10-Q 1 d370302d10q.htm 10-Q 10-Q
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM
10-Q
 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2022
or
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to                     
Commission file number
1-13879
INNOSPEC INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
DELAWARE
 
98-0181725
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
   
8310 South Valley Highway
   
Suite 350
   
Englewood
   
Colorado
 
80112
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (303) 792 5554
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934:
 
Title of each class
 
Trading
Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.01 per share
  
IOSP
  
NASDAQ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
(§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such file.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, or a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
       
Non-accelerated
filer
     Smaller reporting company  
       
Emerging growth company           
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ☐    No  
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
 
Class
  
Outstanding as of July 26, 2022
Common Stock, par value $0.01
   24,790,674
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART I
 
  
 
2
 
Item 1
 
  
 
2
 
 
  
 
2
 
 
  
 
3
 
 
  
 
4
 
 
  
 
5
 
 
  
 
6
 
 
  
 
7
 
 
  
 
9
 
Item 2
 
  
 
21
 
 
  
 
21
 
 
  
 
21
 
 
  
 
30
 
Item 3
 
  
 
32
 
Item 4
 
  
 
33
 
PART II
 
  
 
34
 
Item 1
 
  
 
34
 
Item 1A
 
  
 
34
 
Item 2
 
  
 
34
 
Item 3
 
  
 
35
 
Item 4
 
  
 
35
 
Item 5
 
  
 
35
 
Item 6
 
  
 
35
 
  
 

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT RELATIVE TO FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Form
10-Q
contains certain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical facts included or incorporated herein may constitute forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements include statements (covered by words like “expects,” “estimates,” “anticipates,” “may,” “could,” “believes,” “feels,” “plans,” “intends” or similar words or expressions, for example) which relate to earnings, growth potential, operating performance, events or developments that we expect or anticipate will or may occur in the future. Although forward-looking statements are believed by management to be reasonable when made, they are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including, the effects of the
COVID-19
pandemic, such as its duration, its unknown long-term economic impact, measures taken by governmental authorities to address it, the rise of variants, the effectiveness, acceptance and distributions of
COVID-19
vaccines and the effects of any sanctions, export restrictions, inflation, supply chain disruptions or increased economic uncertainty related to the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the manner in which the pandemic and/or such conflict may precipitate or exacerbate other risks and/or uncertainties, and our actual performance or results may differ materially from these forward-looking statements. Additional information regarding risks, uncertainties and assumptions relating to Innospec and affecting our business operations and prospects are described in Innospec’s Annual Report on Form
10-K
for the year ended December 31, 2021, Innospec’s Quarterly Report on Form
10-Q
for the quarter ended March 31, 2022 and other reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. You are urged to review our discussion of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ from forward-looking statements under the heading “Risk Factors” in such reports. Innospec undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
 
1

PART I    FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1    Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
INNOSPEC INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(Unaudited)
 
 
  
Three months Ended

June 30
 
 
Six Months Ended

June 30
 
(in millions, except share and per share data)
  
2022
 
 
2021
 
 
2022
 
 
 
   
2021
 
Net sales
   $ 467.6     $ 354.5     $ 940.0  
 
 
 
 
 
$ 694.1  
Cost of goods sold
     (327.8     (246.2     (660.9
 
 
 
 
 
  (485.0
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross profit
     139.8       108.3       279.1  
 
 
 
 
 
  209.1  
Operating expenses:
                        
 
 
 
 
 
     
Selling, general and administrative
     (83.4     (62.7     (168.3
 
 
 
 
 
  (126.3
Research and development
     (10.1     (8.6     (20.2
 
 
 
 
 
  (17.6
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total operating expenses
     (93.5     (71.3     (188.5
 
 
 
 
 
  (143.9
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating income
     46.3       37.0       90.6  
 
 
 
 
 
  65.2  
Other (expense)/income, net
     (3.6     3.4       0.7  
 
 
 
 
 
  6.4  
Interest expense, net
     (0.4     (0.3     (0.8
 
 
 
 
 
  (0.7
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income before income tax expense
     42.3       40.1       90.5  
 
 
 
 
 
  70.9  
Income tax expense
     (10.0     (17.7     (21.7
 
 
 
 
 
  (25.1
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
   $ 32.3     $ 22.4     $ 68.8  
 
 
 
 
 
$ 45.8  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings per share:
                        
 
 
 
 
 
     
Basic
   $ 1.30     $ 0.91     $ 2.77  
 
 
 
 
 
$ 1.86  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted
   $ 1.29     $ 0.90     $ 2.76  
 
 
 
 
 
$ 1.84  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average shares outstanding (in thousands):
                        
 
 
 
 
 
     
Basic
     24,805       24,628       24,798  
 
 
 
 
 
  24,615  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted
     24,971       24,869       24,967  
 
 
 
 
 
  24,856  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
2

INNOSPEC INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Unaudited)
 
    
Three months Ended
June 30
    
Six Months Ended
June 30
 
(in millions)
  
2022
   
2021
    
2022
   
2021
 
Net income
   $ 32.3     $ 22.4        68.8       45.8  
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Other comprehensive (loss)/income:
                                 
Changes in cumulative translation adjustment, net of tax of $1.4 million, $(0.5) million, $1.2 million and $0.5 million, respectively
     (16.9     3.8        (20.7     (7.5
Amortization of prior service cost, net of tax of $(0.1) million, $0.0 million, $(0.1) million and $0.0 million, respectively
     0.1                 0.2       0.1  
Amortization of actuarial net losses, net of tax of $0.0 million, $0.0 million, $0.0 million and $(0.1) million, respectively
     0.2       0.6        0.3       1.2  
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total other comprehensive (loss)/income
     (16.6     4.4        (20.2     (6.2
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total comprehensive income
   $ 15.7     $ 26.8        48.6       39.6  
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
3

INNOSPEC INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited)
 
(in millions, except share and per share data)
  
June 30,

2022
    
December 31,
2021
 
Assets
                 
Current assets:
                 
Cash and cash equivalents
   $ 71.4      $ 141.8  
Trade and other accounts receivable (less allowances of $5.8 million and $5.1 million respectively)
     339.9        284.5  
Inventories (less allowances of $25.8 million and $25.4 million respectively):
                 
Finished goods
     250.6        188.3  
Raw materials
     111.6        89.3  
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total inventories
     362.2        277.6  
Prepaid expenses
     12.2        18.0  
Prepaid income taxes
     13.2        5.8  
Other current assets
     0.4        0.4  
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total current assets
     799.3        728.1  
Net property, plant and equipment
     209.7        214.4  
Operating lease
right-of-use
assets
     49.3        35.4  
Goodwill
     357.0        364.3  
Other intangible assets
     48.1        57.5  
Deferred tax assets
     6.0        6.4  
Pension asset
     161.8        159.8  
Other
non-current
assets
     6.7        5.0  
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total assets
   $ 1,637.9      $ 1,570.9  
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
4

INNOSPEC INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS - (Continued)
(Unaudited)
 
(in millions, except share and per share data)
  
June 30,
2022
 
 
December 31,
2021
 
Liabilities and Equity
  
 
Current liabilities:
  
 
Accounts payable
   $ 180.9     $ 148.7  
Accrued liabilities
     152.5       166.5  
Finance leases
     —         0.1  
Current portion of operating lease liabilities
     14.1       12.4  
Current portion of plant closure provisions
     6.6       5.2  
Current portion of accrued income taxes
     15.1       3.7  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total current liabilities
     369.2       336.6  
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion
     35.2       23.1  
Plant closure provisions, net of current portion
     49.2       51.3  
Accrued income taxes, net of current portion
     20.8       30.6  
Unrecognized tax benefits
     16.3       16.3  
Deferred tax liabilities
     60.8       60.8  
Pension liabilities and post-employment benefits
     16.4       17.8  
Other
non-current
liabilities
     1.4       1.4  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total liabilities
     569.3       537.9  
     
Equity:
                
Common stock, $0.01 par value, authorized 40,000,000 shares, issued 29,554,500 shares
     0.3       0.3  
Additional
paid-in
capital
     350.9       346.7  
Treasury stock (4,758,826 and 4,780,806 shares at cost, respectively)
     (92.3     (90.6
Retained earnings
     876.1       822.9  
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
     (67.1     (46.9
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total Innospec stockholders’ equity
     1,067.9       1,032.4  
Non-controlling
interest
     0.7       0.6  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total equity
     1,068.6       1,033.0  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total liabilities and equity
   $ 1,637.9     $ 1,570.9  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
5

INNOSPEC INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
 
 
  
Six Months Ended

June 30
 
(in millions)
  
2022
 
 
2021
 
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
  
 
Net income
   $ 68.8     $ 45.8  
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
                
Depreciation and amortization
     20.8       20.6  
Deferred taxes
     1.0       7.8  
Non-cash
movements on defined benefit pension plans
     (1.3     (1.6
Stock option compensation
     3.2       2.9  
Changes in assets and liabilities, net of effects of acquired and divested companies:
                
Trade and other accounts receivable
     (62.1     (64.3
Inventories
     (88.3     (31.3
Prepaid expenses
     6.5       3.5  
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities
     20.9       39.3  
Plant closure provisions
              (1.7
Accrued income taxes
     (4.2     (0.6
Unrecognized tax benefits
     —         0.3  
Other assets and liabilities
     (1.8     0.9  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net cash (used in)/provided by operating activities
     (36.5     21.6  
     
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
                
Capital expenditures
     (17.4     (19.5
Proceeds on disposal of property, plant and equipment
     —         0.3  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net cash used in investing activities
     (17.4     (19.2
     
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
                
Non-controlling
interest
     —         0.1  
Proceeds from revolving credit facility
                  
Repayments of revolving credit facility
                  
Repayments of finance leases
     (0.1     (0.3
Dividend paid
     (15.6     (14.0
Issue of treasury stock
     2.1       1.7  
Repurchase of common stock
     (2.7     (0.8
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net cash used in financing activities
     (16.3     (13.3
Effect of foreign currency exchange rate changes on cash
     (0.2         
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net change in cash and cash equivalents
     (70.4     (10.9
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
     141.8       105.3  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
   $ 71.4     $ 94.4  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
6

INNOSPEC INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EQUITY
(Unaudited)
 
(in millions)
  
Common

Stock
 
  
Additional
Paid-In

Capital
 
  
Treasury

Stock
 
 
Retained

Earnings
 
 
Accumulated
Other

Comprehensive
Loss
 
 
Non-

Controlling

Interest
 
  
Total

Equity
 
Balance at December 31, 2021
   $ 0.3      $ 346.7      $ (90.6   $ 822.9     $ (46.9   $ 0.6      $ 1,033.0  
Net income
                               68.8                        68.8  
Dividend paid ($0.63 per share)
                               (15.6                      (15.6
Changes in cumulative translation adjustment, net of tax
                                       (20.7              (20.7
Share of net income
                                               0.1        0.1  
Treasury stock reissued
              1.0        1.0                                2.0  
Treasury stock repurchased
                       (2.7                              (2.7
Stock option compensation
              3.2                                         3.2  
Amortization of prior service cost, net of tax
                                       0.2                0.2  
Amortization of actuarial net losses, net of tax
                                       0.3                0.3  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
 
Balance at June 30, 2022
   $ 0.3      $ 350.9      $ (92.3   $ 876.1     $ (67.1   $ 0.7      $ 1,068.6  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
(in millions)
  
Common

Stock
 
  
Additional
Paid-In

Capital
 
  
Treasury

Stock
 
 
Retained

Earnings
 
 
Accumulated
Other

Comprehensive
Loss
 
 
Non-

Controlling

Interest
 
  
Total

Equity
 
Balance at December 31, 2020
   $ 0.3      $ 336.1      $ (93.3   $ 758.6     $ (57.3   $ 0.5      $ 944.9  
Net income
                               45.8                        45.8  
Dividend paid ($0.57 per share)
                               (14.0                      (14.0
Changes in cumulative translation adjustment, net of tax
                                       (7.5              (7.5
Share of net income
                                               0.1        0.1  
Treasury stock reissued
              0.5        1.0                                1.5  
Treasury stock repurchased
                       (0.8                              (0.8
Stock option compensation
              2.9                                         2.9  
Amortization of prior service cost, net of tax
                                       0.1                0.1  
Amortization of actuarial net losses, net of tax
                                       1.2                1.2  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
 
Balance at June 30, 2021
   $ 0.3      $ 339.5      $ (93.1   $ 790.4     $ (63.5   $ 0.6      $ 974.2  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements
 
7

INNOSPEC INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EQUITY
(Unaudited)
 
(in millions)
  
Common

Stock
    
Additional
Paid-In

Capital
   
Treasury

Stock
   
Retained

Earnings
   
Accumulated
Other

Comprehensive
Loss
   
Non-

Controlling
Interest
    
Total

Equity
 
Balance at March 31, 2022
   $ 0.3      $ 349.6     $ (90.6   $ 859.4     $ (50.5   $ 0.7      $ 1,068.9  
Net income
                              32.3                        32.3  
Dividend paid ($0.63 per share)
                              (15.6                      (15.6
Changes in cumulative translation adjustment, net of tax
                                      (16.9              (16.9
Treasury stock reissued
              (0.2     0.1                                (0.1
Treasury stock repurchased
                      (1.8                              (1.8
Stock option compensation
              1.5                                        1.5  
Amortization of prior service cost, net of tax
                                      0.1                0.1  
Amortization of actuarial net losses, net of tax
                                      0.2                0.2  
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
 
Balance at June 30, 2022
   $ 0.3      $ 350.9     $ (92.3   $ 876.1     $ (67.1   $ 0.7      $ 1,068.6  
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
(in millions)
  
Common

Stock
    
Additional
Paid-In

Capital
    
Treasury

Stock
   
Retained

Earnings
   
Accumulated
Other

Comprehensive
Loss
   
Non-

Controlling
Interest
    
Total

Equity
 
Balance at March 31, 2021
   $ 0.3      $ 337.8      $ (93.6   $ 782.0     $ (67.9   $ 0.5      $ 959.1  
Net income
                               22.4                        22.4  
Dividend paid ($0.57 per share)
                               (14.0                      (14.0
Changes in cumulative translation adjustment, net of tax
                                       3.8                3.8  
Share of net income
                                               0.1        0.1  
Treasury stock reissued
              0.4        0.7                                1.1  
Treasury stock repurchased
                       (0.2                              (0.2
Stock option compensation
              1.3                                         1.3  
Amortization of prior service cost, net of tax
                                       0.0                0.0  
Amortization of actuarial net losses, net of tax
                                       0.6                0.6  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
 
Balance at June 30, 2021
   $ 0.3      $ 339.5      $ (93.1   $ 790.4     $ (63.5   $ 0.6      $ 974.2  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements
 
8

INNOSPEC INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED INTERIM CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
NOTE 1 – BASIS OF PRESENTATION
The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form
10-Q
and Article 10 of Regulation
S-X
under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Accordingly, they do not include all the information and notes necessary for a comprehensive presentation of financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
It is our opinion, however, that all adjustments (consisting of normal, recurring adjustments, unless otherwise disclosed) have been made which are necessary for the condensed consolidated financial statements to be fairly stated. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form
10-K
for the year ended December 31, 2021 filed on February 16, 2022 (the “2021 Form
10-K”).
The results for the interim period covered by this report are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year.
When we use the terms “Innospec,” “the Corporation,” “the Company,” “Registrant,” “we,” “us” and “our,” we are referring to Innospec Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires.
 
9

NOTE 2 – SEGMENT REPORTING
The Company reports its financial performance based on three reportable segments, which are Performance Chemicals, Fuel Specialties and Oilfield Services.
The Company evaluates the performance of its segments based on operating income. The following tables analyze sales and other financial information by the Company’s reportable segments:
 
 
  
Three months Ended

June 30
 
  
Six Months Ended
June 30
 
(in millions)
  
2022
 
  
2021
 
  
2022
 
  
2021
 
Net Sales:
  
  
  
  
Personal Care
  
$

105.3     
$
73.8      $ 208.7      $ 142.0  
Home Care
     25.3        21.3        49.7        44.3  
Other
     38.4        33.1        77.7        67.8  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Performance Chemicals
     169.0        128.2        336.1        254.1  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Refinery and Performance
     123.9        94.8        272.3        194.1  
Other
     52.5        48.3        95.9        88.3  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Fuel Specialties
     176.4        143.1        368.2        282.4  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Oilfield Services
     122.2        83.2        235.7        157.6  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
     $
 
467.6
     $
 
354.5
     $940.0      $694.1  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Gross profit/(loss):
                                   
Performance Chemicals
  
$
43.6     
$
31.6      $ 84.4      $ 63.0  
Fuel Specialties
     56.9        50.1        117.6        95.0  
Oilfield Services
     39.3        26.6        77.1        51.1  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
     $
 
139.8
     $
 
108.3
     $279.1      $209.1  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Operating income/(loss):
                                   
Performance Chemicals
  
$
28.8     
$
17.9      $ 54.1      $ 36.2  
Fuel Specialties
     31.5        28.5        67.0        52.3  
Oilfield Services
     4.5        2.2        7.0        3.4  
Corporate costs
     (18.5 )      (11.6 )      (37.5      (26.7
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total operating income
  
$
46.3     
$
37.0      $ 90.6      $ 65.2  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
10

NOTE 3 – EARNINGS PER SHARE
Basic earnings per share is based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share includes the effect of options that are dilutive and outstanding during the period under the treasury stock method. Per share amounts are computed as follows:
 

 
  
Three months Ended
June 30
 
  
Six Months Ended
June 30
 
 
  
2022
 
  
2021
 
  
2022
 
  
2021
 
Numerator (in millions):
  
  
  
  
Net income available to common stockholders
   $ 32.3      $ 22.4      $ 68.8      $ 45.8  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Denominator (in thousands):
                                   
Weighted average common shares outstanding
     24,805        24,628        24,798        24,615  
Dilutive effect of stock options and awards
     166        241        169        241  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Denominator for diluted earnings per share
     24,971        24,869        24,967        24,856  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Net income per share, basic:
   $ 1.30      $ 0.91      $ 2.77      $ 1.86  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Net income per share, diluted:
   $ 1.29      $ 0.90      $ 2.76      $ 1.84  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
In the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, the average number of anti-dilutive options excluded from the calculation of diluted earnings per share were 29,600 and 27,094, respectively (three and six months ended June 30, 2021 – 19,836 and 14,649, respectively).
NOTE 4 – GOODWILL
The following table summarizes the goodwill movements in the year:
 
(in millions)
  
Gross Cost
 
Opening balance at January 1, 2022
   $ 364.3  
Exchange effect
     (7.3
    
 
 
 
Closing balance at June 30, 2022
   $ 357.0  
    
 
 
 
 
11

NOTE 5 – OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS
The following table analyzes other intangible assets movements in the year:
 
(in millions)
  
2022
 
Gross cost at January 1
   $ 295.2  
Exchange effect
     (3.6
    
 
 
 
Gross cost at June 30
     291.6  
    
 
 
 
Accumulated amortization at January 1
     (237.7
Amortization expense
     (7.8
Exchange effect
     2.0  
    
 
 
 
Accumulated amortization at June 30
     (243.5
    
 
 
 
Net book amount at June 30
   $ 48.1  
    
 
 
 
The amortization expense for the six months ended June 30, 2022 was $7.8 million (six months ended June 30, 2021 – $8.0 million).
NOTE 6 – PENSION AND POST EMPLOYMENT BENEFITS
The Company maintains a defined benefit pension plan covering certain current and former employees in the United Kingdom (the “UK Plan”). The UK Plan is closed to future service accrual and has a large number of deferred and current pensioners.
The Company also maintains an unfunded defined benefit pension plan covering certain current and former employees in Germany (the “German plan”). The German plan is closed to new entrants and has no assets.
The net periodic benefit of these plans is shown in the following table:
 
    
Three months Ended
June 30
    
Six Months Ended
June 30
 
(in millions)
  
2022
    
2021
    
2022
    
2021
 
Service cost
   $ (0.6    $ (0.5    $ (1.2    $ (0.9
Interest cost on projected benefit obligation
     (2.6      (1.9      (5.4      (3.8
Expected return on plan assets
     4.2        3.9        8.5        7.8  
Amortization of prior service cost
     (0.2                (0.3      (0.1
Amortization of actuarial net losses
     (0.2      (0.6      (0.3      (1.3
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Net periodic benefit
   $ 0.6      $ 0.9      $ 1.3      $ 1.7  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
The service cost has been recognized in selling, general and administrative expenses. All other items have been recognized within other income and expense. The amortization of prior service cost and actuarial net losses are a reclassification out of accumulated other comprehensive loss into other income and expense.
In addition, we have obligations for post-employment benefits in some of our other European businesses. As at June 30, 2022, we have recorded a liability of $4.3 million (December 31, 2021 – $4.6 million).
 
12

In May 2022, the Trustees of the UK Plan entered into an agreement with Legal and General Assurance Society Limited to acquire an insurance policy that operates as an investment asset, with the intent of matching the remaining uninsured part of the UK Plan’s future cash flow arising from the accrued pension liabilities of members. Such an arrangement is commonly termed as a
“buy-in”.
The
buy-in
reduces the UK Plan’s value at risk in relation to key risks associated with improved longevity, inflation and interest rate movements whilst improving the security to the UK Plan and its members. The Company consequently benefits from the
buy-in
as it reduces the UK Plan’s potential reliance on the Company for future cash funding requirements. In accordance with US GAAP the
buy-in
does not trigger a remeasurement at an interim period, so accounting entries to reflect this will be included in Innospec’s Annual Report on Form
10-K
for the year ended
December
 31, 2022.
NOTE 7 – INCOME TAXES
A roll-forward of unrecognized tax benefits and associated accrued interest and penalties is as follows:
 
(in millions)
  
Unrecognized
Tax Benefits
    
Interest and
Penalties
    
Total
 
Opening balance at January 1, 2022
   $ 13.2      $ 3.1      $ 16.3  
Net change for tax positions of prior periods
     (0.3      0.3            
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Closing balance at June 30, 2022
     12.9        3.4        16.3  
Current
                             
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Non-current
   $ 12.9      $ 3.4      $ 16.3  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
All of the $16.3 million of unrecognized tax benefits, interest and penalties would impact our effective tax rate if recognized.
In 2021 a
non-U.S.
subsidiary, Innospec Limited, entered into a review by the U.K. tax authorities under the U.K.’s Profit Diversion Compliance Facility (“PDCF”). The Company determined that additional tax and interest totaling $0.9 million may arise during the course of the PDCF review process which is currently ongoing. This includes a reduction for foreign exchange movements of $0.1 million recorded in the six months to June 30, 2022.
A
non-U.S.
subsidiary, Innospec Performance Chemicals Italia Srl, is subject to an ongoing tax audit in relation to the period 2011 to 2014 inclusive. The Company has determined that additional tax, interest and penalties totaling $3.1 million may arise as a consequence of the tax audit. This includes an increase in interest accrual of $0.1 million and a reduction for foreign exchange movements of $0.3 million recorded in the six months to June 30, 2022. As any additional tax arising as a consequence of the tax audit would be reimbursed by the previous owner under the terms of the sale and purchase agreement, an indemnification asset of the same amount is recorded in the financial statements to reflect this arrangement.
In 2018 the Company recorded an unrecognized tax benefit in relation to a potential adjustment that could arise as a consequence of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (“Tax Act”), but for which retrospective adjustment to the filed 2017 U.S. federal income tax returns was not permissible. The Company has determined that additional tax, interest and penalties totaling $12.3 million may arise in relation to this item. This includes an increase in interest accrued of $0.3 million in the six months to June 30, 2022.
 
13

The Company and its U.S. subsidiaries remain open to examination by the IRS for certain elements of year 2017 and for years 2018 onwards under the statute of limitations. The Company’s subsidiaries in foreign tax jurisdictions are open to examination including the U.K. (2017 onwards), Switzerland (2017 onwards), Germany (2018 onwards), Spain (2018 onwards) and France (2019 onwards).
NOTE 8 – LONG-TERM DEBT
As at June 30, 2022, and December 31, 2021, the Company had not drawn down on its revolving credit facility.
The Company continues to have available a $250.0 million revolving credit facility until September 25, 2024. The facility contains an accordion feature whereby the Company may elect to increase the total available borrowings by an aggregate amount of up to $125.0 million.
As at June 30, 2022, the deferred finance costs of $0.8 
million (December 31, 2021 - 
$1.0 million) related to the arrangement of the credit facility, are included within other current and
non-current
assets at the balance sheet dates.
NOTE 9 – PLANT CLOSURE PROVISIONS
The Company has continuing plans to remediate manufacturing facilities at sites around the world as and when those operations are expected to cease
or
we are required to decommission the sites according to local laws and regulations. The liability for estimated plant closure costs includes costs for environmental remediation liabilities and asset retirement obligations.
The principal site giving rise to asset retirement obligations is the manufacturing site at Ellesmere Port in the United Kingdom. There are also asset retirement obligations and environmental remediation liabilities on a much smaller scale in respect of other manufacturing sites.
Movements in the provisions are summarized as follows:
 
(in millions)
  
2022
 
Total at January 1
   $ 56.5  
Charge for the period
     1.9  
Utilized in the period
     (1.9
Exchange effect
     (0.7
    
 
 
 
Total at June 30
     55.8  
Due within one year
     (6.6
    
 
 
 
Due after one year
   $ 49.2  
    
 
 
 
The charge for the six months ended June 30, 2022 was $1.9 million (six months ended June 30, 2021 – $1.9 million). The current year charge represents the accounting accretion only, with no changes for the expected cost and scope of future remediation activities.
Amounts due within one year refer to provisions where expenditure is expected to arise within one year of the balance sheet date.
 
14

NOTE 10 – FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
The following table presents the carrying amount and fair values of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities measured on a recurring basis:
 
    
June 30, 2022
    
December 31, 2021
 
(in millions)
  
Carrying

Amount
    
Fair

Value
    
Carrying

Amount
    
Fair

Value
 
Assets
                                   
Non-derivatives:
                                   
Cash and cash equivalents
   $ 71.4      $ 71.4      $ 141.8      $ 141.8  
Derivatives (Level 1 measurement):
                                   
Other current and
non-current
assets:
                                   
Emissions Trading Scheme credits
     3.3        3.3        3.9        3.9  
         
Liabilities
                                   
Non-derivatives:
                                   
Finance leases (including current portion)
   $         $         $ 0.1      $ 0.1  
Derivatives (Level 1 measurement):
                                   
Other current and
non-current
liabilities:
                                   
Foreign currency forward exchange contracts
     1.6        1.6        1.2        1.2  
Non-financial
liabilities (Level 3 measurement):
                                   
Other current and
non-current
liabilities:
                                   
Stock equivalent units
     24.4        24.4        17.3        17.3  
The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair values:
Cash and cash equivalents:
The carrying amount approximates fair value because of the short-term maturities of such instruments.
Emissions Trading Scheme credits:
The fair value is determined by the open market pricing at the end of the reporting period.
Derivatives:
The fair value of derivatives relating to foreign currency forward exchange contracts are derived from current settlement prices and comparable contracts using current assumptions. Foreign currency forward exchange contracts primarily relate to contracts entered into to hedge future known transactions or hedge balance sheet net cash positions. The movements in the carrying amounts and fair values of these contracts are largely due to changes in exchange rates against the U.S. dollar.
Finance leases:
Finance leases relate to certain fixed assets in our Fuel Specialties and Oilfield Services segments. The carrying amount of finance leases approximates to the fair value.
Stock equivalent units:
The fair values of stock equivalent units are calculated at each balance sheet date using either the Black-Scholes or Monte Carlo method depending on the terms of each grant.
 
15

NOTE 11 – DERIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS AND RISK MANAGEMENT
The Company enters into various foreign currency forward exchange contracts to minimize currency exchange rate exposure from expected future cash flows. As at June 30, 2022, the contracts have maturity dates of up to twelve months at the date of inception. These foreign currency forward exchange contracts have not been designated as hedging instruments, and their impact on the income statement for the first six months of 2022 was a gain of $2.4 million (first six months of 2021 – a gain of $0.2 million).
NOTE 12 – CONTINGENCIES
Legal matters
While we are involved from time to time in claims and legal proceedings that result from, and are incidental to, the conduct of our business including business and commercial litigation, employee and product liability claims, there are no material pending legal proceedings to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party, or of which any of their property is subject. It is possible, however, that an adverse resolution of an unexpectedly large number of such individual claims or proceedings could in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on the results of operations for a particular year or quarter.
Guarantees
The Company and certain of the Company’s consolidated subsidiaries are contingently liable for certain obligations of affiliated companies primarily in the form of guarantees of debt and performance under contracts entered into as a normal business practice. This includes guarantees of
non-U.S.
excise taxes and customs duties. As at June 30, 2022, such guarantees which are not recognized as liabilities in the condensed consolidated financial statements amounted to $6.0 
million (December 31, 2021 - 
$4.6 million). The remaining terms of the fixed maturity guarantees are up to 4 years and one month, with some further guarantees having no fixed expiry date.
Under the terms of the guarantee arrangements, generally the Company would be required to perform should the affiliated company fail to fulfil its obligations under the arrangements. In some cases, the guarantee arrangements have recourse provisions that would enable the Company to recover any payments made under the terms of the guarantees from securities held of the guaranteed parties’ assets.
The Company and its affiliates have numerous long-term sales and purchase commitments in their various business activities, which are expected to be fulfilled with no adverse consequences material to the Company.
 
16

NOTE 13 – STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION PLANS
The compensation cost recorded for stock options for the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 was $1.5 million and $1.3 million, respectively. The compensation cost recorded for stock equivalent units for the three months ended June 30, 2022 was $7.0 
million.    The
compensation credit recorded for stock equivalent units for the three months ended June 30, 2021 was $1.5 million.
The compensation cost recorded for stock options for the first six months of 2022 and 2021 was $3.2 million and $2.9 million, respectively. The compensation cost recorded for stock equivalent units for the first six months of 2022 and 2021 was $14.1 million and $2.9 million, respectively.
The following table summarizes the transactions of the Company’s share-based compensation plans for the six months ended June 30, 2022.
 
    
Number of
shares
    
Weighted
Average
Grant-Date

Fair Value
 
Nonvested at December 31, 2021
     680,711      $ 74.6  
Granted
     169,181      $ 87.5  
Vested
     (122,052    $ 69.5  
Forfeited
     (57,746    $ 69.1  
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Nonvested at June 30, 2022
     670,094      $ 79.2  
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
New grants in the quarter have similar vesting conditions to those granted in previous periods. The valuation methodologies of the new grants are consistent with previous periods.
As of June 30, 2022, there was $26.8 million of total unrecognized compensation cost related to nonvested share-based compensation arrangements. That cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 1.98 years.
 
17

NOTE 14 – RECLASSIFICATIONS OUT OF ACCUMULATED OTHER COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
Reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive loss (“AOCL”) for the first six months of 2022 were:
 
(in millions)
Details about AOCL Components
  
Amount
Reclassified
from AOCL
 
  
Affected Line Item in the
Statement where
Net Income is Presented
Defined benefit pension plan items:
  
  
Amortization of prior service cost
   $ 0.3      See 
(1)
 below
Amortization of actuarial net losses
     0.3      See 
(1)
 below
    
 
 
      
       0.6      Total before tax
       (0.1    Income tax expense
    
 
 
      
Total reclassifications
   $ 0.5      Net of tax
    
 
 
      
 
(1)  
These items are included in other income and expense. See Note 6 of the Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
 
Changes in accumulated other comprehensive loss for the first six months of 2022, net of tax, were:
 
(in millions)
  
Defined
Benefit
Pension
Plan Items
    
Cumulative
Translation
Adjustments
    
Total
 
Balance at December 31, 2021
   $ 10.7      $ (57.6    $ (46.9
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Other comprehensive income before reclassifications
               (20.7      (20.7
Amounts reclassified from AOCL
     0.5                  0.5  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total other comprehensive income/(loss)
     0.5        (20.7      (20.2
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Balance at June 30, 2022
   $ 11.2      $ (78.3    $ (67.1
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
18

Reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive loss for the first six months of 2021 were:
 
(in millions)
Details about AOCL Components
  
Amount
Reclassified
from AOCL
    
Affected Line Item in the
Statement where
Net Income is Presented
Defined benefit pension plan items:
             
Amortization of prior service cost
   $ 0.1      See 
(1)
 below
Amortization of actuarial net losses
     1.3      See 
(1)
 below
    
 
 
      
       1.4      Total before tax
       (0.1    Income tax expense
    
 
 
      
Total reclassifications
   $ 1.3      Net of tax
    
 
 
      
 
(1)
These items are included in other income and expense. See Note 6 of the Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Changes in accumulated other comprehensive loss for the first six months of 2021, net of tax, were:
 
(in millions)
  
Defined
Benefit
Pension
Plan Items
    
Cumulative
Translation
Adjustments
    
Total
 
Balance at December 31, 2020
   $ (19.9    $ (37.4    $ (57.3
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Other comprehensive income before reclassifications
               (7.5      (7.5
Amounts reclassified from AOCL
     1.3                  1.3  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total other comprehensive income/(loss)
     1.3        (7.5      (6.2
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Balance at June 30, 2021
   $ (18.6    $ (44.9    $ (63.5
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
19

NOTE 15 – RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
The Company has reviewed recently issued accounting pronouncements and concluded there were no matters relevant to the Company’s financial statements.
NOTE 16 – RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
Mr. Patrick S. Williams has been an executive director of the Company since April 2009 and has been a
non-executive
director of AdvanSix, a chemicals manufacturer, since February 2020. In the first six months of 2022 the Company purchased product from AdvanSix for $0.3 million (first six months of 2021 – $0.1 million). As at June 30, 2022, the Company owed $0.0 million to AdvanSix (December 31, 2021 – $0.1 million).
Mr. Robert I. Paller has been a
non-executive
director of the Company since November 1, 2009. The Company has retained and continues to retain Smith, Gambrell & Russell, LLP (“SGR”), a law firm with which Mr. Paller holds a position. In the first six months of 2022 the Company incurred fees from SGR of $0.1 million (first six months of 2021 – $0.1 million). As at June 30, 2022, the Company owed $0.0 million to SGR (December 31, 2021 – $0.0 million).
Mr. David F. Landless has been a
non-executive
director of the Company since January 1, 2016 and is a
non-executive
director of Ausurus Group Limited which owns European Metal Recycling Limited (“EMR”). The Company has sold scrap metal to EMR in the first six months of 2022 for a value of $0.1 million (first six months of 2021 – $0.4 million). A tendering process is operated periodically to select the best buyer for the sale of scrap metal by the Company. As at June 30, 2022 EMR owed $0.0 million for scrap metal purchased from the Company (December 31, 2021 – $0.0 million).
 
20

Item 2    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2022
This discussion should be read in conjunction with our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
The policies and estimates that the Company considers the most critical in terms of complexity and subjectivity of assessment are those related to environmental liabilities, pensions, income taxes, goodwill, property, plant and equipment and other intangible assets (net of depreciation and amortization) and the impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic (“the pandemic”) and the current economic environment. These policies have been discussed in the Company’s 2021 Form
10-K.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The Company reports its financial performance based on three reportable segments, which are Performance Chemicals, Fuel Specialties and Oilfield Services.
The following table provides operating income by reporting segment:
 
    
Three Months

Ended June 30
    
Six Months

Ended June 30
 
(in millions)
  
2022
    
2021
    
2022
    
2021
 
Net sales:
           
Performance Chemicals
   $ 169.0      $ 128.2      $ 336.1      $ 254.1  
Fuel Specialties
     176.4        143.1        368.2        282.4  
Oilfield Services
     122.2        83.2        235.7        157.6  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
   $ 467.6      $ 354.5      $ 940.0      $ 694.1  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Gross profit:
           
Performance Chemicals
   $ 43.6      $ 31.6      $ 84.4      $ 63.0  
Fuel Specialties
     56.9        50.1        117.6        95.0  
Oilfield Services
     39.3        26.6        77.1        51.1  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
   $ 139.8      $ 108.3      $ 279.1      $ 209.1  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Operating income/(loss):
           
Performance Chemicals
   $ 28.8      $ 17.9      $ 54.1      $ 36.2  
Fuel Specialties
     31.5        28.5        67.0        52.3  
Oilfield Services
     4.5        2.2        7.0        3.4  
Corporate costs
     (18.5      (11.6      (37.5      (26.7
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total operating income
   $ 46.3      $ 37.0      $ 90.6      $ 65.2  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
21

Three months Ended June 30 , 2022
The following table shows the change in components of operating income by reporting segment for the three months ended June 30, 2022 and the three months ended June 30, 2021:
 
    
Three Months Ended
June 30
              
(in millions, except ratios)
  
2022
    
2021
    
Change
       
Net sales:
          
Performance Chemicals
   $ 169.0      $ 128.2      $ 40.8       +32
Fuel Specialties
     176.4        143.1        33.3       +23
Oilfield Services
     122.2        83.2        39.0       +47
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
   $ 467.6      $ 354.5      $ 113.1       +32
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
Gross profit:
 
Performance Chemicals
   $ 43.6      $ 31.6      $ 12.0       +38
Fuel Specialties
     56.9        50.1        6.8       +14
Oilfield Services
     39.3        26.6        12.7       +48
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
   $ 139.8      $ 108.3      $ 31.5       +29
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
Gross margin (%):
 
  
Performance Chemicals
  
 
25.8
 
  
 
24.6
 
  
 
+1.2
 
 
Fuel Specialties
  
 
32.3
 
  
 
35.0
 
  
 
-2.7
 
 
Oilfield Services
  
 
32.2
 
  
 
32.0
 
  
 
+0.2
 
 
Aggregate
  
 
29.9
 
  
 
30.6
 
  
 
-0.7
 
 
Operating expenses:
          
Performance Chemicals
   $ (14.8    $ (13.7    $ (1.1     +8
Fuel Specialties
     (25.4      (21.6      (3.8     +18
Oilfield Services
     (34.8      (24.4      (10.4     +43
Corporate costs
     (18.5      (11.6      (6.9     +59
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
   $ (93.5    $ (71.3    $ (22.2     +31
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
22

Performance Chemicals
Net sales:
the table below details the components which comprise the year over year change in net sales spread across the markets in which we operate:
 
    
Three Months Ended June 30, 2022
 
Change (%)
  
Americas
    
EMEA
    
ASPAC
    
Total
 
Volume
     +32        -7        -19        +6  
Price and product mix
     +26        +38        +34        +34  
Exchange rates
     —          -13        -7        -8  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
     +58        +18        +8        +32  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Higher sales volumes for the Americas were primarily driven by increased demand for our personal care products. Lower sales volumes for EMEA and ASPAC were due to reductions in demand when compared to the strong sales volumes in the prior year. All our regions benefitted from a favorable price and product mix due to increased sales of higher priced products together with the impact of increased raw materials pricing being passed on through higher selling prices. EMEA and ASPAC were adversely impacted by exchange rate movements year over year, due to a weakening of the British pound sterling and the European Union euro against the U.S. dollar.
Gross margin:
the year over year increase of 1.2 percentage points was primarily due to a favorable sales mix from increased sales of higher margin products.
Operating expenses:
the year over year increase of $1.1 million was primarily due to higher selling expenses to support our increased sales, together with higher personnel-related expenses including higher share-based compensation accruals.
Fuel Specialties
Net sales:
the table below details the components which comprise the year over year change in net sales spread across the markets in which we operate:
 
    
Three Months Ended June 30, 2022
 
Change (%)
  
Americas
    
EMEA
    
ASPAC
    
AvGas
    
Total
 
Volume
     +22        -12        +35        -32        +3  
Price and product mix
     +38        +32        +7        +2        +27  
Exchange rates
     —          -15        -3        —          -7  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
     +60        +5        +39        -30        +23  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
The Americas and ASPAC sales volumes have increased year over year as the global demand for refined fuel products has increased. EMEA sales volumes were lower year over year, primarily due to variations in the timing of demand. Price and product mix was favorable in all our regions due to increased sales of higher margin products and the impact of increased raw materials pricing being passed on through higher selling prices. AvGas volumes were lower than the prior year due to variations in the demand from customers, being partly offset by a favorable price and product mix with a higher proportion of sales to higher margin customers. EMEA and ASPAC were adversely impacted by exchange rate movements year over year, due to a weakening of the British pound sterling and the European Union euro against the U.S. dollar.
 
23

Gross margin
: the year over year decrease of 2.7 percentage points was primarily due to the continued impact of the time lag for passing higher raw material costs through to selling prices, together with the comparison to a strong prior year.
Operating expenses:
the year over year increase of $3.8 million was due to higher selling expenses to support the increased sales, higher research and development costs and higher personnel-related expenses, including higher share-based compensation accruals.
Oilfield Services
Net sales:
have increased year over year by $39.0 million, or 47 percent, with the majority of our customer activity continuing to be in the Americas region. Customer demand has continued to increase for the second quarter of 2022, which we believe represents a positive sign for the remainder of 2022.
Gross margin:
the year over year increase of 0.2 percentage points was due to a favorable sales mix, while management continue to maintain prices in a competitive market.
Operating expenses:
the year over year increase of $10.4 million was driven by higher customer service costs which are necessary to support the increase in demand, together with higher