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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 20-F
(Mark One)
 REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _________ to _________
OR
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
Commission File Number 001-39084

Innate Pharma SA
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter and translation of registrant’s name into English)
France
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
117, Avenue de Luminy
13009 Marseille France
(Address of principal executive offices)
Mondher Mahjoubi, M.D.
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Innate Pharma S.A.
117 Avenue de Luminy
13009 Marseille France
Tel: +33 4 30 30 30 30
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.
Title of each class
Trading Symbol
Name of each exchange on which registered
American Depositary Shares, each representing one ordinary share, nominal value €0.05 per share
IPHA*
The Nasdaq Global Select Market
Ordinary shares, nominal value €0.05 per share
The Nasdaq Global Select Market*

*Not for trading, but only in connection with the registration of the American Depositary Shares.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act. None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act. None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
Ordinary shares, nominal value €0.05 per share: 79,542,627 as of December 31, 2021
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. ☐ Yes ☒ No



If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. ☐ Yes ☒ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☒ Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). B Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filter
Non-accelerated filer
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☐ Yes No
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP ☐
International Financial Reporting Standards
Other ☐
as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ☒

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.
☐ Item 17 ☐ Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). ☐ Yes No
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
    3


4


INTRODUCTION
Unless otherwise indicated in this annual report (this “Annual Report”), “Innate Pharma,” “Innate,” “the company,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Innate Pharma S.A. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
“Innate Pharma,” the Innate Pharma logo, ANKET and other trademarks or service marks of Innate Pharma S.A. appearing in this Annual Report are the property of Innate Pharma S.A. or its subsidiaries. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks and trade names referred to in this Annual Report are listed without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their right thereto. All other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this Annual Report are the property of their respective owners. The Company does not intend to use or display other companies’ trademarks and trade names to imply any relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of Innate by, any other companies.
The audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB. The consolidated financial statements are presented in euros, and unless otherwise specified, all monetary amounts are in euros. All references in this Annual Report to “$,” “US$,” “U.S.$,” “U.S. dollars,” “dollars” and “USD” mean U.S. dollars and all references to “€” and “euros” mean euros, unless otherwise noted. Throughout this Annual Report, references to ADSs mean American Depositary Shares or ordinary shares represented by such ADSs, as the case may be.
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that are based on the management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to the management. All statements other than present and historical facts and conditions contained in this Annual Report, including statements regarding the future results of operations and financial position, business strategy, plans and the Company's objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. When used in this Annual Report, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “is designed to,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “objective,” “should,” or the negative of these and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:
the prospects of attaining, maintaining and expanding marketing authorization for monalizumab, lacutamab and other product candidates;
the initiation, timing, progress and results of the Company's preclinical studies and clinical trials and those conducted by third parties, including the Company's collaborators, AstraZeneca and Sanofi;
the Company's ability to successfully develop and advance its pipeline of product candidates;
the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;
the Company's ability to contract with third-party suppliers and manufacturers and their ability to perform adequately;
future agreements with third parties in connection with the late-stage development and commercialization of the Company's product candidates and any other approved product;
the Company's ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities and transition into a commercial-stage company;
the pricing and reimbursement of the Company's product candidates, if approved;
the effects of increased competition as well as innovations by new and existing competitors in the Company's industry;
the Company's ability to obtain funding for its operations;
the Company's ability to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce its intellectual property rights and propriety technologies and to operate its business without infringing the intellectual property rights and proprietary technology of third parties;
regulatory developments in the United States, Europe and other countries;
costs of compliance and failure to comply with new and existing governmental regulations including, but not limited to, tax regulations;
statements regarding future revenue, hiring plans, expenses, capital expenditures, capital requirements and stock performance;
the impact of COVID-19 on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations; and
other risks and uncertainties, including those listed in the section of this Annual Report titled “Risk Factors.”
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You should refer to the section of this Annual Report titled “Item 3.D – Risk Factors” for a discussion of important factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, Innate cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this Annual Report will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if the forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by Innate or any other person that the Company will achieve its objectives and plans in any specified time frame or at all. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and Section 27A of the Securities Act do not protect any forward-looking statements that Innate Pharma makes in connection with this Annual Report.
In addition, statements that “Innate believes” and similar statements reflect its beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to Innate Pharma as of the date of this Annual Report, and while the Company believes such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and the statements should not be read to indicate that the Company has conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
You should read this Annual Report and the documents that the Company references in this Annual Report and have filed as exhibits to this Annual Report completely and with the understanding that the Company's actual future results, levels of activity, performance and events and circumstances may be materially different from what the Company expects. The Company qualifies all of its forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this Annual Report concerning the industry and the markets in which the Company operates, including its general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market size estimates, is based on information from independent industry analysts, third-party sources and management estimates. Management estimates are derived from publicly available information released by independent industry analysts and third-party sources, as well as data from internal research, and are based on assumptions made by the Company based on such data and its knowledge of such industry and market, which the Company believes to be reasonable. In addition, while the Company believes the market opportunity information included in this Annual Report is generally reliable and is based on reasonable assumptions, such data involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the section of this Annual Report titled “Item 3.D—Risk Factors.”








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SUMMARY RISK FACTORS
Investing in the Company's shares involves numerous risks, including the risks described in "Item 3.D—Risk Factors" of this Annual Report on Form 20-F. Below are some of the principal risks, any one of which could materially adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects:
Biopharmaceutical development involves a high degree of uncertainty and most of the Company's product candidates are in early stages of development.
The scientific evidence to support the feasibility of developing product candidates is both preliminary and limited.
The Company intends to develop several of its product candidates in combination with other therapies, which exposes it to additional risks.
The Company is heavily dependent on the success of its current clinical-stage product candidates
The Company may not be successful in its efforts to develop additional products that receive regulatory approval and are successfully commercialized.
The Company may encounter substantial delays in its clinical trials, or may be unable to conduct its clinical trials on the timelines the Company expects.
The Company's product candidates in development may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could halt or delay their clinical development, prevent their regulatory approval, limit their commercialization or result in other negative consequences.
The Company faces substantial competition from companies with significantly greater resources and experience.
The regulatory processes that will govern the approval of the Company's product candidates are complex and changes in regulatory requirements could result in delays or discontinuation of development or unexpected costs in obtaining regulatory approval.
Any of the Company's other product candidates, if approved and commercialized, may fail to achieve market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors or the medical community to a degree that is necessary for commercial success.
A fast track, breakthrough therapy or other designation by the FDA may not actually lead to a faster development or faster regulatory review or approval.
The Company has no manufacturing capabilities and rely on third-party manufacturers for its product candidates.
The Company relies on third parties to supply key materials used in its research and development, to provide services to the Company and to assist with clinical trials.
The Company depends upon its existing collaboration partners, AstraZeneca, Sanofi and other third parties, and may depend upon future collaboration partners to commit to the research, development, manufacturing and marketing of its drugs.
The late-stage development and marketing of the Company's product candidates may partially depend on its ability to establish collaborations with major biopharmaceutical companies.
The Company has incurred and may in the future incur significant operational losses related to its research and development activities.
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The Company may need to raise additional funding to complete the development and any commercialization of its product candidates, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all, and failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed may force the Company to delay, limit or terminate its product development efforts or other operations.
If the Company does not achieve its product development or commercialization objectives in the timeframes it expects, the Company may not receive product revenue or milestone or royalty payments and it may not be able to conduct its operations as planned.
The revenues generated from the Company's collaboration and license agreements have contributed and are expected to contribute a large portion of its revenue for the foreseeable future.
The Company benefits from tax credits in France that could be reduced or eliminated.
The global COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company's business could be affected by natural disaster, such as wildfire, and this could be exacerbated by climate change.
The Company's ability to compete may be adversely affected if the Company does not adequately obtain, maintain, protect and enforce its intellectual property or proprietary rights, or if the scope of intellectual property protection the Company obtains is not sufficiently broad.
The Company's patents could be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged and it may not be able to protect its intellectual property.
The dual listing of the Company's ordinary shares and the ADSs may adversely affect the liquidity and value of the ADSs.
The Company may be affected by political, social, legal and economic instability, civil unrest, war and other geopolitical tension, such as the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine and economic sanctions related thereto.
Report titled "Item 3.D—Risks Factors."

PART I
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers.
Not applicable.
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable.
Not applicable.
Item 3. Key Information.
A.    Selected Financial Data
Innate's consolidated audited financial statements have been prepared in accordance with IFRS, as issued by the IASB. The Company derived the selected consolidated statement of income (loss) data for the years ended, December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021 and the selected consolidated statement of financial position data as of December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021from the consolidated audited financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report. This data should be read together with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” as well as the financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report. Innate's historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future.
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Consolidated Statement of Income (Loss) Data:
Year ended December 31,
2019 (1)
2020 (1)
2021
(in thousands of euros, except per share data and number of ordinary shares)
Revenue and other income85,449 69,773 24,703 
Operating expenses
Research and development expenses(62,897)(49,708)(47,004)
General and administrative expenses(20,977)(18,986)(25,524)
Operating income (loss)1,575 1,079 (47,825)
Net financial income (loss)6,293 (1,908)2,347 
Income tax expense— — — 
Net income (loss) from continuing operations7,868 (829)(45,478)
Net income (loss) from discontinued operations(28,627)(63,155)(7,331)
Net income (loss)(20,759)(63,984)(52,809)
Net income (loss) per share attributable to equity holders
- Basic income (loss) per share(0.31)(0.81)(0.66)
- Diluted income (loss) per share(0.31)(0.81)(0.66)
- Basic income (loss) per share from continuing operations0.12(0.01)(0.57)
- Diluted income (loss) per share from continuing operations0.12(0.01)(0.57)
- Basic income (loss) per share from discontinued operations (0.43)(0.80)(0.09)
- Diluted income (loss) per share from discontinued operations(0.43)(0.80)(0.09)
Number of ordinary shares outstanding used for computing basic net income (loss) per share66,908,38978,934,96079,542,627
Number of ordinary shares outstanding used for computing diluted net income (loss) per share66,908,38978,934,96079,542,627
(1)The 2019 and 2020 comparatives have been restated to consider the impact of classifying the Lumoxiti business as discontinued operations in 2021. See note 2.w and 17 of our consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Consolidated Statement of Financial Position Data:
As of December 31,
2019
2020
2021
(in thousands of euros)
Cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments and non-current financial assets (1)
€ 255,869€ 190,571€ 159,714
Total assets401,361307,423267,496
Total financial debt and defined benefit obligations22,48423,26447,226
Total shareholders’ equity € 217,416€ 155,976€ 107,440
(1) Non-current financial assets account for € 37.0, 38.9 and 39.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively.


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B.    Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C.    Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
D.    Risk Factors
The Company's business faces significant risks. You should carefully consider all of the information set forth in this Annual Report and in the other filings with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, including the following risk factors which Innate faces and which are faced by its industry. The Company's business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. This report also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Innate's results could materially differ from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, as a result of certain factors including the risks described below and elsewhere in this Annual Report and its other SEC filings. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” above.

Risks Related to the Development of the Product Candidates
Biopharmaceutical development involves a high degree of uncertainty and most of the product candidates are in early stages of development, which makes it difficult to evaluate the current business and future prospects and may increase the risk of your investment.
Innate Pharma is a global, clinical stage oncology-focused biotech company. In December 2020, Innate decided to return Lumoxiti commercial rights to AstraZeneca and to re-focus investments in its R&D portfolio consisting of product candidates, some of which Innate is co-developing, in the early stages of clinical development and preclinical programs.
A key element of Innate's strategy is to mature and expand its portfolio of proprietary and partnered product candidates to address unmet medical needs in immuno-oncology. Although Innate's research and development efforts to date have resulted in a pipeline of product candidates, all of its product candidates require additional development, regulatory review and approvals, substantial investment, access to sufficient commercial manufacturing capacity and significant marketing efforts before they can be commercialized and before Innate can generate any revenue from product sales or royalties. If the Company or its collaboration partners are unable to successfully develop and market these product candidates, its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Aside from Innate's acquisition of Lumoxiti, its operations to date have been limited to developing its product candidates and undertaking preclinical studies and clinical trials of its product candidates, including monalizumab and IPH5201, through its partnership with AstraZeneca, lacutamab, avdoralimab and IPH5301, its most advanced product candidates, currently in clinical stage. The success in development of its current and future product candidates by the Company or its collaborators will depend on many factors, including:
obtaining positive results in clinical trials including by demonstrating efficacy, safety and durability of effect of such product candidates;
completing preclinical studies and receiving regulatory approvals or clearance for conducting clinical trials for its preclinical programs;
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receiving and maintaining approvals for commercialization of such product candidates from regulatory authorities;
manufacturing or overseeing the manufacturing of its product candidates in acceptable quantities and at an acceptable cost;
negotiating favorable terms in any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements into which the Company may enter, and performing its obligations pursuant to such arrangements;
maintaining, protecting, enforcing and expanding its portfolio of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets and know-how;
avoiding and defending against third-party interference, infringement or other intellectual property claims; and
maintaining and growing an organization of scientists, medical professionals, marketing, distribution and sales personnel and executives who can develop its product candidates and commercialize any approved products.
In addition, if the Company is unable to reduce its dependence on its current clinical and preclinical product candidates, either by in-licensing or acquiring new product candidates, developing its other product candidates or discovering new product candidates, the Company may be similarly adversely affected.
The scientific evidence to support the feasibility of developing product candidates is both preliminary and limited.
Innate Pharma innovative approach to immuno-oncology aims to activate both the innate and adaptive immune systems against abnormal or cancerous cells and restore the body’s ability to disrupt their proliferation, potentially leading to durable responses in patients. This approach is focused on developing checkpoint inhibitors, tumor-targeting antibodies and antibodies that affect the tumor microenvironment, and several of the product candidates rely on novel mechanisms of action and on innovative formats for which the Company has limited scientific evidence and preclinical and clinical data.
The Company may not ultimately be able to provide the FDA, European Medicines Agency, or EMA, or other regulatory authorities with substantial clinical evidence to support a claim of efficacy and durability of response to enable the applicable regulators to approve its product candidates for any indication. This may occur because later clinical trials fail to reproduce favorable data obtained in earlier clinical trials, because the applicable regulator disagrees with how the Company interprets the data from these clinical trials or because the applicable regulator does not accept these therapeutic effects as valid endpoints in pivotal clinical trials that are sufficient to grant marketing approval. Additionally, because product candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy traits despite having progressed through preclinical studies and earlier clinical trials its collaborators in earlier stages of clinical trials may eventually choose to discontinue later stage trials. For example, following initial promising results assessing the safety and efficacy of the Company's product candidate lirilumab for the treatment of various cancer indications, the Company's collaborator decided not to continue development after receiving Phase 2 clinical trial data.
In addition to the safety and efficacy traits of any product candidate, clinical trial failures may result from a multitude of factors including flaws in trial design, dose selection, placebo effect and patient enrollment criteria. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or adverse safety profiles, notwithstanding promising results in earlier trials, and it is possible that the Company will as well. Based upon negative or inconclusive results, the Company or its collaborators may decide, or regulators may require the
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Company, to conduct additional clinical trials or preclinical studies. In addition, data obtained from trials and studies are susceptible to varying interpretations, and regulators may not interpret the Company's data as favorably as the Company does, which may delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval.
The Company will also need to demonstrate that its product candidates are safe and well tolerated. The Company does not have significant data on possible harmful long-term effects of its product candidates and does not expect to have this data in the near future. As a result, its ability to generate clinical safety and efficacy data sufficient to support submission of a marketing application or commercialization of its product candidates is uncertain and is subject to significant risk.
The Company intends to develop several of its product candidates in combination with other therapies, which exposes the Company to additional risks.
The Company is currently developing monalizumab, lacutamab and IPH5201, and may develop other product candidates, in combination with one or more currently approved cancer therapies. Specifically, with AstraZeneca, the Company is currently evaluating monalizumab in an ongoing open-label Phase 1b/2 trial in combination with cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor, or EGFR, inhibitor, and also in a triplet setting with cetuximab and an anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor and in an ongoing randomized and double-blind Phase 3 clinical trial in combination with cetuximab. AstraZeneca is also currently evaluating monalizumab in ongoing Phase 1, 2 and 3 trials in combination with durvalumab. Lacutamab is also currently evaluated in combination with chemotherapy GEMOX (gemcitabine in combination with oxaliplatin) in patients with PTCL (Peripheral T Cell Lymphoma). In addition, IPH5201 is also currently under clinical investigation, in a Phase 1 trial in combination with durvalumab. Patients may not be able to tolerate the Company's product candidates in combination with other therapies, and preliminary clinical results indicate that monalizumab, for example, has no meaningful clinical activity as a monotherapy. Even if any product candidate the Company develops were to receive marketing approval or be commercialized for use in combination with other existing therapies, the Company would continue to be subject to the risks that the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities could revoke approval of the therapy used in combination with its product candidate or that safety, efficacy, manufacturing or supply issues could arise with these existing therapies. Combination therapies are commonly used for the treatment of cancer, and the Company would be subject to similar risks if the Company develops any of its product candidates for use in combination with other therapies or for indications other than cancer. This could result in its own products, if approved, being removed from the market or being less successful commercially.
The Company may also evaluate any of its current and future product candidates in combination with one or more other cancer therapies that have not yet been approved for marketing by the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. The Company will not be able to market and sell monalizumab, lacutamab or IPH5201 or any other product candidate the Company develops in combination with any such unapproved cancer therapies that do not ultimately obtain marketing approval.
If the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities do not approve, revoke their approval of, or if safety, efficacy, manufacturing or supply issues arise with, the products or product candidates the Company chooses to evaluate in combination with monalizumab, lacutamab, IPH5201 or any other product candidate the Company develops, the Company may be unable to obtain approval of or market monalizumab or any other such product candidate the Company develops.
The Company are heavily dependent on the success of its current clinical-stage product candidates and the Company cannot be certain that the Company or its collaborators will be able to obtain regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize, these product candidates.
The Company's business and future success depend on receiving regulatory approval for, and the commercial success of, its proprietary and partnered product candidates. The Company has agreements
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with AstraZeneca with respect to the advanced development, clinical trial collaboration and potential future registration and marketing of several of its product candidates, including monalizumab and IPH5201, and with Sanofi for the research and development of IPH6101. Its near-term prospects depend heavily on AstraZeneca’s successful clinical development and commercialization of monalizumab as well as the successful clinical development of its other product candidates. The clinical success of these product candidates will depend on a number of factors, including the ability and willingness of AstraZeneca and the Company's other collaborators to complete ongoing clinical trials for monalizumab or other partnered assets, the ability to complete the clinical trials for which the Company is responsible, and the safety, tolerability and efficacy of its product candidates.
The Company may not be successful in its efforts to develop additional products that receive regulatory approval and are successfully commercialized.
The development of a product candidate is a long, costly and uncertain process, aimed at demonstrating the therapeutic benefit of a product candidate that competes with existing products or those being developed. There is no guarantee that the Company or its collaborators will be able to demonstrate a sufficient degree of clinical efficacy or safety of one or more of its proprietary or licensed product candidates in order to gain regulatory approval or to become commercially viable. The degree of uncertainty associated with clinical development and the risks associated with developing new product candidates may make it difficult to evaluate its current business and its future prospects.
The Company intends to continue to develop its product candidates that are currently in clinical trials, including monalizumab, lacutamab, avdoralimab and IPH5201. Monalizumab is currently being investigated in multiple Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials under a co-development agreement with AstraZeneca. Lacutamab is currently being investigated in an open-label, multi-cohort Phase 2 clinical trial in CTCL and in Phases 1 and 2 in PTCL. Avdoralimab is currently being evaluated in Phase 2 clinical trials. IPH5201 is currently being investigated in an open-label Phase 1 clinical trial sponsored by AstraZeneca. IPH5301 is currently being investigated in a Phase 1 clinical trial sponsored by the Institut Paoli-Calmettes. While the Company believes that it will eventually have the in-house capabilities to complete the development of monalizumab, lacutamab, avdoralimab, IPH5201 and IPH5301, the Company has not yet completed the clinical trials for these or other product candidates, and there can be no assurance that these or other product candidates will gain regulatory approval or become commercially viable.
Delays in the preclinical development of a product candidate could lead to delays in initiating its clinical development. A failure in the preclinical development of a product candidate could lead to abandoning its development. Further delays or failures at the various clinical stages for a given indication could result in delay or halt the development of the product candidate in such indication or in other indications. Moreover, disappointing results during the initial phases of development are often not a sufficient basis for deciding whether or not to continue a project. At these early stages, sample sizes, the duration of studies and the parameters examined may not be sufficient to enable a definitive conclusion to be drawn, in which case further investigations are required. Conversely, promising results during the initial phases, and even after advanced clinical trials have been conducted, do not guarantee that a product candidate or an approved drug will be successfully approved and commercialized.
The risks related to the failure of a product candidate’s development are highly related to the stage of maturity of the product candidate. Given the relatively early stage of the product candidates in the pipeline, there is a substantial risk that some or all of the product candidates will not obtain regulatory approval or be commercialized, which would have an adverse impact on the Company's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
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The Company may not be successful in its efforts to identify, discover or develop additional product candidates, including those based on its innovative ANKET technology.
The Company is seeking to develop a broad and innovative pipeline of product candidates in addition to monalizumab, lacutamab, avdoralimab, IPH5201 and IPH5301. The Company may not be successful in identifying additional product candidates for clinical development for a number of reasons. For example, its research methodology may be unsuccessful in identifying potential product candidates or the potential product candidates, the Company identifies may have harmful side effects, lack of efficacy or other characteristics that make them unmarketable or unlikely to receive regulatory approval.
Moreover, some of its innovative pipeline of product candidates are based on its innovative ANKET platform which is not yet approved. The ANKET platform consists of two different formats, trispecific and tetraspecific antibodies. IPH6101, a trispecific antibody, which is the most advanced product candidate, is currently being investigated in a phase 1 clinical trial. Two other trispecific antibodies are currently in preclinical stage, one also in partnership with Sanofi (IPH64) and another under option with AstraZeneca (IPH62). The Company is also developing IPH65, a tetraspecific proprietary antibody, which is currently moving towards an Investigational New Drug application, or IND. Even if the Company aim at maintaining a diversified pipeline, the use of an innovative technology represents additional risks in the product candidate development.
Research programs to pursue the development of the product candidates for additional indications and to identify new product candidates and disease targets require substantial technical, financial and human resources. the Company's research programs may initially show promise in identifying potential indications or product candidates, yet fail to yield results for clinical development for a number of reasons, including:
the research methodology used may not be successful in identifying potential indications or product candidates;
potential product candidates and/or its ANKET technology may, after further study, be shown to have harmful adverse effects or other characteristics that indicate they are unlikely to be effective drugs; or
it may take greater human and financial resources to identify additional therapeutic opportunities for its product candidates or to develop suitable potential product candidates through internal research programs than the Company will possess, thereby limiting its ability to diversify and expand its product portfolio.
Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the Company will ever be able to identify additional indications for its product candidates or to identify and develop new product candidates through internal research programs. The Company may focus its efforts and resources on potential product candidates or other potential programs that ultimately prove to be unsuccessful.
The Company may encounter substantial delays in its clinical trials, or may be unable to conduct its clinical trials on the timelines the Company expects.
Clinical testing is expensive, time consuming, and subject to uncertainty. The Company cannot guarantee that any clinical trials will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing, and its future clinical studies may not be successful. Events that may prevent successful or timely completion of clinical development include:
inability to generate sufficient preclinical, toxicology, or other in vivo or in vitro data to support the initiation of clinical trials;
delays or failure in reaching a consensus with regulatory agencies on clinical trial design;
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delays in reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective Contract Research Organisations, or CROs, and investigational sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and investigational sites;
imposition of a temporary or permanent clinical hold by regulatory agencies, including as a result of a new safety finding that presents unreasonable risk to clinical trial participants, a negative finding from an inspection of its clinical trial operations or investigational sites, developments in trials conducted by competitors for related technology that raise regulators’ concerns about risk to patients of the technology broadly or if a regulatory body finds that the investigational protocol or plan is clearly deficient to meet its stated objectives. For example, in November 2019, its TELLOMAK trial was put on full or partial holds in a number of countries. The Company was authorized to fully resume patient enrollment and treatment after having been able to produce a new conform batch;
delays in recruiting suitable patients to participate in its clinical trials;
difficulty collaborating with patient groups and investigators;
failure by the Company, its CROs or other third parties, including its collaborators, to adhere to clinical trial requirements;
delays in having patients complete participation in a clinical trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;
patients withdrawing from a clinical trial;
occurrence of adverse events associated with a product candidate that are viewed to outweigh its potential benefits;
changes in regulatory requirements and guidance that require amending or submitting new clinical trial protocols;
regulatory feedback requiring the Company to amend the protocols of ongoing clinical trials in response to safety considerations, as the Company has previously been required to;
changes in the standard of care on which a clinical development plan was based, which may require new or additional clinical trials;
the cost of clinical trials of its product candidates being greater than the Company anticipates;
clinical trials of its product candidates producing negative or inconclusive results, which may result in the Company deciding, or regulators requiring the Company, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon product development programs;
transfer of manufacturing processes to larger-scale facilities operated by either a contract manufacturing organization, or CMO, or by , and delays or failure by its CMOs or the Company to make any necessary changes to such manufacturing process; and
batch recalls, recalls of manufactured product candidates or delays in manufacturing, testing, releasing, validating, or importing or exporting sufficient stable quantities of its product candidates for use in clinical trials or the inability to do any of the foregoing.
Any inability to successfully complete preclinical and clinical development could result in additional costs to the Compnay or impair its ability to generate revenue. In addition, if the Company makes manufacturing or formulation changes to its product candidates, it may be required to or it may elect to conduct additional studies to bridge its modified product candidates to earlier versions. Clinical study
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delays could also shorten any periods during which its products have patent protection and may allow its competitors to bring products to market before the Company does, which could impair its ability to successfully commercialize its product candidates and may harm its business and results of operations.
The Company depends on enrollment of patients in its clinical trials for its product candidates.
Successful and timely completion of clinical trials will require that the Company or its subcontractors enroll a sufficient number of suitable patients. Clinical trials may be subject to delays as a result of patient enrollment taking longer than anticipated or patient withdrawal. Patient enrollment depends on many factors, including the size and nature of the patient population, which is typically limited for rare or orphan diseases making the enrollment more difficult, eligibility criteria for the trial, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, the design of the clinical protocol, the availability of competing clinical trials, the availability of new drugs approved for the indication the clinical trial is investigating, and clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the drug being studied in relation to other available therapies. For example, the Company is developing lacutamab for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, or CTCL. CTCL is an orphan disease, which means that the potential patient population is limited. In addition, there are several other product candidates potentially in development for the indications for which the Company is developing product candidates, and the Company may compete for patients with the sponsors of trials for those drugs. These factors may make it difficult for the Company to enroll enough patients to complete its clinical trials in a timely and cost-effective manner. Delays in the completion of any clinical trial of any of its product candidates will increase its costs, slow down its product candidate development and approval process and delay or potentially jeopardize its ability to commence product sales and generate revenue. In addition, some of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the inability to obtain regulatory approval of its product candidates.
The Company's product candidates in development may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could halt or delay their clinical development, prevent their regulatory approval, limit their commercialization or result in other negative consequences.
Use of the Company's product candidates in development could be associated with side effects or adverse events which can vary in severity and in frequency. Undesirable side effects or unacceptable toxicities caused by its products or product candidates could cause the Company or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay, or halt clinical trials. The FDA or European regulatory authorities could delay or deny approval of the Company's product candidates for any or all targeted indications and negative side effects could result in a more restrictive label for any drug that is approved. Side effects such as toxicity or other safety issues associated with the use of the Company's product candidates could also require it or its collaborators to perform additional studies or halt development of product candidates or sale of approved products.
Treatment-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled subjects to complete the trial, or could result in potential product liability claims. In addition, these side effects may not be appropriately or timely recognized or managed by the treating medical staff, as toxicities resulting from immunotherapy are not normally encountered in the general patient population and by medical personnel. Inadequate training in recognizing or managing the potential side effects of its product candidates could result in adverse effects to patients, including death. Any of these occurrences may have an adverse impact on the Company's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company faces substantial competition from companies with significantly greater resources and experience.
The biotechnology and pharmaceutical market, and notably the immuno-oncology field, is characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, products protected by intellectual property rights and intense
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competition and is subject to significant and rapid change as researchers learn more about diseases and develop new technologies and treatments. The Company faces potential competition from many different sources, including major pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions and governmental agencies and public and private research institutions. Any product candidates that the Company or its collaborators successfully develop will compete with existing therapies and new therapies that may become available in the future. If competing products are marketed before Innate's ones, or at lower prices, or cover a wider therapeutic spectrum, or if they prove to be more effective or better tolerated, the Company's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be affected.
Many of the Company's competitors who are developing immuno-oncology and anti-cancer therapies have considerably greater resources and experience in research, access to patients for clinical trials, drug development, finance, manufacturing, marketing, technology and personnel than the Company does. In particular, large pharmaceutical companies have substantially more experience than the Company does in conducting clinical trials and obtaining regulatory authorizations. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and diagnostic industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of the Company's competitors. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These competitors are also likely to compete with Company to recruit and retain scientific and management personnel, acquire rights for promising product candidates and other complementary technologies, establish clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials and acquire technologies complementary to, or necessary for, its programs, as well as to enter into collaborations with partners who have access to innovative technologies. If the Company cannot successfully compete with new or existing products, its marketing and sales will suffer and the Company may never be profitable. Should any of these risks materialize, Innate's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
The Company cannot guarantee that its product candidates will:
obtain regulatory authorizations or become commercially available before those of its competitors;
remain competitive in the face of other products developed by its competitors, which may prove to be safer, are more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient, have a broader label, have more robust intellectual property protection or are less expensive;
remain competitive in the face of products of competitors that are more efficient in their manufacturing or more effective in their marketing; and
not become obsolete or unprofitable due to technological progress or other therapies developed by its competitors.
In addition, while any future product candidate that is approved may compete with many existing drugs or other therapies, to the extent it is solely used in combination with these therapies, the Company's product candidates will not be competitive with such therapies but any sales of such products could be limited to sales of the combination therapy. In this case, the Company would be exposed to the same competitive risks as the product used in combination with its product, such as a product that is marketed before the combination therapy, has lower prices, covers a wider therapeutic spectrum or proves to be more effective or better tolerated. For additional information regarding competition to its business see “Business—Competition.”
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Risks Related to Regulatory Approval and Marketing of Innate's Product Candidates and Legal Compliance Matters
Even if the Company complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials, the marketing approval process is expensive, time-consuming and uncertain and may prevent Innate from obtaining approvals for the commercialization of some or all of its product candidates. If the Company is not able to obtain, or if there are delays in obtaining, required regulatory approvals, in particular in the United States or the European Union, the Company will not be able to commercialize its product candidates, and its ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.
The research and development of pharmaceutical products is governed by complex regulatory requirements. The regulatory agencies that oversee these requirements have the authority to permit the commencement of clinical trials or to temporarily or permanently halt a study. They are entitled to request additional clinical data before authorizing the commencement or resumption of a study, which could result in delays or changes to the product development plan. As the Company advances its product candidates, the Company will be required to consult with these regulatory agencies and comply with all applicable guidelines, rules and regulations. If the Company fails to do so, the Company may be required to delay or discontinue development of its product candidates. Delay or failure to obtain, or unexpected costs in obtaining, the regulatory approval necessary to bring a potential product to market could decrease its ability to generate sufficient product revenue to maintain its business.
The clinical trials of Innate's product candidates, the manufacturing and the marketing of its product candidates are and will be, subject to regulation by numerous government authorities in the United States, in the European Union and in other countries where the Company intend to test and, if approved, market any product candidate. Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of any product candidate, the Company must demonstrate, with substantial evidence gathered in well-controlled clinical trials, and, with respect to approval in the United States, to the satisfaction of the FDA, with respect to approval in the European Union, to the satisfaction of the EMA or, with respect to approval in other countries, similar regulatory authorities in those countries, that the product candidate is safe and effective for use in each target indication.
When the Company acquired Lumoxiti, AstraZeneca had already obtained marketing approval from the FDA and they also filed the Marketing Authorization in the European Union. The Company has never submitted a product candidate for marketing approval in the United States, in the European Union or elsewhere.
In the United States, the Company expects that the requisite regulatory submission to seek marketing authorization for its product candidates will be a Biologic License Application, or BLA, and the competent regulatory authority is the FDA. In the European Union, the requisite approval is a Marketing Authorization, or MA, which for products developed by the means of antibody-based therapeutics, gene or cell therapy products as well as tissue engineered products, is issued through a centralized procedure involving the EMA (see “Business—Regulation”). Satisfaction of these and other regulatory requirements is costly, time consuming, uncertain and subject to unanticipated delays. Failure to comply with the applicable requirements at any time during the product development process, approval process or after approval, may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions. These sanctions could include, for example, the FDA’s refusal to approve pending applications, withdrawal of an approval, a clinical hold, untitled or warning letters, product recalls or withdrawals from the market, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, restitution, disgorgement, or civil or criminal penalties.
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Data from preclinical and clinical studies are likely to give rise to different interpretations, which could delay regulatory authorization, restrict the scope of any such authorization or force Innate to repeat trials in order to meet the requirements of the various regulators. Regulatory requirements and processes vary widely among countries, and the Company may be unable to obtain authorization within each relevant country in a timely manner. Regulatory authorities may prevent Innate from starting clinical trials or continuing clinical development if the data were not produced according to applicable regulations or if they consider that the balance between the expected benefits of the product and its possible risks is not sufficient to justify the trial.
Despite the Company's efforts, its product candidates may not:
offer improvement over existing, comparable products;
be proven safe and effective in clinical trials; or
meet applicable regulatory standards.
This process can take many years and may include post-marketing studies and surveillance, which will require the expenditure of substantial resources beyond the existing cash on hand. Of the large number of drugs in development globally, only a small percentage successfully complete the regulatory approval process and not all approved drugs are successfully commercialized. Delay or failure to obtain, or unexpected costs in obtaining, the regulatory approval necessary for the Company or its partners to bring a potential product candidate to market could have a material adverse effect on its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The regulatory processes that will govern the approval of Innate's product candidates are complex and changes in regulatory requirements could result in delays or discontinuation of development or unexpected costs in obtaining regulatory approval.
Innate's product candidates are based on new approaches and/or technologies that are constantly evolving and have not been extensively tested on humans. The applicable regulatory requirements vary between jurisdictions and are also complex, potentially difficult to apply and subject to significant modifications. Modifications to regulations during the course of clinical development and regulatory review may lead to delays or the refusal of authorization.
In Europe, the United States and other countries, regulations can potentially:
significantly delay or increase the cost of development, testing, manufacturing and marketing of Innate's products;
limit the indications for which the Company will be authorized to market its products; and
impose new, more stringent, requirements, suspend marketing authorizations, or request the suspension of clinical trials or the marketing of its products if unexpected results are obtained during trials performed by other researchers on products similar to its products.
Marketing authorization in one jurisdiction does not ensure marketing authorization in another, but a failure or delay in obtaining marketing authorization in one jurisdiction may have a negative effect on the regulatory process in others. Failure to obtain marketing authorization in other countries or any delay or setback in obtaining such approval would impair the Company's ability to develop additional markets for its product candidates. This would reduce Innate's target market and limit the full commercial potential of its product or product candidates. Should any of these risks materialize, this could harm its business.
Innate Pharma's failure to obtain marketing approval in jurisdictions other than the United States and Europe would prevent Innate's product candidates from being marketed in these other jurisdictions,
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and any approval the Company is granted for its product candidates in the United States and Europe would not assure approval of product candidates in other jurisdictions.
In order to market and sell its other product candidates in jurisdictions other than the United States and Europe, the Company must obtain separate marketing approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. The approval process varies among countries and can involve additional testing. The time required to obtain approval may differ from that required to obtain FDA approval or approvals from regulatory authorities in the European Union. The regulatory approval process outside the United States and Europe generally includes all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval or approvals from regulatory authorities in the European Union. In addition, some countries outside the United States and Europe require approval of the sales price of a product before it can be marketed. In many countries, separate procedures must be followed to obtain reimbursement and a product may not be approved for sale in the country until it is also approved for reimbursement. The Company may not obtain marketing, pricing or reimbursement approvals outside the United States and Europe on a timely basis, if at all. Approval by the FDA or regulatory authorities in the European Union does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one regulatory authority outside the United States and Europe does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA or regulatory authorities in the European Union. The Company may not be able to file for marketing approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize its products in any market. Marketing approvals in countries outside the United States and Europe do not ensure pricing approvals in those countries or in any other countries, and marketing approvals and pricing approvals do not ensure that reimbursement will be obtained.
Side effects that appear following the launch of a drug on the market may result in the product being taken off the market or additional warnings being added to the label despite having obtained all regulatory approvals.
A drug’s launch in the market may expose a large number of patients to potential risks associated with the treatment with a new pharmaceutical product. Certain side effects, which may not have been identified during clinical trials, can subsequently appear. For these reasons, regulatory agencies require companies to implement post-approval monitoring. Depending on the occurrence of serious undesirable effects, the agencies may require that the Company or a collaboration partner of its takes a drug off the market temporarily or permanently, even if it is effective and has obtained all the necessary marketing authorizations. Such an action would negatively impair its ability to generate revenue from such product and could more generally negatively affect its ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval for, and commercialize its other product candidates and its reputation generally, each of which could have a material adverse effect on its business and results of operations. In addition, if the product candidates the Company develops receive marketing authorization and the Company or others identified undesirable side effects caused by any product after the approval, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including that regulatory authorities may require the addition of labeling statements, such as a “boxed” warning or a contraindication, the Company may be required to create a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients and its reputation may suffer.
Any product candidate for which the Company obtains marketing approval will be subject to strict enforcement of post-marketing requirements and the Company could be subject to substantial penalties, including withdrawal of its product from the market, if the Company fails to comply with all regulatory requirements or if the Company experiences unanticipated problems with its product and product candidates, when and if any of them are approved.
Any product candidate for which the Company obtains marketing approval, will be subject to continual requirements of and review by the FDA, EMA and other regulatory authorities, including requirements
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relating to manufacturing processes, post-approval clinical data, labeling, advertising and promotional activities for such product. These requirements include, but are not limited to, restrictions governing promotion of an approved product, submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration and listing requirements, cGMP requirements relating to manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance and corresponding maintenance of records and documents, and requirements regarding the distribution of samples to physicians and recordkeeping. In addition, even if marketing approval of a product candidate is granted, the approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the product may be marketed, restrictions for specified age groups, warnings, precautions or contraindications or to the conditions of approval.
The FDA and other federal and state agencies, including the U.S. Department of Justice, or DOJ, closely regulate compliance with all requirements governing prescription products, including requirements pertaining to marketing and promotion of products in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling and manufacturing of products in accordance with cGMP requirements. The FDA and DOJ impose stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label use and if the Company does not market its products for their approved indications, the Company may be subject to enforcement action for off-label marketing. Prescription products may be promoted only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. However, companies may also share truthful and not misleading information that is otherwise consistent with the labeling. Violations of such requirements may lead to investigations alleging violations of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and other statutes, including the False Claims Act and other federal and state health care fraud and abuse laws as well as state consumer protection laws. Innate's failure to comply with all regulatory requirements, and later discovery of previously unknown adverse events or other problems with its products, manufacturers or manufacturing processes, may yield various results, including:
litigation involving patients taking its products;
restrictions on such products, manufacturers or manufacturing processes;
restrictions on the labeling or marketing of a product;
restrictions on product distribution or use;
requirements to conduct post-marketing studies or clinical trials;
warning letters or untitled letters;
withdrawal of the products from the market;
refusal to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications that the Company submits;
recall of products;
fines, restitution or disgorgement of profits or revenues;
suspension or withdrawal of marketing approvals;
damage to relationships with any potential collaborators;
unfavorable press coverage and damage to its reputation;
refusal to permit the import or export of its products;
product seizure; or
injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.
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Non-compliance by Innate or any future collaborator with the FDA, EMA or other regulatory requirements regarding safety monitoring or pharmacovigilance, and with requirements related to the development of products for the pediatric population, can also result in significant financial penalties. Similarly, failure to comply with regulatory requirements regarding the protection of personal information can also lead to significant penalties and sanctions.
Coverage and reimbursement may be limited or unavailable in certain market segments for the Company's product candidates, if approved, which could make it difficult for Innate Pharma to sell its product candidates profitably.
Successful sales of its product candidates, if approved, will depend, in part, on the availability of adequate coverage and reimbursement from government authorities and third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations. Patients who are provided medical treatment for their conditions generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with their treatment. Adequate coverage and reimbursement from governmental healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid in the United States or the Social Security in France, and commercial payors are critical to new product acceptance.
Government authorities and third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which drugs and treatments they will cover and the amount of reimbursement. Coverage and reimbursement by a third-party payor may depend upon a number of factors, including the third-party payor’s determination that use of a product is:
a covered benefit under its health plan;
safe, effective and medically necessary;
appropriate for the specific patient;
cost-effective; and
neither experimental nor investigational.
Policies for coverage and reimbursement for products vary among third-party payors. No uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for products exists among third-party payors, and third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price, examining the medical necessity, and reviewing the cost-effectiveness of approved drugs and medical services, in addition to questioning their safety and efficacy. As a result, obtaining coverage and reimbursement approval of a product from a government or other third-party payor is a time-consuming and costly process that could require the Company or its partners to provide to each payor supporting scientific, clinical and cost-effectiveness data for the use of its products on a payor-by-payor basis, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be obtained. Coverage decisions may depend upon clinical and economic standards that disfavor new drug products when more established or lower cost therapeutic alternatives are already available or subsequently become available. Even if the Company obtains coverage for a given product, the resulting reimbursement payment rates might not be adequate for it to achieve or sustain profitability or may require co-payments that patients find unacceptably high. Additionally, third-party payors may not cover, or provide adequate reimbursement for, long-term follow-up evaluations required following the use of the Company's product candidates or approved products.
Because its product candidates represent new approaches to the treatment of cancer and accordingly, may have a higher cost than conventional therapies and may require long-term follow-up evaluations, the risk that coverage and reimbursement rates may be inadequate for the Company to achieve profitability may be elevated. There are currently a limited number of immunotherapy products that are designed to treat
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cancer on the market and, accordingly, there is less experience or precedent for the reimbursement of such treatments by governmental entities or third-party payors.
Government restrictions on pricing and reimbursement and other healthcare cost-containment initiatives may negatively affect its ability to generate revenues for its product candidates for which the Company obtains regulatory approval.
Government authorities and other third-party payors are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs, including by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices as a condition of coverage, are using restrictive formularies and preferred drug lists to leverage greater discounts in competitive classes and are challenging the prices charged for medical products.
In the United States, the European Union and other foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the healthcare system that could affect the Company's or its partners’ ability to sell its products profitably. By way of example, in the United States, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, which the Company collectively refers to as the ACA, was enacted in March 2010 and is having a significant impact on the provision of, and payment for, healthcare in the United States. The ACA was intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, enhance remedies against fraud and abuse, add new transparency requirements for the healthcare and health insurance industries, impose new taxes and fees on the health industry and impose additional health policy reforms.
Among the provisions of the ACA of importance to its product candidates are:
an annual, nondeductible fee on any entity that manufactures or imports specified branded prescription drugs and biologic agents, apportioned among these entities according to their market share in certain government healthcare programs;
an increase in the statutory minimum rebates a manufacturer must pay under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program to 23.1% and 13.0% of the average manufacturer price for branded and generic drugs, respectively;
a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must now agree to offer 70% point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for a manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D;
extension of a manufacturer’s Medicaid rebate liability to covered drugs dispensed to individuals who are enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations;
expansion of eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs by, among other things, allowing states to offer Medicaid coverage to additional individuals and by adding new mandatory eligibility categories for certain individuals with income at or below 133% of the federal poverty level, thereby potentially increasing a manufacturer’s Medicaid rebate liability;
expansion of the entities eligible for discounts under the Public Health Service pharmaceutical pricing program; and
a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research.
There have been judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA, as well as efforts by the Trump administration to repeal and replace certain aspects of the ACA, and such challenges may
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occur again. Former President Trump signed two executive orders designed to delay the implementation of certain provisions of the ACA or otherwise circumvent some of the requirements for health insurance mandated by the ACA. Concurrently, Congress has considered legislation that would repeal or repeal and replace all or part of the ACA. While Congress has not passed comprehensive repeal legislation, two bills affecting the implementation of certain taxes under the ACA have been signed into law. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 includes a provision that repealed, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the ACA on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year that is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate.” In addition, the 2020 federal spending package permanently eliminated, effective January 1, 2020, the ACA-mandated “Cadillac” tax on high-cost employer-sponsored health coverage and medical device tax and, effective January 1, 2021, also eliminated the health insurer tax. In July and December 2018, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, published final rules with respect to permitting further collections and payments to and from certain ACA qualified health plans and health insurance issuers under its risk adjustment program in response to the outcome of federal district court litigation regarding the method CMS uses to determine this risk adjustment. On December 14, 2018, a Texas U.S. District Court Judge ruled that the ACA is unconstitutional in its entirety because the “individual mandate” was repealed by the U.S. Congress as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 Act. Additionally, on June 17, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed a challenge on procedural grounds that the ACA is unconstitutional in its entirety because the "individual mandate" was repealed by Congress. Thus the ACA will remain in effect in its current form. Further, prior to the U.S. Supreme Court ruling, on January 28, 2021, President Biden issued an executive order to initiate a special enrollment period which began on February 15, 2021 and remained open through August 15, 2021 for purposes of obtaining health insurance coverage through the ACA marketplace. The executive order also instructs certain governmental agencies to review and reconsider their existing policies and rules that limit access to healthcare, including among others, reexamining Medicaid demonstration projects and waiver programs that include work requirements, and policies that create unnecessary barriers to obtaining access to health insurance coverage through Medicaid or the ACA. It is unclear how judicial and Congressional challenges and the healthcare reform measures of the Biden administration will impact ACA.
In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. These changes include aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect in April 2013 and will remain in effect through 2030 unless additional Congressional action is taken. However, COVID-19 relief support legislation suspended the 2% Medicare sequester from May 1, 2020 through December 31, 2021. Both the Budget Control Act of 2011 and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, or ATRA, further reduced Medicare payments to several providers and the ATRA increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. Additional legislative proposals to reform healthcare and government insurance programs, along with the trend toward managed healthcare in the United States, could influence the purchase of medicines and reduce demand and prices for Innate's product candidates, if approved. This could harm Innate's or its partners’ ability to market any drugs and generate revenues. Cost containment measures that healthcare payors and providers are instituting and the effect of further healthcare reform could significantly reduce potential revenues from the sale of any of its product candidates approved in the future, and could cause an increase in its compliance, manufacturing, or other operating expenses.
In addition, in the United States, federal programs impose penalties on drug manufacturers in the form of mandatory additional rebates and/or discounts if commercial prices increase at a rate greater than the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics consumer price index, and these rebates or discounts, which can be substantial, may affect the Company's ability to raise commercial prices.
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Further, there has been increasing legislative and enforcement interest in the United States with respect to drug pricing practices. Specifically, there have been several recent U.S. Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, reduce the cost of drugs under Medicare, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drugs. At the federal level, the Trump administration’s budget proposal for fiscal years 2020 contains further drug price control measures that could be enacted during the budget process or in other future legislation. The Trump administration also released a “Blueprint”, or plan, to lower drug prices and reduce out of pocket costs of drugs that contains additional proposals to increase manufacturer competition, increase the negotiating power of certain federal healthcare programs, incentivize manufacturers to lower the list price of their products and reduce the out of pocket costs of drug products paid by consumers. On July 24, 2020 and September 13, 2020, the Trump administration announced several executive orders related to prescription drug pricing that seek to implement several of the administration’s proposals. As a result, the FDA released a final rule on September 24, 2020, effective November 30, 2020, providing guidance for states to build and submit importation plans for drugs from Canada. Further, on November 20, 2020, HHS finalized a regulation removing safe harbor protection for price reductions from pharmaceutical manufacturers to plan sponsors under Part D, either directly or through pharmacy benefit managers, unless the price reduction is required by law. The implementation of the rule has been delayed by the Biden administration from January 1, 2022 to January 1, 2023 in response to ongoing litigation. The rule also creates a new safe harbor for price reductions reflected at the point-of-sale, as well as a safe harbor for certain fixed fee arrangements between pharmacy benefit managers and manufacturers, the implementation of which have also been delayed until January 1, 2023. On November 20, 2020, CMS issued an interim final rule implementing President Trump’s Most Favored Nation executive order, which would tie Medicare Part B payments for certain physician-administered drugs to the lowest price paid in other economically advanced countries, effective January 1, 2021. As a result of litigation challenging the Most Favored Nation model, on August 10, 2021, CMS published a proposed rule that seeks to rescind the Most Favored Nation Model interim final rule. In July 2021, the Biden administration released an executive order, "Promoting Competition in American Economy," with multiple provisions aimed at prescription drugs. In response to Biden's executive order, on September 9, 2021, HHS released a Comprehensive Plan for Addressing High Drug Prices that outlines principles for drug pricing reform and sets out a variety of potential legislative policies that Congress could pursue to advance these principles. In addition, Congress is considering drug pricing as part of the budget reconciliation process. It is unclear whether the Biden administration will work to reverse these measures or pursue similar policy initiatives. At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing.
In some countries, the proposed pricing for a biopharmaceutical product must be approved before it may be lawfully marketed. In addition, in certain foreign markets, the pricing of biopharmaceutical product is subject to government control and reimbursement may in some cases be unavailable. The requirements governing drug pricing vary widely from country to country. For example, the European Union provides options for its member states to restrict the range of medicinal products for which their national health insurance systems provide reimbursement and to control the prices of medicinal products for human use. An EU member state may approve a specific price for the medicinal product, it may refuse to reimburse a product at the price set by the manufacturer or it may instead adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the medicinal product on the market. There can be no assurance that any country that has price controls or reimbursement limitations for biopharmaceutical
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products will allow favorable reimbursement and pricing arrangements for any of Innate's products. Historically, biopharmaceutical products launched in the European Union do not follow price structures of the United States and generally tend to have significantly lower prices.
The Company believes that pricing pressures will continue and may increase, which may make it difficult for it to sell any of its product candidates that may be approved in the future at a price acceptable to the Company or any of its existing or future collaborators.
Any of Innate Pharma product candidates, if approved and commercialized, may fail to achieve market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors or the medical community to a degree that is necessary for commercial success.
Even if the medical community accepts a product as safe and efficacious for its indicated use, physicians may choose to restrict the use of the product if the Company is unable to demonstrate that, based on experience, clinical data, side-effect profiles and other factors, its drug is preferable to any existing drugs or treatments. The Company cannot predict the degree of market acceptance of any product candidate that will receive marketing authorization, which will depend on a number of factors, including, but not limited to:
the demonstration of the clinical efficacy and safety of the drug;
the approved labeling for the drug and any required warnings;
prevalence and severity of adverse side effects;
the advantages and disadvantages of the drug compared to alternative treatments;
ease of the drug’s use;
its ability to educate the medical community about the safety and effectiveness of the drug;
the scope of any approval provided by the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities;
publicity about its product or about competitive products;
the coverage and reimbursement policies of government and commercial third-party payors pertaining to the drug;
the market price of its drugs relative to competing treatments; and
due to the rarity of orphan diseases, it could be difficult finding patients seeking treatment.
Poor market penetration could have an adverse effect on its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Innate's commercial experience is currently limited to Lumoxiti. Although Lumoxiti received a Marketing Authorization in 2018 in the US, the level of sales in 2020 was lower than expected, leading Innate to make the decision in December 2020 to return the commercial rights of Lumoxiti to AstraZeneca. Beyond the financial impacts, the direct consequence of this decision was the immediate reduction of commercial operations in the Company's U.S. affiliate. A retrospective analysis identified two major causes: (i) a more complex patient access than expected due to geographic dispersion and (ii) the global pandemic of COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic significantly limited the interactions with prescribing physicians. Moreover, the indolent and non-fatal nature of hairy cell leukemia in the short term encouraged physicians to delay or cancel treatment for some patients during the pandemic. This retrospective analysis of its commercial experience will help Innate Pharma capitalize on this experience for future registration and commercialization of its drug candidates.

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Even if some of its product candidates receive marketing authorization, the terms of such approval, ongoing regulation and potential post-marketing restrictions or withdrawal from the market may limit how the drug may be marketed and may subject Innate to penalties for failure to comply with regulatory requirements, which could impair its ability to generate revenues.
Even if any of its product candidates receives a marketing authorization, such approval may carry conditions that limit the market for the drug or put the drug at a competitive disadvantage relative to alternative therapies. Regulators may limit the marketing of products to particular indications or patient populations. Regulators may require warning labels and drugs with warnings are subject to more restrictive marketing regulations than drugs without such warnings. These restrictions could make it more difficult to market any drug effectively. Marketing restrictions may reduce the revenue that the Company is able to obtain.
Any of its product candidates for which the Company obtains marketing authorization, and the manufacturing processes, post-approval studies and measures, labeling, advertising and promotional activities for such products, among other things, will be subject to continual requirements of and review by the FDA, EMA and other regulatory authorities. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration and listing requirements, requirements relating to manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance and corresponding maintenance of records and documents, requirements regarding the distribution of samples to physicians and recordkeeping. Even if marketing authorization of a product candidate is granted, the approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the product may be marketed or to the conditions of approval, including the FDA requirement to implement a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy to ensure that the benefits of a drug or biological product outweigh its risks.
The FDA, EMA and other national authorities may also impose requirements for costly post-marketing studies or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of a product, such as long-term observational studies on natural exposure. The FDA and other agencies, including the U.S. Department of Justice, closely regulate and monitor the post-approval marketing and promotion of products to ensure that they are manufactured, marketed and distributed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with Innate's product candidates or with manufacturing processes, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information; imposition of post-market studies or clinical studies to assess new safety risks, or the imposition of distribution or other restrictions including suspension of production and/or distribution and withdrawal of regulatory approvals. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to financial penalties, compliance expenditures, total or partial suspension of production and/or distribution, product seizure or detention, refusal to permit the import or export of products, suspension of the applicable regulator’s review of a company’s submissions, enforcement actions, product recalls, injunctions and even criminal prosecution, any of which could materially and adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations.
Innate's future growth depends, in part, on its ability to penetrate multiple markets, in which the Company would be subject to additional regulatory burdens and other risks and uncertainties.
Innate's future profitability will depend, in part, on its ability to commercialize its product candidates, if approved, in markets in Europe, the United States and other countries where the Company maintains commercialization rights. If the Company commercializes its product candidates, if approved, in multiple markets, the Company would be subject to additional risks and uncertainties, including:
foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and currency controls;
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economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular economies and markets;
potentially adverse and/or unexpected tax consequences, including penalties due to the failure of tax planning or due to the challenge by tax authorities on the basis of transfer pricing and liabilities imposed from inconsistent enforcement;
the burden of complying with complex and changing regulatory, tax, accounting and legal requirements, many of which vary between countries;
different medical practices and customs in multiple countries affecting acceptance of drugs in the marketplace;
differing payor reimbursement regimes, governmental payors or patient self-pay systems and price controls;
tariffs, trade barriers, import or export licensing requirements or other restrictive actions;
compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad;
workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is common;
reduced or loss of protection of intellectual property rights in some foreign countries, and related prevalence of generic alternatives to therapeutics; and
becoming subject to the different, complex and changing laws, regulations and court systems of multiple jurisdictions and compliance with a wide variety of foreign laws, treaties and regulations.
Russia’s military intervention in Ukraine may affect regional stability and economic growth throughout Europe. These and other risks associated with international operations may adversely affect Innate's ability to attain or maintain profitable operations. Future sales of the Company's product candidates, if they are approved, will be dependent on purchasing decisions of and reimbursement from government health administration authorities, distributors and other organizations. As a result of adverse conditions affecting the global economy and credit and financial markets, including disruptions due to political instability or otherwise, these organizations may defer purchases, may be unable to satisfy their purchasing or reimbursement obligations, or may affect milestone payments or royalties for monalizumab or any of Innate's product candidates that are approved for commercialization in the future. Should any of these risks materialize, this could have a material adverse effect on Innate Pharma's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Even if its product candidates obtain regulatory approval, they will be subject to continuous regulatory review.
If marketing authorization is obtained for any of its product candidates, the candidate will remain subject to continuous review and therefore authorization could be subsequently withdrawn or restricted. The Company will be subject to ongoing obligations and oversight by regulatory authorities, including adverse event reporting requirements, marketing restrictions and, potentially, other post-marketing obligations, all of which may result in significant expense and limit its ability to commercialize such products.
If there are changes in the application of legislation or regulatory policies, or if problems are discovered with a product or its manufacture of a product, or if the Company or one of its distributors, licensees or co-marketers fails to comply with regulatory requirements, the regulators could take various actions. These include imposing fines on us, imposing restrictions on the product or its manufacture and requiring Innate to recall or remove the product from the market. The regulators could also suspend or withdraw its
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marketing authorizations, requiring Innate to conduct additional clinical trials, change its product labeling or submit additional applications for marketing authorization. If any of these events occurs, its ability to sell such product may be impaired, and the Company may incur substantial additional expense to comply with regulatory requirements, which could materially adversely affect its business, financial condition and results of operations.
Even if one of its product candidates has orphan drug designation, the Company may not be able to obtain any benefit from such designation. Furthermore, if a product is granted orphan drug exclusivity in the same indication for which the Company is developing lacutamab or its other product candidates that is granted orphan drug designation, the Company may not be able to have its product candidate approved by the applicable regulatory authority for a significant period of time.
Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States and Europe, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a product candidate as an orphan drug if it is a drug intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States. In the European Union, the European Commission may designate a product candidate as an orphan medicinal product if it is a medicine for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of life-threatening or very serious conditions that affects not more than five in 10,000 persons in the European Union, or it is unlikely that marketing of the medicine would generate sufficient returns to justify the investment needed for its development. Generally, if a product candidate with an orphan drug designation receives the first marketing approval for the indication for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to a period of marketing exclusivity, which, subject to certain exceptions, precludes the FDA from approving the marketing application of another drug for the same indication for that time period or precludes the EMA, and other national drug regulators in the European Union, from accepting the marketing application for another medicinal product for the same indication. The applicable period is seven years in the United States and ten years in the European Union. The European Union period can be reduced to six years if a product no longer meets the criteria for orphan drug designation or if the product is sufficiently profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified. Orphan drug exclusivity may be lost in the United States if the FDA determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the product to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. The granting of a request for orphan drug designation does not alter the standard regulatory requirements and process for obtaining marketing approval.
Lacutamab has been granted orphan drug designation for CTCL in Europe and in the United States and the Company may pursue orphan drug designation for another product candidate that the Company may develop in the future in the United States and/or Europe. However, there is no assurance the Company will be able to receive orphan drug designation for other product candidates that the Company may develop in the United States and/or Europe or for any other product candidate in any jurisdiction. Even if the Company is successful in obtaining orphan drug designation, orphan drug status may not ensure that the Company has market exclusivity in a particular market. Even if the Company obtains orphan drug exclusivity for any of its product candidates, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the product from competition because exclusivity can be suspended under certain circumstances. In the United States, even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA can subsequently approve another drug for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the later drug is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care. In the European Union, orphan exclusivity will not prevent a marketing authorization being granted for a similar medicinal product in the same indication if the new product is safer, more effective or otherwise clinically superior to the first product or if the marketing authorization holder of the first product is unable to supply sufficient quantities of the product. In addition, if another product is granted marketing approval and orphan drug exclusivity in the same
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indication for which the Company is developing a product candidate with orphan drug designation, the Company may not be able to have its product candidate approved by the applicable regulatory authority for a significant period of time.
A fast track, breakthrough therapy or other designation by the FDA, or equivalent in other territories, may not actually lead to a faster development.
The Company may seek fast track, breakthrough therapy or similar designation for its product candidates. If a product is intended for the treatment of a serious or life-threatening condition and the product demonstrates the potential to address unmet medical need for this condition, the sponsor may apply for FDA fast track designation. The Company has received fast track designation in the U.S. and PRIME designation in EU for lacutamab for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory Sézary syndrome who have received at least two prior systemic therapies.
Additionally, the Company may in the future seek a breakthrough therapy designation or an equivalent in other territories for some of its product candidates that reach the regulatory review process. A breakthrough therapy is a drug candidate that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, and that, as indicated by preliminary clinical evidence, may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. Drugs designated as breakthrough therapies by the FDA are eligible for accelerated approval and increased interaction and communication with the FDA designed to expedite the development and review process.
However, these designations do not ensure that the Company will experience a faster development process, review or approval compared to conventional FDA procedures. In addition, the FDA may withdraw a designation if it believes that the designation is no longer supported by data from its clinical development program. A designation alone does not guarantee qualification for the FDA’s priority review procedures.
Priority review designation by the FDA, or the equivalent in other territories, may not lead to a faster regulatory review or approval process and, in any event, does not assure FDA approval of Innate's product candidates.
If the FDA determines that a product candidate offers major advances in treatment or provides a treatment where no adequate therapy exists, the FDA may designate the product candidate for priority review. A priority review designation means that the goal for the FDA to review an application is six months, rather than the standard review period of ten months. the Company may request priority review for its product candidates. The FDA has broad discretion with respect to whether or not to grant priority review status to a product candidate, so even if the Company believes a particular product candidate is eligible for such designation or status, the FDA may decide not to grant it. Moreover, a priority review designation does not necessarily mean a faster regulatory review process or necessarily confer any advantage with respect to approval compared to conventional FDA procedures. Receiving priority review from the FDA does not guarantee approval within the six-month review cycle or thereafter.
The Company is subject to anti-corruption laws, as well as export control laws, customs laws, sanctions laws and other laws governing its operations. If the Company fails to comply with these laws, the Company could be subject to civil or criminal penalties, other remedial measures and legal expenses, which could adversely affect its business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company is subject to other laws and regulations governing its international operations, including regulations administered by the governments of the United States, and authorities in the European Union,
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including applicable export control regulations, economic sanctions on countries and persons, customs requirements and currency exchange regulations, collectively referred to as the trade control laws.
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, prohibits any U.S. individual or business from paying, offering, authorizing payment or offering of anything of value, directly or indirectly, to any foreign official, political party or candidate for the purpose of influencing any act or decision of the foreign entity in order to assist the individual or business in obtaining or retaining business. The FCPA also obligates companies whose securities are listed in the United States to comply with certain accounting provisions requiring the company to maintain books and records that accurately and fairly reflect all transactions of the corporation, including international subsidiaries, and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls for international operations.
Compliance with the FCPA is expensive and difficult, particularly in countries in which corruption is a recognized problem. In addition, the FCPA presents particular challenges in the pharmaceutical industry, because, in many countries, hospitals are operated by the government, and doctors and other hospital employees are considered foreign officials. Certain payments to hospitals in connection with clinical trials and other work have been deemed to be improper payments to government officials and have led to FCPA enforcement actions.
French anti-corruption laws also prohibit acts of bribery and influence peddling:
Articles 433-1 1° and 432-11 1° of the French Criminal Code (bribery of domestic public officials);
Articles 433-1 2° and 432-11 2° of the French Criminal Code (influence peddling involving domestic public officials);
Article 434-9 of the French Criminal Code (bribery of domestic judicial staff);
Article 434-9-1 of the French Criminal Code (influence peddling involving domestic judicial staff);
Articles 445-1 and 445-2 of the French Criminal Code (bribery of private individuals);
Article 433-2 of the French Criminal Code (influence peddling involving private individuals);
Articles 435-1 and 435-3 of the French Criminal Code (bribery of foreign or international public officials);
Articles 435-7 and 435-9 of the French Criminal Code (bribery of foreign or international judicial staff);
Articles 435-2, 435-4, 435-8 and 435-10 of the French Criminal Code (active and passive influence peddling involving foreign or international public officials and foreign or international judicial staff); and
French Law of December 9, 2017 on Transparency, the Fight Against Corruption and the Modernization of the Economy (Sapin 2 Law).
There is no assurance that the Company will be effective in ensuring its compliance with all applicable anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA, the French anti-corruption laws or other legal requirements, including trade control laws. If the Company is not in compliance with the FCPA, the French anti-corruption laws and other anti-corruption laws or trade control laws, the Company may be subject to criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement and other sanctions and remedial measures, and legal expenses, which could have an adverse impact on its business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. Likewise, any investigation of any potential violations of the FCPA, the French anti-corruption
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laws, other anti-corruption laws or trade control laws by U.S. or other authorities could also have an adverse impact on its reputation, its business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company is subject to healthcare laws and regulations which may require substantial compliance efforts and could expose Innate to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings, among other penalties.
Healthcare providers, physicians and others will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of its products, if approved. The Company's arrangements with such persons and third-party payors and its operations will expose Innate to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which the Company researches, markets, sells and distributes its products, if the Company obtains marketing authorization. Restrictions under applicable U.S. federal, state and foreign healthcare laws and regulations include, but are not limited to, the following:
the U.S. Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons or entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, including any kickback, bribe or rebate, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase or lease, order or recommendation of, any item, good, facility or service, for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid;
U.S. federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalties laws, including the civil False Claims Act, which impose criminal and civil penalties, including those from civil whistle-blower or qui tam actions, against individuals or entities for, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease, or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government;
the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which created additional federal criminal statutes that impose criminal and civil liability for, among other things, executing or attempting to execute a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or knowingly and willingly falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act and its implementing regulations, which impose certain requirements on covered entities and their business associates, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;
U.S. federal transparency requirements under the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, enacted as part of the ACA, that require applicable manufacturers of covered drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to track and annually report to CMS payments and other transfers of value provided to physicians and teaching hospitals, and certain ownership and investment interests held by physicians or their immediate family members; and
analogous state or foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, including the French “Bertrand Law”, French Ordinance n°2017-49 of January 19, 2017, and the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers, state marketing and/or transparency laws
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applicable to manufacturers that may be broader in scope than the federal requirements, state laws that require biopharmaceutical companies to comply with the biopharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government, state laws that require the reporting of information relating to drug and biologic pricing; state and local laws that require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect as HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.
Ensuring that Innate's business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will likely be costly. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that its business practices do not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If Innate Pharma's operations were found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, the Company may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, possible exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, additional reporting requirements and oversight if the Company becomes subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, and curtailment of its operations, any of which could substantially disrupt its operations. If the physicians or other providers or entities with whom the Company expects to do business are found not to be in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs. Should any of these risks materialize, this could have a material adverse effect on its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
European data collection is governed by restrictive regulations governing the collection, use, processing and cross-border transfer of personal information.
The Company may collect, process, use or transfer personal information from individuals located in the European Union in connection with its business, including in connection with conducting clinical trials in the European Union. The collection and use of personal health data in the European Union are governed by the provisions of the General Data Protection Regulation ((EU) 2016/679), or the GDPR. This legislation imposes requirements relating to having legal bases for processing personal information relating to identifiable individuals and transferring such information outside of the European Economic Area, or EEA, including to the United States, providing details to those individuals regarding the processing of their personal information, keeping personal information secure, having data processing agreements with third parties who process personal information, responding to individuals’ requests to exercise their rights in respect of their personal information, reporting security breaches involving personal data to the competent national data protection authority and affected individuals, appointing data protection officers, conducting data protection impact assessments and record-keeping. The GDPR imposes additional responsibilities and liabilities in relation to personal data that the Company processes and the Company may be required to put in place additional mechanisms ensuring compliance with the new data protection rules. The GDPR applies across the EEA and, by virtue of the GDPR as it forms part of United Kingdom law in a broadly uniform manner through section 3 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, or the UK GDPR, in the United Kingdom. However, the GDPR provides that EEA member states can make their own further laws and regulations to introduce specific requirements related to the processing of ‘special categories of personal data’, including personal data related to health, biometric data used for unique identification purposes and genetic information; as well as personal data related to criminal offenses or convictions – in the United Kingdom, the United Kingdom Data Protection
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Act 2018 complements the UK GDPR in this regard. This fact may lead to greater divergence on the law that applies to the processing of such data types across the EEA and/or United Kingdom, compliance with which, as and where applicable, may increase the Company's costs and could increase its overall compliance risk. Such country-specific regulations could also limit its ability to collect, use and share data in the context of the Company's EEA and/or United Kingdom establishments (regardless of where any processing in question occurs), and/or could cause its compliance costs to increase, ultimately having an adverse impact on Innate's business, and harming its business and financial condition. Failure to comply with the requirements of the GDPR and related national data protection laws of the member states of the European Union may result in substantial fines, other administrative penalties and civil claims being brought against us, which could have a material adverse effect on Innate's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Moreover, in some European countries, including France, the hosting of personal health data must be carried out by specifically certified hosting service providers. The absence or suspension of the appropriate certification of such hosting service provider may adversely affect Innate Pharma's business, or even lead to penalties related to breach of security of personal data.

Risks Related to Innate's Reliance on Third Parties
The Company have no manufacturing capabilities and rely on third-party manufacturers for its product candidates.
Innate Pharma's product candidates that are tested during its preclinical and clinical trials are manufactured by third parties. The Company has no production capabilities and rely on third parties to manufacture its products.
This strategy means that the Company does not directly control certain key aspects of its product development, such as:
the quality of the product manufactured;
the delivery times for drugs for a given clinical trial;
the clinical and commercial quantities that can be supplied; and
compliance with applicable laws and regulations.
Its reliance on third-party manufacturers creates risks that may not exist if the Company had its own manufacturing capabilities. These risks include:
failure of third-party manufacturers to comply with regulatory and quality-control standards;
production of insufficient quantities;
damage during transport and/or storage of its product candidates;
breach of agreements by third-party manufacturers; and
termination or non-renewal of the agreements for reasons beyond its control.
Should its third-party manufacturers breach their obligations or should the Company fails to renew its contracts with them, the Company cannot guarantee that the Company will be able to find new suppliers within a timeframe and under conditions that would not be detrimental. The Company could also be faced with delays or interruptions in its supplies, which could result in a delay in the clinical trials and, ultimately, a delay in the commercialization of the product candidates that the Company is developing. For example, manufacturing issues, leading to out-of-specification product, can occur during a manufacturing campaign at the Contract Manufacturing Organization, or CMO, in charge of the production of its product candidates.
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Reproducing a batch of product is a lengthy and costly process and sometimes can lead to drug shortage that can in turn lead to a delay in the development of the candidate, or even an early stop of a clinical trial. This happened in the early clinical development of lacutamab and led to the decision to limit the number of patients in order to ensure drug supply for treated patients in the Phase 1 clinical trial.
In November 2019, Impletio Wirkstoffabfüllung GmbH (formerly known as Rentschler Fill Solutions GmbH), the subcontractor in charge of the fill-and-finish manufacturing operations of lacutamab, unilaterally decided to withdraw the certificates of conformance of all clinical batches produced at their facilities, including the lacutamab batch used for the TELLOMAK Phase 2 clinical trial assessing lacutamab in multiple indications. Impletio Wirkstoffabfüllung GmbH decided to withdraw the certificates of conformance even though the compliance of its manufacturing site with Good Manufacturing Practices had been confirmed by two on-site inspections performed by the Austrian Health Agency before and after the Company began to work with them.
The transfer of the manufacturing process to another contract manufacturing organization took few months and came with additional costs but allowed Innate to have a conform batch in the middle of 2020 and to resume the enrollment and treatment of patients in the clinical trials after getting Regulatory Agencies approval. During this period of time, the TELLOMAK trial was on partial or full hold in the United States, Spain, Germany and Italy.
Should any of these risks materialize, this could have a material adverse effect on Innate's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company is reliant upon third parties to manufacture and supply components of certain substances necessary to manufacture its product candidates.
The Company is reliant on several third-party CMOs for the manufacture and supply of components and substances for all of the product candidates the Company is developing. In addition, certain component materials are currently available from a single supplier, or a small number of suppliers. The Company cannot be sure that these suppliers will remain in business, or that they will not be purchased by one of its competitors or another company that is not interested in continuing to manufacture these materials for us. The Company cannot assure that, if required, the Company will be able to identify alternate sources with the desired scale and capability and establish relationships with such sources. A loss of any CMO or component supplier and delay in establishing a replacement could delay Innate's clinical development and regulatory approval process.
Its production costs may be higher than the Company currently estimates.
Innate's product candidates are manufactured according to manufacturing best practices applicable to drugs for clinical trials and to specifications approved by the applicable regulatory authorities. If any of its products were found to be non-compliant, the Company would be required to manufacture the product again, which would entail additional costs and may prevent delivery of the product to patients on time.
Other risks inherent in the production process may have the same effect, such as:
contamination of the controlled atmosphere area;
unusable premises and equipment;
new regulatory requirements requiring a partial and/or extended stop to the production unit to meet the requirements;
unavailable qualified personnel;
power failure of extended duration; and
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logistical error.
Should any of these risks materialize, this could have a material adverse effect its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company relies on third parties to supply key materials used in its research and development, to provide services to Innate and to assist with clinical trials.
The Company makes considerable use of third-party suppliers for the key materials used in its business. The failure of third-party suppliers to comply with regulatory standards could result in the imposition of sanctions on us. These sanctions could include fines, injunctions, civil penalties, refusal by regulatory organizations to grant approval to conduct clinical trials or marketing authorization for its products, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizure or recalls of its products, operating restrictions and legal proceedings. Furthermore, the presence of non-conformities, as detected in regulatory toxicology studies, could result in delays in the development of one or more of its product candidates and would require further tests to be financed. Although the Company is involved in establishing the protocols for the production of these materials, the Company does not control all the stages of production and cannot guarantee that the third parties will fulfil their contractual and regulatory obligations. In particular, a partner’s failure to comply with protocols or regulatory constraints, or repeated delays by a partner, could compromise the development of its products or limit its liability. Such events could also inflate the product development costs incurred by us.
The Company also use third parties to provide certain services such as scientific, medical or strategic consultancy services. These service providers are generally selected for their specific expertise, as is the case with the academic partners with whom the Company collaborates. To build and maintain such a network under acceptable terms, the Company faces intense competition. Such external collaborators may terminate, at any time, their involvement. The Company can exert only limited control over their activities. the Company may not be able to obtain the intellectual property rights to the product candidates or technologies developed under collaboration, research and license agreements under acceptable terms or at all. Moreover, its scientific collaborators may assert intellectual property rights or other rights beyond the terms of their engagement.
Finally, the Company uses third-party investigators to assist with conducting clinical trials. All clinical trials are subject to strict regulations and quality standards. Should any of these risks materialize, this could have a material adverse effect on its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company and its collaborators rely on third parties to conduct some of its preclinical studies and clinical trials and perform other clinical development tasks. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or comply with regulatory requirements, it may not be possible to obtain regulatory approval for, or commercialize, its product candidates and its business could be substantially harmed.
The Company has relied upon and plan to continue to rely upon third parties to conduct clinical trials of its product candidates or product candidates that the Company has licensed to partners. For example, under its license and collaboration agreements with AstraZeneca, AstraZeneca is responsible for a number of clinical trials relating to monalizumab and IPH5201, which are subject to such agreements. In addition, the Company and its collaborators are responsible for and are supporting several clinical trials that are sponsored by academic or research institutions, known as investigator-sponsored trials, as it is the case for the clinical trial assessing IPH5301, which is sponsored by Institut Paoli-Calmettes. By definition, the financing, design and conduct of an investigator-sponsored trial are the sole responsibility of the sponsor, and the Company or its collaborators, as applicable, have limited control over these aspects of these clinical trials, or the timing and reporting of the data from these trials. The Company and its collaborators
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also depend on independent clinical investigators and CROs to conduct clinical trials. CROs may also assist in the collection and analysis of data. There are a limited number of CROs that have the expertise to run clinical trials of its product candidates. Identifying, qualifying and managing performance of third-party service providers can be difficult and time consuming and can cause delays in its development programs. These investigators and CROs are not Innate's employees and the Company is not able to control, other than by contract, the amount of resources, including the amount of time, that they devote to Innate's product candidates and clinical trials. If the investigators sponsoring trials of its product candidates, independent investigators participating in clinical trials that Innate Pharma or its collaborators are sponsoring or CROs fail to devote sufficient resources to its clinical trials and development of its product candidates or product candidates the Company has licensed to others, or if their performance is substandard, it may delay or compromise the prospects for approval and commercialization of any product candidates that the Company or its collaborators develop. In addition, the use of third-party service providers requires Innate to disclose its proprietary information to these parties, which could increase the risk that this information will be misappropriated, and the Company may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such disclosure or misappropriation. Further, the FDA, EMA and other regulatory authorities require that the Company complies with standards, commonly referred to as Good Clinical Practice, or GCP, and other local legal requirements, including data privacy regulations, for conducting, recording and reporting clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the rights, integrity and confidentiality of clinical trial subjects are protected. If clinical investigators or CROs fail to meet their obligations to Innate or comply with GCP procedures or other applicable legal requirements, the data generated in these trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require Innate to perform additional trials before approving Innate Pharma's marketing applications. The Company cannot assure that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that all of its clinical trials comply with GCP regulations.
In addition, Innate's clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under current Good Manufacturing Practice, or cGMP, regulations. The Company's failure to comply with these regulations may require the Company to repeat clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process. If clinical investigators or CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, if they need to be replaced or if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to Innate's protocol or regulatory requirements, or for other reasons, its clinical trials or those of its collaborators may be extended, delayed or terminated, and the Company or its collaborators may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize its product candidates. As a result, its results of operations and the commercial prospects for its product candidates would be harmed, its costs could increase and its ability to generate revenue could be delayed.
Manufacturing facilities and clinical trial sites are subject to significant government regulations and approvals and if Innate's or its partners’ third-party manufacturers fail to comply with these regulations or maintain these approvals, its business could be materially harmed.
Innate's third-party manufacturers are subject to ongoing regulation and periodic inspection by national authorities, including the EMA, FDA and other regulatory bodies to ensure compliance with cGMP, when producing batches of its product candidates for clinical trials. CROs and other third-party research organizations must also comply with Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) when carrying out regulatory toxicology studies. Any failure to follow and document the Company's or their adherence to such GMP and GLP regulations or other regulatory requirements may lead to significant delays in the availability of products for commercial sale or clinical trials, may result in the termination of or a hold on a clinical trial, or may delay or prevent filing or approval of marketing applications for its products.
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Failure to comply with applicable regulations could also result in national authorities, the EMA, FDA or other applicable regulatory authorities taking various actions, including:
levying fines and other civil penalties;
imposing consent decrees or injunctions;
requiring Innate to suspend or put on hold one or more of its clinical trials;
suspending or withdrawing regulatory approvals;
delaying or refusing to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications;
requiring Innate Pharma to suspend manufacturing activities or product sales, imports or exports;
requiring Innate to communicate with physicians and other customers about concerns related to actual or potential safety, efficacy, and other issues involving its products;
mandating product recalls or seizing products;
imposing operating restrictions; and
seeking criminal prosecutions.
Any of the foregoing actions could be detrimental to Innate's reputation, business, financial condition or operating results. Furthermore, its key suppliers may not continue to be in compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements, which could result in its failure to produce its products on a timely basis and in the required quantities, if at all. In addition, before any additional products would be considered for marketing authorization in Europe, the United States or elsewhere, its suppliers will have to pass an inspection by the applicable regulatory agencies. The Company is dependent on its suppliers’ cooperation and ability to pass such inspections, and the inspections and any necessary remediation may be costly. Failure to pass such inspections by Innate Pharma or any of its suppliers would affect its ability to commercialize its product candidates in Europe, the United States or elsewhere. Should any of these risks materialize, this could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. For example, in November 2019, Impletio Wirkstoffabfüllung GmbH (formerly known as Rentschler Fill Solutions GmbH), the subcontractor in charge of the fill-and-finish manufacturing operations of lacutamab unilaterally decided to withdraw the certificates of conformance of all clinical batches produced at their facilities, including the lacutamab batch used for the TELLOMAK Phase 2 clinical trial assessing lacutamab in multiple indications, which resulted in partial or full holds in a number of countries.
The Company depends upon its existing collaboration partners, AstraZeneca, Sanofi and other third parties, and may depend upon future collaboration partners to commit to the research, development, manufacturing and marketing of its drugs.
The Company has significant collaborations with AstraZeneca for the development of monalizumab, IPH5201 and other product candidates. The Company also collaborate with Sanofi for the development of IPH6101 and IPH64, and the Company may enter into additional collaborations for other of its product candidates or technologies in development. The Company cannot control the timing or quantity of resources that its existing or future collaborators will dedicate to research, preclinical and clinical development, manufacturing or marketing of its products. Innate's collaborators may not perform their obligations according to its expectations or standards of quality. Innate Pharma's collaborators could terminate its existing agreements for a number of reasons, including that they may have other, higher priority products in development or because its partnered programs may no longer be a priority for them. If any of the Company's collaboration agreements were to be terminated, the Company could encounter
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significant delays in developing its product candidates, lose the opportunity to earn any revenues Innate expected to generate under such agreements, incur unforeseen costs, and suffer damage to the reputation of its product, product candidates and as a company generally.
In order to optimize the launch and market penetration of certain of its future product candidates, the Company may enter into distribution and marketing agreements with pharmaceutical industry leaders. For these product candidates, the Company would not market its products alone once they have obtained marketing authorization. The risks inherent in entry into these contracts are as follows:
the negotiation and execution of these agreements is a long process that may not result in an agreement being signed or that can delay the development or commercialization of the product candidate concerned;
these agreements are subject to cancellation or non-renewal by its collaborators, or may not be fully complied with by its collaborators;
in the case of a license granted by us, the Company loses control of the development of the product candidate licensed; in such cases the Company would have only limited control over the means and resources allocated by its partner for the commercialization of its product; and
collaborators may not properly obtain, maintain, enforce, or defend Innate's intellectual property or proprietary rights or may use its proprietary information in such a way as to invite litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate its proprietary information or expose the Company to potential litigation.
Should any of these risks materialize, or should the Company fails to find suitable collaborators, this could have a material adverse effect on its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The late-stage development and marketing of its product candidates may partially depend on its ability to establish collaborations with major biopharmaceutical companies.
In order to develop and market some of its product candidates, the Company relies on collaboration, research and license agreements with pharmaceutical companies to assist Innate in the development of product candidates and the financing of their development. For its most advanced clinical product candidate, monalizumab, the Company entered into an agreement with AstraZeneca, in part because of their late-stage development and marketing capabilities. As the Company identifies new product candidates, Innate Pharma will determine the appropriate strategy for development and marketing, which may result in the need to establish collaborations with major biopharmaceutical companies. Innate may also enter into agreements with institutions and universities to participate in its other research programs and to share intellectual property rights.
The Company may fail to find collaboration partners and to sign new agreements for its other product candidates and programs. The competition for partners is intense, and the negotiation process is time-consuming and complex. Any new collaboration may be on terms that are not optimal for us, and the Company may not be able to maintain any new collaboration if, for example, development or approval of a product candidate is delayed, sales of an approved product candidate do not meet expectations or the collaborator terminates the collaboration. Any such collaboration, or other strategic transaction, may require Innate to incur non-recurring or other charges, increase Innate's near- and long-term expenditures and pose significant integration or implementation challenges or disrupt its management or business. These transactions would entail numerous operational and financial risks, including exposure to unknown liabilities, disruption of Innate's business and diversion of its management’s time and attention in order to manage a collaboration or develop acquired products, product candidates or technologies, incurrence of substantial debt or dilutive issuances of equity securities to pay transaction consideration or costs, higher
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than expected collaboration, acquisition or integration costs, write-downs of assets or goodwill or impairment charges, increased amortization expenses, difficulty and cost in facilitating the collaboration or combining the operations and personnel of any acquired business, impairment of relationships with key suppliers, manufacturers or customers of any acquired business due to changes in management and ownership and the inability to retain key employees of any acquired business. Accordingly, although there can be no assurance that the Company will undertake or successfully complete any transactions of the nature described above, any transactions that the Company does complete may be subject to the foregoing or other risks and have a material and adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Conversely, any failure to enter any additional collaboration or other strategic transaction that would be beneficial to Innate could delay the development and potential commercialization of its product candidates and have a negative impact on the competitiveness of any product candidate that reaches market.
The Company does not and will not have access to all information regarding its product candidates that are subject to collaboration and license agreements. Consequently, its ability to inform its shareholders about the status of product candidates that are subject to these agreements, and its ability to make business and operational decisions, may be limited.
Innate does not and will not have access to all information regarding its product candidates that are subject to its license and collaboration agreements with AstraZeneca, Sanofi and other third parties, including potentially material information about clinical trial design, execution and timing, safety and efficacy, clinical trial results, regulatory affairs, manufacturing, marketing and other areas known by its collaborators. In addition, the Company has confidentiality obligations under its collaboration and license agreements. Therefore, its ability to keep its shareholders informed about the status of product candidates subject to such agreements will be limited by the degree to which its collaborators keep Innate informed and allow Innate Pharma to disclose information to the public or provide such information to the public themselves. If its collaborators do not inform Innate about its product candidates subject to agreements with them, the Company may make operational and investment decisions that the Company would not have made had the Company been fully informed, which may have an adverse impact on its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Innate Pharma's Financial Position and Capital Needs
The Company has incurred and may in the future incur significant operational losses related to its research and development activities.
The Company have incurred net losses in each year since its inception except for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2018. Innate's net income (loss) was €(52.8) million and €(64.0) million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Substantially all of its net losses resulted from costs incurred in connection with its development programs and from selling, general and administrative expenses associated with its ongoing operations. The Company expects to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future.
The Company had one product, Lumoxiti, that has received regulatory approval for sale or has generated revenues from commercial sales, and none of its other product candidates have received regulatory approval. Unless this happens, the likelihood and amount of its future operational losses will depend on several factors, including the pace and amount of its future expenditures in connection with its product candidates and development programs and its ability to obtain funding through milestone or royalty payments under its license and collaboration agreements, equity or debt financings, strategic
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collaborations and government grants and tax credits. The Company expects that its main source of income for the near- and medium-term will be:
payments received under its license and collaboration agreements with third parties, including AstraZeneca and Sanofi; and
government grants and research tax credits.
The interruption of one or more of those sources of income could have a material adverse effect on Innate's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. See “Item 3D. The global COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect Innate's business, financial condition and results of operations.”
The Company's ability to be profitable in the future will depend on its ability to generate revenue from sales relating to its product candidates, if approved, and its ability to obtain regulatory approval for marketing its product candidates. If its product candidates receive regulatory approval, its future revenues will depend upon the size of any markets in which its product candidates have received approval, and market acceptance, reimbursement from third-party payors and market share. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on Innate's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company may need to raise additional funding to complete the development and any commercialization of its product candidates, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all, and failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed may force it to delay, limit or terminate its product development efforts or other operations.
Innate Pharma is currently advancing its product candidates through preclinical and clinical development, and anticipate relying on partners as the Company advances them. Innate currently retains the full development and marketing rights to lacutamab, avdoralimab and IPH5301 and may retain rights to additional proprietary product candidates in the future. The development of immunotherapy product candidates is expensive, and Innate expects its research and development expenses to increase as the Company advances its product candidates through clinical trials and regulatory approvals. If clinical trials are successful and if Innate obtains regulatory approval for product candidates that the Company develops, Innate expects to incur commercialization expenses before these product candidates are marketed and sold.
The Company anticipate that its expenses will increase substantially if and as we:
continue its research, preclinical and clinical development of its product candidates if its current collaboration partners cease their collaborations with us;
expand the scope of its current clinical trials for its product candidates;
initiate additional preclinical, clinical or other studies for its product candidates;
further develop manufacturing processes for its product candidates;
change or add additional manufacturers or suppliers;
seek regulatory and marketing authorizations for its product candidates that successfully complete clinical studies;
establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any product for which the Company may obtain marketing authorization;
seek to identify and validate additional product candidates that may result in additional preclinical, clinical or other product studies;
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acquire or in-license other product candidates and technologies;
make milestone or other payments under any in-license agreements;
maintain, protect, defend and expand its intellectual property portfolio;
attract and retain new and existing skilled personnel;
create additional infrastructure to support its operations as a public company in the United States following the completion of the October 2019 global offering; and
experience any delays or encounter issues with any of the above.
As of December 31, 2021, the Company had cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments and non-current financial assets of €159.7 million. The Company believes its cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments and non-current financial assets together with its cash flow from operations, will be sufficient to fund its operations for the next twelve months. However, in order to complete the development process, obtain regulatory approval and, if approved, commercialize its product candidates that the Company is developing in-house, including lacutamab, avdoralimab and IPH5301, develop its proprietary technology and develop a pipeline of additional product candidates, the Company will require additional funding. Innate's existing resources may not be sufficient to cover any additional financing needs, in which case new funding would be required. See “—the Company has incurred and may in the future incur significant operational losses related to its research and development activities.” The conditions and arrangements for such new financing would depend, among other factors, on economic and market conditions that are beyond its control, including the current volatility in the capital markets as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. See “Item 3D. The global COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect Innate's business, financial condition and results of operations.”
Any additional fundraising efforts may divert Innate's management from their day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect its ability to develop and commercialize its product candidates. In addition, the Company cannot guarantee that future financing will be available in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Under French law, Innate's share capital may be increased only with shareholders’ approval at an extraordinary general shareholders’ meeting on the basis of a report from the Executive Board. In addition, the French Commercial Code imposes certain limitations on Innate's ability to price certain offerings of its share capital without preferential subscription rights (droit préférentiel de souscription), which limitation may prevent Innate from successfully completing any such offering. See “Description of Share Capital—Key Provisions of the Company's Bylaws and French Law Affecting Its Ordinary Shares.”
Moreover, the terms of any financing may adversely affect the holdings or the rights of Innate's shareholders and the issuance of additional securities, whether equity or debt, by us, or the possibility of such issuance, may cause the market price of its ordinary shares or the ADSs to decline. The sale of additional equity or convertible securities would dilute its shareholders. the Company may seek funds through arrangements with collaborative partners or otherwise at an earlier stage of product development than otherwise would be desirable and the Company may be required to relinquish rights to some of its technologies or product candidates or otherwise agree to terms unfavorable to Innate Pharma, any of which may have a material adverse effect on its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
If the Company needs and is unable to obtain funding on a timely basis, the Company may be required to significantly curtail, delay or discontinue one or more of its research or development programs or the commercialization of any product or product candidate or the Company may be unable to expand its operations or otherwise capitalize on its business opportunities as desired, which could impair its growth
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prospects. Should any of these risks materialize, this could have a material adverse effect on Innate's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The terms of Innate's loans agreements with Société Générale, BNP Paribas and certain other loan obligations place restrictions on its operating and financial flexibility.
In July 2017, the Company entered into a loan and security agreement with Société Générale (the “Loan Agreement”) in order to finance the construction of its future headquarters. The Loan Agreement is secured by collateral in the form of financial instruments valued at €15.2 million held at Société Générale. As of December 31, 2020, Innate Pharma had drawn down €15.2 million under the Loan Agreement. The Loan Agreement subjects Innate to a covenant to maintain a minimum balance of its total cash, cash equivalents and current and non-current financial assets as of each fiscal year end at least equal to the amount of outstanding principal under the Loan Agreement. Compliance with this covenant may limit its flexibility in operating its business and its ability to take actions that might be advantageous to Innate and its shareholders. For example, if the Company fails to meet its minimum cash covenant and Innate is unable to raise additional funds or obtain a waiver or other amendment to the Loan Agreement, Innate Pharma may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate certain of its clinical development efforts.
Additionally, Innate may be required to repay the entire amount of outstanding indebtedness under the Loan Agreement in cash if the Company fails to stay in compliance with its covenant or suffer some other event of default under the Loan Agreement. Under the Loan Agreement, an event of default will occur if, among other things, Innate fails to make payments under the Loan Agreement or Innate breaches its covenant under the Loan Agreement. The Company may not have enough available cash or be able to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings to repay such indebtedness at the time any such event of default occurs. In that case, Innate may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate its clinical development efforts or grant rights to others to develop and market product candidates that the Company would otherwise prefer to develop and market itself. Société Générale could also exercise its rights as collateral agent to take possession and dispose of the collateral securing the loan for its benefit. Innate's business, financial condition and results of operations could be substantially harmed as a result of any of these events.
On January 5, 2022, the Company announced that it had obtained €28.7 million in non-dilutive financing in the form of two State Guaranteed Loans from Société Générale (€20.0 million) and BNP Paribas (€8.7 million). The Company received the funds related to these two loans on December 27 and 30, 2021 respectively. Both loans have an initial maturity of one year with an option to extend to five years. They are 90% guaranteed by the French government as part of the package of measures put in place by the French government to support companies during the COVID-19 pandemic. As of December 31, 2021, the Company does not plan to use the options to extend the principal repayment of these loans. The effective interest rate applied to these contracts is 0.5% which is the contractual rate for repayment within one year.
Innate is also subject to a €1.5 million PTZI loan (Prêt à Taux Zéro Innovation—interest-free loan for innovation) from Banque Publique d’Investissement, or BPI France, entered into in 2013. The PTZI loan is fully amortized as of December 31,2021. In addition, in 2008 the Company entered into a finance lease agreement with Sogebail, a subsidiary of Société Générale. The present value of all minimum payments under this contract is nil as of December 31, 2021, the contract having expired. Innate's business, financial condition and results of operations could likewise be substantially harmed if, among other things, Innate Pharma fails to make payments under these agreements, or the Company breaches any of its covenants under these agreements.
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If Innate does not achieve its product development or commercialization objectives in the timeframes Innate expects, the Company may not receive product revenue or milestone or royalty payments and Innate Pharma may not be able to conduct its operations as planned.
Innate has received and expect to continue to receive payments from its collaborators when the Company satisfies certain pre-specified milestones in its licensing or collaboration agreements. Innate Pharma currently depends to a large degree on these milestone payments from its existing collaborators in order to fund its operations and Innate may enter into new collaboration agreements that also provide for milestone payments. For example, the Company has granted options to license or acquire intellectual property rights in certain of its programs to its collaborators which, if exercised, will result in up-front option exercise fees and, assuming Innate meets all specified development, clinical, regulatory and sales milestones, could result in substantial milestone payments. These milestone payments are generally dependent on the accomplishment of various scientific, clinical, regulatory, sales and other product development objectives, and the successful or timely achievement of many of these milestones is outside of its control, in part because some of these activities are being or will be conducted by its collaborators. If Innate or its collaborators fail to achieve the applicable milestones, Innate Pharma may not receive such milestone payments. A failure to receive any such milestone payment may cause Innate to:
delay, reduce or terminate certain research and development programs;
reduce headcount;
raise funds through additional equity or convertible debt financings that could be dilutive to its shareholders and holders of its ADSs;
obtain funds through collaboration agreements that may require Innate to assign rights to technologies or products that Innate would have otherwise retained;
sign new collaboration or license agreements that may be less favorable than those the Company would have obtained under different circumstances; and
consider strategic transactions or engaging in a joint venture with a third-party.
In addition, although Innate may be eligible to receive an aggregate of approximately $5.4 billion in future contingent payments from existing collaboration agreements and any license agreements that become effective upon the exercise by its collaborators of options to license future product candidates, there is no guarantee that the Company will receive any contingent payments or that its collaborators will exercise any options to license or acquire additional intellectual property rights in any of its programs. If its collaborators decide not to exercise such options with respect to a program, the Company will not receive the up-front option exercise fee and will not be eligible to receive any of the related commercial, development, royalty or other milestone payments. Even if its collaborators exercise such options with respect to a particular program, Innate Pharma may never achieve the related milestones for any number of reasons. The failure to receive milestone or royalty payments and the occurrence of any of the events above may have a material adverse impact on Innate's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The revenues generated from its collaboration and license agreements have contributed and are expected to contribute a large portion of its revenue for the foreseeable future.
The Company has entered into collaboration and license agreements with pharmaceutical companies, including AstraZeneca and Sanofi. The cash payments received from its partners were €8.8 million, €57.8 million and €108.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Innate also enhances its research efforts by establishing collaborations with academic or non-profit research institutions and other biopharmaceutical companies. The participation in these collaborations
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may generate revenue and funding in the form of operating grants or the reimbursement of research and development expenses.
Innate Pharma may not be able to renew or maintain its license agreements or collaborative research contracts or may be unable to sign new agreements with new collaborators on reasonable terms or at all. The early termination of a contract, the non-renewal of a contract or its inability to find new collaborators would adversely affect its business. Should any of these risks materialize, this could have an adverse effect on Innate's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company benefits from tax credits in France that could be reduced or eliminated.
As a French biopharmaceutical company, Innate benefits from certain tax advantages, including the Research Tax Credit (Crédit Impôt Recherche), which is a French tax credit aimed at stimulating research and development. The Research Tax Credit is calculated based on Innate's claimed amount of eligible research and development expenditures in France and represented €10.3 million, €13.1 million and €16.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The Research Tax Credit is a source of financing to Innate that could be reduced or eliminated by the French tax authorities or by changes in French tax law or regulations.
The Research Tax Credit can be offset against French corporate income tax due by the company with respect to the year during which the eligible research and development expenditures have been made. The portion of tax credit in excess which is not being offset, if any, represents a receivable against the French Treasury which can in principle be offset against the French corporate income tax due by the company with respect to the three following years. The remaining portion of tax credit not being offset upon expiry of such a period may then be refunded to the company.
Until the end of the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company qualified as a small- and medium-size business and the French Treasury refunded each of its 2016, 2017 and 2018 Research Tax Credit claims immediately (meaning that, in practice, Innate received the refund during the year following the year in which the eligible research and development expenditures are made). Innate Pharma no longer qualifies as a small and medium-size business since the year ended December 31, 2019, and therefore, the Company will no longer be entitled to the immediate reimbursement of the Research Tax Credit but instead will be reimbursed within the expiry of the period of three years mentioned above. As of December 31, 2021, Innate is qualified again as a small or medium size business. As a result, Innate Pharma is eligible for reimbursement by the French treasury of the 2021 Research Tax Credit during the fiscal year 2022.
The French tax authorities, with the assistance of the Higher Education and Research Ministry, may audit each research and development program in respect of which a Research Tax Credit benefit has been claimed and assess whether such program qualifies in their view for the Research Tax Credit benefit. The French tax authorities may challenge Innate's eligibility for, or its calculation of, certain tax reductions or deductions in respect of its research and development activities (and therefore the amount of Research Tax Credit claimed), or the accelerated reimbursement allowed for small- and medium-size businesses and the Company's credits may be reduced, which would have a negative impact on its revenue and future cash flows. Furthermore, the French Parliament may decide to eliminate, or to reduce the scope or the rate of, the Research Tax Credit benefit, either of which it could decide to do at any time. If Innate fails to receive future Research Tax Credit amounts or if its calculations are challenged, even if Innate Pharma complies with the current requirements in terms of documentation and eligibility of its expenditure, its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
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The Company may be unable to carry forward existing tax losses.
Innate has accumulated tax loss carry forwards of €392.4 million as of December 31, 2021. Applicable French law provides that, for fiscal years ending after December 31, 2012, the use of these tax losses is limited to €1.0 million, plus 50% of the portion of net earnings exceeding this amount. The unused balance of the tax losses in application of such rule can be carried forward to future fiscal years, under the same conditions and without time restriction. There can be no assurance that future changes to applicable tax law and regulation will not eliminate or alter these or other provisions in a manner unfavorable to us, which could have an adverse effect on Innate's business, prospects, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations.
Innate's business may be exposed to foreign exchange risks.
The Company incurs some of its expenses, and derive certain of its revenues, in currencies other than the euro. In particular, as Innate expands its operations and conduct additional clinical trials in the United States, Innate will incur additional expenses in U.S. dollars. As a result, Innate is exposed to foreign currency exchange risk as its results of operations and cash flows are subject to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
The Company currently does not engage in hedging transactions to protect against uncertainty in future exchange rates between particular foreign currencies and the euro. Therefore, an unfavorable change in the value of the euro against the U.S. dollar could have a negative impact on its revenue and earnings growth. Innate cannot predict the impact of foreign currency fluctuations, and foreign currency fluctuations in the future may adversely affect its financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The ADSs being offered in the U.S. offering are quoted in U.S. dollars on Nasdaq, while Innate's ordinary shares trade in euro on Euronext Paris. Innate's financial statements are prepared in euro. Therefore, fluctuations in the exchange rate between the euro and the U.S. dollar will also affect, among other matters, the value of Innate's ordinary shares and ADSs.
Under Innate's license and collaboration agreements with AstraZeneca, the payments the Company receives are in U.S. dollars. In the future, Innate could generate part of its sales in the United States and part in Europe and could therefore be subject to an unfavorable euro/dollar exchange rate. Therefore, for example, an increase in the value of the euro against the U.S. dollar could be expected to have a negative impact on its revenue and earnings growth as U.S. dollar revenue and earnings, if any, would be translated into euro at a reduced value. The Company could also sign contracts denominated in other currencies, which would increase its exposure to currency risk. In accordance with Innate's business decisions, its exposure to this type of risk could change depending on:
the currencies in which Innate receives its revenues;
the currencies chosen when agreements are signed, such as licensing agreements, or co-marketing or co- development agreements;
the location of clinical trials on product candidates; and
its policy for insurance cover.
At present, Innate has not put any specific hedging arrangements in place to address these risks. Should any of these risks materialize, this could have a material adverse effect on its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes to U.S. and non-U.S. tax laws could materially adversely affect Innate Pharma.
The Company is unable to predict what tax law may be proposed or enacted in the future or what effect such changes would have on its business, but such changes, to the extent they are brought into tax
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legislation, regulations, policies or practices, could affect its effective tax rates in the future in countries where it has operations and have an adverse effect on its overall tax rate in the future, along with increasing the complexity, burden and cost of tax compliance. The Company urges its shareholders and holders of its ADSs to consult with their legal and tax advisors with respect to the potential tax consequences of investing in or holding Innate's ordinary shares or ADSs.
Tax authorities may disagree with Innate's positions and conclusions regarding certain tax positions, resulting in unanticipated costs, taxes or non-realization of expected benefits.
A tax authority may disagree with tax positions that the Company has taken, which could result in increased tax liabilities. For example, the French tax authorities, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service or another tax authority could challenge Innate's allocation of income by tax jurisdiction and the amounts paid between its affiliated companies pursuant to its intercompany arrangements and transfer pricing policies, including amounts paid with respect to its intellectual property development. Similarly, a tax authority could assert that the Company is subject to tax in a jurisdiction where Innate believes it has not established a taxable connection, often referred to as a “permanent establishment” under international tax treaties, and such an assertion, if successful, could increase the Company's expected tax liability in one or more jurisdictions. A tax authority may take the position that material income tax liabilities, interest and penalties are payable by us, in which case, the Company expects that it might contest such assessment. Contesting such an assessment may be lengthy and costly and if Innate was unsuccessful in disputing the assessment, the result could increase its anticipated effective tax rate.
On March 16, 2022, the Company received a tax audit opinion from the French tax authorities relating to the 2019 and 2020 financial years as well as to the research tax credit and the accuracy of its calculation for the 2018 to 2020 financial years. On the date of closing of the Company's accounts, the control had not been started by the administration and the Company had not identified any specific risks.

Risks Related to Innate Pharma's Organization and Operations
There have been in the past material weaknesses in the Company's internal control over financial reporting and if Innate Pharma is unable to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting, the accuracy and timeliness of its financial reporting may be adversely affected, which could hurt its business, lessen investor confidence.
The Company must maintain effective internal control processes over financial reporting in order to accurately report its results of operations and financial condition on a timely basis. A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed by, or under the supervision of, a company’s principal executive and principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, and effected by a company’s executive board, management and other personnel to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
As a public company listed in the United States, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that the Company assesses the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting as of the end of each fiscal year, beginning with the end of the first full fiscal year following the completion of the Global Offering, i.e., since the end of fiscal year 2020. However, Innate's independent registered public auditor will not be required to attest to the effectiveness of its internal controls over financial reporting for as long as the Company is an EGC, i.e. an “emerging growth company,” according to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or JOBS Act, which may be up to five fiscal years following the date of the October 2019 public Global Offering. An independent assessment of the effectiveness of Innate's internal controls over financial reporting could detect issues that its management’s assessment might not.
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In this context, in order to comply with Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act within the prescribed timeframe, the Company initiated a project to improve the documentation and the evaluation of its internal control processes over financial information with the support of an expert company at the end of 2019. In addition, in order to make the information system, on which the management and production of financial information is based, more reliable, the plan aiming at transforming Innate's information system initiated in 2019 took shape with the launch of its new Enterprise Resource Planning, or ERP, on August 1, 2020.
The Company's management carried out an evaluation of the effectiveness of its internal control at the end of the year ended December 31, 2021. See "Item 15. Controls and Procedures."
The Company's management carried out an evaluation of the effectiveness of its internal control at the end of the 2021 financial year. Significant progress has been observed in terms of improving the reliability of the internal control system, particularly in (i) the processing of manual entries and (ii) the identification and processing of complex and unusual transactions, including the calculation of revenue related to monalizumab, which were also the identified as a material weakness identified by its auditor at the end of the 2020 financial year. Under standards established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, a material weakness is a deficiency or combination of deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement in Innate Pharma's annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected and corrected on a timely basis.
The action plan defined to solve the material weakness has been shared and regularly followed up with the Audit Committee until its completion at the end of the year 2021. Although the Company has implemented corrective actions aiming at resolving the material weakness, the Company considers that a remaining risk exists with regard to the unusual and complex accounting transactions. Moreover, maintaining an appropriate internal control framework requires internal and external expertise that may be difficult to maintain. If the Company does not succeed in maintaining the appropriate level of internal control, it could result in material misstatements in its financial statements, result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of its financial statements and subject it to regulatory scrutiny and sanctions, which in turn could harm the market value of its ordinary shares and ADSs.
The Company may encounter difficulties in managing the Company development and support changes in its strategy, which could disrupt its operations.
The opportunities taken, the decisions made, the successes and failures of Innate's research and development programs and its operations in general can have significant impacts on its workforce and the scope of its operations.
The strong growth in the Company's headcount over the last five years as well as the recent transformations of the Company, in particular in connection with the acquisition in 2018 of Lumoxiti, Innate's first commercial product, have been accompanied by structural changes within the organization and its operating modes. Such rapid changes may lead to a deterioration in working conditions and the leave of employees, which could lead to a loss of knowledge and expertise, a decrease in the performance of Innate's operations and therefore a reduced level of achievement of its objectives.
Moreover, in December 2020, the decision of returning Lumoxiti commercial rights to AstraZeneca was followed by an immediate reduction of Innate's commercial operations and headcounts in the US. Although the Company gained some experience in the late stage development and marketing and commercialization of pharmaceutical products, such experience was short, and may not have resulted in a sufficient gain of skills to anticipate and tackle the marketing and commercialization of Innate's other drug candidates.
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In addition, in order to support the development of the Company and changes in strategy, the Company must continue to implement and improve its management, operational and financial systems, adapt its facilities and recruit and train qualified personnel. Due to Innate's limited financial resources, it may not be able to effectively manage the development of Innate's business, which could result in weaknesses in its infrastructure, operational errors, loss of business opportunities, loss of employees and reduced productivity of remaining employees. The Company may also experience difficulties in recruiting, training and retaining additional qualified personnel, particularly in key positions. Added to this is the fact that the Company is located in Marseille and is competing with other locations that potential recruits may find more attractive.
If the Company were to acquire assets or companies, the success of such an acquisition would depend on its capacity to carry out such acquisitions and to integrate such assets or companies into its existing operations. The implementation of such a strategy could impose significant constraints, including:
human resources: recruiting, integrating, training, managing, motivating and retaining a growing number of employees;
financial and management system resources: identification and management of appropriate financing and management of its financial reporting systems; and
infrastructure: expansion or transfer of its laboratories or the development of its information technology system.
If the Company is unable to manage such changes or has difficulty integrating any acquisitions, it could have a material adverse effect on its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company would need to hire new employees and expand its use of service providers.
As of December 31, 2021, the Company had 214 employees. As Innate's development plans and strategies develop, Innate Pharma must need additional managerial, operational, marketing, financial and other personnel.
The Company currently relies, and for the foreseeable future will continue to rely, in part on certain independent organizations, partners, advisors and consultants to provide certain services. There can be no assurance that the services of these independent organizations, partners, advisors and consultants will continue to be available to Innate on a timely basis when needed, or that Innate can find qualified replacements. In addition, if Innate Pharma is unable to effectively manage its outsourced activities or if the quality or accuracy of the services provided by consultants is compromised for any reason, its clinical trials may be extended, delayed, or terminated, and it may not be able to obtain regulatory approval of its product candidates or otherwise advance its business. There can be no assurance that Innate will be able to manage its existing consultants or find other competent outside contractors and consultants on economically reasonable terms, if at all.
If the Company is not able to effectively expand its organization by hiring new employees and expanding its groups of consultants and contractors, it may not be able to successfully implement the tasks necessary to further develop and commercialize its product candidates and, accordingly, may not achieve its research, development and commercialization goals.
The Company depend on qualified management personnel and its business could be harmed if Innate loses key personnel and cannot attract new personnel.
Innate's ability to retain key persons in its organization and to recruit qualified personnel is crucial for its success. In particular, its success depends heavily on its ability to retain key people in its organization, including key scientific and medical personnel.
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Should the Company be unable to retain the individuals who form its team of key managers and key scientific advisors, it could have a material adverse effect on its business and development and could consequently affect its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Innate Pharma will need to recruit qualified scientific and medical personnel to carry out its clinical trials and expand into new areas that require specialized skills, such as regulatory matters, marketing and manufacturing. Innate compete with other companies, research organizations and academic institutions in recruiting and retaining highly qualified scientific, technical and management personnel. Competition for such personnel is very intense in the biopharmaceutical field and there can be no assurance that the Company will be successful in attracting or retaining such personnel and the failure to do so could harm its operations and its growth prospects. Should any of these risks materialize, this could have a material adverse effect on Innate's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The global COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect Innate's business, financial condition and results of operations.
An outbreak of a novel strain of coronavirus (i.e. COVID-19), which first emerged in the PRC in January 2020, has since spread to other parts of the world, including the United States and Europe. The Company has set up a multifunctional team to monitor this crisis by addressing various issues as outlined below. Despite Innate's heightened vigilance, and given the evolving, unpredictable and unprecedented nature of this situation, even if certain risks are identified, the Company may not be able to identify and control them all.
The progress of ongoing clinical trials, whether conducted by the Company or by its institutional or industrial partners, may be impacted to an extent that is still uncertain in the coming months. Indeed, the situation remains heterogeneous according to the countries, regions or even hospitals where these clinical trials are conducted, in terms of the inclusion of new patients and the quality and completeness of the data from these trials. Even if improvements have been observed, the recruitment of new patients is still limited in some hospitals that have suspended or slowed down their participation and involvement in clinical trials testing Innate's different drug candidates.
The situation could also compromise the manufacturing and supply chain for investigational drugs, drugs used in Innate's clinical trials as combination agents or comparators or marketed drugs. This could delay the implementation of Innate's clinical trials of its drug candidates. To date, no impact has been observed in the supply chain of key materials, including investigational or marketed drugs, but the Company continues to closely monitor the subcontractors involved in the various geographical areas where they operate or to which these materials transit.
From a regulatory perspective, clinical trial authorization procedures and marketing authorization procedures for drugs could also be delayed or the conditions for obtaining them modified.
The organization at Innate's sites has been and is still adapting to the evolution of the situation, both internationally and locally, and in compliance with the health and safety measures dictated by the governments of the countries where the Company operates. During the first containment period, the Company's on-site activity was focused on the opportunity to develop Innate's drug candidates in indications related to COVID-19, in order to limit the number of people on site and thus limit staff exposure. The activities that can be carried out from home have been maintained in their entirety thanks to the IT equipment already available within the Company. Since the end of this first containment period, research and development activities have resumed in their entirety on site within a short timeframe. This containment episode caused a delay of a few weeks, which was not significant given the nature of Innate's activities. On the other hand, business travel by Innate's personnel has been and continues to be reduced to a strict minimum, essentially impacting relations with healthcare personnel in hospitals, both for operations related to the conduct of its clinical trials and operations related to the commercialization of
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Lumoxiti, as discussed below. See section "Item 3.D. Any of Innate Pharma product candidates, if approved and commercialized, may fail to achieve market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors or the medical community to a degree that is necessary for commercial success."
From a financial standpoint:
The delay in the development of Innate's portfolio if the pandemic were to last or even increase could impact its cash flow: Innate would have to finance its developments over a longer period of time, without its cash consumption necessarily being much lower during the period in which its activities are impacted as described above;
Potential milestone payments would be delayed accordingly; and
Any clinical developments that might have been an opportunity to go to market would also be delayed accordingly.
In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic is having a significant and probably lasting impact on the global economy and financial markets, particularly the equity markets. This has already had an immediate effect on the fair value of the financial instruments in which the Company invests its cash, generating an unrealized loss that could materialize in the event of an urgent need for cash. More broadly, the economic and financial crisis may have an effect on its ability to finance itself in the markets.
To date, the Company believes that the most immediate risks in terms of probability of occurrence and impact are those related to clinical trials. The occurrence of some or all of the risks listed here could have an adverse effect on the Company's operations and financial condition and prospects.
Innate's internal computerized systems, or those of its third-party contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer security breaches and be subject to malicious intent or cyber-attack, which could result in a material disruption of its product development programs and in its operations in general.
The Company have implemented a security policy that are both intended to secure its data against impermissible access and to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of the data. Despite the implementation of such security measures, including a cybersecurity program, Innate's internal computer systems and those of its third-party contractors and consultants are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war, telecommunication and electrical failures, and other sources. Moreover, part of the Company's information system is “cloud”-based and thus is not fully under its control.
In addition, Innate's research and development facility and headquarters in Luminy, France is located in an area that may be more susceptible to wildfires. If Innate's facility or computer systems are damaged by fire despite the fire prevention and data archiving measures it has put in place, it could suffer financial losses and delays in its operations.
If such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in Innate's operations, it could result in a material disruption of its programs and more generally of its operations. For example, the loss of clinical trial data for Innate's product candidates could result in delays in its regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase its costs to recover or reproduce the lost data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss of or damage to Innate's data or applications or other data or applications relating to its technology or product candidates, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, it could incur liabilities, including penalties under data privacy laws such as the GDPR and other regulations, and the further development of its product candidates could be delayed. Even if the Company has not experienced any cyber breach to date, should any of these risks materialize, this could have a material adverse effect on Innate's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
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Innate's Research and Development facility and Headquarters in Luminy, France are exposed to forest fires
The Company's Research and Development facility and Headquarters in Luminy, France are exposed to forest fires. Luminy is an area on the outskirts of Marseille, composed in part of undeveloped hills covered with shrubs and pine trees. It is also located next to a natural park entirely covered by the same type of Mediterranean vegetation. Summers are hot and dry and this type of vegetation is prone to forest fires. Indeed, in September 2016, such a forest fire came relatively close to inhabited areas, including the Company's facilities, where employees had to remain confined for several hours.
In order to prevent the risk of fire, fire prevention measures are implemented, such as pruning shrubs in the surrounding green areas and implementing a maintenance plan for fire-fighting equipment. In addition, computer data backup and archiving measures are implemented, allowing the regularly backed-up data to be stored on the premises of a specialized service provider. In addition, rare biological material used by the Company has been identified, duplicated and stored at other sites, at the premises of specialized service providers.
However, these measures do not guarantee that another forest fire would not damage the Company's premises in Luminy, which would result in financial losses, development delays of various durations or even the suspension of the Company's activities.
The Company may use hazardous chemicals and biological materials in its business and any claims relating to improper handling, storage or disposal of these materials could be time-consuming and costly.
Innate's research and development processes involve the controlled use of hazardous materials, including chemicals, biological and radioactive materials. The Company cannot eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or discharge and any resultant injury from these materials. Innate also handles genetically recombined material, genetically modified species and pathological biological samples. Consequently, in France and in the jurisdictions where the Company conducts clinical trials, it is subject to environment and safety laws and regulations governing the use, storage, handling, discharge and disposal of hazardous materials, including chemical and biological products and radioactive materials. The Company impose preventive and protective measures for the protection of its workforce and waste control management in accordance with applicable laws, including part four of the French Labor Code, relating to occupational health and safety.
In France, the Company is required to comply with a number of national, regional and local legislative or regulatory provisions regarding radiation and hazardous materials, including specific regulations regarding the use, handling and storage of radioactive materials and the potential exposure of employees to hazardous materials and radiation. Innate must also comply with French regulations concerning the use and handling of genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, in confined spaces.
If Innate fails to comply with applicable regulations, it could be subject to fines and may have to suspend all or part of its operations. Compliance with environmental, health and safety regulations involves additional costs, and Innate Pharma may have to incur significant costs to comply with future laws and regulations in relevant jurisdictions. Compliance with environmental laws and regulations could require Innate to purchase equipment, modify facilities and undertake considerable expenses. The Company could be liable for any inadvertent contamination, injury or damage, which could negatively affect its business, although the Company has subscribed to an insurance policy covering certain risks inherent to its business.
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Product liability and other lawsuits could divert Innate's resources, result in substantial liabilities, reduce the commercial potential of its product candidates and damage its reputation.
Given that the Company develops therapeutic products intended to be tested on humans and used to treat humans, the risk that Innate Pharma may be sued on product liability claims is inherent in its business. Side effects of, or manufacturing defects in, products that the Company develops could result in the deterioration of a patient’s condition, injury or even death. For example, its liability could be sought after by patients participating in the clinical trials in the context of the development of the therapeutic products tested and unexpected side effects resulting from the administration of these products. Once a product is approved for sale and commercialized, the likelihood of product liability lawsuits increases. Criminal or civil proceedings might be filed against Innate by patients, regulatory authorities, biopharmaceutical companies and any other third-party using or marketing Innate's products. These actions could include claims resulting from acts by Innate's partners, licensees and subcontractors, over which the Company has little or no control. These lawsuits may divert Innate's management from pursuing its business strategy and may be costly to defend. In addition, if the Company is held liable in any of these lawsuits, it may incur substantial liabilities, may be forced to limit or forgo further commercialization of the affected products and may suffer damage to its reputation.
Although the clinical trial process is designed to identify and assess potential side effects, it is always possible that a drug, even after regulatory approval, may exhibit unforeseen side effects. If any of Innate's product candidates were to cause adverse side effects during clinical trials or after approval of the product candidate, the Company may be exposed to substantial liabilities. Physicians and patients may not comply with any warnings that identify known potential adverse effects and patients who should not use Innate's product candidates.
The Company has obtained liability insurance coverage for each of its clinical trials in compliance with local legislation and rules. In the United States, Innate's aggregate insurance coverage for its ongoing clinical trials is limited to €10.0 million per year and in the aggregate. Innate's insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover any expenses or losses the Company may suffer. Moreover, insurance coverage is becoming increasingly expensive, and, in the future, Innate Pharma may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts to protect itself against losses due to liability. On occasion, large judgments have been awarded in class action lawsuits based on drugs that had unanticipated side effects. The cost of any product liability litigation or other proceedings, even if resolved in Innate's favor, could be substantial. A successful product liability claim, or series of claims, brought against Innate could cause Innate's share price to decline and, if judgments exceed its insurance coverage, could decrease its cash and adversely affect its business.
To date, the Company is covered by a product liability insurance with a coverage amount of €10 million per year and in the aggregate. If Innate is the subject of a successful product liability claim that exceeds the limits of any insurance coverage Innate Pharma obtains, the Company would incur substantial charges that would adversely affect its earnings and require the commitment of capital resources that might otherwise be available for the development and commercial launch of its product programs. Should any of these risks materialize, this could have a material adverse effect on Innate's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Innate Pharma's employees may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including violating applicable regulatory standards and requirements, engaging in insider trading or violate the terms of their confidentiality agreements, which could significantly harm Innate's business.
The Company are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees could include intentional failures to comply with legal requirements or the requirements of national authorities, the EMA, FDA and other government regulators, provide accurate information to applicable
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government authorities, comply with fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations in the United States, Europe and elsewhere, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Employee misconduct could also involve the improper use of, including trading on, information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to Innate's reputation. Innate Pharma has a Code of Ethics that applies to all employees and consultants, and other policies and charters, but it is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions it takes to detect and prevent this activity may be ineffective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting Innate from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations.
In order to protect its proprietary technology and processes, the Company relies in part on confidentiality agreements with its partners, employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators and sponsored researchers, and other advisors. These agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of Innate's proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect its competitive business position. Should any of these risks materialize, this could have a material adverse effect on Innate's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company may acquire businesses or products in the future and Innate may not realize the benefits of such acquisitions.
Although Innate's current strategy involves continuing to grow its business internally, the Company may grow externally through selective acquisitions of complementary products and technologies, or of companies with such assets. If such acquisitions were to become necessary or attractive in the future, the Company may not be able to identify appropriate targets or make acquisitions under satisfactory conditions, in particular, satisfactory price conditions. In addition, Innate Pharma may be unable to obtain the financing for these acquisitions under favorable conditions, and could be led to finance these acquisitions using cash that could be allocated to other purposes in the context of existing operations. Innate may encounter numerous difficulties in developing, manufacturing and marketing any new products resulting from an acquisition that delay or prevent Innate from realizing their expected benefits or enhancing its business. The Company cannot assure you that, following any such acquisition, the Company will achieve the expected synergies to justify the transaction, which could have a material adverse effect on Innate's business, financial conditions, earnings and prospects.
Climate change or legal, regulatory or market measures to address climate change may negatively affect Innate's business and results of operations.
Climate change presents risks to Innate's operations, including the potential for additional regulatory requirements and associated costs, and the potential for more frequent and severe weather events and water availability challenges that may impact Innate's facilities and those of Innate's suppliers. Natural disasters and extreme weather conditions, such as a hurricane, tornado, earthquake, wildfire or flooding, may pose physical risks to Innate's facilities and disrupt the operation of Innate's supply chain.
Concern over climate change may also result in new or additional legal or regulatory requirements designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and/or mitigate the effects of climate change on the
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environment. If such laws or regulations are more stringent than current legal or regulatory obligations, the Company may experience disruption in, or an increase in the costs associated with sourcing, manufacturing and distribution of Innate's products, which may adversely affect Innate's business, results of operations or financial condition.
Innate is currently operating in a period of economic uncertainty and capital market disruption, which has been significantly impacted by geopolitical instability due to the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine. Innate's business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by a negative impact on the global economy and capital markets resulting from the conflict in Ukraine or any other geopolitical tensions.
U.S. and global markets are experiencing volatility and disruption following the escalation of geopolitical tensions and the start of the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine. In February 2022, Russia launched a full-scale military invasion of Ukraine. Although the length and impact of the ongoing military conflict is highly unpredictable, the conflict in Ukraine could lead to market disruptions, including significant volatility in commodity prices, credit and capital markets. Additionally, Russia's prior annexation of Crimea, recent recognition of two separatist republics in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine and subsequent military interventions in Ukraine have led to sanctions and other penalties being levied by the United States, European Union and other countries against Russia, Belarus, the Crimea Region of Ukraine, the so-called Donetsk People's Republic, and the so-called Luhansk People's Republic, including agreement to remove certain Russian financial institutions from the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) payment system. Additional potential sanctions and penalties have also been proposed and/or threatened. Russian military actions and the resulting sanctions could adversely affect the global economy and financial markets and lead to instability and lack of liquidity in capital markets, potentially making it more difficult for the Company to obtain additional funds. Such risks and disruptions may also negatively impact Innate's supply chain, manufacturing arrangements, preclinical studies, clinical trials, which could have a materially adverse impact on its results of operations, financial condition and prospects. The extent and duration of the military action, sanctions and resulting market disruptions are impossible to predict, but could be substantial. Any such disruptions may also magnify the impact of other risks described in this Annual Report on Form 20-F.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property Rights
Its ability to compete may be adversely affected if the Company does not adequately obtain, maintain, protect and enforce Innate's intellectual property or proprietary rights, or if the scope of intellectual property protection the Company obtains is not sufficiently broad.
Innate's success depends, in large part, on its ability to obtain and maintain patent and other intellectual property protection in the United States and other countries with respect to Innate's product candidates. However, the Company may not be able to obtain, maintain or enforce Innate's patents and other intellectual property rights which could affect its ability to compete effectively. For example, the Company cannot guarantee:
that the Company will file all necessary or desirable patent applications or that the Company will obtain the patents that the Company has applied for and that are under review;
that the Company will be able to develop new patentable product candidates or technologies or obtain patents to protect such new product candidates or technologies;
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that the Company or its licensing or collaboration partners were the first to make the product candidates or technologies covered by the issued patents or pending patent applications that the Company licenses or own;
that the Company will be able to obtain sufficient rights to all necessary or desirable patents or other intellectual property rights, whether at all or on reasonable terms;
that the scope of any issued patents that the Company owns or licenses will be broad enough to protect its product candidates or effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive technologies and product candidates; and
that there is no risk of its owned and licensed patents being challenged, invalidated or circumvented by a third-party.
The patent prosecution process is expensive, time-consuming, and complex, and Innate may not be able to file, prosecute, maintain, enforce, or license all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. For example, the Company does not intend to systematically file, maintain, prosecute and defend patents on its product candidates in all countries. Consequently, Innate may not be able to prevent third parties from exploiting products that are the same as or similar to its products and product candidates in countries in which it does not obtain patent protection, or from selling or importing such products in and into the countries in which it does have patent protection. It is also possible that the Company will fail to identify patentable aspects of its research and development output in time to obtain patent protection. Although the Company enters into confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to confidential or patentable aspects of its research and development output, such as its employees, consultants, CROs, outside scientific collaborators, sponsored researchers, and other advisors, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose such output before a patent application is filed, thereby jeopardizing its ability to seek patent protection. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new product candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. As a result, Innate's intellectual property may not provide Innate with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing product candidates similar or identical to its. In addition, in some circumstances, the Company may not have the right to control the preparation, filing, prosecution, maintenance, enforcement and defense of patents and patent applications covering technology that the Company licenses to or from third parties. For example, pursuant to its license agreement with AstraZeneca for monalizumab, AstraZeneca retains control of such activities for certain patents that the Company licenses to it under the agreement and patents that arise under the collaboration. Innate cannot be certain that these patents and patent applications will be prepared, filed, prosecuted, maintained, enforced, and defended in a manner consistent with the best interest of its business. If any third-party that controls Innate's patents and patent applications fails to maintain Innate's patents or such third-party loses rights to Innate's patents or patent applications, Innate's rights to those patents and underlying technology may be reduced or eliminated and the Company's right to develop and commercialize its product candidates that are subject to such rights could be adversely affected.
Moreover, some of Innate's patents and patent applications are, and may in the future be, co-owned with third parties. If the Company is unable to obtain an exclusive license to any such third-party co-owners’ interest in such patents or patent applications, such co-owners may be able to license their rights to other third parties, including its competitors, and its competitors could market competing products and technology. Innate may also need the cooperation of any such co-owners of its patents in order to enforce such patents against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided to us.
The coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before the patent is issued, and its scope can be reinterpreted after issuance. The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its
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inventorship, scope, validity or enforceability. Even if patent applications the Company licenses or owns currently or in the future issue as patents, they may not issue in a form that will provide Innate with any meaningful protection, prevent competitors or other third parties from circumventing its patents by developing similar or alternative technologies or products in a non-infringing manner, or otherwise provide Innate with any competitive advantage. Challenges from competitors or other third parties could reduce the scope of Innate's patents or render them invalid or unenforceable, which could limit its ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and product candidates, or limit the duration of the patent protection for Lumoxiti and Innate Pharma's product candidates. The legal proceedings that the Company may then have to enter into in order to enforce and defend its intellectual property could be very costly and could distract its management and other personnel from their normal responsibilities, notably in the case of lawsuits in the United States. The probability of disputes arising over Innate's intellectual property will increase progressively as patents are granted and as the value and appeal of the inventions protected by these patents are confirmed. The occurrence of any of these events concerning any of Innate's patents or intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. These risks are even higher for the Company, because of its limited financial and human resources.
The patent position of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies generally is highly uncertain, involves complex legal and factual questions, and has been the subject of much litigation in recent years. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability, and commercial value of Innate's patent rights are highly uncertain. The Company's pending and future patent applications may not result in patents being issued which protect its technology or product candidates or which effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive technologies and product candidates. Furthermore, its owned and in-licensed patents may be subject to a reservation of rights by one or more third parties. For example, the research resulting in certain of its owned and licensed patent rights and technology was funded in part by the U.S. government. As a result, the government may have certain rights, or march-in rights, to such patent rights and technology. When new technologies are developed with government funding, the government generally obtains certain rights in any resulting patents, including a non-exclusive license authorizing the government to use the invention for non-commercial purposes. These rights may permit the government to disclose Innate's confidential information to third parties and to exercise march-in rights to use or allow third parties to use its licensed technology. The government can exercise its march-in rights if it determines that action is necessary because the Company fails to achieve practical application of the government-funded technology, because action is necessary to alleviate health or safety needs, to meet requirements of federal regulations, or to give preference to U.S. industry. In addition, Innate's rights in such inventions may be subject to certain requirements to manufacture products embodying such inventions in the United States. Any exercise by the government of such rights could harm Innate Pharma's competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Third parties may allege that the Company or its partners infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate such third parties’ intellectual property rights, which could prevent or delay its development efforts, stop Innate from commercializing its product candidates, or increase the costs of commercializing its product candidates.
The Company's commercial success depends on its ability and the ability of its partners to develop, manufacture, market and sell its product candidates, and use its proprietary technologies, without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating any intellectual property or proprietary rights of third parties. The field of biopharmaceuticals involves significant patent and other intellectual property litigation, which can be highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. The
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interpretation and breadth of claims allowed in some patents covering biopharmaceutical compositions also may be uncertain and difficult to determine.
Innate may not be aware of all third-party intellectual property rights potentially relating to its product candidates. In general, in the United States patent applications are not published until 18 months after filing or, in some cases, not at all. Therefore, the Company cannot be sure that it was the first to make the inventions claimed in any owned or licensed patents or pending patent applications, or that its was the first to file for patent protection for such inventions. If the Company was not the first to invent such inventions or first to file any patent or patent application for such inventions, it may be unable to make use of such inventions in connection with its products. Innate may need to obtain licenses from third parties (which may not be available under commercially reasonable terms, or at all), delay the launch of product candidates, or cease the production and sale of certain product candidates or develop alternative technologies that are the subject of such patents or patent applications, any of which could have a material adverse effect on its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. For example, third parties may claim that lacutamab and other product candidates may use technology protected by their patents. Although the Company believes that its current activities and its planned development of lacutamab does not and will not infringe on such patents, which expire in the near term, third parties may disagree.
Third parties may allege that Innate or its partners infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate any such third-party’s patents or other intellectual property rights and assert infringement claims against us, regardless of their merit. A court of competent jurisdiction could hold that these third-party patents are valid, enforceable and infringed, which could materially and adversely affect Innate's ability to commercialize any product candidates it may develop and any other product candidates or technologies covered by the asserted third-party patents. In order to successfully challenge the validity of any such U.S. patent in federal court, Innate would need to overcome a presumption of validity. As this burden is a high one requiring Innate to present clear and convincing evidence as to the invalidity of any such U.S. patent claim, there is no assurance that a court of competent jurisdiction would invalidate the claims of any such U.S. patent. If the Company is found to infringe a third-party’s intellectual property rights, and the Company is unsuccessful in demonstrating that such rights are invalid or unenforceable, the Company could be required to:
bear the potentially significant costs of proceedings brought against us;
pay damages, which may include treble damages and attorney’s fees if the Company is found to have willfully infringed a third-party’s patent rights;
cease developing, manufacturing and commercializing the infringing technology or product candidates; and
acquire a license to such third-party intellectual property rights, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, and may be non-exclusive thereby giving the Company's competitors and other third parties access to the same technologies licensed to us.
Even if resolved in Innate's favor, litigation or other intellectual property proceedings may cause Innate to incur significant expenses and could distract its management and other personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a material adverse effect on the price of Innate's ordinary shares or ADSs. The Company may not have sufficient financial or other resources to adequately conduct such litigation or proceedings. Some of Innate's competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than Innate can because of their greater financial resources and more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios. Should one or more of the foregoing risks materialize, this
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could have a material adverse effect on Innate's reputation, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Its patents could be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged and the Company may not be able to protect its intellectual property.
Innate's and its licensors’ patents and patent applications, if issued, may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented by third parties. U.S. patents and patent applications may also be subject to interference proceedings, re-examination proceedings, derivation proceedings, post-grant review or inter partes review in the United States Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, challenging Innate's or its licensors’ patent rights. Foreign patents may be subject also to opposition or comparable proceedings in the corresponding foreign patent office. For example, two of its European patents with claims directed to a class of anti-NKG2A antibodies defined by characteristics shared with monalizumab have been challenged in oppositions at the European Patent Office, or the EPO. The Board of Appeals of the EPO issued a decision confirming the maintenance of one of these patents, directed to such class of anti-NKG2A antibodies, is valid and revoked the other of these patents. The Company has also been notified of a third party opposition which challenges one of its European patents with claims directed to use of anti-NKG2A antibodies for treating cancer in an individual having progressive disease following treatment with an antibody that neutralizes the inhibitory activity of PD-1 and another third party opposition which challenges one of Innate's patents directed to a class of NK cell activity-enhancing antibodies that bind both Siglec-7 and Siglec-9. Both of the aforementioned oppositions are currently pending. The Company has also been notified of third party oppositions which challenge two of its in-licensed European patents directed to CD39 technology. These oppositions are currently pending, and the EPO has revoked one of these patents directed to CD39 technology, which revocation might be appealed by Innate or its licensor(s).
In addition, the Company may allege that third parties infringe Innate's or its licensors’ patents and the defendant could counterclaim that such patents are invalid or unenforceable. In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, including lack of novelty, obviousness, or non-enablement. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability is unpredictable. With respect to the validity question, for example, Innate Pharma cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art, of which the Company or its licensing partners and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution.
Any such patent litigation or proceeding could result in the loss of Innate or its licensors’ patents, denial of Innate's or its licensors’ patent applications or loss or reduction in the scope of one or more of the claims of such patents or patent applications. Accordingly, Innate's or its licensors’ rights under any issued patents may not provide Innate with sufficient protection against competitive product candidates or processes, Innate could become unable to manufacture or commercialize its product candidates without infringing third-party patent rights, and the duration of the patent protection of its product candidates could be limited. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of Innate's confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. Even if the Company is successful, such litigation or proceedings may be costly and may distract its management and other personnel from their normal responsibilities. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on Innate's business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Obtaining and maintaining the Company's patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by government patent
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