20-F 1 zk2431275.htm 20-F Ituran Location & Control Ltd. - 1337117 - 2024
As of December 31, 2023, the estimated aggregate amortization of intangible assets for the next five years is as follows: 2024- US$ 4,707 thousand, 2025- US$ 3,688 thousand, 2026- US$ 1,311 thousand, 2027- US$ 517 thousand and 2028 – US$ 608 thousand. See Note 13A6. See Note 1Y See Note 1W. See Note 1W The accumulated amount of goodwill impairment loss as of December 31, 2023, and 2022 was US$ 29.89 million. 0001337117FYfalseIncluding goodwill. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, an amount of US$ 40.9 million and US$ 38.1 million is subject to operating lease transactions, respectively. 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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 20-F
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
OR
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
 
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934  
 
OR
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
Date of event requiring this shell company report..........................................
 
For the transition period from ____________ to ____________
 
Commission file number. 001-32618
 
image00002.jpg
 
ITURAN LOCATION AND CONTROL LTD.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
N/A
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
 
Israel
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
3 Hashikma street, Azour, 5800182 Israel
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
Guy Aharonov, General Counsel, 3 Hashikma street, Azour, 5800182 Israel, Tel: 972-3-5571314, Facsimile: 972-3-5571327
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
Trading symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary Shares, par value NIS 0.331/3 per share
ITRN
Nasdaq Global Select Market
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
 
None
(Title of Class)
 
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
 
None
(Title of Class)
 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:
 
19,893,580
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
 
☐ Yes ☒ No
 
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
 
☐ Yes ☒ No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
 
Yes ☐ No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
 
Yes ☐ No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer ☐
Accelerated filer ☒
Non-accelerated filer ☐
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
 
†The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
 
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
 
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
 
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
U.S. GAAP
 
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
by the International Accounting Standards Board ☐
Other ☐
 
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow:
 
☐ Item 17 ☐ Item 18
 
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
 
☐ Yes No
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

iv
iv
1
1
1
A.
RESERVED
 
B.
CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS
1
C.
REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS
1
D.
RISK FACTORS
1
9
A.
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY
9
B.
BUSINESS OVERVIEW
10
C.
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
21
D.
PROPERTY, PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT
21
23
23
A.
OPERATING RESULTS
23
B.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
31
C.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, PATENTS AND LICENSES
34
D.
TREND INFORMATION
34
E.
OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS
34
35
A.
DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT
35
B.
COMPENSATION
39
C.
BOARD PRACTICES
43
D.
EMPLOYEES
47
E.
SHARE OWNERSHIP
49

i

50
A.
MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS
50
B.
RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
52
C.
INTERESTS OF EXPERTS AND COUNSEL
56
56
A.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION
56
B.
SIGNIFICANT CHANGES
57
57
A.
OFFER AND LISTING DETAILS
57
B.
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
57
C.
MARKETS
57
D.
SELLING SHAREHOLDERS
57
E.
DILUTION
57
F.
EXPENSES OF THE ISSUE
57
57
A.
SHARE CAPITAL
57
B.
MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION
57
C.
MATERIAL CONTRACTS
65
D.
EXCHANGE CONTROLS
65
E.
TAXATION
65
F.
DIVIDENDS AND PAYING AGENTS
73
G.
STATEMENT BY EXPERTS
73
H.
DOCUMENTS ON DISPLAY
73
I.
SUBSIDIARY INFORMATION
73
J.
ANNUAL REPORT TO SECURITY HOLDERS
73

ii

73
74
74
74
74
77
77
77
77
77
78
78
78
78
ITEM 16I.
78
ITEM 16J. 79
ITEM 16K. CYBERSECURITY
79
80
80
81

iii

USE OF CERTAIN TERMS
 
As used herein, and unless the context suggests otherwise, the terms “we”, “us”, “our” or “Ituran” refer to Ituran Location and Control Ltd. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
 
We have prepared our consolidated financial statements in US Dollars. Our consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). All references herein to “dollars” or “$” or “USD” are to United States dollars, and all references to “NIS” are to New Israeli Shekels.
 
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARDLOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This Annual Report on Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The use of the words “projects,” “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “plans” or “intends,” or words of similar import, identifies a statement as “forward-looking.” The forward-looking statements included herein are based on current expectations that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements are based on the assumption that we will not lose a significant customer or customers or experience increased fluctuations of demand or rescheduling of purchase orders, that our markets will continue to grow, that our products will remain accepted within their respective markets and will not be replaced by new technology, that competitive conditions within our markets will not change materially or adversely, that we will retain key technical and management personnel, that our forecasts will accurately anticipate market demand, and that there will be no material adverse change in our operations or business. Assumptions relating to the foregoing involve judgments with respect to, among other things, future economic, competitive and market conditions, and future business decisions, all of which are difficult or impossible to predict accurately and many of which are beyond our control. In addition, our business and operations are subject to substantial risks which increase the uncertainty inherent in the forward-looking statements. In light of the significant uncertainties inherent in the forward-looking information included herein, the inclusion of such information should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that our objectives or plans will be achieved. Factors that could cause actual results to differ from our expectations or projections include the risks and uncertainties described in this annual report in Item 3D: Risk Factors. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements or other information contained in this report, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You are advised, however, to  review any additional disclosures we make in our reports on Form 6-K filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

iv

PART I

ITEM 1.
IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 2.
OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 3.
KEY INFORMATION
 
A.                   (Reserved)
 
B.                   CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS
 
Not applicable.
 
C.                   REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS
 
Not applicable.
 
D.                   RISK FACTORS
 
Our business, operating results and financial condition could be seriously harmed due to any of the following risks, among others. If we do not successfully address the risks to which we are subject, we could experience a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and our share price may decline, which may result in a loss of all or part of your investment. We cannot assure you that we will successfully address any of these risks. You should carefully consider the following factors as well as the other information contained in this annual report before making any investment decision with respect to our securities.
 
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS
 
Failure to maintain our existing relationships or establish new relationships with insurance companies or car manufacturers could adversely affect our revenues and growth potential.
 
Revenues from our stolen vehicle recovery services, which we refer to as SVR services (“SVR”) and automatic vehicle location (“AVL”) products, which we refer to as telematics products, are primarily dependent on our relationships with insurance companies and car manufactures in Israel. Insurance companies drive demand for our SVR services and telematics products by encouraging and, in some cases, requiring customers to subscribe to vehicle location services and purchase vehicle location products such as ours. For our subsidiaries in Brazil and Argentina, insurance companies typically enter into written agreements to subscribe to our services and purchase or lease our products directly. Our inability to maintain our existing relationships or establish new relationships with insurance companies could adversely affect our revenues and growth potential. In some of the territories in which we operate, we have business relationships with car manufacturers. Our inability to maintain our existing relationships or establish new relationships with car manufacturers could adversely affect our revenues and growth potential.
 
1

Changes in insurance company practices in the markets in which we provide our products and services could adversely affect our revenues and growth potential.
 
We depend on insurance company practices in the markets in which we provide our SVR services and sell our telematics products. In Israel, insurance companies either mandate the use of SVR services by use of telematics products, or their equivalent, as a prerequisite for providing insurance coverage to owners of certain medium- and high-end vehicles or provide insurance premium discounts to encourage vehicle owners to subscribe to services and purchase products such as ours. For our subsidiaries in Brazil and Argentina, insurance companies mainly lease our telematics products directly and subsequently require their customers to subscribe to our SVR services.
 
Therefore, we rely on insurance companies’ continued practice of:
 
accepting vehicle location and recovery technology as a preferred security product;
requiring or providing a premium discount for using location and recovery services and products; and
mandating or encouraging use of our SVR services and telematics products, or similar services and products, for vehicles with the same or similar threshold values and for the same or similar required duration of use.
 
If any of these policies or practices change, revenues from sales of our SVR services and telematics products could decline, which could adversely affect our revenues and growth potential.
 
A reduction in vehicle theft rates may adversely impact demand for our SVR services and telematics products.
 
Demand for our SVR services and telematics products depends primarily on prevailing or expected vehicle theft rates. Vehicle theft rates may decline as a result of various reasons, such as the availability of improved security systems, implementation of improved or more effective law enforcement measures, or improved economic or political conditions in markets that have high theft rates. If vehicle theft rates in any or all of our existing markets decline, or if insurance companies or our other customers believe that vehicle theft rates have declined or are expected to decline, demand for our SVR services and telematics products may decline.
 
A decline in new car sales  in the markets in which we operate could result in reduced demand for our SVR services and telematics products.
 
Our SVR services and telematics products are primarily used to protect vehicles and are often installed before or immediately after their initial sale. Consequently, a reduction in new vehicle sales could reduce our addressable market for SVR services and telematics products. New car sales may decline for various reasons, including an increase in new car tariffs, taxes or gas prices. A decline in vehicle production levels or labor disputes affecting the automobile industry in the markets where we operate may also impact the volume of new vehicle sales. A decline in new car sales in the markets in which we provide our SVR services or sell our telematics products could result in reduced demand for these services and products.
 
There is significant competition in the markets in which we offer our services and products and our results of operations could be adversely affected if we fail to compete successfully.
 
The markets for our services and products are highly competitive. We compete primarily on the basis of the technological innovation, quality and price of our services and products. Our most competitive market is the telematics services market and the related telematics products market, due to the existence of a wide variety of competing services and products and alternative technologies that offer various levels of protection and tracking capabilities, including global positioning systems, or GPS, satellite- or network-based cellular systems and direction-finding homing technologies. Some of these competing services and products, such as certain GPS-based products, are installed in new vehicles by vehicle manufacturers prior to their initial sale, which effectively precludes us from competing for these subscribers in the SVR market. Furthermore, providers of competing services or products may extend their offerings to the locations in which we operate, or new competitors may enter the telematics services market. Our telematics products also compete with less sophisticated theft protection devices such as standard car alarms, immobilizers, steering wheel locks and homing devices, some of which may be significantly cheaper. Some of these competing products have greater brand recognition than our telematics products.
 
The development of new or improved competitive products, systems or technologies that compete with our telematics products may render our products less competitive or obsolete, which could cause a decline in our revenues and profitability.
 
We are engaged in businesses characterized by rapid technological change and frequent new product developments and enhancements. The number of companies developing and marketing new telematics products has expanded considerably in recent years. The development of new or improved products, systems or technologies that compete with our telematics products, for both our SVR and fleet management services, may render our products and services less competitive and we may not be able to enhance our technology in a timely manner. In addition to the competition resulting from new products, systems or technologies, our future product enhancements may not adequately meet the requirements of the marketplace and may not achieve the broad market acceptance necessary to generate significant revenues. Any of the foregoing could cause a decline in our revenues and profitability.
 
2

The inability of local law enforcement agencies to timely and effectively recover the stolen vehicles we locate could negatively impact customers’ perception of the usefulness of our SVR services and telematics products, adversely affecting our revenues.
 
Our telematics products identify the location of vehicles in which our products are installed. Following a notification of an unauthorized entry, or if we receive notification of the vehicle’s theft from a subscriber, we notify the relevant law enforcement agency of the location of the subscriber’s vehicle and generally rely on local law enforcement or governmental agencies to recover the stolen vehicle. We cannot control nor predict the response time of the relevant local law enforcement or other governmental agencies responsible for recovering stolen vehicles, nor that the stolen vehicles, once located, will be recovered at all. In the past, some stolen vehicles in which our telematics products were installed were not recovered on timely manner, from the time an unauthorized entry is confirmed or reported to the time the vehicle is recovered. To the extent that the relevant agencies do not effectively and timely respond to our calls and recover stolen vehicles, our recovery rates would likely diminish, which may, in turn, negatively impact customers’ perception of the usefulness of our SVR services and telematics products, adversely affecting our revenues.
 
The ability to detect, deactivate, disable or otherwise inhibit the effectiveness of our telematics products could adversely affect demand for these products and adversely affect our revenues.
 
The effectiveness of our telematics products is dependent, in part, on the inability of unauthorized persons to deactivate or otherwise alter the functioning of our telematics products or the vehicle anti-theft devices that work in conjunction with our telematics products. As sales of our telematics products increase, criminals in the markets in which we operate may become increasingly aware of our telematics products and may develop methods or technologies to detect, deactivate or disable our tracking devices or the vehicle anti-theft devices that work in conjunction with our telematics products. We believe that, as is the case with any product intended to prevent vehicle theft, over time, there may be an increased ability of unauthorized persons to detect, deactivate, disable or otherwise inhibit the effectiveness of our telematics products, although it is difficult to verify this fact. An increase in the ability of unauthorized persons to detect, deactivate, disable or otherwise inhibit the effectiveness of our telematics products could adversely affect demand for our products and adversely affect our revenues.
 
We rely on some intellectual property that we license from third parties, the loss of which could preclude us from providing our SVR services or market and sell some of our telematics products, which would adversely affect our costs, revenues and profitability.
 
We license from third parties some of the technology that we need in order to provide our SVR services and market and sell some of our telematics products. In the event that such licenses were to be terminated, or if such licenses were rendered unenforceable or invalid and we would not be able to license similar technology from other parties, it would require us, at a minimum, to obtain rights to a different technology and reconfigure our telematics products accordingly. In addition, some of the licenses we obtained from third parties are non-exclusive, which may enable other entities to obtain identical licenses from such third parties to operate in the places in which we conduct our business resulting in increased competition and could adversely affect our revenues. Our ability to sell some of our services and products depends upon the prior receipt and maintenance of various governmental licenses and approvals and our failure to obtain or maintain such licenses and approvals, or third-party use of the same licenses and frequencies, could result in a disruption or curtailment of our operations, a significant increase in costs and a decline in revenues.
 
We are required to obtain specific licenses and approvals from various governmental authorities in order to conduct our operations. For example, some of our telematics products use radio frequencies that are licensed and renewed periodically from the Ministry of Communications in Israel and similar agencies worldwide. As we continue to expand into additional markets, we will be required to obtain new permits and approvals from relevant governmental authorities. Furthermore, once our telematics infrastructure is deployed and our telematics end-units are sold to subscribers, a change in radio frequencies would require us to recalibrate all of our antennas and replace or modify all end-units held by subscribers, which would be costly and may result in delays in the provision of our SVR services. In addition, some of the governmental licenses for radio frequencies that we currently use may be preempted by third parties. In Israel, our license is designated as a “joint” license, allowing the government to grant third parties a license to use the same frequencies, and in Brazil our license is designated as a “secondary”, non-exclusive license, which allows the government to grant a third party a primary license to use such frequencies, which third-party use could adversely affect, disrupt or curtail our operations. Our inability to maintain necessary governmental licenses and frequency approvals, or third-party use of or interference with the same licenses or frequencies, could result in a significant increase in costs and decline in revenues and profitability.
 
3

Our SVR services business model is based on the existence of certain conditions, the loss or lack of which in existing or potential markets could adversely affect our revenues and our growth potential.
 
Our SVR services business model and, consequently, our ability to provide our SVR services and sell our telematics products, relies on our ability to successfully identify markets in which:
 
the rate of car theft or consumer concern over vehicle safety is high;
satisfactory radio frequencies are available to us for our RF technology, that allows us to operate our business in an uninterrupted manner; and
insurance companies, car manufacturers or car owners belief in the value of vehicles justifying incurring the expenses associated with the deployment of SVR services.
 
The absence of these conditions, our inability to locate markets in which these conditions exist or the loss of any one of these conditions in markets we currently serve could adversely affect our revenues generated in existing markets and our growth potential.
 
The loss of key personnel could adversely affect our business and growth prospects.
 
Our success depends upon the efforts and abilities of key management personnel, including our President and our Co-Chief Executive Officers. Loss of the services of one or more of such key personnel could adversely affect our ability to execute our business plan. In addition, we believe that our future success depends in part upon our ability to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel necessary for the development of our business. If one or more members of our management team or other key technical personnel become unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, and if additional key personnel cannot be hired and retained as needed, our business and growth prospects could be adversely affected.
 
We rely on third parties to manufacture our telematics products, which could affect our ability to provide these products in a timely and cost-effective manner, adversely impacting our revenues and profit margins.
 
We outsource the manufacturing of a significant part of our telematics products to third parties. We use manufacturers for production of our telematics products and we do not maintain significant levels of inventories to support us in the event of unexpected interruptions in the products manufacturing process. If our principal manufacturer or any of our other manufacturers is unable to or fails to manufacture our products in a timely manner, we may not be able to secure alternative manufacturing facilities without experiencing an interruption in the supply of our products or an increase in production costs. Any such interruption or increase in production costs could affect our ability to provide our telematics products in a timely and cost-effective manner, adversely impacting our revenues and profit margins.
 
We rely on two major suppliers to supply us with various products and software. Each of these suppliers supply us with different types of products and services and acts as single supplier of these products and services.
 
We rely on two major suppliers to supply us with various products and software, one of them is our subsidiary. Each of these suppliers supply us with different types of products and software and acts as the single supplier of these products and services.  Termination of relations with one of our major suppliers would adversely affect our operations and revenues.
 
We depend on the use of specialized quality assurance testing equipment for the production of our telematics products, the loss or unavailability of which could adversely affect our results of operations.
 
We and our third-party manufacturers use specialized quality assurance testing equipment in the production of our telematics products. The replacement of any such equipment as a result of its failure or loss could result in a disruption of our production process or an increase in costs, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
 
Cancellation of use of Generation 2.0 in Israel
 
In June 2021, The Israeli Ministry of Telecommunications decided that from January 2026, Generation 2.0 used by customers of Ituran in Israel will no longer be in operation. In June 2023, The Israeli Ministry of Telecommunication decided to postpone the implementation of this decision until January 2029, with the option to extend the service period until January 2030, subject to the preapproval of the Israeli Ministry of Telecommunications.
 
The adoption of industry standards that do not incorporate the technology we use may decrease or eliminate the demand for our services or products and could harm our results of operations.
 
There are no established industry standards in all of the businesses in which we sell our telematics products. For example, vehicle location devices may operate by employing various technologies, including network triangulation, GPS, satellite-based or network-based cellular or direction-finding homing systems. The development of industry standards that do not incorporate the technology we use may decrease or eliminate the demand for our services or products and we may not be able to develop new services and products that are in compliance with such new industry standards on a cost-effective basis. If industry standards develop and such standards do not incorporate our telematics products and we are unable to effectively adapt to such new standards, such development could harm our results of operations.
 
4

Expansion of our operations to new markets involves risks and our failure to manage such risks may delay or preclude our ability to generate anticipated revenues and may impede our overall growth strategy.
 
We anticipate future growth to be attributable to our business activities in new markets, particularly in developing countries, where we may encounter additional risks and challenges, such as longer payment cycles, potentially adverse tax consequences, potential difficulties in collecting receivables and potential difficulties in enforcing agreements or other rights in foreign legal systems. The challenges and risks of entering a new market may delay or preclude our ability to generate anticipated revenues and may impede our overall growth strategy.
 
Part of our services rely on GPS/GPRS-based technology owned and controlled by others, the loss, impairment or increased expense of which could negatively impact our immediate and future revenues from, or growth of, our services and adversely affect our results of operations.
 
Part of our business relies on signals from GPS/GPRS satellites built and maintained by third parties. If GPS/GPRS satellites become unavailable to us, or if the costs associated with using GPS/GPRS technology increase such that it is no longer feasible or cost-effective for us to use such technology, we will not be able to adequately provide our services. In addition, if one or more GPS/GPRS satellites malfunction, there could be a substantial delay before such satellites are repaired or replaced, if at all. The occurrence of any of the foregoing events could negatively impact our immediate and future revenues from, or growth of, our telematics services and adversely affect our results of operations.
 
Material cybersecurity failure may harm our operations, which rely on use of information technology and wireless transmission.
 
Our telematics and SVR services, relies on the use of information technology which under a major cyber security breach, could harm our operations. We are using physical services, wireless transmitting stations, GPRS/GPS, and in lesser account cloud computing to provide our services. There are risks associated with storing and transmitting data, which due to cyber security breach may be corrupted, and the store data on remote servers may be destroyed, damaged, seized, or otherwise no longer accessible, which may temporarily decrease our ability to deliver telematics and SVR services.
 
We implemented cyber security controls – which consists of three pillars: prevention, detection and response (data recovery in the event of a cyber breach). We perform an ongoing review of our systems and an annual external review of our cyber security controls and their implementation. However, such cyber security controls may not be able to prevent all unexpected weaknesses. In the event of a cyber-attack, we could experience the corruption or loss of data, misappropriation of assets or sensitive information, including customer information, or operational disruption. This could result in response costs and various financial loss and may subject us to litigation and cause damage to our reputation, for which we may not be covered under our current insurance policies and may lead to substantial loss of revenues.
 
Some of our employees in our subsidiaries in Brazil and Argentina are members of labor unions and a dispute between us and any such labor union could result in a labor strike that could delay or preclude altogether our ability to generate revenues in the markets where such employees are located.
 
Some of our employees in our subsidiaries in Brazil and Argentina are members of labor unions. If a labor dispute were to develop between us and our unionized employees, such employees could go on strike and we could suffer work stoppage for a significant period of time. A labor dispute can be difficult to resolve and may require us to seek arbitration for resolution, which arbitration can be time consuming, distracting to management, expensive and difficult to predict. The occurrence of a labor dispute with our unionized employees could delay or preclude altogether our ability to generate revenues in the markets where such employees are located.

Inflation and shortage of semiconductor supplies
 
In periods of shortages impacting the semiconductor industry during year 2022, we have placed and may continue to place non-cancellable inventory orders in advance of our historical lead times, and pay premiums and/or provide deposits to secure future supply and capacity. For example, while we previously placed orders with approximately six months’ lead time, we have begun placing orders at least twelve months in advance. Our inventory and purchase commitments reflect our demand expectations for our future quarters and long-term supply and capacity needs. However, we may not be able to accurately predict when such periods of shortage will end, nor do we know whether those inventory orders accurately address our current and future demand needs. These actions increased some of our product costs .If this shortage will sustain we may suffer same economic extra costs in the future.
 
During the year 2023, we have encountered growing inflation rates and growing interest rates in the main territories where we operate. This has caused additional costs to our financing and operations. This environment has a potential negative impact on our results,  as long as it sustains.
 
5

Regional or Global Health Pandemic
 
A regional or a global health pandemic, such as COVID-19, could severely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition due to impacts on our suppliers and customers, as well as impacts from remote work arrangements, actions taken to contain the disease or treat its impact and the speed and extent of the recovery.
 
We have not applied nor obtained for several of the permits required for the operation of some of our base sites. To the extent enforcement is sought, the breadth, quality and capacity of our network coverage could be materially affected.
 
The provision of our SVR services depends upon adequate network coverage for accurate tracking information. In Israel, we have installed 98 base sites that provide complete communications coverage in Israel. Similarly, we have communications coverage in Sao Paulo, Brazil (124 sites) and Buenos Aires, Argentina (37 sites). The installation and operation of most of our base sites require building permits from local or regional zoning authorities as well as a number of additional permits from governmental and regulatory authorities.
 
Currently most of our base sites in Israel and Brazil and some of our base sites in Argentina operate without local building permits or the equivalent. Although relevant authorities in Israel, Brazil and Argentina have not historically enforced penalties for non-compliance with certain permit regulations, following ongoing press coverage and actions by various public interest groups, relevant Israeli authorities have begun seeking enforcement of permit regulations, especially with respect to antennas constructed for cellular phone operators. Some possible enforcement measures include the closure or demolition of existing base sites or the imposition of limitation on the building of new base stations. Should these enforcement measures be imposed upon us in Israel, Brazil or Argentina, the extent, quality and capacity of our network coverage and, as a result, our ability to provide SVR services, may be adversely affected. In Israel we are in process of achieving compliance with the regulation of our base stations, this process can take several years .
 
Currency fluctuations may result in valuation adjustments in our assets and liabilities and could cause our results of operations to decline.
 
The valuation of our assets and liabilities, our revenues received, and the related expenses incurred are not always denominated in the same currency. This lack of correlation between revenues and expenses exposes us to risks resulting from currency fluctuations. These currency fluctuations could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, such currency fluctuations take place in several countries in which we operate which affects our operation results in these countries. In addition, fluctuations in currencies may result in valuation adjustments in our assets and liabilities which could cause our results of operations to decline.
 
RISKS RELATED TO OUR OPERATIONS IN ISRAEL
 
We are headquartered in Israel and therefore our results of operations may be adversely affected by political, economic and military instability in Israel.
 
Our headquarters are located in Israel and most our key employees, officers and directors are residents of Israel. Accordingly, security, political and economic conditions in Israel directly affect our business. Over the past several decades, a number of armed conflicts have taken place between Israel and its Arab neighbours. During the recent years Israel was engaged in an armed conflicts with a militant group and political party who controls the Gaza Strip. These conflicts involved missile strikes against civilian targets in various parts of Israel, including areas in which our employees and some of our consultants are located, and negatively affected business conditions in Israel.
 
On October 7th, 2023, Hamas terrorist organization has launched an horrific hostile military assault against Israel. Hamas has murdered 695 civilians, 373 soldiers and foreigners and kidnapped more than 230 into the Gaza Strip. On that day, where militant groups launched a surprise attack on southern Israel from the Gaza Strip, marking the start of a most significant military escalation in the region. After clearing Hamas militants, the Israeli retribution war actions against Hamas which started from October 8th with more than 250,000 Israeli soldiers recruited from reserve. ISRAELI military retaliated by conducting an extensive aerial bombardment campaign on Hamas targets, followed by a large-scale ground military act on Gaza. The aforementioned was also coupled with military actions taken on the Northern part of Israel against the Hasbullah from Lebanon. We were not significantly affected by the aforementioned hostile and military actions. Continued or increased hostilities, future armed conflicts, political developments in other states in the region or continued or increased terrorism could make it more difficult for us to conduct our operations in Israel, which could increase our costs and adversely affect our financial results.
 
6

Furthermore, there are number of countries, primarily in the Middle East, that still restrict business with Israel or Israeli companies and as a result our company is precluded from marketing its products in these countries. Restrictive laws or policies directed toward Israel or Israeli businesses could have an adverse effect on our ability to grow our business and our results of operations.
 
The Israeli government during year 2023 pursued extensive changes to Israel’s judicial system. This has sparked extensive political debate. In response to the foregoing developments, many individuals, organizations and institutions, both within and outside of Israel, have voiced concerns that the proposed changes may negatively impact the business environment in Israel, due to potential reluctance of foreign investors to invest or transact business in Israel, increased currency fluctuations, downgrades in credit rating, increased interest rates, increased volatility in securities markets, and other changes in macroeconomic conditions. To the extent that any of these negative developments occur, they may have an adverse effect on our business, our results of operations, or our ability to raise additional funds.
 
Under Israeli law, we are considered a “monopoly” and therefore subject to certain restrictions that may negatively impact our ability to grow our business in Israel.
 
We have been declared a monopoly under the Israeli Economy competition Law (formerly known as Restrictive Trade Practices Law, 1988) (the “Israeli Antitrust Law”), in the market for the provision of systems for the location of vehicles. Under Israeli law, a monopoly is prohibited from taking certain actions, such as predatory pricing and the provision of loyalty discounts, which prohibitions do not apply to other companies. The Israeli antitrust authority (under its new name - Competition Authority) may further declare that we have abused our position in the market. Any such declaration in any suit in which it is claimed that we engage in anti-competitive conduct would serve as prima facie evidence that we are a monopoly or that we have engaged in anti-competitive behaviour. Furthermore, we may be ordered to take or refrain from taking certain actions, such as set maximum prices, in order to protect against unfair competition. If we breach certain provisions of the Israeli Antitrust Law, including as a monopoly, the Israeli Competition authority may also impose on us in an administrative procedure, financial sanctions in an amount of up to the lower of NIS100 million (approximately US$27.6 million, according to the USD-NIS exchange rate, as of December 31, 2023) or 8% of our annual revenues for the last financial year prior to such breach. Restraints on our operations as a result of being considered a “monopoly” in Israel could adversely affect our ability to grow our business in Israel.
 
It may be difficult and costly to enforce a judgment issued in the United States against us, our executive officers and directors, or to assert United States securities laws claims in Israel or serve process on our officers and directors.
 
We are incorporated and headquartered in Israel. As a result, our executive officers and directors are non-residents of the United States and a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of these persons are located outside of the United States. Therefore, service of process upon any of these officers or directors may be difficult to effect in the United States. Furthermore, it may be difficult to enforce a judgment issued against us in the United States or any of such persons in both United States courts and other courts abroad.
 
Additionally, there is doubt as to the enforceability of civil liabilities under United States federal securities laws in actions originally instituted in Israel or in actions for the enforcement of a judgment obtained in the United States on the basis of civil liabilities in Israel.
 
Provisions of Israeli corporate and tax law may delay, prevent or otherwise encumber a merger with, or an acquisition of, our company, which could prevent a change of control, even when the terms of such transaction are favourable to us and our shareholders.
 
We may be subject to Israeli corporate law which regulates mergers, requires tender offers for acquisitions of shares above specified thresholds, requires special approvals for transactions involving directors, officers or significant shareholders and regulates other matters that may be relevant to these types of transactions. In addition, our articles of association contain, among other things, provisions that may make it more difficult to acquire our company, such as classified board provisions and certain restrictions on the members of our board pursuant to regulatory requirements of the Israeli Ministry of Communication. Furthermore, Israeli tax considerations may make potential transaction structures involving the acquisition of our company unappealing to us or to some of our shareholders. See Item 10.B. – “Memorandum and Articles of Association” - “Our Corporate Practices under the Israeli Companies Law” under the caption “Approval of Transactions under Israeli law” and Item 10.E. – “Taxation” under the caption “Israeli Tax Considerations” for additional discussion of some anti-takeover effects of Israeli law. These provisions of Israeli law and our articles of association may delay, prevent or otherwise encumber a merger with, or an acquisition of, our company or any of our assets, which could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of our company, even when the terms of such a transaction could be favourable to our shareholders.
 
7

The rights and responsibilities of our shareholders will be governed by Israeli law and may differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders under United States law.
 
We are incorporated under Israeli law. The rights and responsibilities of holders of our ordinary shares are governed by our memorandum of association, articles of association and by Israeli law. These rights and responsibilities differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders in typical US-based corporations. In particular, a shareholder of an Israeli company has a duty to act in good faith toward the company and other shareholders and to refrain from abusing his, her or its power in the company, including, among other things, in voting at the general meeting of shareholders on certain matters. Israeli corporate law has undergone extensive revisions in recent years and, as a result, there is little case law available to assist in understanding the implications of these provisions that govern shareholders’ actions, which may be interpreted to impose additional obligations on holders of our ordinary shares that are typically not imposed on shareholders of US-based corporations.
 
GENERAL RISKS RELATED TO OUR ORDINARY SHARES AND THE ECONOMY
 
Future sales of our ordinary shares could reduce the market price of our ordinary shares.
 
If we or our shareholders sell substantial amounts of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, the market price of our ordinary shares may decline.
 
The market price of our ordinary shares is subject to fluctuation, which could result in substantial losses for our investors.
 
The stock market in general, and the market price of our ordinary shares in particular, are subject to fluctuation, and changes in our share price may be unrelated to our operating performance. The market price of our ordinary shares has fluctuated in the past, and we expect it will continue to do so, as a result of a number of factors, including:
 
the gain or loss of significant orders or customers;
recruitment or departure of key personnel;
the announcement of new products or service enhancements by us or our competitors;
quarterly variations in our or our competitors’ results of operations;
announcements related to litigation;
changes in earnings estimates, investors’ perceptions, recommendations by securities analysts or our failure to achieve analysts’ earnings estimates;
developments in our industry; and
general market conditions and other factors unrelated to our operating performance or the operating performance of our competitors.
 
These factors and price fluctuations may materially and adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares and result in substantial losses to our investors.
 
Somewhat significant portion of our ordinary shares are held by a small number of existing shareholders and our articles of association provide for a staggered board, which may hinder change of control.
 
Moked Ituran Ltd. currently beneficially owns approximately 20.49% of our outstanding ordinary shares (not including treasury stock held by us). Other than applicable regulatory requirements under applicable law, Moked Ituran Ltd., is not prohibited from selling an interest in our company to a third party. In addition, our articles of association provide for a staggered board which may delay, prevent or deter a change in control. For additional information concerning our staggered board, see Item 6.A – Directors and Senior Management.
 
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U.S. investors in our company could suffer adverse tax consequences if we are characterized as a passive foreign investment company.
 
If, for any taxable year, our passive income or our assets that produce passive income exceed levels established by the Internal Revenue Code, we may be characterized as a passive foreign investment company, which we refer to as PFIC, for US federal income tax purposes. This characterization could result in adverse US tax consequences to our shareholders who are U.S. Holders. See Item 10.E. – “Taxation” under the caption “United States Tax Considerations” below, for more information about which shareholders may qualify as U.S. Holders. If we were classified as a PFIC, a U.S. Holder could be subject to increased tax liability upon the sale or other disposition of our ordinary shares or upon the receipt of amounts treated as “excess distributions”. Under such rules, the excess distribution and any gain would be allocated rateably over the U.S. Holder’s holding period for the ordinary shares and the amount allocated to the current taxable year and any taxable year prior to the first taxable year in which we were a PFIC would be taxed as ordinary income. The amount allocated to each of the other taxable years would be subject to tax at the highest marginal rate in effect for the applicable class of taxpayer for that year, and an interest charge for the deemed deferral benefit would be imposed on the resulting tax allocated to such other taxable years. In addition, U.S holders of shares in a PFIC may not receive a “step-up” in basis on shares acquired from a decedent. U.S. Holders should consult with their own U.S. tax advisors with respect to the United States tax consequences of investing in our ordinary shares as well as the specific application of the “excess distribution” and other rules discussed in this paragraph. For a discussion of how we might be characterized as a PFIC and related tax consequences, please see Item 10.E. – “Taxation” under the caption “United States Tax Considerations–Passive foreign investment company considerations”.
 
Securities we issue to fund our operations or in connection with acquisitions could dilute our shareholders ownership or impact the value of our ordinary shares.
 
We may decide to raise additional funds through a public or private debt or equity financing to fund our operations or finance acquisitions. If we issue additional equity securities, the percentage of ownership of our shareholders will be reduced and the new equity securities may have rights superior to those of our ordinary shares, which may, in turn, adversely affect the value of our ordinary shares.
 
Global and local economic downturns could reduce the level of consumer spending and available credit within the automobile industry, which could adversely affect demand for our products and services and negatively impact our financial results.
 
Current and future economic conditions could adversely affect consumer spending in the automobile industry, as such spending is often discretionary and may decline during economic downturns when consumers have less disposable income. Consequently, changes in general economic conditions resulting in a significant decrease in dealer automobile sales or in a tightening of credit in financial markets, such as the 2007 U.S. subprime mortgage crisis and resulting credit crunch, could adversely impact our future revenue and earnings. Such decreases could also affect the financial security of the automobile dealers and manufactures with whom we do business. The delayed payment from or closure of our larger dealer groups could affect our ability to collect on our receivables. Similar effects could result from local economic downturns in either one of our main markets of operations, i.e. Israel, Brazil and other regions which we operate. Given the volatile nature of the current market disruption, we may not timely anticipate or manage such existing or new risks. Our failure to do so could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
 
ITEM 4.
INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
 

A.
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY
 
Our History
 
Our legal name is Ituran Location and Control Ltd. We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Israel in 1994 as a subsidiary of Tadiran Ltd., an Israeli-based designer and manufacturer of telecommunications equipment, software and defence electronic systems, whose original business purpose was to adapt military-grade technologies for the civilian market.
 
We are mainly engaged in the area of Telematics services, consisting of stolen vehicle recovery, fleet management services, connected cars, UBI, and other tracking services. We also provide telematics products used in connection with our Telematics services and various other applications. We currently primarily provide our services and sell and lease our products in Israel, Brazil, and other regions where we operate. We also provide fleet management services in other countries through distributors.
 
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In May 1998, we completed the initial public offering of our ordinary shares in Israel and our ordinary shares began trading on the Tel-Aviv Stock Exchange. In September 2005, we publicly offered our ordinary shares in the United States. On May 25, 2016, we voluntarily delisted our shares from the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, and our ordinary shares are currently quoted only on Nasdaq under the symbol “ITRN”.
 
Our principal executive offices are located at 3 Hashikma Street, Azour 58001, Israel, and our telephone number is +972-3-557-1333. Our website address is www.ituran.com (the information contained therein or linked thereto shall not be considered incorporated by reference in this annual report). Our agent for service of process in the United States is Ituran USA Inc.1700 NW 64th ST. SUITE 100 Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309, and its telephone number is +1 (866) 543-5433.  As a company whose ordinary shares are registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), we report publicly to the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site (http:// www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
 
Principal Capital Expenditures
 
We had capital expenditures of $14.2 million in 2023, $26.5 million in 2022, and $16.6 million in 2021 primarily in Israel, Brazil and Mexico, consisting primarily of acquisitions of the operational equipment we use to provide. We financed our capital expenditures with cash flows generated from our operations.
 

B.
BUSINESS OVERVIEW
 
Overview
 
We believe we are a leading provider of telematics services, consisting predominantly of stolen vehicle recovery, fleet management services and other tracking services as well as connected car and usage base insurance (UBI). We also provide telematics products used in connection with our telematics services. We currently primarily provide our services and sell and lease our products in Israel, Brazil, and our other regions which we operate and also other regions through our distributers. We utilize technologies that enable precise and secure high-speed data transmission and analysis. Some of the technology underlying our products was originally developed for the Israeli Defence Forces in order to locate downed pilots.
 
We generate our revenues from subscription fees paid for our telematics services and from the sale and lease of our telematics products.
 
We describe below the principal markets in which we compete. For a breakdown of total revenues by category of activity and geographic market for each of the last three financial years, please see Item 5.A - Operating Results under the caption “Revenues”.
 
Telematics Services
 
In 2023, 73.3% of our revenues were attributable to our telematics services. As of December 31, 2023, we provided our services in Israel, Brazil, and other countries to approximately 814,000, 672,000 and 766,000 subscribers, respectively.
 
 We have direct agreements with two major car manufacturers and our products are embedded in their vehicles or otherwise approved by the car manufacturers. This connection requires us to meet the highest car manufacturer automotive standards.
 
Stolen vehicle recovery services
 
Our stolen vehicle recovery and tracking services, which we refer to as SVR services, enable us to locate, track and recover stolen vehicles for our subscribers. Our customers include individual vehicle owners who subscribe to our services directly, car manufacturers and insurance companies that either require their customers to install a security system or offer their customers financial incentives to subscribe to SVR services such as ours. In certain countries, insurance companies directly subscribe to our SVR services on behalf of their customers.
 
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Fleet management services
 
Our fleet management services enable corporate and individual customers to track and manage their vehicles in real time. Our services improve appointment scheduling, route management and fleet usage tracking, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing operating costs for our customers. We market and sell our services to a broad range of vehicle fleet operators and individual vehicle owners in different geographic locations and industries. As of December 31, 2023, we provided our services to approximately 477,000 end-users through corporate customers in countries where we operate directly and through 25,000 distributers.
 
Value-added services
 
The locator services that we offer allow customers to protect valuable merchandise and equipment. We currently provide locator services in Israel, Brazil, and other regions which we operate. In addition, through a call center, we provide 24-hour on-demand navigation guidance, information and assistance to our customers. Such services include the provision of traffic reports, help with directions and information on the location gas stations, car repair shops, post offices, hospitals and other facilities. We offer our concierge services to our subscribers in Israel, Brazil and other regions which we operate.
 
“Connected Car”- The service platform includes a back-office application, a telematics device installed in the vehicle, mobile apps for both IOS and Android and an interface using the car infotainment screen. Such services include information on car service history, information on some car systems, remote communication with the car in order to detect malfunctions, and to provide pre-emptive car maintenance alerts for both mechanical failures and operational issues such as a low tire pressure alert. The system also enables booking service appointments, both from the infotainment system interface in the system and from the user’s mobile app and additional related operational, and marketing services, as well as information analysis. “Connected Car” is operating in Israel, Brazil, and other regions which we operate.
 
“Usage Based Insurance” (UBI) – we have developed a unique product (hardware and software) that measure and analyse the driving behaviour in a verity of aspects by the driver, which enables insurance companies to offer a tailor -made and personalized insurance policy. The UBI has already been implemented and marketed by the majority of the insurance companies in Israel.
 
“Auto Financing” - A strong second-hand car market in many of our geographies in Latin America, and new fintech start-ups as well as banks enter this segment to provide the financing in this market. However, they need a provider of location-based and connected-car technology, such as Ituran, to monitor the car location and driver’s behaviour and thereby decrease the risk of the car loans they make in these markets..
 
Telematics Products
 
In 2023, 26.7% of our revenues were attributable to the sale of our telematics products. Our telematics products employ short - and medium-range communication between two-way wireless modems and are used for various applications, including automatic vehicle location, which we refer to as telematics products.
 
Our telematics products enable the location and tracking of vehicles, as well as assets, and are used by us primarily to provide SVR and fleet management services to our customers. Each subscriber to our services has our telematics end-unit installed in their vehicle. Subscribers to services for locating equipment and merchandise use our SMART and GPS/GPRS products.
 
Our Services and Products
 
Telematics services
 
Stolen vehicle recovery
 
Our stolen vehicle recovery system is based on three main components: a telematics end-unit that is installed in the vehicle, a network of base stations and a 24-hour manned control center. Once the control center receives indication of an unauthorized entry into a vehicle equipped with our telematics end-unit, our operators decide whether it is a false alarm or an actual unauthorized entry. If it is determined to be an unauthorized entry, or if a notification of the vehicle’s theft is received directly from the vehicle operator, our operators transmit a signal that activates the transmitter installed in the vehicle. We then pinpoint the location of the transmitter with terrestrial network triangulation technology or GPRS technology and notify the relevant law enforcement agency. In Israel, Brazil, and the other regions which we operate, we also maintain private enforcement units, which work together with local police to recover the vehicle. In addition, we have the capability to immobilize vehicles remotely from our control centers.
 
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Fleet management
 
We offer our customers the ability to use a comprehensive application for fleet management both by using an Internet site and workstations. Our system allows our customers 24-hour access to information on their fleets through our active control center and we are able to tailor our system to our customers’ specific needs.
 
Our solutions allow our subscribers to effectively manage and control their fleet, and thereby to reduce their operating costs, optimize work hours and appointment scheduling and improve their services and operations. Our system includes the following features:
 

the ability to locate the fleet’s vehicles;
 

continuous data communication with the fleet’s vehicles;
 

real-time vehicle status indicators: speed, distance driven, direction of travel, driver name, motion start/stop, engine start/stop, speeding, diagnostic alerts, driver behaviour and more;
 

recording of determined events and analysis of data over time to improve driving and vehicle use;
 

remote monitoring and processing of data, such as temperature control in refrigerated or chilled compartments, time stamp, tire pressure and heat and other complementary data;
 

connection to standard organization systems;
 

accident notification;
 

task management optimization.
 
Value-added services
 
Locator services. Our services allow consumers to protect valuable merchandise and equipment. We provide our locator services in Israel, Brazil, and other regions which we operate.
 
Concierge services and Connected car. Through a call center, we provide 24-hour on-demand navigation guidance, information and assistance to our customers. Such services include the provision of traffic reports, help with directions and information on the location of gas stations, car repair shops, post offices, hospitals and other facilities. We provide our concierge services to subscribers in Israel, Brazil and other regions which we operate.
 
“UBI” and “Connected Car”. We provide UBI services in Israel through seven insurance companies, and Connected Car services in Israel, Brazil, and other regions which we operate. For additional information on the service, see Item 4.B. – “Information on the Company “ - “Business Overview” under the caption “Telematics Services”
 
Telematics products
 
Our telematics products are used for various applications in the telematics markets and primarily in connection with our telematics services described above.
 
Our telematics products enable the location and tracking of vehicles, as well as assets or persons, and are primarily used by us in providing our telematics services. Each subscriber to our services has at least one of our end-units installed in his or her vehicle. Subscribers to services for locating persons or valuables will use our SMART and GPS/GPRS products. Our key telematics products for telematics applications include:
 
Base Site: a radio receiver, which includes a processor and a data computation unit to collect and send data to and from transponders and send that data to control centers as part of the terrestrial infrastructure of the location system;
 
Control Center: a center consisting of software used to collect data from various base sites, conduct location calculations and transmit location data to various customers and law enforcement agencies;
 
GPS/GPRS-based products: navigation and tracking devices installed in vehicles; and
 
SMART: a portable transmitter installed in vehicles (including motorcycles) that sends a signal to the base site, enabling the location of vehicles, equipment or an individual.

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Geographical Information
 
The following table lists the key services and products that we currently sell or lease in different regions of the world:
 
Country
 
Services offered
 
Products sold
Israel
 
 
SVR,
Fleet Management,
Value-added services, including:
Connected Car,
UBI
 
Telematics Products
         
Brazil
 
 
SVR,
Fleet Management,
Value-added services, including:
Connected Car
 
Telematics Products
 
 
 
 
 
Mexico, Ecuador, Colombia
 
SVR,
Fleet Management,
 
Telematics Products
 
 
Value-added services, including:
 
 
 
 
Connected Car
 
 
         
United States
 
SVR,
 
Telematics Products
 
 
Fleet Management,
 
 
 
 
Value-added services, including:
Asset protection to Auto Lenders
 
 
         
Argentina
 
 
SVR,
Fleet Management,
Value-added services, including:
Connected Car
 
Telematics Products
 
 
We maintain a control center in each of the countries listed above, which is operated 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. The following is a short description of key operating statistics about our telematics services in the countries in which we operate:
 
Israel: We commenced operations in Israel in 1995 and we had approximately 814,000 subscribers as of December 31, 2023. The operations in Israel were expended through M& A transactions with local companies (following the RTH Transaction) as well as organic growth. We operate throughout Israel in providing services through GPS/GPRS and RF based products and services.
 
Brazil: We commenced operations in Brazil in 2000 and we had approximately 672,000 subscribers as of December 31, 2023. The operations were expended through organic growth. We currently provide RF based products and services only in the metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo, Campinas, Americans and Rio de Janeiro. However, we operate throughout Brazil in providing GPS/GPRS based products and services.
 
Argentina: We commenced operations in Argentina in 2002. We currently provide to our current customers (not for new installations) RF based products and services only in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. However, we also operate throughout Argentina in providing GPS/GPRS based products and services.
 
United States: We commenced operations in the United States in 2000. We provide GPS/GPRS products and services throughout the United States.
 
Mexico: We acquired the operations in Mexico in September 2018 as part of the RTH Transaction. We currently provide GPS/GPRS based products and services.
 
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Ecuador: We acquired the operations in Ecuador in September 2018 as part of the RTH Transaction. We currently provide GPS/GPRS based products and services.
 
Colombia: We acquired the operations in Colombia in September 2018 as part of the RTH Transaction. We currently provide GPS/GPRS based products and services.
 
In all of the abovementioned countries (except for Israel and Brazil), and others, we had approximately 766,000 subscribers as of December 31, 2023.
 
Customers, Marketing and Sales
 
We market and sell our products and services to a broad range of customers that vary in size, geographic location and industry. No single customer or group of related customers comprised more than 10% of our total annual revenues in the last three years.
 
Our selling and marketing objective is to achieve broad market penetration through targeted marketing and sales activities. As of December 31, 2023, our selling and marketing team consisted of 103 employees.
 
(A) Telematics services
 
Stolen vehicle recovery
 
Our customers in the SVR market include insurance companies, car manufactures and individual vehicle owners. As of December 31, 2023, majority of our subscribers use SVR services.
 
Our marketing and sales efforts are principally focused on five target groups: insurance companies and agents, car manufacturers, dealers and importers, cooperative sales channels (mostly vehicle fleet operators and owners), private and fleet subscribers, and finance Institution.
 
We maintain marketing and sales departments in each geographical market in which we operate. Each department is responsible for maintaining our relationships with our principal target groups. These responsibilities also include advertising and branding, sales promotions and sweepstakes.
 
In Israel, we focus our marketing efforts on insurance companies and agents, dealers and importers, cooperative sales channels (mostly vehicle fleet operators and owners) and private subscribers.
 
In Brazil and Argentina our marketing and sales efforts are principally focused in all five target groups, as described above. In the United States, we believe that insurance companies do not constitute a material influence in the marketing of SVR services or telematics products.
 
Most of our sales in the United States are made through car dealerships and dealers for new or used vehicles and cooperative sales channels. In Mexico, Colombia and Ecuador we focus our marketing efforts on dealers and importers, cooperative sales channels (mostly vehicle fleet operators and owners), private subscribers and car manufactures.
 
Fleet management
 
Vehicle fleet management systems are primarily marketed through vehicle fleets’ departments, which form a part of our regional marketing departments. We conduct in-depth research to identify companies that will gain efficiency and cost savings through the implementation of our products and services and conduct targeted marketing campaigns to these companies. In addition, we participate in professional conventions and advertise in professional publications and journals designed for our target customers. Our customers in the fleet management market include small-, mid- and large-size enterprises and individuals. As of December 31, 2023, we provided our services to approximately end users through, 477,000 corporate customers and individuals in Israel, Brazil, Argentina, United States, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador and through distributers in other regions.
 
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Value-added services
 
“Concierge Services” - Our concierge services are provided to existing SVR customers. A few thousands SMART devices were installed in valuable merchandise and equipment.
 
“Connected Car”- The service platform includes a back-office application, a telematics device installed in the vehicle, mobile apps for both IOS and Android and an interface using the car infotainment screen. Such services include information on car service history, information on some car systems, remote communication with the car in order to detect malfunctions, and to provide pre-emptive car maintenance alerts for both mechanical failures and operational issues such as a low tire pressure alert. The system also enables booking service appointments, both from the infotainment system interface in the system and from the users mobile app, and additional related operational, and marketing services, as well as information analysis. ”Connected Car” is operating in Israel, Brazil, and other regions which we operate.
 
“Usage Based Insurance (“UBI”)” – we have developed a unique product (hardware and software) that measure and analyse the driving behaviour in a verity of aspects by the driver, which enables insurance companies to offer a tailor -made and personalized insurance policy. The UBI has already been implemented and marketed by the majority of the insurance companies in Israel, and we intend to accelerate its marketing and work with additional insurance companies in year 2023.
 
(B) Telematics products
 
Our telematics end-units are primarily used by us in providing our telematics services, including, SVR, fleet management, “Connected Car” and value-added services, at the regions we operate.
 
Competition
 
We face strong competition for our services and products in each market in which we operate. We compete primarily on technology edge, functionality, ease of use, quality, price, service availability, geographic coverage, track record of recovery rates and response times and financial strength.
 
(A) Telematics services
 
We compete with a variety of companies in each of our markets. The three major technologies utilized by our competitors are GPS/cellular, network-based cellular and radio frequency-based homing systems. In addition, new competitors utilizing other technologies may continue to enter the market.
 
Stolen vehicle recovery
 
Israel. Our primary competitors in Israel are Pointer and Skylock Ltd.
 
Brazil. Brazil is a highly fragmented market with many companies selling competing products and services (including immobilizers and other less-sophisticated vehicle security systems). Our main competitors in Brazil are Sascar, Zatix, CEABS, Car Systems, Sat-Company, 3S.
 
Argentina. Argentina is a highly fragmented market with many companies selling competing products and services (including immobilizers and other less-sophisticated vehicle security systems). Our main competitors in Argentina are LoJack Corporation, Pointer Argentina S.A., Prosegur S.A. and Megatrans S.A.
 
United States. In the United States, there are several major companies offering various theft protection and recovery products that compete with our product and service offerings, including LoJack Corporation, OnStar Corporation, Advantage GPS/Procon Analytics, Sarekon GPS, Calamp, Spireon (which also includes SysLocate and GoldStar), PassTime, Guide Point, Icon and I-Metrik SVR.
 
Colombia. Colombia is a highly fragmented market. Main companies operate under the satellite/cellular infrastructure. Our main competitors are LoJack Corporation (under Detekor Brand), Prosegur, SATRACK (Local Company).
 
Mexico. Mexico is a highly fragmented market in tracking and satellite location services, in which there are multiple companies dedicated to providing comprehensive satellite tracking, fleet management and vehicle recovery solutions with GPS technology through the marketing of similar devices and technologies to ours, highly specialized in fleet management. The direct competitors are LoJack Corporation, Encontrack S.A. and Pointer Recuperación S.A.
 
Ecuador. Ecuador is highly fragmented market. Main companies operate under the satellite/cellular infrastructure. Our main competitors are Hunter (Lojack Corporation), Tracklink and Carsync.
 
We believe that we are a leading provider of telematics services in Israel, as we are deemed a monopoly in this field; however, we are unable to provide specific market share information in the markets of our operations for various reasons, including the broad range of services and products that compete in these markets, the non-existence of trade publications with respect to the products and services we offer in such markets and the lack of meaningful or accurate market research or data available to us.
 
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Fleet Management
 
The vehicle fleet management market is highly fragmented with many corporations offering location products and services. Our major competitors are:
 

Israel: Pointer Telocation, ISR, Traffilog and Skylock;
 

United States: GPS Insight, Trimble, Network Fleet, Street Eagle, FleetMatics, Navtrack, Teletrac, Trim Track, FleetBoss, PassTime, Verizon, AT&T, Geotab, Fleet-Complete,Sprint, Zubie, and Spireon;
 

Brazil: Sascar, Zatix, CEABS, 3S and GolSat;
 

Argentina: LoJack Corporation, Megatrans S.A., Sitrac S.A., American Tracer, Ubicar S.A., Sky Cop. and YPF S.A.;
 

Mexico: LoJack Corporation, Encotrack, Easytrack, Geotab and Tracker;
 

Ecuador: Hunter (LoJack Corporation), Tracklink, Carsync and Sherlock;
 

Colombia: Satrack, Detector and Prosegur.
 
(B) Telematics products
 
Our telematics system for automatic vehicle location is based on terrestrial network triangulation technology and GPS/GPRS and primarily competes with companies that use one of three main technologies: GPS/GPRS (in combination with telematics), network-based cellular communication and radio frequency-based homing.
 
Telematics products based on GPS, network-based cellular and homing technologies do not require the construction of a separate infrastructure of base stations as with terrestrial network triangulation systems.
 
 GPS receivers require line of sight to at least three satellites, which reduces their effectiveness in areas where the satellite signals are subject to interference and “noise” (such as urban areas, buildings or parking garages, forests and other enclosed or underground spaces). GPS and network-based cellular systems are also prone to jamming since the tracking signal receivers are located in the vehicle and can be easily tampered with. In addition, the satellites utilized by GPS devices are managed by the United States Department of Defence and can be subject to forced temporary outages. The main disadvantage of homing systems is that they provide only the general direction and not the precise location of the end-unit. In addition, homing systems require that the vehicle be reported stolen before the tracking signal can be activated, which may result in a delay between vehicle theft and recovery.
 
The GPS technology can receive and transmit a massive capacity of data which enable us to provide a better data analysis and variety of additional services.
 
Terrestrial network triangulation system does not require line of sight and the signals are not easily interrupted in densely populated or obstructed areas. Also, the signals are transmitted from the end-unit in the vehicle to a network of base stations. Therefore, in order to jam the system, receivers in each individual base station within range of the end-unit would have to be jammed, which is difficult to accomplish. Additionally, since the primary application of terrestrial network triangulation systems in the telematics industry is vehicle location and not continuous two-way communication, short bursts of data are sufficient for tracking purposes, which enable the network of base stations to be deployed at a much lower density in the coverage area than traditional network-based cellular base stations. Terrestrial network triangulation systems are capable of determining the precise location, and not just the general direction, of a vehicle at any moment in time. Furthermore, when connected with the existing theft protection system in the vehicle, terrestrial network triangulation systems automatically alert the control center when a vehicle is stolen and do not require that the vehicle be reported stolen, which can potentially reduce stolen vehicle recovery times to a few minutes. The main disadvantage of terrestrial network triangulation systems is the necessity to deploy a physical infrastructure, including the construction, development and deployment of a network of base stations and a control center and the need to address the various financial, legal and practical issues associated with such deployment. Any such deployment entails an investment of a sizable amount of money prior to the receipt of any revenues.
 
Since our telematics end-units are primarily used by us in providing our telematics services, the information provided above concerning our competition in this market is applicable to the competition in the telematics products’ market as well.
 
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Manufacturing Operations and Suppliers
 
Our telematics products are manufactured and assembled by a limited number of manufacturers in Israel (including our subsidiary E.R.M) and in China. We engage with our manufacturers on a full turn-key basis, where we supply detailed production files and materials list and receive a final product that we sell directly to our clients. Other than our dependency on manufacturing suppliers, as described in Item 3D.  -“Risk Factors” above, we do not depend on a single manufacturer for the production of our products. Our quality assurance and testing operations are performed by our manufacturers at their facilities, while using our quality assurance and testing equipment and in accordance with the test procedures designated by us. We monitor quality with respect to key stages of the production process, including the selection of components and subassembly suppliers, warehouse procedures, assembly of goods, final testing, packaging and shipping. We are ISO 9001 certified. Some of our products are within the highest car manufacture automotive standard. We believe that our quality assurance procedures have been instrumental in achieving the high degree of reliability of our products. Due to the recent shortage of several components, prices of several components accelerated.
 
Several components and subassemblies included in our products are presently obtainable from a single source or a limited group of suppliers and subcontractors. We maintain strong relationships with our manufacturers and suppliers to ensure that we receive an adequate supply of products, components and raw materials at favourable prices and to access their latest technologies and product specifications.
 
Proprietary Rights
 
We seek to protect our intellectual property through patents, trademarks, contractual rights, trade secrets, know-how, technical measures and confidentiality, non-disclosure and assignment of inventions agreements and other appropriate protective measures to protect our proprietary rights in the primary markets in which we operate. The continued use of some licenses granted by third parties to use their intellectual property is material to our business. Please refer to Item 3D. – Risk Factors, under the caption “We rely on some intellectual property that we license from third parties, the loss of which could preclude us from providing our SVR services or market and sell some of our telematics products, which would adversely affect our revenues” above.
 
We typically enter into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with our employees and consultants. We also seek these protective agreements from some of our suppliers and subcontractors who have access to sensitive information regarding our intellectual property. These agreements provide that confidential information developed or made known during the course of a relationship with us is to be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties, except in specific circumstances.
 
Our stolen vehicle recovery system is based on three main components: (i) a telematics end-unit that is installed in the vehicle, (ii) (for RF technology based telematics units) a network of base stations that relay information between the vehicle location units and the control center, certain components of which were developed by third parties and are currently licensed to us and (iii) a 24-hour manned control center consisting of software used to manage communications and the exchange of information among the hardware components of the telematics system, certain components of which were developed by third parties and licensed to us.
 
“Ituran” and “Mr. Big” and the related logos are our trademarks, the former has been registered in Israel, Hong Kong and as a European Union and the latter has been registered in Israel. “Mapa” trademark and its related logos where sold as part of the sale of Mapa to an unrelated party to us.
 
Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Practices
 
As a global brand with material social and economic influence, we recognize that our success can only be built alongside the success of our stakeholders, including, our users, partners, and employees. We aim to achieve high ESG standards while continuing to develop our business and executing on our strategy.
 
We conduct our business activities and develop policies based on a firm commitment to ethical practices and corporate governance best practices. This includes the “code of business conduct and ethics” and anti-bribery/corruption area where we have a policy of zero tolerance for corruption. This also includes a “Whistle Blower” procedure whose purpose is to dissuade and to prevent illegal activity and conduct of business that may harm our good reputation. Our code of business conduct and ethics, and the Whistle Blower procedure are published in our website.
 
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We promote and support fair social and economic opportunities in the professional services global market. We recognize that there are systemic and cultural biases, caused by age, gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, or ability, and we know these biases can reduce the accessibility to opportunities on a global scale. It is our mission to reduce these accessibility gaps worldwide through our services, the programs we support, and the partners with whom we work. We invest resources into data privacy and how we can protect our users by, among other things, building key infrastructures and policies to safeguard the data on our platform and the privacy of our users.
 
We advance fairness and transparency in our workforce and we promote and implement fair labor practices and employees’ human rights throughout our organization. We respect data privacy relating to our employees. We act to prevent sexual harassment and workplace bullying. We also implement non-discriminatory hiring and promotion practices and actively pursue gender diversity in our workforce.
 
We value and celebrate diversity within our community. Our work environment seeks to foster an inclusive culture, where our employees feel challenged and in possession of the tools to thrive at work. We are continuously learning and looking at ways to continue to create an environment that is an inclusive place of work. Furthermore, we recognize the importance of environmental matters. In 2023 we received the “Great Place to Work” achievement.
 
In addition, we also have an “environmental policy”. This policy sets goals in terms of preserving the environment, raising employee’s awareness and developing and promotion products that will help our customers to save fuel and as a result to reduce waste, air pollution and gas emissions greenhouse. We also adopted a “Code of conduct of Ituran’s Suppliers and Agents” which sets high standards in choosing our suppliers, In terms of business honestly, ethically and quality drive. Our environmental policy and the Code of conduct of Ituran’s Suppliers and Agents our both published in our website at https://www.ituran.com/.
 
 Regulatory Environment
 
In order to provide our SVR services in the locations where we currently operate, we need to obtain four primary types of licenses and permits: (i) for our products utilizing the RF technology - a license that allows us to use designated frequencies for broadcasting, transmission or reception of signals and information and to provide telecommunication services to our customers, (ii) for our products utilizing the RF technology - a building permit, which permits us to erect our base sites and transmit therefrom, (iii) product specific licenses (commonly known as type approvals), which enable us to use the equipment necessary for our services, and (iv) a general commerce license, which allows us to offer our services to the public.
 
The telecommunication services and frequency license and general commerce licenses we require are granted by the applicable national agency regulating communications in the markets in which we operate, specifically, the Ministry of Communication, in Israel, Anatel. Agencia Nacional de Telecomunicatoes in Brazil. Modernization Ministry in Argentina and the Federal Communications Commission in USA. The product specific licenses we require are granted in Israel by the Ministry of Communication, in Brazil by IBRACE (the Instituto Brasileiro de Certificatao de Productos para Telecominicatoes), in Argentina by the Autoridad Federal de Tecnologias de la Información y las Comunicaciones, in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission, and Ministry of Information Technology and Communications and Regulatory Communications Commission in Colombia. In Mexico, the regulatory authority is the Federal Telecommunications Commission, however, because of the type of services we provide, we are not obligated entities; In Ecuador’s case, the regulatory body is the Telecommunications Regulatory and Control Agency, however, we are not subject to either.
 
In Brazil, the general commerce licenses, such as the city permits, are granted by the local municipalities and other specific entities, depending on the licenses required.
 
Our frequency licenses in all of the locations where we operate are “secondary” or “joint”, which means that the government may grant another person or persons, typically a cellular operator, a primary license to the same frequencies and, to the extent our operations interfere with the operations of the other person, we would have to modify our operations to accommodate the joint use of the frequencies. All of these licenses are also subject to revocation, alteration or limitation by the respective authority granting them. While any events that would cause us to change frequencies or to modify our operations could have a material adverse effect on us, we do not believe that this is a likely event in any of the locations where we provide our SVR services.
 
 Frequency license following new regulations since October 2022, there is no need any more for the extension of our frequency license, and registration with a specific registrar is sufficient. Our frequency licenses in Brazil will expire in 2034.  We have options to extend all of our frequency licenses for periods ranging from three- to ten-years. A renewal application in Brazil will be submitted 6 months before the frequency license expiration date, to provide us a new license for a period of ten (10) years. In Argentina, on July 15, 1999, the SECOM (Secretary of Communication dependent of Economy Ministry) granted us a license to provide services in a Secondary Band. On December 2015, SECOM was converted into the Modernization Ministry, with ENACOM (National Communication Entity) which is a decentralized entity that works within the scope of the Modernization Ministry.
 
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Nevertheless, our frequency is still authorized, there is a new entrant with ENACOM Authorization to provide LTE service. If this entrant starts the activity, we will face an incompatibility situation. We received the authorization from ENACOM to use a 12-month trial in Band 8 902-905/947-950 MHz bands additionally to our current frequencies. During this period, we will perform a test to obtain a definitive authorization. Due to the Covid-19 Pandemic we have not managed an extension to the trial period so as not to compromise future network development. We have decided to wait for a formal request from ENACOM to start again with this trial.
 
On December 9, 2016, we were informed that one of the cellular providers in Argentina, which shares some of our frequencies, intends to implement on them 4G cellular service. Such service may cause Interference that may impede the provision of our SVR service in Argentina. We are negotiating with ENACOM to define new frequency which we will migrate into. Subject to the applicable laws, and ENACOM decision, the migration process may take few years, and will be determined by ENACOM.
 
In Israel and Brazil, like our competitors and most cellular operators, we are not in compliance with all relevant laws and regulations in connection with the erection of transmission antennas (our base sites). As of the date hereof, most of our base sites in Israel and Brazil are operating without local building permits. Currently, there is heightened awareness of this issue in Israel, particularly in connection with base sites of cellular providers, and possible sanctions could include fines and even the closure or demolition of these base sites. In Brazil, Brazilian authorities enforce permit requirements and impose penalties for non-compliance with such requirements. However, we do not believe this is likely. Obtaining such required permits may involve additional fees as well as payments to the Land Administration Authority.
 
In Israel the required permits and approvals for the erection of the base sites include:
 
erection and operating permits from the Israeli Ministry of the Environment;
 
permits from the Israeli Civil Aviation Authority, in certain cases;
 
permits from the Israeli Defence Forces;
 
approval from Israel’s Land Administration and/or from Civil Administration in the Territories, which usually also involves payment for the land use rights; and
 
building permits from local or regional zoning authorities in Israel and Brazil.
 
In Brazil, very few providers of wireless telecommunications services obtain the required permits for the erection of transmission antennas due to the nature of the approval process. Currently we do not have such permits (except Anatel permits). In Brazil, we try to minimize our risk by locating most of our equipment in sub-leased sites which are already used by other telecommunication service providers, such as cellular operators.
 
In Brazil the required permits for the building of our base sites include:
 

a permit from Anatel (National Agency for Telecommunication)
 

a permit from IBAMA (Environment national agency) and/or state EPAs
 

municipal permits
 

a permit from the fire department; and
 

a permit from COMAR (aviation authorities).
 
ANATEL permits are required only for sites where we have transmission equipment and we have obtained all the permits required with this agency. Special IBAMA permits need to be obtained only for ground sites which are located in certain preservation areas. We have few sites of this kind, most of them are collocated sites where we pay for the right of use and permits are undertaken by the landowner. Fire Department permits are required only for equipment rooms and we have not applied for any as of this date. COMAR permits are needed only for a very few of our sites, most of which are collocated.
 
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In Argentina, the installation of an antenna support structure requires the authorization of the owner of the building or the land in which it is intended to be install. The Municipalities regulate through specific Municipal Ordinances are granting urban licenses for our base stations’ installation.
 
The regulation referred to the civil work of the support structure of the antenna, (masts / towers / anchors / bracing, etc.) is not the competence of ENACOM (National Communication Entity), so it cannot exercise jurisdiction over it. This situation is determined in articles 39, 40 and 41 of the National Law 19798/72, and in Resolution No. 795 CNT / 92, ratified by Resolution 302 SC / 99. Therefore, the claims and queries related to the installation, the deterioration or poor conditions or related to the support structures, should be addressed to the municipalities. It should be noted that the owner of a station in operation assumes responsibility for the works and accessory facilities that must be executed to install a radio station, attributing the technical responsibility of a civil work, to the designer and the director of the same, being this situation framed in what is established in articles 1273 and following of the Civil and Commercial Code of the Nation.
 
We are not in compliance with all relevant laws and regulations in connection with the erection of antennas; some of them in the past were demolished by Municipalities. As of the date hereof, most of our base sites operating without local Municipality permits, possible sanctions could include fines and even the closure of those sites. In Argentina authorities enforce permit requirements and impose penalties for non-compliance with such requirements. Obtaining such required permits may involve additional fees as well as payments to Municipality Authority.
 
We have been declared a monopoly under the Israeli Antitrust Law, 1988, in the provision of systems for the location of vehicles in Israel. This law prohibits a monopoly from abusing its market position in a manner that might reduce competition in the market or negatively affect the public. For instance, a monopoly is prohibited from engaging in predatory pricing and providing loyalty discounts, which prohibitions do not apply to other companies. The law empowers the Commissioner of Competition to instruct a monopoly abusing its market power to perform certain acts or to refrain from taking certain acts in order to prevent the abuse. Additionally, any declaration by the Israeli Competition authority that a monopoly has abused its position in the market may serve in any suit in which it is claimed that such a monopoly engages in anti-competitive conduct, as prima facie evidence that it has engaged in anti-competitive behaviour. Our declaration as a monopoly in the market of “provision of systems for the location of vehicles in Israel” was not accompanied with any instructions or special restrictions beyond the provisions of The Economic Competition Law. Although we may be ordered to take or refrain from taking certain actions, to date we have not been subject to such restrictions.
 
In Colombia we have to pay 2.2% on the annual gross income generated by the provision of our services to the Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications (MINTIC) for use of telecommunication spectrum (resolution 0290 MINTIC) and 0.1% to Commission Regulatory of Communications (CRC) in the same terms (resolution 5807 CRC).
 
In Ecuador and Mexico there are no levies imposed on our activities.
 
Other Investments
 
As part of our ongoing business we are engaged and encountered by many potential investments which may have correlation to our core business. The following are the main investments we have consummated during last seven years.
 
Bringg - On December 2013 the Company invested $1.4 million in Bringg delivery technologies Ltd. (formerly Overvyoo Ltd.), an Israeli start-up company developing solutions for the management of mobile/field workforce. On January and July, 2015, we invested additional amounts of $1.1 million and US$2 million, respectively. During the years 2015 - 2020, additional investors, which are not related to us, invested in Bringg a total amount of approximately $80 million, which reduced our capital share in Bringg. During 2021, Bringg, raised an additional $100 million, which sets Bringg’s valuation at $1 billion. Following such investment, we now hold 16.3% of Bringg’s share capital
 
SaverOne Ltd - On March 2017, we invested an amount of $0.9 million in SaverOne 2014 Ltd., an Israeli start-up company developing a system that aims to reduce the occurrence of road accidents by preventing the use of distracting mobile apps while driving (The system prevents the driver from using texting applications while the vehicle is in motion, leaving other passengers unaffected).
 
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During the years 2017 – 2021 we invested additional amount of approximately $0.8 million.
 
On June 2020 SaverOne have consummated public registration on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (TASE) and thus its shares became equity investment with readily determinable fair value. We now hold approximately 1.2% of SaverOne’s share capital.
 
In June 2022, SaverOne completed in initial public offering on the Nasdaq Capital Market (Symbol: SVRE). As of December 31, 2023, the fair value of our investment in SaverOne is approximately US$0.1 million.
 
C.            ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
 
In July 1995, Moked Ituran Ltd. purchased our company and the assets used in connection with our operations from Tadiran and Tadiran Public Offerings Ltd. In September 2018, we acquired a majority of the shares of Road Track, a telematics company operating primarily in the Latin American region.
 
List of Significant subsidiaries:
 
Name of Subsidiary
 
Country of Incorporation
 
Proportion of Ownership Interest
 
 
 
 
 
Ituran USA Holdings Inc          
 
USA
 
100%
Ituran USA Inc          
 
USA
 
85.80%
Ituran de Argentina S.A.
 
Argentina
 
100%
Ituran Sistemas de Monitoramento Ltda          
 
Brazil
 
98.75%
Ituran Instalacoes Ltda          
 
Brazil
 
98.75%
Teleran Holding Ltda          
 
Brazil
 
99.99%
Ituran servicos Ltda          
 
Brazil
 
98.75%
E.R.M. Electronic Systems Limited          
 
Israel
 
49.5%1
Mapa Mapping & Publishing Ltd          
 
Israel
 
100%
Ituran Spain Holding S.L          
 
Spain
 
100%
Ituran Road Track Monitaramento de Veiculos LTDA          
 
Brazil
 
100%
Ituran Road Track Argentina, S.A.
 
Argentina
 
100%
Global Telematics Solutions HK, Limited          
 
Hong Kong
 
100%
Road Track De Colombia S.A.S          
 
Colombia
 
100%
Road Track Ecuador, S.A.          
 
Ecuador
 
100%
Ituran Chile S.A.
 
Chile
 
100%
Ituran Uruguay S.A.S
 
Uruguay
 
100%
Road Track Mexico S.A. De C.V          
 
Mexico
 
100%
Road Track HK Telematics Limited          
 
Hong Kong
 
100%
E.D.T.E – Drive Technology Ltd          
 
Israel
 
100%
Ituran Tech Ltd          
 
Israel
 
100%
 
  D.
PROPERTY, PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT
 
As of the date of this annual report, we own and lease the following properties: An office building of eight floors (approximately 5,356 sqm (57,651 square feet)), which was purchased by our subsidiary Ituran Sistemas de Monitoramento Ltda (Ituran Brazil) in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and was later, on December 3, 2014 sold to Ituran Location and Control Ltd, A building located in Rua Joao pessoa 450, Sao Caetano do Sul, Estado de Sao Paulo in Sao Paulo, Brazil in the area of approximately 36,936 square feet which was purchased by our subsidiary Ituran Road Track Monitoramento de Veiculos, Ltda which serve as an Operating center, A building located in Avenida del Taller No.36 Col. Transito in Mexico in the area of approximately 21,132 square feet which was purchased by our subsidiary Road Track Mexico, S.A de C.V which serve as an Operating center, a building located in Manuel Najas Oel 81 and Juan de Selis in Quito, Ecuador in the area of approximately 24,176 square feet which was purchased by our subsidiary Road Track Ecuador, S.A which serve as an Operating center, and a building located in Keren Ha’ Yesod 15,
 
Tirat Ha’Carmel, Israel at the area of approximately 5,025 square feet which was purchased by our subsidiary E.D.T.E – Drive Technology Ltd which serve as an office space and a warehouse.

                                                              
1 The proportion of voting power is 51%
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Other than the property in Brazil, Ecuador and Mexico and Israel, all of our offices, headquarters, control centers and facilities are leased in accordance with our specific needs in the areas in which we operate. Additionally, we lease space for our base sites, in order to operate the reception and transmission stations of the system, in each area in which we provide our SVR services.
 
In 2023 we leased an aggregate of approximately 66,580 square feet of office space in Azour and Holon, Israel. In 2023, the annual lease payments for these facilities were approximately 1,301,000. The lease ends by April 2029. These premises include our executive offices and the administrative and operational centers for our operations as well as our customer service, value-added services and technical support centers and warehouse for the Israeli market. We also lease 1,000 square feet for a warehouse in Tirat Ha’Carmel for $20,000 annually.
 
In Buenos Aires, Argentina, we lease approximately 2,723 square feet for office space for the total amount of AR$23,855,632 ($80,808) annually, approximately 9,188 square feet for our control center (C3) and Data Center for AR$6,685, 000 ($22,644) annually and approximately 1,500 square feet for our warehouse for AR$2,442,347 ($8,273) annually.
 
In Bogota, Colombia, we lease approximately 9,035 square feet for office space and Operating center for the amount of $71,320 annually.
 
In Mexico City, Mexico, we lease a warehouse for the amount of $3,000 annually.
 
We leased approximately 12,916 square feet of office space, stores and warehouse in Brazil for approximately 264,000 ($56,000) Brazilian Real annually. The lease agreements will expire and will have to be renewed on August 21, 2026 and December 2024, as applicable to each engagement.
 
In Guayaquil, Ecuador, we lease approximately 7,828 square feet for Warehouse for the amount of $30,000 annually. In Quito, Ecuador, we lease approximately 3,229 square feet for Warehouse for the amount of $11,700 annually. In Cuenca, Ecuador, we lease approximately 538 square feet for Warehouse for the amount of $3,521 annually. .
 
We leased approximately 9,260 square feet for our offices and control center in Florida for an amount of $171,000 annually, the lease term automatically extends for periods of one month from March 31 2023, and for each additional month thereafter until the tenant provides the landlord written notice that it intends to vacate the premises with 6 months notice.
 
We believe that our facilities are suitable and adequate for our operations as currently conducted. In the event that additional facilities will be required, we believe that we could obtain such facilities at commercially reasonable rates.

The size of our base station sites varies from approximately 11 to 44 square feet. In Israel, we have 98 base stations and we rent most base station sites independently for a monthly rate ranging from $200 to $2,200 per site depending on the location, size and other factors; for certain sites we do not pay any rent. The typical duration of a lease agreement for our base stations in Israel is five years and we generally have a right to renew the term of the lease agreements for a period ranging between two and five years. In Brazil, we have 144 base station sites, of which 20 sites are leased from the same entity under a 15 year-contract, (commencing from 2012) for a monthly rate ranging from $500 to $1,750 per site. The remaining 124 sites are leased independently for an annual rate ranging from $200 to $550 depending on the location, size and other factors, and the typical duration for these leases is five years. In Argentina, we have 37 base station sites, all of which are leased from six entities for a monthly rate ranging from $215 to $930 per site. The duration of the lease ranges from one to two years.
 
We do not believe that we have a legal retirement obligation associated with the operating leases for our base sites pursuant to the relevant accounting standards, since we do not own any real property. However, we are obligated pursuant to certain of the operating leases for our base sites, mainly for base sites in Israel, Brazil and Argentina, to restore facilities or remove equipment at the end of the lease term. Since the restoration is limited to any construction or property installed on the property, which in our case is only the installed antennas, we do not believe that these obligations, individually or in the aggregate, will result in us incurring a material expense.
 
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ITEM 4. A.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
None.
 
ITEM 5
OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS
 

A.
OPERATING RESULTS
 
The information contained in this section should be read in conjunction with our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 and related notes and the information contained elsewhere in this annual report. Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties. As a result of many factors, such as those set forth under “ITEM 3.D. Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements. For a discussion and analysis of our results of operations for 2022 compared to 2021, refer to Part I, Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects, in our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, which was filed with the SEC on April 19, 2023.
 
Outlook
 
We have historically sold our services and products in Israel and Brazil with a presence in other primarily emerging markets.  In 2023, we experienced revenue growth in most of the markets in which we provide our telematics services. These markets, which are the main markets that we operate in, are generally characterized by high car theft rates, insurance companies and car manufactures that are seeking solutions to limit their actual losses resulting from car theft and increasing their sales by adding additional value to the customer.  As a result, we believe the Brazilian market continues to provide growth potential for our telematics services. The growth in subscribers within our telematics services segment also has a direct impact on the sale or lease of our telematics products, as they are an integral component of our telematics services and are installed in each subscriber’s vehicle. In Israel, in recent years the market experienced increased levels of car sales which positively affected our sales as compared with previous years.
 
Geographical breakdown
 
Telematics services’ subscriber base
 
The following table sets forth the geographic breakdown of subscribers to our telematics services as of the dates indicated:
 
   
2023
   
2022
   
2021
 
Israel
   
814,000
     
738,000
     
653,000
 
Brazil
   
672,000
     
558,000
     
453,000
 
Others
   
766,000
     
770,000
     
775,000
 
 
                       
Total(1) 
   
2,252,000
     
2,066,000
     
1,881,000
 
 
(1) All numbers provided are rounded, and therefore totals may be slightly different than the results obtained by adding the numbers provided.
 
Revenues
 
The following table sets forth the geographic breakdown of our revenues for each of our business segments for the relevant periods indicated.
 
 
 
2023
   
2022
   
2021
 
 
 
Telematics
services
   
Telematics
products
   
Telematics
services
   
Telematics
products
   
Telematics
services
   
Telematics
products
 
Israel
   
104.4
     
49.9
     
103.3
     
48.0
     
96.5
     
44.1
 
Brazil
   
83.8
     
2.0
     
66.7
     
2.4
     
55.2
     
2.6
 
Others
   
46.4
     
33.5
     
39.6
     
33.1
     
37.9
     
34.6
 
 
                                               
Total(1)
   
234.6
     
85.4
     
209.6
     
83.5
     
189.6
     
81.3
 
 
(1) We attribute revenues to countries based on the location of the customer.
 
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Telematics services segment
 
We generate revenues from rendering our SVR, fleet management connected car, UBI and other value-added services. A majority of our revenues represent subscription fees paid to us by our customers. We recognize revenues from subscription fees on a monthly basis. Most of our customers are free to terminate their subscription at any time. In the absence of such termination, the subscription term continues automatically. We also generate subscription fees from our fleet management services. Assuming no additional growth in our subscriber base and based on our historical average churn rates of 3% per month in this segment, we can anticipate that at least 90% of our subscription fees generated in a prior quarter will recur in the following quarter.
 
Telematics products segment
 
We generate revenues from sale of our telematics products to customers in Israel, Brazil, and other regions which we operate. We currently sell or lease our telematics end-units in each of the above regions. Growth in our subscriber base is the principal driver for the sale of our telematics products. We recognize revenues from sales of our telematics products upon transfer of control to the customer (usually upon delivery).
 
Cost of revenues
 
Telematics services segment
 
The cost of revenues in our telematics services segment consists primarily of staffing, maintenance and operation of our control centers and base stations, costs associated with our staff and costs incurred for private enforcement, licenses, permits and royalties, as well as communication costs and costs due to depreciation of leased products and installation fees. Cost of revenues for sales of our fleet management services also includes payments to a third party who markets our services.
 
Telematics products segment
 
The cost of revenues in our telematics products segment consists primarily of the cost of unit of our manufacturers and costs associated with installation fees.
 
Operating expenses
 
Research and development
 
Our research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries, costs of materials and other overhead expenses, primarily in connection with the design and development of our telematics products and software solutions. We expense some of our research and development costs as incurred. Subject to certain criteria we capitalize software development costs. For further information see Note 1S to our consolidated financial statements.
 
Selling and marketing
 
Our selling and marketing expenses consist primarily of advertising, salaries, commissions and other employee expenses related to our selling and marketing team and promotional and public relations expenses.
 
General and administrative
 
Our general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries, bonuses, accounting and other general corporate expenses.
 
Operating Income
 
Telematics services segment
 
Operating income in our telematics services segment is primarily affected by increases in our subscriber base and our ability to increase the resulting revenues without a commensurate increase in our corresponding costs.
 
Telematics products segment
 
Operating income in our telematics products segment is primarily affected by our ability to increase sales of our telematics products.
 
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Financing expenses (income), net
 
Financing income (expenses), net ,include, inter alia ,short-term and long-term interest expenses, financial commissions, income (expenses) in respect of changes in obligation to purchase non-controlling interests ,and gains (losses) from currency fluctuations from the translation of monetary balance sheet items denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of each entity in the group, gains (losses) in respect of marketable securities and other investments, and expenses related to tax positions.
 
Taxes on income
 
Income earned from our services and product sales is subject to tax in the country in which we provide our services or from which we sell our products.
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
Our critical accounting policies are more fully described in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this report. However, certain of our accounting policies require us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We evaluate our estimates on a periodic basis. We base our estimates on historical experience, industry trends, authoritative pronouncements and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Such assumptions and estimates are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty.
 
The following are our critical accounting policies and the significant judgments and estimates affecting the application of those policies in our consolidated financial statements. See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report.
 
Revenue recognition
 
We and our subsidiaries generate revenue from subscriber fees for the provision of services and sales of systems and products, mainly in respect of fleet management services, stolen vehicle recovery services and other value-added services. To a lesser extent, revenues are also derived from technical support services. We and our subsidiaries sell the systems primarily through their direct sales force and indirectly through resellers.
 
Revenue recognition accounting policy applied from January 1, 2018 (following the adoption of ASC Topic 606);
 
We apply ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”)  to all contracts, using the modified retrospective method.
 
In accordance with ASC 606, we determine revenue recognition through the following five steps:
 

Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer;
 

Identification of the performance obligations in the contract;
 

Determination of the transaction price;
 

Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
 

Recognition of revenue when, or as, we satisfy a performance obligation.
 
A contract with a customer exists when all of the following criteria are met: the parties to the contract have approved it (in writing, orally, or in accordance with other customary business practices) and are committed to perform their respective obligations, we can identify each party’s rights regarding the distinct goods or services to be transferred (“performance obligations”), we can determine the transaction price for the goods or services to be transferred, the contract has commercial substance and it is probable that we will collect substantially all of the consideration to which it will be entitled in exchange for the goods or services that will be transferred to the customer.
 
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For each type of contract, at inception, we assess the goods or service promised in a contract with a customer and identifies the performance obligations. With respect to contracts that are determined to have multiple performance obligations, such as contracts that combine product with services (mostly SVR services) and/or rights to use assets, we allocate the contract’s transaction price to each performance obligation using either its best estimate of the relative standalone selling price of each distinct good or service in the contract. The primary method used to estimate the relative standalone selling price is expected costs of satisfying a performance obligation and an appropriate margin for that distinct good or service. or when applicable we use the residual approach (an entity under certain conditions may estimate the standalone selling price by reference to the total transaction price less the sum of the observable standalone selling prices of other goods or services promised in the contract).  However, when applicable (see below), we estimate the selling prices of certain services using the residual approach. Revenues are recognized when, or as, control of services or products is transferred to the customers at a point in time or over time, as applicable to each performance obligation.
 
Revenues are recorded in the amount of consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for performance obligations upon transfer of control to the customer, excluding amounts collected on behalf of other third parties and sales taxes.
 
We do not adjust the amount of consideration for the effects of a significant financing component since we expect, at most contracts’ inception, that the period between the time of transfer of the promised goods or services to the customer and the time the customer pays for these goods or services to be generally one year or less, based on the practical expedient. Our credit terms to customers are, on average, between thirty and ninety days.
 
Contingencies
 
We and our subsidiaries are involved in certain legal proceedings that arise from time to time in the ordinary course of their business and in connection with certain agreements with third parties. Except for income tax contingencies, we records accruals for contingencies to the extent that the management concludes that the occurrence is probable and that the related liabilities are estimable. Legal expenses associated with contingencies are expensed as incurred.
 
Goodwill and intangible assets
 
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired in business combinations accounted for in accordance with the “purchase method” and is allocated to reporting units at acquisition.  Goodwill is not amortized but rather tested for impairment at least annually in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 350, “Intangibles - Goodwill and Other”.
 
We elected to perform the goodwill annual impairment test for its operating units as follows: the entire balance of goodwill (an amount of approximately 39.4 million (as of December 31, 2023) relates to four different reporting units . is tested for impairments on December 31, each year or more often.
 
As required by ASC Topic 350, we choose either to perform a qualitative assessment whether the quantitative goodwill impairment test is necessary or proceeds directly to the quantitative goodwill impairment test. Such determination is made for each reporting unit on a stand-alone basis. The qualitative assessment includes various factors such as macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors, overall financial performance, earnings multiples, gross margin and cash flows from operating activities and other relevant factors. When we choose to perform a qualitative assessment and determines that it is more likely than not (more than 50 percent likelihood) that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, then we proceed to the quantitative goodwill impairment test. If we determine otherwise, no further evaluation is necessary.
 
With respect to goodwill impairment tests performed before the adoption of ASU 2017-04 (which became effective for annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15,2019), when we decided or were required to perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test, we firstly were required to compare the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value (“step 1”). If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeded the carrying value of the reporting unit net assets (including the goodwill allocated to such reporting unit), goodwill was considered not to be impaired, and no further testing was required. If the carrying value was determined to exceed the fair value of the reporting unit, then the implied fair value of goodwill was determined by subtracting the fair value of all the identifiable net assets from the fair value of the reporting unit. An impairment loss was recorded for the excess, if any, of the carrying value of the goodwill allocated to the reporting unit over its implied fair value (“step 2”).
 
Commencing fiscal 2022,upon  the adoption of ASU 2017-04 (which eliminated Step 2 from the goodwill impairment, when we decide or are required to perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test, we compare the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value and an impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value, if any. In the performance of the quantitative analysis, we apply assumptions that market participants would consider in determining the fair value of each reporting unit.
 
As of December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, we had four reporting units which include goodwill.
 
26

Telematics services:
 
Under the telematics services segment there are two reporting units with goodwill. For one of which (resulted from past acquisitions) with an allocated amount of approximately US$1.7 million of goodwill, we performed a qualitative assessment as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and concluded that the qualitative assessment did not result in a more likely than not indication of impairment, and therefore no further impairment testing was required, with respect to such units.
 
For the second reporting unit (resulted from RT acquisition from year 2018:“RT acquisition”) with an allocated amount of approximately US$32.3 million of goodwill (as of December 31, 2023), we performed the annual impairment test, as of December 31, 2023, and reached to a conclusion that no impairment should be recorded at that point.
 
We have historically performed an annual goodwill assessment for such reporting unit as of June 30 of each year or more often if indicators of impairment are presented. following the second closing of the RT acquisition, we decided to change the date of its annual impairment assessment from June 30 to December 31.
 
We performed a qualitative assessment as of December 31, 2023, and concluded that the qualitative assessment did not result in a more likely than not indication of impairment, and therefore no further impairment testing was required, with respect to such units.
 
Telematics products:
 
Under the telematics products segment there are two reporting units with goodwill, for one of which (resulted from past acquisitions) with an allocated amount of approximately 2.0 US$ of goodwill, we performed a qualitative assessment as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and concluded that the qualitative assessment did not result in a more likely than not indication of impairment, and therefore no further impairment testing was required, with respect to such units.
 
For the second reporting unit (resulted from RT acquisition) with an allocated amount of approximately US$3.5 million of goodwill (as of December 31, 2023), we performed the annual impairment test, as of December 31, 2023, and reached to a conclusion that no impairment should be recorded at that point. We have historically performed an annual goodwill assessment as of June 30 of each year or more often if indicators of impairment are presented. following the second closing of the RT acquisition, we decided to change the date of its annual impairment assessment from June 30 to December 31. We performed a qualitative assessment as of December 31, 2023, and concluded that the qualitative assessment did not result in a more likely than not indication of impairment, and therefore no further impairment testing was required, with respect to such unit.
 
27

Results of Operations
 
The following table sets forth for the periods indicated selected items from our consolidated statements of income as a percentage of our total revenues.
 
Consolidated statements of operations data:
 
2023
   
2022
   
2021
 
Revenues:
                 
Telematics services          
   
73.3
     
71.5
     
70.0
 
Telematics product          
   
26.7
     
28.5
     
30.0
 
Total Revenues          
   
100
     
100
     
100
 
Cost of Revenues:
                       
Telematics services          
   
30.8
     
30.8
     
30.8
 
Telematics products          
   
21.3
     
22.3
     
22.0
 
Total cost of revenues          
   
52.1
     
53.1
     
52.8
 
Gross profit          
   
47.9
     
46.9
     
47.2
 
Operating Expenses:
                       
Research and development expenses          
   
5.3
     
5.7
     
5.2
 
Selling and marketing Expenses          
   
4.3
     
4.5
     
4.9
 
General and administrative expenses, net          
   
17.7
     
16.6
     
17.0
 
Impairment of goodwill          
   
--
     
-
     
-
 
Impairment of intangible assets and other expenses (income), net
   
--
     
-
     
(0.1
)
Total operating expenses          
   
27.3
     
26.8
     
27.0
 
Operating Income          
   
20.6
     
20.1
     
20.2
 
Other income expenses, net          
   
-
     
-
     
(0.1
)
Financing income, net          
   
(0.5
)
   
(2.0
)
   
(2.0
)
Income before income tax          
   
20.1
     
18.1
     
18.1
 
Income tax          
   
(4.2
)
   
(4.4
)
   
(4.4
)
Share in gains (losses) of affiliated companies, net          
   
(0.2
)
   
(0.2
)
   
(0.1
)
Net income for the year          
   
15.7
     
13.5
     
13.6
 
Less: net income attributable to non-controlling interests
   
(0.7
)
   
(0.8
)
   
(1.0
)
Net income attributable to company stockholders          
   
15.0
     
12.7
     
12.6
 
 
Analysis of our Operation Results for the Year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the Year ended December 31, 2022
 
Revenues
 
Total revenues increased from $293.1 million in 2022 to $320.0 million in 2023 or 9%. This increase consisted of an increase of $25.0 million from subscription fees from our telematics services and an increase of $1.9 million from sales of our telematics products.
 
Telematics services segment
 
Revenues in our telematics services segment increased by $25.0 million from $209.6 million in 2022 to $234.5 million in 2023, or 12%.  The increase was mainly due to an increase in our average annual number of subscribers from 1,996,000 in 2022 to 2,186,000 in 2023.
 
28

Telematics products segment
 
Revenues in our telematics products segment increased from $83.5 million in 2022, to $85.4 million in 2023 or 2 %. This increase of $1.9 million was primarily due to an increase in the quantity of units’ sales.
 
Cost of revenues
 
Total cost of revenues increased from $155.5 million in 2022, to $166.8 million in 2023 or 7 %. This increase consisted of an increase of $8.6 million in the telematics services segment and an increase of $2.7 million in the telematics product segment. As a percentage of total revenues, cost of revenues decreased slightly from 53.0% in 2022 to 52.1% in 2023.
 
Telematics services segment
 
Cost of revenues for our telematics services segment increased from $90.1 million in 2022, to $98.7 million in 2023 or 9.5%. This increase was primarily due to an increase in salary expenses of approximately $2.0 million, an increase in depreciation and amortization expenses of approximately $1.7 million and increase in installation and communication costs expenses of approximately $4.5 million. As a percentage of total revenues for this segment, cost of revenues decreased from 43% in 2022 to 42.1% in 2023.
 
Telematics products segment
 
Cost of revenues for our telematics products segment increased from $65.4 million in 2022, to $68.1 million in 2023 or 4.2%. This increase was mainly due to the increase in our products’ sales and the change in the mixture of products sales. As a percentage of total revenues for this segment, cost of revenues increased from 78.3 % in 2022, to 79.7% in 2023.
 
Operating expenses
 
Research and development.
 
Our research and development expenses increased from $16.8 million in 2022 to $17.0 million in 2023. As a percentage of total revenues, research and development expenses decreased from 5.7% in 2022 to5.3% in 2023.
 
Selling and marketing
 
Our selling and marketing expenses increased from $13.3 million in 2022 to $13.6 million in 2023. As a percentage of total revenues, selling and marketing expenses decreased from 4.5 % in 2022 to 4.3% in 2023.
 
General and administrative
 
General and administrative expenses increased from $48.7 million in 2022, to $56.6 million in 2023 or 16.3%. The increase was mainly due to an increase in salary expenses of approximately $4.6 million and an increase in expenses related to returning to work in offices in amount of $1.3 million. As a percentage of total revenues, general and administrative expenses increased from 16.6% in 2022 to 17.7 % in 2023.
 
Operating income
 
Total operating income increased from $58.8 million in 2022, to $66.0 million in 2023 or 12.2%. This increase of approximately $7.2 million reflects an increase of $8.8 million in the operating income in the telematics service segment and a decrease of $1.6 million in the operating loss in the telematics products segment.
 
Telematics services segment
 
Operating income in our telematics services segment increased from $56.3 million in 2022 to $65.0 million in 2023, or 15.5%. This increase was mainly attributed to the increase of our average base of subscribers from 1,974,000 subscribers in 2022 to 2,186,000 subscribers in 2023.
 
As a percentage of income in our telematics services segment revenues, operating income in our telematics services segment increased from 26.9% in 2022 to 27.7% in 2023.
 
29

Telematics products segment
 
Operating income in our telematics products segment decreased from $2.5 million in 2022 to $0.9 million in 2023. This decrease in operating income was mainly attributed to the increase in other product costs and sales mixture.
 
As a percentage of income in our telematics products segment revenues, operating income in our telematics products segment decreased from 3.0 % in 2022 to 1.1 % in 2023.
 
Financing expenses, net
 
Financing expenses, net, was $5.9 million in 2022 compared with $1.6 million in 2023.
 
The decrease in the financing expenses was mainly due to a decrease in losses in respect of marketable securities and other investments in an amount of $3.8 million.
 
Income Tax
 
Income Tax expenses increased from $12.7 million in 2022, to $13.3 million in 2023 or 4.8%. As a percentage of income before tax, income tax expenses decreased from 24.1 % in 2022 to  20.7% in 2023 mainly due to the countries profit mixture.

Impact of Currency Fluctuations on Results of Operations, Liabilities and Assets
 
Although we report our consolidated financial statements in dollars, in 2021, 2022 and 2023, a portion of our revenues and direct expenses was derived in other currencies. For fiscal years 2021, 2022 and 2023 we derived approximately 26.6%, 24.8 % and 25.3% of our revenues in dollars and other currencies, 52.0% , 51.6% and  48.3% in NIS, 21.4%, 23.6% and 26.4% in Brazilian Reals. In fiscal years 2021, 2022 and 2023, 30.9%, 28.1% and 27.0% of our expenses were incurred in dollars and other currencies, 52.3%, 53.4% and 51.2% in NIS and 16.8%, 18.5% and 21.8% in Brazilian Reals.
 
Exchange differences upon conversion from our functional currency to dollars (presentation currency) are accumulated as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income under stockholders’ equity. In the year 2023, accumulated other comprehensive income increased by $0.8 million. In the year 2022, accumulated other comprehensive income decreased by $4.6 million. In 2021, accumulated other comprehensive income decreased by $2.9 million.
 
The fluctuation of the other currencies in which we incur our expenses or generate revenues against the dollar has had the effect of increasing or decreasing (as applicable) reported revenues, cost of revenues and operating expenses in such foreign currencies when converted into dollars from period to period. The following table illustrates the effect of the changes in exchange rates on our revenues, gross profit and operating income for the periods indicated:
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2021
   
2022
   
2023
 
Actual
   
At 2020 exchange rates
   
Actual
   
At 2021 exchange rates
   
Actual
   
At 2022 exchange rates
 
(In thousands of US$)
 
 
270,884
     
264,507
     
293,072
     
296,752
     
319,978
     
329,420
 
 
127,838
     
125,090
     
137,562
     
139,120
     
153,161
     
158,291
 
 
54,615
     
53,595
     
58,774
     
59,218
     
65,955
     
67,422
 
 
(1) Based on average exchange rates during the period. Those columns are Non GAAP information.
 
Our policy remains to reduce exposure to exchange rate fluctuations by entering into foreign currency forward transactions that mainly qualify as hedging transactions under ASC Topic 815, “Derivatives and Hedging”, the results of which are reflected in our income statements as revenues or cost of revenues. The result of these transactions, which are affected by fluctuations in exchange rates, could cause our revenues, cost of revenues, gross profit and operating income to fluctuate.
 
30


B.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
 
We fund our operations primarily from cash and cash equivalents generated from operations. As of December, 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023 we had $54.7 million, $28.2 million and $53.6 million in cash and marketable securities and  $58.1 million, $57.7 million and $86.8 million in working capital, respectively. We hold most of our cash and cash equivalents in US dollars or the local currency of their location.
 
As of December 31, 2023 we had a long term loan at the amount of $0.2 million and a short term loans at the amount of $0.4 million.   As of December 31, 2022 we had a long- term loan from an Israeli bank at the amount of $0.3 million and a short term loans at the amount of $11.8 million. As of December, 2021 we had a long-term loan from an Israeli bank in the amount of $13.7 million and a short term loans at the amount of $17.8 million. As of December 2021 ,2022 and 2023, we also had $1.6 million, $1.7 million and $2.1 million, respectively, available to us under existing lines of credit. As of December 31, 2021 we utilized $0.7 million of our credit line, as of December 31, 2022 we utilized $0.6 million of our credit line and, and as of December 31, 2023 we utilized $0.6 million of our credit line.
 
We believe that our cash flow from operations, availability under our lines of credit and cash and marketable securities will be adequate to fund our capital expenditures, contractual commitments and other demands and commitments for the foreseeable future as well as for the long-term. We believe that cash flow generated from operations and cash available to us from our credit facilities will be sufficient to cover future expansion of our various businesses into new geographical markets or new products, as currently contemplated and as we describe herein. However, if existing cash and cash generated from operations are insufficient to satisfy our liquidity requirements, we may seek financing elsewhere by selling additional equity or debt securities or by obtaining additional credit facilities.

As of December 31, 2021,2022 and 2023 we had long-term liabilities of $22.5 million, $21.2 million, and $24.6 million, respectively, for employee rights upon retirement for certain of our employees that become payable upon their retirement. Our Israeli employees are entitled to one month’s salary, equal to the applicable monthly salary at the time of such employee’s retirement, for each year of employment, or a portion thereof, upon retirement. This liability is partially funded by deposit balances maintained for these employee benefits in the amount of $16.2 million, $15.1 million and $18.5 million, as of December, 2021 ,2022 and 2023 respectively. The deposited funds include profits accumulated up to the balance sheet date and may be withdrawn upon the fulfilment of the obligation pursuant to Israeli severance pay laws or labor agreements.
 
In Ecuador, there are two unique Laws which are relevant to our activities:
 

1.
Remittance tax (Impuesto a la Salida de Divisas) - Remittance tax of 5% is imposed on the transfer of money abroad in cash or through pay checks, transfers, or courier of any nature carried out with or without the mediation of the Ecuadorian financial system, including transfer from foreign bank accounts. Dividends are exempt from this tax, under certain considerations.
 

2.
Labor profit sharing - Although it is not considered a tax, companies are obligated to pay 15% of their pre-tax earnings to their employees. This payment is considered a deductible expense for CIT computation purposes.
 
In Mexico, All Mexican employers, whether individuals or entities, are required to calculate and pay mandatory profit- sharing payments to employees within 60 days following the filing of their annual Mexican tax return. The obligation for employers to make such payments is based on the legal provisions in Section IX of Article 123 of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, which establishes that employees shall have the right to participate in their employer’s profits in the amount of 10% of such employer’s taxable income. As such, the following types of employees have the right to receive profit sharing payments: (a) permanent employees hired to carry out normal, long-term work for an employer, without regard to the number of days worked during the January 1 through December 31, 2019 fiscal year; (b) eventual permanent employees who have worked for an employer fewer than 60 days, whether continuously or sporadically, during the fiscal year referred to above; (c) former employees who have the right to claim profit sharing payments, when such rights have not lapsed.
 
31

Dividends
 
On February 26, 2017 we have revised our dividend policy, which came in force starting from 2017, that our dividends will be declared and distributed on a quarterly basis in an amount of at least 5 million USD subject to the provisions of the Israeli laws concerning lawful distribution of dividends. During years 2021-2022 we reduced our quarterly dividend to $3 million due to Covid-19 ,but on November 2023 our Board decided to resume the same $5 million as dividend distributed quarterly and in February 2024 the board of directors approved the increase of quarterly dividend to $8 million.
 
Dividend we declared in respect to 2021 result:
 
On May 25, 2021, we declared a quarterly dividend in the amount of $3 million, which was paid (net of taxes at the rate of 25%) on July 14, 2021, with respect to the first quarter of 2021. On August 232021, we declared a quarterly dividend in the amount of $3 million, which was paid (net of taxes at the rate of 25%) on October 13, 2021, with respect to the second quarter of 2021. On November 16, 2021, we declared a quarterly dividend on the amount of $3 million, which was paid (net of taxes at the rate of 25%) on January 5, 2022, with respect to the third quarter of 2021. On March 7, 2022, we declared a quarterly dividend of $3 million, which was paid (net of taxes at the rate of 25%) on April 6, 2022, with respect to the fourth quarter of 2021.
 
Dividend we declared in respect to 2022 result:
 
On May 24, 2022, we declared a quarterly dividend in the amount of 3 million, which was paid (net of taxes at the rate of 25%) on July 14, 2022, with respect to the first quarter of 2022. On August 29. 2022, we declared a quarterly dividend in the amount of 3, million, which was paid (net of taxes at the rate of 25%) on October 13, 2022, with respect to the second quarter of 2022. On November 21, 2022, we declared a quarterly dividend in the amount of 3 million, which was paid (net of taxes at the rate of 25%) on January 4, 2023.
 
Dividend we declared in respect to 2023 result:
 
On May 21, 2023, we declared a quarterly dividend in the amount of 3 million, which was paid (net of taxes at the rate of 25%) on July 12, 2023, with respect to the first quarter of 2023. On August 15. 2023, we declared a quarterly dividend in the amount of 3, million, which was paid (net of taxes at the rate of 25%) on October 11 , 2023, with respect to the second quarter of 2023. On November 27, 2023, we declared a quarterly dividend in the amount of 5 million, which was paid (net of taxes at the rate of 25%) on January 4, 2024. On February 29,2024 we declared a quarterly dividend in the amount of 8 million, which was paid (net of taxes at the rate of 25%) on April 3, 2024
 
Until the RTH Transaction, we have repurchased 2,507,314 of our shares, out of these shares (373,489 shares) were resold as part of the consideration in the RTH Transaction. As part of the RTH Transaction price adjustment 300,472 shares were returned to us in April 2019. As part of implementation of our Board of Directors decision of 25 million USD share repurchase program, Share repurchases were funded by our wholly owned subsidiary with available cash. Repurchases of the Company’s ordinary shares were based on Rule 10b-18 terms. During the years 2019 and 2021 we purchased 227,828 and 228,725 of our shares for approximately $6 million each year. During the year 2021, we also directly purchased additional 50,995 shares for approximately $1.3 million not through publicly announced plans. During 2022 we purchased additional 357,362 shares for approximately $5 million. During 2023 we purchased additional 282,644 shares for approximately $6.6 million.
 
32

As of the date of this report, the updated quantity of treasury shares are 3,581,851 (including the aforementioned, 603,142 shares which are entitled to dividend distributed). The following table sets forth the components of our historical cash flows for the periods indicated:

 
 
Year ended December 31,
 
 
 
2023
   
2022
   
2021
 
 
 
(In thousands)
 
 
                 
Net cash provided by operating activities
   
77,218
     
45,118
     
55,790
 
Net cash used in investing activities
   
(17,229
)
   
(27,354
)
   
(18,524
)
Net cash used in financing activities
   
(32,934
)
   
(36,360
)
   
(58,666
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
   
(1,471
)
   
(3,860
)
   
(477
)
Net increase/decrease in cash and cash equivalents
   
25,584
     
(22,456
)
   
(21,877
)
 
Years ended December 31, 2023, December 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021
 
Net cash provided by operating activities.
 
Our operating activities provided cash of  $55.8 million in 2021, $45.1 million in 2022 and $77.2 million in 2023.
 
Cash from operating activities in 2023 increased in an amount of approximately $32.1 million, this increase was mainly due to the growth in our net profit, decrease in inventory and an increase in our deferred revenues proceeds.
 
Net cash used in investing activities.
 
Net cash used in investing activities in 2023 in an amount of approximately $17.2 million, included capital expenditure in the amount of $14.2 million.
 
Net cash used in investing activities in 2022 in an amount of approximately $27,4 million, included capital expenditure in the amount of $26.5 million.
 
Net cash used in investing activities in 2021 in an amount of approximately $18.2 million, included capital expenditure in the amount of $16.6 million.
 
Net cash used in financing activities.
 
Net cash used in financing activities in 2023 in an amount of approximately $32.9  million consisted primarily of a repayment of short and long term credit from financial institution in an amount of $11.4 million, cash dividend payment in an amount of approximately $14.9 million and acquisition of company shares in an amount of approximately $6.6 million.
 
Net cash used in financing activities in 2022 in an amount of approximately $36.4 million consisted primarily of a repayment of short- and long-term credit from financial institution in an amount of $16.5 million, cash dividend payment in an amount of approximately $11.5 million and acquisition of company shares in an amount of approximately $8.5 million.
 
Net cash used in by financing activities in 2021 in an amount of approximately $58.9 million consisted primarily of a repayment of short- and long-term credit from financial institution in amount of $23.8 million, cash dividend payment in an amount of approximately $15.8 million a cash payment to settle the obligation to purchase non-controlling interest in an amount of approximately $11.3 million and an acquisition of company shares in an amount of approximately $7.3 million.
 
33


C.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, PATENTS AND LICENSES
 
Most of our research and development activities take place in Israel, Mexico, Colombia and Ecuador. Our Research and Design department is constantly working on upgrading the service infrastructure and improving our fleet management applications, including by introducing new services and uses of the system, while utilizing both internal development staff and outsourcing such activities to third parties, as well as developing new service platforms for cellular/GPS based devices.
 
Expenditures for research and development activities undertaken by us were approximately $17.0  million in 2023, $16.8 million in 2022, $14.1 million in 2021.
 

D.
TREND INFORMATION
 
The COVID-19 pandemic had little impact on our business during year 2022. Nevertheless, in case this pandemic or similar in effect will erupt this may have an adverse effect on our business.
 
Please see Item 4.A. – History and Development of the Company and Item 4.B. – Business Overview above for trend information.
 

E.
OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS
 
We do not have off-balance sheet arrangements (as such term is defined in Item 5E. of the Form 20-F) that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial conditions, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that are material to investors.
 
34

ITEM 6.          DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES
 

A.
DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT
 
The following table sets forth information regarding our executive officers, key employees and directors as of the date of this annual report:
 
Name
Age
Position
 
 
 
Izzy Sheratzky          
77
President and director
Yehuda Kahane          
79
Director
Ze’ev Koren          
79
Chairman of the Board of Directors and an independent director
Efraim Sheratzky          
71
Director
Eyal Sheratzky          
55
Co-Chief Executive Officer and Director
Nir Sheratzky          
52
Co-Chief Executive Officer and Director
Gil Sheratzky          
46
CEO of our Subsidiary, International Activity and Business Development Officer and a Director
Yoav Kahane(1)(2)          
50
Director and an independent Director
Yigal Shani          
79
Director
Israel Baron (1)(2)(3) +          
70
External Director
Gidon Kotler (1)(2)(3)          
83
External Director
Tal Sheratzky- Jaffa          
46
Director and an independent director
Ami Saranga          
60
Deputy Chief Executive Officer
Eli Kamer          
57
Executive Vice President, Finance; Chief Financial Officer
Guy Aharonov          
58
General Counsel
Udi Mizrahi          
52
Deputy Chief Executive Officer International Operation and VP of Finance
 
Notes:
(1) Member of audit committee
(2) Member of compensation committee
(3) External director elected in accordance with the Israeli Companies Law
Chairperson of all committees

35

Izzy Sheratzky is a co-founder of our company and its President. He has previously served as the Chairman of our Board of Directors, which in our company constitutes both an officer and director positions, ever since our company was acquired from Tadiran in 1995. Until 2003, Mr. Sheratzky also served as our Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Sheratzky also serves as the Chairman of the Board of Directors of Moked (1973) Investigations Company Ltd., Moked Services, Information and Investments Ltd., and Moked Ituran. He also serves as a director in Tikal Document Collection Ltd. Mr. Sheratzky is the father of Eyal, Nir and Gil Sheratzky, Brother of Efraim Sheratzky and uncle of Tal Sheratzky-Jaffa.
 
Yehuda Kahane is a co-founder of our company and has served on our board since 1995. Professor Kahane is an entrepreneur in both the academic and business arenas. He is a Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science. He received the 2011 highest international award for his lasting contribution to the theory, practice and education in insurance and risk management, as well as a lifetime achievements award by the Israeli Insurance industry. He is a co-founder and chairperson of the YK Center for Preparing for the New Economy. Kahane is a Professor (Emeritus) from the Collar Business, Tel Aviv University where he headed the Institute for Business and the Environment. He taught at many business schools around the world, including the Wharton School, the University of Texas (Austin), the University of Toronto and the University of Florida, and has founded and served as the first Dean of the Israeli Academic School of Insurance. Professor Kahane chairs and is a major owner of Capital Point Ltd., and is active in the formation, seed investment and management of start-up companies and technological incubators, unrelated to our company. He chairs the association for the visually impaired people in Herzliya and Sharon district, and a board member of the Center for Blind People in Israel (The Umbrella organization). He is an honorary member of the Israel-Brazil Chamber of Commerce. Professor Kahane holds a BA degree in Economics and Statistics, an MA degree in Business Administration and a PhD in Finance from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and is a Fellow of the Israeli Association of Actuaries. He specializes in insurance, risk management, environmental issues and technological forecasting. He is the father of Yoav Kahane.
 
Zeev Koren has served as a director of our company since 2006 and since 2011 serves as the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Company. In 1988 Brigadier Gen. (Res) Koren retired from the Israel Defence Forces after a career of 25 years, where in his final position he served as the head of human resources planning for the general staff division. Since then he has served in a senior capacity in companies in the fields of international forwarding and medical services. During the past ten years he has also served as the general manager of a Provident Management Company. He holds a B.A. in Political Science and Criminology from Bar Ilan University.
 
Efraim Sheratzky was appointed to the board on February 9, 2015, to replace Mr. Amos Kurz, as a Class A Director. Efraim Sheratzky studied insurance in the Israeli Insurance College. Efraim Sheratzky owns together with Yigal Shani, Tzivtit Insurance Agency (1998) Ltd. Efraim Sheratzky served as our director from 1999 and until 2005. Efraim Sheratzky is the brother of Izzy Sheratzky and the uncle of Eyal, Nir and Gil Sheratzky and father of Ms. Tal Sheratzky-Jaffa. Mr. Efraim Sheratzky was elected, on December 14, 2022, in annual general shareholders meeting, to serve as a director in Class A for additional period until third succeeding Annual General meeting, thereafter.
 
Eyal Sheratzky has served as a director of our company since its acquisition from Tadiran in 1995 and currently serves as a Co-Chief Executive Officer since 2003. Prior to 2003, he served as Vice President of Business Development during the years 1999 through 2002. Mr. Sheratzky also serves as a director of Moked Ituran and certain of our other subsidiaries, including Ituran Network. From 1994 to 1999, he served as the Chief Executive Officer of Moked Services, Information and Investments and as legal advisor to several of our affiliated companies. Mr. Sheratzky holds LLB and LLM degrees from Tel Aviv University School of Law and an Executive MBA degree from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, USA. Mr. Sheratzky is the son of Izzy Sheratzky and the brother of Nir and Gil Sheratzky and nephew of Effraim Sheratzky. Mr. Eyal Sheratzky was elected, on December 14, 2022, in annual general shareholders meeting, to serve as a director in Class A for additional period until third succeeding Annual General meeting, thereafter.
 
Nir Sheratzky has served as a director of our company since its acquisition from Tadiran in 1995 and currently serves as a Co-Chief Executive Officer since 2003. Prior to 2003, Mr. Sheratzky served as an Executive Officer in our company from 1995 to 2003. Mr. Sheratzky is also a director in Moked Ituran. He holds BA and MA degrees in Economics from Tel Aviv University. Nir is the son of Izzy Sheratzky and the brother of Eyal and Gil Sheratzky and nephew of Effraim Sheratzky.
 
Gil Sheratzky serves as a director of our company and since 2013 as our International Activity and Business Development Officer. Mr. Sheratzky has been serving since January 23, 2007 as the Chief Executive Officer of our subsidiary, E-Com Global Electronic Commerce Ltd. From 2003 and until 2013 Mr. Sheratzky served as our marketing communication officer. During the years 2000 - 2001 Gil worked in our control center, and during the years 2001 - 2002 he worked in an advertising agency. Mr. Sheratzky holds a BA in Business Administration from the Herzliya Interdisciplinary Center, and an MBA degree from the Booth School of Business at Chicago University, USA. Gil serves also as director in Saver One Bringg and chairman of Mapa GIS (a subsidiary of Ituran). Gil Sheratzky is the son of Izzy Sheratzky and the brother of Eyal Sheratzky and Nir Sheratzky and nephew of Effraim Sheratzky
 
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Yoav Kahane (Director and an Independent Director, and also a member of audit committee and a member of compensation committee) has served as director of our company since 1998. Mr. Kahane is serving as the Chief Executive Officer of Vizo Specs Ltd,a startup company he co-founded that develop a non-invasive technology for immediate enhancement of attention and the treatment of ADHD .During 2020 he served as CBO of PrintCB ,developer and manufacturer of advanced copper materials for car electrification. a. During 2006-2014, Mr. Kahane has worked for Enzymotec in various managerial positions including Director of Business Development, VP Sales & Marketing, Infant Nutrition Business Unit Manager, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of Advanced Lipids AB, a joint venture of AAK AB and Enzymotec, specializing in nutritional ingredients to the infant nutrition industry. During the years 2004-2005, Mr. Kahane served as Vice President of Sales and Marketing in Elbit Vision Systems Ltd. During the years 2001 and 2002, he served as Manager of Business Development in Denver Holdings and Investments Ltd. In 2000, Mr. Kahane established Ituran Florida Corp. and served as its Chief Executive Officer until 2001. Mr. Kahane holds a BA degree in Life Sciences from Tel-Aviv University, a BA degree in Insurance and an MBA degree from the University of Haifa. Yoav Kahane is the son of Professor Yehuda Kahane. Mr. Kahane. Mr. Kahane was elected, on December 14, 2022, in annual general shareholders meeting, to serve as an Independent Director in Class A for additional period until third succeeding Annual General meeting, thereafter.
 
Yigal Shani has served as a director of our company since its acquisition from Tadiran in 1995. Mr. Shani is an insurance agent and a partner in the insurance agency Tzivtit Insurance Agency (1998) Ltd. together with Efraim Sheratzky, which provides insurance services to our company. Mr. Shani has resigned on March 13, 2014 in order to allow compliance with the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law, which require that the board of directors to include at least one female and was reappointed on February 9, 2015 to replace Mr. Avner Kurz, as a Class B Director.
 
Israel Baron has been serving as an external director of our company since 2003 and is the Chairman of our board’s committees. Mr. Baron served as a director in Poalim Trust Services Ltd., a fully owned subsidiary of Bank Hapoalim Ltd from 2009 until 2017. In addition, Mr. Baron has been serving as Chief Executive Officer of several public sector employee retirement and saving plans since 2003. Prior to 2003, Mr. Baron managed an organizational consulting firm, served as an investment manager in the Isaac Tshuva group during the years 1999 to 2001 and as Chief Executive Officer of Gmulot Investment Company Ltd. Mr. Baron serves as a director of Quality Baron Management Services Ltd. and until 2004 he served as a director of Brill Shoe Industries Ltd. Mr. Baron is a certified CPA and holds a BA degree in Economics and Accounting from the Bar-Ilan University in Ramat-Gan, Israel. Israel Baron was re-elected on Noveember 30, 2023 for additional 3-year term to serve as external director.
 
Gidon Kotler is an external director of our company. He was nominated on April 30, 2014. Prior to his retirement on 2016, Mr. Kotler has been serving as the assets manager of Strauss-Group Ltd., one of Israel’s largest public companies, since 1997. Prior to that, Mr. Kotler has served for 3 years as the chief executive officer of the Tel-Aviv New Central Bus Station, and for 14 years as the chief executive officer of the Dizengof Center’s management company. Mr. Kotler has served as an external director of Elran Real Estate Ltd. from 2007 until 2010. On December 28, 2016, an annual general shareholders meeting approved the extension of the term of Mr. Gideon Kotler, our external director, for additional three years (beginning April 30, 2017). On December 12, 2019, an annual general shareholder meeting approved additional extension of the term of Mr. Gideon Kotler, our external director, for additional three years (beginning April 30, 2020), which was extended for an additional three years (beginning April 30, 2023), in an annual shareholder’s general meeting held on December 14, 2022.
 
Ms. Tal Sheratzky-Jaffa was until recently a Vice President at Margalit Startup City, a unique Israeli organization focused on building and creating centers of excellence worldwide. Prior to joining Margalit Startup City, Ms. Sheratzky-Jaffa was a Strategy and Development Manager at Reality Investment Funds, Israeli value-add real estate fund. Prior to joining Reality Investment Funds, Ms. Sheratzky-Jaffa was a partner at the Israeli law firm Amit, Pollak, Matalon and Co., specializing in the fields of investment funds, mergers and acquisitions, high-tech and corporate governance, and an associate at the New York offices of the US law firm Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld. Ms. Sheratzky-Jaffa holds LL.M degree from Columbia University (New York), LL. B from Haifa University and B.A (economics) from Haifa University and is a member of the Israeli Bar Association and the New York State Bar. Ms. Sheratzky-Jaffa is the nephew of Izzy Sheratzky and the cousin of Eyal, Nir and Gil Sheratzky and the daughter of Efraim Sheratzky. Ms. Sheratzky – Jaffa was elected, on December 14, 2022, in annual general shareholders meeting, to serve as director in Class A for additional period until third succeeding Annual General meeting, thereafter.
 
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Ami Saranga has been serving as the Deputy Chief Executive Officer of our company since 2011. Prior to that Mr. Saranga served as our VP Marketing since 2008. Prior to 2008, Mr. Saranga managed the SME division of Pelephone Communications Ltd., one of Israel’s largest telecommunication network operators. Mr. Saranga holds a BA degree in Business Administration from Ruppin Academic Center, Israel.
 
Eli Kamer has served as Executive Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer of our company since 1999, after serving as its Finance Department Manager since 1997. Prior such date, Mr. Kamer worked as an accountant in Fahn Kanne & Co., our independent registered public accountant. Mr. Kamer is a CPA and holds a BA degree in Business Administration from the Israel College of Management and an MBA degree in business administration from Bar Ilan University.
 
Guy Aharonov has served as our in-house legal counsel since 1999. Prior to joining our company, he has worked as an attorney in Cohen Lahat & Co. Mr. Aharonov holds LLB and LLM degrees from Tel Aviv University.
 
Udi Mizrahi has served as our VP Finance since 2000. On his current position Mr. Mizrahi serve as a Deputy Chief Executive Officer International Operation and VP of Finance. Mr. Mizrahi is a CPA and holds a BA degree in accounting and economics from Ruppin Academic Center, Israel.

Shahar Sheratzky has served in different marketing roles in our company since 2007. In January 2022 Mr. Shahar Sheratzky was nominated to Vice president, head of our business division. Among his responsibilities are the marketing, selling and digital fields. Mr. Sheratzky holds a MBA degree in business administration with a specialization in global marketing from Reichman University, Israel. Mr. Shahar Sheratzky is the nephew of Izzy Sheratzky and the cousin of Eyal, Nir and Gil Sheratzky and the son of Efraim Sheratzky.
 
Our articles of association provide for staggered three-year terms for all our directors (except our external directors, who are elected in accordance with the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law). The directors on our board (excluding the external directors) are divided into three classes, and each class of directors serves for a term of three years, as follows: Izzy Sheratzky, Gil Sheratzky and Zeev Koren (class C), who were re-elected on December 13, 2021; Nir Sheratzky, Yigal Shani and Yehuda  Kahane (class B), who were re-elected on December 10, 2020; and Eyal Sheratzky, Efraim Sheratzky, Tal Sheratzky-Jaffa and Yoav Kahane (class A), who were re-elected on December 12, 2019. This classification of the board of directors may delay or prevent a change of control of our company.
 
On December 28, 2016, an annual general shareholders meeting approved the extension of the term of Mr. Gidon Kotler, our external director, for additional three years (beginning April 30, 2017), which was extended to additional term of three years.  On November 30, 2023, an annual general and special shareholders meeting approved the re-election of Mr. Israel Baron, our external director, for additional three years.

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Diversity of the Board of Directors

The table below provides certain information regarding the composition of our Board. Each of the categories listed in the below table has the meaning as it is used in Nasdaq Rule 5605(f) and related instructions.
 
Board Diversity Matrix
(As of April 18 , 2024)

Country of Principal Executive Offices
Israel
Foreign Private Issuer
Yes
Disclosure Prohibited under Home Country Law
No
Total Number of Directors
12
Part I: Gender Identity
Female
Male
Non-Binary
Did Not Disclose Gender
Directors
1
11
 
 
Part II: Demographic Background
Underrepresented Individual in Home Country Jurisdiction
0
LGBTQ+
0
Did Not Disclose Demographic Background
0

Shareholders Agreement and Articles of Association of Moked Ituran Ltd.
 
Pursuant to Moked Ituran Ltds articles of association and agreement (as amended) between its shareholders, there is a mechanism in place with regard to directors to be designated and voted for election by Moked Ituran Ltd in each of our annual shareholders meeting for the relevant class of directors (four directors in class A and B and three in class C). This arrangement for the election of directors is only effective for as long as Moked Ituran Ltd. holds at least 15% of our issued and outstanding share capital.
 

B.
COMPENSATION
 
The aggregate direct compensation we paid to our directors who are not officers for their services as directors as a group for the year ended December 31, 2023 was approximately $278,000. Directors are reimbursed for expenses incurred in connection with their attendance of board or committee meetings. The compensation payable to external directors is determined in accordance with regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law. See Item 6.C - Board Practices under the caption “External directors” below. Our audit committee and board of directors approved compensation for Mr. Ze’ev Koren, for serving as the Chairman of our board of directors, and for Mr. Yoav Kahane, for serving as a member of our board committees, such that they shall be compensated in the same manner as our external directors are compensated, annually and per meeting, in accordance with the Companies Regulations (Rules for the Compensation and Expenses of an External Director), 2000-5760. In 2023, we paid the sum of NIS508,000 (approximately $138,000) to our external directors, NIS200,000 (approximately $54,000) to Mr. Ze’ev Koren, NIS189,000 (approximately $51,000) to Mr. Yoav Kahane, NIS127,000 (approximately $34,000) to Ms. Tal Sheratzky-Jaffa. We do not have any agreements with directors providing for benefits upon termination of their respective services as such.
 
The aggregate costs to the Company of the compensation to our Co-Chief Executive Officers in 2023 were $3.7 million. The aggregate compensation paid to all of our officers as a group during 2023 was approximately $11.6 million. In 2023 we paid an aggregate amount of $66,000 to one director who provided us with services. The above compensation amounts include amounts attributable to automobiles made available to our officers and other fringe benefits commonly reimbursed or paid by companies in Israel. Employee directors do not receive additional fees for their services as directors.
 
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The following table sets forth the breakdown of the compensation of our five highest paid officers in 2023:
 
   
Management
fees
   
Wage
   
Social
components
   
Car value
   
Bonus
(results based)
   
Bonus (Share
yield based)
   
Total
 
   
Compensation components (in thousand US Dollars)
 
Izzy Sheratzky (President)          
   
789
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
1,049
     
504
     
2,342
 
Eyal Sheratzky (Co-Chief Executive Officer
   
614
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
854
     
392
     
1,860
 
Nir Sheratzky (Co-Chief Executive Officer)
   
614
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
854
     
392
     
1,860
 
Gil Sheratzky (CEO of our Subsidiary. International Activity and Business Development Officer)
   
439
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
610
     
280
     
1,329
 
Shachar Sheratzky (Vice president, head of our business division)
           
208
     
38
     
23
     
233
     
-
     
502
 
                                                         
Total of our 5 highest paid officers $7,893,000
                                                       

During 2023, we set aside $455,000 for the benefit of our officers for pension, retirement or similar benefits. We do not set aside any funds for the benefit of our directors who are not employees for any pension, retirement or similar benefits.
 
All numbers in this section are rounded to the nearest thousand.
 
During 2023, Messrs. Izzy Sheratzky, Eyal Sheratzky, Nir Sheratzky and Gil Sheratzky provided their services as President, Co-Chief Executive Officers and CEO of our Subsidiary & International Activity and Business Development Officer respectively, as independent contractors pursuant to services agreements, which were adopted by our shareholders meeting in January 2014, which terms correspond to our compensation policy as described below.
 
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For further details concerning such terms of service, please see Item 7.B – Related Parties Transactions under the caption “Transactions with our directors and principal officers.”
 
In 2006, our compensation committee has devised a bonus scheme pursuant to which some of our officers and employees received shares of our profit before tax on a consolidated basis, based on their seniority, level of global and domestic involvement, contribution to our operations and other criteria set by the compensation committee. In 2010, our compensation committee resolved that additional managers shall be entitled to receive bonuses under this bonus scheme and that some of the grantees should continue to receive a bonus based on our consolidated results and some should receive a bonus based only on our solo financial statements. During 2023, we paid a total of $1,086,000 to our officers and employees pursuant to the above bonus schemes.
 
Our compensation policy for office holders
 
In December 2012, amendment no. 20 to the Israeli Companies Law became effective. Among other things, this amendment requires Israeli public companies to set forth their policy regarding their office holders’ terms of office, including fixed compensation, target-based incentives, equity awards, severance and other benefits. The amendments also set forth the considerations that should be applied when devising a compensation policy for office holders.
 
The term “office holder” is defined in the Israeli Companies Law, to mean the chief executive officer, chief business officer, deputy chief executive officer, vice chief executive officer, any other person fulfilling such position even if his title is different, as well as a director or a manager directly subordinate to the chief executive officer.
 
The compensation policy must be approved every three years by the board of directors, after considering the recommendations of the compensation committee; and generally requires the approval of the company’s general meeting of shareholders by a special majority of shareholders who are not controlling shareholders and who do not have a personal interest in the approval of the policy; or, alternatively, that the non-controlling shareholders and shareholders who do not have a personal interest in the matter who are present and vote against the policy hold two percent or less of the voting power of the company.
 
The compensation policy does not intend to amend any officer’s existing terms of office; nor to bestow any officer with a right to receive the compensation, or any element thereof set forth therein. However, generally, once the compensation policy is approved, all future terms of service of office holders should conform to its provisions. The specific terms of office of each officer shall be separately determined in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Israeli Companies Law and the regulations promulgated thereunder.
 
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Our general shareholders meeting approved our compensation policy for office holders on October 31, 2013, and on November 7, 2016, and later on December 14, 2022 approved a renewal of the  compensation policy . The policy applies to office holders of the Company (see definition above), who serve as the Company’s President, Chief Executive Officer(s) and other executives who are deemed office holders of the Company, as well as office holders of the Company’s Israeli wholly owned subsidiaries, provided they report to the chief executive officer. The policy also applies to directors of the Company.
 
Our compensation policy for office holders was formulated in view of our belief that our business success is the result of the excellence of our human resources and their devotion to the achievement of our company’s goals. Therefore, it is aimed at offering our officers with a competitive compensation package that will align their incentives with those of our company and our shareholders, and at motivating them to achieve the goals of our company, while avoiding undue pressure to take excessive risks. Among other factors, our compensation committee and board of directors have considered, as required by amendment no. 20 to the Israeli Companies Law and as reflected in the policy: (a) the advancement of the company’s goals, its business plan and its policy with a long-term view; (b) the creation of appropriate incentives for office holders, considering the company’s risk management policy; (c) the size of the company and the nature of its business; (d) with respect to variable components of the terms of office – the contribution of the office holders to the achievement of the company’s goals and to the maximization of its profits, with a long-term view and in accordance with the position of the office holder.
 
The compensation policy incorporates all matters required to be included in a compensation policy as mandated by amendment 20 to the Israeli Companies Law, including (without limitation): (a) the requirement to consider the office holders’ education, skills, professional experience, expertise, position and past compensation agreements; (b) consideration of the ratios between overall compensation of the officers and the average and median salary of the other employees of the Company; (c) the board’s right to reduce variable compensation; (d) the determination of a maximum period for advanced and transition periods upon termination of services; (e) basing variable components of compensation on key performance indicators and on measurable criteria; (f) determining the ratio between fixed and variable components of compensation and setting forth caps on the amount of variable compensation payable; and (g) a claw-back provision with respect to restatements of financial statements.
 
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C.
BOARD PRACTICES
 
Board of Directors
 
Pursuant to our articles of association as presently in effect, our board of directors generally consists of twelve directors, including at least three independent directors in accordance with the listing rules of Nasdaq concerning the composition of audit committees, of whom two directors are external directors as required by Israeli law. Our independent directors, as such term is defined under the Nasdaq listing rules, are Mr. Baron, Mr. Kotler, Mr. Koren, Mr. Yoav Kahane and Ms. Tal Sheratzky - Jaffa, Pursuant to our articles of association, other than the external directors, for whom special election requirements apply (see “External directors” below), our directors are elected, by majority of our shareholders and may be removed by special majority. However, see Item 6.A – Directors and Senior Management for a description of our staggered board and the shareholders agreement and articles of association of Moked Ituran Ltd. Our board of directors may at any time and from time to time appoint any other person as a director to fill a vacancy until the general meeting of shareholders in which the term of service of the replaced director was scheduled to expire.
 
Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, our chairman convenes and presides over the meetings of the board. In addition, any two directors may convene a meeting of the board of directors, as well as a director who becomes aware of a company’s matter that allegedly involves a breach of the law or an improper business conduct. A quorum consists of a majority of the members of the board, and decisions are taken by a vote of the majority of the members present. Our articles of association provide that such quorum will in no event be less than two directors.
 
We are incorporated in Israel and are therefore subject to the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law, including certain corporate governance provisions. Our ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (Our shares were delisted from the Tel Aviv stock exchange on May 25, 2016, for additional information see Item 9.A – Price History of Our Shares), and we are therefore subject to certain provisions of the Israeli securities laws, the U.S. securities laws and the Nasdaq listing rules. See also Item 16.G. – Corporate Governance below for additional information concerning our compliance with the Nasdaq listing rules and exemptions therefrom.
 
According to our Articles of Association, some of our officers and employees (including the chairman of our board and at least one third member of the Board) should be citizens and residents of Israel and receive clearance approval from the Israeli General Security Service. All the members of our board comply with these requirements.
 
On February 26, 2017 our board has adopted an Internal Compliance policy, which following review of our internal process included a comprehensive update of our internal regulations and codification of our internal regulations, all pursuant to the applicable Israeli laws.
 
External directors
 
Under Israeli law, the board of directors of companies whose shares are publicly traded are required to include at least two members who qualify as external directors. External directors are to be elected by a majority vote at a shareholders’ meeting, provided that either:
 
Such majority includes at least the majority of the shares held by all non-controlling shareholders or those having personal interest in the nomination, except personal interest which is not resulting from connections with controlling shareholders, present and voting at such meeting; or
 
The total number of shares voted against the election of the external director and held by shareholders other than controlling shareholders or those having personal interest in the nomination, except personal interest which is not resulting from connections with controlling shareholders, must not exceed 2% of the shares whose holders are entitled to vote at any meeting of shareholders.
 
External directors are generally elected to serve an initial term of three years and may be re-elected to serve in that capacity for two additional three-year terms; however, companies whose securities are listed on recognized foreign exchanges, such as Nasdaq, may extend the service terms of their external directors for additional unlimited terms, each of no more of than three years , subject to the approval of the audit committee and the board of directors that such extension is for the benefit of the company in view of the directors’ expertise and special contribution to the operation of the board and its committees and these reasons together with the term served by the external director were presented to the shareholders prior to their approval (see the Israeli Companies Regulations (Allowances for Companies with Securities Listed on an Exchange Outside Israel), 2000-5760). The appointment of an external director for additional terms may be brought for the approval of the shareholders either by the board of directors or by a shareholder that holds at least 1% of the company’s voting rights, provided that the nominee is not a related or competing shareholder (as defined below) or a relative thereof, at the time of the appointment, and does not have an affinity to such shareholder (as defined below) at the time of the appointment or the two years preceding such appointment. The term “related or competing shareholder” means the shareholder who proposed the appointment or a 5% shareholder of the company if, at the time of the appointment, his controlling person or a company controlled by either of them, has business relations with the company, or if he, his controlling person or a company controlled by either of them are competitors of the company. The term “affinity” means the on-going existence of work relationship, business or professional relationship or control and the service as an officer.
 
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External directors may generally be removed from office by the same majority of shareholders required for their election or by a court, in each case, only under limited circumstances, including if they cease to meet the statutory qualification for their appointment or violate the duty of loyalty to the company.
 
If at the time of the appointment of an external director, all directors who are not controlling persons or their relatives are of the same gender, then the elected external director must be of the other gender.
 
Each committee of the board of directors that is vested with an authority of the board must include at least one external director, except that the audit committee and compensation committee must include all external directors then serving on the board of directors. The Israeli Companies Law prohibits external directors from receiving, directly or indirectly, any compensation other than for services as an external director pursuant to the provisions and limitations set forth in the applicable regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law.
 
Israeli law provides that a person is not qualified to serve as an external director if he is a relative (as defined in the Israeli Companies Law) of the company’s controlling person, or if, at the time of his/her appointment and/or at any time during the two years preceding his or her appointment, that person, a relative, partner or employer of that person, or any entity under that person’s control, has or has had an affinity (as defined above) to the company, its controlling person or its relative or to any entity that, as of the date of appointment, or at any time during the two years preceding that date, is controlled by the company or by its controlling person. In addition, no person may serve as an external director if that person’s professional activities create, or may create, a conflict of interest with that person’s responsibilities as a director or otherwise interfere with that person’s ability to serve as a director; and, a person already serving as a director of one company may not be appointed as an external director of the company if at that time a director of the company is serving as an external director of the first company. In addition, a company, controlling shareholder and any other entity controlled by the controlling shareholder may not grant to such external director, its spouse or child, any benefits, directly or indirectly, and the external director, its spouse or child may not be appointed to serve in any position, may not be employed by and may not, directly or indirectly, render any professional services to the company, such controlling shareholder or any other entity controlled by the controlling shareholder, during the first two years following such external director’s termination of tenure of office, and with respect to a relative who is not the external director’s spouse or child – during the first year following such termination.
 
Mr. Israel Baron is now serving his seventh term as an external director of the Company, who was re-elected on of November 30, 2023 for a term of 3 years. Mr. Gideon Kotler was appointed on April 30, 2014 by an extraordinary shareholders meeting as our new external director, following the death of our former external director, Dr. Orna Ophir, in January 2014 and was re-elected by our general shareholders meeting on December 28, 2016, for his second term, of additional 3 years term starting from April 30, 2017, which was later extended for additional term of three years beginning ,April 30 , 2023.
 
Audit committee
 
Under Israeli law, the board of directors of a public company must appoint an audit committee. The audit committee must comprise of at least three directors, including all of the external directors and the chairman of the audit committee must be an external director. In addition, the majority of the members of the audit committee must be independent directors. Under the Israeli Companies Law, a director is considered “independent” if he/she is an external director or if he/she meets the qualifications of an external director, has not served as a director of the company for over 9 consecutive years, and has been classified as such. Under Israeli regulations a director who serves more than 9 consecutive years as a director may still be deemed as “independent director” provided the Audit committee and thereafter the board of directors resolved that his-her tenure as a director for an extend term is for the benefit of the company based on his/her expertise and unique contribution to the board and its committees. Our Audit committee and board of directors so resolved with regard to Messrs. Israel Baron Gidon Kotler. The audit committee may not include the chairman of the board, any director who is employed by the company or regularly provides services to the company (other than as a board member), a controlling shareholder or any relative of such person. All audit committee decisions must be approved by a majority of the committee members of which the majority of members present are independent directors. Furthermore, a person who is not eligible to serve on the audit committee is restricted from participating in its meetings and votes, unless the chairman of the audit committee determines that such person’s presence is necessary in order to present a certain matter, provided however, that the company employees who are not controlling shareholders or relatives of such shareholders may be present in the meetings but not in the actual votes and likewise, company counsel and secretary who are not controlling shareholders or relatives of such shareholders may be present in meetings and decisions of such present is requested by the audit committee.
 
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Our audit committee must also meet the requirements of the Nasdaq listing rules concerning audit committees.
 
Our board of directors has formed an audit committee that is empowered, among other things, to exercise the powers of the board of directors concerning our accounting, reporting and financial control practices. Our audit committee operates in accordance with a charter, which complies with the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law and the Nasdaq listing rules. The members of the audit committee are currently Messrs. Israel Baron, Gidon Kotler and Yoav Kahane, all of whom are independent as required of members of the audit committee under the Nasdaq listing rules. Mr. Gidon Kotler was appointed on April 30, 2014 to replace Dr. Orna Ophir who passed away in January 2014. Our board of directors has determined that Mr. Israel Baron possesses financial sophistication as required by Rule 5605(c)(2) under the Nasdaq listing rules, and that both Mr. Baron and Mr. Kotler possess accounting and financial expertise as defined by Israeli regulations.
 
Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Regulations (Provisions and Conditions regarding the Financial Statements’ Authorization Process), 2010, a reporting entity, except for a reporting entity that is subject to Chapter E(3) of the Israeli Securities Act, is required to establish a committee of the board of directors for the examination of financial statements. Since we are a reporting entity under Chapter E(3), we are not obliged to constitute a committee for the examination of financial statements; and therefore, commencing with the financial statements for the first quarter of 2013, we ceased holding meetings of the examination of financial statements committee; and instead, our audit committee considers the financial statements prior to their approval by the board.
 
Pursuant to the 22nd amendment in the Israeli Company law, which was set to define new rules to approve transaction of the public company with its controlling shareholders, or the transaction in which the controlling shareholder has interest. The law requires from our Audit committee to set up rules to define the criteria for classification of transactions, which are neither Insignificant Transactions nor extraordinary transactions, and their procedures of approval that will be determined per each year in advance. In addition, the law requires from the Audit Committee to set methods of examining transactions with the controlling shareholders, in order to enable their classification and their comparison to the conditions in the free market. The Audit Committee resolved on September 29, 2014 as follows:
 

1.
Transaction that is neither extraordinary, nor insignificant.

Definition: the relevant criteria that is calculated for the transaction is such transaction which is higher than 0.25% of the equity of the company according to its last combined financial reports, or higher than 1% of average net revenue of the past 3 years of the company in their absolute value, in the last 2 calendar years prior to the date of the transaction is being reported according the last financial report of the company.

Methods of approval: approval by the senior management of the company (from vice chief executive officer and higher) and report to the Board. The following transactions will require also the approval of the Audit Committee:
 

(1)
Transaction which is higher than 4.5% of the equity of the company according to its last combined financial reports which were published prior to the approval of the transaction.

(2)
Transaction that involves risks or significant exposure beyond mere monetary liabilities or obligations.

(3)
Transaction in which the company enters a new activity field or exits from an existing activity field.


2.
Insignificant transaction:

Definition: such transaction which is not higher than 0.25% of the equity of the company according to its last combined financial reports or is not higher than 1% of average net revenue of the past 3 years of the company in their absolute value, in the last 2 calendar years prior to the date of the transaction is being reported according to the last financial report of the company.

Methods of approval: Approval by the management of the company or by the officer in charge in the company (vice chief executive officer, other officer or other in charged body in the company according to the decisions of the company).

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3.
General rules:


(1)
Any transaction with a controlling shareholder or any transaction that a controlling shareholder has an interest in, will be brought before the Audit Committee, which will determine its type and decide on case by case basis on defining it as an insignificant transaction or other kind of transaction, and will decide on its review and on its approval.

(2)
According to the adopted criteria, transactions with Tzivtit Insurance Agency (1998) Ltd. and with Rinat Yogev Nadlan Ltd. shall be classified as insignificant transactions. If the extent of such transactions will remain similar during the following years, our management shall be deemed qualified to approve such transactions and to report them to the Audit Committee.

(3)
Every year the criteria for classifying transactions as set up above shall be brought for re-approval by the Audit Committee.
 
Compensation committee
 
The Israeli Companies Law mandates the appointment of a compensation committee comprising of at least three directors. The compensation committee must include all of the external directors, who shall constitute the majority of the members thereof, and its remaining members shall be directors whose terms of service comply with the provisions promulgated concerning the remuneration of external directors. The chairman of the committee must be an external director. The members of the Compensation committee are currently Israel Baron, Gideon Kotler and Yoav Kahane. Mr. Gidon Kotler was appointed on April 30, 2014 to replace Dr. Orna Ophir who passed away in January 2014. All members of our compensation committee are independent directors as defined by the Nasdaq listing rules, and all of whom meet the composition requirements under the Israeli Companies Law. Since February 2016, the Israeli Companies Law permits that Audit Committee can serve also as a Compensation committee, provided that it will comply with requirements of the Compensation Committee as explained above.
 
Under the Israeli Companies Law, the compensation committee is responsible for: (i) making recommendations to the board of directors with respect to the approval of the compensation policy for office holders and any extensions thereto; (ii) periodically reviewing the implementation of the compensation policy and providing the board of directors with recommendations with respect to any amendments or updates thereto; (iii) reviewing and resolving whether or not to approve arrangements with respect to the terms of office of office holders; and (iv) determining whether or not to exempt a transaction with a candidate for chief executive officer from shareholders’ approval.
 
Furthermore, our compensation committee oversees, on behalf of the Board, the management of Ituran’s compensation and other human resources-related issues and otherwise carries out on behalf of the Board its responsibilities relating to these issues. The committee is responsible for establishing annual and long-term performance goals and objectives for our executive officers. In addition, as required under the Nasdaq listing rules, our compensation committee is responsible for the appointment, compensation and oversight of the work of any compensation consultant, legal counsel and other adviser retained by the committee; and may retain such advice only after taking into account the considerations set forth in the Nasdaq listing rules in this respect. Our compensation committee operates in accordance with a charter, which complies with the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law and the Nasdaq listing rules.
 
According to our compensation committee charter, the compensation committee, among its other duties, is responsible on reviewing the disclosure in this form which concerns the Compensation Policy and the sections describing the Terms of Service of Officers, controlling persons and their relatives.
 
Internal auditor
 
Under the Israeli Companies Law, the board of directors of a public company must appoint an internal auditor nominated by the audit committee. An internal auditor may not be:
 
a person (or a relative of a person) who holds more than 5% of the company’s shares or voting rights;
a person (or a relative of a person) who has the power to appoint a director or the general manager of the company;
an executive officer, director or other affiliate of the company; or
a member of the company’s independent accounting firm.
 
The role of the internal auditor is to examine, among other things, the compliance of the company’s conduct with applicable law and orderly business procedures. Our internal auditor in 2020 was Shimon Yarel, CPA, who has served as our internal auditor since January 1999. On March 2, 2021, the audit committee and the board of directors approved the appointment of Ms. Alexandra Meron Yarel as an internal auditor instead of Mr Shimon Yarel, and that is due to his retirement.
 
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D.
EMPLOYEES
 
The following table sets forth the total number of our employees at the end of each of the past three years, and a breakdown of such employees by main category of activity and by geographic location:
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2023
   
2022
   
2021
 
By area of activity:
                 
Control Center          
   
380
     
385
     
520
 
Research and Development          
   
167
     
159
     
136
 
Sales and Marketing          
   
103
     
92
     
84
 
Technical support and IT          
   
491
     
501
     
489
 
Finance, Administration and Management          
   
321
     
356
     
375
 
Private enforcement and operations          
   
1,196
     
1,075
     
1,041
 
Manufacturing          
   
183
     
168
     
169
 
Total          
   
2,841
     
2,736
     
2,814
 
 
                       
By geographic location (out of total):
                       
Israel          
   
906
     
795
     
864
 
Brazil          
   
865
     
861
     
782
 
Others          
   
1,070
     
1,080
     
1,168
 
Total          
   
2,841
     
2,736
     
2,814
 
 
We consider our relations with our employees to be satisfactory and have no ongoing major labor disputes or material labor-related litigation. Our employees are subject to local labor laws and regulations, which in some countries are more stringent than others. Some of our senior executives also have employment agreements that may grant them rights in excess of those provided by the applicable laws.
 
Israel
 
Our employees in Israel are subject to Israeli labor laws and regulations and employment customs. The applicable labor laws and regulations principally concern matters such as paid annual vacation, paid sick days, length of the workday, payment for overtime and severance pay. Israeli law generally requires severance pay equal to one month’s salary for each year of employment upon retirement or death of an employee or termination of employment without cause. Furthermore, Israeli employees and employers are required to pay predetermined sums to the National Insurance Institute, which is similar to the United States Social Security Administration. Since January 1, 1995, these amounts also include payments for national health insurance.
 
Israeli labor laws impose on employers increased liability, including monetary sanctions and criminal liability, in cases of violations of certain labor laws and certain violations by contractors providing maintenance, security and cleaning services.
 
Brazil
 
Our employment agreements in Brazil are subject to Brazilian labor laws and regulations, to collective labor agreements or bargaining arrangements with unions and contract. The laws and regulations in Brazil govern almost all aspects of an employment relationship and do not leave much room to be negotiated with the employee. Still, employment contracts create obligations to the parties if they are in compliance with the law. The Labor Code mainly governs the employees’ right to paid annual vacation, paid sick days, the maximum length of a workday, minimum payment for overtime and statutory severance pay. Brazilian law generally requires severance pay equal to 40% of the balance of the employee’s FGTS account (a mandatory fund to guarantee severance and unemployment). The FGTS can also be withdrawn when the employee retires, dies or his employment is terminated without cause, among others. Brazilian employers are required to purchase health insurance for employees only in the event it is set forth by the applicable collective labor agreement, contract or company policy, and are required to cover employees’ food and travel costs whenever a business trip is required, and to make deposits into a Guarantee Severance Fund (the so-called “FGTS”). Furthermore, Brazilian employees and employers are required to make contributions to the National Insurance Institute (“INSS”), similar to the United States Social Security Administration. Our collections to the National Insurance Institute amount to 34.8% to 39.8% of the payrolls, out of which 8% to 11% (limited to R$5,839.45 of individual salary) corresponds to contributions by the employees deducted from salaries and 26.8% is the fixed part we pay. Our contribution of 26.8% includes mandatory contribution to the Public Insurance for Labor Accidents and Diseases (SAT). According to Decree Law 6957/2009 such portion, which varies from 1% to 3% of payroll, should be multiplied by another factor (FAP) from 0.5 to 2 in order to reduce or increase our burden to reflect statistics of occupational accidents and diseases in our business.
 
All of our employees in Brazil, excluding the chief executive officer, some directors (VPs) and some IT providers are represented by a labor union and the employees’ mandatory contributions to their union are paid by us. The law no. 13.467/2017, which entered into force on November 11, 2017, made the labor union contribution optional (i.e., discounted only upon the employees’ consent).
 
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Argentina
 
Our employees in Argentina are subject to Argentine labor laws and regulations and other special practices and employment customs. The laws and regulations in Argentina control all aspects of labor relations and designate a general Employment Contract with which all employees and employers must comply. This general Employment Contract adopts by reference the provisions of the Labor Law which principally concerns matters such as paid annual vacation, paid sick days, the length of the workday, and payment for overtime and severance pay.
 
Argentine law generally requires severance pay equal to one month per year of service upon the termination of employment without a justified cause.
 
Argentine employers are also required to contribute for the following items: (a) Pension funds 20.70 % (b) health insurance for employees 6% (c) occupational accident insurance 1.56% for January to December 2023 and 1,74% since December 2021 on %; and (d) Retirement fund insurance 2.5% (only this item is for Union Employees). All the rates should be applied on the gross salary.
 
Our employees in Argentina, excluding the chief executive officer and several other employees, are members of a labor union and the employee member fees are paid by them.
 
United States
 
We have no collective bargaining agreements with any of our employees in the United States and none of our employees are members of a union.
 
Mexico
 
The hiring of employees in Mexico is subject to the regulations of the Federal Labor Law, the Social Security Law, the Infonavit Law, the Income Tax Law, Afore, and Infonacot In these laws both workers and employers have obligations and rights; the percentage corresponding to the employer is 40% in Payroll and Employee Tax depending on their level of income. The working relationship between employer and employee is regulated by the Individual work contract In Mexico we have several modalities of types of Labor Contract, according to the permanence and type of contract, example: Contract for a Determined Time, Permanent Contract, and Contract for Determined Work. In these Contracts the conditions of the work are specified. Within our company we also have working relationships through outsourcing, where our employees have the same rights and obligations and adhere to the same internal and legal guidelines. Contract terminations without cause by the employer require the payment of 3 months’ salary as a concept of damages.
 
Ecuador
 
Our employees in Ecuador are subject by the Ecuadorian Labor Code. The Labor Code provides for a 40-hour work week, 15 calendar days of annual paid vacation, restrictions and sanctions for those who employ child labor, general protection of worker health and safety, minimum wages and bonuses, maternity and paternity leave, and employer-provided benefits. The 2008 Constitution bans child labor, requires hiring workers with disabilities, and unpaid internships are not permitted in Ecuador. The law also mandates that employees’ thirteenth and fourteenth month bonuses, which are required by law, be paid in instalments throughout the year instead of in lump sums. Employees have the option to opt out of this change and continue to receive the payments in lump sums. The law eliminates fixed-term employee contracts and replaced them with indefinite contracts, which shortens the allowable trial period for employees to 90 days. The Law for Labor Justice and Recognition of Work in the Home, which included several changes related to labor and social security, took effect in April 2015. Workers in the private sector have the constitutional right to form trade unions and local law allows for unionization of any company with more than 30 employees. Private employers are required to engage in collective bargaining with recognized unions. The Labor Code provides for resolution of union´s conflicts through a tripartite arbitration and conciliation board process. The Code also prohibits discrimination against union members and requires that employers provide space for union activities.
 
48

Colombia
 
Our employees in Colombia are subject to Colombian labor laws and regulations. All employees have an indefinite term employment contract and the law determines a minimum monthly salary (SMM), which is increased annually by the government and used to calculate labor obligations. 48 hours are the maximum hours for a week. All employees are affiliated with the Social Security System (Health, Pension and Occupational Risks), a percentage is paid by the company and the other by the employee, the calculation depends on the salary. The law determines additional benefits called social benefits payable by the company: Holidays: 15 working days for each year worked; Premium corresponds to the payment of 15 days of salary per semester worked or fraction; Unemployment corresponds to the payment of 30 days of salary per year worked or fraction; Unemployment interest corresponds to 12% of severance pay; Employees who earn less than 2 SMM must be given 3 times a year clothing and footwear or equivalent in bonuses. Termination of employment relationship by the company without a justified reason, is coupled with compensation to the employee. Additionally, for every 20 employees, the company must hire an apprentice who will receive financial support from 1 SMM, and who will be employed for a period of 6 months. Currently the company doesn’t have any unionized employee. For year 2022, Income Tax raises to 35%, as a result of tax reform approved by Colombia congress on 2021 (2021 income tax rate was 31%).
 

E.
SHARE OWNERSHIP
 
The following table sets forth share ownership information for our directors and executive officers listed in Item 6.A above as of April 10, 2024. All of the information with respect to beneficial ownership by our directors and executive officers has been furnished by the respective director or executive officer, as the case may be.

Name of Director/Officer (1)
 
Number of
Ordinary
Shares
Beneficially
Owned (2)
 
Percentage of
beneficial
ownership (3)
 
Izzy Sheratzky (4)          
   
4,077,317
   
20.50
 
Professor Yehuda Kahane (5)          
   
1,451,137
   
7.29
 
Zeev Koren          
   
-
   
-
 
Efraim Sheratzky (6)          
   
219,408
   
1.09
 
Yigal Shani (7)          
   
223,052
   
1.12
 
Eyal Sheratzky          
   
-
   
-
 
Nir Sheratzky          
   
-
   
-
 
Gil Sheratzky          
   
-
   
-
 
Yoav Kahane          
   
-
   
-
 
Tal Sheratzky-Jaffa          
   
2,403
*
 
0.01
*
Israel Baron          
   
-
   
-
 
Gidon Kotler          
   
105
*
 
*
 
Ami Saranga          
   
-
   
-
 
Eli Kamer          
   
-
   
-
 
Guy Aharonov          
   
-
   
-
 
Udi Mizrahi          
   
-
   
-
 
Shahar Sheratzky          
   
-
   
-
 
 
* Own less than one percent of our shares.
 
(1)
This table includes only current directors and officers that beneficially hold our shares.
(2)
Beneficial ownership’ is determined in accordance with the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (as defined in Rule 13d – 3 under the Exchange Act) and shares deemed beneficially owned by virtue of the right of any person or group to acquire such ordinary shares within 60 days are treated as outstanding only for the purposes of determining the percent owned by such person or group. To our knowledge, the persons and entities named in the table above are believed to have sole voting and investment power with respect to all ordinary shares shown as owned by them, except as described below.

49

(3)
Amounts in this column are based on 23,475,431 ordinary shares issued as of April 10, 2024, less  3,581,851 treasury shares held by us.
(4)
Shares beneficially owned include: (a) 4,075,952 shares owned by Moked Ituran Ltd., which Mr. Sheratzky is deemed to beneficially owns due to his shared voting and investment power over such shares in accordance with those certain shareholders agreement, dated May 18, 1998 as amended on September 6, 2005 and on September 17, 2014, among Moked Ituran and its shareholders, which we refer to as the Moked Shareholders Agreement. For further information concerning the Moked Shareholders Agreement see the discussion under Item 6.A. – Directors and Senior Management under the caption “Shareholders Agreement and Articles of Association of Moked Ituran Ltd.” above; (b) 1,365 shares that are directly held by Mr. Sheratzky’s wife, Maddie Sheratzky.
(5)
Shares beneficially owned include: (a) 13,264 shares directly owned by Professor Kahane jointly with his wife, Rivka Kahane;(b) 5,782 shares owned by Yehuda Kahane Ltd., which Professor Kahane may be considered to beneficially own by virtue of his shared voting and investment control of the company through his 50% shareholdings thereof, the other 50% being owned by his wife, Rivka Kahane; and (c) 1,432,091 shares owned by Moked Ituran Ltd., which Professor Kahane may be considered to beneficially own by virtue of his right to direct the disposition of such shares in accordance with Moked’s articles of association. Professor Kahane has shared voting and investment control over Yehuda Kahane Ltd., a holder of  35.13% of the shares of Moked Ituran.
(6)
Shares beneficially owned include: (a) 3,356 shares directly owned by Efraim Sheratzky, (b) 18,500 shares owned by Tzivtit Insurance Agency (1998) Ltd., which Efraim Sheratzky may be considered to beneficially own by virtue of his shared voting and investment control over such shares through his 50% ownership thereof, the other 50% of the shares held by Yigal Shani, and (c) 206,552 shares owned by Moked Ituran, which Mr. Sheratzky may be considered to beneficially own by virtue of his right to direct the disposition of such shares in accordance with Moked’s articles of association. Mr. Sheratzky may be considered to beneficially own such shares by virtue of his sole voting and investment control over his wholly owned G T.S.D. Holdings Ltd, the holder of 3.75% of Moked’s shares.
(7)
Shares beneficially owned include: (a) 10,000 shares directly owned by Yigal Shani, (b) 18,500 shares owned by Tzivtit Insurance Agency (1998) Ltd., which Yigal Shani may be considered to beneficially own by virtue of his shared voting and investment control over such shares through his 50% ownership thereof, the other 50% of the shares held by Efraim Sheratzky, and (c) 206,552 shares owned by Moked Ituran, which Mr. Shani may be considered to beneficially own by virtue of his right to direct the disposition of such shares in accordance with Moked’s articles of association. Mr. Shani may be considered to beneficially own such shares by virtue of his sole voting and investment control over his wholly owned G.N.S. Holdings, the holder of 3.75% of Moked’s shares.
 
  F.
DISCLOSURE OF REGISTRANT’S ACTION TO RECOVER ERRENOUSLY AWARDED COMPENSATION.
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 7.
MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
 

A.
MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS
 
The following table shows the number of our ordinary shares beneficially owned by (a) the shareholders known to us as of April 10, 2024, to beneficially own more than 5% of our outstanding ordinary shares and (b) all of our directors and executive officers as a group.

Please also see Item 6.E above.There are no shares underlying options or warrants held by such persons.  Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules of the SEC and includes voting or investment power with respect to ordinary shares.

50

The shareholders listed below do not have any different or special voting rights from any other shareholders of our company. Except where otherwise indicated, we believe, based on information furnished by the owners, that the beneficial owners of the ordinary shares listed below have sole investment and voting power with respect to such shares.

Shareholder
 
Number of
Ordinary
Shares
Beneficially
Owned
   
% Voting
 
Moked Ituran Ltd. (1)
   
4,075,952
     
20.47
 
All directors and executive officers as a group (2).
   
4,125,227
     
20.74
 
Vulcan Value Partners (3)
   
1,681,329
     
8.45
 
FMR LLC. (4)
   
1,228,293
     
6.174
 
Renaissance Technologies LLC. (5)
   
1,123,800
     
5.65
 
Ibex Investors LLC(6)
   
1,168,815
     
5.9
 

               
Treasury shares          
   
3,581,851
         
 
(1) Moked’s articles of association provides that each of Moked’s shareholders shall have the right to direct Moked to dispose of such number of our shares corresponding to his or her relative shareholdings in Moked. In addition, ownership of all shares held by Moked are attributed to Mr. Izzy Sheratzky by virtue of his holdings in Moked. Please see Item 6.E above for the ownership of our shares attributed to Moked’s shareholders. For further information please see Item 6.A – Directors and Senior Management under the caption “Shareholders Agreement and Articles of Association of Moked Ituran Ltd” above.
(2) Includes shares held by Moked Ituran Ltd., which ownership are attributed to some of these directors and executive officers.
(3) The information presented herein is based on Form 13G filed by Vulcan Value Partners, LLC (“Vulcan”) on February 13, 2024. According to the information presented on such Form 13G, Vulcan is an investment adviser, and various persons, including the investment companies and owners of the separate accounts to which Vulcan serves as investment adviser, have the right to receive or the power to direct the receipt of dividends from, or the proceeds from the sale of, the Company’s securities that are the subject of Form 13G.
(4) The information presented herein is based on Form 13G filed by FMR LLC. (“FMR”) on February   9, 2024. According to the information presented on such Form 13G, the shares are beneficially owned by members of the Johnson family, including Abigail P. Johnson, are the predominant owners, directly or through trusts, of Series B voting common shares of FMR LLC, representing 49% of the voting power of FMR LLC. For further information on the beneficial ownership by the portfolio accounts, please refer to Form 13G filed by FMR on February 9, 2024.
(5) The information presented herein is based on Form 13G filed by Renaissance Technologies LLC. (“RTC”) Renaissance Technologies Holdings Corporation (“RTHC”on February 13, 2024. According to the information presented on such Form 13G, the shares are beneficially owned by RTC, which is a Delaware limited liability company. For further information on the beneficial ownership by the portfolio accounts, please refer to Form 13G filed by RTC on February 13, 2024.
(6) The information presented herein is based on Form 13G filed by Ibex Investors LLC (“Ibex”) on February 14, 2024. According to the information presented on such Form 13G, the shares are directly beneficially owned by Ibex Israel Fund LLP, a Delaware  limited liability partnership (the “Fund”), and Ibex is the investment manager of the Fund. For further information on the beneficial ownership please refer to Form 13G filed by Ibex on February 14, 2024.
 
As of November 2023, we had a total of approximately  1,000  shareholders (including the Depository Trust Company) of record in the United States with registered addresses in the United States. The number of record holders in the United States is not representative of the number of beneficial holders nor is it representative of where such beneficial holders are resident since many of these ordinary shares were held of record by brokers or other nominees.
 
51


B.
RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
 
Transactions with our directors and principal officers
 
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and officers and the officers and directors of our subsidiaries providing them with indemnification for liabilities or expenses incurred as a result of acts performed by them in their capacity as our directors and officers. Our general meeting of shareholders approved on January 28, 2014 an amendment to these indemnification agreements and the grant thereof to office holders, including controlling persons and their relatives, who serve at our company and its subsidiaries from time to time. For the full indemnification agreements as so approved, please see Exhibit 4.19 under Item 19 – Exhibits.
 
Our general meeting of shareholders has also approved on January 28, 2014 the procurement from time to time of directors’ and officers’ insurance policies covering the liability of office holders, including controlling persons and their relatives, who serve at the Company and its subsidiaries from time to time, under the following terms: (a) the principal terms of the D&O insurance policies shall not materially deviate from the terms of our current directors’ and officers’ insurance policy; or (b) to the extent that the Company shall desire to procure a D&O insurance policy, which a material term thereof adversely deviates ( from our company’s point of view) from the terms of the current policy, then our company’s board of the directors shall confirm that, notwithstanding such deviation, our procurement of such policy is compatible with market terms and does not materially affect our profitability, assets or liabilities..
 
In February 2014, following the approval of our general meeting of shareholders on January 28, 2014, we entered into service agreements, setting forth the terms of service of our President and Co-Chief Executive Officers in compliance with our compensation policy for office holders; and E-Com entered into a service agreement setting forth the terms of service of its Chief Executive Officer in compliance with our compensation policy for officer holders. The principal terms of these agreements are as follows:
 
Mr. Izzy Sheratzky shall provide his services as an independent contractor through A. Sheratzky Holdings Ltd., which shall be entitled to a monthly payment of NIS243,000 (or $66,000) plus VAT, linked to the consumer price index for December 2013. At the request of the service provider, part of the fixed monthly pay may be granted through benefits, such as the provision of a company car for the use o/f Mr. Sheratzky and the payment of its maintenance costs and the cost of tax resulting there from the fixed monthly pay shall also include Mr. Sheratzky’s entitlement for a 25 days’ vacation and sick days as provided by law. The service provider shall also be entitled to payment or reimbursement of expenses, including hosting expenses, subsistence allowance abroad and participation in work-related home telephone expenses. The service provider shall be entitled to Target-based Cash Incentives and Excess Return Cash Incentives as detailed below. The agreement shall be in force for a period of 3 years and may be terminated upon 180 days’ advance notice of termination; however, the company may terminate the agreement without an advance notice and without compensation if the following shall occur: (a) Mr. Sheratzky is convicted of a criminal offense involving moral turpitude; (b) a final court ruling (without the possibility of appeal) determines that Mr. Sheratzky has breached his fiduciary duty towards the company; (c) a final court ruling (without the possibility of appeal) determines that Mr. Sheratzky has materially breached the agreement through the unauthorized disclosure of company’s secrets or competition with the company. The aggregate amounts paid to A. Sheratzky Holdings according this new service agreement in ,,2021, 2022 and 2023 were approximately $3,412,000 , $3,380,000 and $2,155,000 respectively (the numbers include 17% value added tax).Mr. Eyal Sheratzky shall provide his services as an independent contractor through ORAS Capital Ltd. which shall be entitled to a monthly payment of NIS189 ,000 (or $51,000) plus VAT, linked to the consumer price index for December 2013. At the request of the service provider, part of the fixed monthly pay may be granted through benefits, such as the provision of a company car for the use of Mr. Sheratzky and the payment of its maintenance costs and the cost of tax resulting therefrom. The fixed monthly pay shall also include Mr. Sheratzky’s entitlement for a 25 days’ vacation and sick days as provided by law. The service provider shall also be entitled to payment or reimbursement of expenses, including hosting expenses and subsistence allowance abroad. The service provider shall be entitled to Target-based Cash Incentives and Excess Return Cash Incentives as detailed below. The agreement shall be in force for a period of 3 years and may be terminated upon 180 days’ advance notice of termination; however, the company may terminate the agreement without an advance notice and without compensation if the following shall occur: (a) Mr. Sheratzky is convicted of a criminal offense involving moral turpitude; (b) a final court ruling (without the possibility of appeal) determines that Mr. Sheratzky has breached his fiduciary duty towards the company; (c) a final court ruling (without the possibility of appeal) determines that Mr. Sheratzky has materially breached the agreement through the unauthorized disclosure of company’s secrets or competition with the company. The aggregate amount paid to ORAS Capital Ltd in , 2021 , 2022 and 2023 was approximately, $2,692,000, $2,679,000  and $1,727,000, respectively (the numbers include value added tax).
 
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Mr. Nir Sheratzky shall provide his services as an independent contractor through Galnir Management and Investments Ltd., which shall be entitled to a monthly payment of NIS189 ,000 (or $51,000) plus VAT, linked to the consumer price index for December 2013. At the request of the service provider, part of the fixed monthly pay may be granted through benefits, such as the provision of a company car for the use of Mr. Sheratzky and the payment of its maintenance costs and the cost of tax resulting therefrom. The fixed monthly pay shall also include Mr. Sheratzky’s entitlement for a 25 days’ vacation and sick days as provided by law. The service provider shall also be entitled to payment or reimbursement of expenses, including hosting expenses and subsistence allowance abroad. The service provider shall be entitled to Target-based Cash Incentives and Excess Return Cash Incentives as detailed below. The agreement shall be in force for a period of 3 years and may be terminated upon 180 days’ advance notice of termination; however, the company may terminate the agreement without an advance notice and without compensation if the following shall occur: (a) Mr. Sheratzky is convicted of a criminal offense involving moral turpitude; (b) a final court ruling (without the possibility of appeal) determines that Mr. Sheratzky has breached his fiduciary duty towards the company; (c) a final court ruling (without the possibility of appeal) determines that Mr. Sheratzky has materially breached the agreement through the unauthorized disclosure of company’s secrets or competition with the company. The aggregate amount paid to Galnir Management and Investments Ltd, in ,2021, 2022 and 2023 was approximately, $2,692,000 , $2,679,000  and $1,727,000  respectively (the numbers include value added tax).
 
Mr. Gil Sheratzky shall provide his services as an independent contractor through ZERO-TO-ONE S.B.L. INVESTMENTS LTD., which shall be entitled to a monthly payment of NIS135,000 (or $37,000) plus VAT, linked to the consumer price index for December 2013. At the request of the service provider, part of the fixed monthly pay may be granted through benefits, such as the provision of a company car for the use of Mr. Sheratzky and the payment of its maintenance costs and the cost of tax resulting therefrom. The fixed monthly pay shall also include Mr. Sheratzky’s entitlement for a 25 days’ vacation and sick days as provided by law. The service provider shall also be entitled to payment or reimbursement of expenses, including hosting expenses and subsistence allowance abroad. The service provider shall be entitled to Target-based Cash Incentives and Excess Return Cash Incentives as detailed below. The agreement shall be in force for a period of 3 years and may be terminated upon two months’ advance notice of termination; however, E-Com may terminate the agreement without an advance notice and without compensation if the following shall occur: (a) Mr. Sheratzky is convicted of a criminal offense involving moral turpitude; (b) a final court ruling (without the possibility of appeal) determines that Mr. Sheratzky has breached his fiduciary duty towards E-Com; (c) a final court ruling (without the possibility of appeal) determines that Mr. Sheratzky has materially breached the agreement through the unauthorized disclosure of E-Com’ and/or company’s secrets or competition with E-Com and/or the company. The aggregate amount paid to ZERO-TO-ONE S.B.L. INVESTMENTS LTD, in ,2021 and 2022 and   2023  according to this new service agreement, were approximately, $1,934,000 , $1,841,000 and $1,227,000 respectively (the numbers include value added tax).
 
Each of the above agreements also provides that the executives may request to provide their services to the company as an employee, and not through a service provider, and in such event, the they shall execute an employment agreement with the company, in lieu of the above service agreements, which shall also set forth the provisions of social security and other benefits that the company usually grants its senior executive officers (which may not deviate from the provisions of the Compensation Policy in this respect). In any event, it was agreed that the nature of the agreement pursuant to which the services are provided shall not affect the cost to us of the provision of the services as set forth in the service agreements.
 
The aforementioned agreements were extended on April 20, 2020 (commencing as of February 1, 2020) subject to the approval of our next general shareholders meeting, for additional three years, with accordance to the provisions of Israeli Company Law and Israeli Companies Regulations (Relaxations in Transactions with Interested Parties) 5760-2000, and were approved accordingly by our compensation committee and our board of directors. Our shareholders meeting approved the aforementioned agreements for an additional period of three years on December 10, 2020.
 
All agreements mentioned above are in compliance with our amended compensation policy as approved on November 7, 2016 and re approved on December 12, 2019, and thereafter on December 14, 2022, by the Company’s general meeting of shareholders, which sets forth the principles of our office holders’ compensation.
 
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The terms of the Cash Incentives applicable to each of Messrs. Izzy Sheratzky, Eyal Sheratzky, Nir Sheratzky and Gil Sheratzky (the “Executive Office Holders”), as set forth in their agreements referred to above (the “Agreements”), are as follows:
 

“Target-based Cash Incentives” means a cash incentive awarded to the Executive Office Holders for the company’s achievement of the following Profit-Before-Tax targets in each calendar year following the effective date of the above agreements, in which the Minimum Threshold (as defined below) has been achieved:

Company’s Profit-Before-Tax Targets
(in USD thousands)
Level of Incentive - As a Percentage of the
Executive Office Holder’s Annual Cost of Pay
24,001 - 27,500          
20%
27,501-31,000          
45%
31,001-35,000          
75%
35,001-39,000          
110%
Above 39,001          
150%
 
“Minimum Threshold” means, with respect to a particular calendar year, a Minimum Company’s Return on Equity (as defined below) of 15%, and a minimum company’s Profit before Tax of USD 24 million.
 
“Return on Equity” means, with respect to a particular calendar year, the ratio between the net income for such year and the average of the shareholders’ equity at the beginning of such calendar year and at the end of each calendar quarter of such year; calculated in accordance with the company’s audited or reviewed consolidated financial statements for such year, as the case may be, after taking into account Executive Officers’ compensation, but excluding adjustments of the value of assets and obligations to their fair value in accordance with accounting standards.
 
“Profit-Before-Tax” means, with respect to a particular calendar year, the company’s profit before tax for such year in accordance with the company’s audited consolidated financial statements for such year, after taking into account Executive Officers’ compensation, but excluding adjustments of the value of assets and obligations to their fair value in accordance with accounting standards.
 
“Executive Officers” means Office Holders of the Company (“Nosei Misra”, as such term is defined in the Companies Law) who serve as the company’s President, Co-CEOs and other executives who are deemed Office Holders of the company, as well as Office Holders of the company’s Israeli wholly owned subsidiaries, provided they report to the CEO.
 
“Cost of Pay” means, with respect to independent contractors – their invoice amount plus company car and related expenses; and with respect to employees - their base pay (i.e. fixed gross amount payable to the employee in return for his services, excluding expenses, benefits and bonuses) plus 40% thereof.
 

Target-based Cash Incentives shall become payable upon the lapse of 30 days from the date of publication of the company’s audited annual financial statements (the “Entitlement Date”); and such cash incentive shall be paid on such date. However, if an Executive Office Holder’s Target-based Cash Incentives exceed an amount equal to 100% of such Executive Office Holder’s annual Cost of Pay (the “100% Threshold”), then 20% of the amount by which the Target-based Cash Incentives exceed the 100% Threshold (the “Deferred Portion”) shall not be paid on their Entitlement Date, but rather shall be deferred and paid in two equal instalments on the first and second anniversary of the Entitlement Date, provided that the Minimum Threshold was achieved during the first calendar year (for the first instalment) and during the second calendar year (for the second instalment) following the Entitlement Date, respectively. The Deferred Portion shall be linked to the consumer price index known on the Entitlement Date.
 

The company may pay to the Executive Office Holders advances on account of expected Target-based Cash Incentives, based on the company’s reviewed financial statements, prior to the Entitlement Date; provided that if on the Entitlement Date, it turns out that such advances exceed the Target-based Cash Incentives to which the Executive Office Holders are entitled, then the excess amounts shall be returned to the Company or shall be deducted from the payment of the remainder Target-based Cash Incentives on the Entitlement Date, as the case may be.
 

Excess Return Cash Incentives” means a cash grant based on the company’s Stock Yield as compared to the Russell 2000 Index’s Yield, as set forth below.
 
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Company’s Stock Yield” means the percentage of increase or decrease of the company’s stock price on Nasdaq over an Examined Period (as defined below), as adjusted for dividend distribution, calculated based on the average adjusted closing price of the company’s shares on the Nasdaq during the 5 business days prior to and the 5 business days after the commencement and end of such Examined Period.
 
Russell 2000 Index’s Yield” means the percentage of increase or decrease of the Russell 2000 Index over an Examined Period, calculated based on the average Russell 2000 Index closing quotes during the 5 business days prior to and the 5 business days after the commencement and end of such Examined Period.
 
At the end of each calendar year, the company shall examine the Company’s Stock Yield since January 1 of such year or, with respect to the first year of such grant – since the date of its approval (an “Examined Period”), as compared to the Russell 2000 Index’s Yield over such Examined Period; and to the extent that the Company’s Stock Yield exceeds the Russell 2000 Index’s Yield for such period, each of the Executive Office Holders shall receive an amount equal to 50% of his monthly Cost of Pay for each 1% of excess return (in percentage points’ terms), or a relative amount in the event of a partial excess return. For the avoidance of doubt, in the event that the Company’s Stock Yield during such period is negative, no grant shall be awarded.
 
The Excess Return Cash Incentive for each year shall not exceed an amount equal to the Executive Officer Holder’s annual Cost of Pay.
 

In the event that an Agreement is terminated during a calendar year, the company’s compensation committee and board of directors shall determine the relative amounts out of the Target-based Cash Incentives and/or Excess Return Cash Incentives to which the relevant Executive Office Holder is entitled for the portion of the year during which the Agreement was in force; and these amounts shall be paid within 30 days after the termination of service/employment, as the case may be.
 

On the date of determination of each Executive Office Holder’s entitlement for a Target-based Cash Incentive for a particular year, the company’s compensation committee shall examine whether the total amount of grants to which Executive Officers are entitled with respect to such calendar year and which constitute variable components of their terms of services (the “Total Amount of Grants to Executive Officers”), exceed an amount equal to 10% of the Company’s EBITDA for such year (the “EBITDA’s Threshold”), as calculated in accordance with data extracted from the company’s audited consolidated annual financial statements, after taking into account the Executive Officers’ fixed compensation but excluding their variable compensation. In such event, the amount by which the Total Amount of Grants to Executive Officers exceeds the EBITDA’s Threshold shall be referred to as the “Excess Amount”.
 

In the event that the Total Amount of Grants to Executive Officers exceeds the EBITDA’s Threshold, then the Target-based Cash Incentive and the Excess Return Cash Incentive to which an Executive Office Holder is entitled (together, the “Grants”) shall be reduced by an amount equal to the Executive Office Holder’s Rate of Grants (as defined below) out of the Excess Amount. The term “Executive Office Holder’s Rate of Grants” means, with respect to a particular Executive Office Holder, the percentage which such Executive Office Holder’s Grants constitute out of the Total Amount of Grants to Executive Officers.
 

The company’s board of directors shall have the right, under special circumstances at its discretion, to reduce the amount of Grants to which the Executive Office Holders are entitled, upon a 60 days prior notice.
 

The Executive Office Holder shall be required to return any compensation paid to them on the basis of results included in financial statements that turned out to be erroneous and were subsequently restated in the company’s financial statements published during the three year period following publication of the erroneous financial statements; to the extent they would not have been entitled to the compensation actually received had it been determined based on the restated financial statements. In such case, compensation amounts will be returned within 60 days from the date of publication of the restated financial statements, net of taxes that were withheld thereon. If the Executive Office Holder has a right to reclaim such tax payments with respect to Grants which were paid in excess, from the relevant tax authorities, then the Executive Office Holder shall reasonably act to reclaim such amounts from the tax authorities and upon their receipt, shall remit them to the company.
 
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In 2022 Executive Office Holders were eligible to Target based cash incentives at the maximum rate of (150%) as follows (which is included in the aforementioned payments according to the above new service agreements):

Executive Office Holders
 
Target-based Cash Incentive
   
Deferred Portion for the next 2 years
   
Deferred Portion from last 2 years
   
Total to be paid for 2022:
 
 
 
In US$ thousands
 
Izzy Sheratzky          
   
1,049
     
(73
)
   
73
     
1,049
 
Eyal Sheratzky          
   
854
     
(57
)
   
57
     
854
 
Nir Sheratzky          
   
854
     
(57
)
   
57
     
854
 
Gil Sheratzky          
   
610
     
(41
)
   
41
     
610
 
 
For the full-service agreements regarding the services of our President, Co-Chief Executive Officers and the Chief Executive Officer of E-Com, please see Exhibits 4.9-4.12(a) attached hereto.
 
On January 28, 2014, our general meeting of shareholders re-approved the terms of engagement of Professor Yehuda Kahane, which were set forth in a financial services agreement, dated March 23, 1998, between our company and Professor Kahane. Pursuant to this agreement, as amended in May 2003, we are obligated to pay Professor Kahane a monthly consulting fee of NIS15,000, or approximately $4,000, linked to the Israeli consumer price index as known on May 1, 2003. The term of the agreement automatically renews every two-years; however, either party may terminate it by providing a 180-day prior notice. The aggregate amounts paid to Professor Kahane by virtue of this agreement in each of the years 2021,2022 and 2023 were approximately $69,000, $70,000 and $66,000, respectively.
 
Transactions with our affiliates and associates
 
We purchase our GPS/GPRS equipment from our subsidiary, E.R.M Electronic Systems Limited. In  2021 and 2022 2023, Ituran, including its subsidiaries in Brazil, Argentina and USA, purchased GPS/GPRS equipment from E.R.M in the sum of approximately NIS64.6 Million (or $20.0 Million) NIS96.2 million (or $28.6 million) and NIS  95.1 ($26.2 million), respectively.
 

C.
INTERESTS OF EXPERTS AND COUNSEL
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 8.
FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 

A.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
For the audited financial statements and audit reports required to be contained in this annual report, please see Item 18 below.
 
Material Legal Proceedings
 
During year 2016 Brazilian Federal Communication Agency – Anatel issued a tax assessment for FUST contribution (contribution on telecommunication services) levied on the monitoring services rendered by us and additional tax assessment for FUNTELL contribution (contribution to Fund for the Technological Development of Telecommunication) levied on the monitoring services rendered by us regarding, all for the period 2007-2012.Total amounts of approximately R$28.0 million (US$5.6 million). as of December 2023 including interest and penalties. The reason Anatel demand the payment of FUST and FUNTELL from us is the fact that in order to provide monitoring services we need to operate telecommunication equipment in a given radio frequency. We hold a telecommunication license from Anatel (for information on our licenses see item 4B. “Information on the company” – “Business overview” under the caption “Regulatory Environment”). The authorities have construed that we render telecommunication services and taxes should be levied in relation to Net Revenues. Based on the legal opinion of the subsidiary’s Brazilian legal counsel we believe that such claim is without merit, the interpretation of the legislation is mistaken, given that we don’t render telecommunication services, but rather services of monitoring goods and persons for security purposes and therefore the chances of our success are more likely than not. We have filed our defence against such claims. We are currently awaiting the Lower Court or Administrative decisions on all the aforementioned FUST and FUNTELL claims.
 
10.B. – “Memorandum and Articles of Association” - “Our Corporate Practices under the Israeli Companies Law” under the caption “Approval of Transactions under Israeli law”
 
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Dividend distribution policy
 
For a description of our dividend policy, see Item 5.B – Liquidity and Capital Resources above.


B.
SIGNIFICANT CHANGES
 
Except as stated in this annual report, there are no significant changes since December 31, 2023.
 
ITEM 9.
THE OFFER AND LISTING
 

A.
LISTING DETAILS AND MARKET PRICE INFORMATION
 
Our ordinary shares have been trading on Nasdaq under the symbol “ITRN” since September 2005.
 

B.
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
 
Not applicable.
 

C.
MARKETS
 
Our ordinary shares are quoted on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ITRN”.
 

D.
SELLING SHAREHOLDERS
 
Not applicable.
 

E.
DILUTION
 
Not applicable.
 

F.
EXPENSES OF THE ISSUE
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 10.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
 

A.
SHARE CAPITAL
 
Not applicable.
 

B.
MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION
 
Our number with the Israeli Registrar of Companies is 52-004381-1. Our purpose appears in our memorandum of association and includes engaging in any lawful business.
 
Articles of Association; Israeli Companies Law
 
Articles of Association
 
Pursuant to our articles of association our objectives are to engage in any lawful business and our purpose is to operate in accordance with business considerations to maximize our profits. We may take into consideration, inter alia, the interests of our creditors, employee and the public interest. Please also see a summarized description of our purposes and activities under the caption “Overview” in Item B.4. above.
 
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Our Corporate Practice Under the Israeli Companies Law
 
Approval of Transactions under Israeli Law
 
Directors and executive officers
 
Fiduciary duties
 
Israeli law codifies the fiduciary duties that office holders owe to a company. An office holder is defined as any director, managing director, general manager, chief executive officer, executive vice president, vice president, other manager directly subordinate to the general manager or any other person assuming the responsibilities of any of these positions regardless of that person’s title. Each person listed in the table under “Management—Executive Officers and Directors” is an office holder of our company under the Israeli Companies Law.
 
An office holder’s fiduciary duties consist of a duty of loyalty and a duty of care. The duty of loyalty requires the office holder to avoid any conflict of interest between the office holder’s position in the company and personal affairs, and proscribes any competition with the company or the exploitation of any business opportunity of the company in order to receive personal advantage for himself or others. This duty also requires him or her to reveal to the company any information or documents relating to the company’s affairs that the office holder has received due to his or her position as an office holder. The duty of care requires an office holder to act with a level of care that a reasonable office holder in the same position would employ under the same circumstances. This includes the duty to use reasonable means to obtain information regarding the advisability of a given action submitted for his or her approval or performed by virtue of his or her position and all other relevant information pertaining to these actions.
 
Disclosure of Personal interest
 
Israeli law requires that an office holder promptly disclose to the board of directors any personal interest that he or she may have and all related material information known to him or her concerning any existing or proposed transaction with the company. A personal interest, as defined by the Israeli Companies Law, includes a personal interest of any person in an act or transaction of the company, including a personal interest of one’s relative or of a corporate body in which such person or a relative of such person is a 5% or greater shareholder, a holder of 5% or more of the voting rights, a director or general manager, or in which he or she has the right to appoint at least one director or the general manager, but excluding a personal interest stemming solely from one’s ownership of shares in the company. A personal interest also includes personal interest of a person voting pursuant to a proxy given by another person even if the other person does not have personal interest, regardless of whether the person given the proxy to vote at the meeting is given directions to vote in a certain manner or given discretion to vote independently. An office holder must disclose his personal interest no later than the first meeting of the company’s board of directors that discusses the particular transaction. An office holder is not obliged to disclose such information if the personal interest of the office holder derives solely of the personal interest of his or her relative in a transaction that is not an “extraordinary transaction.” The Israeli Companies Law defines an “extraordinary transaction” as a transaction not in the ordinary course of business, not on market terms or that is likely to have a material impact on the company’s profitability, assets or liabilities. The term “relative” is defined by the Israeli Companies Law as a spouse, sibling, parent, grandparent, descendent, and descendent, brother, sister or parent of a spouse or the spouse of any of the foregoing.
 
The Israeli Companies Law provides that once an office holder has complied with the disclosure requirement, a company may approve a transaction between the company and the office holder or a third party in which the office holder has a personal interest, or approve an action by the office holder that would otherwise be deemed a breach of duty of loyalty. Such a transaction generally requires approval by the board of directors, unless the articles of association provide otherwise. Our articles of association do not provide otherwise. If the transaction considered is an extraordinary transaction, audit committee approval is required prior to approval by the board of directors. For the approval of arrangements regarding the compensation, indemnification or insurance of executive officers and directors, see “Compensation arrangements” below. A company may not approve a transaction or action that is adverse to the company’s interest or that is not performed by the office holder in good faith.
 
A director who has a personal interest in a matter involving an extraordinary transaction, as defined in the Israeli Companies Law, which is considered at a meeting of the board of directors or the audit committee may not attend that meeting or vote on that matter, unless a majority of the directors or members of the audit committee, as applicable, also have a personal interest in the matter. Any transaction in which a majority of the directors has a personal interest requires shareholder approval.
 
Compensation arrangements
 
Subject to the provisions relating to related-party transactions as described below, the terms of office of office holders other than the chief executive officer and directors, require the approval of both our compensation committee and the board of directors; and the terms of office of chief executive officers and directors require the approval of the compensation committee, the board of directors and our shareholders. However due to the change in the Israeli Company law, from February 2016, the extension or renewal of terms of office of chief executive officer, which terms are not improving the previous terms or not significantly different, and are according to the compensation policy, shall not require approval by the shareholders meeting. In addition, according to recent changes in Israeli Company law, chief executive officer can decide upon insignificant change in the terms of office of his subordinate officers, subject to additional conditions and requirement to include such right in the compensation policy of the company (such requirement was fulfilled in our renewed compensation policy which was approved by our shareholder’s committee on November 7, 2016). In addition, according to Israeli Company Regulations (Relaxations in Transactions with Interested Parties) 5760-2000, transaction with board members and chief executive, on their term of office, which is according to the compensation policy and according to terms of office which are not better than the terms of office of previous holder of such position or there is no significant difference between the two engagements and relevant circumstances, including the scope of employment, may be approved by our compensation committee and the board of directors, and will not require general shareholders meeting approval until the next general meeting which will be announced by the company. “terms of office” includes the grant of an exemption, insurance, undertaking to indemnify or indemnification, retirement compensation, and any benefit, other payment or an undertaking to pay, which are granted by virtue of serving as an office holder.
 
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Shareholders
 
Controlling shareholders
 
Pursuant to Israeli law, the disclosure requirements regarding personal interests that apply to an office holder also apply to a “controlling shareholder” of a public company. A “controlling shareholder” is a shareholder who has the ability to direct the activities of a company, and for the purpose of the disclosure requirements and approval of related party transactions, the term includes any shareholder holding 25% or more of the voting rights if no other shareholder holds more than 50% of the voting rights in the company. Two or more shareholders with a personal interest in the approval of the same transaction are deemed to be one shareholder. Currently there is no shareholder of us who holds more than 25% of the voting rights.
 
Required approval
 
Extraordinary transactions of a public company and a controlling shareholder, or in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, including a private placement in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, a transaction concerning the terms of compensation of the controlling shareholder or the controlling shareholder’s relative, directly or indirectly, through a company controlled by him in respect of receipt of services from same and if he is an office holder or an employee – the terms of his employment, generally require the approval of the audit committee (or with respect to Terms of Office and Employment – the compensation committee), the board of directors and the shareholders, in that order. If required, shareholder approval must include the majority of shares voted at the meeting. In addition, either:
 
the majority must include at least the majority of the shares of disinterested shareholders voted at the meeting; or
the total number of shares of disinterested shareholders who voted against the transaction must not exceed 2% of the aggregate voting rights in the company.
 
Transactions for a period of more than three years generally need to be brought for approval in accordance with the above procedures every three years.
 
A Shareholder is required according to Israeli Companies Law in certain votes on transactions to disclose his/her personal interest. Failure to disclose such interest will invalidate the casted vote of such shareholder and the Company shall not count it. According to our Articles of Association, a Shareholder seeking to vote using a proxy with respect to a resolution which requires that the majority for its adoption include at least a specified majority of the votes of all those not having a personal interest (as defined in the Companies Law) shall mark on the Proxy, if he or she has Personal Interest in such resolution, and in such case the Company will not count his/her vote for such resolution. In event the shareholder will vote by other means than Proxy, he/she shall notify the company of his/her Personal Interest in writing prior to the time of the General Meeting. Such notice either in Proxy or in writing (as applicable) shall be a condition for the right to vote with respect to a resolution which requires that the majority for its adoption include at least a specified majority of the votes of all those not having a Personal Interest.
 
59

Shareholder duties
 
Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, a shareholder has a duty to act in good faith and in customary way toward the company and other shareholders and to refrain from abusing his or her power in the company, including, among other things, in voting at the general meeting of shareholders and class meetings with respect to the following matters:
 
an amendment to the company’s articles of association;
an increase of the company’s authorized share capital;
a merger; or
interested party transactions that require shareholder approval.
 
In addition, specified shareholders have a duty of fairness toward the company. These shareholders include any controlling shareholder, any shareholder who knows that it possesses the power to determine the outcome of a shareholder vote and any shareholder who has the power to appoint or to prevent the appointment of an office holder of the company or other power towards the company. The Israeli Companies Law does not describe the substance of this duty except to state that the remedies generally available upon a breach of contract will also apply in the event of a breach of the duty to act with fairness.
 
Anti take-over provisions; mergers and acquisitions under Israeli Law
 
Tender offers
 
Full Tender Offer. A person wishing to acquire shares or any class of shares, or voting rights of a publicly traded Israeli company and who would, as a result, hold over 90% of the company’s issued and outstanding share capital or of a class of shares that are listed, is required by the Israeli Companies Law to make a tender offer to all of the company’s shareholders or all shareholders of such class of shares, as applicable, for the purchase of all of the issued and outstanding shares of the company or of that class of shares, as applicable. If the shareholders who do not respond to the offer hold less than 5% of the issued share capital of the company or of that class of shares, as applicable, and the majority of shareholders who are disinterested accepted the offer, then all of the shares that the acquirer offered to purchase will be transferred to the acquirer by operation of law (however, full tender offer shall be accepted if shareholders who objected to the offer constituted less than 2% of the issued and outstanding share capital of the company to which the offer relates). However, the shareholders may petition the court to determine that the consideration for the shares constituted less than their fair value and that their fair value should be paid to the offerees. If the full tender offer is not accepted as described above, the acquirer may not acquire shares from shareholders who accepted the tender offer that would provide it over 90% of the company’s issued and outstanding share capital or of the shares comprising such class, as applicable.
 
Special Tender Offer. The Israeli Companies Law provides that an acquisition of shares of a public company must be made by means of a tender offer if as a result of the acquisition the purchaser would become a holder of 25% or more of the voting rights of the company. This rule does not apply if there is already another holder of 25% or more of the voting rights of the company. Similarly, the Israeli Companies Law provides that an acquisition of shares in a public company must be made by means of a tender offer if as a result of the acquisition the purchaser would become a holder of more than 45% of the voting rights of the company, if there is no other holder of more than 45% of the voting rights of the company. The foregoing provisions do not apply to:
 
a private placement in which the company’s shareholders approved such holder owning 25% or more of the voting rights of the company (provided that there is no other shareholder that holds 25% or more of the voting rights of the company); or more than 45% of the voting rights of the company (provided that there is no other shareholder that holds 45% or more of the voting rights of the company); or
a purchase from an existing holder of 25% or more of the voting rights of the company that results in another person becoming a holder of 25% or more of the voting rights of the company; or
purchase from an existing holder of more than 45% of the voting rights of the company that results in another person becoming a holder of more than 45% of the voting rights of the company.
 
In the event that a special tender offer is made, a company’s board of directors is required to express its opinion on the advisability of the offer or shall abstain from expressing any opinion if it is unable to do so, provided that it gives the reasons for its abstention. An office holder in a target company who, in his or her capacity as an office holder, performs an action the purpose of which is to cause the failure of an existing or foreseeable special tender offer or is to impair the chances of its acceptance, is liable to the potential purchaser and shareholders for damages, unless such office holder acted in good faith and had reasonable grounds to believe he or she was acting for the benefit of the company. However, office holders of the target company may negotiate with the potential purchaser in order to improve the terms of the special tender offer and may further negotiate with third parties in order to obtain a competing offer.
 
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If a special tender offer was accepted by a majority of the shareholders who announced their stand on such offer, then shareholders who did not announce their stand or who had objected to the offer may accept the offer within four days of the last day set for the acceptance of the offer.
 
In the event that a special tender offer is accepted, the purchaser or any person or entity controlling it at the time of the offer or under common control with the purchaser or such controlling person or entity shall refrain from making a subsequent tender offer for the purchase of shares of the target company and cannot execute a merger with the target company for a period of one year from the date of the offer, unless the purchaser or such person or entity undertook to effect such an offer or merger in the initial special tender offer.
 
Regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law provide that these tender offer requirements do not apply to companies whose shares are listed for trading outside of Israel if, according to the law in the country in which the shares are traded or the rules and regulations of the stock exchange on which the shares are traded:


There is a limitation on acquisition of any level of control of the company, or

The acquisition of any level of control requires the purchaser to offer a tender offer to the public.
 
Merger
 
The Israeli Companies Law permits merger transactions if approved by each party’s board of directors and shareholders. Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law and our articles of association as currently in effect, merger transactions may be approved by holders of a simple majority of our shares present, in person or by proxy, at a general meeting and voting on the transaction. In determining whether the required majority has approved the merger in the event of “cross ownership” between the merging companies, namely, if our shares are held by the other party to the merger, or by any person holding at least 25% of the outstanding voting shares or 25% of the means of appointing directors of the other party to the merger, then a vote against the merger by holders of the majority of the shares present and voting, excluding shares held by the other party or by such person, or anyone acting on behalf of either of them, including any of their affiliates, is sufficient to reject the merger transaction. If the transaction would have been approved but for the exclusion of the votes of certain shareholders as provided above, a court may still approve the merger upon the request of holders of at least 25% of the voting rights of a company, if the court holds that the merger is fair and reasonable, taking into account the value of the parties to the merger and the consideration offered to the shareholders. Upon the request of a creditor of either party to the proposed merger, the court may delay or prevent the merger if it concludes that there exists a reasonable concern that, as a result of the merger, the surviving company will be unable to satisfy the obligations of any of the parties to the merger. In addition, a merger may not be consummated unless at least 50 days have passed from the time that a proposal for approval of the merger has been filed with the Israeli Registrar of Companies and 30 days have passed from the date of the approval of the shareholders of the merging companies.
 
The Israeli Companies Law further provides that the foregoing approval requirements will not apply to shareholders of a wholly owned subsidiary in a roll-up merger transaction, or to the shareholders of the acquirer if:
 
the transaction is not accompanied by an amendment to the acquirer’s memorandum or articles of association;
the transaction does not contemplate the issuance of more than 20% of the voting rights of the acquirer that would result in any shareholder becoming a controlling shareholder; and
there is no “cross-ownership” of shares of the merging companies, as described above.
 
For these purposes, “controlling shareholder” is a shareholder who has the ability to direct the activities of a company, including a shareholder who owns 25% or more of the voting rights if no other shareholder owns more than 50% of the voting rights.
 
The Israeli Companies Law allows us to create and issue shares having rights different from those attached to our ordinary shares, including shares providing certain preferred or additional rights to voting, distributions or other matters and shares having preemptive rights. In the future, if we do create and issue a class of shares other than our ordinary shares, such class of shares, depending on the specific rights that may be attached to them, may delay or prevent a takeover or otherwise prevent our shareholders from realizing a potential premium over the market value of their ordinary shares. The authorization of a new class of shares will require an amendment to our articles of association. Shareholders voting at such a meeting will be subject to the restrictions under the Israeli Companies Law. See “Voting, Shareholder Meetings and Resolutions” below.
 
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Dividend and Liquidation Rights.
 
We may declare a dividend to be paid to the holders of our ordinary shares according to their rights and interests in our profits. If we dissolve, after satisfaction of liabilities to creditors, our assets will be distributed to the holders of our ordinary shares in proportion to their shareholdings. This right may be affected by the grant of preferential dividend or distribution rights to the holders of a class of shares with preferential rights that may be authorized in the future. Our articles of association provide that shareholder approval would not be required for the declaration of dividends. Dividends may only be paid out of our retained earnings or “profits” accrued over a period of two years, as defined in the Israeli Companies Law, whichever is greater, according to the last reviewed or audited financial reports of the company, provided that the date of the financial reports is not more than six months before the date of distribution (the “profits” test), and further provided that there is no reasonable concern that a payment of a dividend will prevent us from satisfying our existing and foreseeable obligations as they become due, as determined by our Board of Directors. However, if we do not meet the profit requirement, a court may allow us to distribute a dividend, as long as the court is convinced that there is no reasonable risk that a distribution might prevent us from being able to meet our existing and anticipated obligations as they become due. For more information on our ability to grant or declare dividends, see Item 8.A – Financial Information under the caption “Dividend Distribution Policy” above.
 
Voting, Shareholder Meetings and Resolutions.
 
As a foreign private issuer, we have elected to follow our home country practices in lieu of the Nasdaq Marketplace Rule requiring an issuer to hold its annual meeting of its shareholders no later than one year after the end of the issuer’s fiscal year-end. Specifically, according to the Israeli Companies Law, we are required to hold an annual general meeting of our shareholders once every calendar year, and no later than 15 months after the date of the previous annual general meeting. All meetings other than the annual general meeting of shareholders are referred to as special meetings. Our Board of Directors may call special meetings whenever it sees fit, at such time and place, within or outside of Israel, as it may determine. In addition, the Israeli Companies Law provides that the board of directors of a public company is required to convene a special meeting upon the request of (a) any two directors of the company or one quarter of its board of directors or (b) one or more shareholders holding, in the aggregate, (i) 5% of the outstanding shares of the company and 1% of the voting power in the company or (ii) 5% of the voting power in the company.
 
Pursuant to our articles of association, shareholders are entitled to participate and vote at general meetings and are the shareholders of record on a date to be decided by our Board of Directors, provided that such date is not more than 40 days, nor less than four days, prior to the date of the general meeting, except as otherwise permitted by the Israeli Companies Law. Furthermore, the Israeli Companies Law dictates that resolutions regarding the following matters must be passed at a general meeting of our shareholders:
 
amendments to our articles of association;
appointment or termination of our auditors;
appointment and dismissal of external directors;
approval of acts and transactions requiring general meeting approval pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law;
increase or reduction of our authorized share capital;
a merger; and
the exercise of the Board of Directors’ powers by a general meeting, if the Board of Directors is unable to exercise its powers and the exercise of any of its powers is required for our proper management.
 
The Israeli Companies Law and our articles of association require that a notice of any annual or special shareholders meeting will be provided 21 days prior to the meeting, except where the regulation prescribe for a period of not less than 35 days if the agenda includes certain resolutions to be adopted at the general meeting.
 
Pursuant to our articles of association, holders of ordinary shares have one vote for each ordinary share held on all matters submitted to a vote of the shareholders. These voting rights may be affected by the grant of any special voting rights to the holders of a class of shares with preferential rights that we may authorize in the future. The quorum required for our ordinary meetings of shareholders consists of at least two shareholders present in person or by proxy, who hold or represent between them at least thirty-three and one-third percent of the total outstanding voting rights. A meeting adjourned for lack of a quorum generally is adjourned to the same day in the following week at the same time and place or on a later date specified in the summons or notice of the meeting. At the reconvened meeting, any number of our shareholders present in person or by proxy shall constitute a lawful quorum.
 
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Our articles of association provide that, other than with respect to the amendment of the provisions of the articles of association with respect to the appointment of directors and a resolution for removal of a director and the resolution of removal of a director, which action requires a majority vote of 75%, all resolutions of the shareholders require a simple majority.
 
Israeli law does not provide for public companies such as ours to have shareholder resolutions adopted by means of a written consent in lieu of a shareholders meeting. The Israeli Companies Law provides that a shareholder, in exercising his or her rights and performing his or her obligations toward the company and its other shareholders, must act in good faith and in an acceptable manner and avoid abusing his or her powers. This is required, among other things, when voting at general meetings on matters such as changes to the articles of association, increasing the company’s registered capital, mergers and approval of related-party transactions. In addition, pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, any controlling shareholder, any shareholder who knows that its vote can determine the outcome of a shareholder vote and any shareholder who, under the company’s articles of association, can appoint or prevent the appointment of an office holder, is required to act with fairness towards the company.
 
An ordinary resolution requires approval by the holders of a simple majority of the voting rights represented at the meeting, in person, by proxy or by written ballot, and voting on the resolution. Under the Israeli Companies Law, unless otherwise provided in the articles of association or applicable law, all resolutions of the shareholders require a simple majority. A resolution for the voluntary winding up of the company requires the approval of holders of 75% of the voting rights represented at the meeting, in person, by proxy or by written ballot and voting on the resolution. For information regarding the majority required for approval of related party transactions, see “Approval of related party transactions under Israeli law” above.
 
Transfer of Shares and Notice.
 
Our ordinary shares that are fully paid are issued in registered form and may be freely transferred under our articles of association unless the transfer is restricted or prohibited by applicable law or rules of a stock exchange on which the shares are traded.
 
Election of Directors.
 
Our ordinary shares do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. As a result, the holders of a majority of the voting power represented at a shareholders meeting have the power to elect all of our directors, subject to the special approval requirements for external directors described under the caption “External directors” in Item 6.C. – “Board Practices” above. Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, the procedures for the appointment and removal and the term of office of directors, other than external directors, may be contained in the articles of association of a company. Our articles of association provide for staggered terms for directors. This provision may be amended only by a vote of 75% of our shares voting at a meeting of shareholders. The appointing mechanism of our directors is further described under the caption “Shareholders Agreement and Articles of Association of Moked Ituran Ltd.” in item 6.A. – “Directors and Senior Management” above.
 
Insurance, Indemnification and Exculpation of Directors and Officers.
 
Under the Israeli Companies Law, a company may not exculpate an office holder from liability for a breach of the duty of loyalty. An Israeli company may exculpate an office holder in advance from liability to the company, in whole or in part, for damages caused to the company as a result of a breach of duty of care but only if a provision authorizing such exculpation is included in its articles of association. Our articles of association do not include such a provision. An Israeli company may not exculpate a director for liability arising out of a breach of duty of care in respect of a prohibited dividend or distribution to shareholders.
 
Under the Israeli Companies Law, a company may indemnify an office holder in respect of the following liabilities and expenses incurred for acts performed as an office holder, either in advance of an event or following an event, provided a provision authorizing such indemnification is included in its articles of association:
 

Financial liability imposed on him or her in favor of another person pursuant to a judgment, settlement or arbitrator’s award approved by a court. However, if an undertaking to indemnify an office holder with respect to such liability is provided in advance then such an undertaking must be limited to events which, in the opinion of the board of directors, can be foreseen based on the company’s activities when the undertaking to indemnify is given, and to an amount or according to criteria determined by the board of directors as reasonable under the circumstances, and such undertaking shall detail the abovementioned events and amount or criteria.
 
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Reasonable litigation expenses, including attorneys’ fees, incurred by the office holder as a result of an investigation or proceeding instituted against him or her by an authority authorized to conduct such investigation or proceeding, provided that (i) no indictment was filed against such office holder as a result of such investigation or proceeding, and (ii) no financial liability, such as a criminal penalty, was imposed upon him or her as a substitute for the criminal proceeding as a result of such investigation or proceeding or, if such financial liability was imposed, it was imposed with respect to an offense that does not require proof of criminal intent or in connection with monetary penalty.
 

Reasonable litigation expenses, including attorneys’ fees, incurred by the office holder or imposed by a court in proceedings instituted against him or her by the company, on its behalf or by a third party or in connection with criminal proceedings in which the office holder was acquitted or as a result of a conviction for an offense that does not require proof of criminal intent. Under the Israeli Companies Law, a company may obtain insurance for an office holder against liabilities incurred in his or her capacity as an office holder if and to the extent provided in the company’s articles of association.
 

A breach of duty of loyalty to the company, to the extent that the office holder acted in good faith and had a reasonable basis to believe that the act would not prejudice the company.
 

A breach of duty of care to the company or to a third party, including a breach arising out of the negligent conduct of the office holder.
 

A financial liability imposed on the office holder in favor of a third party.
 
An Israeli company may not indemnify or insure an office holder against any of the following:
 

a breach of duty of loyalty, except to the extent that the office holder acted in good faith and had a reasonable basis to believe that the act would not prejudice the company;
 

a breach of duty of care committed intentionally or recklessly, excluding a breach arising out of the negligent conduct of the office holder;
 

an act or omission committed with intent to derive illegal personal benefit; or
 

a fine, civil fine, monetary penalty or forfeit levied against the office holder.
 
Under the Israeli Companies Law, exculpation, indemnification and insurance of office holders must be approved by our compensation committee and our board of directors and, in respect to our chief executive officer, directors and controlling persons, by our shareholders. However, due to the change in the Israeli Company law, from February 2016, the extension or renewal of terms of office (which includes exculpation, indemnification and insurance) of chief executive officer, which terms are not improving the previous terms or not significantly different, and are according to the compensation policy, shall not require approval by the shareholders meeting. In addition, according to changes in Israeli Company law from March 2016, chief executive officer can decide upon insignificant change in the terms of office of his subordinate officers, subject to additional conditions and requirement to include such right in the compensation policy of the company.
 
Our articles of association allow us to indemnify and ensure our office holders to the fullest extent permitted by the Israeli Companies Law. Our articles of association also allow us to insure or indemnify any person who is not an office holder, including any employee, agent, consultant or contractor who is not an office holder.
 
We currently have directors’ and officers’ liability insurance covering our officers and directors (including the officers and directors of our subsidiaries) against certain claims. No claims for liability have been filed under this policy to date.
 
Our compensation committee, board of directors and shareholders have resolved to indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by law and by our articles of association for liabilities that are of certain enumerated types of events, subject to an aggregate sum equal to 25% of the shareholders equity outstanding at the time a claim for identification is made as indicated by our then latest financial statements (which sum also includes all insurance amounts received by such directors and officers under directors and officers insurance policies maintained by us). For further details, see Item 7.B – Related Party Transactions above.
 
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Change in Capital.
 
Our articles of association enable us to increase or reduce our share capital. Any such changes are subject to the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law and must be approved by a resolution duly passed by our shareholders at a general meeting and voting on such change in the capital. In addition, transactions that have the effect of reducing capital, such as the declaration and payment of dividends in the absence of sufficient retained earnings and profits and an issuance of shares for less than their nominal value, require a resolution of the Board of Directors and court approval.
 

C.
MATERIAL CONTRACTS
 
For information concerning our service contracts with our President and Co-Chief Executive Officers, see Item 7.B – Related Party Transactions.
 

D.
EXCHANGE CONTROLS
 
Ordinary shares purchased by non-residents of Israel with certain non-Israeli currencies (including dollars) and any amounts payable upon the dissolution, liquidation or winding up of our affairs, as well as the proceeds of any sale in Israel of our securities to an Israeli resident, may be paid in non-Israeli currencies (including US dollars) or, if paid in NIS, may be converted into freely repatriable currencies at the rate of exchange prevailing at the time of conversion – pursuant to the general permit issued under the Israeli Currency Control Law, 1978, provided that Israeli income tax has been paid on (or withheld from) such payments. Because exchange rates between the NIS and the U.S. dollar fluctuate continuously, U.S. shareholders will be subject to any such currency fluctuation during the period from when a dividend is declared through the date payment is made in U.S. dollars. Investments outside Israel by our company no longer require specific approval from the Controller of Foreign Currency at the Bank of Israel.
 

E.
TAXATION
 
The following describes certain income tax issues relating to us and also certain income tax consequences arising from the purchase, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares. This discussion is for general information only and is not intended, and should not be construed, as legal or professional tax advice and does not cover all possible tax considerations. To the extent that the discussion is based on legislation yet to be judicially or administratively interpreted, there can be no assurance that the views expressed herein will accord with any such interpretation in the future. Accordingly, holders of our ordinary shares should consult their own tax advisor as to the particular tax consequences arising from your purchase, ownership and disposition of ordinary shares, including the effects of applicable Israeli, United States and other laws and possible changes in the tax laws.
 
The following discussion represents a summary of the material United States & Israeli tax laws affecting us and our shareholders.
 
United States Tax Considerations
 
The following discussion is a description of the material United States, or US, federal income tax considerations applicable to the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares by US Holders who hold such ordinary shares as “capital assets”. As used in this section, the term “US Holder” means a beneficial owner of an ordinary share who is:

an individual citizen or resident of the United States;
a corporation or partnership created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or of any state of the United States or the District of Columbia (other than a partnership, including any entity treated as a partnership for U.S. tax purposes, that is not treated as a US person under any applicable Treasury regulations);
an estate, the income of which is subject to United States federal income taxation regardless of its source; or
a trust if the trust has elected validly to be treated as a US person for United States federal income tax purposes or if a US court is able to exercise primary supervision over the trust’s administration and one or more US persons have the authority to control all of the trust’s substantial decisions.
 
The term “Non-US Holder” means a beneficial owner of an ordinary share who is not a US Holder. The tax consequences to a Non-US Holder may differ substantially from the tax consequences to a US Holder. This discussion does not address any aspects of US federal income tax which may be relevant to a Non-US Holder. Accordingly, Non-US Holders are strongly urged to consult with their own tax advisors.
 
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This description is based on provisions of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, existing, proposed and temporary US Treasury regulations and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof, each as available and in effect as of the date of this report. These sources may change, possibly with retroactive effect, and are open to differing interpretations. This description does not discuss all aspects of US federal income taxation that may be applicable to investors in light of their particular circumstances or to investors who are subject to special treatment under US federal income tax law, including:
 
insurance companies;
dealers or traders in stocks, securities or currencies;
financial institutions and financial services entities;
real estate investment trusts;
regulated investment companies;
grantor trusts;
persons that receive ordinary shares as compensation for the performance of services;
tax-exempt organizations;
persons that hold ordinary shares as a position in a straddle or as part of a hedging, conversion or other integrated instrument;
individual retirement and other tax-deferred accounts;
expatriates of the United States;
persons having a functional currency that is not the US dollar; or
direct, indirect or constructive owners of 10% or more, by voting power or value, of our ordinary shares.
 
This description also does not consider the US federal gift or estate tax or alternative minimum tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares.
 
If a partnership (or any other entity treated as a partnership for US federal income tax purposes) holds our ordinary shares, the tax treatment of a partner in such partnership will generally depend on the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. Such a partner should consult its tax advisor as to its tax consequences.
 
We urge our shareholders to consult with your own tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of acquiring, owning or disposing of our ordinary shares, including the effects of US federal, state, local and foreign and other tax laws. This summary does not constitute, and should not be construed as, legal or tax advice to holders of our shares.

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Medicare Tax
 
Beginning January 1, 2013, certain individuals, estates and trusts, which have income above the statutory threshold amounts, generally will be subject to a 3.8% Medicare tax on their investment income and gain, with limited exceptions. US Holders should consult their own tax advisors concerning Medicare tax consequences, if any, of owning or disposing of our ordinary shares.
 
Distribution Paid on the Ordinary Shares
 
As of November 16, 2009, our dividend policy provides for an annual dividend distribution in an amount not less than 50% of our net profits, calculated based on the audited financial statements for the period ending on December 31 of the fiscal year with respect to which the relevant dividend is paid. On February 21, 2012, we revised our dividend policy so that our dividends will be declared and distributed on a quarterly basis in an amount not less than 50% of our net profits, calculated on the basis of our reviewed quarterly financial statements each fiscal year. On February 27, 2017, the board of directors approved a change in the dividend policy. This policy called for a dividend of $5 million, at minimum per quarter. this policy became effective starting from the dividends for the first quarter of 2017. During 2020 and due to the Covid-19 effects, such distribution was suspended. On March 3, 2021, we declared the renewal of the dividend distribution policy of at least $3 million a quarter. This new policy became effective starting from the fourth quarter of 2020.
 
Subject to the discussion below under “Passive Foreign Investment Company Considerations”, US Holders, for US federal income tax purposes, will generally be required to include in their gross income as ordinary dividend income (unless qualifies as “qualified dividend income”) in the amount of any distributions made to them in cash or property (other than certain distributions, if any, of our ordinary shares distributed pro rata to all our shareholders), with respect to their ordinary shares, before reduction for any Israeli taxes withheld (without regard to whether any portion of such tax may be refunded to them by the Israeli tax authorities), to the extent that those distributions are paid out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits as determined for US federal income tax purposes. Subject to the discussion below under “Passive Foreign Investment Company Considerations”, distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as determined under US federal income tax principles will be applied first against, and will reduce their tax basis in, your ordinary shares and, to the extent they exceed that tax basis, will then be treated as capital gain. We do not maintain calculations of our earnings and profits under US federal income tax principles. Our dividends will not qualify for the dividends-received deduction generally available to corporate US Holders.
 
For a US Holder, if we pay a dividend in NIS, any such dividend, including the amount of any Israeli taxes withheld, will be includible in such US Holder’s income in a US dollar amount calculated by reference to the currency exchange rate in effect on the day the distribution is includible in your income, regardless of whether the NIS are converted into US dollars. Any gain or loss resulting from currency exchange fluctuations during the period from the date the dividend is includible in such US Holder’s income to the date that payment is converted into US dollars generally will be treated as ordinary income or loss.
 
A non-corporate US Holder’s “qualified dividend income” currently is subject to tax at reduced rates not exceeding 23.8% (including, if applicable, Medicare tax at a rate of 3.8%). For purposes of determining whether a non-corporate US Holders will have “qualified dividend income”, “qualified dividend income” generally includes dividends paid by a foreign corporation if either:
 
the stock of that corporation with respect to which the dividends are paid is readily tradable on an established securities market in the US, or
that corporation is eligible for benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty with the US that includes an information exchange program and is determined to be satisfactory by the US Secretary of the Treasury. The Internal Revenue Service has determined that the US-Israel Tax Treaty is satisfactory for this purpose.
 
In addition, under current law, a non-corporate US Holder must generally hold his ordinary shares for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning 60 days prior to the ex-dividend date in order for the dividend to qualify as “qualified dividend income”.
 
Dividends paid by a foreign corporation will not be treated as “qualified dividend income”, however, if such corporation is treated, for the tax year in which the dividend is paid or the preceding tax year, as a “passive foreign investment company” for US federal income tax purposes. We do not believe that we will be classified as a “passive foreign investment company” for US federal income tax purposes for our current taxable year. However, see the discussion under “Passive Foreign Investment Company Considerations” below.
 
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Foreign Tax Credit
 
Any dividends paid by us to a US Holder with respect to our ordinary shares generally will be treated as foreign source passive income for US foreign tax credit purposes. Subject to the foreign tax credit limitations, a US Holder may elect to credit any Israeli income taxes withheld from dividends paid on our ordinary shares against such shareholder’s US federal income tax liability (provided, inter alia, such shareholder satisfies certain holding requirements with respect to our ordinary shares). Amounts withheld in excess of the Treaty tax rate, however, will not be creditable against such shareholder’s US federal income tax liability. As an alternative to claiming a foreign tax credit, such shareholder may instead claim a deduction for any withheld Israeli income taxes, but only for a year in which such shareholder elects to do so with respect to all foreign income taxes. The amount of foreign income taxes that may be claimed as a credit in any year is subject to complex limitations and restrictions, which must be determined on an individual basis by each shareholder. Accordingly, our shareholders should consult their own tax advisor to determine whether their income with respect to their ordinary shares would be foreign source income and whether and to what extent they would be entitled to the credit.
 
Disposition of Ordinary Shares
 
Upon the sale or other disposition of ordinary shares, subject to the discussion below under “Passive Foreign Investment Company Considerations”, if a holder of our shares is a US Holder, such shareholder generally will recognize capital gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized on the disposition and such shareholder’s adjusted tax basis in the ordinary shares, which is usually the cost of such shares, in dollars. US Holders should consult their own advisors with respect to the tax consequences of the receipt of a currency other than dollars upon such sale or other disposition.
 
Gain or loss upon the disposition of the ordinary shares will be treated as long-term if, at the time of the disposition, the ordinary shares were held for more than one year. Long-term capital gains realized by non-corporate US Holders generally are subject to a lower maximum marginal US federal income tax rate than the maximum marginal US federal income tax rate applicable to ordinary income, other than qualified dividend income, as defined above, generally, not exceeding 23.8% (including, if applicable, Medicare tax at a rate of 3.8%). The deductibility of capital losses by a US Holder is subject to limitations. In general, any gain or loss recognized by a US Holder on the sale or other disposition of ordinary shares will be US source income or loss for US foreign tax credit purposes. US Holders should consult their own tax advisors concerning the source of income for US foreign tax credit purposes and the effect of the US-Israel Tax Treaty on the source of income.
 
Passive Foreign Investment Company Considerations
 
Special US federal income tax rules apply to US Holders owning shares of a “passive foreign investment company”, or a PFIC, for US federal income tax purposes. A non-US corporation will be considered a PFIC for any taxable year in which, after applying look-through rules, either
 
75% or more of its gross income consists of specified types of passive income, or
50% or more of the average value of its assets consists of passive assets, which generally means assets that generate, or are held for the production of, “passive income.”
Passive income for this purpose generally includes dividends, interest, royalties, rents and gains from commodities and securities transactions and includes amounts derived by reason of the temporary investment of funds. If we were classified as a PFIC, and you are a US Holder, you could be subject to increased tax liability upon the sale or other disposition of ordinary shares or upon the receipt of amounts treated as “excess distributions” (generally, your ratable portion of distributions in any year which are greater than 125% of the average annual distribution received by you either in the shorter of the three preceding years or your holding period). Under these rules, the excess distribution and any gain would be allocated rateably over our shareholders’ holding period for the ordinary shares, and the amount allocated to the current taxable year and any taxable year prior to the first taxable year in which we were a PFIC would be taxed as ordinary income. The amount allocated to each of the other taxable years would be subject to tax at the highest marginal rate in effect for the applicable class of taxpayer for that year, and an interest charge for the deemed deferral benefit would be imposed on the resulting tax allocated to such other taxable years. In addition, holders of stock in a PFIC may not receive a “step-up” in basis on shares acquired from a decedent. If any of our shareholders are US Holders who hold ordinary shares during a period when we are a PFIC, such shareholders be subject to the foregoing rules even if we cease to be a PFIC.
 
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We believe that we will not be classified as a PFIC for US federal income tax purposes for our current taxable year and we anticipate that we will not become a PFIC in any future taxable year based on our financial statements, our current expectations regarding the value and nature of our assets, and the sources and nature of our income. This conclusion, however, is a factual determination that must be made annually based on income and assets for the entire taxable year and thus may be subject to change. It is not possible to determine whether we will be a PFIC for the current taxable year until after the close of the year and our status in future years depends on our income, assets and activities in those years. In addition, because the market price of our ordinary shares is likely to fluctuate and the market price of the shares of technology companies has been especially volatile, and because that market price may affect the determination of whether we will be considered a PFIC, we cannot assure any US Holder that we will not be considered a PFIC for any taxable year.
 
If we were a PFIC, our shareholders could avoid certain tax consequences referred to above by making an election to treat us as a qualified electing fund or by electing to mark the ordinary shares to market. A US Holder may make a qualified electing fund election only if we furnish the US Holder with certain tax information and we do not presently intend to prepare or provide this information. Alternatively, a US Holder of PFIC stock that is publicly traded may elect to mark the stock to market annually and recognize as ordinary income or loss each year an amount equal to the difference as of the close of the taxable year between the fair market value of the PFIC stock and the US Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the PFIC stock. Losses would be allowed only to the extent of net mark-to-market gain previously included by the US Holder under the election for prior taxable years. This election is available for as long as our ordinary shares constitute “marketable stock,” which includes stock that is “regularly traded” on a “qualified exchange or other market.” We believe that the Nasdaq Global Select Market will constitute a qualified exchange or other market for this purpose. However, no assurances can be provided that our ordinary shares will continue to trade on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or that the shares will be regularly traded for this purpose.
 
According to law amendments effective in 2010, US persons that are shareholders in a PFIC generally will be required to file an annual report disclosing the ownership of such shares and certain other information.
 
The rules applicable to owning shares of a PFIC are complex, and our shareholders should consult with their own tax advisor regarding the tax consequences that would arise if we were treated as a PFIC.
 
Information Reporting and Back-up Withholding
 
Dividend payments with respect to ordinary shares and proceeds from the sale or disposition of ordinary shares made within the United States or by a US payor or US middleman may be subject to information reporting to the Internal Revenue Service and possible US backup withholding. Certain exempt recipients (such as corporations) are not subject to these information reporting requirements. Backup withholding also will not apply to a US Holder who furnishes a correct taxpayer identification number and makes any other required certification or otherwise is exempt from US backup withholding requirements. US Holders who are required to establish their exempt status must provide such certification on Internal Revenue Service Form W-9. US Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of the US information reporting and backup withholding rules.
 
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be credited against a US Holder’s US federal income tax liability and a US Holder may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by filing the appropriate claim for refund with the Internal Revenue Service and furnishing any required information in a timely manner. The above description is not intended to constitute a complete analysis of all tax consequences relating to acquisition, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares. Our shareholders are urged to consult their own tax advisor concerning the tax consequences of their particular situation.
 
Israeli Tax Considerations
 
The following is a summary of the current material Israeli tax laws applicable to companies in Israel with special reference to its effect on us. This section also contains a discussion of certain Israeli government programs from which we may benefit and some Israeli tax consequences to persons acquiring ordinary shares. This summary does not discuss all the acts of Israeli tax law that may be relevant to a particular investor in light of his or her personal investment circumstances or to some types of investors subject to special treatment under Israeli law. Examples of this kind of investor include residents of Israel, traders in securities or persons that own, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of our outstanding capital, all of whom are subject to special tax regimes not covered in this discussion. Some parts of this discussion are based on new tax legislation that has not been subject to judicial or administrative interpretation. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that the views expressed in the discussion will be accepted by the tax authorities in question. The discussion is not intended and should not be construed as legal or professional tax advice and does not cover all possible tax considerations.
 
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The discussion below should not be construed as legal or professional tax advice and does not cover all possible tax considerations. Potential investors are urged to consult their own tax advisors as to the Israeli or other tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares, including in particular, the effect of any foreign, state or local taxes.
 
General Corporate Tax Structure in Israel
 
Israeli companies are generally subject to corporate tax on their taxable income. In 2013 the corporate tax rate was 25%. On August 5, 2013 the Israeli Parliament amended the Income Tax Ordinance, by which, inter alia, the corporate tax rate was raised by 1.5% to a rate of 26.5% s from 2014, and in 2015was 26.5%, and for 2016 the corporate tax decreased to a rate of 25%. According to new amendment, the regular corporate tax for 2017 decreased to a rate of 24% and, as of 2018 and thereafter, there will be a further reduction to 23%. Capital gains derived after January 1, 2010 are subject to a corporate tax rate imposed in the sale year.
 
Tax Benefits Under the Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, 1959, as amended
 
Under the Israeli law, Israeli subsidiary of the company is entitled to various tax benefits by virtue of the “Preferred Enterprise” status that was granted to her production under the “Investment Law”. There can be no assurance that this Israeli subsidiary will continue to qualify as “Preferred Enterprises” in the future or that the benefits will be granted in the future.
 
Reform of the Investments Law under the 2010 and 2013 Amendments
 
On December 29, 2010, the Israeli parliament approved an amendment to the Investments Law, effective as of January 1, 2011, which introduces a new status of “Preferred Company” and “Preferred Enterprise”. The amendment allows enterprises meeting certain required criteria to enjoy grants as well as tax benefits. The amendment also introduces certain changes to the map of geographic development areas for purposes of the Investments Law, which will take effect in future years. The amendment generally abolishes the previous tax benefit routes that were afforded under the Investment Law, specifically the tax-exemption periods previously allowed, and introduces new tax benefits for industrial enterprises meeting the criteria of the law, which include among others the following:
 
On August 5, 2013 the Israeli Parliament amended the Investments Law, by which, inter alia, it cancelled the scheduled progressive reduction in the corporate tax rate for Preferred Enterprises and set it at 16% for enterprises located elsewhere as of January 1, 2014.
 
On December 2016 the Israeli Parliament amended the Investments Law, by which, inter alia, it reduced for Preferred Enterprises which is located in areas other than “Development Zone A” and set it at 7.5% for enterprises located elsewhere as of January 1, 2017.
 

The reduced tax rates will no longer be contingent upon making a minimum qualifying investment in productive assets.
 

A definition of “preferred income” was introduced into the Investments Law to include certain types of income that are generated by the Israeli production activity of a preferred enterprise.
 
A Preferred Company (as defined in the Investments Law) may generally elect to apply the provisions of the amendment to preferred income produced or generated by it commencing from January 1, 2011. The amendment provides various transitional provisions which allow, under certain circumstances, to apply the new regime to investment programs previously approved or elected under the Investments Law in its previous form, or to continue existing investment programs under the provisions of the Investment Law in its previous form for a certain period of time.
 
As of December 31, 2023, only 1 of our Israeli subsidiaries is entitled to a “Preferred Company” status pursuant to the Investments Law.(see Note 15 c.2 to the Financial Statements).
 
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Tax Benefits under the 2016 Amendment
 
In December 2016 new legislation amended the Investment Law (the “2016 Amendment”). Under the 2016 Amendment a new status of “Technological Preferred Enterprise” was introduced to the Investment Law.
 
Technological Preferred Enterprise – an enterprise which, amongst other conditions, is part of a consolidated group with consolidated revenues of less than NIS10 billion. A Technological Preferred Enterprise which is located in areas other than Development Zone A will be subject to tax at a rate of 12% on profits derived from intellectual property, and a Technological Preferred Enterprise in Development Zone A will be subject to tax at a rate of 7.5%. Income not eligible for Technological Preferred Enterprise is taxed at the regular corporate tax rate or at the preferred tax rate as mentioned above, as the case may be.
 
As of December 31, 2023, 2 of our Israeli subsidiaries are entitled to a “Technological Preferred Enterprise” status pursuant to the Investments Law.
 
Taxation of Non-Israeli Subsidiaries
 
Non-Israeli subsidiaries are generally taxed based upon tax laws applicable in their countries of residence. In accordance with the provisions of Israeli-controlled foreign corporation rules, certain income of a non-Israeli subsidiary, if the subsidiary’s primary source of income is passive income (such as interest, dividends, royalties, rental income or income from capital gains), may be deemed distributed as a dividend to the Israeli parent company and consequently is subject to Israeli taxation. An Israeli company that is subject to Israeli taxes on such deemed dividend income of its non-Israeli subsidiaries may generally receive a credit for non-Israeli income taxes paid by the subsidiary in its country of residence or are to be withheld from the actual dividend distributions.
 
On December 23, 2013 the Israeli Parliament amended the Income Tax Ordinance, with profound changes to the tax treatment of CFC, mainly with regard to the following:
 

Reducing the tax rate criterion: a company is considered CFC If the tax rate applicable to passive income does not exceed 15 % (instead of 20 %).
 

Sale of a security will be considered passive income, unless the holding duration is less than one year and it has been shown that the security served in a business.
 

Cancel the notional credit mechanism and replacing it with dividend deduction against the actual dividend distribution. Tax refund may be allowed under certain conditions.
 

Dividends derived from income that was taxed at a rate of at least 15% shall not be considered “passive income” under certain conditions.
 
Taxation of our shareholders
 
Capital Gains Taxes Applicable to Israeli Resident Shareholders
 
The income tax rate applicable to Real Capital Gain derived by an Israeli individual from the sale of shares which had been purchased after January 1, 2012, whether listed on a stock exchange or not, is 25%. However, if such shareholder is considered a “Substantial Shareholder” (as defined below) at the time of sale or at any time during the preceding 12-month period, such gain will be taxed at the rate of 30%. A “substantial shareholder” is generally a person who alone, or together with his relative or another person who collaborates with him on a permanent basis, hold, directly or indirectly, at least 10% of any of the “means of control” of the corporation. “Means of control” generally include the right to vote, receive profits, nominate a director or an officer, receive assets upon liquidation, or order someone who holds any of the aforesaid rights how to act, and all regardless of the source of such right.
 
Generally, as of January 1, 2012, the tax rate applicable to capital gains derived from by Israeli resident company on the sale of shares, whether listed on a stock market or not, is the corporate tax rate in Israel (commencing from January 1, 2018, 23%).
 
Commencing as of January 1, 2017, an individual whose taxable income during a tax year is in excess of NIS640,000, will be liable for an additional 3% on the portion that is in excess of NIS  640,000 (as of January 1, 2024, the amount is 721,560NIS).
 
Moreover, capital gains derived by a shareholder who is a dealer or trader in securities, or to whom such income is otherwise taxable as ordinary business income, are taxed in Israel at ordinary income rates (currently up to 48% for individuals in 2014). Pursuant to Amendment No. 234 to the Income Tax Ordinance there was a decrease of 1% and stands at 47% from January 1, 2017 and onwards.
 
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Taxation of Israeli shareholders on receipt of dividends
 
Israeli resident individuals are subject to Israeli income tax on the receipt of dividends paid, at the rate of 25%, or 30% for a shareholder that is considered a “Substantial Shareholder” (as defined above) at any time during the 12-month period preceding such distribution. A distribution of dividend to Israeli resident individuals from income attributed to a Preferred Enterprise income or a Technological Preferred Enterprise income will be generally subject to a withholding tax rate of 20%. An individual whose taxable income during a tax year is in excess of NIS810,720, will be liable for an additional 2% on the portion that is in excess of NIS810,720. From January 1, 2017 taxpayers having taxable income of NIS640,000 will be subject to an additional tax payment at the rate of 2% (and commencing from January 1, 2017 – an additional tax payment at the rate of 3%) on the portion of their taxable income for such tax year that is in excess such threshold. For this purpose, taxable income includes taxable capital gains from the sale of our shares and taxable income from dividend distributions.
 
Dividends paid from income derived from Preferred Enterprises are subject to withholding at the rate of 20%. Any dividends distributed to foreign companies, as defined in the Investment law, derived from income from the Technological Preferred Enterprise will be subject to tax at a rate of 4%, provided the foreign company holds over 90% of the outstanding shareholding.
 
Dividends paid on our ordinary shares to Israeli companies are exempt from such tax, except for dividends distributed from income derived outside of Israel, which are subject to the corporate tax rate.
 
Taxation of non-Israeli shareholders on receipt of dividends.
 
Non-residents of Israel are subject to income tax on income accrued or derived from sources in Israel, including dividends paid by Israeli companies. On distributions of dividends other than stock dividends, income tax (generally collected by means of withholding) will generally apply at the rate of 25%, or 30% for a shareholder that is considered a significant shareholder (as defined above) at any time during the 12-month period preceding such distribution, unless a different rate is provided in a treaty between Israel and the shareholder’s country of residence. Dividends paid from income derived from Approved or Benefited Enterprises are subject to withholding at the rate of 20%, or 4% for Benefited Enterprises in the Ireland Track. Under the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, the maximum tax on dividends paid to a holder of ordinary shares who qualifies as a resident of the United States within the meaning of the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty is 25%. The treaty provides for reduced tax rates on dividends if (a) the shareholder is a U.S. corporation holding at least 10% of our issued voting power during the part of the tax year that precedes the date of payment of the dividend and held such minimal percentage during the whole of its prior tax year, and (b) not more than 25% of the Israeli company’s gross income consists of interest or dividends, other than dividends or interest received from subsidiary corporations or corporations 50% or more of the outstanding voting shares of which is owned by the Israeli company. The reduced treaty rate, if applicable, is 15% in the case of dividends paid from income derived from Approved, Benefited or Preferred Enterprise or 12.5% otherwise and subject that the non-Israeli shareholder would provide to prior to the divided distribution a certificate from the Israeli Tax Authority for the reduce tax rates under the tax treaty with their country of residence and additional conditions must be met A distribution of dividend to non-Israeli resident from income attributed to a Preferred Enterprise will be generally subject to withholding tax rates of 20%, subject to a reduced rate under the provisions of any applicable double tax treaty.
 
A non-resident of Israel who receives dividends from which full tax was withheld is generally exempt from the duty to file returns in Israel in respect of such income, provided such income was not derived from a business conducted in Israel by the taxpayer, and the taxpayer has no other taxable sources of income in Israel.
 
Capital Gains Taxes Applicable to Non-Israeli Resident Shareholders.
 
Israeli law generally imposes a capital gains tax on the sale of securities and any other capital asset. But, generally  non-Israeli residents are exempt from Israeli capital gains tax on any gains derived from the sale of shares of Israeli companies publicly traded on a recognized stock exchange or regulated market outside of Israel, provided that the shares were purchased after January 1, 2009, capital gain does not belong to the foreign resident’s permanent establishment in Israel, the security was not acquired by the foreign resident from a relative and the shares are not listed on Israeli stock exchange upon the sale of the shares. After the company’s shares had been listed for trading on a foreign Exchange capital gain does not belong to the foreign resident’s permanent establishment in Israel, the shares had to be acquired after the listing of the shares of the company on a stock exchange outside of Israel, and the provisions of section 101 of the Ordinance, the provisions of the Adjustments Law and provisions under section 130A of the Ordinance do not apply to the capital gain, non-Israeli corporations will not be entitled to such exemption if an Israeli resident (i) has a controlling interest of more than 25% in such non-Israeli corporation, or (ii) is the beneficiary or is entitled to 25% or more of the revenues or profits of such non-Israeli corporation, whether directly or indirectly.
 
In some instances where our shareholders may be liable to Israeli tax on the sale of their ordinary shares, the payment of the consideration may be subject to the withholding of Israeli tax at the source.
 
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F.
DIVIDENDS AND PAYING AGENTS
 
Not applicable.
 

G.
STATEMENT BY EXPERTS
 
Not applicable.
 

H.
DOCUMENTS ON DISPLAY

We are subject to certain information reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, applicable to foreign private issuers and under those requirements will file reports with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet website that contains reports and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. Our filings with the SEC are also available to the public through the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
 
As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from the rules under the Exchange Act related to the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders will be exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required under the Exchange Act to file annual, quarterly and current reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. domestic companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. However, we will file with the SEC, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, or such applicable time as required by the SEC, an annual report on Form 20-F containing financial statements audited by an independent registered public accounting firm, and may submit to the SEC, on a Form 6-K, unaudited interim financial information.
 
We maintain a corporate website at http://www.ituran.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website and the other websites referenced above do not constitute a part of this annual report on Form 20-F. We have included these website addresses in this annual report on Form 20-F solely as inactive textual references.
 

I.
SUBSIDIARY INFORMATION
 
Not applicable.
 

J.
ANNUAL REPORT TO SECURITY HOLDERS
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 11.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
 
The principal market risks to which we are exposed as a result of our operations are foreign exchange rate risks and interest rate risks.
 
Foreign exchange rate risk

Although we report our consolidated financial statements in dollars, in 2021  2022 and 2023 , a portion of our revenues and direct expenses was derived in other currencies. For fiscal years ,2021 and 2022 and 2023, we derived approximately 24.3% ,24.8% and 25.3% of our revenues in dollars and other currencies, 52.0% 51.6% and 48.3%, in NIS, 21.4% , 23.6% and 26.4% in Brazilian Reals. In fiscal years, 2021 , 2022 and 2023 , 30.9% , 28.1% and 27.0% of our expenses were incurred in dollars and other currencies, 52.3%, 53.4% and 51.2% in NIS and 16.8% , 18.5% and 21.8% in Brazilian Reals.
 
Exchange differences upon conversion from our functional currency to dollars (presentation currency) are accumulated as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) under stockholders’ equity. In the year 2023 a profit of $0.8 million, in the year 2022 a loss of $4.6 Million.
 
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The fluctuation of the other currencies in which we incur our expenses or generate revenues against the dollar has had the effect of increasing or decreasing (as applicable) reported revenues, cost of revenues and operating expenses in such foreign currencies when converted into dollars from period to period. The following table illustrates the effect of the changes in exchange rates on our revenues, gross profit and operating income for the periods indicated:
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2021
   
2022
   
2023
 
 
 
Actual
   
At 2020
exchange
rates (1)
   
Actual
   
At 2021
exchange
rates (1)
   
Actual
   
At 2022
exchange
rates (1)
 
 
 
(In US$ thousands)
 
Revenues          
   
270,884
     
264,507
     
293,072
     
296,752
     
234,541
      329,420  
Gross profit          
   
126,482
     
123,734
     
137,562
     
139,120
      153,161
     
158,291
 
Operating income
   
54,615
     
53,595
     
58,774
     
59,218