f)
33 32 85 83 120 115 
Production available for sale (g)
 11  50  81 
(a)Volume per day metrics are calculated by dividing the volume for the period by the number of calendar days in the period. Gross production is the company’s share of production (excluding purchases) before deduction of the mineral owners’ or governments’ share or both.
(b)The company’s synthetic crude oil production volumes were from the company’s share of production volumes in the Syncrude joint venture and include immaterial amounts of bitumen and other products exported to the operator's facilities using an existing interconnect pipeline.
(c)Diluent is natural gas condensate or other light hydrocarbons added to crude bitumen to facilitate transportation to market by pipeline and rail.
(d)2021 NGL sales round to 0.
(e)Gross production of natural gas includes amounts used for internal consumption with the exception of the amounts re-injected.
(f)Net production is gross production less the mineral owners’ or governments’ share or both. Net production reported in the above table is consistent with production quantities in the net proved reserves disclosure.
(g)Includes sales of the company’s share of net production and excludes amounts used for internal consumption.
2023
Higher bitumen production was mainly attributable to Kearl, and primarily driven by improved reliability, plant capacity utilization, and mine equipment productivity.
2022
Lower bitumen production was mainly attributable to Kearl, and primarily a result of downtime in the first half of the year.
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Downstream
Overview
The company’s Downstream serves predominantly Canadian markets with refining, trading, logistics and marketing activities. The company's Downstream business strategies competitively position the company across a range of market conditions. These strategies include targeting industry-leading performance in reliability, safety and operations integrity, as well as maximizing value from advanced technologies, capitalizing on integration across the company’s businesses, selectively investing for resilient and advantaged returns, operating efficiently and effectively, and providing quality, valued and differentiated products and services to customers.
The company owns and operates three refineries in Canada with aggregate distillation capacity of 433,000 barrels per day. Refining margins are largely driven by differences in commodity prices and are a function of the difference between what a refinery pays for its raw materials (primarily crude oil) and the market prices for the range of products produced (primarily gasoline, heating oil, diesel oil, jet fuel, fuel oil and asphalt). Crude oil and many products are widely traded with published prices, including those quoted on the New York Mercantile Exchange. Prices for these commodities are determined by the global and regional marketplaces and are influenced by many factors, including global and regional supply / demand balances, inventory levels, industry refinery operations, import / export balances, currency fluctuations, seasonal demand, weather and political considerations. While industry refining margins significantly impact earnings, strong operations performance, product mix optimization, and disciplined cost control are also critical to the company's strong financial performance. The company's integration across the value chain, from refining to marketing, enhances overall value across the fuels business.
Key events
Refining margins remained strong in 2023, driven by strong demand for gasoline and distillate due to relatively low inventory levels, but short of 2022 levels on an annual basis. The company continues to closely monitor industry and global economic conditions.

In January 2023, the company fully funded the Strathcona renewable diesel project, the largest such facility in Canada, located at Strathcona refinery. The facility will use low-carbon hydrogen, locally sourced and grown feedstocks and the company's own proprietary catalyst to produce more than one billion litres of renewable diesel annually, and could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Facility construction commenced during the year, and the project remains on-plan with renewable diesel production expected to begin in 2025.
As described in more detail in "Item 1A. Risk factors", proposed carbon policy and other climate related regulations, as well as continued biofuels mandates, could have negative impacts on the Downstream business.
The company supplies petroleum products through Esso and Mobil-branded sites and independent marketers. At the end of 2023, there were about 2,500 sites operating under a branded wholesaler model, in alignment with Esso and Mobil brand standards, whereby the company supplies fuel to independent third parties.
Results of operations
2023 Net income (loss) factor analysis
millions of Canadian dollars
94

Margins – Lower margins primarily reflect weaker market conditions.

Other – Higher turnaround impacts of about $340 million, associated with the planned turnaround activities at the Strathcona and Sarnia refineries, partially offset by favourable foreign exchange impacts of about $210 million, improved volumes of about $50 million, and lower operating expenses of about $50 million, primarily due to lower energy prices.
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2022 Net income (loss) factor analysis
millions of Canadian dollars
213
Margins – Higher margins primarily reflect improved market conditions.

Other – Lower turnaround impacts of about $140 million, reflecting the absence of turnaround activities at Strathcona refinery, improved volumes of about $130 million, favourable foreign exchange impacts of about $120 million, and absence of the prior year unfavourable out-of-period inventory adjustment of $74 million, partially offset by higher operating expenses of about $190 million.

Refinery utilization
thousands of barrels per day (a)2023 2022 2021 
Total refinery throughput (b)
407 418 379 
Rated capacity at December 31 (c)
433 433 428 
Utilization of total refinery capacity (percent)
94 98 89 
(a)Volume per day metrics are calculated by dividing the volume for the period by the number of calendar days in the period.
(b)Refinery throughput is the volume of crude oil and feedstocks that is processed in the refinery atmospheric distillation units.
(c)Refining capacity data is based on 100 percent of rated refinery process unit stream-day capacities to process inputs to atmospheric distillation units under normal operating conditions, less the impact of shutdowns for regular repair and maintenance activities, averaged over an extended period of time.
2023
Lower refinery throughput in 2023 reflects the impact of planned turnaround activities at Strathcona and Sarnia refineries.
2022
Improved refinery throughput in 2022 was primarily driven by increased demand and reduced turnaround activity.

Petroleum product sales
thousands of barrels per day (a)2023 2022 2021 
Gasolines228 229 224 
Heating, diesel and jet fuels176 176 160 
Lube oils and other products43 47 45 
Heavy fuel oils24 23 27 
Net petroleum product sales471 475 456 
(a)Volume per day metrics are calculated by dividing the volume for the period by the number of calendar days in the period.

2023
Lower petroleum product sales in 2023 were primarily driven by lower wholesale customer volume.
2022
Improved petroleum product sales in 2022 primarily reflects increased demand.




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Chemical
Overview
North America continued to benefit from abundant supplies of natural gas and gas liquids, providing both low cost energy and feedstock for steam crackers.
Key events
In 2023, margins were adversely impacted by increased supply of polyethylene. Sales volumes decreased primarily due to planned maintenance activities.
The company maintains a competitive advantage through continued operational excellence, consistent product quality, investment and cost discipline, and integration of its chemical plant in Sarnia with the refinery. The company also benefits from its relationship with ExxonMobil’s North American chemical businesses, enabling Imperial to maintain a leadership position in its key market segments.
Results of operations
2023 Net income (loss) factor analysis
millions of Canadian dollars
760

2022 Net income (loss) factor analysis
millions of Canadian dollars
836
Margins – Lower margins primarily reflect weaker industry polyethylene margins.

Sales

thousands of tonnes2023 2022 2021 
Total petrochemical sales820 842 831 
Corporate and other

millions of Canadian dollars2023 2022 2021 
Net income (loss)(88)(131)(172)
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Liquidity and capital resources
Sources and uses of cash
The company issues long-term debt from time to time and maintains a commercial paper program. However, internally generated funds cover the majority of its financial requirements. Cash that may be temporarily surplus to the company’s immediate needs is carefully managed through counterparty quality and investment guidelines to ensure that it is secure and readily available to meet the company’s cash requirements and to optimize returns.
Cash flows from operating activities are highly dependent on crude oil and natural gas prices, as well as petroleum and chemical product margins. In addition, to provide for cash flow in future periods, the company needs to continually find and develop new resources, and continue to develop and apply new technologies to existing fields in order to maintain or increase production.
The company’s financial strength enables it to make large, long-term capital expenditures. The company’s portfolio of development opportunities and the complementary nature of its business segments help mitigate the overall risks for the company and its cash flows. Further, due to its financial strength, debt capacity and portfolio of opportunities, the risk associated with delay of any single project would not have a significant impact on the company’s liquidity or ability to generate sufficient cash flows for its operations and fixed commitments.
Funding of registered retirement plans complies with federal and provincial pension regulations, and the company makes contributions to the plans based on an independent actuarial valuation completed at least once every three years depending on funding status. The most recent valuation of the company’s registered retirement plans was completed as at December 31, 2022. The company contributed $148 million to the registered retirement plans in 2023. Future funding requirements are not expected to affect the company’s existing capital investment plans or its ability to pursue new investment opportunities.

millions of Canadian dollars2023 2022 2021 
Cash flows from (used in):   
Operating activities3,734 10,482 5,476 
Investing activities(1,694)(618)(1,012)
Financing activities(4,925)(8,268)(3,082)
Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents(2,885)1,596 1,382 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of year
864 3,749 2,153 
Cash flows from operating activities
2023
Cash flows from operating activities primarily reflect unfavourable working capital impacts, including an income tax catch-up payment of $2.1 billion, as well as lower Upstream realizations and Downstream margins.
2022
Cash flow generated from operating activities primarily reflects higher Upstream realizations, improved Downstream margins, and favourable working capital impacts.
Cash flows used in investing activities
2023
Cash flows used in investing activities primarily reflect the absence of proceeds from the sale of interests in XTO Energy Canada, and higher additions to property, plant and equipment.
2022
Cash flow used in investing activities primarily reflects higher additions to property, plant and equipment, which were partially offset by proceeds from the sale of interests in XTO Energy Canada.



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Cash flows used in financing activities
2023
At the end of 2023, total debt outstanding was $4,132 million, compared with $4,155 million at the end of 2022.

During the fourth quarter of 2023, the company extended the maturity dates of its two existing $250 million committed lines of credit to November 2024 and November 2025, respectively.

The company has not drawn on any of its outstanding $500 million of available credit facilities.
2022
At the end of 2022, total debt outstanding was $4,155 million, compared with $5,176 million at the end of 2021.

During the third quarter of 2022, the company decreased its long-term debt by $1 billion by partially repaying an existing facility with an affiliated company of ExxonMobil.
During the second quarter of 2022, the company reduced its existing $500 million committed long-term line of credit to $250 million and extended the maturity date to June 30, 2023. Subsequently in the fourth quarter of 2022, this committed long-term line of credit was cancelled in full. The company also extended one of its $250 million committed long-term lines of credit to June 30, 2024.
In November 2022, the company extended the maturity date of an existing $250 million committed short-term line of credit to November 2023.
The company has not drawn on any of its outstanding $500 million of available credit facilities.

Share repurchases

millions of Canadian dollars, unless noted2023 2022 2021 
Share repurchases (a)
3,800 6,395 2,245 
Number of shares purchased (millions) (a)
48.3 93.9 56.0 
(a)Share repurchases were made under the company's normal course issuer bid program for the periods disclosed. Substantial issuer bids were undertaken and commenced on May 6, 2022 (expired on June 10, 2022), November 4, 2022 (expired on December 9, 2022), and November 3, 2023 (expired on December 8, 2023). Includes shares purchased from Exxon Mobil Corporation concurrent with, but outside of, the normal course issuer bid, and by way of a proportionate tender under the company's substantial issuer bids.
2023
On June 27, 2023, the company announced that it had received final approval from the Toronto Stock Exchange for a new normal course issuer bid to continue its then existing share purchase program. The program enabled the company to purchase up to a maximum of 29,207,635 common shares during the period June 29, 2023 to June 28, 2024. The program completed on October 19, 2023 as a result of the company purchasing the maximum allowable number of shares under the program.

On November 3, 2023, the company commenced a substantial issuer bid pursuant to which it offered to purchase for cancellation up to $1.5 billion of its common shares through a modified Dutch auction and proportionate tender offer. The substantial issuer bid was completed on December 13, 2023, with the company taking up and paying for 19,108,280 common shares at a price of $78.50 per share, for an aggregate purchase of $1.5 billion and 3.4 percent of Imperial's issued and outstanding shares at the close of business on October 30, 2023. This included 13,299,349 shares purchased from Exxon Mobil Corporation by way of a proportionate tender to maintain its ownership percentage at approximately 69.6 percent.
2022
On June 27, 2022, the company announced that it had received final approval from the Toronto Stock Exchange for a new normal course issuer bid. The program enabled the company to purchase up to a maximum of 31,833,809 common shares during the period June 29, 2022 to June 28, 2023. The program completed on October 21, 2022 as a result of the company purchasing the maximum allowable number of shares under the program.


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On May 6, 2022, the company commenced a substantial issuer bid pursuant to which it offered to purchase for cancellation up to $2.5 billion of its common shares through a modified Dutch auction and proportionate tender offer. The substantial issuer bid was completed on June 15, 2022, with the company taking up and paying for 32,467,532 common shares at a price of $77.00 per share, for an aggregate purchase of $2.5 billion and 4.9 percent of Imperial’s issued and outstanding shares at the close of business on May 2, 2022. This included 22,597,379 shares purchased from Exxon Mobil Corporation by way of a proportionate tender to maintain its ownership percentage at approximately 69.6 percent.

On November 4, 2022, the company commenced a substantial issuer bid pursuant to which it offered to purchase for cancellation up to $1.5 billion of its common shares through a modified Dutch auction and proportionate tender offer. The substantial issuer bid was completed on December 14, 2022, with the company taking up and paying for 20,689,655 common shares at a price of $72.50 per share, for an aggregate purchase of $1.5 billion and 3.4 percent of Imperial's issued and outstanding shares at the close of business on October 31, 2022. This included 14,399,985 shares purchased from Exxon Mobil Corporation by way of a proportionate tender to maintain its ownership percentage at approximately 69.6 percent.

Dividends

millions of Canadian dollars, unless noted2023 2022 2021 
Dividends paid1,103 851 706 
Per share dividend paid (dollars)
1.88 1.29 0.98 
Financial strength
The table below shows the company’s consolidated debt-to-capital ratio. The data demonstrates the company’s creditworthiness:

percent
At December 312023 2022 2021 
Debt to capital (a)
16 16 19 
(a)Debt, defined as the sum of “Notes and loans payable” and “Long-term debt” on the Consolidated balance sheet, divided by capital, defined as the sum of debt and “Total shareholders’ equity” on the Consolidated balance sheet.
Debt-related interest incurred in 2023, before capitalization of interest, was $203 million, up from $111 million in 2022. The weighted-average interest rate on the company’s debt was 4.9 percent in 2023, up from 2.2 percent in 2022.
The company’s financial strength represents a competitive advantage of strategic importance providing it the opportunity to readily access capital markets across a range of market conditions and enables the company to take on large, long-term capital commitments in the pursuit of maximizing shareholder value.
Contractual obligations
The company has contractual obligations involving commitments to third parties that impact its liquidity and capital resource needs. These contractual obligations are primarily for leases, debt, asset retirement obligations, pension and other postretirement benefits, other