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Invo Bioscience
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
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IVOB 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management S Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risks
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Note 1 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Organization
Note 2 Going Concern
Note 3 Inventory
Note 4 Property and Equipment
Note 5 Patents
Note 6 Convertible Notes and Notes Payable
Note 7 Other Related Party Transactions
Note 8 Stockholders' Equity
Note 9 Stock Options and Warrants
Note 10 Income Taxes
Note 11 Commitments and Contingencies
Note 12 Contracts with Customers
Note 13 Subsequent Events
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosures
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
Item 11. Executive and Director Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
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EX-4.4 ex_139927.htm
EX-10.3 ex_139932.htm
EX-10.4 ex_139060.htm
EX-10.5 ex_140838.htm
EX-21.1 ex_139832.htm
EX-31.1 ex_139833.htm
EX-31.2 ex_139834.htm
EX-32.1 ex_139835.htm
EX-32.2 ex_139836.htm

Invo Bioscience Earnings 2018-12-31

IVOB 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 invobio20181231_10k.htm FORM 10-K invobio20181231_10k.htm

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 


 

FORM 10-K

 


 

Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018

 

or

 

Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 

For the transition period from                                to                                     

         

INVO BIOSCIENCE, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in Charter)

 

Nevada

333-147330

20-4036208

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(Commission File No.)

(IRS Employee Identification No.)

 

407 Rear Mystic Avenue, Suite 34C, Medford, MA 02155

 (Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:   (978) 878-9505

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    YES  ☐    NO  ☒

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    YES  ☐    NO  ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    YES  ☒    NO ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  YES   ☒    NO  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,”  “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer   ☐

Accelerated filer     ☐

Non-accelerated filer     ☐ (Do not check if smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company    ☒

 

Emerging Growth Company ☐

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    YES☐      NO☒  

 

The aggregate market value of the voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the closing price as reported on the OTC QB Venture Market of the Over-the-counter “OTC” market for the Registrant’s common stock as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter of 2018 was $39,972,000.  There were no shares of non-voting common equity outstanding as of March 31, 2019.

 

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock, $0.0001 par value, as of April 12, 2019 was 154,711,112.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of the Registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement in connection with the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Proxy Statement”), to be filed within 120 days after the end of the Registrant’s fiscal year, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K. Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K, the Proxy Statement is not deemed to be field as a part hereof. 

 

 

FORM 10-K

INVO BIOSCIENCE, INC.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

Part I

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

Business

4

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

14

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

24

Item 2.

Properties

24

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

24

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

25

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part II

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrants Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

26

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

27

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

27

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk

34

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

35

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

36

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

37

Item 9B.

Other Information

37

 

 

 

Part III

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

38

Item 11.

Executive and Director Compensation

38

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

38

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

38

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

38

 

 

 

Part IV

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

39

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

41

 

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

Certain statements, other than purely historical information, including estimates, projections, statements relating to our business plans, objectives, and expected operating results, and the assumptions upon which those statements are based, are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. These forward-looking statements generally are identified by the words “believes,” “project,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “strategy,” “plan,” “may,” “will,” “would,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” and similar expressions. We intend such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe-harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, and are including this statement for purposes of complying with those safe-harbor provisions. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties which may cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements. Our ability to predict results or the actual effect of future plans or strategies is inherently uncertain. Factors which could have a material adverse effect on our operations and future prospects on a consolidated basis include, but are not limited to: changes in economic conditions, legislative/regulatory changes, availability of capital, interest rates, competition, and generally accepted accounting principles. These risks and uncertainties should also be considered in evaluating forward-looking statements and undue reliance should not be placed on such statements. We undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Further information concerning our business, including additional factors that could materially affect our financial results, is included herein and in our other filings with the SEC.

 

 

 

Part I

 

Item 1.  Business

 

Introduction

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K should be read together and in connection with the other reports that have been filed by us with the SEC for a comprehensive description of our financial condition and operating results.  In the interest of disclosure, we have included in this Form 10-K certain material events and developments that have taken place through the date of filing of this Form 10-K with the SEC.

 

In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, INVO Bioscience, Inc. (INVO Bioscience, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, is referred to in this document as “we”, “us”, “INVO Bioscience”, “INVO,” or the “Company”), incorporates by reference certain information from parts of other documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.  The Securities and Exchange Commission allows us to disclose important information by referring to it in that manner.  Please refer to all such information when reading this Annual Report on Form 10-K.  All information is as of December 31, 2018 unless otherwise indicated.  For a description of the risk factors affecting or applicable to our business, see “Risk Factors,” below.

 

The Company

 

INVO Bioscience’s mission is to increase access to care and expand fertility treatment and patient care across the globe. We have developed the INVOcell device and procedure, the first Intravaginal Culture (IVC) system granted FDA clearance in the United States, in hopes of providing millions of infertile couples across the globe access to this new infertility treatment. We believe this novel device and procedure provides a more natural, safe, effective and economical fertility treatment compared to current infertility treatments, including in-vitro fertilization (“IVF”) and intrauterine insemination (“IUI”). The patented INVOcell device is utilized during the incubation of eggs and sperm during fertilization and early embryo development. Unlike conventional infertility treatments such as IVF where the eggs and sperm develop into embryos in a laboratory incubator, the INVOcell utilizes the women’s vaginal cavity as an incubator to support a more natural fertilization and embryo development environment. This novel device promotes In Vivo conception and early embryo development.

 

In both current utilization of the INVOCell and in clinical studies, the INVO Procedure has proven to have equivalent pregnancy success rates and live birth rates as the traditional assisted reproductive technique IVF. Additionally, we believe there are psychological benefits of the potential mother’s participation in fertilization and early embryo development by vaginal incubation compared to that of traditional IVF treatment. This new technique offers to patients a more natural and personalized way to achieve pregnancy and is simple enough to be performed in an appropriately trained physician’s office or in a satellite facility of an IVF center.

 

For many couples struggling with infertility, access to treatment is often not available. Financial challenges, limited availability of specialized medical care, religious, social and cultural roadblocks can prevent these hopeful couples from realizing their dream to have a baby. There are many benefits to the INVO Solution, including:

 

Reduces the risk of errors of wrong embryo transfers since the embryos are never separated from the woman.

Allows patients to receive treatment at approximately half the cost of IVF treatment.

Promotes greater involvement by couples in the treatment and conception.

Creates a more natural and environmentally stable incubation than traditional IVF incubation in a laboratory.

Requires fewer office visits for the couples.

Reduces the worry of leaving embryos in an incubator where mix-ups have been known to occur.

 

INVO Bioscience was formed on January 05, 2007 under the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts under the name “Bio X Cell, Inc.” to acquire the assets of Medelle Corporation (“Medelle”).  Dr. Claude Ranoux purchased all of the assets of Medelle, and then he contributed those assets, including four patents relating to the INVOcell technology, to Bio X Cell, Inc. upon its formation in January 2007.

 

 

On December 5, 2008, Bio X Cell, Inc., doing business as INVO Bioscience, and each of the shareholders of INVO Bioscience entered into a share exchange agreement and consummated a share exchange with Emy’s Salsa AJI Distribution Company, Inc., a Nevada corporation (“Emy’s”). Upon the closing of the share exchange on December 5, 2008, the INVO Bioscience shareholders transferred all of their shares of Common Stock in INVO Bioscience to Emy’s.   In connection with the share exchange, Emy’s changed its name to “INVO Bioscience, Inc.” and Bio X Cell, Inc. became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Emy’s (re-named INVO Bioscience, Inc.).  After the closing, the Company had 53,245,000 shares of Common Stock outstanding.  

 

In May 2008, we received notice that the INVOcell product meets all the essential requirements of the relevant European Directive(s), and received CE Marking.  The CE marking (also known as CE mark) is a mandatory conformity mark on many products placed on the single market in the European Economic Area (EEA).  The CE marking (an acronym for the French “Conformite Europeenne”) certifies that a product has met EU health, safety and environmental requirements, which ensure consumer safety.  We are currently awaiting the approval of our CE Mark re-certification. With our anticipated re-certification of our CE Mark in the near future, we expect to obtain regulatory authority to distribute product in the European Economic Area, provided we comply with local registration requirements as discussed herein (i.e., the European Union, Australia, New Zealand, Africa and South America).  

 

On November 2, 2015 INVO Bioscience was notified by the United States Food & Drug Administration (“FDA”) that the INVOcell and INVO procedure were granted DeNovo classification allowing the Company to market the INVOCell in the United States. The company has since begun to market and sell the INVOcell in many locations across the U.S. and plans on continuing to penetrate the market through 2019 and beyond. The Company currently has 90 appropriately trained clinics or satellite facilities of IVF centers in the U.S. where patients can receive guidance and treatment for the INVO procedure for infertility.

 

As with most innovative bioscience businesses, one of the biggest challenges that INVO Bioscience faces is raising the appropriate capital to implement its business plan while opening markets across the globe. On November 12, 2018, INVO Bioscience entered into a Distribution Agreement with Ferring International Center S.A. (“Ferring”) granted to Ferring exclusive licensing rights to sublicense the Company’s INVOcell together with the retention device. Under the terms of the Distribution Agreement Ferring was obligated to make an initial payment to the Company of $5,000,000 upon satisfaction of certain closing conditions. We believe the developed business relationship between the Company and Ferring as a result of the Distribution Agreement will help INVO in any future capital raising efforts.

 

This discussion is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed discussion of our operations in the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis” section below.

 

The INVOcell Technology

 

Our product, the INVOcell medical device, is designed to treat infertility at a lower cost than other treatments available in today’s marketplace, including IVF.  The INVOcell technology is a fertility treatment where mild ovarian stimulation is used.  Using a mild stimulation protocol, 1-7 follicles are retrieved from a woman in a physician’s office with the patient under light sedation with or with local anesthesia.  The follicle retrieval is performed using a vaginal probe under ultrasound guidance.  Eggs are identified immediately after retrieval in the follicular fluid.  During the INVO Procedure, fertilization and embryo development occurs inside the woman’s vaginal cavity in a disposable single use device -- the INVOcell -- that holds the eggs, sperm and culture medium, a nutrient liquid.

 

Sperm collection and preparation generally occur before egg retrieval.  Culture medium (~1ml) is placed in the inner vessel of the INVOcell.  Eggs and a low concentration of motile sperm are placed into the medium and the inner vessel is closed and secured in the protective outer vessel.  The INVOcell is placed in the patient’s vaginal cavity for an incubation period of three (3) days in the United States and five (5) days in other countries.  A retention system can be used to maintain the INVOcell system in the vagina during the incubation period.  The retention system consists of a diaphragm type device with holes in the membrane to allow natural elimination of vaginal secretions.  The INVOcell is designed so that no vaginal fluids penetrate the outer vessel thus ensuring that the inner vessel is not contaminated while allowing the necessary CO2 for fertilization to pass through.  The eggs, sperm and media are inserted into the INVOcell and then the INVOcell is placed in the vaginal cavity, this process takes approximately 30 minutes. 

 

After three (3) to five (5) days, the patient returns to the physician’s office where the retention system and the INVOcell are removed.  The protective outer vessel is discarded and the contents of the inner vessel are placed into a petri plate an embryologist can evaluate the  best embryos for transfer.  A trained clinician can readily identify the best embryos for transfer. The embryos to be transferred are aspirated into a standard transfer catheter for transfer into the patient’s uterus.  This second visit should take approximately 30 minutes. All INVO related medical procedures can be performed in a physician’s office furnished with the necessary equipment thereby avoiding the requirements of an IVF facility and the associated costs to build and maintain such a facility.

 

 

Operations Strategy and Suppliers

 

INVO Bioscience operates by outsourcing many key operational functions in the development and manufacturing of the INVOcell device to keep fixed costs to a minimum.  Our most critical management and leadership functions are carried out by our core management team.  We have contracted out the manufacturing, packaging/labeling and sterilization of the device, respectively to a certified manufacturer to mold the parts; to a medical manufacturing company to assemble packages and label the product; and to a sterilization specialist to perform the gamma sterilization process.  Outsourcing such operations as described expedites production and eliminates the need for in-house capital equipment expenditures.

 

To date, we have completed a series of important steps in the development and manufacturing of the INVOcell:

 

   

Manufacturing:  Our parts and manufacturing processes have been validated.  Our facilities and Quality Management Systems (QMS) have been inspected twice by the FDA and have received very good reports. Manufacturing of inventory is ongoing.  As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately 100 INVOcell devices ready for sale, and a 3,600 in the assembly, sterilization and packaging phase.  Our suppliers provide us with virtually an unlimited capability, with all manufacturing done in New England.

   

All raw materials utilized for the INVOcell are medical grade and commonly used in medical devices (i.e.; medical grade silicone, medical grade plastic).  Our principal mold supplier is a well-established company in the molding industry and is ISO 9001 Certified.  Our contract manufacturer for the INVOcell is ISO 13485 Certified and FDA inspected. 

 ●   

CE Mark:  INVO Bioscience is in the process of re-certifying the CE Mark.  The CE Mark permits the sale of devices in Europe, Australia and other countries that recognize the CE Mark, subject to local registration requirements.

 ●   

Clinical Trials:  Safety and efficacy of the INVOcell device has been demonstrated and cleared for marketing and use by the U.S. FDA.  INVO Bioscience has received ISO 13485, MDD/CMDCAS registration which is effective through 2018.

 ●   

Support of Practitioners:  Clinicians and laboratory directors have used the INVO method and the feedback has been positive; practitioners appreciate the fact that it is a patient-friendly procedure, easy to perform and effective.

 ●   

Marketing Trials/Studies: A number of fertility clinics completed clinical studies in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil, South America, showing efficacy rates in the 33%-43% range.  A U.S. clinical study utilizing the INVOcell and procedure was completed in 2014 and yielded a clinical pregnancy rate of 60% and a live birth rate of 55%. The largest practice currently offering the INVO Procedure is experiencing a 60% pregnancy rate. Current US physicians that are treating patients with the INVO procedure are reporting pregnancy result minimally equivalent to IVF.

 

Current Market Opportunity

 

According to the European Society for Human Reproduction (“ESHRE”) in 2018, Assisted Reproductive Technologies (“ART”) Fact Sheet, there were more than 150 million infertile couples in the world.  While there have been large increases in the use of IVF, only 1.5 million ART cycles, including IVF, intra uterine insemination (“IUI”) and other fertility treatments, are now performed globally each year, producing around 350,000 babies.  This amounts to the treatment of approximately 3% of the infertile couples worldwide being treated and only1% having a child though IVF.  A survey by “Resolve: The National Infertility Association,” indicates the two main reasons couples do not use IVF is cost and geographical availability.  We can provide a locally available treatment option that can be performed in a facility without much of the expensive equipment required for IVF, and at less than half of the cost of IVF that will help millions of infertile couples throughout the world where IVF is not currently available or is too costly.

 

IVF is an effective treatment option for many infertile couples.  Our patented and proven INVO technology is a unique, low cost fertility treatment that is much simpler to perform than IVF.  The procedure can be provided without an IVF center and therefore can be available in many more locations than IVF.  We believe we are well positioned to capture a significant share of this unmet market.  With our INVOcell device and technique, fertilization and early embryo development happens within the vaginal cavity rather than an incubator.  Oocytes and sperm are fertilized and developed into embryos within the INVO device while contained by the woman’s vaginal cavity.

 

According to ESHRE (2014), approximately 1% of infertile couples have a child by an infertility treatment, including IVF, intra uterine insemination (“IUI”) and other fertility treatments, this represents a $6.6 billion worldwide market annually.  This leaves most of the infertile couples untreated with an estimated unmet market opportunity in the billions, INVO Bioscience believes a portion of this market will be met by the INVOcell device.  Much of the unmet market is located in developing countries where many patients cannot afford, and have limited access to, IVF.  We believe that developing countries offer a large and ready market for the INVO Procedure.

 

In the United States infertility according to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) (2017) affects an estimated 10%-15% of the couples of child bearing age. Based on preliminary 2016 data from CDC’s National ART Surveillance System, 263,577 IVF cycles were performed at 463 IVF centers with 65,840 of these cycles performed for egg banking for future use.

 

 

These transferred cycles resulted in 65,969 live births and 78,897 babies born. Outcomes per transfer of fresh embryos averaged a clinical pregnancy for woman under 35 years of age was 52% dropping to 38% for woman 38-40 years of Age. Outcomes per transfer of frozen embryos averaged a clinical pregnancy for woman under 35 years of age was 59% dropping to 54% for woman 38-40 years of Age. Although the use of IVF is still relatively rare as compared to demand its use has doubled over the past decade. Today approximately 1.7% of the infants born in the United States every year are conceived through IVF.

 

In November 2015 we received notice that the INVOcell device met all of the requirements for U.S. FDA clearance. The FDA clearance has allowed the company to begin launching the INVOcell product and procedure in the United States. This has been our focus from approval through 2018.

 

On November 12, 2018, INVO Bioscience, Inc. (the “Company”) entered into a Distribution & Supply Agreement with Ferring International Center S.A. (“Ferring”), pursuant to which, among other things, the Company granted to Ferring an exclusive license in the United States (the “Territory”) with rights to sublicense under patents related to the Company’s proprietary intravaginal culture device known as INVOcell™, together with the retention device and any other applicable accessories (collectively, the “Licensed Product”) to market, promote, distribute and sell the Licensed Product with respect to all therapeutic, prophylactic and diagnostic uses of medical devices or pharmaceutical products involving reproductive technology (including infertility treatment) in humans (the “Field”). Ferring is responsible, at its own cost, for all commercialization activities for the Licensed Product in the Field in the Territory. The Company does retain a limited exception to the exclusive license granted to Ferring allowing the Company, subject to certain restrictions, to establish up to five clinics that will commercialize INVO cycles in the Territory. The Company retains all commercialization rights for the Licensed Product outside of the United States.

 

Ferring is a visionary, privately-held biopharmaceutical company recognized around the world. Its mission is to help patients live better lives… by researching, developing, manufacturing and marketing the most effective and innovative products in reproductive health, women’s health, urology, gastroenterology, endocrinology and orthopedics. They make their products available in over 100 nations with more than 5,000 employees’ word wide. They have R&D facilities doing groundbreaking work in Denmark, Israel, Switzerland, China, India, Scotland and the U.S.A. To support the INVOcell initiative Ferring has a new U.S. Operations Center, on a sprawling 25 acre campus in Parsippany, NJ, which includes a state-of-the-art manufacturing suite, next-generation product development laboratories and a fully equipped education and training center.

 

Under the terms of the Distribution Agreement, Ferring was obligated to make an initial payment to the Company of $5,000,000 upon satisfaction of certain closing conditions, including an agreement from all current manufacturers of the Licensed Product that upon a material supply default by the Company, Ferring can assume a direct purchase relationship with such manufacturers. The Closing under the Distribution Agreement occurred on January 14, 2019 at which time Ferring made the initial $5,000,000 upfront payment to the Company. Ferring is obligated to make a second payment to the Company of $3,000,000 provided that the Company is successful in obtaining a five (5) day label enhancement from the FDA for the current incubation period for the Licensed Product at least three (3) years prior to the expiration of the term of the license for the Licensed Product and provided further that Ferring has not previously exercised its right to terminate the Distribution Agreement for convenience. In addition, under the terms of a separate Supply Agreement, attached as an exhibit to the Distribution Agreement, Ferring is obligated to pay the Company a specified supply price for each Licensed Product purchased by Ferring for distribution.

 

The Distribution Agreement has an initial term expiring on December 31, 2025 and at the end of the initial term it may be terminated by the Company if Ferring fails to generate specified minimum revenues to the Company from the sale of the Licensed Product during the final two years of the initial term. Provided that no such termination occurs at the end of the initial term, thereafter the term of the Distribution Agreement shall automatically be renewed for successive three (3) years terms unless terminated by mutual consent. The Distribution Agreement is subject to termination upon a material breach by either party, or by Ferring for convenience.

 

On January 14, 2019, the Company executed the Ferring Distribution and Supply agreements and received its initial $5 million dollars payment.

 

As indicated above, in May 2008 we received notice that the INVOcell device met all of the essential requirements of the relevant European Directive, and received CE marking.   The CE marking certifies that a product has met European health, safety and environmental requirements, which ensure consumer safety.  Manufacturers in Europe and abroad must meet CE marking requirements where applicable in order to market their products in Europe.  Since it has been over nine years since we first received the CE marking, we are currently in the re-certification process with the appropriate regulatory bodies and expect to have this completed in the near future.  With CE marking, we will have the necessary regulatory authority to distribute our INVOcell device in the European Economic Area, subject to local registration regulations.

 

 

Currently, we are continuing to establish agreements with distributors and train physicians outside of the U.S.  The international market will be a primary focus as a result of our recently signed agreement with Ferring for the U.S. Market.

 

Competition

 

The infertility industry is highly competitive and characterized by technological improvements.  New assisted reproductive technology (“ART”) services, devices and techniques may be developed that may render the INVOcell obsolete.  Competition in the areas of infertility and ART services is largely based on pregnancy rates and other patient outcomes.  Accordingly, the ability of our business to compete is largely dependent on our ability to achieve adequate pregnancy rates and patient satisfaction levels.  The INVO procedure will offer an alternative treatment to couples that currently do not have access to treatments because of cost or location.  Infertility clinics can expand their businesses by offering INVO in satellite centers that can be opened at a substantially lower cost than an IVF center.  We are not aware of any direct competitors to INVO Bioscience or the INVO process using the INVOcell device.  However, there are existing infertility treatment regimens that the INVOcell will compete with when an infertile couple, in conjunction with their physician, is choosing the treatment method for their infertility.  We believe that the menu of currently available clinical infertility treatment methods generally is limited to IUI and IVF.

 

Competing Treatments

 

Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI):   In IUI treatments, ovarian stimulation protocols with induction of ovulation are frequently used to recruit several follicles and improve clinical pregnancy rates.  When monitoring of ovulation indicates that the female patient is ready to ovulate, the male patient will produce a sperm sample in the fertility doctor’s office.  The sperm is then prepared and delivered to the uterus through a catheter.  Currently IUI can only treat approximately 40% of the causes of infertility.  For example, IUI does not address infertility causes such as tubal disease and other conditions that are treatable by IVF and the INVOcell device and process.  In addition, IUI does not produce the diagnostic information such as fertilization that an IVF or INVO cycle produces.  Approximately 600,000 IUI cycles are performed annually by a subset of about 5,000 doctors in the U.S. as well as by IVF providers.  In Europe, at least 550,000 IUI cycles are performed annually.  The cost of a single IUI treatment can range from $800 to $3,000 per cycle in the U.S. and $500 to $2,000 in Europe.  The intra-country differences in cost primarily depend on the stimulation protocol and the ovulation monitoring used by the physician.

 

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF):  IVF addresses tubal factor, ovulatory dysfunction, diminished ovarian reserve, endometriosis, uterine factor, male factor, unexplained infertility and other causes.  IVF bypasses the function of the fallopian tube by achieving fertilization within a laboratory environment.  Ovarian hyper-stimulation is common with IVF treatments to recruit numerous follicles to purportedly increase the chances for success.  Follicles are retrieved trans-vaginally using a vaginal probe and ultrasound guidance.  General anesthesia is frequently used due to the number of follicles retrieved and the resulting discomfort experienced by the patient.  The eggs are identified in the follicular fluid and combined with sperm and culture medium in culture dishes, which are placed in an incubator with a temperature and gas environment designed to mimic the condition of the fallopian tubes.  Once the embryos develop, typically over a 3-5 day period, they are transferred to the uterine cavity.  The transfer of several embryos allows an average success rate for IVF of 37%, but it is also responsible for a multiple birth rate of approximately 7.5% of IVF pregnancies.  Multiple births bring risks to mother and babies and significant expenses for third party payers.  In addition, due to the high number of embryos produced in IVF, cryo-preservation of excess embryos occurs in more than 30% of the cycles.  According to the U.S. Center for Disease Control (“CDC”), in the U.S. there are approximately 1,000 reproductive endocrinologists who collectively perform more than 197,000 embryo transfer IVF cycles and an additional 65,840 cycles are performed and frozen per year at 463 specialized facilities.  According to European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (“ESHRE”), in Europe nearly 300,000 IVF cycles are reportedly performed at more than 1,000 facilities.

 

The cost to the patient for a single IVF cycle (including drugs) is in the $11,000 - $16,000 range in the U.S. and can go as high as $20,000 depending on the IVF center.  The cost of drugs for an IVF cycle ranges from $2,500 to $4,000.  The average cost per live birth using IVF can exceed $50,000 since the successful patient may require more than one cycle depending on the age of the patient.  Many patients who would be good candidates for IVF are unable to access it because of the high cost and lack of insurance reimbursement.  Additional obstacles to IVF often include significant distances to IVF clinics; travel costs; and time off from work.  In addition, some couples experience concerns regarding IVF such as the possibility of laboratory errors resulting in receiving another person’s embryo.

 

 

Competitors

 

We operate in a highly competitive industry, which is subject to competitive pricing and rapid technological change. The first IVF baby, Louise Brown was born in 1977, making the IVF treatment 40 years old.  Our INVOcell device is the first new treatment option for patients in 40 years. The market for fertility treatment and devices are highly competitive in terms of pricing, functionality and service quality, the timing of development and introduction of new products and services and terms of financing.  We face competition from all ART practitioners and device manufacturers.  Our competitors may implement new technologies before we do, allowing them to offer more attractively priced or enhanced products, services or solutions.  Our competitors may have greater resources in certain business segments or geographic markets than we have.  We may also encounter increased competition from new market entrants or alternative ART technologies.  Our ability to compete in this market successfully will require us to adapt to economic or regulatory changes, to introduce new products to the market and to enhance the functionality while reducing the cost of new and existing products.

 

Our principal ART medical-device competitor is Anecova, a Swiss life sciences company with an intrauterine device under development for infertility treatment.  This device is a very small silicone tube with 360 micro perforations.  Oocytes are fertilized outside the device and then placed in the tube, which is placed inside the woman’s uterus for early embryo development.  After 1-5 days, the device is removed and the best embryo(s) are transferred back into the woman’s uterus.  We believe that the device is much more difficult to use than the INVOcell due to its size and the requirement to place the device in the uterus, a sterile environment.  We expect that the precision manufacturing of the Anecova device will drive its cost close to $1,500 per unit, which is higher than our price.  The Anecova device would only be available in hospitals and IVF Centers at a significantly higher cost than the INVOcell.  Currently the Anecova device has not begun clinical studies in the United States that will be required for FDA approval, therefore the device will not be available for some time in the United States and many other areas of the world.

 

Competitive Advantages

 

We believe that the INVOcell has the following competitive advantages:

 

Lower cost than IVF with similar efficacy:  The INVOcell is substantially less expensive than IVF due to a lower cost of supplies, labor, capital equipment and overhead.  We estimate that an IVF center requires at least $500,000 of laboratory capital equipment as well as highly trained personnel.  In contrast, the cost of laboratory capital equipment to set-up an INVOcell procedure is approximately $100,000 and does not require highly trained embryologists that are required for traditional IVF.

 

In 2016, according to a draft report prepared by the U.S. Center for Disease Control (“CDC”), there were 263,577 ART cycles. Out of these cycles 65,840 were performed for freezing of embryos for the future and 197,000 cycles were performed through embryo transfer. These cycles resulted in 31%live births with a clinical pregnancy rate of 35.9%.  (CDC 2016 ART Report).  The INVO procedure will be offered at a more attractive price per cycle with a pregnancy rate comparable to traditional IVF.  According to Resolve, National Fertility Association, IUI cycles costs $275- $2,457 per cycle (variability due to drug costs and diagnostics inclusion on some cycles) and the cost range of IVF is $9,000-11,000 per cycle plus drug costs. Drug cost range from $3,000-$5,000 per cycle brining the cost range of IVF to $12,000 - $16,000 per cycle.  The INVO procedure is being offered at $4,500 - $6,500 per cycle inclusive of medications thereby making it more affordable than traditional IVF.

 

Similar cost than IUI with greater efficacy: It is estimated by Resolve that in the U.S. currently IUI averages $1,500 per cycle with approximately <10-12% pregnancy rate while IVF averages $12,000 - $16,000 range per cycle with an average of 35.9% pregnancy rate.  With INVO, we believe that the Ob/Gyn and reproductive endocrinologists will benefit by providing a superior product than IUI with good financial margins, efficacy rates more than triple IUI while treating the full range of infertility indications.  In Europe, according to ESHRE the average cost per pregnancy using IUI is $12,000.  According to ESHRE the average cost per pregnancy for IVF is $21,354 while for INVO it is only $13,888: a savings of more than $7,000 per pregnancy.  Using INVO could reduce annual infertility costs in Europe by more than $650 million.

 

Greater geographic availability:   According to 2016 CDC Report, there are approximately 463 IVF centers in the U.S.  In addition, by having INVO geographically available in Ob/Gyn offices, couples will avoid the travel costs and absence from work associated with long-distance IVF treatments.  The medical staff at these centers could easily learn the INVO technique and offer it as a lower cost treatment option for their patients through satellite centers.  According to the American College of Gynecologists (ACOG) there are also approximately 5,000 Ob/Gyn physicians in the U.S. who offer infertility services such as the IUI treatment but lack the facilities to offer an IVF treatment.  Since INVO does not require a specialized lab facility, large costly equipment or highly specialized staff, the INVO treatment may be offered in a doctors’ office with the addition of minor capital equipment potentially expanding business for these physicians.  Therefore, in the U.S. alone, INVO could be 10 times more available than conventional IVF.  Ob/Gyn offices worldwide could offer INVO as an alternative or follow up treatment to IUI and generate a significant new revenue stream.

 

 

Greater patient involvement: With INVO, the patient uses her own body as the incubation environment.  This creates a greater sense of involvement, comfort and participation for patients who know that the fertilization is happening within their own bodies.  In some cases, this may free a couple from ethical or religious concerns, or fears of laboratory mix-ups that could result in a patient receiving another couple’s embryo(s).

 

SALES AND MARKETING

 

Customers

 

Currently our customers are the doctors who can offer the INVO Procedure to their patients. Through the end of 2018, we have trained doctors from 20 states. We typically train both a reproductive endocrinologist and an embryologist from the practice.  We are grateful to these pioneers who have made the choice to explore our novel device.  They are attempting to expand the market and provide a reproductive service to a broader range of patients who typically would have just left the office and gone home.  These doctors are going through medical and business learning curves as they introduce the INVOcell device and procedure to others within their offices and to prospective patients. They are trying to determine where INVO fits into their practice.  They do not want to impact the strong business models they have in place today but at the same time see the need for INVO in the marketplace.

 

Every center offering the INVO procedure today is in a different place, some have figured out the balance and have a steady mix of procedures. While others are having difficulty recruiting patients or working through politics and existing beliefs to get the INVO offering off the ground.  A couple of doctors have already started planning where they can open new offices to help meet the demand in their area by using the INVOcell.  Another trend we see developing is that once there is one practice offering the INVO Procedure other physicians within the general area have reached out to us to be trained.

 

Since receiving FDA clearance we have shipped over 3,800 INVOcells in the US, not all have been revenue producing as new physicians and embryologists have to practice after training to get better at the slight technique differences of what they have been doing for many years. We have shipped an additional 500 INVOcells across the rest of the word as others are doing the same as the US doctors in learning the process.

 

As we have stated once getting comfortable with the process, the practitioners are seeing very strong and healthy embryos being developed within the INVOcell and have equal or better clinical pregnancy and live birth results. 

 

Product Pricing

 

For the various markets, we price the INVOcell Intravaginal Culture System technology based on discussions with our advisory board of physicians and potential strategic partners, and reflect the innovative features of the device, the savings in physician’s laboratory fixed costs and the billings the physician will receive from patients to perform INVO.  Our goal is to have the INVO procedure offered to infertile couples as a lower cost alternative with comparable success rates to IVF.

 

INVOcell Culture Device:    For the U.S. market our price for the INVOcell and retention devices has been agreed to with Ferring. Ferring has minimum quantities that they must buy from the company on an annual basis in order to their exclusivity.  In the international markets the price will be determined as we enter them based on current offerings and discussions with key partners. IVF centers or Ob/Gyn groups purchasing a large number of devices and promoting the INVO process may receive discounted prices and certain free advertising of their facility on our website.  It is expected that the INVOcell will sell for different prices throughout the world as a reflection of different economies and prices of the IVF procedure in different countries.

 

INVOcell Retention Device:  This is a single-use, modified diaphragm that includes holes to allow for natural drainage of vaginal fluids. The current model is an FDA cleared and CE Marked product purchased from a US company. This retention device currently sells for $70 each. In 2018 the Company developed its own single use lower cost product. This retention device specification is equivalent to the current modified diaphragm but will not be available for sale until the completion of testing before being accepted and released by INVO Bioscience for commercial sale. This will significantly reduce the cost of goods moving forward as well as the price to the physicians. 

 

Fixed Laboratory Equipment:  The equipment used in the INVO procedure (microscope with video system, bench centrifuge, incubator without CO2, bench warmer and laminar flow hood) is readily available in the market.  The complete set up for the INVO procedure currently costs approximately $125,000 in the U.S. and $150,000 if ICSI is included in the lab.   

 

 

Sales Strategy

 

As of December 31, 2018, sales and marketing activities are being performed by the Company’s CEO and VP of Global Operations. We anticipate building an international sales team in 2019 and beyond, staring with the addition of Michael Campbell as our Chief Operating Officer and VP of Business Development who joined the Company in February 2019. Mr. Campbell was most recently the Vice President of IVF Americas Business Unit for Cooper Surgical, Inc. (CSI), a wholly owned subsidiary of The Cooper Companies (NYSE: COO), and is also a member of the board of directors for INVO Bioscience. Mr. Campbell has substantial medical device sales, marketing and business development leadership experience within Global Fortune 500 and Start-up Company environments.  During his over 12-year career at Cooper Surgical, he has been responsible for IVF product portfolio sales globally including the US, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Asia Pacific regions. Our sales efforts include the following three approaches:

 

Domestic - In the United States our sales will come from our relationship with Ferring Pharmaceuticals - The Company will initially ship bulk shipments to Ferring on a quarterly basis per volumes in the Supply Agreement and will adjust as needed to allow for the timely delivery of INVOcells to the physicians. Ferring’s strategy is to market to Reproductive Endocrinologist’s (REI’s) and OB/GYN’s to offer INVO in place of Inter-Uterine Insemination (IUI) since the overall expense for an actual pregnancy is less for INVO, as multiple cycles of IUI are typically required and still produce a very low pregnancy rate as compared to INVO.

 

 

Distributor Partnerships – In foreign countries, we have and will continue to establish local partnerships to access the countries’ markets.  With the distributor-to-physician model, the distributors will be selling to IVF centers, medical practices and physicians directly.  We will support the distributors’ efforts with training, both to the distributors’ trainers as well as to the physicians directly.   We will be expanding our international sales & marketing presence in 2019. 

 

Partnering with Doctors in opening centers that offer INVO as the primary reproductive service – We are looking to work with current doctors in areas of the US where there is demand but currently no IVF facilities. This approach may take many different forms all of which we are willing to explore. The Company plans to build five (5) centers in the United States in the coming years.

 

Target Markets

 

We expect to continue to launch in the international markets focusing on the Middle East, Mexico, Europe, India and Asia. We will also continue to work on regulatory submissions for key countries such as China.

 

Worldwide – According to ESHRE February 2018, one in six couples worldwide experience some form of infertility problem at least once during their reproductive lifetime. The current prevalence of infertility lasting for at least 12 months is estimated to be around 10% worldwide for women aged 20-44. In 2014, the latest year for which figures are available, almost 800,000 treatment cycles were reported from 39 European countries.  The global need for ART is estimated to be at least 1,500 cycles/million population per year.  With the global population of 7.5 billion, the estimate for infertility prevalence is 50 million couples.    

 

U.S. – According to The National Survey of Family Growth from the Centers for Disease Control, in the year 2016, Over 7.5 million women in the U.S. had difficulty conceiving (12.4%) With only about 760,000 couples receiving fertility treatment (IUI, IVF and other treatments). This leaves more than six million couples receiving no treatment at all for their infertility. According to the ASRM’s 2015 Access to Care Summit White Paper, the largest barrier to patients seeking treatment is the cost of the treatment and the lack of insurance coverage for the cost. We are currently offering the INVO procedure in the U.S. at $6,500 dollars per cycle inclusive of medications.  Our goal is to penetrate 5% of the currently untreated infertility market over the next few years, although no assurances can be made that we will achieve our goal in our target markets or at all.

 

Europe – ESHRE estimated in 2018 that Europe had approximately 10 million infertile couples, of which about 800,000 were estimated to have received ART treatments.  That would leave over 9 million infertile couples untreated.

 

Launching INVO in the U.S. market required U.S. FDA DeNovo clearance, which we received in November 2015. Our strategy was to focus our resources primarily on U.S. sales through 2018 to make INVO the standard of care in the United States. Currently, we are providing the INVO product and training at a low introductory price to doctors who are interested in offering the INVO Procedure at their practice. This approach appears to be successful, as there are currently 89 facilities offering or referring the INVO Procedure. As these doctors are adding our INVOcell device and procedure to their existing services it will take time for the INVO method to gain market traction. This is partially due to a portion of patients who are more comfortable using the more traditional and well-known infertility service approaches. On average, it appears the integration of the INVO method into physician’s practices takes approximately 6-9 months. We are taking steps to assist physicians who are having difficulty integrating the INVO method into their established practices.

 

In January 2019, INVO Bioscience closed an exclusive sales and marketing licensing deal with Ferring for the U.S. market. INVO Bioscience will continue to manufacture product for Ferring and the international market. 

 

FDA clearance is required in many countries before they will allow U.S. products to be registered in those countries. The FDA approval granted in 2015 will allow the INVO Bioscience to do regulatory registrations to sell and market INVO in countries such as Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Malaysia, China and other countries in across the globe.

 

 

The CE Mark, which is currently being renewed, allows us to sell our INVO device in Europe and certain countries in South America and Africa, subject to local registration requirements.  Our strategy is to focus on these international markets while Ferring manages the U.S. Market. These areas are in need of less costly fertility treatments due to the economics and high infertility rates of up to 25% and relatively low availability of IVF procedures.

 

Insurance Reimbursement for Infertility Treatment

 

In the United States there is generally minimal insurance coverage for infertility treatments, and what coverage there is varies on a state by state basis. Fifteen (15) states mandate some form of insurance reimbursement for infertility treatment.  Three (3) states mandate reimbursement for IVF, while other states cover some form of infertility treatment, but they may also specifically exclude IVF due to cost. Some states have coverage for IUI and not IVF. Based on our new relationship with Ferring it will be up to them to determine if they would like to pursue this opportunity in the United States with the resources they have.

 

Under current fertility service insurance standards, many practices require an infertile patient have at least three IUI cycles  before pursuing IVF. As a result, many patients are often referred to IVF when multiple IUI attempts are not successful. According to Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, in 2015 the pregnancy rate for each natural IUI cycle is approximately 4% to 5%, and in the event fertility drugs are used, the pregnancy rate increases to approximately 7% to 16%. In the future, we estimate third-party insurance payers could save more than $7,000 per pregnancy by requiring the patient to try INVOcell first.

 

Most European countries have some level of coverage for infertility treatment, but the level of coverage varies from country to country and even within countries.  For example, the National Health Service in the UK covers 20% of most costs for infertility treatment.  However, that standard is not applied universally throughout the UK and some counties provide almost no coverage.    In 2010, in Canada, the Province of Quebec mandated the full payment of up to 3 ART cycles for residents; however, in November of 2016 they stopped the program.

 

We believe that the INVOcell process will be treated favorably by as it lowers cost and has a high efficacy rate.  According to the data we have found the Company has determined based on the typical number of cycles it take to get pregnant, in the US, the average cost per pregnancy using IUI is $12,000 and IUI is only indicated for approximately 40% of the infertile population.  However, the INVOcell device, which based on the 450 clinical cycles submitted to the FDA in 2014 by the Company, has equivalent pregnancy rates as traditional IVF and treats the same indications as IVF therefore is a very effective treatment for a majority of infertile couples. 

 

Branding and Promotion

 

We have a logo associated with the INVOcell device that is refined for the infertility market.  We have trademarked “INVO Bioscience”, “INVOCELL” and “INVO”.  In 2016 we launched our new website. Our website now refers patients in the US to Ferring moving forward in 2019. We will continue to provide updated information to people looking for INVO in the U.S. to support Ferring and our own US and International efforts as well as the comprehensive FAQ section.  We are continuing to improve our website to include special pages for clinicians and patients.  Subject to available capital, the improvements will include materials that medical professionals and patients can print, including status reports and news items.  It would be expected to include training videos for potential customers, both physicians and patients, who want to learn exactly how the INVOcell works.

 

REGULATION

 

Domestic Regulations

 

The manufacture and sale of our products are subject to extensive regulation by numerous governmental authorities, principally by the FDA in the U.S. and corresponding foreign agencies.  The FDA administers the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and the regulations promulgated there under.  We are subject to the standards and procedures with respect to the manufacture of medical devices and are subject to inspection by the FDA for compliance with such standards and procedures.  The FDA classifies medical devices into one of three classes depending on the degree of risk associated with each medical device and the extent of control needed to ensure safety and effectiveness.  The INVOcell device and process secured a DeNovo Class II notification clearance in November 2015 to allow us to introduce them into the U.S. market.  

 

Every company that develops, manufactures or assembles medical devices is required to register with the FDA and adhere to certain “good manufacturing practices” in accordance with the FDA’s Quality System Regulation, which regulates the manufacture of medical devices, prescribes record-keeping procedures and provides for the routine inspection of facilities for compliance with such regulations.  The FDA also has broad regulatory powers in the areas of clinical testing, marketing and advertising of medical devices.
 

 

Medical device manufacturers are routinely subject to periodic inspections by the FDA.  If the FDA believes that a company may not be operating in compliance with applicable laws and regulations, the FDA and the Department of Justice can:

 

 ●  

place the company under observation and re-inspect the facilities;

 ●  

issue a warning letter apprising of violating conduct;

 ●  

detain or seize products;

 ●  

mandate a recall;

 ●  

seek to enjoin future violations;

 ●  

seek civil and criminal penalties against the company, its officers or its employees; and

 ●  

issue a form 483 to initiate corrective actions by the company

 

INVO Bioscience has successfully completed two comprehensive inspections by the United States Food & Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) occurring in January 2012 and November 2014 resulting in no action indicated (NAI), meaning all was acceptable to the US FDA. The company will continue to be the manufacturer of the INVOcell in the US to support Ferring’s sales and marketing initiatives. This requires the company to continue its regulatory responsibilities and compliance activities.
 

International Regulations

 

We are subject to regulation in each of the foreign countries where our products are sold.  Many of the regulations applicable to our products in such countries are similar to those of the FDA.  The national health or regulatory organizations of certain countries require that our products be qualified before they can be marketed in those countries.  Many of the countries we are targeting do not have a formal approval process of their own but rely on either FDA clearance or the European approval, the CE mark.  Some countries require a registration process of listing the INVOcell with the governing body in addition to the United States and European approvals, the CE mark.

 

With CE marking, we have had, and when we receive re-certification we anticipate we will have, the necessary regulatory authority to distribute our product after registration in the European Economic Area (i.e., Europe, Australia, and New Zealand).  In addition, we have the ability to markets in some parts of the Middle East and South America as they do not have medical device regulations.  Every country has different requirements; we have completed registrations in some, are in process with others.  We continue to work with doctors and distributors submitting additional registrations.  Certain other countries require that we first receive FDA clearance.  In general, we are registering the product based on the size of the market and our ability to service it given our resources.

 

In 2009, INVO Bioscience received clearance from Health Canada to market, sell and train on the use of the INVOcell and INVO procedure in Canada. Although the Canadian government approved the INVOcell, in Canada the local physician’s college must authorize the use of new products in each province. These governing colleges also want to see the product approved in the country of origin before moving forward in Canada.  With the 2015 FDA approval, Effortless IVF, CA with the approval of the local physician’s college raised funds in 2016 to start building an INVO offering center in Calgary Canada; this center is currently operational and started treating patients in August 2017. An additional center in Canada is planned to launch in 2019. As with most new businesses, the center has been going through a learning curve and working out operational issues. The Team at Effortless IVF in Calgary is hoping to use the experience from this site to expand its reach across Canada and have already been working on their next locations.

 

In 2012 we received Brazil’s National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) clearance approving the sale and use of the INVOcell throughout Brazil.  The approval opens the door for INVO Bioscience to one of the largest markets and fastest growing economies in the world with over 190 million people.  In 2016 we completed a new registration and added an additional distribution channel which was approved by ANVISA in 2017. We look forward to targeting this opportunity in the near future.

 

Intellectual Property

 

The Company’s success depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain proprietary protection for our products and technologies. Our goal is to develop a strong intellectual property portfolio that enables us to capitalize on the research and development that we have performed to date and will perform in the future, particularly for each of the products that we commercialize such as the INVOcell. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, and trademark laws in the United States and other countries to obtain and maintain our intellectual property. We protect our intellectual property by, among other methods, filing patent applications with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and its foreign counterparts on inventions that are important to the development of our business.  

 

The Company’s product development process has resulted in the development of two active patents covering both the INVOcell device and the INVO Procedure.

 

The Company is currently in the process of completing process improvements on the INVOcell and INVO Procedure which we believe will allow us to patent these features to extend the device’s patent life.

 

 

Employees

 

As of December 31, 2018, we had two full time employees, Ms. Karloff, Chairperson, Director and CEO; and Lori Kahler, our VP of Global Operations. Mr. Bowdring is a Director, consultant, Treasurer & Secretary, and along with the other Directors assist when needed. Excluding directors and officers, we had no employees from 2010 through 2017.

 

In February 2019 we hired Mr. Michael Campbell as COO and VP of Business Development, he has been a Director for the past sixteen months. Mr. Campbell has over 20 years in the infertility market most recently with Cooper Surgical as the VP of the IVF America division and previous to this in the position of VP of the international market.

 

Available Information

 

We maintain an Internet website at www.invobioscience.com.  We make available, free of charge through our website, our annual report on Form 10-K, current reports on Form 8-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and each amendment to these reports.  Each such report is posted on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such report is filed with the SEC via the EDGAR system. 

 

The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should not be considered a part of this Annual Report.  Our website address is included in this Annual Report as an inactive textual reference only.

 

Item 1A.  Risk Factors

 

Investing in our Common Stock involves a high degree of risk.  There are numerous and varied risks, known and unknown, that may prevent us from achieving our goals.  The risks described below are not the only ones we will face.  If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operation may be materially adversely affected.  In such case, the trading price of our Common Stock could decline and investors could lose all or part of their investment.  The risks and uncertainties described below are not exclusive and are intended to reflect the material risks that are specific to us, material risks related to our industry, and material risks related to companies that undertake a public offering or seek to maintain a class of securities that is registered or quoted on an over-the-counter market.

 

Except for historical matters, matters discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, principally in the sections entitled “Description of Business,” “Risk Factors,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition or Results of Operations.”  All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including statements regarding future events, our future financial performance, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements.  We have attempted to identify forward-looking statements by terminology including “anticipates,” “believes,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “should,” or “will” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology.  Although we do not make forward-looking statements unless we believe we have a reasonable basis for doing so, we cannot guarantee their accuracy.  

 

These statements are only predictions and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including the risks outlined here under “Risk Factors” or elsewhere in this Form 10-K, which may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements to differ.  Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment.  New risks emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all risk factors, nor can we address the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

 

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short term and long-term business operations, and financial needs.  Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this Form 10-K, and in particular, the risks discussed below and under the heading “Risk Factors” and those discussed in other documents we file with the SEC that are incorporated into this Form 10-K by reference.  

 

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto.  We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements.  In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this Form 10-K may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statement.

 

 

Risks Relating to Our Business

 

Our business has posted net operating losses, has a limited operating history, and needs additional capital to grow and finance its operations.  

 

From the inception of our consolidated subsidiary BioXcell Inc. on January 5, 2007 through December 31, 2018, INVO Bioscience had an accumulated net loss of $21,721,000.  INVO Bioscience has a limited operating history and is essentially an early-stage operation.  We will continue to be dependent on having access to additional new capital that will allow us to finance operations during our growth.  Continued net operating losses together with limited working capital make investing in our common stock a high-risk proposal.  The adverse effects of a limited operating history include reduced management insight into future activities, marketing costs, and customer acquisition and retention, which could lead to INVO missing targets for the achievement of profitability.

 

We require additional capital to continue as a going concern which if not obtained could result in a need to curtail operations.

 

As reflected in the accompanying financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2018 the Company has started commercialization of its product in the past three (3) years within the US with minimal revenues. For 2018 the Company has had a net loss of $3,076,000, a working capital deficiency of $2,770,000, a stockholder deficiency of $2,724,000 and cash used in operations of $653,000. These amounts raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.  The ability of the Company to continue as a going concern is dependent on the Company’s ability to raise additional capital and implement its business plan.  The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary if the Company is unable to continue as a going concern.

 

We require additional funding to meet our future growth and capital expenditure requirements.  To execute on our long term business plan successfully, we will need to raise additional money in the future.  The Company’s rate of growth and its ability to undertake additional projects will be determined by the amounts of funds raised.  No assurance can be given that we will be successful in raising capital in the amounts or rate needed, or that such capital, if available, will be available on terms acceptable to the Company.  If we are not able to raise additional capital at the rate and in the amounts needed, our business will likely be impacted for the long term

 

On November 12, 2018, we entered into a U.S. license and Distribution Agreement with Ferring, whereby we would receive a $5 million upfront fee upon closing which occurred on January 14, 2019 and we anticipate receiving an additional $3 million payment provided that the Company is successful in obtaining a five (5) day label enhancement from the FDA for the current incubation period for the Licensed Product at least three (3) years prior to the expiration of the term of the license for the Licensed Product and provided further that Ferring has not previously exercised its right to terminate the Distribution Agreement for convenience.  There are no assurances the Company will obtain such a milestone required to receive this $3 million payment. Additionally, there are no assurances the upcoming capital infusion will be sufficient to meet the Company’s long-term needs.

 

Our business is subject to significant competition.

 

The infertility industry is highly competitive and characterized by technological improvements and advancements.  New assisted reproductive technology (“ART”) services, devices and techniques may be developed that may render the INVOcell obsolete.  Competition in the areas of infertility and ART services is largely based on pregnancy rates and other patient outcomes.  Accordingly, the ability of our business to compete is largely dependent on our ability to achieve adequate pregnancy rates and patient satisfaction levels.  Our business operates in highly competitive areas that are subject to continual change.  New health care providers and medical technology companies entering the market may reduce our market share, patient volume and growth rates, and could force us to alter our planned pricing.  Additionally, increased competitive pressures may require us to commit more resources to our marketing efforts, thereby increasing our cost structure and affecting our ability to achieve, or the timing of achieving, profitability. There can be no assurance that the Company will not be able to compete effectively nor can there be any assurance that additional competitors will not enter the market. Such competition may make it more difficult for the Company to enter into additional contracts with fertility clinics or open profitable INVOcell clinics.

 

Under the terms of our recently signed U.S., Distribution Agreement, Ferring will handle all sales and marketing activities for the U.S. market and the Company will be allowed to initially open and operate five (5) dedicated INVO clinics. There can be no assurances our U.S., market partner or the Company’s own commercial activities will be successful. Additionally, pursuant to the Distribution Agreement, Ferring will have the ability to elect to distribute and commercialize competitive products. The development and commercialization of such competitive products could reduce the Company’s U.S. market share.

 

 

We need to manage growth in operations to maximize our potential growth.

 

In order to maximize potential growth in our current and potential markets, we believe the Company must expand the scope of its services in the medical device/bioscience industry.  Such expansion will place a significant strain on our management, operational and sales systems. As a result, we plan to continue to improve our INVO technology, operating procedures and management information systems.  We will also need to effectively train, motivate and manage our employees.  Our failure to manage our growth could disrupt our operations and ultimately prevent us from generating the expected revenues.

 

We may not be successful in implementing our growth strategy.

 

Our growth strategy includes growing internally by increasing our target customer base.  However, many factors including, but not limited to, increased competition from similar businesses, unexpected costs, costs associated with marketing efforts and maintaining a strong client base may interfere with our ability to expand successfully.  There can be no assurance that we will succeed in implementing our strategy in order to establish our services in any additional markets.  Our inability to implement this internal growth strategy successfully may have a negative impact on our growth, future financial condition, results of operations and/or cash flows.

 

We may be unable to implement our strategies in achieving our business objectives.

 

Our business plan is based on circumstances currently prevailing and the basis and assumption that certain circumstances will or will not occur, as well as the inherent risks and uncertainties involved in various stages of market implementation.  However, there is no assurance that we will be successful in implementing our strategies or that our strategies, even if implemented, will lead to the successful achievement of our objectives.  If we are not able to implement our strategies successfully, our business operations and financial performance may be adversely affected.

 

Our products incorporate intellectual property rights developed by us that may be difficult to protect or may be found to infringe on the rights of others.

 

While we currently own U.S. and international patents, there can be no assurance that any of these patents will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, or that any rights granted under these patents will provide competitive advantages.  The United States or Europe could place restrictions on the patentability of various medical devices which may materially affect our business.  We utilize a combination of trade secrets, confidentiality policies, non-disclosure and other contractual arrangements in addition to relying on patent, copyright and trademark laws to protect our intellectual property rights.  However, these measures may not be adequate to prevent or deter infringement or other misappropriation.  Further, our intellectual property rights may be found to infringe on intellectual property rights of third parties.  Moreover, we may not be able to detect unauthorized use or take appropriate and timely steps to establish and enforce our proprietary rights.  Existing laws of some countries in which we conduct business offer only limited protection of our intellectual property rights, if at all.  As the number of market entrants as well as the complexity of the technology increases, the possibility of functional overlap and inadvertent infringement of intellectual property rights also increases.

 

We may be forced to defend our intellectual property rights from infringement through expensive legal action.

 

Third parties may in the future assert claims against us alleging that our infringement on their intellectual property rights.  Defending such claims may be expensive, time consuming and divert the efforts of our management and/or technical personnel.  Because of litigation, we could be required to pay damages and other compensation, develop non-infringing products or enter into royalty and/or licensing agreements.  However, we cannot be certain that any such licenses, will be made available to us on commercially reasonable terms.

 

We regard our trade secrets, patents and similar intellectual property as critical to our successful operations.  To protect our propriety rights, we rely on patent and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality and license agreements with certain employees, customers and other third-parties. No assurance can be given that our patents will not be challenged, invalidated, infringed or circumvented. If necessary, we intend to defend our intellectual property rights from infringement through legal action, which could be very costly and could adversely affect our ability to achieve and maintain profitability.  Our limited capital resources could put us at a disadvantage if we are required to take legal action to enforce our intellectual property rights.

 

 

We face potential liability as a provider of a medical device.  These risks may be heightened in the area of artificial reproduction.

 

The provision of medical devices entails the substantial risk of potential tort injury claims.  The Company does not engage in the practice of medicine or assume responsibility for compliance with regulatory requirements directly applicable to physicians.   In the event we obtain product liability insurance there can be no assurance such insurance will provide adequate coverage against any potential claims. Additionally, there is no assurance we will be able to obtain such insurance on commercially reasonable terms in the future.  Furthermore, any claim asserted against the Company could generate costly legal fees, consume management’s time resources, and adversely affect the Company’s reputation and business, regardless of the merit or eventual outcome of such claim.

  

There are inherent risks specific to the provision of infertility and ART services.  For example, the long-term effects on women of the administration of fertility medication, integral to most infertility and ART services, are of concern to certain physicians and others who fear the medication may prove to be carcinogenic or cause other medical problems.  Additionally, any ban or other limitation imposed by the FDA or other foreign regulatory department on fertility medication and services could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

If we fail to maintain adequate quality standards for our products, our reputation and business may be adversely affected and harmed.

 

Our customers are expecting that our products will perform as marketed and in accordance with industrial standards.  We will rely on third-party manufacturing companies and their packaging processes in connection with the production of our products.  A failure to maintain product quality standards in accordance with our customer’s expectations could result in the loss of demand for our products.  Additionally, delays or quality lapses in our production lines could result in substantial economic losses to us.  Although we believe that our current quality control procedures adequately address these risks, there can be no assurance that we will not experience occasional or systemic quality lapses in our manufacturing and service operations.  Currently, we have limited manufacturing capabilities as we rely on a single manufacturing provider regarding our production process. In the event our manufacturer is unable to produce an adequate supply of products at appropriate quality levels, our growth could be limited and our business may be harmed.  If we experience significant or prolonged disturbance in our quality standards, our business and reputation may be harmed, which may result in the loss of customers, our inability to participate in future customer product opportunities and reduced revenue and earnings.

 

We heavily rely on third party package delivery services, and a significant disruption in these services or significant increases in prices may disrupt our ability to import or export materials, increase our costs and negatively affect our ability to achieve and maintain profitability.

 

We ship a significant portion of our products to our customers through independent package delivery companies.  If any of our key third party package delivery providers experience a significant disruption such that any of our products, components or raw materials cannot be delivered in a timely fashion or such that we incur additional shipping costs that we are unable to recoup, our costs may increase and our relationships with certain customers may be adversely affected.  In particular, if our third-party package delivery providers increase prices and we are not able to find comparable alternatives or adjust our delivery network, our profitability could be adversely affected.

 

We may not be able to develop or continue our business if we fail to retain key personnel.

 

We substantially rely upon the efforts and abilities of our executive management and directors. The loss of any of our executive officers and/or directors services could potentially have a material adverse effect on our business, operations, revenues and/or prospects. If one or more of these persons were to become unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to replace them readily or timely, if at all.  We do not maintain key man life insurance on the lives of any the Company’s executive management or directors.

 

We will need additional, qualified personnel in order to expand our business.  Without additional personnel, we will not be able to expand our business.

 

Expanding our business requires increasing the number of persons engaged in activities for the sale, marketing, administration and delivery of our products as well as clinical training personnel for the proper training of the INVO Procedures.  Upon receiving sufficient additional funding, we are planning to hire employees in these areas.  Our ability to attract and hire personnel to fulfill these efforts is dependent on our ability to secure sufficient additional funding. However, there is no assurance we will able to obtain sufficient funding in the future necessary to attract and retain potential employees with the proper background and training matching the skills required for the positions.

 

 

Currency exchange rate fluctuations may affect the results of our operations.

 

We intend to distribute our INVOcell product internationally with all sales, domestic and international, in U.S. dollars.  As a result, our operations could be impacted by fluctuations in currency exchange rates, although, such risk should be reduced as a result of our invoicing practices. However, even though we invoice in US dollars, our operations may still be negatively impacted by foreign currency exchange rates in the event the US dollar strengthens and the local currency where the product is being sold weakens. In the event such international patients are unable to afford the associated increase costs, international doctors and clinics may not be able to offer the INVOcell product and procedure. Additionally, as an international business we may be susceptible to adverse foreign currency fluctuations.

 

We are subject to risks in connection with changes in international, national and local economic and market conditions.

 

Our business is subject to risks in connection with changes in international, national and local economic and market conditions, including the effects of global financial crises, effects of terrorist acts and war. Such economic changes could negatively impact infertile couples’ ability to pay for fertility treatment around the world.

 

We anticipate that eventually international sales will account for a significant part of our revenue.  We will experience additional risks associated with international sales, including:

 

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political and economic instability;

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export controls;

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changes in international legal and regulatory requirements;

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United States and foreign government policy changes affecting the product marketability; and

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changes in tax laws, duties and tariffs.

 

Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.  From 2011 through 2018, we sold products in certain international markets mainly through independent distributors, and we anticipated maintain a similar sales strategy for the foreseeable future.  In the event a distributor fails to meet annual sales goals, we may be required to obtain a replacement distributor, which may be costly and difficult to locate.  Additionally, a change in our distributors, may increase costs, and create a substantial disruption in our operations resulting loss of revenue.

 

Our auditors have issued a going concern opinion, and we will not be able to achieve our objectives and will have to cease operations if we cannot adequately fund our operations.

 

Our auditors issued a going concern opinion in connection with the audit of our annual financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018. A going concern opinion means that there is substantial doubt that the company can continue as an ongoing business for the next 12 months. If we are unable to continue as a going concern, we might have to liquidate our assets and the values we receive for our assets in liquidation or dissolution could be significantly lower than the values reflected in our financial statements. In addition, the inclusion of an explanatory paragraph regarding substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern and our lack of cash resources may materially adversely affect our share price and our ability to raise new capital or to enter into critical contractual relations with third parties. There is no assurance that we will be able to adequately fund our operations in the future.

 

Risks Related to Our Industry

 

We are subject to significant domestic and international governmental regulation.

 

Our business is heavily regulated domestically in the United States and internationally. In the United States the FDA, and other federal, state and local authorities implement various regulations that subject us to civil and criminal penalties, including cease of operations, in the event we fail to comply.  Any such actions could severely curtail our sales and business reputation.  In addition, more restrictive laws, regulations or interpretations could be adopted, causing compliance with such regulations to become more difficult or expensive.  While we devote substantial resources to ensure our compliance with laws and regulations; the possibility cannot be eliminated that interpretations of existing laws and regulations will result in findings of which we have not complied.  

 

 

The Company believes that the healthcare industry will continue to be subject to increased regulation as well as political and legal action, as future proposals to reform the health care system are considered by Congress and state legislatures. The Company does not know nor has any control over future changes to health care laws and regulations which may have a significant impact on the business.

  

We are planning clinical trials related to newer technologies that may prove unsuccessful.

 

We will be conducting clinical trials related to the expansion of the INVOcell indications resulting in ability to potentially lower the cost of the INVOcell Intravaginal Culture System.  While we anticipate positive outcomes of these clinical trials, an unsuccessful trial could adversely impact our ability to receive FDA clearance for the particular indications and products being tested and untimely our ability to expand into potential markets.

 

Our revenues and operating results could fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter, which may cause our stock price to decline.

 

Since our inception, we have recognized minimal revenue.  Our results from year-to-year and from quarter-to-quarter have, and are expected to continue to, vary significantly based on ordering cycles of distributors and physicians who utilized for sales, and the payment cycle of such organizations.  As a result, we expect period-to-period comparisons of our operating results will not be meaningful and unreliable as an indication of our future performance for any future period.

 

Changes in the healthcare industry may require us to decrease the selling price for our products or could result in a reduction in the available market size.

 

Governmental and private sector initiatives in the U.S. and abroad involving trends toward managed healthcare and cost containment could place an emphasis on our ability to deliver more cost-effective medical therapies.  The development of ore cost-effective devices could eventuality adversely affect the prices and/or sales of our products.  Companies in the healthcare industry are subject to various existing and proposed laws and regulations, in both domestic and international markets, regulating healthcare pricing and profitability. Additionally, there have been third-party payer initiatives to challenge the prices associated with medical products, which if successful, could affect our ability to sell products on a competitive basis in the future.  

 

In the United States, there has been a trend of consolidation among healthcare facilities and purchasers of medical devices, allowing such purchasers to limit the number of suppliers from whom they purchase medical products. As result, it is unknown whether such purchasers will decide to stop purchasing our products or demand discounts on our prices.  The pressure to reduce our product prices in response to these industry trends and the decrease in market size could adversely affect our anticipated revenues and profitability of our sales, creating a material adverse effect on our business.

 

Recent economic trends could adversely affect our financial performance.

 

Economic downturns and declines in consumption in the healthcare market may affect the levels of both our sales and profitability.  If a downturn in economic conditions occurs, or if there is deterioration in financial markets and major economies, our financial performance could be adversely affected.  The tightening of credit in financial markets may adversely affect the ability of our customers and suppliers to obtain financing, which could result in a decrease in, or deferrals or cancellations of, the sale of our products and services.  In addition, weakening economic conditions may result in a decline in spending for ART and fertility assistance that could adversely affect our business operations and liquidity.  We are unable to predict the likely duration and severity of any disruption in the domestic and global financial markets.

 

Recent health trends could adversely affect our financial performance.

 

Disease outbreaks and epidemics affecting human health could have a negative impact on our future business operations. Our ability to sell the INVOcell could be adversely affected by an outbreak of certain diseases, such as the Zika virus outbreak, that affect women’s health and even more particularly pregnant woman’s health. Such outbreaks and epidemics could reduce the demand for ART services including INVO, which ultimately will impact the Company’s sales and business operations.

 

Social media platforms present risks and challenges.

 

The unauthorized use of certain social media vehicles could result in the improper collection and/or dissemination of personally identifiable information causing brand damage and various legal implications. In addition, negative or inaccurate social media posts or comments about the Company on any social networking site could damage the Company’s brand, reputation, and goodwill.

 

 

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

 

The significant number of common shares registered for resale pursuant to the registration statement and common shares issuable upon conversion of outstanding notes could adversely affect the trading price of our common shares.

 

The sale of substantial amounts of our common stock at any particular time could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline significantly. On December 20, 2018 the Company filed a Registration Statement on Form S-1 (the “Registration Statement”) wherein the Company is seeking to register 48,856,080 shares of common stock for resale.. If our existing stockholders sell substantial amounts of our common stock under the registration statement, including the shares issued upon the conversion of the notes, in the public market, or if the public perceives that such sales could occur, this could have an adverse impact on the market price of our common stock, even if there is no relationship between such sales and the performance of our business.

 

Our common stock is subject to risks arising from restrictions on reliance on Rule 144 by shell companies or former shell companies.

 

Under a regulation of the SEC known as “Rule 144”, a person who has beneficially owned restricted securities of an issuer and who is not an affiliate of that issuer may sell them without registration under the Securities Act provided that certain conditions have been met. However, Rule 144 is unavailable for the resale of securities issued by an issuer that is a shell company or that has been at any time previously a shell company. The SEC defines a shell company as a company that has no or nominal operations and either (i) no or nominal assets, (ii) assets consisting solely of cash and cash equivalents, or (iii) assets consisting of any amount of cash and cash equivalent sand nominal other assets. The Company is a former shell company.

 

The SEC has provided an exception to this unavailability if and for as long as the following conditions are met: (a) the issuer of the securities that was formerly a shell company has ceased to be a shell company; (b) the issuer of the securities is subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act; (c) the issuer of the securities has filed all Exchange Act reports and materials required to be filed, as applicable during the preceding 12 months, other than certain Current Reports on Form 8-k; and (d) at least one (1) year has elapsed form the time the issuer filed current comprehensive disclosure with the SEC reflecting its status as an entity that it is not a shell company.

 

Because of the Company’s prior history as a shell company, stockholders who receive our restricted securities will only be able to sell them pursuant to Rule 144 without registration for only as long as we continue to meet the requirements set forth above. No assurance can be given that we will meet these requirements or that we will continue to do so. Furthermore, any non-registered securities we sell in the future or issue will have limited or no liquidity until and unless such securities are registered with the SEC and/or until we comply with the foregoing requirements.

 

As a result, it may be harder for the Company to raise funding through the sale of debt or equity securities unless we agree to register such securities with the SEC, which could cause the Company to deploy additional resources. In addition, if we are unable to attract additional capital, it could have an adverse impact on our ability to implement our business plan and/or sustain our operations. Our status as a former “shell company” could prevent us from raising additional funds to develop additional technological advancements, which could cause the value of our securities to decline in value.

 

A significant portion of the ownership of our common stock is concentrated in a small number of investors, some of whom are affiliated with our Board of Directors and management.

 

Our management and Board of Directors, own approximately 24% of the Company’s issued and outstanding shares of common stock. By virtue of such holdings, they have the ability to exercise significant influence over the Company’s business and fairs, including matters requiring approval by our stockholders including but not limited to the following actions:

 

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the election of the Board of Directors;

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amending the Company’s Articles of Incorporation or bylaws; and

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approving a merger, sale of assets, or other corporate transaction.

 

As a result, the Company’s stock ownership profile may discourage a potential acquirer from seeking to acquire shares of our common stock, which in turn could reduce our stock price.

 

 

Our directors have the right to authorize the issuance of shares of our preferred stock and additional shares of our common stock.

 

Our directors, within the limitations and restrictions contained in our Articles of Incorporation and without further action by our shareholders, have the authority to issue shares of preferred stock from time to time in one or more series and to fix the number of shares and the relative conversion and voting rights, and terms of redemption, liquidation preferences and any other preferences, special rights and qualifications of any such series.  While we have no intention of issuing shares of preferred stock at the present time, we continue to seek to raise capital through the sale of our securities and may issue shares of preferred stock in connection with a particular investment.  Any issuance of shares of preferred stock could adversely affect the rights of holders of our common stock.

 

Should we issue additional shares of our common stock at a later time, each investor’s ownership interest in our stock would be proportionally reduced.  

 

Following effectiveness of the Registration Statement, as a publicly traded company, INVO Bioscience will be subject to the reporting requirements of U.S. federal securities laws, which can be expensive.

 

INVO Bioscience is a public reporting company and, accordingly, is subject to the information and reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”), and other federal securities laws, including compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. We are required to prepare and file annual and quarterly reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC and furnishing audited reports. Compliance with such reporting requirements is both timely and costly for the Company. We may need to hire additional financial reporting, internal control, and other finance personnel in order to develop and implement appropriate internal controls and reporting procedures. 

 

Failure to comply with internal control attestation requirements could lead to loss of public confidence in our financial statements and negatively impact our stock price.

 

Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we are required to conduct an annual management assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls over finical reporting. In connection, our independent registered public accounting firm is required to attest to whether our management’s assessment is fairly stated in all material respects and separately report on whether it believes we maintained, in all material respects, effective internal controls over our financial reporting.  If we fail to timely develop our internal controls, and management is unable to make this assessment, or, once required, if the independent registered public accounting firm cannot timely attest to this assessment, we could be subject to regulatory sanctions. As a result, a loss of public confidence in our financial controls and the reliability of our financial statements may develop ultimately negatively impacting our stock price and our ability to raise additional capital when and as needed.

 

Because of the Company’s limited resources and limited number of employees, management concluded that, as of December 31, 2018, our internal control over financial reporting is not effective in providing reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

 

We will incur costs and demands upon management as a result of complying with the laws and regulations affecting a public company, which could adversely affect our operating results.

 

As a public company, we will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as rules implemented by the SEC and the securities exchanges, require certain corporate governance practices for public companies. Our management and other personnel have devoted and expect to continue to devote a substantial amount of time to public reporting requirements and corporate governance. These rules and regulations have significantly increase our legal and financial compliance costs and made some activities more time-consuming and costly. If these costs are not offset by increased revenues and improved financial performance, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected. These rules and regulations also make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance in the future. Additionally, we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified personnel to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers.

 

 

The indemnification rights provided to our directors, officers and employees may result in substantial expenditures by our company and may discourage lawsuits against its directors, officers and employees.

 

Our Articles of Incorporation and applicable Nevada law provide for the indemnification of our directors, officers, employees. The foregoing indemnification obligations could result in us incurring substantial expenditures to cover the costs of settlement or damage awards against directors, officers and employees, which we may be unable to recoup. These provisions and resultant costs may also discourage us from brining a lawsuit against out directors and officers for breaches of their fiduciary duties, and may similarly discourage the filing of derivative litigation by our stockholders against our directs or officer even though such actions, if successful, might otherwise benefit us and our stockholders.

 

Our shares of common stock are thinly traded, and the price may not reflect our value; there can be no assurance that there will be an active market for our shares now or in the future.

 

We have a trading symbol for our common stock (“IVOB”), which permits our shares to be traded on the OTCQB - Venture Market.

 

Our shares of common stock are thinly traded on the OTCQB, and as such the price, if traded, may not reflect our value.  There can be no assurance that there will be an active market for our shares of common stock either now or in the future.  The market liquidity will be dependent on, among other things, the perception of our operating business and any steps that our management might take to bring us to the awareness of investors.  There can be no assurance given that there will be any awareness generated or, if given, that it will be positive.

 

Consequently, investors may not be able to liquidate their investment or may be able to liquidate it only at a price that does not reflect the value of the business.  If a more active market should develop, the price may be highly volatile.  Due to the possibility of our common stock being priced lower than its actual value, many brokerage firms may not be willing to effect transactions in the securities.  Even if an investor finds a broker willing to effect a transaction in the shares of our common stock, the combination of brokerage commissions, transfer fees, taxes, if any, and any other selling costs may exceed the selling price.  Further, many lending institutions will not permit the use of such shares of common stock as collateral for any loans. 

 

If we fail to remain current on our reporting requirements, we could be removed from the OTCQB, which would limit the ability of broker-dealers to sell our securities and the ability of shareholders to sell their securities in the secondary market.

 

As a company trading on the OTCQB, we must be reporting issuers under Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, and must be current in their reports under Section 13 of the Exchange Act, in order to maintain price quotation privilege.  If we fail to remain current on our reporting requirements, we could be removed from the OTCQB.  As a result, the market liquidity for our securities could be adversely affected by limiting the ability of broker-dealers to sell our securities and the ability of shareholders to sell their securities in the secondary market.

 

Shareholders may be diluted significantly through our efforts to obtain financing and from issuance of additional shares of our common stock, including such issuances of shares for services.

 

To satisfy certain financial obligations, we have issued and may continue to issue shares of our common stock and we have incurred and may continue to incur debt, which may be convertible into shares of our common stock.  We may attempt to raise capital by selling shares of our common stock, possibly with warrants, which may be issued or exercised at a discount to the market price for our common stock.  These actions would result in dilution of the ownership interests of existing shareholders, and may further dilute the common stock book value, and that dilution may be material.  Such issuances may also serve to enhance existing management’s ability to control INVO as the shares may be issued to our officers, directors, new employees, or other related parties.

 

We have convertible notes outstanding, which could give rise to additional issuances of our common stock, potential dilution of ownership to existing stockholders and volatility in the price of our securities.

 

As of December 31, 2018, we have outstanding convertible notes with an aggregate principal amount of approximately, $730,000, which are convertible into shares at the following varying conversion prices: notes totaling $695,000 convertible at $0.20 per share, a $25,000 note convertible at $0.03 per share and a $10,000 note convertible at $0.01 per share, subject to adjustment in accordance with the terms of such notes. In the event the convertible notes are converted into shares of common stock, the issuance of shares of our common stock upon such conversion will result in dilution of ownership to existing stockholders.

 

 

Our common stock may be subject to the “penny stock” rules of the SEC, which will make the shares of our common stock more difficult to sell.

 

Our shares of common stock are subject to the “penny stock” rules of the Exchange Act. The Exchange Act defines “penny stock” as any equity security that has a market price of less than $5.00 per share, subject to certain restrictions. We anticipate our common stock may continue to be considered a penny stock in the future.

 

The penny stock rules require broker-dealers to deliver to potential investors a standardized risk disclosure document prepared by the SEC, which provides information about penny stocks and the nature and level of risks in the penny stock market.  The broker-dealer must also provide the potential investor current bid and offer quotations for the penny stock, the compensation of the broker-dealer and its salesperson, and monthly account statements showing the market value of each penny stock held in the investor’s account.  The bid and offer quotations, and the broker-dealer and salesperson compensation information must be given to the potential investor orally or in writing prior to completing the transaction and must be given to the potential investor in writing before or with the investor’s confirmation.

 

In addition, the penny stock rules require that prior to a transaction the broker-dealer make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive the purchaser’s written agreement to the transaction.  The penny stock rules are burdensome and may reduce purchases of any offerings and reduce the trading activity for shares of our common stock.  As long as our shares of common stock are subject to the penny stock rules, the holders of such shares of common stock may find it more difficult to sell their securities.

 

The market for penny stocks has experienced numerous frauds and abuses, which could adversely affect investors in our stock.

 

We believe that the market for penny stocks has suffered from patterns of fraud and abuse.  We believe that many of these abuses have occurred with respect to the promotion of low price stock companies that lacked experienced management, adequate financial resources, an adequate business plan and/or marketable and successful business or product.  Because shares of INVO are penny stocks, the share price for INVO common stock may be adversely affected such frauds and abuses involving other penny stocks.

 

We do not expect to pay any dividends to shareholders.

 

To date, we have never declared or paid any dividends to our stockholders. Our board of directors does not intend to distribute dividends in the near future.  The declaration, payment and amount of any future dividends will be made at the discretion of the board of directors, and will depend upon, among other things, the results of our operations, cash flows and financial conditions, operating and capital requirements, and other factors as the board of directors considers relevant.  There is no assurance that future dividends will be paid to stockholders. In the event dividends are paid to stockholders, there is no assurance with respect to the amount of any such dividend.

  

We may have difficulty raising necessary capital to fund operations because of the thin market and market price volatility for our shares of common stock.

 

Throughout 2018, there has been a thin market for our shares, and the market price for our shares has been volatile.  In recent years, the securities markets in the U.S. and around the world have experienced a high level of price and volume volatility, and the market price of securities of many companies have experienced wide fluctuations that have not necessarily been related to the operations, performances, underlying asset values or prospects of such companies.  For these reasons, we expect our shares of common stock will also be subject to volatility resulting from market forces over which we will have no control.   The success of our products and services may be dependent upon our ability to obtain additional financing through debt and equity or other means. The thin market for our shares, and the volatility in the market price for our shares, may adversely affect our ability to raise needed additional capital.

 

 

Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments.

 

We are not required to respond to this item as we are a smaller reporting company.

 

Item 2.  Properties

 

During 2017 and 2018 we did not own any real property, but operated from a rented facility.  We are on a month to month rental arrangement for our principal executive office located at 407R Mystic Avenue, Suite 34C, Medford, MA 02155. We moved into this facility in November 2012.  This facility is rented from a related-party.  See Item 13 “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.”  Our current rented facility is sufficient for at least the near-term.

 

Item 3.  Legal Proceedings

 

INVO Bioscience, Inc., and one of its directors have been, since 2010, defending litigation brought by investors in an alleged predecessor of INVO Bioscience.  On March 24, 2010, INVO Bioscience, Inc. and its corporate affiliate, Bio X Cell, Inc., Claude Ranoux, and Kathleen Karloff were served an Amended Complaint, the original of which was filed on December 31, 2009 at the Suffolk Superior Court Business Litigation Session by two terminated employees of Medelle Corporation (also named as a co-defendant but no longer active), who are also attorneys, and a former investor in and creditor of Medelle.  These plaintiffs allege various claims of wrongdoing relating to the sale of assets of Medelle to Dr. Ranoux.  Plaintiffs claim that Dr. Ranoux, Ms. Karloff, and Medelle (and therefore INVO Bioscience as an alleged successor corporation) violated alleged duties owed to plaintiffs in connection with the sale.  Separate claims were also alleged against INVO Bioscience.

 

Dr. Ranoux, Ms. Karloff, and INVO Bioscience have challenged these allegations, which they believe are baseless.  The transfer of the assets of Medelle was professionally handled by an independent third party, after approval by the Medelle Board of Directors, representing a majority of its shareholders.  Medelle’s Board voted to proceed with an assignment for the benefit of creditors (AFBC) and gave complete authority to the President & CEO at that time (neither Dr. Ranoux nor Ms. Karloff) to work with the third-party assignee and to get the best possible price for those assets.  The third party was responsible for notifying all the appropriate parties and for filing notices in various professional publications and newspapers of Medelle’s intention to sell its assets.  The third party also contacted numerous large medical device and bio-pharma companies to learn if they would be interested in acquiring the assets.  After a private sale was deemed unlikely, the assignee of the assets elected to proceed with a sealed-bid auction of the assets.  On the day of the auction, Dr. Ranoux submitted the only bid and was awarded the assets, upon full payment. 

 

During 2010, Dr. Ranoux, Ms. Karloff, and INVO Bioscience filed Motions to Dismiss as to all claims, pursuant to M.R.Civ. P. 12(b)(6).  In a written Decision rendered on November 12, 2010, the judge dismissed all claims against INVO, Bio X Cell, and Ms. Karloff, and also dismissed the claims against Dr. Ranoux alleging civil conspiracy and breach of M.G.L. c. 93A.  The judge denied Dr. Ranoux’s motion to dismiss the remaining breach of fiduciary duty and fraud claims.  The plaintiffs allege in their Amended Complaint that Dr. Ranoux committed fraud by failing to inform them of the details of the Medelle auction. 

 

The claims against Dr. Ranoux that survived the November 2010 dismissal order were submitted to binding arbitration.  On February 15, 2013, the mutually-agreed arbitrator ruled in favor of Dr. Ranoux. The award held that Dr. Ranoux did not withhold information about the auction of Medelle’s assets and expressed doubt that the plaintiffs would have invested the resources necessary to make a beneficial use of the assets.  The arbitrator’s award then was confirmed by the Superior Court on August 21, 2013.  The Superior Court’s confirmation of the award was affirmed on appeal on October 20, 2013 by the Massachusetts Appeals Court.  The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court then denied further appellate review.  

 

On October 18, 2016, following motions and argument, the Superior Court issued a memorandum of decision and order denying plaintiffs’ motion for entry of default judgment and assessment of damages against Medelle and allowed the motion of INVO Bioscience, BioXcell, and Ms. Karloff for entry of final judgment of dismissal.  The foregoing order was converted to a final judgment dismissing all claims against all defendants and entered on the docket on October 27, 2016.

 

On November 28, 2016, plaintiffs filed an amended notice of appeal from the Superior Court’s decision of October 17, 2016 and the subsequent judgment entered on October 27, 2016.  The appeal further challenges the order of dismissal from November, 2010.  Plaintiffs did not appeal from the dismissal of the claims against Ms. Karloff, so the judgment in her favor is now final, leaving claims against INVO Bioscience, Bio X Cell, Medelle, and Dr. Ranoux.

 

 

INVO Bioscience and Bio X Cell intend a vigorous opposition to the current appeal, consistent with their previous positions that no breach of duty occurred in the sale of Medelle’s assets. It is assumed by INVO Bioscience that Dr. Ranoux will oppose the appeal as well.

 

Aside from the above-mentioned litigation, neither INVO Bioscience nor Bio X Cell, our wholly-owned subsidiary, either directly or indirectly, are involved in any lawsuit outside the ordinary course of business, the disposition of which would have a material effect upon either our results of operation, financial position, or cash flows.

 

Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures.

 

Not Applicable

 

 

 

Part II

 

Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

Market Information

 

Trading of our shares of our common stock is on the OTC QB Venture Market tier of the over-the-counter (“OTC”) market under the symbol “IVOB.”  The OTC QB tier is the middle tier of three marketplaces for over-the-counter stocks offered by OTC Market Group.  In July 2018 trading of our shares moved to this OTC QB Venture category because we fulfilled the current reporting requirements to the SEC. Investors can find Real-Time quotes and market information on the Company on www.otcmarkets.com.

 

Over-the-counter market quotations reflect inter-dealer prices, without retail mark-up, mark-down or commission, and may not necessarily reflect actual transactions.

 

The table below presents the range of high and low sales prices of shares of our common stock by calendar quarter for the last two full fiscal years, on the applicable market, as reported by Yahoo Finance.

 

Dates

 

High

   

Low

 

January 1, 2018 to March 31, 2018

  $ 0.75     $ 0.08  

April 1, 2018 to June 30, 2018

  $ 0.77     $ 0.40  

July 1, 2018 to September 30, 2018

  $ 0.60     $ 0.25  

October 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018

  $ 0.63     $ 0.33  
                 

January 1, 2017 to March 31, 2017

  $ 0.40     $ 0.24  

April 1, 2017 to June 30, 2017

  $ 0.38     $ 0.28  

July 1, 2017 to September 30, 2017

  $ 0.29     $ 0.17  

October 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017

  $ 0.26     $ 0.15  

 

As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, there were 154,292,497 and 142,132,374 shares, of registrant’s common stock outstanding, respectively.

 

Information required with respect to Equity Compensation Plans in this Item 5 is included in Item 11 on page 53 of this report on Form 10-K.

 

Stockholders

 

As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the number of holders of record of Registrant’s Common Stock was approximately 167 and 145, respectively. However, registrant estimates that it has a significantly greater number of beneficial holders of its common stock because a number of shares of registrant’s common stock are held of record by broker-dealers for their customers in street name.

 

Dividend Policy

 

We have never declared or paid a dividend on our common stock.  We intend to retain future earnings (if any) to fund development and growth of our business, rather than to pay them as dividends, for the foreseeable future.

 

Compensation Plan

During the periods of 2018 and 2017, we do not have any equity compensation plans in place.  We intend to implement equity compensation plans in the future when and as we deem appropriate.  

 

Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders

 

From 2010 through 2018, the company’s shareholders were not asked to vote on any matters.  The last shareholders vote was taken during the fourth quarter of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2008, when the shareholders of INVO Bioscience were requested to vote on the Share Exchange between Emy’s Salsa AJI Distribution Company, Inc. and Bio X Cell, Inc.  See the Form 8-K filed December 8, 2008.  The shareholders of both companies approved the transaction.

 

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

 

We are not required to provide this information as we are a smaller reporting company.

 

Purchase of Equity Securities

 

No repurchase of equity securities were made during the fiscal year.

 

Item 6.  Selected Financial Data

 

We are not required to provide this information as we are a smaller reporting company.

 

Item 7.  Management s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

Forward-Looking Statements

 

This discussion includes certain forward-looking statements about our business and our expectations, including statements relating to revenues, international revenues, revenue growth rates, gross margin, operating expenses, amortization expense, earnings per share, available cash and operating cash flow.  Any such statements are subject to risk that could cause the actual results to vary materially from expectations.  For a further discussion of the various risks that may affect our business and expectations, see the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in Item 1A of Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.  The risks and uncertainties discussed therein do not reflect the potential future impact of any mergers, acquisitions or dispositions.  In addition, any forward-looking statements represent our estimates only as of the day this Annual Report was filed with the SEC and should not be relied upon as representing our estimates as of any subsequent date.  While we may elect to update forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we specifically disclaim any obligation to do so, even if our estimates change.

 

Background 

 

The previous management of Emy’s (our predecessor) determined that it was in the best interests of Emy’s shareholders to agree to the Share Exchange to acquire Bio X Cell, Inc., a Massachusetts company (d/b/a/ “INVO Bioscience”).  Bio X Cell, Inc. had developed patented technology, the INVOcell and the INVO procedure, designed to be less expensive and an alternative to conventional IVF.  As part of the Share Exchange, Emy’s ceased the salsa distribution business and was re-named INVO Bioscience, Inc., and Bio X Cell, Inc. became its’ wholly-owned subsidiary.

 

The Share Exchange was accounted for as a “reverse merger” because the former Bio X Cell shareholders owned a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock of Emy’s immediately following the Share Exchange.  Bio X Cell was deemed the acquirer in the reverse merger.  Consequently, the assets and liabilities and the historical operations that are reflected in the financial statements prior to the Share Exchange were those of Bio X Cell and were recorded at the historical cost basis of Bio X Cell and the consolidated financial statements after completion of the Share Exchange include the assets and liabilities of Bio X Cell and historical operations of Bio X Cell.  The financial results included in this Form 10-K are based on INVO Bioscience’s audited balance sheet as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 and related audited statements of operations and stockholders’ deficiency and statements of cash flows for the periods ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. 

 

Overview

 

We are a company that has begun to commercialize our proven and patented technology initially outside of the United States and for the past two years within the US that we believe will revolutionize the treatment of infertility, assisting infertile couples in having a baby.  Our device, the INVOcell, and the INVO procedure are designed to provide an alternative infertility treatment for the patient and the clinician; it is less expensive and simpler to perform than traditional IVF. The simplicity of the INVO procedure relates to the ability to potentially perform the infertility procedure without the need of a complex embryology lab and at a much lower overall cost than In-vitro fertilization (“IVF”).  Therefore, we believe that the INVO procedure will be available in many more locations than conventional IVF, especially outside the United States.  INVO also allows conception and embryo development to take place inside the woman’s body; we believe this is an attractive feature for most couples.

 

 

Sales and Marketing

 

Our primary focus is the sale of the INVOcell device and training doctors and clinicians in the INVO technology to assist infertile couples in having a baby.  We believe that our proven INVOcell procedure is an effective low-cost alternative to current treatments.  Along with being offered as an option in traditional IVF clinics, the INVO technique may be provided in a physician’s office.  Therefore, the INVO device and technique may be offered by physicians around the world to couples who do not have access to IVF facilities.  Currently, we are authorized to sell the INVOcell device in the United States as of November 2015 after receiving DeNovo class II clearance from the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) as well as in certain international markets.  As of January 2019 we have an exclusive sales, marketing and distribution agreement with Ferring Pharmaceuticals for the US therefore our primary focus will be in the international markets such as the Middle East, Mexico, Europe and India as well as working on regulatory approvals in the large markets such as China. We have established agreements with distributors and have trained physicians around the world in places such as Canada, South and Central America, India, and Asia.  

 

We anticipate that we will experience quarterly fluctuations in our sales and revenues as a result of our efforts to expand the sales of the INVO technology to new markets.  Operating results will depend upon a couple of items, first how quickly Ferring can execute its business plan in the United States and the timing of signing of agreements with new distributors internationally along with the training of the distributors and their staffs in the INVO procedure.  Since 2016 we had focused our efforts in the US and now with Ferring taking on that role for us as of January 2019, we will focus on supporting Ferring and targeting key markets t outside of the US. We expect International sales will continue to expand in the coming years.  As we are just beginning to get into these markets both US and International sales are difficult to forecast as we do not have any significant history to support our assumptions.  We are committed to our ongoing sales, marketing and development activities to sustain and grow our sales and revenues from our products and services.  However, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in doing so.  

 

During 2017 and 2018, the Company has marketed its products strategically utilizing its limited resources in the most economical fashion possible.  We focused most of our efforts on starting the sales in the United States after the FDA clearance in November 2015.

 

In January 2019, INVO Bioscience, Inc. (the “Company”) entered into a Distribution & Supply Agreement with Ferring International Center S.A. (“Ferring”), pursuant to which, among other things, the Company granted to Ferring an exclusive license in the United States (the “Territory”) with rights to sublicense under patents related to the Company’s proprietary INVOcell™ intravaginal culture device together with the retention device and any other applicable accessories (collectively, the “Licensed Product”) to market, promote, distribute and sell the Licensed Product with respect to all therapeutic, prophylactic and diagnostic uses of medical devices or pharmaceutical products involving reproductive technology (including infertility treatment) in humans (the “Field”). Ferring is responsible, at its own cost, for all commercialization activities for the Licensed Product in the Field in the United States. The Company does retain a limited exception to the exclusive license granted to Ferring allowing the Company, subject to certain restrictions, to establish up to five clinics that will commercialize INVO cycles in the Territory. We will be looking to work with current doctors in areas of the US where there is demand but currently no IVF facilities. This approach may take many different forms all of which we are willing to explore. The Company retains all commercialization rights for the Licensed Product outside of the United States.  As a result of this new agreement we will be changing our focus in 2019 to support Ferring in the United States and increase our efforts in the marketing and sale of the INVOcell in international markets.

 

INVO Bioscience attended the American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) Congress’s over the past few years starting in Baltimore MD in October 2015. The 2018 ASRM Congress was held in Denver, CO and at times we had a waiting line of interested doctors and embryologists at our booth as we discussed the advantages of INVO. The ASRM Congress is a global meeting and doctors from many international countries showed an interest. The INVOcell continues to be well received by many physicians, embryologists and distributors. During these conferences, we have established many contacts and potential interested parties to assist us expand the sale of the INVOcell worldwide. 

 

Starting in November 2016 and through 2018 the Company changed its training process to a more consistent one.  Dr. Kevin Doody of CARE in Bedford, Texas assumed the role of our Medical Director.  Dr. Doody and his team held the first training session at his facility for a group of doctors and embryologists recruited during the 2016 ASRM Congress. The training was very successful and the participants were positive about offering INVO to their patients.  We found this model to provide a standard process that does not have to be adapted to each facility. The training program allows all of the physicians and embryologists to collaborate and discuss ideas of how they are doing things today compared to the new INVO protocol.  It is a free flowing discussion with hands on learning. Dr. Doody will continue in this capacity with Ferring as we move forward together.

 

The current physicians and embryologists utilizing our solution are very pleased with results they are experiencing with the INVOcell device and INVO Procedure.  Many stated that the embryos they are seeing are healthy and strong and in some cases better than the ones they have been developing in their IVF processes. They are also stating they are achieving equal to or better efficacy rates. The doctors believe these are both related to the fact that the embryos are developing as the woman goes about her normal routines and body temperature fluctuations, so there is body & temperature movement, it is not a constant as it would be in an incubator.  A good number of the practices are starting to order larger quantities on a more regular basis.

 

The Company’s main focus throughout 2019 will be to focus on the international market. As mentioned above we have hired an IVF sales and marketing professional to support the international efforts.

 

In the second quarter of 2016, the first post-FDA cleared US baby from the INVOcell and INVO procedure was born in Texas.

 

 

Physicians outside the United States have demonstrated that their patients would like to see current success rates within their own geographic and cultural areas.  We have and will continue to assist them in sponsoring clinical and marketing trials for “in-country” data.  One of the things we have found is that, without an INVO Bioscience employee or representative “in country” focused on the INVO technology, our sales and opportunities were limited. With the hiring of the new Business Development VP, who has built a strong foundation of relationships over the years in the international IVF market, we believe we will make progress in penetrating international markets in 2019.

 

Operations

 

We operate by outsourcing many key operational functions in the development and manufacturing of the INVOcell device and its associated products to keep fixed costs to a minimum.  Our most critical management and leadership functions are carried out by our core team.  We have contracted out the following functions: manufacturing, packaging/labeling and sterilization of the device to a certified manufacturer to mold the parts; to a medical manufacturing company to assemble packages and label the product and to a sterilization specialist to perform the gamma sterilization process.  This expedites production and eliminates the need for in-house capital equipment expenditures.

 

Our most significant challenge in growing our business has been our limited resources.  As of December 31, 2018, we generally require approximately $200,000 per month to fund our current normal operations.  Over the prior years we had reduced this by, among other things, officers and directors foregoing salaries and fees and not engaging in certain activities so that we could avoid incurring certain expenses (such as travel and marketing costs). As a result of the Ferring agreement and upfront payment, we anticipate our expenses will increase as we expand our sales and marketing efforts and develop new products and services. Our cash needs are primarily attributable to funding our sales and marketing efforts, strengthening our training capabilities, satisfying existing obligations, funding a future U.S. FDA clinical trial for additional product indications, and building an administrative infrastructure, including costs and professional fees associated with being a public company. 

 

We believe we are taking the necessary steps to ultimately provide the company with the capital resources we need to execute our business plan and grow the business. 

 

The exact amount of additional funds we are able to raise, if any, will determine how aggressively we can continue to grow, what additional projects we will be able to undertake, and when.  No assurance can be given that we will be able to raise any additional capital.  If we are unable to raise additional capital, we may be required to slow down some activities.

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses were approximately $3,038,068 and $870,612 respectively for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.  Throughout this period, we continued to control our spending and use our resources carefully.  The $2,167,456 increase in selling, general and administrative expenses in 2018 was the result of the Board of Directors issuing shares to the Board itself and consultants, including a one- time issuance with a value of $1,530,000 for pre and post FDA clearance support services for a total of $1,850,000 during 2018. 876,672 shares were issued in 2017 with a value of $215,132 for services.

 

Throughout the period 2017 to 2018 we incurred annual net losses as we continued to market our product and proprietary process as we endeavored to increase our revenue base.  It is expected that we will continue to generate net losses through 2019.

 

We cannot accurately predict what our level of activity will be over the next 12-24 months.  However, INVO Bioscience anticipates that it will continue to launch the sale of the INVOcell device and INVO procedure in the U.S. through our agreement with Ferring Pharmaceuticals, and in the Mideast, Asia, South America, and India through new distributor partnerships, IVF centers and physicians.   

 

To achieve this plan, we may additional financing.  As we expand our distribution base, our costs and expenses may exceed the cash flow being generated and therefore we may require additional capital.  There is no guaranty that we will be able to raise any additional financing or when, or that we will be able to raise such funds on terms acceptable to us. 

 

Due to our early stage of growth, our Statement of Operations may not be indicative of future levels of activity. As such, we expect our costs and losses to increase in future periods as we seek to ramp up sales and incur infrastructure costs. As we move forward, the Company expects to expand its sales force and clinical trainers, and to continue to travel to support our distributors and physicians.

 

The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures may vary significantly from our expectations depending upon numerous factors, including our results of operation, financial condition and capital requirements.

 

 

For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we had net losses of approximately $3,076,000 and $702,000, respectively. The net loss in 2018 was significantly higher than 2017 due to the Company issuing shares to certain Board Members and our Medical Director who were compensated in shares with a value of $1,530,000 for services provided during and following the FDA review and acceptance. We had significant working capital deficiencies in both 2018 and 2017 of $2,770,000 and $4,892,000 respectively.  As of December 31, 2018 our stockholder’s deficiency was $2,724,000 compared to $4,992,000 as of December 31, 2017 and cash used in operations was $653,000 for 2018 compared to $181,000 for the year ended December 31, 2017.  This raises substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.  Our ability to continue as a going concern is dependent on, among other things, our ability to raise additional capital and implement our business plan.  See “Risk Factors.”  Our financial statements attached do not include any adjustments that might be necessary if we are unable to continue as a going concern. We finalized our new distribution and supply agreements with Ferring on January 14, 2019 and as part of the closing process the Company received a $5 million one-time license payment. We believe this along with our anticipated sales from the agreement as well as other revenues will provide the Company with cash resources it needs for the next 12-24 months. We may continue to seek alternative funding to execute our longer term business plan.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

The discussion and analysis of INVO Bioscience’s financial condition presented in this section are based upon the audited consolidated financial statements of INVO Bioscience, which have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.  During the preparation of the financial statements, INVO Bioscience is required to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities.  On an ongoing basis, INVO Bioscience evaluates based on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources.  Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.  A summary of significant accounting policies is included below.  Management believes that the application of these policies on a consistent basis enables us to provide useful and reliable financial information about our operating results and financial condition.

 

Stock Based Compensation

 

The Company accounts for stock-based compensation under the provisions of ASC 718-10 Share-Based Payment (formerly SFAS 123R).  This statement requires the Company to measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award.  That cost is recognized over the period in which the employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award, which is usually immediate but sometimes over a vesting period. Warrants granted to non-employees are recorded as an expense over the requisite service period based on the grant date estimated fair value of the grant, determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model.

 

Revenue Recognition 

 

The Company recognizes revenue on arrangements in accordance with ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014-09”). The core principle of ASU 2014-09 is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled for those goods or services.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014-09”). The core principle of ASU 2014-09 is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled for those goods or services. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods therein.

 

ASU 2014-09 supersedes existing guidance on revenue recognition with a five-step model for recognizing and measuring revenue from contracts with customers. The objective of the new standard is to provide a single, comprehensive revenue recognition model for all contracts with customers to improve comparability within industries, across industries, and across capital markets. The underlying principle is that an entity will recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at an amount that the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance also requires a number of disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and the related cash flows. The guidance can be applied retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented (full retrospective method) or retrospectively with a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings for initial application of the guidance at the date of initial adoption (modified retrospective method). The Company adopted the new standard effective January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts that were not completed or substantially completed as of January 1, 2018. The timing and measurement of revenue recognition under the new standard is not materially different than under the old standard. The adoption of the new standard did not have an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

 

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which intends to simplify several aspects of accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, a choice to recognize gross stock compensation expense with actual forfeitures recognized as they occur, as well as certain classifications on the statement of cash flows. The Company adopted this ASU in Fiscal 2018 and it did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

 

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) (“ASU 2016-18”). The updated standard requires that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. Therefore, amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-18 is effective for public business entities for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those annual reporting periods. The Company adopted ASU 2016-18 as of January 1, 2018. The adoption of ASU 2016-18 did not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718) (“ASU 2017-09”). The updated standard clarifies when an entity must apply modification accounting to changes in the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. ASU 2017-09 is effective for public business entities for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those annual reporting periods. Early adoption is permitted.  The Company adopted ASU 2017-09 as of January 1, 2018. The adoption of ASU 2017-09 did not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

In July 2017, FASB issued ASU 2017-11 (Part I) Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features, (Part II) Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception (“ASU 2017-11”). The new standard simplifies the accounting for certain financial instruments with down round features. Part I of ASU 2017-11 changes the classification analysis of certain equity-linked financial instruments, such as warrants and embedded conversion features, such that a down round feature is disregarded when assessing whether the instrument is indexed to an entity’s own stock under Subtopic 815-40, Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity.  As a result, a down round feature, by itself, no longer requires an instrument to be re-measured at fair value through earnings each period, although all other aspects of the indexation guidance under Subtopic 815-40 continue to apply.  Part II of ASU 2017-11 re-characterizes the indefinite deferral of certain provisions of Topic 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, (currently presented as pending content in the Codification) as a scope exception.  No change in practice is expected as a result of these amendments.  The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, early adoption is permitted. The amendments in Part II have no accounting impact and therefore do not have an associated effective date. The Company decided to early adopt this ASU 2017-11 and applied it to the convertible notes it issued during the year which are reflected in this Form 10K.Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting. In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09 which was issued to clarify and reduce both (i) diversity in practice and (ii) cost and complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718, “Compensation – Stock Compensation” to changes in the terms and conditions of a share-based payment award. This update is effective for the Company in the fiscal year beginning October 1, 2018. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

 

Leases (Topic 842). In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which requires lessees to put most leases on their balance sheets by recognizing a lessee’s rights and obligations, while expenses will continue to be recognized in a similar manner to today’s legacy lease accounting guidance. This ASU could also significantly affect the financial ratios used for external reporting and other purposes, such as debt covenant compliance. This new guidance is effective for the Company beginning in fiscal 2020, with early adoption permitted. In July 20I8, the FASB issued ASU 20I8-11, Leases (Topic 842), Targeted Improvements which provides an additional transition method that allows entities to recognize a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. The Company is currently in the process of assessing the impact of this ASU on its consolidated financial statements with the intention to adopt this ASU in fiscal year 2020.

 

Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04 which simplifies the test for goodwill impairment by eliminating Step 2 from the Goodwill impairment test. This new guidance is effective for the Company beginning in fiscal year 2021. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.

 

Management does not believe that any other recently issued but not yet effective accounting standards, if currently adopted, would have a material effect on the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

Results of Operations

 

Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017

 

Net Sales and Revenues

 

Net sales and revenues for year ended December 31, 2018 were approximately $494,000, compared to approximately $282,000 for the same twelve month period ended December 31, 2017. We believe this improvement is the result of the INVO Bioscience team continually reaching out to doctors to introduce them to the INVO Procedure.  These revenues include the shipment of lower introductory price products as we have started to penetrate the U.S. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) market.  We anticipate we will continue to offer training promotions as we continue to reach out to new international doctors and embryologists so they may see the benefits of INVO’s new and disruptive technology. The process of bringing a new facility up and running takes about 6-9 months before we start to see an initial ordering pattern. In both 2018 and 2017 we trained 15 doctors and their embryologists that support them on the unique differences of the INVO Procedure.   More than half of these practices are still working through how to properly integrate and recruit patients for the INVO offering. The others have worked through the initial phases and are now reaching new patients they never would have been able to assist before and seeing positive results.

 

Cost of goods sold for the twelve months ended December 31, 2018 were $90,000 or approximately 18% of revenues compared to $52,000 or the same cost percentage at 18% of revenues for the year ended December 31, 2017.   We are taking steps to continually lower our costs and improve our gross margin while delivering high quality products for a fair price.

 

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses were $3,038,000 in fiscal 2018 an increase of $2,167,000 for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017 from $871,000. This was the result of the issuance of 5,984,000 shares of restricted common stock, a non-cash expense to the board of directors, employees, and consultants/service providers. During 2018 INVO Bioscience continued what it had started in 2016 to market the INVOcell and INVO Procedure across the United States. We continually update our website and issue press releases when key events occur.  We have been able to market and demonstrate the INVOcell for the past few years at the Annual American Society Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) Congress held in Denver, CO, San Antonio, TX, and Salt Lake City, UT. The product and the Company were very well received and had hundreds of visitors and interest during the three days of the Congresses.  As in all the years past, the Company kept tight control over spending and only purchased the required basic services.

 

Research and Development Expenses

 

The Company did not fund any research and development (“R&D”) efforts in 2018 or 2017 as a result of its limited funds.  Its limited resources were devoted to basic corporate expenses and training new distributors and physicians. We anticipate an increase in R&D spending in the future as we have a number of product improvement ideas and would like to expand our patents.

 

Interest Expense, Financing Fees and Loss on Settlement of Debt

 

Interest expense and financing fees increased to approximately $442,000 for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to approximately $62,000 for the same period in 2017. This increase was the related to the issuance of the 2018 Convertible Notes, including the interest earned on the notes, the quarterly amortization of the note discount and the conversion of three of the notes into common stock during the fourth quarter. The 2017 expense was related to a majority of the 2009 note holders converting their notes into restricted shares of common stock. See Notes 6 and 8 in the consolidated financial statements included herein.  This 2017 note conversions also caused a loss on the settlement of that debt in the amount of $41,000 in 2017.

 

Income Taxes

 

The Company had aggregate unused net operating losses at December 31, 2018 and 2017, of approximate $21,708,000 and $18,645,000, respectively, which expire at various times through 2038 and are subject to limitations of Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.  The deferred tax asset related to the net operating loss carry forward was approximately$4,124,000 and $3,730,000 at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.  

 

The Company has provided valuation reserves against the full amount of the net operating loss benefit, since in the opinion of management based upon the earning history of the Company, it is more likely than not that the benefits will not be realized.

 

 

Net Loss

 

The net loss for the twelve months ended December 31, 2018 was approximately $3,076,000 as compared to a net loss of approximately $702,000 for the same twelve month period in 2017. The primary reason for the decrease in net loss was the result of the 2018 issuance of 5,984,000 shares of restricted common stock, a non-cash expense to the board of directors, employees and consultants for their services in 2018 as well as earlier years. In addition there was an a $421,000 non cash increase in the interest and financing expenses as a result of the 2018 Convertible Notes issuance and conversion of some of those notes.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Prior to receiving the $5,000,000 licensing fee in January 2019 as a result of the Ferring transaction our lack of financial resources was the Company’s major challenge.  

 

As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately $212,000 in cash compared to approximately $26,000 at December 31, 2017.  Net cash used by operating activities in 2018 was approximately $653,000, as compared to net cash used by operating activities of approximately $181,000 for 2017.  The increase in net cash used was due to increasing our funds available in 2018 after our private placement of convertible notes was completed in May, which raised approximately $1 million.   During 2018 we partially compensated employees and consultants for their services, pay down existing obligations and work on the next generation of the INVOCell. In 2017 funds were used for patent protection, legal fees, training SEC compliance and basic office support (such as rent, telephone and the website).  Since early 2009, all current employees and directors have continued to assist INVO Bioscience in its funding requirements by deferring their compensation.

 

In 2018, INVO Bioscience invested $19,400 in a new mold to produce its own retention device to allow us to offer a lower cost alternative to our customers. Currently we are procuring the basic FDA cleared retention device from a noted and reputable third party and then having it customized to our specifications at a local ISO 13485 Certified and FDA inspected facility. No cash was used from 2017 in investing activities.

 

During 2018, $859,000 cash was provided by financing activities The Company raised $895,000 from the issuance of the 2018 Convertible Notes and $77,000 from the issuance of restricted shares as part of our private placement in January 2018. Offsetting this was $113,000 of payments made on related party notes.   During 2017, $55,000 cash was provided by financing activities. One shareholder purchased $45,000 of restricted shares of common stock and the other shareholder purchased $10,000 of restricted shares of common stock. 

 

Our registered independent certified public accountants have stated in their report dated April 16, 2019, that we have generated negative cash outflows from operating activities, experienced recurring net operating losses, and are dependent on securing additional equity and debt financing to support our business efforts.  As reflected in their audit report, our registered independent certified public accountants indicated that these factors, among others, raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

 

Our existing cash resources, cash flow from operations will not provide adequate resources for supporting operations during fiscal 2019. As announced we entered into a Distribution & Supply Agreement with Ferring International Center S.A. in the fourth quarter of 2018 to market, promote, distribute and sell our products within the United States. We completed this arrangement on January 14, 2019 and as part of the closing process the Company received a $5 million one-time license payment. We believe this along with our anticipated sales from the agreement as well as other revenues will provide the Company with cash resources it needs for the next 12-24 months. We will be utilizing some of this funding to pay down existing liabilities and a portion of our accrued compensation balance. We may continue to seek alternative funding to execute our longer term business plan.  Although there can be no assurance that an additional source of funding will materialize, we currently believe that we will be able to obtain the funding we need to continue to expand our business.  However, if we do not raise additional capital in the near future we may have to curtail our spending.

 

 

Off Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

Under SEC regulations, we are required to disclose our off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, such as changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that are material to investors.  An off-balance sheet arrangement means a transaction, agreement or contractual arrangement to which any entity that is not consolidated with us is a party, under which we have:

 

 

-

Any obligation under certain guarantee contracts;

 

-

Any retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity or similar arrangement that serves as credit, liquidity or market risk support to that entity for such assets;

 

-

Any obligation under a contract that would be accounted for as a derivative instrument, except that it is both indexed to our stock and classified in stockholder’s equity in our statement of financial position; and

 

-

Any obligation arising out of a material variable interest held by us in an unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit risk support to us, or engages in leasing, hedging or research and development services with us.

 

We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements that we are required to disclose pursuant to these regulations.  In the ordinary course of business, we enter into operating lease commitments, purchase commitments and other contractual obligations.  These transactions are recognized in our financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.

 

Inflation

 

We believe that inflation has not had a material effect on our operations to date.

 

Item 7A.  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risks

 

We are not required to provide this information as we are a smaller reporting company.

 

 

Item 8.  Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

  

  

Page

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

  

F-1

 

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2018 and 2017

  

F-2

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Losses for the Years Ended December 31, 2018 and 2017

  

F-3

 

 

Consolidated Statement of Shareholders’ Deficiency for the Period from January 1, 2017 to  December 31, 2018

  

F-4

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2018 and  2017

  

  F-5

 

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

  

F-6

 

 

 

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

 

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of

Invo Bioscience, Inc. 

 

Opinion on the Financial Statements

 

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Invo Bioscience, Inc.  (“Company”) as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholders’ deficit, and cash flows for the years then ended, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years then ended, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

The Company’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern

 

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company has incurred losses from operations since inception and has a net stockholders’ deficiency. These conditions raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans in regard to these matters are described in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that may result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

 

Basis for Opinion

 

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

 

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

 

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

 

/s/ Liggett & Webb, P.A.

 

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2011.

 

New York, New York 

 

April 16, 2019

 

 

INVO Bioscience, Inc.

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

 

   

December 31,

   

December 31,

 
   

2018

   

2017

 

ASSETS

 

 

         

Current assets

               

    Cash

  $ 212,243     $ 25,759  

    Accounts receivable net

    225,899       86,697  

    Inventory, net

    43,513       58,879  

    Prepaid expense

    249,454       63,050  

      Total current assets

    731,109       234,385  
                 

Property and equipment, net

    34,446       15,700  
                 

Other Assets

               

Capitalized patents, net

    11,792       16,328  

Total other assets

    11,792       16,328  
                 

Total assets

  $ 777,347     $ 266,413  
                 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' DEFICIENCY

               

Current liabilities

               

     Accounts payable and accrued liabilities, including related parties

  $ 571,828     $ 960,725  

     Accrued compensation

    2,515,256       3,955,190  

     Deferred revenue

    18,895       -  

     Note payable - related party

    97,743       210,888  

     Note payable

    131,722       -  

     Convertible notes, net of discount of $497,961

    157,039       -  

     Convertible notes, related party - net of discount of $30,913

    9,087       -  

          Total current liabilities

    3,501,570       5,126,803  
                 

     Note payable - long term

    -       131,722  
                 

Total liabilities

    3,501,570       5,258,525  
                 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 12)

    -       -  
                 

Stockholder's deficiency

               

Preferred Stock, $.0001 par value; 100,000,000 shares authorized;
No shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively

    -       -  

Common Stock, $.0001 par value; 200,000,000 shares authorized; 154,292,497 and 142,132,374 issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively

    15,429       14,213  

   Additional paid-in capital

    18,981,570       13,638,806  

   Accumulated deficit

    (21,721,222

)

    (18,645,131

)

      Total stockholder's deficiency

    (2,724,223

)

    (4,992,112

)

                 

Total liabilities and stockholders' deficiency

  $ 777,347     $ 266,413  

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements. 

 

 

INVO Bioscience, Inc.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF LOSSES 

 

   

For the Year

   

For the Year

 
   

Ended

   

Ended

 
   

December 31,

   

December 31,

 
   

2018

   

2017

 
                 

Revenue

  $ 494,375     $ 282,145  

Cost of Goods Sold

    90,367       51,954  
                 

Gross Margin

    404,008       230,191  
                 

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    3,038,068       870,612  

      Total operating expenses

    3,038,068       870,612  
                 

Loss from operations

    (2,634,060

)

    (640,421

)

                 

Loss on settlement of debt

    -       40,869  

Interest expense

    442,031       20,873  

 Total other expenses

    442,031       61,742  
                 

Loss before income taxes

    (3,076,091

)

    (702,163

)

                 

Provision for income taxes

    -       -  
                 

Net Loss

  $ (3,076,091

)

  $ (702,163

)

                 

Basic net loss per weighted average shares of common stock

  $ (0.02

)

  $ (0.00

)

                 

Diluted net loss per weighted average shares of common stock

  $ (0.02

)

  $ (0.00

)

                 

Basic weighted average number of shares of common stock

    147,333,051       141,305,050  
                 

Diluted weighted average number of shares of common stock

    147,333,051       141,305,050  

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

 

INVO Bioscience, Inc.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIENCY

For the Period January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018

 

   

Common Stock

    Additional     Accumulated          
   

Shares

   

Amount

   

Paid-in Capital

   

Deficit

   

Total

 

Balance, December 31, 2016

    140,596,646     $ 14,059     $ 13,311,263     $ (17,942,968

)

  $ (4,617,646

)

                                         

Common stock issued for services

    876,672       88       215,044       -       215,132  

Common stock issued for cash

    318,056       32       54,593       -       54,625  

Common stock issued for convertible notes & interest

    341,000       34       57,906       -       57,940  

Net loss for the twelve months ended December 31, 2017

                            (702,163

)

    (702,163

)

Balance, December 31, 2017

    142,132,374     $ 14,213     $ 13,638,806     $ (18,645,131

)

  $ (4,992,112

)

                                         

Common stock issued for cash

    410,000       41       76,959       -       77,000  

Common stock issued to directors and employees

    6,782,382       678       2,316,555       -       2,317,233  

Common stock issued to service providers

    3,912,326       391       1,843,273       -       1,843,664  

Conversion of notes payable and accrued interest

    1,055,415       106       210,977       -       211,083  

Discount on convertible notes payable

    -       -       895,000       -       895,000  

Net loss for the twelve months ended December 31, 2018

    -       -       -       (3,076,091

)

    (3,076,091

)

Balance, December 31, 2018

    154,292,497     $ 15,429     $ 18,981,570     $ (21,721,222

)

  $ (2,724,223

)

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

 

INVO Bioscience, Inc.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

 

   

For the Year

   

For the Year

 
   

Ended

   

Ended

 
   

December 31,

   

December 31,

 
   

2018

   

2017

 
                 

Cash flows from operating activities:

               

Net loss

  $ (3,076,091

)

  $ (702,163

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

               

Non-cash stock compensation issued for services

    2,092,664       215,132  

Loss on settlement of debt

    -       40,869  

Amortization of discount on notes payable

    366,126       -  

Depreciation and amortization

    5,190       2,810  

Changes in assets and liabilities:

               

Accounts receivable

    (139,202

)

    (83,903

)

Inventories

    15,366       26,331  

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

    200,596       (52,070

)

Deferred revenue

    18,895       -  

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

    (377,814

)

    (5,346

)

Accrued interest - related party

    -       (1,730

)

Accrued compensation

    241,299       378,800  

Net cash (used) in operating activities

    (652,971

)

    (181,270

)

                 

Cash flows from investing activities:

               

    Payments to acquire property, plant and equipment

    (19,400

)

    -  

Net cash (used) in investing activities

    (19,400

)

    -  
                 

Cash flows from financing activities:

               

Proceeds from the sale of common stock

    47,000       54,625  

Proceeds from the sale of common stock - related parties

    30,000       -  

Proceeds from convertible notes payable

    855,000       -  

Proceeds from convertible notes payable - related parties

    40,000       -  

Principal payments on note payable - related parties

    (113,145

)

    -  

Net cash provided by financing activities

    858,855       54,625  
                 

Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

    186,484       (126,645

)

                 

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

    25,759       152,404  
                 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

  $ 212,243     $ 25,759  
                 

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:

               
                 

Cash paid during the period for:

               

Interest

  $ 6,071     $ -  
                 

Taxes

  $ 912     $ 912  
                 

Common stock issued upon note payable and accrued interest conversion

  $ 211,083     $ 57,940  
                 

Common stock issued for prepaid services

  $ 387,000     $ -  
                 

Beneficial conversion feature on convertible notes

  $ 895,000     $ -  
                 
Common stock issued for accrued compensation   $ 1,681,233     $ -  

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

INVO BIOSCIENCE, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

DECEMBER 31, 2018 and 2017

 

NOTE 1

SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ORGANIZATION

 

(A) General

 

 

INVO Bioscience, Inc. (“the Company”) offers novel solutions in assisted reproductive technologies while expanding geographic and affordable access to the global reproductive health care community.  Our primary focus is the manufacture and sale of the INVOcell device and the INVO technology to assist infertile couples in having a baby.  We designed our INVOcell device and our INVO procedure to provide an alternative infertility treatment for the patient and the clinician.  The INVO procedure is less expensive and simpler to perform than other comparable infertility treatments.  The simplicity of the INVO procedure relates to the ability to potentially perform the INVO procedure in a physician’s practice rather than in a specialized facility at a much lower cost overall than current infertility treatments.  

 

We believe that the INVO procedure will make infertility treatment more readily available throughout the world.  The INVO procedure is less costly than conventional IVF.  The INVOcell device and INVO procedure facilitates conception and embryo development inside the woman’s body, rather than in a dish in a laboratory, which is an attractive feature for many couples.

 

Through December 31, 2018, we have generated minimal revenues, have incurred significant expenses and have sustained losses.  Consequently, our operations are subject to all the risks inherent in the establishment of a new business enterprise.

 

On November 3, 2015, the Company issued a press release reporting the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) has granted the Company’s de novo request for the INVOcell to allow the marketing, sale and use in the United States.

 

On November 12, 2018, the Company entered into a Distribution Agreement with Ferring pursuant to which, among other things, the Company granted to Ferring an exclusive license in the United States  with rights to sublicense under patents related to the Company’s proprietary intravaginal culture device known as INVOcell™, together with the retention device and any other applicable accessories to market, promote, distribute and sell the Licensed Product with respect to all therapeutic, prophylactic and diagnostic uses of medical devices or pharmaceutical products involving reproductive technology (including infertility treatment) in humans (the “Field”). Ferring is responsible, at its own cost, for all commercialization activities for the Licensed Product in the Field in the United States. The Company does retain a limited exception to the exclusive license granted to Ferring allowing the Company, subject to certain restrictions, to establish up to five clinics that will commercialize INVO cycles in the United States. The Company retains all commercialization rights for the Licensed Product outside of the United States.

 

(B) Basis of Presentation (Share Exchange and Corporate Structure)

 

On December 5, 2008, the Company completed a share exchange with Emy’s Salsa Aji Distribution Company, Inc. (“Emy’s”), a publicly registered shell corporation with no significant assets or operations.  Emy’s was incorporated on July 11, 2005, under the laws of the State of Nevada under the name Certiorari Corp.  In connection with the share exchange, INVO Bioscience became Emy’s wholly-owned subsidiary and the INVO Bioscience shareholders acquired control of Emy’s.

 

The Company accounted for the transaction as a recapitalization and the Company is the surviving entity.  In connection with the share exchange, Emy’s shareholders retained 14,937,500 shares.  Effective with the Agreement, all previously outstanding shares of Common Stock owned by the Company’s shareholders were exchanged for an aggregate of 38,307,500 shares of Emy’s common stock.  Effective with the Agreement, Emy’s changed its name to INVO Bioscience, Inc.

 

All references to “Common Stock,” “share” and “per share” amounts have been retroactively restated to reflect the exchange ratio of 357.0197 shares of INVO Bioscience Common Stock for one share of Emy’s common stock outstanding immediately prior to the merger as if the exchange had taken place as of the beginning of the earliest period presented.

 

The accompanying consolidated financial statements present the historical financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of the Company prior to the merger with Emys.  The accompanying consolidated financial statements present on a consolidated basis the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries.  All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

 

 

(C) Use of Estimates

 

In preparing financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles, management is required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and revenues and expenses during the reported period.  Actual results could differ from those estimates.

 

(D) Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

The Company considers all highly liquid temporary cash investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.  The Company had the amounts of cash and cash equivalents on its balance sheets as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 of $212,243 and $25,759, respectively.

 

(E) Inventory

 

Inventories consist of work in process (WIP) and finished products and are stated at the lower of cost or market; using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method as a cost flow convention. 

 

(F) Property and Equipment

 

The Company records property and equipment at cost.  Depreciation and amortization are provided using the straight-line method over the estimated economic lives of the assets, which are from 3 to 7 years.  The Company capitalizes the expenditures for major renewals and improvements that extend the useful lives of property and equipment.  Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred.  The Company reviews the carrying value of long-lived assets for impairment at least annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable.  Recoverability of long-lived assets is measured by a comparison of its carrying amount to the undiscounted cash flows that the asset or asset group is expected to generate.  If such assets are considered impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the property, if any, exceeds its fair market value.

 

(G) Stock Based Compensation

 

The Company accounts for stock-based compensation under the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 718-10, Compensation (“ASC 718-10”).  This statement requires the Company to measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award.  That cost is recognized over the period in which the employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award, which is usually the vesting period.

 

(H) Loss Per Share

 

Basic loss per share calculations are computed by dividing income (loss) available to common shareholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted earnings per share is computed similar to basic earnings per share except that the denominator is increased to include securities or other contracts to issue common stock that would have been outstanding if the potential common shares had been issued and if the additional common shares were dilutive. The Company’s diluted loss per share is the same as the basic loss per share for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, as the inclusion of any potential shares would have had an anti-dilutive effect due to the Company generating a loss.

 

   

Twelve Months Ended December 31,

 
   

2018

   

2017

 

Loss to common shareholders (Numerator)

  $ (3,076,091

)

  $ (702,163

)

Basic and diluted weighted-average number of common shares outstanding (Denominator)

    147,333,051       141,305,050  

 

 

The Company has excluded the following dilutive securities from the calculation of fully-diluted shares outstanding because the result would have been anti-dilutive:

 

   

Twelve Months Ended December 31,

 
   

2018

   

2017

 

Effect of dilutive common stock equivalents:

         

Convertible notes and interest

    6,020,200       3,391,300  

Total

    6,020,200       3,391,300  

 

(I) Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 

ASC 825-10-50, “Disclosures about Fair Value of Financial Instruments,” (formerly SFAS No. 107) requires disclosure of the fair value of certain financial instruments.  The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable and borrowings, as reflected in the balance sheets, approximate fair value because of the short-term maturity of these instruments.

 

Effective January 1, 2008, the Company adopted ASC 820-10, “Fair Value Measurements” (SFAS 157), which provides a framework for measuring fair value under GAAP.  ASC 820-10 defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date.  ASC 820-10 requires that valuation techniques maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.

 

(J) Income Taxes

 

The Company accounts for income taxes under the ASC 740-10-05, “Accounting for Income Taxes” (SFAS 109).  Under ASC 740-10, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases.  Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled.  Under ASC 740-10, the effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

 

On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) was signed into law by the President of the United States. TCJA is a tax reform act that among other things, reduced corporate tax rates to 21 percent effective January 1, 2018. FASB ASC 740, Income Taxes, requires deferred tax assets and liabilities to be adjusted for the effect of a change in tax laws or rates in the year of enactment, which is the year in which the change was signed into law. Accordingly, the Company adjusted its deferred tax assets and liabilities at December 31, 2017, using the new corporate tax rate of 21 percent. See Note 10.

 

(K) Business Segments

 

The Company operates in one segment and therefore segment information is not presented.

 

(L) Concentration of Credit Risk

 

Cash includes amounts deposited in financial institutions in excess of insurable Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) limits. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had no cash balances in excess of FDIC limits.

 

(M) Revenue Recognition

 

The Company will recognize revenue on arrangements in accordance with ASC 606 is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled for those goods or services.

 

(N) Long- Lived Assets

 

Long-lived assets and certain identifiable assets related to those assets are periodically reviewed for impairment whenever circumstances and situations change such that there is an indication that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable.  If the non-discounted future cash flows of the enterprise are less than their carrying amount, their carrying amounts are reduced to the fair value and an impairment loss recognized.  There was no impairment recorded from January 5, 2007 (inception) to December 31, 2018.

 

 

(O) Reclassifications

 

Certain reclassifications have been made in prior year’s financial statements to conform to classifications used in the current year.

 

(P) Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). The core principle of ASU 2014-09 is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled for those goods or services. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods therein.

 

ASU 2014-09 supersedes existing guidance on revenue recognition with a five-step model for recognizing and measuring revenue from contracts with customers. The objective of the new standard is to provide a single, comprehensive revenue recognition model for all contracts with customers to improve comparability within industries, across industries, and across capital markets. The underlying principle is that an entity will recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at an amount that the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance also requires a number of disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and the related cash flows. The guidance can be applied retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented (full retrospective method) or retrospectively with a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings for initial application of the guidance at the date of initial adoption (modified retrospective method). The Company adopted the new standard effective January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts that were not completed or substantially completed as of January 1, 2018. The timing and measurement of revenue recognition under the new standard is not materially different than under the old standard. The adoption of the new standard did not have an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which intends to simplify several aspects of accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, a choice to recognize gross stock compensation expense with actual forfeitures recognized as they occur, as well as certain classifications on the statement of cash flows. The Company adopted this ASU in Fiscal 2018 and it did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

 

In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) (“ASU 2016-15”). The updated standard addresses eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing diversity in practice. ASU 2016-15 is effective for public business entities for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those annual reporting periods. Early adoption is permitted.  The Company adopted ASU 2016-15 as of January 1, 2018. The adoption of ASU 2016-15 did not have an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) (“ASU 2016-18”). The updated standard requires that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. Therefore, amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-18 is effective for public business entities for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those annual reporting periods. The Company adopted ASU 2016-18 as of January 1, 2018. The adoption of ASU 2016-18 did not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718) (“ASU 2017-09”). The updated standard clarifies when an entity must apply modification accounting to changes in the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. ASU 2017-09 is effective for public business entities for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those annual reporting periods. Early adoption is permitted.  The Company adopted ASU 2017-09 as of January 1, 2018. The adoption of ASU 2017-09 did not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

In February 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (“ASU 2016-02”). The new standard establishes a right-of-use (“ROU”) model that requires a lessee to record a ROU asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement.  The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. A modified retrospective transition approach is required for lessees for capital and operating leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements, with certain practical expedients available.  The Company is currently evaluating the impact of its pending adoption of ASU 2016-02 on its consolidated financial statements.

 

 

In July 2017, FASB issued ASU 2017-11 (Part I) Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features, (Part II) Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception (“ASU 2017-11”). The new standard simplifies the accounting for certain financial instruments with down round features. Part I of ASU 2017-11 changes the classification analysis of certain equity-linked financial instruments, such as warrants and embedded conversion features, such that a down round feature is disregarded when assessing whether the instrument is indexed to an entity’s own stock under Subtopic 815-40, Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity.  As a result, a down round feature, by itself, no longer requires an instrument to be re-measured at fair value through earnings each period, although all other aspects of the indexation guidance under Subtopic 815-40 continue to apply.  Part II of ASU 2017-11 re-characterizes the indefinite deferral of certain provisions of Topic 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, (currently presented as pending content in the Codification) as a scope exception.  No change in practice is expected as a result of these amendments.  The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, early adoption is permitted. The amendments in Part II have no accounting impact and therefore do not have an associated effective date. The Company decided to early adopt this ASU 2017-11 and applied it to the convertible notes it issued during the quarter which are reflected in this Form 10Q.

 

Management was not aware of any accounting issued, but not yet effective accounting standards, if currently adopted would have material effect on the consolidated financial statements.

 

NOTE 2

GOING CONCERN

 

The Company commenced operations in December 2008. During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company had a net loss of $3,076,000 and cash used in operations of $653,000. At December 31, 2018, the Company had a working capital deficiency of $2,770,000 and a stockholder deficiency of $2,724,000. This raises substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern.  The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary if the Company is unable to continue as a going concern.  The ability of the Company to continue as a going concern is dependent on the Company’s ability to raise additional capital and implement its business plan.

 

NOTE 3

INVENTORY

 

The Company had inventory in the following amounts:

 

   

December 31,

2018

   

December 31,

2017

 

Work in Process

  $ 30,689     $ 24,357  

Finished Goods

    12,824       34,522  

Total Inventory

  $ 43,513     $ 58,879  

 

NOTE 4

PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT

 

The estimated useful lives and accumulated depreciation for furniture, equipment and software are as follows:

 

 

Estimated Useful Life

Molds

3 to 7 years

 

 

   

December 31,

2018

   

December 31,

2017

 

Manufacturing Equipment- Molds

  $ 70,363     $ 50,963  

Accumulated Depreciation

    (35,917

)

    (35,263

)

    $ 34,446     $ 15,700  

  

The Company recorded $654 and $0 depreciation expense in 2018 and 2017 as its earlier equipment was fully depreciated.

 

 

NOTE 5

PATENTS

 

The Company capitalizes the initial expense related to establishing the patent by country and then amortizes the expense over the life of the patent, typically 20 years.  It then expenses annual filing fees to maintain the patents.  The Company regularly reviews the value of the patent in the market place in proportion to the expense it must spend to maintain the patent.

The Company has recorded the following patent costs:

 

   

December 31,

2018

   

December 31,

2017

 

Total Patents

  $ 77,743     $ 77,743  

Accumulated Amortization

    (65,951

)

    (61,415

)

Patent costs, net

  $ 11,792     $ 16,328  

 

The Company recorded amortization expense as follows:

 

Twelve Months Ended December 31,

 

2018

 

2017

 

 

$

4,536

 

 

$

2,810

 

 

In 2011, the decision was made to not to pay the renewal fees and expedite the amortization of the original patent which expired in 2012.  It was also decided to not spend its limited funds in defending the INVO Block patent as it only has value to the Company. The Company continues to pay the annual renewal fees on its active patents.

 

Estimated amortization expense as of December 31, 2018 is as follows:

 

Years ended December 31,

       

2019

  $ 4,536  

2020

    1,809  

2021

    1,809  

2022

    1,809  

2023 and thereafter

    1,829  

Total

  $ 11,792  

 

NOTE 6

CONVERTIBLE NOTES AND NOTES PAYABLE

 

Convertible Notes - Bridge Notes

 

During 2009, the Company issued senior secured convertible notes (“Bridge Notes”) payable to investors in the aggregate amount of $545,000.  The Bridge Notes carry interest rates ranging between 10-12% and were due in full one year from the date of issuance and are past due.  Both the Bridge Notes and the accrued interest thereon are convertible into Restricted Common Stock of the Company at a conversion price of $0.10 per share (the “Original Conversion Price”).  If the Company were to issue any new shares of common stock within 24 months of the date of the Bridge Notes at a price below the Original Conversion Price, then the conversion price of the Bridge Notes would be adjusted to reflect the new lower price.  In addition to the Bridge Notes, the Company issued warrants to purchase 5,750,000 shares of the Company’s Common Stock at a price of $0.20 per share as of the date of this filing. All the warrants have expired.  The Company valued the conversion feature of the Bridge Notes and the warrants issued via the Black-Scholes valuation method.  The total fair value calculated for the conversion feature was $1,473,710; $151,826 was allocated to discount on the Bridge Notes, and $1,341,884 was charged to operations.   The total fair value calculated for the warrants was $1,719,666; $393,174 was allocated to discount on the Bridge Notes, and $1,326,492 was charged to operations. The aggregate discount on the Bridge Notes for the conversion feature and the warrants was $545,000, and the aggregate amount charged to operations was $2,668,371 which was recorded as a derivative liability on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet.  

 

From November 2009 through May 2015 $535,000 of the principal of the Bridge Notes were converted into shares of Restricted Common Stock.

 

 

In March 2017, the Company converted the last Bridge Note in the amount of $10,000 and accrued interest into shares of common stock. The Company negotiated this conversion at a price lower than the conversion price stated in the original Bridge Note documents because the Bridge Note was past due.  This conversion was treated as a restructure of debt on the Company’s financial statements for the six months ended June 30, 2017.  $10,000 of the Bridge Notes and accrued interest were converted into 341,000 shares of restricted common stock resulting in a loss on debt settlement in the amount of $40,869.

The principal balances of the Convertible Notes was $0 for both 2018 and 2017, respectively. The last note was converted in Q1 2017.  The related interest for the twelve months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 was $0.

 

Notes Payable

 

In August 2016, INVO Bioscience converted a long time vendor’s outstanding accounts payable balance of $131,722 into a three (3) year 5% notes payable. The note provides for interest only payments on the first and second anniversaries of the note. The note is payable in full along with any outstanding accrued interest on the third anniversary. The Company has the right to prepay the note at any time without a premium or penalty.  The interest on this note for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 was $6,586 and $9,586, respectively. 

 

2018 Convertible Notes Payable

 

In April and May 2018, the Company issued convertible notes (the “2018 Convertible Notes”) payable to investors in the aggregate principal amount of $895,000. The 2018 Convertible Notes accrue interest at the rate of 9% per annum which is paid in stock. 2018 Convertible Notes with an aggregate principal amount of $550,000 are due on January 30, 2021, and 2018 Convertible Notes with an aggregate principal amount of $345,000 are due on March 31, 2021. The notes are convertible into shares of common stock at a price of $0.20 per share, provided, that if the Company completes a subsequent equity financing, the holders of the 2018 Convertible Notes can elect to convert the notes in shares of our common stock at a price equal to 75% of the price paid per share in such subsequent equity financing. During the fourth quarter of 2018, three note holders converted their notes with a value of $200,000 into 1,055,415 shares of common stock.

 

The Company calculated a beneficial conversion feature of the 2018 Convertible Notes based on ASU 17-11 in the form of a discount of $895,000; $366,126 of this amount was amortized to interest expense during the twelve months ended December 31, 2018, based on the three year term of the notes. In addition $53,564 of interest was expensed in the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

NOTE 7

OTHER RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

On September 18, 2008, the Company entered into a related party transaction with Dr. Claude Ranoux.  Dr. Ranoux was then the President, Director and Chief Scientific Officer of the Company; as of the date of this filing he is a Director.  Dr. Ranoux had loaned funds to the Company to sustain its operations since January 5, 2007 (inception).  Dr. Ranoux’s total original cumulative investment as of December 31, 2008 was $96,462, as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 it is $21,888 (“the Principal Amount”) in INVO Bioscience.  On March 26, 2009, the Company and Dr. Ranoux agreed to re-write the agreement to a non-convertible note payable bearing interest at 5% per annum, the term of the note had been extended, and has been extended a couple of additional times, the current repayment date is October 31, 2018.  The Company and Dr. Ranoux can jointly decide to repay the loan earlier without prepayment penalties.  During the twelve months ended December 31, 2018 the outstanding balance of $21,888 was paid in full including all interest due, in 2017, $0 was repaid on the principal of the loan.

 

On March 5, 2009, the Company entered into a related party transaction with Kathleen Karloff, the Chief Executive Officer and a Director of the Company.  Ms. Karloff provided a short-term loan in the amount of $75,000 bearing interest at 5% per annum to the Company to fund operations.  In May 2009, Ms. Karloff loaned to the Company an additional $13,000, making her total cumulative loan $88,000 as of December 31, 2011.  This note was due on September 15, 2009, which has since been extended a few times to its current date of October 31, 2018.   During the twelve months ended December 31, 2014, Ms. Karloff loaned the Company an additional $66,000 at an interest rate of 0% by entering into a note payable agreement in satisfaction of expenses incurred by her for amounts previously advanced to the Company. This note currently has the same expiration date as the others which is October 31, 2018. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2018 $91,257 was paid against the principal of the loan, in 2017, $0 was repaid on the principal of the loan. The principal balances of the loan was $62,743 and $154,000 as of December 31 2018 and 2017 respectively.   The related interest for the twelve months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 was $15,278 and $4,400 respectively.

 

In December 2009, James Bowdring, the brother of Director Robert Bowdring invested $100,000 acquiring 666,667 shares of restricted common stock.  In April 2011, the Company issued a new short term convertible note (“Q211 Note”) payable to James Bowdring in the amount of $50,000.  The Note carries a 10% interest rate.  The note has a current balance of $25,000. The Q211 Note is convertible into Common Stock of the Company at a conversion price of $0.03 per share, subject to adjustments. 

 

 

In November 2011, the Company issued a new convertible note (“Q411 Note”) payable to James Bowdring in the amount of $10,000.  The Q411 Note carries a 10% interest rate. The Q411 Note is convertible into Common Stock of the Company at a conversion price of $0.01 per share, subject to adjustments.  

 

In May 2018, James Bowdring and his children participated in the “2018 Convertible Notes” offerings in the aggregate principal amount of $40,000. The 2018 Convertible Notes accrue interest at the rate of 9% per annum which is paid in stock. These Notes are due on March 31, 2021. The notes are convertible into shares of common stock at a price of $0.20 per share, provided, that if the Company completes a subsequent equity financing, the holders of the 2018 Convertible Notes can elect to convert the notes in shares of our common stock at a price equal to 75% of the price paid per share in such subsequent equity financing.

 

The Company has been renting its corporate office from Forty Four Realty Trust which is owned by James Bowdring, the brother of Director, Robert Bowdring since November 2012. It is a month to month rental arrangement for less than the going fair market real estate rental rate. The rent expense paid for the twelve months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 was $5,600 and $4,400 respectively. In addition the Company purchases stationary supplies and marketing items at discounted rates from Superior Printing & Promotions which is also owned by James Bowdring and is in the same building as our corporate office. INVO Bioscience spent $2,130 and $4,100 with Superior during 2018 and 2017, respectively.

 

Principal balances of the Related Party loans were as follows:

 

   

December 31,

2018

   

December 31,

2017

 

Claude Ranoux Note

  $ -     $ 21,888  
                 

James Bowdring Family - 2011 Notes

    35,000       35,000  
                 

James Bowdring Family – 2018 Convertible Notes

    40,000       -  
                 

Kathleen Karloff Note

    62,743       154,000  

 Less discount

    (30,913

)

    -  

Total, net of discount

  $ 106,830     $ 210,888  

  

Interest expense on the Related Party loans was $21,976 and $11,543 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

 

Accounts payable and accrued liabilities balances include expenses reports for Ms. Karloff, and Mr. Bowdring for expenses they paid for personally related to travel or normal business expenses and are represented in the following table:

 

   

December 31,

 
   

2018

   

2017

 

Accounts payable and accrued liabilities

  $ 1,700     $ 38,000  

  

During the nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company sold 150,000 shares of common stock at a price of $0.20 per share for proceeds of $30,000 to Charles Mulrey and family, the brother-in-law of Robert J. Bowdring, Director & Acting Chief Financial Officer as part of the recent financing.

 

During the second quarter of 2018, INVO Bioscience settled a commitment it had with one of its Directors, Dr. Kevin Doody for the services he and his team performed prior to and following INVOcell’s FDA clearance related to clinical guidance and support. Dr. Doody and his team performed clinical studies and provided papers, lectures and discussions with regulatory bodies and key opinion leaders in the industry. The Company believes without Dr. Doody’s services and support during his tenure the Company would not be where it is today. The Company issued Dr. Doody 3 million shares of our common stock with a fair value of $1,530,000.

 

 

NOTE 8

STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2018

 

In January and March 2018, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, the Company sold 260,000 shares of common stock to accredited investors in a private placement for cash of $47,000.

 

In January 2018, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 1,200,000 shares of common stock with a fair value of $138,000 to management and board members.

 

In January and March 2018, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 352,326 shares of common stock with a fair value of $43,664 to service providers.

 

In April and May 2018, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 340,000 shares of common stock with a fair value of $174,800 to service providers.

 

In May 2018, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, the Company sold 150,000 shares of common stock to accredited investors who are family members of Robert J Bowdring, a Board Member in a private placement for cash of $30,000.

 

In May 2018, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 3,020,000 shares of common stock with a fair value of $1,540,000 to a board member, Dr. Kevin Doody for services previously provided to the Company.

 

In October 2018, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 4,895,076 shares of common stock with a fair value of $1,914,831 to employees and service providers.

 

In November 2018, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 262,080 shares of common stock for conversion of notes payable and accrued interest in the amount of $52,416.

 

In December 2018, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 793,335 shares of common stock for conversion of notes payable and accrued interest in the amount of $158,667.

 

In December 2018, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 887,306 shares of common stock with a fair value of $349,602 to employees and service providers.

 

Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2017

 

In March 2017, pursuant to Section 4(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 196,000 shares of restricted common stock with a fair value of $59,242 to service providers.

 

In March 2017, pursuant to Section 4(2) of the Securities Act, the Company negotiated the conversion of $10,000 of past due Bridge Notes and accrued interest into 341,000 shares of restricted common stock resulting in a loss on debt settlement in the amount of $40,869.

 

In April 2017, pursuant to Section 4(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 51,750 shares of restricted common stock with a fair value of $17,201 to service providers.

 

In June 2017, pursuant to Section 4(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 99,412 shares of restricted common stock with a fair value of $30,898 to service providers.

 

In September 2017, pursuant to Section 4(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 133,960 shares of restricted common stock with a fair value of $28,576 to service providers.

 

In September 2017, pursuant to Section 4(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 262,500 shares of restricted common stock for cash proceeds of $44,625.

 

In November 2017, pursuant to Section 4(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 395,550 shares of restricted common stock with a fair value of $79,215 to service providers.

 

In November 2017, pursuant to Section 4(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 55,556 shares of restricted common stock for cash proceeds of $10,000.

 

 

NOTE  9

STOCK OPTIONS AND WARRANTS

 

Stock Options

 

As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company does not have any outstanding or committed and unissued stock options.  

 

Warrants

 

As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company does not have any outstanding or committed and unissued warrants. 

 

NOTE  10

INCOME TAXES

 

The Company has adopted ASC 740-10, which requires the recognition of deferred tax liabilities and assets for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns.  Under this method, deferred tax liabilities and assets are determined based on the difference between financial statements and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse.

 

The Company’s total deferred tax liabilities, deferred tax assets, and deferred tax asset valuation allowances are as of December 31 are as follows:

 

   

December 31,

2018

   

December 31, 

2017

 

Total deferred tax assets

  $ 4,124,000     $ 3,730,000  

Less valuation allowance

    (4,124,000

)

    (3,730,000

)

Total deferred tax liabilities

    -       -  

Net deferred tax asset (liability)

  $ -     $ -  

 

Those amounts have been presented in the company’s financial statements as of December 31, as follows:

 

   

December 31,

 
   

2018

   

2017

 

Deferred tax asset

  $ -     $ -  
                 

Deferred tax liability

    -       -  
                 

Net deferred tax asset (liability)

  $ -     $ -  

 

The company has a loss carry forward of $9.6 million that may be offset against future taxable income. 

 

On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cut and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”).  The Tax Act establishes new tax laws that affects 2018 and future years, including a reduction in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate to 21%, effective January 1, 2018. For certain deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities, we have recorded a provisional decrease of $1,680,000, with a corresponding net adjustment to valuation allowance of $1,680,000 as of December 31, 2017.  

 

Realization of deferred tax assets is dependent on future earnings, if any, the timing and amount of which is uncertain.  Those amounts are therefore presented on the Company’s balance sheets as a non-current asset.  Utilization of the net operating loss carry forwards may be subject to substantial annual limitations, which may result in the expiration of net operating loss carry forwards before utilization.

 

NOTE 11

COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES

 

A)     Operating Leases

 

In November 2012, INVO Bioscience entered into a below market, month to month rental agreement with Forty Four Realty Trust with for the space it requires.  Forty Four Realty Trust is owned by investor James Bowdring, the brother of Director Robert Bowdring.

 

 

B)     Litigation

 

INVO Bioscience, Inc., and two of its directors have been, since 2010, defending litigation brought by investors in an alleged predecessor of INVO Bioscience.  On March 24, 2010, INVO Bioscience, Inc. and its corporate affiliate, Bio X Cell, Inc., Claude Ranoux, and Kathleen Karloff were served an Amended Complaint, the original of which was filed on December 31, 2009 at the Suffolk Superior Court Business Litigation Session by two terminated employees of Medelle Corporation (also named as a co-defendant but no longer active), who are also attorneys, and a former investor in and creditor of Medelle.  These plaintiffs allege various claims of wrongdoing relating to the sale of assets of Medelle to Dr. Ranoux.  Plaintiffs claim that Dr. Ranoux, Ms. Karloff, and Medelle (and therefore INVO Bioscience as an alleged successor corporation) violated alleged duties owed to plaintiffs in connection with the sale.  Separate claims were also alleged against INVO Bioscience.

 

Dr. Ranoux, Ms. Karloff, and INVO Bioscience have challenged these allegations, which they believe are baseless.  The transfer of the assets of Medelle was professionally handled by an independent third party, after approval by the Medelle Board of Directors, representing a majority of its shareholders.  Medelle’s Board voted to proceed with an assignment for the benefit of creditors (AFBC) and gave complete authority to the President & CEO at that time (neither Dr. Ranoux nor Ms. Karloff) to work with the third-party assignee and to get the best possible price for those assets.  The third party was responsible for notifying all the appropriate parties and for filing notices in various professional publications and newspapers of Medelle’s intention to sell its assets.  The third party also contacted numerous large medical device and bio-pharma companies to learn if they would be interested in acquiring the assets.  After a private sale was deemed unlikely, the assignee of the assets elected to proceed with a sealed-bid auction of the assets.  On the day of the auction, Dr. Ranoux submitted the only bid and was awarded the assets, upon full payment. 

 

During 2010, Dr. Ranoux, Ms. Karloff, and INVO Bioscience filed Motions to Dismiss as to all claims, pursuant to M.R.Civ. P. 12(b)(6).  In a written Decision rendered on November 12, 2010, the judge dismissed all claims against INVO, Bio X Cell, and Ms. Karloff, and also dismissed the claims against Dr. Ranoux alleging civil conspiracy and breach of M.G.L. c. 93A.  The judge denied Dr. Ranoux’s motion to dismiss the remaining breach of fiduciary duty and fraud claims.  The plaintiffs allege in their Amended Complaint that Dr. Ranoux committed fraud by failing to inform them of the details of the Medelle auction. 

 

The claims against Dr. Ranoux that survived the November 2010 dismissal order were submitted to binding arbitration.  On February 15, 2013, the mutually-agreed arbitrator ruled in favor of Dr. Ranoux. The award held that Dr. Ranoux did not withhold information about the auction of Medelle’s assets and expressed doubt that the plaintiffs would have invested the resources necessary to make a beneficial use of the assets.  The arbitrator’s award then was confirmed by the Superior Court on August 21, 2013.  The Superior Court’s confirmation of the award was affirmed on appeal on October 20, 2013 by the Massachusetts Appeals Court.  The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court then denied further appellate review.  

 

On October 18, 2016, following motions and argument, the Superior Court issued a memorandum of decision and order denying plaintiffs’ motion for entry of default judgment and assessment of damages against Medelle and allowed the motion of INVO Bioscience, Bio X Cell, and Ms. Karloff for entry of final judgment of dismissal.  The foregoing order was converted to a final judgment dismissing all claims against all defendants and entered on the docket on October 27, 2016.

 

On November 28, 2016, plaintiffs filed an amended notice of appeal from the Superior Court’s decision of October 17, 2016 and the subsequent judgment entered on October 27, 2016.  The appeal further challenges the order of dismissal from November, 2010.  Plaintiffs did not appeal from the dismissal of the claims against Ms. Karloff, so the judgment in her favor is now final, leaving claims against INVO Bioscience, Bio X Cell, Medelle, and Dr. Ranoux.

 

INVO Bioscience and Bio X Cell intend a vigorous opposition to the current appeal, consistent with their previous positions that no breach of duty occurred in the sale of Medelle’s assets. It is assumed that Dr. Ranoux will oppose the appeal as well.

 

Outside of the above-mentioned litigation, neither INVO Bioscience nor Bio X Cell, our wholly-owned subsidiary, either directly or indirectly, are involved in any lawsuit outside the ordinary course of business, the disposition of which would have a material effect upon either our results of operation, financial position, or cash flows.

 

C)     Employee Agreements

 

The Company had employment agreements for officers, executives and employees of the Company in place but they have expired.   The Company in the in the process of drafting new agreements for all of its key personnel.  

 

 

D)     Consulting Agreements

 

The Company has a verbal agreement beginning in March, 2013 with its former CFO, Robert Bowdring, who is currently a Director, to assist where necessary in the financial and administrative areas of the Company for compensation to be equivalent to the others working in the organization.

 

NOTE 12

CONTRACTS WITH CUSTOMERS

 

We have adopted ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers effective January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not substantially completed as of January 1, 2018. These standards provide guidance on recognizing revenue, including a five-step model to determine when revenue recognition is appropriate. The standard requires that an entity recognize revenue to depict the transfer of control of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Revenues for 2018 are reported under ASC 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported under ASC 605, Revenue Recognition.

 

We routinely enter into agreements with customers that include general commercial terms and conditions, notification requirements for price increases, shipping terms and in most cases prices for the products that we offer. However, these agreements do not obligate us to provide goods to the customer and there is no consideration promised to us at the onset of these arrangements. For customers without separate agreements, we have a standard list price established by geography and by currency for all products and our invoices contain standard terms and conditions that are applicable to those customers where a separate agreement is not controlling. Our performance obligations are established when a customer submits a purchase order or e-mail notification (in writing, electronically or verbally) for goods, and we accept the order. We identify performance obligations as the delivery of the requested product(s) in appropriate quantities and to the location specified in the customer’s e-mail/or purchase order. We generally recognize revenue upon the satisfaction of these criteria when control of the product has been transferred to the customer at which time we have an unconditional right to receive payment. Our prices are fixed and are not affected by contingent events that could impact the transaction price. We do not offer price concessions and do not accept payment that is less than the price stated when we accept the purchase order, except in rare credit related circumstances. We do not have any material performance obligations where we are acting as an agent for another entity.

 

Revenues for products, including: INVOcell®, INVO TM Retention System, and INVO Microscope Holding Block are typically recognized at the time the product is shipped, at which time the title passes to the customer, and there are no further performance obligations. Revenues from consignment are recognized when the medical device is shipped from the Consignor to the customer.

 

Sources of Revenue

 

We have identified the following revenues disaggregated by revenue source:

 

 

1.

Domestic Physicians  – direct sales of products.

 

2.

Domestic Distributors  – direct sales of products

 

3.

International Distributors  – direct sales of products.

 

For the year ended December 31, 2018 the primary source of our revenue was from Domestic Physicians, the Company had $61,000 in shipments to its Domestic Distributor and 2017 the source of revenue was only from Domestic Physicians.

 

Contract Balances

 

We incur agreement obligations on general customer purchase orders and e-mails that have been accepted but unfulfilled. Due to the short duration of time between order acceptance and delivery of the related product, we have determined that the balance related to these obligations is generally immaterial at any point in time. We monitor the value of orders accepted but unfulfilled at the close of each reporting period to determine if disclosure is appropriate.

 

Warranty

 

Our general product warranties do not extend beyond an assurance that the product delivered will be consistent with stated specifications and do not include separate performance obligations.

 

 

Significant Judgments in the Application of the Guidance in ASC 606

 

There are no significant judgments associated with the satisfaction of our performance obligations. We generally satisfy performance obligations upon delivery of the product to the customer. This is consistent with the time in which the customer obtains control of the products. Therefore the value of unsatisfied performance obligations at the end of any reporting period is generally immaterial. We consider variable consideration in establishing the transaction price. Forms of variable consideration applicable to our arrangements include sales returns, rebates, volume based bonuses, and prompt pay discounts. We use historical information along with an analysis of the expected value to properly calculate and to consider the need to constrain estimates of variable consideration. Such amounts are included as a reduction to revenue from the sale of products in the periods in which the related revenue is recognized and adjusted in future periods as necessary.

  

Commissions and Contract Costs

 

We do not use or offer sales commissions of any type at this time. We generally do not incur incremental charges associated with securing agreements with customers which would require capitalization and recovery over the life of the agreement.

 

Practical Expedients

 

Our payment terms for sales direct to customers and distributors are substantially less than the one year collection period that falls within the practical expedient in determination of whether a significant financing component exists.

 

Shipping and Handling Charges

 

Fees charged to customers for shipping and handling of products are included as an offset to the costs for shipping and handling of products included as a component of cost of products.

 

Taxes Collected from Customers

 

As our products are used in another service and are exempt, to this point we have not collected taxes. If we were to collect taxes they would be on the value of transaction revenue and would be excluded from product revenues and cost of sales and would be accrued in current liabilities until remitted to governmental authorities.

 

Effective Date and Transition Disclosures

 

Adoption of the new standards related to revenue recognition did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements, and is not expected to have a material impact in future periods.

 

NOTE 13

SUBSEQUENT EVENTS

 

On January 14, 2019, the Company consummated the transactions contemplated by its previously reported Distribution Agreement with Ferring International Center S.A. (“Ferring”), dated November 12, 2018.

 

At the closing, the Company received its initial $5,000,000 license fee. Pursuant to the Distribution Agreement, among other things, the Company granted to Ferring an exclusive license in the United States with rights to sublicense under patents related to the Company’s proprietary intravaginal culture device known as INVOcell™, together with the retention device and any other applicable accessories to market, promote, distribute and sell the Licensed Product with respect to all therapeutic, prophylactic and diagnostic uses of medical devices or pharmaceutical products involving reproductive technology (including infertility treatment) in humans. Ferring is responsible, at its own cost, for all commercialization activities for the Licensed Product in humans in the U.S. The Company does retain a limited exception to the exclusive license granted to Ferring allowing the Company, subject to certain restrictions, to establish up to five clinics that will commercialize INVO cycles in the U.S.. The Company retains all commercialization rights for the Licensed Product outside of the United States.

 

In January 2019 we hired Mr. Michael Campbell as COO and VP of Business Development. Mr. Campbell has been on our Board of Directors for the past sixteen months. He has over 20 years in the infertility market most recently with Cooper Surgical as the VP of the IVF America division and previously in the position of VP of the international IVF market.

 

In January 2019, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 60,000 shares of restricted common stock with a fair value of $26,600 to service providers for services performed.

 

In February 2019, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, the Company issued 268,615 shares of restricted common stock with a fair value of $53,168 in connection with the conversion of a note payable and accrued interest.

 

In March 2019 the Company decided to change its stock transfer agent from Island Stock Transfer Company to Transfer Online, Inc.  https://www.transferonline.com/ as Island is no longer able to meet the needs of INVO Bioscience.

 

 

Item 9.  Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosures

 

There were no disputes or disagreements of any nature between the Company or its management and its public auditors with respect to any aspect of accounting or financial disclosure.

 

Item 9A.  Controls and Procedures

 

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

 

We maintain disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that are designed to be effective in providing reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in our reports under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

 

The Company’s management, under the supervision and with the participation of the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and Acting Chief Financial Officer, carried out an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) of the Exchange Act) as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.  However, Robert Bowdring only served as the Company’s Chief Financial Officer and principal accounting officer until March 2013.  From Mr. Bowdring’s resignation in March 2013 through December 31, 2018, Mr. Bowdring, as a consultant and a Director, supervised the Company’s financial situation.  While remaining a Director and consultant to the Company, Mr. Bowdring was elected Treasurer and Secretary in September 2016, and as Acting Chief Financial Officer (and acting principal accounting officer) in March 2017, and continues to hold those offices.   Based upon that evaluation and the identification of the material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as described below under “Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting,” the Chief Executive Officer and Acting Chief Financial Officer concluded that the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures were ineffective as of the end of each year covered by this report.

 

Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting of the Company.  However, as indicated under “Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures” above, the Company did not have a Chief Financial Officer (and principal accounting officer) from when Robert Bowdring resigned as such in March 2013 to when he was elected Acting Chief Financial Officer (and acting principal accounting officer) in March 2017.  Management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Acting Chief Financial Officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 based on the criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.  Based on this evaluation, the Chief Executive Officer and Acting Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, our internal control over financial reporting was not effective in providing reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles because of the Company’s limited resources and limited number of employees, and because the Company lacked a full time Chief Financial Officer (and principal accounting officer) from Robert Bowdring’s resignation as such in March 2013 until he was elected Acting Chief Financial Officer (and acting principal accounting officer) in March 2017.

 

To mitigate the current limited resources and limited employees, we rely heavily on direct management oversight of transactions, along with the use of legal and accounting professionals.  As we grow, we expect to increase our number of employees, which will enable us to implement adequate segregation of duties within the internal control framework.

 

This annual report does not include an attestation report of the company’s registered public accounting firm regarding internal control over financial reporting.  Management’s report was not subject to attestation by the company’s registered public accounting firm pursuant to temporary rules of the SEC that permit the company to provide only management’s report in this annual report.

 

 

Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls and Procedures

 

Our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Acting Chief Financial Officer, does not expect that our disclosure controls and procedures or our internal controls will prevent all errors and all fraud.  A control system, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met.  Further, the design of a control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs.  Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within the Company have been detected.  These inherent limitations include, but are not limited to, the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake.  Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people, or by management override of the control.  

 

The design of any system of controls also is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions.  Over time, controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.  Because of the inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.

 

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

There were no changes to our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that occurred during the period covered by this report that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

 

Item 9B.  Other Information

 

None.

 

 

Part III

 

Item 10.  Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.

 

The information required by this Item 10 is hereby incorporated by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed by us within 120 days after the close of our fiscal year.

 

We have adopted a Code of Conduct that applies to all employees including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller, or persons performing similar functions. The text of our Code of Conduct is posted in the “Investor Information—Corporate Governance” section of our website, www.INVOBioscience.com.

 

We intend to disclose on our website any amendments to, or waivers from, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that are required to be disclosed pursuant to the disclosure requirements of Item 5.05 of Form 8-K.

 

Item 11.  Executive and Director Compensation

 

The information required by this Item 11 is hereby incorporated by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed by us within 120 days after the close of our fiscal year.

 

Item 12.  Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

The information required by this Item 11 is hereby incorporated by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed by us within 120 days after the close of our fiscal year.

 

Item 13.  Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

The information required by this Item 11 is hereby incorporated by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed by us within 120 days after the close of our fiscal year.

 

Item 14.  Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

The information required by this Item 11 is hereby incorporated by reference to our definitive proxy statement to be filed by us within 120 days after the close of our fiscal year. 

 

 

Part IV

 

Item 15.  Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

(a)     Financial Statements

 

The following are filed as a part of this report:

 

1. Financial Statements

 

  

  

Page

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

  

F-1

 

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2018 and 2017

  

F-2

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Losses for the Years Ended December 31, 2018 and  2017

  

F-3

 

 

Consolidated Statement of Shareholders’ Deficit for the Period from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018

  

F-4

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2018 and  2017

  

  F-5

 

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

  

F-6

 

2. Financial Statement Schedules

 

Information required by Schedule II is shown in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.  All other schedules for which provision is made in the applicable accounting regulation of the Securities and Exchange Commission are not required under the related instructions or are inapplicable, and therefore have been omitted.

 

(b)     Exhibits

 

Exhibit No.

 

Description

3.1

 

Articles of Incorporation (1)

3.2     

 

Certificate of Amendment to Articles of Incorporation of  INVO Bioscience(1)

3.3

 

By-Laws of INVO Bioscience (2)

3.4

 

Certificate of Amendment to Articles of Incorporation of  INVO Bioscience dated December 22, 2008(3)

4.1

 

Form of Senior Secured Convertible Promissory Note - 2009(4)

4.2

 

Form of Convertible Promissory Note Purchase Agreement - 2009(4)

4.3

 

Form of Convertible Promissory Note – 2018*

4.4

 

Form of Convertible Note Purchase Agreement – 2018*

10.1

 

Kathleen Karloff Loan Agreement(5)

10.2

 

Kathleen Karloff Revised Loan Agreement(6)

10.3

 

Promissory Note – August 2016*

10.4

 

Distribution Agreement between the INVO Bioscience, Inc and Ferring International Center S.A.* +

10.5   Supply Agreement between the INVO Bioscience, Inc and Ferring International Center S.A.* +

 

 

21.01 

 

Subsidiaries of the Registrant*

31.01

 

Certification by Chief  Executive Officer pursuant to Rule 13a-4(a)/15d-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.*

31.02

 

Certification by Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Rule 13a-4(a)/15d-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.*

32.01

 

Certification by the Principal Executive Officer Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.*

32.02

 

Certification by the Principal Financial Officer Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.*

101

XBRL Interactive Data File

101.INS 

XBRL Instance Document

101.SCH

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema

101.CAL

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase

101.DEF

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase

101.LAB

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase

101.PRE 

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase

 

(1)   Incorporated by reference to INVO Bioscience’s predecessor EMY’S Registration Statement on Form SB-2/A filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 25, 2008.

 

(2)   Incorporated by reference to the INVO Bioscience’s predecessor EMY’s Registration Statement on Form SB-2 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 13, 2007.

 

(3)   Incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 5, 2009.

 

(4)   Incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 17, 2009.

 

(5)   Incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended March 31, 2009 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 15, 2009.

 

(6)   Incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended June 30, 2009 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 14, 2009.

 

(7)   Incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 4, 2017.

 

* Filed herewith

 + Portions of this exhibit have been omitted in accordance with Item 601(b)(10) of Regulation S-K

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized on April 16, 2019.

 

 

INVO Bioscience, Inc.

 

 

 

 

 

Date April 16, 2019

By:

/s/ Kathleen Karloff

 

 

 

Kathleen Karloff

 

 

 

Chief and Principal Executive Officer

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities indicated on April 16, 2019.

 

 

 

 

Signature

  

Capacity

 

 

/s/Kathleen Karloff

  

Chief and Principal Executive Officer and Director

Kathleen Karloff

 

 

 

/s/Robert J Bowdring

  

Director and Acting Chief Financial Officer (and acting principal accounting officer)

Robert J. Bowdring

 

 

 

 

 

/s/Kevin Doody

 

Director

Kevin Doody, MD

 

 

 

 /s/Michael J. Campbell

 

Director

Michael J. Campbell

 

 

 

 

 

/s/Steven M. Shum 

 

Director

Steven M. Shum

 

 

 

41