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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

Commission file number 1-13879

INNOSPEC INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

DELAWARE

98-0181725

State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

8310 South Valley Highway

Suite 350

Englewood

Colorado

 

80112

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (303) 792 5554

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common stock, par value $0.01 per share

IOSP

NASDAQ

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).

Yes No

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of the most recently completed second fiscal quarter (June 30, 2023) was approximately $1,349 million, based on the closing price of the common shares on the NASDAQ on June 30, 2023. Shares of common stock held by each officer and director and by each beneficial owner who owns 5% or more of the outstanding common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for any other purpose.

As of January 31, 2024, 24,867,989 shares of the registrant’s common stock were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of Innospec Inc.’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 10, 2024 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I

2

Item 1

Business

2

Item 1A

Risk Factors

10

Item 1B

Unresolved Staff Comments

20

Item 1C

Cybersecurity

20

Item 2

Properties

23

Item 3

Legal Proceedings

24

Item 4

Mine Safety Disclosures

24

PART II

25

Item 5

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

25

Item 6

[Reserved]

27

Item 7

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

28

Item 7A

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

43

Item 8

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

45

Item 9

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

87

Item 9A

Controls and Procedures

87

Item 9B

Other Information

88

Item 9C

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

88

PART III

88

Item 10

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

88

Item 11

Executive Compensation

89

Item 12

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

89

Item 13

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

89

Item 14

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

89

PART IV

89

Item 15

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

89

Item 16

Form 10-K Summary

92

SIGNATURES

93

 

 


 

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT RELATIVE TO FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Form 10-K contains certain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical facts included or incorporated herein may constitute forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements include statements (covered by words like “expects,” “estimates,” “anticipates,” “may,” “could,” “believes,” “feels,” “plans,” “intends” or similar words or expressions, for example) which relate to earnings, growth potential, operating performance, events or developments that we expect or anticipate will or may occur in the future. Although forward-looking statements are believed by management to be reasonable when made, they are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions, and our actual performance or results may differ materially from these forward-looking statements. You are urged to review our discussion of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ from forward-looking statements under the heading “Risk Factors.” Innospec undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

1


 

PART I

Item 1 Business

When we use the terms “Innospec,” “the Corporation,” “the Company,” “Registrant,” “we,” “us” and “our,” we are referring to Innospec Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires.

General

Innospec develops, manufactures, blends, markets and supplies a wide range of specialty chemicals to customers in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia-Pacific. Our Performance Chemicals business creates innovative technology-based solutions for the personal care, home care, agrochemical, construction, mining and other industrial markets. Our Fuel Specialties business specializes in manufacturing and supplying fuel additives that improve fuel efficiency, boost engine performance and reduce harmful emissions. Our Oilfield Services business supplies drilling, completion and production chemicals which make exploration and production more cost-efficient and environmentally friendly.

Segment Information

The Company reports its financial performance based on three reportable segments which are Performance Chemicals, Fuel Specialties and Oilfield Services.

For financial information about each of our segments, see Note 3 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Performance Chemicals

Our Performance Chemicals segment provides innovative technology-based solutions for our customers’ processes or products in personal care, home care, agrochemical, construction, mining and other industrial markets.

This segment has grown through acquisitions, together with the organic development and marketing of innovative products in these end-markets.

Our customers in this segment include large multinational companies, manufacturers of personal care and home care products and global mining, agriculture and building products and other industrial companies.

On December 8, 2023, we acquired QGP Química Geral (“QGP”) which we believe will further strengthen our Performance Chemicals segment and add a manufacturing base in South America to compliment all of our end markets.

Fuel Specialties

Our Fuel Specialties segment develops, manufactures, blends, markets and supplies a range of specialty chemical products used as additives in diesel, jet, marine, fuel oil and other fuels. These fuel additive products help improve fuel efficiency, boost engine performance and reduce harmful emissions; and are most commonly used in the efficient operation of commercial trucking, marine and aviation engines, power station generators, heating oil and other industrial machinery applications.

2


 

The segment has grown organically through our development of new products to address increased demand for fuel, focus on fuel economy, higher efficiency engine technologies and legislative developments, including tightening global emissions regulations. We are also applying these fuels technologies to an increasing number of non-fuel applications in a variety of industries.

Our customers in this segment include national and multinational oil companies, fuel marketers and retailers, fuel terminals, marine lines, coating & plastics producers and other heavy industrial end-users.

Oilfield Services

Our Oilfield Services segment develops and markets chemical solutions for drilling, completion, production and oil and gas applications.

Our customers in this segment include multinational public and independent exploration & production and oilfield services companies operating principally in the Americas and the Middle East.

Strategy

Our strategy is to develop new and improved products and technologies to continue to strengthen and increase our market positions within our Performance Chemicals, Fuel Specialties and Oilfield Services segments. We also actively continue to assess potential strategic acquisitions, partnerships and other opportunities that would enhance and expand our customer offering. We focus on opportunities that would extend our technology base, geographical coverage or product portfolio. We believe that focusing on the Performance Chemicals, Fuel Specialties and Oilfield Services segments, in which the Company has existing experience, expertise and knowledge, provides opportunities for positive returns on investment with reduced operating risk. We also continue to expand our geographical footprint, consistent with the development of global markets.

Geographical Area Information

Financial information with respect to our domestic and foreign operations is contained in Note 3 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Working Capital

The nature of our customers’ businesses generally requires us to hold appropriate amounts of inventory in order to respond quickly to customers’ needs. We therefore require corresponding amounts of working capital for normal operations. We do not believe that this is materially different to our competitors.

The purchase of large amounts of certain raw materials across all of our segments can create some variations in working capital requirements, but these are planned and managed by the business.

We do not believe that our terms of sale or purchase differ markedly from those of our competitors.

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Raw Materials and Product Supply

We use a variety of raw materials and chemicals in our manufacturing and blending processes and believe that sources for these are adequate for our current operations. Our major purchases are oleochemicals and derivatives, cetane number improvers, ethylene, various solvents, amines, alcohols, olefin and polyacrylamides. These purchases account for a substantial portion of the Company’s variable manufacturing costs. These materials are, with the exception of ethylene for our operations in Germany, available from more than one source. Although ethylene is, in theory, available from several sources, it is not permissible to transport ethylene by road in Germany. As a result, we source ethylene for our German operations via a direct pipeline, making it effectively a single source. Ethylene is used as a primary raw material for one of our German operations in products representing approximately 4% of Innospec’s sales.

We use long-term contracts (generally with fixed or formula-based costs) and advance bulk purchases to help ensure availability and continuity of supply, and to manage the risk of cost increases. From time to time, for some raw materials, the risk of cost increases is managed with commodity swaps.

We continue to monitor the situation and adjust our procurement strategies as we deem appropriate. The Company forecasts its raw material requirements substantially in advance and seeks to build long-term relationships and contractual positions with supply partners to safeguard its raw material positions. In addition, the Company operates an extensive risk management program which seeks to source key raw materials from multiple sources and to develop suitable contingency plans.

Intellectual Property

Our intellectual property, including trademarks, patents and licenses, forms a significant part of the Company’s competitive advantage for all of our segments. The Company does not, however, consider its business to be dependent on any one trademark, patent or license.

The Company has a portfolio of trademarks and patents, both granted and in the application stage, covering products and processes in several jurisdictions. The majority of these patents have at least 10 years life remaining.

The trademark “Innospec and the Innospec device” in Classes 1, 2 and 4 of the “International Classification of Goods and Services for the Purposes of the Registration of Marks” are registered in all jurisdictions in which the Company has a significant market presence. The Company also has trademark registrations for certain product names in all jurisdictions in which it has a significant market presence.

We actively protect our inventions, new technologies, and product developments by filing patent applications and maintaining trade secrets. In addition, we vigorously participate in patent opposition proceedings around the world where necessary to secure a technology base free from infringement of intellectual property.

Customers

In 2023, the Company had a significant customer in the Oilfield Services segment which accounted for $265.2 million (13.6%) of our net group sales (2022 - $222.2 million and 11.3%).

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Competition

Certain markets in which the Company operates are subject to significant competition. The Company competes based on a number of factors including, but not limited to, product quality and performance, specialized product lines, customer relationships and service, and regulatory expertise.

Performance Chemicals: Within the Performance Chemicals segment we operate in the personal care, home care, agrochemical, construction, mining and other industrial markets, which are highly fragmented, and the Company experiences substantial competition from a large number of multinational and specialty chemical suppliers in each geographical market. Our competitive position in these markets is based on us supplying a superior, diverse product portfolio which solves customer problems or enhances the performance of new or existing products. In a number of specialty chemicals markets, we also supply niche product lines, where we enjoy market-leading positions.

Fuel Specialties: The Fuel Specialties segment is generally characterized by a small number of competitors, none of which hold a dominant position. We consider our competitive edge to be our proven technical development capacity, independence from major oil companies and strong long-term customer relationships. We believe we remain the world’s only producer of tetra ethyl lead (“TEL”) for use in aviation gasoline, which we market as our AvGas product line.

Oilfield Services: Our Oilfield Services segment is very fragmented and although there are a small number of very large competitors, there are also a large number of smaller players focused on specific technologies or regions. Our competitive strength is our proven technology, broad regional coverage and strong customer relationships.

Research, Development, Testing and Technical Support

Research, product/application development and technical support (“R&D”) provide the basis for the growth of our Performance Chemicals, Fuel Specialties and Oilfield Services segments. Accordingly, the Company’s R&D activity has been, and will continue to be, focused on the development of new products and formulations. Our R&D department provides technical support for all of our reporting segments. Expenditures to support R&D services were $41.7 million, $38.7 million and $37.4 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

We believe that our proven technical capabilities provide us with a significant competitive advantage. Our Performance Chemicals business has launched significant new mild surfactants, which are well aligned with developing customer needs. In addition, the business has developed further formulations in emollients, silicones and surfactants for the personal care, home care, agrochemical, construction, mining and other industrial markets. Fuel Specialties has continued to innovate, focused on bringing new technologies to market which reduce pollution and improve fuel economy, including detergents and cold flow improvers. In Oilfield Services, new technologies have been introduced to improve the hydrocarbon yield from customers’ operations and to protect assets, including friction modifiers, biocide formulations and additives to improve drilling muds.

Health, Safety and Environmental Matters

We are subject to environmental laws in the countries in which we operate and conduct business. Management believes that the Company is in material compliance with applicable environmental laws and has made the necessary provisions for the continued costs of compliance with environmental laws.

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Our principal site giving rise to asset retirement obligations is our Ellesmere Port manufacturing site in the United Kingdom (“U.K.”). There are also asset retirement obligations and environmental remediation liabilities on a much smaller scale in respect of other manufacturing sites. We regularly review the future expected costs of remediation, and the current estimate is reflected in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and Note 13 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

The European Union (“E.U.”) legislation known as the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemical Substances Regulations (“REACH”) requires most of the substances in the Company’s products to be registered with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Under this legislation the Company has to demonstrate that the substances it uses in its products are safe for use and appropriate for their intended purposes in the E.U.. During this registration and continual evaluation process, the Company incurs expenses to test and register substances it manufactures or imports in the E.U..

Following the end of the Brexit transition process, on January 11, 2021 the U.K. government introduced U.K. REACH with the same registration requirements for substances produced in or imported into the U.K. as the E.U. REACH. Furthermore, globally, similar regulatory regimes to the E.U. and U.K. REACH are also entering into force or are being proposed in several other countries. These registration-based regulatory regimes will result in increasing test expenses and registration fees to ensure Innospec products remain compliant with the appropriate regulations and can continue to be sold in these markets.

Environmental, Social & Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting

As part of our commitment to being open and transparent about our performance, our latest Responsible Business Report, which is our 2022 Report, was independently assured to assess its adherence to the globally recognized AA1000 Assurance Standard.

The Responsible Business Report, along with further information on our sustainability program and performance is available online in the “Corporate Social Responsibility” section of the Company’s website at https://innospecsustainability.com. Such information does not constitute part of, and is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Employees and Human Capital Management

The Company had approximately 2,400 employees in 22 countries as at December 31, 2023.

Human capital management is critical to Innospec’s ongoing business success, which requires investing in our people. Our aim is to create a highly engaged and motivated workforce where employees are inspired by leadership, engaged in purpose-driven, meaningful work and have opportunities for growth and development.

An effective approach to human capital management requires that we invest in talent development, culture and employee engagement. We aim to create an environment where our employees are encouraged to make positive contributions and fulfill their potential.

The Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”) is also actively involved in reviewing and approving executive compensation, selections and succession plans so that we have leadership in place with the requisite skills and experience to deliver results the right way. The Company’s Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) periodically provides the Board with an assessment of senior executives that have potential as successor for the CEO position, as well as perspectives on potential candidates for other senior management positions.

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Core Values & Culture

Responsible Growth through Innovation and Customer Service: Financial stability and growth are essential to maintain our goal of making a positive contribution towards a more sustainable future. Generating economic benefits for our employees, stockholders, and local communities, while encouraging ongoing innovation in our product portfolio alongside excellent customer service which will allow our business to be competitive and sustainable.

Caring for People: We strive to create a safe and caring culture where our employees are supported and encouraged to make positive contributions. Our continued success depends on keeping people safe, promoting a healthy lifestyle, protecting human rights, improving education, training and maintaining good relations with our neighbors.

Conserving & Protecting the Environment: We aim to use resources as efficiently as practicable and minimize the impact of our operations on the environment. We look to supply safe, sustainable products, designed to meet the needs of society now and in the future while minimizing their environmental impact.

Leading by Example: We understand that honest, ethical and transparent conduct is vital to our success and reputation. Every employee plays an essential part in complying with local and national laws, rules and regulations. We uphold a high standard of corporate and business integrity across all of our activities.

Employee Engagement

Attracting Talent: We believe our hardworking team of employees is our greatest asset. We employ approximately 2,400 people across 22 countries, and we believe that the skills, commitment and enthusiasm of our employees helps us to deliver long-term growth for investors.

Training: Across our sites, we provide local support and opportunities for the next generation of talent in our industry by offering a range of placements, internships, work experience and apprenticeships. We strive to attract and retain the best talent in a changing and competitive working environment.

As an organization, we are committed to making Innospec a great company to work for and we invest, as appropriate, in the development of our employees to meet this ambition.

Our employees are offered both internal and external training, where appropriate, to support their continued development and to meet the needs of our business. Where relevant, we support our employees’ ongoing professional training and development to encourage their progression within our business.

Pay and Benefits: We offer what we believe are competitive reward and recognition programs, based on both business-wide and individual performance. Our packages have been designed to attract and retain the best employees, reward achievement and encourage our teams to deliver superior performance for our customers and our company.

In addition to our company-wide performance incentive plans, we encourage our employees to share in the long-term success of our company with incentive programs, such as our Global Sharesave Plan. This plan gives employees the opportunity to participate in a savings plan linked to an option to buy shares in Innospec at a discount and, therefore, benefit from any growth in the share price over the savings period. We also provide a range of other benefits in line with the market practice in each location we operate in, including insurance and pension arrangements.

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Performance Management Framework: We conduct an annual performance management process across the organization. Together with their line managers, employees agree upon annual objectives, and, at the end of the year, review with their line manager their performance against those objectives and their overall performance. The results of each annual performance review affect performance bonus amounts, pay reviews and career advancement decisions.

Senior Leadership Communications and Transparency: We actively seek opportunities for regular engagement and communication by our CEO, CFO and other senior executives with our broader employee population. Communications are through a variety of means including written communications, webcasts and conference calls. For example, we hold a CEO/CFO Call at least once a year, during which the CEO and CFO discuss current issues and developments in the business, including a Q&A session answering questions raised by employees. The CEO/CFO Call is accessible to all employees across the Company. In addition to the CEO/CFO Calls, each financial quarter, following the quarterly financial results announcement, the CEO and CFO provide a written review of the financial results to all employees.

Diversity and Inclusion

Innospec aims to attract and retain the best people by ensuring that employment decisions are based on merit, performance, ability and contribution to the Company. As part of our Global HR Policy, our diversity and equal opportunities policy ensures that current and prospective employees receive equal opportunities irrespective of gender, sexual orientation, race, color, ethnic or national origin, marital status, age, disability, religion or belief.

Health and Safety

Objectives: We prioritize the safety of employees, communities and everyone involved in the manufacture, use or disposal of our products. We set high standards for process and occupational safety, which is managed by our network of Safety, Health and Environment (“SHE”) professionals throughout the business. Our three core objectives being that:

• No one gets hurt

• We do not annoy our neighbors

• We leave only the gentlest footprints on our environment

Leadership: The Company periodically reviews the Corporate SHE structure and organization so that we have the optimum resources and correct approach. We strive to embed SHE in our culture by having leadership that comes from executive management. Our Responsible Care Executive Committee (known as RESPECT) comprises members of the senior leadership team and is led by the CEO. RESPECT is responsible for setting the group’s SHE and Sustainability policies and objectives across the global business. It also monitors ongoing performance in these areas throughout the year. Through this structure, we have established a strong culture of safety within our organization.

Training: Training is an essential part of our health and safety strategy. To minimize the risk of accident or injury, we give our employees the information they need, delivered effectively and at the appropriate time. Our ongoing training programs demonstrate our commitment to targeting zero accidents, making sure that safety is always front of mind and that we continually raise standards.

Every year, employees across our sites take part in a variety of site-specific training courses to enable them to be competent and safe in their roles.

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Available Information

Our corporate website is www.innospec.com. We make available, free of charge, on or through this website our annual, quarterly and current reports, and any amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing such material with, or furnishing it to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). In addition, the SEC maintains an internet site at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information that we file electronically with the SEC.

The Company routinely posts important information for investors on its website (under Investor Relations). The Company uses this website as a means of disclosing material, non-public information and for complying with its disclosure obligations under SEC Regulation FD (“Fair Disclosure”). Accordingly, investors should monitor the Investor Relations portion of the Company’s website, in addition to following the Company’s press releases, SEC filings, public conference calls, presentations and webcasts.

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Item 1A Risk Factors

The factors described below represent the principal risks associated with our business.

Global Conditions

Competition and market conditions may adversely affect our operating results.

In certain markets, our competitors are larger than us and may have greater access to financial, technological and other resources. As a result, competitors may be better able to adapt to changes in conditions in our industries, fluctuations in the costs of raw materials or changes in global economic conditions. Competitors may also be able to introduce new products with enhanced features that may cause a decline in the demand and sales of our products. Consolidation of customers or competitors, or economic problems of customers in our markets could cause a loss of market share for our products, place downward pressure on prices, result in payment delays or non-payment, or declining plant utilization rates. These risks could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Continuing adverse global economic conditions could materially affect our current and future businesses.

Global economic factors affecting our business include, but are not limited to, geopolitical instability in some markets, consumer demand for premium personal care and cosmetic products, miles driven by passenger and commercial vehicles, legislation to control fuel quality, impact of alternative propulsion systems, and oil and gas drilling and production rates. The availability, cost and terms of credit have been, and may continue to be, adversely affected by the foregoing factors and these circumstances have produced, and may in the future result in, illiquid markets and wider credit spreads, which may make it difficult or more expensive for us to obtain credit.

The level of inflation and energy costs may result in an adverse impact to the group’s results from employee wages and other costs of operations of our manufacturing sites.

Continuing uncertainties in the U.S. and international markets and economies leading to a decline in business and consumer spending could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Domestic or international natural disasters or terrorist attacks may disrupt our operations, decrease the demand for our products or otherwise have an adverse impact on our business.

Chemical related assets, and U.S. corporations such as us, may be at greater risk of future terrorist attacks than other possible targets in the U.S., the U.K. and throughout the world. Extraordinary events such as natural disasters may negatively affect local economies, including those of our customers or suppliers. The occurrence and consequences of such events cannot be predicted, but they can adversely impact economic conditions in general and in our specific markets. The resulting damage from such events could include loss of life, severe injury and property damage or site closure. Any of these matters could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

While Innospec maintains business continuity plans that are intended to allow it to continue operations or mitigate the effects of events that could disrupt its business, Innospec cannot provide assurances that its plans would fully protect it from all such events. In addition, insurance maintained by Innospec to protect against property damage, loss of business and other related consequences resulting from catastrophic

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events is subject to coverage limitations, depending on the nature of the risk insured. This insurance may not be sufficient to cover all of Innospec’s damages or damages to others in the event of a catastrophe. In addition, insurance related to these types of risks may not be available now or, if available, may not be available in the future at commercially reasonable rates.

Our business and operations have been, and may in the future be, adversely affected by epidemics, pandemics, outbreaks of disease and other adverse public health developments, including COVID-19.

Epidemics, pandemics, outbreaks of novel diseases and other adverse public health developments in countries and states where we operate may arise at any time. Such developments, including the COVID-19 pandemic, have had, and in the future may have, an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. These effects include a potentially negative impact on the availability of our key personnel, labor shortages and increased turnover, temporary closures of our facilities or facilities of our business partners, customers, suppliers, third-party service providers or other vendors, and interruption of domestic and global supply chains, distribution channels and liquidity and capital or financial markets. In particular, restrictions on or disruptions of transportation, port closures or increased border controls or closures, or other impacts on domestic and global supply chains or distribution channels, could increase our costs for raw materials and commodity costs, increase demand for raw materials and commodities from competing purchasers, limit our ability to meet customer demand or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations or cash flows.

Precautionary measures that we may take in the future intended to limit the impact of any epidemic, pandemic, disease outbreak or other public health development, may result in additional costs. In addition, such epidemics, pandemics, disease outbreaks or other public health developments may adversely affect economies and financial markets throughout the world, such as the effect that COVID-19 has had on world economies and financial markets, which may affect our ability to obtain additional financing for our businesses and demand for our products and services. The extent to which COVID-19 or other pandemics will impact our business and our financial results in the future will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted. Such developments may include ongoing spread of the virus, disease severity, outbreak duration, extent of any reoccurrence of the COVID-19 or any evolutions or mutations of the virus, and availability, administration and effectiveness of vaccines and development of therapeutic treatments that can restore consumer and business economic confidence.

Business Operations

We face risks related to our foreign operations that may adversely affect our business.

We serve global markets and operate in certain countries with political and economic instability, including the Middle East, Northern Africa, Asia-Pacific, Eastern Europe and South American regions. Our international operations are subject to numerous international business risks including, but not limited to, geopolitical and economic conditions, military actions and war, risk of expropriation, import and export restrictions, trade wars, exchange controls, national and regional labor strikes, high or unexpected taxes, government royalties and restrictions on repatriation of earnings or proceeds from liquidated assets of overseas subsidiaries. Any of these could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

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We may not be able to consummate, finance or successfully integrate future acquisitions, partnerships or other opportunities into our business, which could hinder our strategy or result in unanticipated expenses and losses.

Part of our strategy is to pursue strategic acquisitions, partnerships and other opportunities to complement and expand our existing business. The success of these transactions depends on our ability to efficiently complete transactions, integrate assets and personnel acquired in these transactions and apply our internal control processes to these acquired businesses. Consummating acquisitions, partnerships or other opportunities and integrating acquisitions involves considerable expense, resources and management time commitments, and our failure to manage these as intended could result in unanticipated expenses and losses. Post-acquisition integration may result in unforeseen difficulties and may deplete significant financial and management resources that could otherwise be available for the ongoing development or expansion of existing operations. Furthermore, we may not realize the benefits of an acquisition in the way we anticipated when we first entered the transaction. Any of these risks could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Our success depends on our management team and other key personnel, the loss of any of whom could disrupt our business operations.

Our future success will depend in substantial part on the continued services of our senior management. The loss of the services of one or more of our key executive personnel could affect the implementation of our business plan and result in reduced profitability. Our future success also depends on the continued ability to attract, develop, retain and motivate highly-qualified technical and support staff. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to retain our key personnel or attract or retain qualified personnel in the future. If we are unsuccessful in our efforts in this regard, this could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

An information technology system failure may adversely affect our business.

We rely on information technology systems to transact our business. Like other global companies, we and our third-party service providers have, from time to time, been and will likely in the future be, subject to or targets of unauthorized or fraudulent access, including, but not limited to, physical or electronic break-ins or unauthorized tampering, as well as attempted cyber and other security threats and other computer-related penetrations including by state actors, terrorists or organized crime. Also, like other global companies, we have an increasing challenge of attracting and retaining highly qualified security personnel to assist us in combating these security threats. The frequency and sophistication of such threats continue to increase, with malicious actors frequently changing tactics and techniques. These threats often become further heightened in connection with geopolitical tensions.

The rapid evolution and increased adoption of artificial intelligence technologies may intensify our cyber security risks. The proliferation of third-party financial data aggregators and emerging technologies, including our use of automation, artificial intelligence and robotics, increase our cyber security risks and exposure. Artificial intelligence capabilities may be used to identify vulnerabilities and craft increasingly sophisticated cyber security attacks. Vulnerabilities may be introduced from the use of artificial intelligence by us, our customers, suppliers and other business partners and third-party providers.

Although we have implemented administrative and technical controls and take protective actions to reduce the risk of cyber incidents and breaches of our information technology, and we endeavor to modify such procedures as circumstances warrant, such measures may be insufficient to prevent physical and electronic break-ins, cyber-attacks or other security breaches to our computer systems.

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Our systems, processes, software and network and those of our third-party service providers may be vulnerable to internal or external security breaches, computer viruses, malware or other malicious code or cyber-attacks, catastrophic events, power interruptions, hardware failures, fire, natural disasters, human error, system failures and disruptions, and other events that could have security consequences. An information technology failure or disruption could prevent us from being able to process transactions with our customers, operate our manufacturing facilities, and properly report those transactions in a timely manner. Our information technology costs may increase to ensure the appropriate level of cyber security as we continuously adapt to the changing technological environment.

While we have limited insurance coverage in place that may, subject to policy terms and conditions, cover certain aspects of cyber risks, this insurance coverage is subject to certain limitations and may not be applicable to a particular incident or otherwise be sufficient to cover all of our losses beyond any coverage limitations. Furthermore, a significant or protracted information technology system failure may result in a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Decline in our AvGas business.

The sales of our AvGas product line for use in aviation fuel are recorded within our Fuel Specialties business. The piston aviation industry has been, and is currently, researching a safe replacement fuel to replace leaded fuel. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”) program (Piston Aviation Fuels Initiative) has been established to identify a replacement fuel, and candidate fuels are at an early pre-screening stage. In 2022, the FAA created a new team named Eliminate Aviation Gasoline Lead Emissions (“EAGLE”). This is a government-industry partnership that also encompasses fuel producers and distributors, airport operators, communities that support general aviation airports, and environmental experts. The most significant announcement impacting the Company is the stated aim of EAGLE to eliminate lead emissions from general aviation by the end of 2030. There are also regulatory projects underway for the E.U., which are considering the phase out of leaded fuel for the aviation industry earlier than the FAA timetable.

While we expect that at some point in the future a replacement fuel will be identified, trialed and supplied to the industry, there is no currently available alternative. If a suitable product is identified and the use of leaded fuel is prohibited in piston aviation, the Company’s future operating income and cash flows from operating activities would be adversely impacted.

Failure to protect our intellectual property rights could adversely affect our future performance and cash flows.

Failure to maintain or protect our intellectual property rights may result in the loss of valuable technologies, or us having to pay other companies for infringing on their intellectual property rights. Measures taken by us to protect our intellectual property may be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or rendered unenforceable. In addition, international intellectual property laws may be more restrictive or may offer lower levels of protection than under U.S. law. We may also face patent infringement claims from our competitors which may result in substantial litigation costs, claims for damages or a tarnishing of our reputation even if we are successful in defending against these claims, which may cause our customers to switch to our competitors. Any of these events could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

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Industry Matters

Trends in oil and gas prices affect the level of exploration, development and production activity of our customers, and the demand for our services and products, which could have a material adverse impact on our business.

Demand for our services and products in our Oilfield Services business is particularly sensitive to the level of exploration, development and production activity of, and the corresponding capital spending by, oil and gas companies. The level of exploration, development and production activity is directly affected by trends in demand for and prices of oil and gas, which historically have been volatile and are likely to continue to be volatile. Prices for oil and gas are subject to large fluctuations in response to relatively minor changes in the supply of and demand for oil and gas, market uncertainty, and a variety of other economic and political factors that are beyond our control. Even the perception of longer-term lower oil and gas prices by oil and gas companies can similarly reduce or defer major expenditures given the long-term nature of many large-scale development projects. Factors affecting the prices of oil and gas include, but are not limited to, the level of supply and demand for oil and gas; governmental regulations, including the policies of governments regarding the exploration for and production and development of their oil and gas reserves; weather conditions and natural disasters; worldwide political, military and economic conditions; the level of oil and gas production by non-OPEC (“Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries”) countries and the available excess production capacity within OPEC; the cost of producing and delivering oil and gas; and potential acceleration of the development of alternative power generation, fuels and engine technologies. Any prolonged reduction in oil and gas prices will depress the immediate levels of exploration, development and production activity, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

We could be adversely affected by technological changes in our industry.

Our ability to maintain or enhance our technological capabilities, develop and market products and applications that meet changing customer requirements, and successfully anticipate or respond to technological changes in a cost effective and timely manner will likely impact our future business success. We compete on a number of fronts including, but not limited to, product quality and performance. In the case of some of our products, our competitors are larger than us and may have greater access to financial, technological and other resources. Technological changes include, but are not limited to, the development of electric and hybrid vehicles, and the subsequent impact on the demand for gasoline and diesel. Our inability to maintain a technological edge, innovate and improve our products could cause a decline in the demand and sales of our products, and adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Sharp and unexpected fluctuations in the cost of our raw materials and energy could adversely affect our profit margins.

We use a variety of raw materials, chemicals and energy in our manufacturing and blending processes. Many of these raw materials are derived from petrochemical-based and vegetable-based feedstocks which can be subject to periods of rapid and significant cost instability. These fluctuations in cost can be caused by political instability in oil producing nations and elsewhere, weather conditions or other factors influencing global supply and demand of these materials, over which we have little or no control. We use long-term contracts (generally with fixed or formula-based costs) and advance bulk purchases to help ensure availability and continuity of supply, and to manage the risk of cost increases. From time to time, we have entered into hedging arrangements for certain utilities and raw materials, but do not typically enter into hedging arrangements for all raw materials, chemicals or energy costs. If the costs of raw

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materials, chemicals or energy increase, and we are not able to pass on these cost increases to our customers, then profit margins and cash flows from operating activities would be adversely impacted. If raw material costs increase significantly, then our need for working capital could increase. Any of these risks could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Our business is subject to the risk of manufacturing disruptions, the occurrence of which would adversely affect our results of operations.

We are subject to hazards which are common to chemical manufacturing, blending, storage, handling and transportation. These hazards include, but are not limited to, fires, explosions, chemical spills and the release or discharge of toxic or hazardous substances together with the more generic risks of labor strikes or slowdowns, mechanical failure in scheduled downtime, extreme weather or transportation interruptions. These hazards could result in loss of life, severe injury, property damage, environmental contamination and temporary or permanent manufacturing cessation. Any of these factors could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Legal, Regulatory and Tax Matters

We are subject to extensive regulation of our international operations that could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Due to our global operations, we are subject to many laws governing international commercial activity, conduct and relations, including, but not limited to, those that prohibit improper payments to government officials, restrict where and with whom we can do business and limit the products, software and technology that we can supply to certain countries and customers. These laws include, but are not limited to, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and U.K. Bribery Act, sanctions and assets control programs administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury and/or the E.U. from time to time, and the U.S. export control laws such as the regulations under the U.S. Export Administration Act, as well as similar laws and regulations in other countries relevant to our business operations. Violations of any of these laws or regulations, which are often complex in their application, may result in criminal or civil penalties that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Our U.K. defined benefit pension plan could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Movements in the underlying plan asset value and Projected Benefit Obligation (“PBO”) of our U.K. defined benefit pension plan (“UK Plan”) are dependent on our assumptions in respect of the discount rate, annual member mortality rates, future return on assets and future inflation. A change in any one of these assumptions could impact the plan asset value, PBO and pension credit recognized in the income statement.

In May 2022, the Trustees of the UK Plan entered into an agreement with Legal and General Assurance Society Limited to acquire an insurance policy that operates as an investment asset, with the intent of matching the remaining uninsured part of the UK Plan’s future cash outflow arising from the accrued pension liabilities of members. Such an arrangement is commonly termed as a “buy-in”. The benefit obligation was not transferred to the insurer, and the Company remains responsible for paying pension benefits. The initial value of the asset associated with this contract was equal to the premium paid to secure the contract and is adjusted each reporting period to reflect the estimated fair value of the premium that would be paid for such a contract at that time. The buy-in reduces the UK Plan’s value at risk in relation to key risks associated with improved longevity, inflation and interest rate movements while improving

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the security to the UK Plan and its members. The Company consequently benefits from the buy-in as it reduces the UK Plan’s potential reliance on the Company for future cash funding requirements. However, should an unexpected issue arise, there could be consequences which adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

We may have additional tax liabilities.

We are subject to income and other taxes in the U.S., the U.K., and a number of other jurisdictions. Tax laws are dynamic and subject to change as new laws are passed and new interpretations of the law are issued or applied. Significant judgment is required in estimating our worldwide provision for income taxes. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, any final determination pursuant to tax audits and any related litigation could be materially different to the amounts reflected in our Consolidated Financial Statements. Should any tax authority disagree with our estimates and determine any additional tax liabilities, including interest and penalties for us, this could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

In 2021, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”) released Pillar Two Global Anti-Base Erosion model rules (“Pillar Two Rules”), designed to ensure large corporations are taxed at a minimum rate of 15% in all countries of operation. Although the U.S. has not yet enacted legislation implementing Pillar Two Rules, other countries where Innospec does business, including the U.K., have enacted legislation implementing Pillar Two Rules which are effective from January 1, 2024. We are continuing to evaluate the Pillar Two Rules and their potential impact on future periods, though we do not expect the Pillar Two Rules to have a material impact on the Company’s effective tax rate.

Our products are subject to extensive government scrutiny and regulation.

We are subject to regulation by federal, state, local and foreign government authorities. In some cases, we need government approval of our products, manufacturing processes and facilities before we may sell certain products. Many products are required to be registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and with comparable government agencies elsewhere. We are also subject to ongoing reviews of our products, manufacturing processes and facilities by government authorities, and must also produce product data and comply with detailed regulatory requirements.

In order to obtain regulatory approval of certain new products we must, among other things, demonstrate that the product is appropriate and effective for its intended uses, that the product has been appropriately tested for safety and that we are capable of manufacturing the product in accordance with applicable regulations. This approval process can be costly, time consuming, and subject to unanticipated and significant delays. We cannot be sure that necessary approvals will be granted on a timely basis or at all. Any delay in obtaining, or any failure to obtain or maintain, these approvals would adversely affect our ability to introduce new products and to generate income from those products. New or stricter laws and regulations may be introduced that could result in additional compliance costs and prevent or inhibit the development, manufacture, distribution and sale of our products. Such outcomes could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Diverse chemical regulatory processes in different countries around the world might create complexity and additional cost. U.K. REACH, which was precipitated by the U.K.’s exit from the E.U., is one such example.

16


 

Legal proceedings and other claims could impose substantial costs on us.

We are from time to time involved in legal proceedings that result from, and are incidental to, the conduct of our business, including employee and product liability claims. Although we maintain insurance to protect us against a variety of claims, if our insurance coverage is not adequate to cover such claims, then we may be required to pay directly for such liabilities. Such outcomes could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Environmental liabilities and compliance costs could have a substantial adverse impact on our results of operations.

We operate a number of manufacturing sites and are subject to extensive federal, state, local and foreign environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, those relating to emissions to the air, discharges to land and water, and the generation, handling, treatment and disposal of hazardous waste and other materials on these sites. We operate under numerous environmental permits and licenses, many of which require periodic notification and renewal, which is not automatic. New or stricter laws and regulations could increase our compliance burden or costs and adversely affect our ability to develop, manufacture, blend, market and supply products.

Our operations, and the operations of prior owners of our sites, pose the risk of environmental contamination which may result in fines or criminal sanctions being imposed or require significant amounts in environmental remediation payments.

We anticipate that certain manufacturing sites may cease production over time and on closure, will require safely decommissioning and some environmental remediation. The extent of our obligations will depend on the future use of the sites that are affected and the environmental laws in effect at the time. We currently hold a plant closure provision in our Consolidated Financial Statements based on current known obligations, anticipated plans for sites or existing environmental laws. If there were to be unexpected or unknown contamination at these sites, or future plans for the sites or environmental laws change, then current provisions may prove inadequate, which could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

We may be exposed to certain regulatory and financial risks related to climate change.

The outcome of new or potential legislation or regulation in the U.S. and other jurisdictions in which we operate may result in new or additional requirements, additional charges to fund energy efficiency activities, fees or restrictions on certain activities. Compliance with these initiatives may also result in additional costs to us, including, among other things, increased production costs, additional taxes, reduced emission allowances or additional restrictions on production or operations. Any climate change regulations enacted in the future could also negatively impact our ability to compete with companies situated in areas not subject to such limitations. Even without such regulation, increased public awareness and adverse publicity about potential impacts on climate change emanating from us or our industry could harm us. We may not be able to recover the cost of compliance with new or more stringent laws and regulations, which could adversely affect our business and negatively impact our growth. Furthermore, the potential impacts of climate change and related regulation on our customers are highly uncertain and may adversely affect us.

17


 

Key Third-Party Relationships

Having a small number of significant customers may have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.

Our principal customers are personal and home care companies, oil refiners, oil and gas exploration and production companies, and other chemical and industrial companies. These industries are characterized by a concentration of a few large participants. The loss of a significant customer, a material reduction in demand by a significant customer or termination or non-renewal of a significant customer contract could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

A disruption in the supply of raw materials or transportation services would have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.

Although we try to anticipate problems with supplies of raw materials or transportation services by building certain inventories of strategic importance, transport operations are exposed to various risks such as extreme weather conditions, natural disasters, technological problems, work stoppages, geopolitical tensions, pandemics, as well as transportation regulations. If the Company experiences transportation problems, or if there are significant changes in the cost of these services, the Company may not be able to arrange efficient alternatives and timely means to obtain raw materials or ship finished products, which could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

The inability of counterparties to meet their contractual obligations could have a substantial adverse impact on our results of operations.

Credit limits, ongoing credit evaluation and account monitoring procedures are used to minimize bad debt risk. Collateral is not generally required. We have in place a credit facility with a syndicate of banks. From time to time, we use derivatives, including, but not limited to, interest rate swaps, commodity swaps and foreign currency forward exchange contracts, in the normal course of business to manage market risks. We enter into derivative instruments with a diversified group of major financial institutions in order to manage the exposure to non-performance of such instruments.

We remain subject to market and credit risks including the ability of counterparties to meet their contractual obligations and the potential non-performance of counterparties to deliver contracted commodities or services at the contracted price. The inability of counterparties to meet their contractual obligations could have an adverse impact on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Finance and Investment

We are exposed to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, which may adversely affect our results of operations.

We generate a portion of our revenues and incur some operating costs in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. In addition, the financial position and results of operations of some of our overseas subsidiaries are reported in the relevant local currency and then translated to U.S. dollars at the applicable currency exchange rates for inclusion in our Consolidated Financial Statements. Fluctuations in these currency exchange rates affect the recorded levels of our assets and liabilities, results of operations and cash flows.

The primary exchange rate fluctuation exposures we have are with the E.U. euro, British pound sterling and Brazilian real. Exchange rates between these currencies and the U.S. dollar have fluctuated in recent years and may continue to do so. We cannot accurately predict future exchange rate variability among

18


 

these currencies or relative to the U.S. dollar. While we take steps to manage currency exchange rate exposure, including entering into hedging transactions, we cannot eliminate all exposure to future exchange rate variability. These exchange risks could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

A high concentration of significant stockholders may have a material adverse impact on our stock price.

Approximately 45% of our common stock is held by four stockholders. A decision by any of these, or other substantial, stockholders to sell all or a significant part of its holding, or a sudden or unexpected disposition of our stock, could result in a significant decline in our stock price. This could in turn adversely impact our ability to access equity markets, which could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Our amended and restated by-laws designate specific Delaware courts as the exclusive forum for certain litigation that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our amended and restated by-laws (the “By-laws”) provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the appropriate court within the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum, to the fullest extent provided by law, for the following types of actions or proceedings:

any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation,
any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, other employee or stockholder of the Corporation to the Corporation or the Corporation’s stockholders,
any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”), our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, the By-laws, or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction upon the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware,
any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, or
any other internal corporate claim as defined in Section 115 of the DGCL.

This includes, to the extent permitted by the federal securities laws, lawsuits asserting both state law claims and claims under the federal securities laws.

This forum selection provision in the By-laws may limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us. It is also possible that, notwithstanding the forum selection clause included in the By-laws, a court could rule that such a provision is inapplicable or unenforceable.

Application of the choice of forum provision may be limited in some instances by law. Section 27 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”) provides for exclusive federal court jurisdiction over Exchange Act claims. Accordingly, to the extent the exclusive forum provision is held to cover a shareholder derivative action asserting claims under the Exchange Act, such claims could not be brought in the Delaware Court of Chancery and would instead be within the jurisdiction of the federal district court for the District of Delaware. Section 22 of the Securities Act of 1933 (“Securities Act”) creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Our stockholders will not be deemed by operation of our choice of forum provision to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the

19


 

regulations promulgated thereunder. The selection of legal jurisdiction for litigation claims may impact the outcome of legal proceedings which could in turn impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

The provisions of our revolving credit facility may restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness or to otherwise expand our business.

Our revolving credit facility contains restrictive clauses which may limit our activities as well as operational and financial flexibility. We may not be able to borrow under the revolving credit facility if an event of default under the terms of the facility occurs. An event of default under the credit facility includes a material adverse change to our assets, operations or financial condition, and certain other events. The revolving credit facility also contains a number of restrictions that limit our ability, among other things, and subject to certain limited exceptions, to incur additional indebtedness, pledge our assets as security, guarantee obligations of third parties, make investments, undergo a merger or consolidation, dispose of assets or materially change our line of business.

In addition, the revolving credit facility requires us to meet certain financial ratios, including ratios based on net debt to earnings before income tax, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) and net interest expense to EBITDA. Net debt, net interest expense and EBITDA are non-GAAP measures of liquidity defined in the credit facility. Our ability to meet these financial covenants depends upon the future successful operating performance of the business. If we fail to comply with these financial covenants, we would be in default under the revolving credit facility and the maturity of our outstanding debt could be accelerated unless we were able to obtain waivers from our lenders. If we were found to be in default under the revolving credit facility, it could adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Item 1B Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 1C Cyber Security

Risk Management & Strategy

Innospec has strategically integrated cyber security risk management into its broader risk management framework to promote a company-wide culture of cyber security risk management. This integration ensures that cyber security considerations are an integral part of our decision-making processes at every level. For example, training on cyber security risks was required of all Innospec directors and employees who have access to our information technology resources. Our risk management team works closely with our Information Technology (“IT”) leadership to continuously evaluate and address cyber security risks in alignment with our business objectives and operational needs.

Innospec’s IT leadership team is responsible for assessing, identifying and managing the inherent and residual risks associated with cyber security threats across our IT and Operational Technology landscape. IT leadership periodically reviews the Company’s external threats, portfolio, and external services, and will update its risk register accordingly.

IT leadership will, when required by either executive management or the Board, engage third-party reviews of our overall cyber security compliance using The National Institute of Technology (“NIST”) framework. IT leadership will also periodically engage specialist security contractors to test the

20


 

Company’s resilience to cyber security threats, conduct penetration testing and vulnerability assessments across its assets and request additional investment where necessary to further improve our cyber security.

Innospec utilizes an external service to provide ongoing analysis of the security related to our critical third-party service providers for IT operations and business IT services. Innospec will use the information provided by this external service as part of its IT vendor selection criteria and for ongoing third-party risk management.

Innospec’s cyber security is underpinned by a third-party specialist that monitors critical systems and end-user devices for cyber-attacks. In the first instance, cyber-attacks are brought to the attention of the IT leadership for evaluation and remediation before further escalation to the CEO and CFO is considered.

Periodically, our systems are subject to targeted attacks which are intended to interrupt our operations or may lead to the loss, misuse or theft of personal information relating to our employees, suppliers and customers or lead to the loss of Company data, confidential information or our intellectual property.

Governance

Innospec’s Board and its committees provide oversight of the Company’s IT, including cyber security, in connection with the Company’s efforts to assess and manage the Company’s risk exposure. Oversight of risk management, including cyber security risk management is an integral part of Board and committee deliberations throughout the year. Since 2019, the Board has retained NCC Group (“NCC”) to perform cyber security reviews. NCC reports its findings directly to the Board. In addition, in early 2020 the Audit Committee retained Deloitte to lead a series of information technology risk evaluations. The evaluation resulted in a three-year audit plan covering Cyber Security, Legacy IT and IT Strategy. The audit plan was approved by the Audit Committee.

Innospec’s Board has delegated responsibility for the management of the Company’s IT to the Company's IT steering committee via the CEO and CFO. The IT steering committee is made up of executive management, business leaders from our reporting segments, the functional heads responsible for our operating systems, IT leadership and is chaired by our Global IT Director. The Company considers that the IT steering committee members have the appropriate qualifications and experience required to enable them to fulfill their responsibilities. The IT steering committee may, as per its agreed terms of reference, escalate any matter it wishes to the Board via either the CEO or CFO.

IT leadership is made up of senior managers with the appropriate qualifications and business experience required for their roles across Innospec’s IT operations. The Company considers that the IT leadership team is sufficiently experienced and qualified in its role of assessing and managing cyber security risks across the business. IT leadership formally reports through the CEO and CFO to the Board.

Innospec’s CEO and CFO are involved with and approve the Company’s strategy for managing the prevention, detection, mitigation and remediation of cyber security incidents as part of its “IT Security Management System” which includes defined escalation and internal communications processes and responsibilities.

IT leadership will, as required, present to the IT steering committee, information regarding any IT risks identified and the mitigation plans to reduce the Company’s residual risks. The IT steering committee will be regularly updated as to the occurrence, mitigation and resolution of cyber security incidents. Any cyber security incident that is considered significant in nature will be shared by IT leadership with the IT steering committee in accordance with the agreed communication and escalation processes. The IT steering

21


 

committee will assess the incident and make a recommendation to the CEO and CFO as to whether the incident is reportable to the SEC and/or other regulators or stakeholders.

In the last three fiscal years, management has determined there were no cyber security threats that have materially affected Innospec and that the expenses incurred relating to cyber incidents have been immaterial. The Company is not aware of any threats that are reasonably likely to materially affect its business strategy, results of operations or financial condition for the foreseeable future.

IT leadership provides a written report to the Board each quarter and the Global IT Director presents in person at least annually. Those reports and presentations include information on Innospec’s cyber security and the related key performance indicators. IT leadership also provides external threat analysis to the Board when new relevant threats are identified as being exploitable and their potential impact on Innospec.

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Item 2 Properties

General

A summary of the Company’s principal properties is shown in the following table. Each of these properties is owned by the Company except where otherwise noted:

 

Location

Reporting Segment

Operations

Englewood, Colorado (1)

Fuel Specialties

Corporate Headquarters/

Business Teams/

Sales/Administration

Newark, Delaware (1)

Fuel Specialties

Research & Development

Herne, Germany

Fuel Specialties

Sales/Manufacturing/Administration/

Research & Development

Vernon, France

Fuel Specialties

Sales/Manufacturing/Administration/

Research & Development

Leuna, Germany

Fuel Specialties

Sales/Manufacturing/Administration/

Research & Development

Ellesmere Port, United Kingdom

Fuel Specialties, Performance Chemicals

European Headquarters/

Business Teams/

Sales/Manufacturing/Administration/

Research & Development/

Fuel Technology Center

Beijing, China (1)

Fuel Specialties and Performance Chemicals

Sales/Administration

Shanghai, China (1)

Fuel Specialties and Performance Chemicals

Sales/Administration

Singapore, Singapore (1)

Fuel Specialties and Performance Chemicals

Asia-Pacific Headquarters/

Business Teams/

Sales/Administration

Milan, Italy (1)

Fuel Specialties and Performance Chemicals

Sales/Administration

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1)

Fuel Specialties, Performance Chemicals and Oilfield Services

Sales/Administration

São Paulo, Brazil

Performance Chemicals

Manufacturing/Administration/

Research & Development

 

 

 

High Point, North Carolina

Performance Chemicals

Manufacturing/Administration/

Research & Development

Salisbury, North Carolina

Performance Chemicals

Manufacturing/Administration/

Research & Development

Chatsworth, California (1)

Performance Chemicals

Sales/Manufacturing/Administration

Saint Mihiel, France

Performance Chemicals

Manufacturing/Administration/Research & Development

Castiglione, Italy

Performance Chemicals

Manufacturing/Administration/Research & Development

Barcelona, Spain (1)

Performance Chemicals

Manufacturing/Administration/Research & Development

23


 

Location

Reporting Segment

Operations

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Oilfield Services

Sales/Manufacturing/Administration

Midland, Texas

Oilfield Services

Sales/Manufacturing/Administration

Pleasanton, Texas

Oilfield Services

Sales/Manufacturing/Administration

Sugar Land, Texas (1)

Oilfield Services

Sales/Administration/Research & Development

The Woodlands, Houston, Texas (1)

Oilfield Services

Sales/Administration/Research & Development

Williston, North Dakota

Oilfield Services

Sales/Warehouse

Casper, Wyoming (1)

Oilfield Services

Warehouse

 

 

 

Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1)

Oilfield Services

Sales/Warehouse/Administration

 

(1)
Leased property

Manufacturing Capacity

We believe that our plants and supply agreements are sufficient to meet current sales levels. Operating rates of the plants are generally flexible and varied with product mix and normal sales demand swings. We believe that all of our facilities are maintained to appropriate levels and in sufficient operating condition though there remains an ongoing need for maintenance and capital investment.

Item 3 Legal Proceedings

Legal matters

We are involved from time to time in claims and legal proceedings that result from, and are incidental to, the conduct of our business including business and commercial litigation, and employee and product liability claims.

As previously reported in the first quarter of 2023, we lodged a civil and criminal legal claim and insurance claim related to a misappropriation of inventory in Brazil and as a consequence we have written-off $7.4 million of our inventory to cost of goods sold in our Consolidated Financial Statements. In the second quarter of 2023, we incurred additional charges of $8.0 million as we exited the Brazilian trading relationship associated with the inventory misappropriation. The costs incurred in the second quarter of 2023 include $5.0 million to cost of goods sold and $3.0 million to selling, general and administration costs. A corresponding asset for the potential legal or insurance recoveries has not been recorded for the resulting financial losses arising from this matter.

 

In addition, unrelated to the Brazil matter, in the unlikely event there are an unexpectedly large number of individual claims or proceedings with an adverse resolution, this could in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on the results of operations for a particular year or quarter.

Item 4 Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

24


 

PART II

Item 5 Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information and Holders

The Company’s common stock is listed on the NASDAQ under the symbol “IOSP.” As of February 6, 2024, there were 653 registered holders of the common stock.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

There were no unregistered sales of equity securities during the fourth quarter of 2023.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The following table provides information about our repurchases of equity securities in the quarter ended December 31, 2023.

 

Period

 

Total number
of shares
purchased

 

 

Average price
paid per share

 

 

Total number
of shares
purchased as
part of
publicly
announced
plans or
programs

 

 

Approximate
dollar value
of shares
that may yet
be purchased
under the
plans or
programs

October 1, 2023 through October 31,
   2023

 

 

900

 

 

$

95.95

 

 

 

900

 

 

$43.6 million

November 1, 2023 through November 30,
   2023

 

 

447

 

 

$

100.61

 

 

 

 

 

$43.6 million

Total

 

 

1,347

 

 

$

97.50

 

 

 

900

 

 

$43.6 million

During the quarter ended December 31, 2023, the Company purchased its common stock as part of a share repurchase program announced on February 15, 2022. The repurchase program allows for up to $50 million of the Company’s common stock to be repurchased in the open market over a three-year period commencing on February 16, 2022.

The company also repurchased its common stock in connection with the exercising of stock options by employees.

 

 

25


 

Stock Price Performance Graph

The graph below compares the cumulative total return to stockholders on the common stock of the Corporation, the S&P 500 Index, the S&P 1500 Specialty Chemicals Index and the Russell 2000 index since December 31, 2018, assuming a $100 investment and the re-investment of any dividends thereafter. Historical stock price performance should not be relied upon as an indication of future stock price performance.

img168268360_0.jpg

 

Value of $100 Investment made December 31, 2018*

 

 

2018

 

 

2019

 

 

2020

 

 

2021

 

 

2022

 

 

2023

 

Innospec Inc.

 

$

100.00

 

 

$

169.14

 

 

$

150.06

 

 

$

151.33

 

 

$

174.45

 

 

$

211.40

 

S&P 500 Index

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

131.49

 

 

 

155.68

 

 

 

200.37

 

 

 

164.08

 

 

 

207.21

 

S&P 1500 Specialty Chemicals
    Index

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

118.29

 

 

 

137.60

 

 

 

175.78

 

 

 

132.06

 

 

 

151.74

 

Russell 2000 Index

 

$

100.00

 

 

$

125.52

 

 

$

150.58

 

 

$

172.89

 

 

$

137.56

 

 

$

160.85

 

 

* Excludes purchase commissions.

26


 

Item 6 [Reserved]

27


 

Item 7 Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

This discussion should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes thereto.

EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW

 

In 2023 Innospec delivered strong results. We again benefited from our balanced end-market exposure as the negative impact of customer destocking in Performance Chemicals was offset by significant growth in Oilfield Services, and steady results in Fuel Specialties.

 

In Performance Chemicals, full year sales and operating income declined, but we believe that destocking pressure peaked in the third quarter of 2023. This combined with new contract awards contributed to significant sequential improvement in operating income and margins in the second half of 2023. While the economic environment remains a challenge, we expect further improvement in this business in 2024 as activity levels return. In addition, we acquired QGP which we believe will further strengthen our Performance Chemicals segment and add a manufacturing base in South America to compliment all of our end markets.

 

In Fuel Specialties, after adjusting for the non-recurring Brazil inventory charges in the first half of 2023, full-year operating income grew and operating margins improved to 18%. Our target for operating margins continues to be 19-21%. Sales growth combined with further margin improvement is a key focus and opportunity for the global Fuel Specialties team in 2024.

 

Oilfield Services had another excellent full year. Operating income approximately doubled and operating margins improved above our 10% target. While we expect production chemicals activity to remain at moderate levels in 2024, we continue to pursue further sales growth and margin improvement in our other segments.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES

Note 2 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements includes a summary of the significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Plant Closure Provisions

We are subject to environmental laws in the countries in which we conduct business. Ellesmere Port in the U.K. is our principal site giving rise to asset retirement obligations, associated with the production of TEL. There are also asset retirement obligations and environmental remediation liabilities on a much smaller scale in respect of other manufacturing sites. At Ellesmere Port there is a continuing asset retirement program related to certain manufacturing units that have been closed.

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Plant closure provisions at December 31, 2023 amounted to $61.6 million and relate principally to our Ellesmere Port site in the U.K.. We recognize environmental remediation liabilities when they are probable and costs can be reasonably estimated, and asset retirement obligations when there is a legal requirement, including those arising from a Company promise, and the costs can be reasonably estimated. The Company has to anticipate the program of work required and the associated future expected costs, and comply with environmental legislation in the countries in which it operates or has operated in. We develop these assumptions utilizing the latest information available together with recent costs. While we believe our assumptions for plant closure provisions are reasonable, they are subjective estimates and it is possible that variations in any of the assumptions will result in materially different calculations to the liabilities we have reported.

Income Taxes

We are subject to income and other taxes in the U.S., the U.K. and a number of other jurisdictions. Tax laws are dynamic and subject to change as new laws are passed and new interpretations of the law are issued or applied.

The calculation of our tax liabilities involves evaluating uncertainties in the application of accounting principles and complex tax regulations. We recognize liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues based on our estimate of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be required. If we ultimately determine that payment of these amounts is unnecessary, we reverse the liability and recognize a tax benefit during the period in which we determine that the liability is no longer necessary.

We also recognize tax benefits to the extent that it is more likely than not that our positions will be sustained, based on technical merits of the position, when challenged by the taxing authorities. To the extent that we prevail in matters for which liabilities have been established or are required to pay amounts in excess of the liabilities recorded in our Consolidated Financial Statements, our effective tax rate in a given period may be materially affected. An unfavorable tax settlement may require cash payments and result in an increase in our effective tax rate in the year of resolution. We report interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions as income taxes. For additional information regarding uncertain income tax positions, see Note 11 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Pensions

The Company maintains a defined benefit pension plan covering certain current and former employees in the United Kingdom (“UK Plan”). The UK Plan is closed to future service accrual but has a large number of deferred and current pensioners. The Company also has other smaller pension arrangements in the U.S. and overseas.

In May 2022, the Trustees of the UK Plan entered into an agreement with Legal and General Assurance Society Limited to acquire an insurance policy that operates as an investment asset, with the intent of matching the remaining uninsured part of the UK Plan’s future cash outflow arising from the accrued pension liabilities of members. Such an arrangement is commonly termed as a “buy-in”. The benefit obligation was not transferred to the insurer, and the Company remains responsible for paying pension benefits. The initial value of the asset associated with this contract was equal to the premium paid to secure the contract and is adjusted each reporting period to reflect the estimated fair value of the premium that would be paid for such a contract at that time. The buy-in reduces the UK Plan’s value at risk in relation to key risks associated with improved longevity, inflation and interest rate movements while improving the security to the UK Plan and its members. The Company consequently benefits from the buy-in as it reduces the UK Plan’s potential reliance on the Company for future cash funding requirements.

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Movements in the UK Plan’s Projected Benefit Obligation (“PBO”) are dependent on our assumptions in respect of the discount rate, annual member mortality rates, future return on assets and future inflation. A change in any one of these assumptions could impact the plan asset value, PBO and pension charge recognized in the income statement. Such changes could adversely impact our results of operations and financial position. For example, a 0.25% change in the discount rate assumption would change the PBO at December 31, 2023 by approximately $10.8 million and the net pension credit for 2024 would change by approximately $0.6 million. A 0.25% change in the level of price inflation assumption would change the PBO at December 31, 2023 by approximately $6.9 million and the net pension credit for 2024 by approximately $0.3 million.

Further information is provided in Note 10 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Goodwill

The Company’s reporting units, the level at which goodwill is assessed for potential impairment, are consistent with the reportable segments. The components in each segment (including products, markets and competitors) have similar economic characteristics and the segments, therefore, reflect the lowest level at which operations and cash flows can be sufficiently distinguished, operationally and for financial reporting purposes, from the rest of the Company.

To test for impairment the Company performs a qualitative step zero assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not (that is, a likelihood of more than 50%) that the fair value of a segment is less than the carrying amount prior to performing the quantitative goodwill impairment test. Factors utilized in the qualitative assessment process include macroeconomic conditions; industry and market considerations; cost factors; overall financial performance; and Company specific events.

If a quantitative test is required, we assess the fair value based on projected post-tax cash flows discounted at the Company’s weighted average cost of capital. These fair value techniques require management judgment and estimates including revenue growth rates, projected operating margins, changes in working capital and discount rates. We would develop these assumptions by considering recent financial performance and trends and industry growth estimates. While we believe our assumptions for impairment assessments are reasonable, they are subjective judgments, and it is possible that variations in any of the assumptions will result in materially different calculations of any potential impairment charges.

At December 31, 2023 we had $399.3 million of goodwill relating to our Performance Chemicals, Fuel Specialties and Oilfield Services segments. Our step zero impairment review at December 31, 2023 indicated the fair value of each segment is, more likely than not, higher than the carrying value, meaning no step one impairment review was required to be performed.

30


 

 

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following table provides sales, gross profit and operating income by reporting segment:

 

(in millions)

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Net sales:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Chemicals

 

$

561.6

 

 

$

639.7

 

 

$

525.3

 

Fuel Specialties

 

 

695.9

 

 

 

730.2

 

 

 

618.3

 

Oilfield Services

 

 

691.3

 

 

 

593.8

 

 

 

339.8

 

 

 

$

1,948.8

 

 

$

1,963.7

 

 

$

1,483.4

 

Gross profit:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Chemicals

 

$

105.6

 

 

$

150.0

 

 

$

125.2

 

Fuel Specialties

 

 

215.1

 

 

 

221.9

 

 

 

193.2

 

Oilfield Services

 

 

270.4

 

 

 

214.8

 

 

 

116.5

 

 

$

591.1

 

 

$

586.7

 

 

$

434.9

 

Operating income:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Chemicals

 

$

54.5

 

 

$

95.3

 

 

$

70.9

 

Fuel Specialties

 

 

109.7

 

 

 

121.7

 

 

 

104.6

 

Oilfield Services

 

 

78.6

 

 

 

41.7

 

 

 

10.4

 

Corporate costs

 

 

(81.2

)

 

 

(71.4

)

 

 

(55.6

)

Profit on disposal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.8

 

Total operating income

 

$

161.6

 

 

$

187.3

 

 

$

132.1

 

Other income/(expense), net

 

$

10.5

 

 

$

(1.6

)

 

$

3.8

 

Interest income/(expense), net

 

 

2.3

 

 

 

(1.1

)

 

 

(1.5

)

Income before income taxes

 

 

174.4

 

 

 

184.6

 

 

 

134.4

 

Income taxes

 

 

(35.3

)

 

 

(51.6

)

 

 

(41.3

)

Net income

 

$

139.1

 

 

$

133.0

 

 

$

93.1

 

 

31


 

Results of Operations – Fiscal 2023 compared to Fiscal 2022:

 

(in millions, except ratios)

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

Change

 

 

 

 

Net sales:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Chemicals

 

$

561.6

 

 

$

639.7

 

 

$

(78.1

)

 

 

-12

%

Fuel Specialties

 

 

695.9

 

 

 

730.2

 

 

 

(34.3

)

 

 

-5

%

Oilfield Services

 

 

691.3

 

 

 

593.8

 

 

 

97.5

 

 

 

16

%

 

 

$

1,948.8

 

 

$

1,963.7

 

 

$

(14.9

)

 

 

-1

%

Gross profit:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Chemicals

 

$

105.6

 

 

$

150.0

 

 

$

(44.4

)

 

 

-30

%

Fuel Specialties

 

 

215.1

 

 

 

221.9

 

 

 

(6.8

)

 

 

-3

%

Oilfield Services

 

 

270.4

 

 

 

214.8

 

 

 

55.6

 

 

 

26

%

 

 

$

591.1

 

 

$

586.7

 

 

$

4.4

 

 

 

1

%

Gross margin (%):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Chemicals

 

 

18.8

 

 

 

23.4

 

 

 

(4.6

)

 

 

 

Fuel Specialties

 

 

30.9

 

 

 

30.4

 

 

 

0.5

 

 

 

 

Oilfield Services

 

 

39.1

 

 

 

36.2

 

 

 

2.9

 

 

 

 

Aggregate

 

 

30.3

 

 

 

29.9

 

 

 

0.4

 

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Chemicals

 

$

(51.1

)

 

$

(54.7

)

 

$

3.6

 

 

 

-7

%

Fuel Specialties

 

 

(105.4

)

 

 

(100.2

)

 

 

(5.2

)

 

 

5

%

Oilfield Services

 

 

(191.8

)

 

 

(173.1

)

 

 

(18.7

)

 

 

11

%

Corporate costs

 

 

(81.2

)

 

 

(71.4

)

 

 

(9.8

)

 

 

14

%

 

 

$

(429.5

)

 

$

(399.4

)

 

$

(30.1

)

 

 

8

%

 

Financial information with respect to our domestic and foreign operations is contained in Note 3 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Performance Chemicals

Net sales: the table below details the components which comprise the year over year change in net sales spread across the markets in which we operate:

 

Change (%)

 

Americas

 

 

EMEA

 

 

ASPAC

 

 

Total

 

Volume

 

 

-4

 

 

 

-4

 

 

 

-18

 

 

 

-4

 

Price and product mix

 

 

-12

 

 

 

-7

 

 

 

+1

 

 

 

-9

 

Exchange rates

 

 

 

 

 

+2

 

 

 

+1

 

 

 

+1

 

 

 

-16

 

 

 

-9

 

 

 

-16

 

 

 

-12

 

 

Lower sales volumes for all of our regions were primarily driven by reduced demand for our personal care products resulting from cautious consumer sentiment, together with the impact of destocking by our customers. The Americas and EMEA were impacted by an adverse price and product mix due to a higher proportion of lower priced products being sold. ASPAC benefited from a favorable price and product mix due to a higher proportion of higher priced products being sold.

Gross margin: the year over year decrease of 4.6 percentage points was due to an adverse sales mix from reduced sales of higher margin products and the adverse impact of reduced manufacturing efficiency resulting from lower production volumes.

32


 

Operating expenses: decreased $3.6 million year over year, due to lower selling expenses including commissions, lower performance-related remuneration accruals and lower acquired intangibles amortization following the end of the expected life of the assets.

Fuel Specialties

Net sales: the table below details the components which comprise the year over year change in net sales spread across the markets in which we operate:

 

Change (%)

 

Americas

 

 

EMEA

 

 

ASPAC

 

 

AvGas

 

 

Total

 

Volume

 

 

-10

 

 

 

-12

 

 

 

-22

 

 

 

-1

 

 

 

-12

 

Price and product mix

 

 

+8

 

 

 

+4

 

 

 

+10

 

 

 

-6

 

 

 

+6

 

Exchange rates

 

 

 

 

 

+3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+1

 

 

 

-2

 

 

 

-5

 

 

 

-12

 

 

 

-7

 

 

 

-5

 

 

Sales volumes in all of our regions have decreased year over year, primarily due to a reduction in the sales of lower margin higher volume products. Price and product mix was favorable in all our regions due to an increased proportion of higher margin products being sold. AvGas volumes were lower than the prior year due to variations in the demand from customers, together with an adverse price and product mix due to a higher proportion of sales to lower margin customers.

Gross margin: the year over year increase of 0.5 percentage points was primarily due to a favorable sales mix from increased sales of higher margin products, being partly offset by the impact of the Brazil inventory misappropriation and the ending of that trading relationship.

Operating expenses: the year over year increase of $5.2 million includes increased research and development expenditure and higher provisions for doubtful debts which are primarily related to the ending of the Brazilian trading relationship, being partly offset by lower performance-related remuneration accruals.

Oilfield Services

Net sales: have increased year over year by $97.5 million, or 16%, with the majority of our customer activity concentrated in the Americas region. We believe that customer demand remains strong despite operating income growth moderating, as expected, through the second half of the 2023.

Gross margin: the year over year increase of 2.9 percentage points was due to a favorable sales mix and the benefit of improved pricing.

Operating expenses: the year over year increase of $18.7 million was driven by higher customer service costs which are necessary to support the increase in demand with certain customers, together with higher provisions for doubtful debts, while being partly offset by lower performance-related remuneration accruals.

Other Income Statement Captions

Corporate costs: the year over year increase of $9.8 million was primarily due to acquisition related costs, additional environmental remediation provisions, increased spending on our information technology infrastructure and some legal costs related to the Brazil inventory misappropriation, being partly offset by lower performance-related remuneration accruals.

33


 

Other net income/(expense): for 2023 and 2022, includes the following:

 

(in millions)

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

Change

 

Net pensions credit

 

$

6.9

 

 

$

4.8

 

 

$

2.1

 

Foreign exchange gains/(losses) on translation

 

 

7.6

 

 

 

(7.1

)

 

 

14.7

 

Foreign currency forward contracts gains/(losses)

 

 

(4.0

)

 

 

0.7

 

 

 

(4.7

)

 

$

10.5

 

 

$

(1.6

)

 

$

12.1

 

 

Interest income/(expense), net: was income of $2.3 million in 2023 primarily due to the interest earned on the Company's cash balances, compared to a $1.1 million expense in 2022 primarily due to the commitment fee which the Company paid to retain its revolving credit facility for the term of the agreement.

Income taxes: The effective tax rate was 20.2% and 28.0% in 2023 and 2022, respectively. The adjusted effective tax rate, once adjusted for the items set out in the following table, was 23.0% in 2023 compared with 27.0% in 2022. The Company believes that this adjusted effective tax rate, a non-GAAP financial measure, provides useful information to investors and may assist them in evaluating the Company’s underlying performance and identifying operating trends. In addition, management uses this non-GAAP financial measure internally to evaluate the performance of the Company’s operations and for planning and forecasting in subsequent periods.

 

(in millions, except ratios)

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

Income before income taxes

 

$

174.4

 

 

 

184.6

 

Adjustment for stock compensation

 

 

8.0

 

 

 

6.7

 

Indemnification asset regarding tax audit

 

 

(0.1

)

 

 

0.1

 

Legacy cost of closed operations

 

 

6.1

 

 

 

3.5

 

Acquisition costs

 

 

3.1

 

 

 

 

Adjusted income before income taxes

 

$

191.5

 

 

 

194.9

 

Income taxes

 

$

35.3

 

 

 

51.6

 

Adjustment of income tax provisions

 

 

1.4

 

 

 

 

Tax on stock compensation

 

 

0.4

 

 

 

0.6

 

Tax loss / (gain) on distribution

 

 

0.4

 

 

 

 

Tax on legacy cost of closed operations

 

 

1.4

 

 

 

0.7

 

Tax on acquisition costs

 

 

0.7

 

 

 

 

Other discrete items

 

 

4.5

 

 

 

(0.3

)

Adjusted income taxes

 

$

44.1

 

 

 

52.6

 

GAAP effective tax rate

 

 

20.2

%

 

 

28.0

%

Adjusted effective tax rate

 

 

23.0

%

 

 

27.0

%

 

The adjusted effective tax rate is higher in 2023 than the GAAP effective tax rate, primarily due to elimination of the impact of other discrete items. This mainly represents the benefit arising from adjustments to the tax charge for previous years arising from return to provision adjustments in relation to the federal and state tax returns filed in the U.S. during 2023.

 

Our adjusted effective tax rate was lower in 2022 than the GAAP effective tax rate primarily due to the elimination of stock compensation activity.

 

Foreign income inclusions arise each year from certain types of income earned overseas being taxable under U.S. regulations. Foreign tax credits can fully or partially offset these incremental U.S. taxes from

34


 

foreign income inclusions. The utilization of foreign tax credits varies year on year as this is dependent on a number of variable factors which are difficult to predict and may prevent offset. The GAAP effective tax rate and the adjusted effective tax rate in both 2023 and 2022 have been negatively impacted by these items.

 

As a consequence of the Company having operations outside of the U.S., it is exposed to foreign currency fluctuations. These have had a positive impact on the GAAP effective tax rate and adjusted effective tax rate in 2023, and a negative impact in 2022.

As in the prior year, the level of foreign-derived intangible income benefit that the Company is entitled to has also had a positive impact on the GAAP effective tax rate and the adjusted effective tax rate.

 

For additional information regarding the GAAP effective tax rate in 2023 see Note 11 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

 

 

35


 

Results of Operations – Fiscal 2022 compared to Fiscal 2021:

 

(in millions, except ratios)

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

Change

 

 

 

Net sales:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Chemicals

 

$

639.7

 

 

$

525.3

 

 

$

114.4

 

 

+22%

Fuel Specialties

 

 

730.2

 

 

 

618.3

 

 

 

111.9

 

 

+18%

Oilfield Services

 

 

593.8

 

 

 

339.8

 

 

 

254.0

 

 

+75%

 

 

$

1,963.7

 

 

$

1,483.4

 

 

$

480.3

 

 

+32%

Gross profit:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Chemicals

 

$

150.0

 

 

$

125.2

 

 

$

24.8

 

 

+20%

Fuel Specialties

 

 

221.9

 

 

 

193.2

 

 

 

28.7

 

 

+15%

Oilfield Services

 

 

214.8

 

 

 

116.5

 

 

 

98.3

 

 

+84%

 

$

586.7

 

 

$

434.9

 

 

$

151.8

 

 

+35%

Gross margin (%):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Chemicals

 

 

23.4

 

 

 

23.8

 

 

 

(0.4

)

 

 

Fuel Specialties

 

 

30.4

 

 

 

31.2

 

 

 

(0.8

)

 

 

Oilfield Services

 

 

36.2

 

 

 

34.3

 

 

 

1.9

 

 

 

Aggregate

 

 

29.9

 

 

 

29.3

 

 

 

0.6

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Chemicals

 

$

(54.7

)

 

$

(54.3

)

 

$

(0.4

)

 

+1%

Fuel Specialties

 

 

(100.2

)

 

 

(88.6

)

 

 

(11.6

)

 

+13%

Oilfield Services

 

 

(173.1

)

 

 

(106.1

)

 

 

(67.0

)

 

+63%

Corporate costs

 

 

(71.4

)

 

 

(55.6

)

 

 

(15.8

)

 

+28%

Profit on disposal

 

 

 

 

 

1.8

 

 

 

(1.8

)

 

+100%

 

 

$

(399.4

)

 

$

(302.8

)

 

$

(96.6

)

 

+32%

Financial information with respect to our domestic and foreign operations is contained in Note 3 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Performance Chemicals

Net sales: the table below details the components which comprise the year over year change in net sales spread across the markets in which we operate:

 

Change (%)

 

Americas

 

 

EMEA

 

ASPAC

 

Total

Volume

 

+20

 

 

-9

 

+7

 

+2

Price and product mix

 

+20

 

 

+33

 

+18

 

+28

Exchange rates

 

 

 

 

-14

 

-7

 

-8

 

+40

 

 

+10

 

+18

 

+22

Higher sales volumes for the Americas and ASPAC were primarily driven by increased demand for our personal care products. Lower sales volumes for EMEA were due to reductions in demand for our home care products when compared to strong sales volumes in the prior year. All our regions benefited from a favorable price and product mix due to increased sales of higher priced products together with the impact of increased raw materials pricing being passed on through higher selling prices. EMEA and ASPAC were adversely impacted by exchange rate movements year over year, due to a strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the British pound sterling and the European Union euro.

36


 

Gross margin: the year over year decrease of 0.4 percentage points was primarily due to adverse manufacturing variances and higher raw materials costs in the fourth quarter of 2022, being partly offset by a favorable sales mix from increased sales of higher margin products.

Operating expenses: the year over year increase of $0.4 million was due to higher selling expenses to support our increased sales and higher personnel-related expenses, including higher share-based compensation accruals and higher performance-related remuneration accruals; being partly offset by lower provisions for doubtful debts.

Fuel Specialties

Net sales: the table below details the components which comprise the year over year change in net sales spread across the markets in which we operate:

 

Change (%)

 

Americas

 

 

EMEA

 

ASPAC

 

AvGas

 

 

Total

 

Volume

 

+10

 

 

-11

 

+11

 

+4

 

 

 

 

Price and product mix

 

+28

 

 

+32

 

+14

 

-7

 

 

+26

 

Exchange rates

 

 

 

 

-17

 

-4

 

 

 

 

-8

 

 

+38

 

 

+4

 

+21

 

-3

 

 

+18

 

 

The Americas and ASPAC sales volumes have increased year over year as the global demand for refined fuel products has increased. EMEA sales volumes were lower year over year primarily due to a reduction for the sales of higher volume lower margin products. Price and product mix was favorable in all our regions due to a favorable sales mix with an increased proportion of sales of higher margin products, together with the impact of increased raw materials pricing being passed on through higher selling prices. AvGas volumes were higher than the prior year due to variations in the demand from customers, being offset by an adverse price and product mix with a higher proportion of sales being made to lower margin customers. EMEA and ASPAC were adversely impacted by exchange rate movements year over year, due to a strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the British pound sterling and the European Union euro.

Gross margin: the year over year decrease of 0.8 percentage points was due to the impact of the time lag for passing higher raw material costs through to selling prices.

Operating expenses: the year over year increase of $11.6 million was due to higher personnel-related expenses, including higher share-based compensation accruals, higher travel expenses, increased sales promotions and increased provisions for doubtful debts.

Oilfield Services

Net sales: have increased year over year by $254.0 million, or 75%, with the majority of our customer activity being concentrated in the Americas region. Customer demand has increased through each quarter in 2022.

Gross margin: the year over year increase of 1.9 percentage points was due to a favorable sales mix, while management are continuing to maintain prices in a competitive market.

Operating expenses: the year over year increase of $67.0 million was driven by higher customer service costs which are necessary to support the increase in demand, together with higher personnel-related expenses, including higher share-based compensation accruals and higher performance-related remuneration accruals, and increased provisions for doubtful debts.

37


 

Other Income Statement Captions

Corporate costs: the year over year increase of $15.8 million was driven by higher personnel-related expenses, including higher share-based compensation accruals and higher performance-related remuneration accruals, together with increased maintenance expenditure for our information technology infrastructure.

Profit on disposal: in the prior year there was a profit on disposal of $1.8 million, which principally related to the sale of land within our oilfield services business in the U.S..

Other net income/(expense): for 2022 and 2021, includes the following:

 

(in millions)

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

Change

 

Net pensions credit

 

$

4.8

 

 

$

5.4

 

 

$

(0.6

)

Foreign exchange gains/(losses) on translation

 

 

(7.1

)

 

 

(2.6

)

 

 

(4.5

)

Foreign currency forward contracts gains/(losses)

 

 

0.7

 

 

 

1.0

 

 

 

(0.3

)

 

 

$

(1.6

)

 

$

3.8

 

 

$

(5.4

)

 

Interest expense, net: was $1.1 million in 2022 compared to $1.5 million in 2021. Interest expense includes a commitment fee to retain the Company’s revolving credit facility for the term of the agreement.

Income taxes: The effective tax rate was 28.0% and 30.7% in 2022 and 2021, respectively. The adjusted effective tax rate, once adjusted for the items set out in the following table, was 27.0% in 2022 compared with 22.7% in 2021. The Company believes that this adjusted effective tax rate, a non-GAAP financial measure, provides useful information to investors and may assist them in evaluating the Company’s underlying performance and identifying operating trends. In addition, management uses this non-GAAP financial measure internally to evaluate the performance of the Company’s operations and for planning and forecasting in subsequent periods.

 

(in millions, except ratios)

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Income before income taxes

 

$

184.6

 

 

 

134.4

 

Adjustment for stock compensation

 

 

6.7

 

 

 

4.4

 

Indemnification asset regarding tax audit

 

 

0.1

 

 

 

0.1

 

Legacy cost of closed operations

 

 

3.5

 

 

 

3.4

 

Acquisition costs

 

 

 

 

 

0.8

 

Adjusted income before income taxes

 

$

194.9

 

 

 

143.1

 

Income taxes

 

$

51.6

 

 

 

41.3

 

Adjustment of income tax provisions

 

 

 

 

 

(0.5

)

Tax on stock compensation

 

 

0.6