Company Quick10K Filing
Jeld-Wen Holding
Price19.16 EPS1
Shares101 P/E20
MCap1,943 P/FCF12
Net Debt1,383 EBIT141
TEV3,326 TEV/EBIT24
TTM 2019-09-28, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2020-12-31 Filed 2021-02-23
10-Q 2020-09-26 Filed 2020-11-03
10-Q 2020-06-27 Filed 2020-08-05
10-Q 2020-03-28 Filed 2020-05-06
10-K 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-02-24
10-Q 2019-09-28 Filed 2019-11-06
10-Q 2019-06-29 Filed 2019-08-07
10-Q 2019-03-30 Filed 2019-05-08
10-K 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-03-01
10-Q 2018-09-29 Filed 2018-11-07
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-08-07
10-Q 2018-03-31 Filed 2018-05-09
10-K 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-03-06
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-11-08
10-Q 2017-07-01 Filed 2017-08-08
10-Q 2017-04-01 Filed 2017-05-12
10-K 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-03-03
8-K 2020-11-03
8-K 2020-08-31
8-K 2020-08-04
8-K 2020-05-07
8-K 2020-05-05
8-K 2020-05-04
8-K 2020-04-27
8-K 2020-04-27
8-K 2020-03-28
8-K 2020-02-18
8-K 2019-12-31
8-K 2019-11-06
8-K 2019-10-10
8-K 2019-09-20
8-K 2019-08-07
8-K 2019-06-20
8-K 2019-05-09
8-K 2019-05-07
8-K 2019-02-19
8-K 2018-12-27
8-K 2018-11-06
8-K 2018-10-16
8-K 2018-10-09
8-K 2018-08-07
8-K 2018-06-07
8-K 2018-05-08
8-K 2018-04-26
8-K 2018-02-27
8-K 2018-02-21

JELD 10K Annual Report

Part I - Financial Information
Item 1 - Business.
Item 1A - Risk Factors
Item 1B - Unresolved Staff Comments.
Item 2 - Properties
Item 3 - Legal Proceedings
Item 4 - Mine Safety Disclosures.
Part II
Item 5 - Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6 - Selected Financial Data
Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8 - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9 - Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A - Controls and Procedures
Item 9B - Other Information
Part III
Item 10 - Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11 - Executive Compensation
Item 12 - Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters
Item 13 - Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14 - Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Item 15 - Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16 - Form 10 - K Summary
Item 1 - Financial Statements
Note 1. Description of Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2. Acquisitions
Note 3. Accounts Receivable
Note 4. Inventories
Note 5. Property and Equipment, Net
Note 6. Goodwill
Note 7. Intangible Assets, Net
Note 8. Leases
Note 9. Investments
Note 10. Accrued Payroll and Benefits
Note 11. Accrued Expenses and Other Current Liabilities
Note 12. Warranty Liability
Note 13. Long - Term Debt
Note 14. Deferred Credits and Other Liabilities
Note 15. Income Taxes
Note 16. Segment Information
Note 17. Capital Stock
Note 18. Earnings per Share
Note 19. Stock Compensation
Note 20. Impairment and Restructuring Charges
Note 21. Interest Expense
Note 22. Other Income
Note 23. Derivative Financial Instruments
Note 24. Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Note 25. Commitments and Contingencies
Note 26. Employee Retirement and Pension Benefits
Note 27. Supplemental Cash Flow Information
Note 28. Related Party Transactions
Note 1. Description of Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2. Property and Equipment, Net
Note 3. Long - Term Debt
Note 4. Stock Compensation
Note 5. Commitments and Contingencies
Note 6. Supplemental Cash Flow
EX-4.1 a41descriptionoftheregis.htm
EX-4.9 a49jw-2017notesx122020me.htm
EX-4.12 a412jw2020notes-122020me.htm
EX-21.1 exhibit211-listofsubsidi.htm
EX-22.1 exhibit22-subsidiaryguar.htm
EX-23.1 jwyear-endconsentexhibit.htm
EX-31.1 q42020exhibit311.htm
EX-31.2 q42020exhibit312.htm
EX-32.1 q42020exhibit321.htm

Jeld-Wen Holding Earnings 2020-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
3.52.82.11.40.70.02017201820192020
Assets, Equity
1.20.90.70.40.2-0.12017201820192020
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
0.20.10.0-0.0-0.1-0.22017201820192020
Ops, Inv, Fin

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
__________________________________
FORM 10-K
__________________________________

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____ to _____
Commission File Number: 001-38000
__________________________________
JELD-WEN Holding, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
__________________________________
Delaware 93-1273278
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
2645 Silver Crescent Drive
Charlotte, North Carolina 28273
(Address of principal executive offices, zip code)
(704) 378-5700
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
__________________________________
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock (par value $0.01 per share)JELDNew York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer x Accelerated filer 
    
Non-accelerated filer  Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by checkmark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $986.3 million as of the end of the registrant's second fiscal quarter (based on the closing sale price for the common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on June 26, 2020). Shares of the registrant's voting stock held by each executive officer and director and by each entity or person that, to the registrant's knowledge, owned 10% or more of the registrant's outstanding common stock as of June 27, 2020 have been excluded from this number in that these persons may be deemed affiliates of the registrant.
The registrant had 100,835,851 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, issued and outstanding as of February 19, 2021.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III of this Form 10-K incorporates by reference certain information from the registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after December 31, 2020.
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JELD-WEN HOLDING, Inc.
- Table of Contents –
Page No.
Part I.
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II.
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosures
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III.
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV.
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
Signatures
Consolidated Financial Statements
F - 4

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Glossary of Terms

When the following terms and abbreviations appear in the text of this report, they have the meanings indicated below:
10-KAnnual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
A&LA&L Windows Pty. Ltd.
ABL FacilityOur $400 million asset-based loan revolving credit facility, dated as of October 15, 2014 and as amended from time to time, with JWI (as hereinafter defined) and JELD-WEN of Canada, Ltd., as borrowers, the guarantors party thereto, a syndicate of lenders, and Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., as administrative agent
ABSJWI d/b/a American Building Supply, Inc.
Adjusted EBITDAA supplemental non-GAAP financial measure of operating performance not based on any standardized methodology prescribed by GAAP that we define as net income (loss), adjusted for the following items: loss from discontinued operations, net of tax; equity earnings of non-consolidated entities; income tax (benefit) expense; depreciation and amortization; interest expense, net; impairment and restructuring charges; gain on previously held shares of equity investment; (gain) loss on sale of property and equipment; share-based compensation expense; non-cash foreign exchange transaction/translation (income) loss; other non-cash items; other items; and costs related to debt restructuring and debt refinancing
ASCAccounting Standards Codification
ASUAccounting Standards Update
AUDAustralian Dollar
Australia Senior Secured Credit FacilityOur senior secured credit facility, dated as of October 6, 2015 and as amended from time to time, with certain of our Australian subsidiaries, as borrowers, and Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited, as lender
BBSYBank Bill Swap Bid Rate
BreezwayBreezway Australia Pty. Ltd.
BylawsSecond Amended and Restated Bylaws of JELD-WEN Holding, Inc.
CAPCleanup Action Plan
CEOChief Executive Officer
CFOChief Financial Officer
CARES ActCoronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act enacted on March 27, 2020
CharterAmended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of JELD-WEN Holding, Inc.
Class B-1 Common StockShares of our Class B-1 common stock, par value $0.01 per share, all of which were converted into shares of our Common Stock on February 1, 2017
CMIJWI d/b/a CraftMaster Manufacturing, Inc.
COAConsent Order and Agreement
CODMChief Operating Decision Maker
Common StockThe 900,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, authorized under our Charter
Corporate Credit FacilitiesCollectively, our ABL Facility and our Term Loan Facility
COVID-19A novel strain of the 2019-nCov coronavirus
Credit FacilitiesCollectively, our Corporate Credit Facilities and our Australia Senior Secured Credit Facility as well as other acquired term loans and revolving credit facilities
D&KD&K Home Security Pty. Ltd.
DKKDanish Krone
DomofermThe Domoferm Group of companies
DooriaDooria AS
EPAThe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
ERPEnterprise Resource Planning
ESOPJELD-WEN, Inc. Employee Stock Ownership and Retirement Plan
E.U.European Union
Exchange ActSecurities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board
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GAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States
GHGsGreenhouse Gases
GILTIGlobal Intangible Low-Taxed Income
HTEHigh Tax Exclusion
IPOThe initial public offering of shares of our common stock, as further described in this report on Form 10-K
JELD-WEN
JELD-WEN Holding, Inc., together with its consolidated subsidiaries where the context requires
JEMJELD-WEN Excellence Model
JWAJELD-WEN of Australia Pty. Ltd.
JWHJELD-WEN Holding, Inc., a Delaware corporation
JWIJELD-WEN, Inc., a Delaware corporation
KolderKolder Group
LaCantinaJWI d/b/a LaCantina Doors, Inc.
LIBORLondon Interbank Offered Rate
M&AMergers and acquisitions
MattioviMattiovi Oy
MMI DoorJWI d/b/a Milliken Millwork, Inc.
MD&AManagement’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
NAVNet asset value
NYSENew York Stock Exchange
OnexOnex Partners III LP and certain affiliates
PaDEPPennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection
Preferred Stock90,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, authorized under our Charter
PSUPerformance Stock Unit
R&RRepair and Remodel
ROU assetRight-of-use asset
RSURestricted Stock Unit
Sarbanes-OxleySarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended
SECSecurities and Exchange Commission
Securities ActSecurities Act of 1933, as amended
Senior Notes$800.0 million of unsecured notes issued in December 2017 in a private placement in two tranches: $400.0 million bearing interest at 4.625% and maturing in December 2025 and $400.0 million bearing interest at 4.875% and maturing in December 2027
Senior Secured Notes$250.0 million of senior secured notes issued in May 2020 in a private placement bearing interest at 6.25% and maturing in May 2025
SG&ASelling, general, and administrative expenses
Tax ActTax Cuts and Jobs Act
Term Loan FacilityOur term loan facility, dated as of October 15, 2014, and as amended from time to time with JWI, as borrower, the guarantors party thereto, a syndicate of lenders, and Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent
Common Stock900,000,000 shares of common stock, with a par value of $0.01 per share
TrendTrend Windows & Doors Pty. Ltd.
U.K.United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
U.S.United States of America
VPIJWI d/b/a VPI Quality Windows, Inc.
WADOEWashington State Department of Ecology
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CERTAIN TRADEMARKS, TRADE NAMES, AND SERVICE MARKS
    This 10-K includes trademarks, trade names, and service marks owned by us. Our U.S. window and door trademarks include JELD-WEN®, AuraLast®, MiraTEC®, Extira®, LaCANTINA®, MMI Door®, Karona®, ImpactGard®, JW®, Aurora®, IWP®, True BLU®, ABS®, and VPITM . Our trademarks are either registered or have been used as common law trademarks by us. The trademarks we use outside the U.S. include the Stegbar®, Regency®, William Russell Doors®, Airlite®, Trend®, The Perfect FitTM, Aneeta®, Breezway®, KolderTM , Corinthian® and A&L® marks in Australia, and Swedoor®, Dooria®, DANA®, MattioviTM, Alupan® and Domoferm® marks in Europe. ENERGY STAR® is a registered trademark of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This 10-K contains additional trademarks, trade names, and service marks of others, which are, to our knowledge, the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, trademarks, trade names, and service marks referred to in this 10-K appear without the ®, ™ or SM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks, trade names, and service marks. We do not intend our use of other parties’ trademarks, trade names, or service marks to imply, and such use or display should not be construed to imply, a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other parties.
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PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

    In addition to historical information, this Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, which are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, included in this Form 10-K are forward-looking statements. You can generally identify forward-looking statements by our use of forward-looking terminology such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “seek,” or “should,” or the negative thereof or other variations thereon or comparable terminology. In particular, statements about the markets in which we operate, including growth of our various markets, and our expectations, beliefs, plans, strategies, objectives, prospects, assumptions, or future events or performance under Item 7- Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 1- Business are forward-looking statements. In addition, statements regarding the potential outcome and impact of pending litigation are forward-looking statements.
    We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates, and projections. While we believe these expectations, assumptions, estimates, and projections are reasonable, such forward-looking statements are only predictions and involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. These and other important factors may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Some of the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements include:
negative trends in overall business, financial market and economic conditions, and/or activity levels in our end markets;
our highly competitive business environment;
failure to timely identify or effectively respond to consumer needs, expectations, or trends;
failure to maintain the performance, reliability, quality, and service standards required by our customers;
failure to successfully implement our strategic initiatives, including JEM;
acquisitions or investments in other businesses that may not be successful;
adverse outcome of pending or future litigation;
declines in our relationships with and/or consolidation of our key customers;
increases in interest rates and reduced availability of financing for the purchase of new homes and home construction and improvements;
fluctuations in the prices of raw materials used to manufacture our products;
delays or interruptions in the delivery of raw materials or finished goods;
seasonal business with varying revenue and profit;
changes in weather patterns;
political, regulatory, economic, and other risks, including pandemics, such as COVID-19, that arise from operating a multinational business;
exchange rate fluctuations;
disruptions in our operations;
manufacturing realignments and cost savings programs resulting in a decrease in short-term earnings;
our Enterprise Resource Planning system that we are currently implementing proving ineffective;
security breaches and other cybersecurity incidents;
increases in labor costs, potential labor disputes, and work stoppages at our facilities;  
changes in building codes that could increase the cost of our products or lower the demand for our windows and doors;
compliance costs and liabilities under environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations;
compliance costs with respect to legislative and regulatory proposals to restrict emission of GHGs;
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lack of transparency, threat of fraud, public sector corruption, and other forms of criminal activity involving government officials;
product liability claims, product recalls, or warranty claims;
inability to protect our intellectual property;
loss of key officers or employees;
pension plan obligations;
our current level of indebtedness;
risks associated with any material weaknesses in our internal controls;
the extent of Onex’s control of us; and
other risks and uncertainties, including those listed under Item 1A- Risk Factors.
    Given these risks and uncertainties, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K are not guarantees of future performance and our actual results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate may differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained herein. In addition, even if our results are consistent with the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K, they may not be predictive of results or developments in future periods.
    Any forward-looking statement in this Form 10-K speaks only as of the date of this Form 10-K. We do not undertake any obligation to update or revise, or to publicly announce any update or revision to, any of the forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.



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Item 1 - Business.
Our Company
    We are one of the world’s largest door and window manufacturers. We design, produce, and distribute an extensive range of interior and exterior doors, windows, and related products for use in the new construction and R&R of residential single and multi-family homes and, to a lesser extent, non-residential buildings.
    We market our products globally under the JELD-WEN brand along with several market-leading regional brands, such as Swedoor and DANA in Europe and Corinthian, Stegbar, and Trend in Australia. Our customers include wholesale distributors and retailers as well as individual contractors and consumers. Our business is highly diversified by distribution channel, geography, and construction application as illustrated below:
2020 Net Revenues $4,236 million
ChannelGeography
Construction Application(1)

jeld-20201231_g1.jpgjeld-20201231_g2.jpgjeld-20201231_g3.jpg
(1)Percentage of net revenues by construction application is management’s estimate based on the end markets into which our customers sell.
    As one of the largest door and window companies in the world, we have invested significant capital to build a business platform that we believe is unique among our competitors. We operate approximately 140 manufacturing and distribution facilities in 19 countries, located primarily in North America, Europe, and Australia. Our global manufacturing footprint is strategically sized and located to meet the delivery requirements of our customers. For many product lines, our manufacturing processes are vertically integrated, enhancing our range of capabilities, our ability to innovate, and our quality control, as well as providing us with supply chain, transportation, and working capital savings. We believe that our manufacturing network allows us to deliver our broad portfolio of products to a wide range of customers across the globe, while improving our customer service and strengthening our market positions.
Our History
    We were founded in 1960 by Richard L. Wendt, when he, together with four business partners, bought a millwork plant in Oregon. The subsequent decades were a time of successful expansion and growth as we added different businesses and product categories such as interior doors, exterior steel doors, and vinyl windows. Our first overseas acquisition was Norma Doors in Spain in 1992 and since then we have acquired or established numerous businesses in Europe, Australia, Asia, Canada, and Mexico, making us a truly global company.
    In October 2011, certain funds managed by affiliates of Onex acquired a majority of the combined voting power in the Company through the acquisition of convertible debt and convertible preferred equity. After the Onex investment, we began the transformation of our business from a family-run operation to a global organization with independent, professional management. The transformation accelerated after 2013 with the hiring of a new senior management team strategically recruited from a number of world-class industrial companies. Our current management team has extensive experience driving operational improvement, innovation, and growth, both organically and through acquisitions. As of December 31, 2020, Onex owned approximately 32.6% of our outstanding shares of Common Stock.
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In February 2017, we completed an initial public offering of our Common Stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “JELD.”
Our Business Strategy and Operating Model
We strive to achieve best-in-industry financial performance and shareholder returns through the disciplined execution of our strategic growth drivers which include:
initiatives to drive profitable organic revenue growth, including new product development and innovation, investments in our brands and marketing, commercial excellence programs such as customer segmentation, and pricing optimization;
an operational excellence model designed to improve our profit margins, including lean tools to drive manufacturing productivity savings and cycle time improvements, as well as fixed-cost savings and quality enhancements from our global facility rationalization and modernization initiative;
high conversion of earnings to free cash flow and disciplined capital allocation designed to maximize shareholder returns in a balanced manner between debt reduction, strategic acquisitions, and share repurchases; and
growing a premier performing culture with high employee engagement, supported by our values and a relentless focus on talent management.
The execution of our strategy is supported and enabled by a relentless focus on the deployment of the JELD-WEN Excellence Model, or JEM, which is our global business operating system. JEM creates a culture of continuous improvement through standard work, problem solving tools, and lean thinking. We believe that JEM is the foundation to drive business transformation across all aspects of the entire global enterprise. Over the long term, we believe that the implementation of these strategic drivers is largely within our control and is less dependent on external factors.
Our Products
    We provide a broad portfolio of interior and exterior doors, windows, and related products manufactured from a variety of wood, metal, and composite materials offered across a full spectrum of price points. In the year ended December 31, 2020, our door sales accounted for 65% of net revenues, our window sales accounted for 20% of net revenues, and our other ancillary products and services accounted for 15% of net revenues.
Doors
    We are a leading global manufacturer of residential doors. We offer a full line of residential interior and exterior door products, including patio doors and folding or sliding wall systems. Our non-residential door product offering is concentrated in Europe, where we are a leading non-residential door provider by net revenues in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Scandinavia. In order to meet the design, durability, and energy efficiency requirements of our customers, our product portfolio encompasses many types of materials, including wood veneer, composite wood, steel, glass, and fiberglass that satisfy a range of price points from mid-level to high-end. Our highest volume products include molded interior doors, which are made from two composite molded door skins joined by a wooden frame and filled with a hollow honey-cell core or other solid core materials. These low-cost doors are the most popular choice for interior residential applications in North America and are also prevalent in France and the U.K. In the U.S., we manufacture exterior doors primarily made from fiberglass and steel. Fiberglass has grown in popularity due to its attractive thermal properties, aesthetics, and durability. We have dedicated additional resources to our exterior fiberglass door business, which includes door slabs and door systems, and believe we have a leading product offering based on quality, breadth of design options, and range of price points. In Europe, we also sell highly engineered non-residential doors, with features such as soundproofing, fire resistance, radiation resistance, and added security. We also manufacture stile and rail doors in our Southeast Asia and U.S. manufacturing facilities. In the U.S., we also manufacture folding and sliding wall systems. Additionally, we offer profitable value-added distribution services in all of our markets, including customizable configuration services, specialized component options, and multiple finishing options. These services are valued by labor constrained customers and allow us to capture more profit from the sale of our door products. In the U.S., our acquisitions of ABS and MMI Door are examples of our increased focus on value-added services.
Windows
    We are a leading global manufacturer of residential windows. We manufacture wood, vinyl, aluminum, and wood composite windows in North America, wood and aluminum windows in Australia, and wood windows in the U.K. Our window product lines comprise a full range of styles, features, and energy-saving options in order to meet the varied needs of our customers in each of our regional end markets. For example, our high-performance wood and vinyl windows with multi-pane glazing and superior energy efficiency properties are in greater demand in Canada and the northern U.S. By contrast, our lower-cost aluminum framed windows are popular in some regions of the southern U.S., while in coastal Florida certain local building codes require windows that can
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withstand the impact of debris propelled by hurricane-force winds. Wood windows are prevalent as a high-end option in all of our markets because they possess both insulating qualities and the beauty of natural wood. In North America, our wood windows and patio doors include our proprietary AuraLast treatment, which is a unique water-based wood protection process that provides protection against wood rot and decay. We believe AuraLast is unique in its ability to penetrate and protect the wood through to the core, as opposed to being a shallow or surface-only treatment. Our most recent windows product introductions showcase our differentiated capability utilizing alternative materials including our Auraline wood composite window and patio doors. Additionally, with the acquisition of VPI, we added vinyl windows for mid-rise, multi-family, institutional, hospitality, and commercial properties to our product lineup. Our windows typically retail at prices ranging from $100 to $200 for a basic vinyl window to over $1,000 for a custom energy-efficient wood window. We believe that our innovative energy-efficient windows position us to benefit from increasing environmental awareness among consumers and from changes in local building codes. In recognition of our expansive energy-efficient product line, we have been an ENERGY STAR partner since 1998.
Other Ancillary Products and Services
    In certain regions, we sell a variety of other products that are ancillary to our door and window offerings, which we do not classify as door or window sales. These products include shower enclosures and wardrobes, moldings, trim board, lumber, cutstock, glass, staircases, hardware and locks, cabinets, and screens. We also sell molded door skins to certain customers pursuant to long-term contracts, and these customers in turn use the molded door skins to manufacture interior doors and compete directly against us in the marketplace. Miscellaneous installation and other services are also included in this category.
Our Segments
    We operate within the global market for residential and non-residential doors and windows with sales spanning approximately 100 countries. While we operate globally, the markets for doors and windows are regionally distinct with suppliers manufacturing finished goods in proximity to their customers. Finished doors and windows are generally bulky, expensive to ship, and, in the case of windows, fragile. Designs and specifications of doors and windows also vary from country to country due to differing construction methods, building codes, certification requirements, and consumer preferences. Customers also demand short delivery times and can require special order customizations. We believe that we are well-positioned to meet the global demands of our customers due to our market leadership, strong brands, broad product line, and strategically located manufacturing and distribution facilities.
    Our operations are managed and reported in three reportable segments, organized and managed principally by geographic region. Our reportable segments are North America, Europe, and Australasia. We report all other business activities in Corporate and unallocated costs. Factors considered in determining the three reportable segments include the nature of business activities, the management structure accountable directly to the CODM for operating and administrative activities, the discrete financial information available, and the information regularly presented to the CODM.
North America
    In our North America segment, we compete primarily in the market for residential doors and windows in the U.S. and Canada. We are the only manufacturer that offers a full line of interior and exterior door and window products, allowing us to offer a more complete solution to our customer base. We believe that our leading position in the North American market will enable us to benefit from continued growth in residential construction activity over the next several years. We believe that our total market opportunity in North America also includes non-residential applications, other related building products, and value-added services.
Europe
    The European market for doors is highly fragmented and we have the only platform in the industry capable of serving nearly all European countries. In our Europe segment, we compete primarily in the market for residential and non-residential doors in Germany, the U.K., France, Austria, Switzerland, and Scandinavia. We believe that our total market opportunity in Europe also includes other European countries, other door product lines, related building products, and value-added services. New construction and R&R activity is expected to remain stable over the next several years and we believe opportunity in Europe includes the introduction of new product offerings.
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Australasia
    In our Australasia segment, we compete primarily in the market for residential doors and windows in Australia, where we hold a leading position by net revenues. We believe that our total market opportunity in the Australasia region includes other countries in the region, as well as non-residential applications, other related building products, and value-added services. For example, we also sell a full line of shower enclosures and closet systems throughout Australia. The market for residential new construction in Australia contracted over the last two years, primarily due to government-imposed rules that restricted credit availability for homebuyers, increased immigration restrictions limiting population growth due to COVID-19, and continued downward economic results further extended due to the pandemic. While the Australian government has taken accommodative actions to increase credit availability and spur demand growth, the market for new home construction is expected to remain soft throughout 2021.
    Financial information regarding our segments is included in Note 16 - Segment Information to our financial statements included in this Form 10-K.
Materials
    Historically our sourcing function operated primarily in a regional, decentralized model. Over the past several years we have turned global sourcing into a competitive advantage by building a centralized global sourcing team focused on minimizing material costs through strategic global sourcing and value-added re-engineering of components. We believe leveraging our significant spending and the global nature of our purchases will allow us to achieve these goals.
    We generally maintain a diversified supply base for the materials used in our manufacturing operations. The primary materials used for our door business include wood, wood veneers, wood composites, steel, glass, internally produced door skins, fiberglass compound, and hardware, as well as petroleum-based products such as resin and binders. The primary materials for our window business include wood, wood components, glass, hardware, as well as aluminum and vinyl extrusions. Wood components for our window operations are sourced primarily from our own manufacturing plants, which allow us to improve margins and take advantage of our proprietary technologies such as our AuraLast wood treatment process.
    We track commodities in order to understand our vendors’ costs, realizing that our costs are determined by the broader competitive market as well as by increases in the inputs to our vendors. In order to manage the risk in material costs, we develop strategic relationships with suppliers, routinely evaluate substitute components, develop new products, vertically integrate, where applicable, and seek alternative sources of supply from multiple vendors and often from multiple geographies.
Seasonality
    In a typical year, our operating results are impacted by seasonality. Historically, peak season for home construction and remodeling in our North America and Europe segments, which represent the substantial majority of our revenues, generally corresponds with the second and third calendar quarters, and therefore our sales volume is usually higher during those quarters. Seasonal variations in operating results may be impacted by inclement weather conditions, such as cold or wet weather, which can delay construction projects.
Sales and Marketing
    We actively market and sell our products directly to our customers around the world through our global sales force and indirectly through our marketing and branding initiatives, which includes our enhanced social media presence. Our global sales force, which is organized and managed regionally, focuses on building and maintaining relationships with key customers as well as managing customer supply needs and arranging in-store promotional initiatives. In North America, we also have a dedicated team that focuses on our large home center customers. We have recently made significant investments in tools and technologies to enhance the effectiveness of our sales force and improve ease of doing business. For example, we are in the process of deploying Salesforce.com on a global basis, which will provide us with a common global customer relationship management platform. In addition, we are investing in our online ordering tools to simplify our order entry process. We have introduced an electronic ordering system for easy order placement, and we are expanding our online retail sales.
    We have restructured the commission and incentive plans of our sales team to drive focus on achieving profitable growth. We have also invested significantly in our architectural sales force by adding staff and tools to increase the frequency with which our products are specified by architects and, more recently, have restructured the North America sales team focused on our traditional distribution channel, from a single team to product focused teams. We believe these investments will increase sales force effectiveness, create pull-through demand, and optimize sales force productivity.
    We believe that our broad product portfolio of both doors and windows in North America and Australasia is a competitive advantage as it allows us to cross-sell our door and window products to our end customers, many of whom find it more efficient to choose one supplier for their door and window needs on a given project. None of our primary competitors in these regions offers a similarly complete range of windows as well as interior and exterior doors.
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Research and Development
    A core aspect of our business strategy is the investment and innovation of new products and technologies. We believe that leading the market in innovation will enhance demand for our products and allow us to sell a higher margin product mix. Our research and development efforts encompass new product development, derivative product development, as well as value added re-engineering of components in our existing products leading to reduced costs and manufacturing efficiencies. We have also designed a new governance process that prioritizes the most impactful projects, which is expected to improve the efficiency and quality of our research and development efforts. The governance process is currently being deployed globally, such that we can leverage best practices from region to region. Additionally, a substantial driver of our acquisition activity has been increasing access to new and innovative products, including the transfer and integration of acquired technology.
    Although product specifications and certifications vary from country to country, the global nature of our operations allows us to leverage our global innovation capabilities and share new product designs across our markets. We believe that the global nature of our research and development capabilities is unique among our door and window competition. An example of global sharing of innovation is the Shaker door series, which is manufactured at our Indonesia operations and is now offered to our North American customers. Additionally, we have successfully launched new door designs into our North American market, including our Moda Door Collection that was originally developed for the Australian market.
Customers
    We sell our products worldwide and have well-established relationships with numerous customers throughout the door and window distribution chain in each of our end markets, including retail home centers, wholesale distributors, and building product dealers that supply homebuilders, contractors, and consumers. Our wholesale customers include such industry leaders as ProBuild/Builders First Source (which also includes BMC/Stock Building Supply), Saint-Gobain, and the Holzring group. Our home center customers include, among others, The Home Depot, Lowe’s, and Menards in North America; B&Q, Howdens, and Bauhaus in Europe; and Bunnings Warehouse in Australia. We have maintained relationships with the majority of our top ten customers for over 20 years and believe that the strength and tenure of our customer relationships is based on the total value we provide, including the quality and breadth of our product offering, our customer service, innovation, and delivery capabilities. Our top ten customers together accounted for 40% of our net revenues in the year ended December 31, 2020, and our largest customer, The Home Depot, accounted for approximately 15% of our net revenues in the year ended December 31, 2020.
Competition
    The door and window industry is highly competitive and includes a number of regional and international competitors. Competition is largely based on the functional and aesthetic quality of products, service quality, distribution capability, and price. We believe that we are well-positioned in our industry due to our leading brands, our broad product lines, our consistently high product quality and service, our global manufacturing and distribution capabilities, and our extensive multi-channel distribution. For North American interior doors, our major competitors include Masonite and several smaller independent door manufacturers. For North American exterior doors, competitors include Masonite, Therma-Tru (a division of Fortune Brands), and Plastpro. The North American window market is highly fragmented, with sizable competitors including Andersen, Pella, Marvin, Ply-Gem (a division of Cornerstone Building Brands, formerly NCI Building Systems), and Milgard (a division of MI Windows and Doors). The door manufacturers that we primarily compete with in our European markets include Huga, Prüm/Garant (a division of Arbonia Group), Viljandi, Masonite, Keyor, and Herholz. The competitive landscape in Australia is varied across the door and window markets. In the Australian door market, Hume Doors is our primary competitor, while in the window, shower screen, and wardrobe markets we largely compete against a fragmented set of smaller companies.
Intellectual Property
    We rely primarily on patent, trademark, copyright, and trade secret laws and contractual commitments to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. Generally, registered trademarks have a perpetual life, provided that they are renewed on a timely basis and continue to be used properly as trademarks. We intend to maintain the trademark registrations listed below so long as they remain valuable to our business.
    Our U.S. window and door trademarks include JELD-WEN®, AuraLast®, VPI™, MiraTEC®, Extira®, LaCANTINA®, Karona®, ImpactGard®, JW®, Aurora®, MMI Door®, IWP®, True BLU®, and ABS®. Our trademarks are either registered or have long been used as a common law trademark by the Company. The trademarks we use outside the U.S. include the Stegbar®, Regency®, William Russell Doors®, Airlite®, Trend®, The Perfect Fit™, Aneeta®, Breezway®, Kolder™, Corinthian®, and A&L® marks in Australia, and Swedoor®, Dooria®, DANA®, Mattiovi™, Alupan®, and Domoferm® in Europe.
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Environmental, Social, and Governance Matters
Human Capital Resources
We believe that the success of our mission is realized by the engagement and empowerment of our employees and we are committed to investing in our people. Our senior leadership team, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Executive Vice President, Human Resources, is responsible for developing and executing our human capital strategy. This includes the attraction, retention, development, and engagement of talent. In addition, our Executive Vice President, Human Resources regularly updates senior management and our Board of Directors on the operation and status of our human capital management.     
As of December 31, 2020, we employed over 23,000 people. Of our total number of employees, approximately 11,500 are employed in operations included in our North America segment and corporate operations, approximately 7,300 are employed in operations included in our Europe segment, and approximately 4,200 are employed in operations included in our Australasia segment.
    In total, approximately 1,140, or 10%, of our employees in the U.S. and Canada are unionized. Two facilities in the U.S., representing approximately 330 employees, are covered by collective bargaining agreements. In Canada, approximately 71% of our employees work at facilities covered by collective bargaining agreements. As is common in Europe and Australia, the majority of our facilities are covered by work councils and/or labor agreements. We believe we have satisfactory relationships with our employees and our organized labor unions.
Health and Safety
We strive to operate in a way that prioritizes the health and safety of our employees, business partners, and the communities in which we operate. JELD-WEN's commitment to the environmental health and safety (“EH&S”) of our associates is foundational and embedded in our values. Nothing takes precedence over safety. Our EH&S programs are designed around global policies and standards and a commitment to complying with or exceeding applicable requirements within our manufacturing, service and install, and headquarter operations. We proactively implement management systems consistent with ISO 14001 and 45001 requirements to prevent EH&S risks and to create a strong safety culture and improve performance. We are committed to continuous improvement and continue to measure, refine, and improve on our performance. We educate and train our employees to ensure compliance with our policies, standards, and management systems. We also have policies and procedures in place to encourage employees to stop work to address at-risk conditions without the threat of retaliation. Our management and Board of Directors also periodically review our health and safety practices to address ongoing effectiveness and compliance.
Diversity and Inclusion
We believe that a diverse and engaged workforce is a strong competitive advantage and we strive to create an environment where individuals of all backgrounds can fully contribute and maximize their potential. Our employees are encouraged to bring their authentic selves to the workplace and work together to enrich a culture of inclusivity and belonging. Senior leadership teams review their succession plans, as well as their broader workforce demographics, on a regular cadence to ensure underrepresented groups are being offered fair consideration for open roles and internal promotions. We believe diversity and inclusion begins as we source potential talent for the Company. We recruit from historically black colleges and universities, partner with affinity groups and veterans’ organizations, and work with minority owned recruiting firms to ensure managers are presented with diverse candidate pools for their workforce needs. As part of our human capital strategy we incorporate mentoring programs, support employee resources groups, and facilitate training sessions into our annual initiatives.
Training and Talent Development
We strive to not only attract and retain great talent but are committed to the continued development of our workforce. We invest in formal leadership development programs that help prepare senior leaders for succession into executive roles, in regional programs to accelerate the leadership conversion of mid-level managers, and in focused efforts to upskill our front-line leaders. Retaining and developing early career talent is an additional focus. Across our teams, we welcome apprenticeship and work study arrangements that seed talent into manufacturing and team lead roles. In North America specifically, we offer a summer internship program and a multi-year cross-functional rotational program to identify, attract, and accelerate the growth of an internal pipeline of future managers. In our regions, we seek out, seed, and utilize financial grants and social educational investment requirements to reinvest in the ongoing learning and development needs of our diverse global workforce.
Internal job opportunities are posted for employees to review and our internal mobility philosophy encourages employees to apply for roles after they have passed 12 months on a job. Our human capital management system allows employees to document their skills, prior work experiences, and desired future areas of growth. As part of the annual performance management process, managers and employees meet to review individual development plans and discuss actions for ongoing growth and development. The company continues to invest in its employees through new global learning platforms, content libraries, and additional formal and informal training programs.

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Employee Engagement
We manage and measure our organizational health with a view to gaining insight into our employees’ experiences, levels of workplace satisfaction, and feelings of engagement within the Company. We measure employee engagement and manager effectiveness annually through our global census survey and strive to increase our engagement scores year over year. To assist in this formal effort, all people managers are given direct access to their engagement results, share these results with their teams, and create measurable action plans. The Senior Leadership Team demonstrates their commitment to engagement through transparent communications in town halls and leadership team meetings; they also carry engagement goals on their individual annual goal plans. Engagement is also managed and measured at the local level. Each region, as well as the local facilities, host engagement events that align to the Company values of Investing in People, while also positively impacting the communities in which we work and live.
Environmental Sustainability
    We strive to conduct our business in a manner that is environmentally sustainable and demonstrates environmental stewardship. Toward that end, we pursue processes that are designed to minimize waste, maximize efficient utilization of materials, and conserve resources, including using recycled and reused materials to produce portions of our products. We offer a variety of products that contain pre-consumer recycled content, such as our vinyl windows, aluminum cladding, and window glass. Our U.S. produced pine wood windows and select patio doors and door frames are made from AuraLast® pine, which is a proprietary, water-based wood protection process that results in a decrease of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) released during production. In addition, we manufacture many products that meet local green building provisions and top nationally recognized environmental programs. We continue to evaluate and modify our manufacturing and other processes on an ongoing basis to further reduce our impact on the environment.
Environmental Regulatory Actions
    The geographic breadth of our facilities and the nature of our operations subject us to extensive environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations in jurisdictions throughout the world. Such laws and regulations relate to, among other things, air emissions, the treatment and discharge of wastewater, the discharge of hazardous materials into the environment, the handling, storage, use and disposal of solid, hazardous and other wastes, worker health and safety, or otherwise relate to health, safety, and protection of the environment. Many of our products are also subject to various laws and regulations, such as building and construction codes, product safety regulations, and regulations and mandates related to energy efficiency.
    The nature of our operations, which involve the handling, storage, use, and disposal of hazardous wastes, exposes us to the risk of liability and claims associated with contamination at our current and former facilities or sites where we have disposed of or arranged for the disposal of waste, or with the impact of our products on human health and safety and the environment. Laws and regulations with respect to the investigation and remediation of contaminated sites can impose joint and several liability for releases or threatened releases of hazardous materials upon statutorily defined parties, including us, regardless of fault or the lawfulness of the original activity or disposal. We have been subject to claims, including having been named as a potentially responsible party, in certain proceedings initiated pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, or CERCLA, and similar state and foreign laws, regulations, and statutes, and may be named a potentially responsible party in other similar proceedings in the future. Unforeseen expenditures or liabilities may arise in connection with such matters.
    We have also been the subject of certain environmental regulatory actions by the EPA and state regulatory agencies in the U.S. and foreign governmental authorities in jurisdictions in which we operate and are obligated to make certain expenditures in settlement of those actions. We do not expect expenditures for compliance with environmental laws and regulations to have a material adverse effect on our financial position or competitive position. However, the discovery of a presently unknown environmental condition, changes in environmental requirements or their enforcement, or other unanticipated events, may give rise to unforeseen expenditures and liabilities which could be material.
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In 2008, we entered into an Agreed Order with the WADOE to assess historic environmental contamination and remediation feasibility at our former manufacturing site in Everett, Washington. As part of this agreement, we also agreed to develop a Corrective Action Plan (“CAP”), arising from the feasibility assessment. On April 30, 2020, we provided the WADOE with a revised draft of our feasibility assessment. On June 19, 2020, we received substantive comments from the WADOE that included additional remedial alternatives and changes to the scoring of the alternatives. We worked with WADOE on its comments with respect to and the scoring of the remedial alternatives, and we submitted the draft final feasibility assessment to the WADOE in December 2020, which we considered substantially complete. The draft final feasibility assessment included remedial alternatives ranging from $8.3 million to $57.0 million. We expect to deliver a draft CAP to the WADOE in late-April 2021. The final feasibility assessment and draft final of the CAP are expected to be delivered to the WADOE in May 2021. At that time, the WADOE will release the documents to the public for a 30-day comment period. Once the public comment period has expired and any comments incorporated, the WADOE will select the remedial actions we will be required to perform, and a final CAP will be developed and delivered to the WADOE 15 days thereafter. While we have made provisions in our financial statements within the range of possible outcomes for this matter, it is unclear at this time which remedial actions we will be required to undertake or the cost thereof. As a result, the cost of the final CAP could vary materially from our provisions and have a material impact on our statement of operations and statement of cash flows.
    In December 2020, we entered into a COA with the PaDEP to remove a pile of wood fiber waste from our site in Towanda, Pennsylvania, which we acquired in connection with our acquisition of CMI in 2013, by using it as fuel for a boiler at that site. The COA replaced a 2018 Consent Decree between PaDep and us. Under the COA, we are required to achieve certain periodic removal objectives and ultimately remove the entire pile by August 31, 2025. There are currently $2.3 million in bonds posted in connection with these obligations. If we are unable to remove this pile by August 31, 2025, then the bonds will be forfeited, and we may be subject to penalties by PaDEP. We currently anticipate meeting all applicable removal deadlines; however, if our operations at this site decrease and we burn less fuel than currently anticipated, we may not be able to meet such deadlines.
For more information, see Item 1A - Risk Factors - We may be subject to significant compliance costs as well as liabilities under environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations, Item 1A - Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry, Item 1A - Risk Factors -We may be subject to significant compliance costs with respect to legislative and regulatory proposals to restrict emissions of GHGs and other sustainability initiatives.
Government Regulation
As a public company with global operations, we are subject to the laws and regulations of the United States and multiple foreign jurisdictions. These regulations, which differ among jurisdictions, include those related to financial and other disclosures, accounting standards, corporate governance, intellectual property, tax, trade, antitrust, employment, privacy, and anti-corruption, in addition to the environmental laws and regulations described above.
For a more detailed description of the various laws and regulations that affect our business, see Item 1A - Risk Factors.
Available Information
    Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are filed with the SEC. We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and file or furnish reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Such reports and other information filed by us with the SEC are available free of charge on our website at investors.jeld-wen.com when such reports are made available and on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. The contents of these websites are not incorporated into this filing. Further, our references to the URLs for these websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.

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Executive Officers of the Registrant
Set forth below is certain information about our executive officers. Ages are as of February 19, 2021. There are no family relationships among the following executive officers.
Roya Behnia, Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer. Ms. Behnia, age 54, joined the Company in June 2020. She leads the global legal team, providing legal advice and guidance to the Board of Directors and the senior leadership team. Previously Ms. Behnia served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel for Pall Corporation and Rewards Network, Inc. She also held senior legal counsel roles at SPX Corporation and Brunswick Corporation. Prior to these corporate positions, Ms. Behnia was a partner at Kirkland & Ellis in Chicago, IL. She earned an undergraduate degree from Harvard University and a law degree from the University of Chicago Law School.
Daniel J. Castillo, Executive Vice President and President, North America. Mr. Castillo, age 52, joined the Company in February 2018 as Senior Vice President, North America - Doors. He was appointed to his current role as Executive Vice President and President, North America in May 2020. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Castillo served as President of Cree Lighting from November 2016 until December 2017. Mr. Castillo also served as Senior Vice President for Eaton Corporation’s Oil, Gas, and Petrochemical business. Between 2001 and 2015, Mr. Castillo held positions of increasing responsibilities with Cooper Industries and Cooper Lighting spanning various departments and divisions, including three different Vice President roles and culminating in his appointment as President of the Eaton / Cooper B-Line business. Mr. Castillo holds a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Florida International University and an M.B.A. from Columbia University’s Business School.
Timothy R. Craven, Executive Vice President, Human Resources. Mr. Craven, age 52, was appointed Vice President, Employee Relations of the Company in July 2015 and was promoted to his current role as Executive Vice President, Human Resources in February 2016. Mr. Craven is responsible for global human resources and employee relation activities. His duties include talent acquisition, training and development, wage and benefit reviews, and employee engagement. Previously, Mr. Craven was employed at Eaton Corporation (formerly Cooper Industries) where he held a number of senior-level human resources roles since 2007. Immediately prior to joining the Company, Mr. Craven served as Vice President, Human Resources at the Crouse-Hinds Division of Eaton Corporation. Earlier in his career, Mr. Craven served in a number of human resources positions of increasing responsibility at both corporate and operating locations with Xerox’s Affiliated Computer Services Business and Honeywell, Inc. Mr. Craven earned a B.S. in Human Resource Management from Western Illinois University.
Peter Farmakis, Executive Vice President and President, Australasia. Mr. Farmakis, age 53, joined the Company as Chief Operating Officer, Australia in September 2013 and was promoted to Executive Vice President and President, Australasia in June 2014. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Farmakis served as Chief Executive Officer of Dexion Limited (which was acquired by GUD Holdings Limited in 2012) from 2007 until August 2013. Mr. Farmakis also served in a variety of key leadership roles with numerous companies, including as Executive General Manager of Smorgon Steel Group Limited, Distribution Business; Global Vice President of Huntsman Corporation, Advanced Materials division; Americas Regional President of Vantico Inc.; and Strategy & Corporate Planning Manager for Ciba-Geigy AG in Switzerland. He began his career in research and development with ICI (Dulux) and Bayer AG. Mr. Farmakis earned a B.S. from the University of Wollongong and a postgraduate degree in Marketing and Finance from the University of Technology, Sydney in Australia.
David R. Guernsey, Executive Vice President and President, Europe. Mr. Guernsey, age 57, joined the Company as Senior Vice President, Europe in July 2019 and was promoted to Executive Vice President and President, Europe in May 2020. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Guernsey served as Vice President, Finance across multiple business units of Ingersoll Rand from 2008 until 2019. Mr. Guernsey also served in various key leadership roles at Pepsi Bottling Company, including Vice President, Finance, and Director, Worldwide Performance Management from 1997 through 2008. Mr. Guernsey earned a B.S. in Finance and International Business Administration and an M.B.A from Butler University.
John R. Linker, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Linker, age 45, joined the Company in December 2012 and has held the position of Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since November 2018. Previously, he served as the Company’s Senior Vice President, Corporate Development and Investor Relations from 2015 to 2018, and as Treasurer from 2012 to 2014. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Linker held leadership positions in corporate development and finance with United Technologies Corporation’s Aerospace Systems Division, and its predecessor, Goodrich Corporation, from 2008 to 2012. Mr. Linker began his career in investment banking for Wells Fargo and consulting for Accenture PLC. Mr. Linker holds a B.A. in Economics and International Studies from Duke University and a M.B.A. from The Fuqua School of Business at Duke University.
Gary S. Michel, President and Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Michel, age 58, joined the Company as President and Chief Executive Officer and our Board of Directors in June 2018. Mr. Michel joined the Company from Honeywell International, Inc., where he served as the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Home and Building Technologies strategic business group since October 2017. Prior to that, he spent 32 years at Ingersoll Rand, most recently as Senior Vice President and President of its residential heating, ventilation and air conditioning business and as a member of Ingersoll Rand’s enterprise leadership team from 2011 to 2017 and co-chair of its sustainability efforts. He began his career there in 1985 as an application engineer and held various product, sales and business management roles before moving into a series of leadership positions across various geographic and market segments. Mr.
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Michel holds a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Virginia Tech and an M.B.A. from the University of Phoenix. He has served as a member of the board of directors of Cooper Tire & Rubber Company since 2015.






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Item 1A - Risk Factors
    Investing in our Common Stock involves a high degree of risk. These risks include those described below and may include additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial. You should carefully consider the following factors, as well as other information contained or incorporated by reference in this 10-K, before deciding to invest in shares of our Common Stock. Our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks, and the trading price of our Common Stock could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment in our Common Stock.
Summary of Risk Factors
Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including those risks discussed at-length below. These risks include, among others, the following:
Negative trends in overall business, financial market and economic conditions, and activity levels in our end markets may reduce demand for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The outbreak of COVID-19 has had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on the global economy and on our business, operations, and results.
Increases in interest rates used to finance home construction and improvements, such as mortgage and credit card interest rates, and the reduced availability of financing for the purchase of new homes and home construction and improvements, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
A decline in our relationships with our key customers, the amount of products they purchase from us, or a decline in our key customers’ financial condition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We operate in a highly competitive business environment. Failure to compete effectively could cause us to lose market share and/or force us to reduce the prices we charge for our products. This competition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Failure to maintain the performance, reliability, quality, and service standards required by our customers, or to timely deliver our products, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
A disruption in our operations due to natural disasters or acts of war could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We may not identify or effectively respond to consumer needs, expectations, or trends in a timely fashion, which could adversely affect our relationship with customers, our reputation, the demand for our brands, products, and services, and our market share.
Prices and availability of the raw materials we use to manufacture our products are subject to fluctuations, and we may be unable to pass along to our customers the effects of any price increases.
Our business may be affected by delays or interruptions in the delivery of raw materials, finished goods, and certain component parts. A supply shortage or delivery chain interruption could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Changes in building codes and standards, including ENERGY STAR standards, could increase the cost of our products, lower the demand for our windows and doors, or otherwise adversely affect our business.
Our failure to comply with the credit agreements governing our Credit Facilities and indentures governing the Senior Notes and Senior Secured Notes, including as a result of events beyond our control, could trigger events of default and acceleration of our indebtedness. Defaults under our debt agreements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The market price of our Common Stock may be highly volatile.
Publishing earnings guidance subjects us to risks, including increased stock volatility, that could lead to potential lawsuits by investors.
Some provisions of our charter documents and Delaware law may have anti-takeover effects that could discourage an acquisition of us by others, even if an acquisition would be beneficial to our shareholders and may prevent attempts by our shareholders to replace or remove our current management.
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Because Onex owns a substantial portion of our Common Stock, it may influence major corporate decisions and its interests may conflict with the interests of other holders of our Common Stock.
Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry
Negative trends in overall business, financial market and economic conditions, and activity levels in our end markets may reduce demand for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Negative trends in overall business, financial market, and economic conditions globally or in the regions where we operate may reduce demand for our doors and windows, which is tied to activity levels in the R&R and new residential and non-residential construction end markets. In particular, the following factors may have a direct impact on our business in the regions where our products are marketed and sold:
the strength of the economy;
employment rates and consumer confidence and spending rates;
the availability and cost of credit;
the amount and type of residential and non-residential construction;
housing sales and home values;
the age of existing home stock, home vacancy rates, and foreclosures;
interest rate fluctuations for our customers and consumers;
volatility in both debt and equity capital markets;
increases in the cost of raw materials or any shortage in supplies or labor, including as a result of tariffs or other trade restrictions;
the effects of governmental regulation and initiatives to manage economic conditions;
geographical shifts in population and other changes in demographics; and
changes in weather patterns.
Toward the end of the last decade, the global economy endured a significant recession followed by a prolonged period of moderate recovery that had a substantial negative effect on sales across our end markets. In particular, beginning in mid-2006 and continuing through late 2011, the U.S. residential and non-residential construction industry experienced one of the most severe downturns of the last 40 years. While cyclicality in our new residential and non-residential construction end markets is moderated to a certain extent by R&R activity, much R&R spending is discretionary and can be deferred or postponed entirely when economic conditions are poor. We experienced sales declines in all of our end markets during the most recent economic downturn.
Although conditions in the U.S. have improved in recent years, there can be no assurance that this improvement will be sustained in the near or long-term. Uncertain economic and political conditions may make it difficult for us and our customers or suppliers to accurately forecast and plan future business activities. For example, recent changes to U.S. leadership roles, as a result of a new administration, may result in changes to policies related to global trade and tariffs which have resulted in uncertainty surrounding the future of the global economy as well as retaliatory trade measures implemented by other countries. Increasing costs of steel and aluminum may impact customer spending as well as our raw materials costs.
Global economic impacts as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic remain uncertain. Prior to the outbreak of COVID-19, Australia and certain European countries had entered housing and economic recessions, which were prolonged as a result of COVID-19. Negative business, financial market, and economic conditions globally within the industries or regions we compete in may materially and adversely affect demand for our products. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The outbreak of COVID-19 has had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on the global economy and on our business, operations, and results.
    The COVID-19 pandemic, and the measures taken to contain or mitigate it, have had dramatic adverse consequences for the economy, including the demand for goods and services, operations, supply chains, and financial markets. The nature and scope of the consequences to date are difficult to evaluate precisely, and their future course is impossible to predict with confidence.
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    The COVID-19 crisis has had several significant effects on our employees, operations, supply chain, distribution system, customer demand, the housing market, and general market and economic conditions. The effects we have experienced included the following:
decreased demand for our products as a result of a slowdown in the U.S. and global economies and resulting decreases in construction and R&R;
increased storage costs as a result of larger volume of inventory that remains unsold;
uncertain expense management in light of continued efforts to protect our employees;
operational issues resulting from staffing shortages and absenteeism in our manufacturing and distribution facilities globally;
complete or partial closures or other operational issues at one or more of our manufacturing or distribution facilities resulting from government action; and
difficulty sourcing materials necessary to fulfill production requirements or higher prices to fulfill our requirements as a result of suppliers experiencing closures or reductions in their capacity utilization levels.
    These effects began in the latter weeks of March 2020 and continued throughout, to varying extents, the remainder of the year. We experienced intermittent plant closures during 2020 as mandated by local governments and may continue to see similar closures as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve. Initiatives, including travel restrictions and quarantines, have and may continue to impact a significant percentage of our workforce and the workforce of our suppliers or transportation providers as they are unable to work as a result of the viral outbreak. If additional factory closures are required or reductions in capacity utilization levels occur, we expect to incur additional direct costs due to reduced productivity and lost revenue. If our suppliers experience closures or reductions in their capacity utilization levels in the future, we may have difficulty sourcing materials necessary to fulfill production requirements or be required to pay a higher price to fulfill our requirements.
    In May 2020, we issued $250.0 million of Senior Secured Notes, the proceeds of which were used to repay the outstanding balance under our ABL Facility with the remainder to be used for general corporate purposes. We cannot assure you that the available proceeds, or any of our other actions, will be sufficient to avoid liquidity constraints in the future or to mitigate any material or adverse effect of COVID-19 on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
    The effects of the COVID-19 crisis could be aggravated if the crisis continues, and we could also see additional impacts that might include the following:
reduced economic activity severely impacting our customers’ financial condition and liquidity, reducing the likelihood they will be purchasing additional products from us and increasing the likelihood they may require additional time to pay us or will fail to pay us at all, which could significantly increase the amount of accounts receivable and require us to record additional allowances for doubtful accounts;
reduced economic activity resulting in a prolonged recession, which could negatively impact consumer discretionary spending;
a decrease in the principal that may be drawn under our ABL Facility as a result of a decrease in our accounts receivable and inventory;
difficulty accessing debt and equity capital on attractive terms, or at all, an impact on our credit ratings, and a severe disruption and instability in the global financial markets or deterioration in credit and financing conditions that affect our access to capital necessary to fund business operations or to address maturing liabilities on a timely basis;
negative impact on our future compliance with financial covenants under our Corporate Credit Facilities and other debt agreements, which could result in a default and potentially an acceleration of indebtedness; and
the potential negative impact on the health of our personnel, particularly if a significant number of them are impacted, decreasing our ability to ensure business continuity during this disruption.
    If these effects are sustained, they could have accounting consequences such as impairments of fixed assets or goodwill. They may also impact controls over financial reporting. They could also affect our ability to execute our expansion plans or invest in research and development.
    The adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations of any of the matters described above could be material. The future impact of the COVID-19 crisis on our business, financial condition, or results of operations is highly uncertain and will depend on numerous evolving factors that we cannot predict, including, but not limited to:
the duration, scope, and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic;
the disruption or delay of production and delivery of materials and products in our supply chain;
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the impact of travel bans, work-from-home policies, or shelter-in-place orders;
the temporary or prolonged shutdown of manufacturing facilities and decreased retail traffic;
limited freight availability;
the availability of financial assistance programs or other forms of governmental assistance;
general economic, financial, and industry conditions, particularly conditions relating to liquidity, financial performance, and related credit issues in our industry, which may be amplified by the effects of COVID-19; and
the long-term effects of COVID-19 on the national and global economy, including on consumer confidence and spending, financial markets and the availability of credit for us, our suppliers, and our customers.
    To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic or any other global health crisis does adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the “Risk Factors” included herein.
Increases in interest rates used to finance home construction and improvements, such as mortgage and credit card interest rates, and the reduced availability of financing for the purchase of new homes and home construction and improvements, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our performance depends in part upon consumers having the ability to access third-party financing for the purchase of new homes and buildings and R&R of existing homes and other buildings. The ability of consumers to finance these purchases is affected by the interest rates available for home mortgages, credit card debt, home equity or other lines of credit, and other sources of third-party financing. While interest rates in many of the regions where we market and sell our products have generally decreased during 2020 and 2019, these rates are subject to increase in future periods by key central banks such as the U.S. Federal Reserve and European Central Bank. If interest rates were to increase and, consequently, the ability of prospective buyers to finance purchases of new homes or home improvement products is adversely affected, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
In addition to increased interest rates, the ability of consumers to procure third-party financing is impacted by such factors as new and existing home prices, unemployment levels, high mortgage delinquency and foreclosure rates, and lower housing turnover. Adverse developments affecting any of these factors could result in the imposition of more restrictive lending standards by financial institutions and reduce the ability of some consumers to finance home purchases or R&R expenditures.
A decline in our relationships with our key customers, the amount of products they purchase from us, or a decline in our key customers’ financial condition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our business depends on our relationships with our key customers, which consist mainly of wholesale distributors and retail home centers. Our top ten customers together accounted for approximately 40% of our net revenues in the year ended December 31, 2020, and our largest customer, The Home Depot, accounted for approximately 15% of our net revenues in the year ended December 31, 2020. Although we have established and maintain significant long-term relationships with our key customers, we cannot assure you that all of these relationships will continue or will not diminish. We generally do not enter into long-term contracts with our customers and they generally do not have an obligation to purchase products from us. Accordingly, sales from customers that have accounted for a significant portion of our sales in past periods, individually or as a group, may not continue in future periods, or if continued, may not reach or exceed historical levels in any period. For example, certain of our large customers perform periodic line reviews to assess their product offering, which have in the past and may in the future lead to loss of business and pricing pressures. Some of our large customers may also experience economic difficulties or otherwise default on their obligations to us. Furthermore, our pricing optimization strategy, which requires maintaining pricing discipline in order to improve profit margins, has in the past and may in the future lead to the loss of certain customers, including key customers, who do not agree to our pricing terms. The loss of, or a diminution in our relationship with, any of our largest customers could lower our sales volumes, which could increase our costs and lower our profitability. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We operate in a highly competitive business environment. Failure to compete effectively could cause us to lose market share and/or force us to reduce the prices we charge for our products. This competition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We operate in a highly competitive business environment. Some of our competitors may have greater financial, marketing, and distribution resources and may develop stronger relationships with customers in the markets where we sell our products. Some of our competitors may be less leveraged than we are, providing them with more flexibility to invest in new facilities and processes and also making them better able to withstand adverse economic or industry conditions.
In addition, some of our competitors, regardless of their size or resources, may choose to compete in the marketplace by adopting more aggressive sales policies, including price cuts, or by devoting greater resources to the development, promotion, and sale
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of their products. This could result in our loss of customers and/or market share to these competitors or being forced to reduce the prices at which we sell our products to remain competitive.
As a result of competitive bidding processes, we may have to provide pricing concessions to our significant customers in order for us to keep their business. Reduced pricing would result in lower product margins on sales to those customers. There is no guarantee that a reduction in prices would be offset by sufficient gains in market share and sales volume to those customers.
The loss of, or a reduction in orders from, any significant customers, or decreases in the prices of our products, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Failure to maintain the performance, reliability, quality, and service standards required by our customers, or to timely deliver our products, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
If our products have performance, reliability, or quality problems, our reputation and brand equity, which we believe is a substantial competitive advantage, could be materially adversely affected. We may also experience increased and unanticipated warranty and service expenses. Furthermore, we manufacture a significant portion of our products based on the specific requirements of our customers, and delays in providing our customers the products and services they specify on a timely basis could result in reduced or canceled orders and delays in the collection of accounts receivable. Additionally, claims from our customers, with or without merit, could result in costly and time-consuming litigation that could require significant time and attention of management and involve significant monetary damages that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
A disruption in our operations due to natural disasters or acts of war could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We operate facilities worldwide. Many of our facilities are located in areas that are vulnerable to hurricanes, earthquakes, wildfires, and other natural disasters. In the event that a hurricane, earthquake, natural disaster, fire, pandemic, or other catastrophic event were to interrupt our operations for any extended period of time, it could delay shipment of merchandise to our customers, damage our reputation, or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
In addition, our operations may be interrupted by terrorist attacks or other acts of violence or war. These attacks may directly impact our suppliers’ or customers’ physical facilities. Furthermore, these attacks may make travel and the transportation of our supplies and products more difficult and more expensive and ultimately have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. The U.S. has entered into armed conflicts, which could have an impact on our sales and our ability to deliver product to our customers. Political and economic instability in some regions of the world may also negatively impact the global economy and, therefore, our business. The consequences of any of these armed conflicts are unpredictable, and we may not be able to foresee events that could have an adverse effect on our business or your investment. More generally, any of these events could cause consumer confidence and spending to decrease or result in increased volatility in the worldwide financial markets. They could also result in economic recessions. Any of these occurrences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We may not identify or effectively respond to consumer needs, expectations, or trends in a timely fashion, which could adversely affect our relationship with customers, our reputation, the demand for our brands, products, and services, and our market share.
The quantity, type, and prices of products demanded by consumers and our customers have shifted over time. For example, demand has increased for multi-family housing units such as apartments and condominiums, which typically require fewer of our products, and we are experiencing growth in certain channels for products with lower price points. In certain cases, these shifts have negatively impacted our sales and/or our profitability. Also, we must continually anticipate and adapt to the increasing use of technology by our customers. Recent years have seen shifts in consumer preferences and purchasing practices and changes in the business models and strategies of our customers. Consumers are increasingly using the internet and mobile technology to research home improvement products and to inform and provide feedback on their purchasing and ownership experience for these products. Trends towards online purchases could impact our ability to compete as we currently sell a significant portion of our products through retail home centers, wholesale distributors, and building products dealers.
Accordingly, the success of our business depends in part on our ability to maintain strong brands and identify and respond promptly to evolving trends in demographics, consumer preferences, and expectations and needs, while also managing inventory levels. It is difficult to successfully predict the products and services our customers will demand. Even if we are successful in anticipating consumer preferences, our ability to adequately react to and address those preferences will in part depend upon our continued ability to develop and introduce innovative, high-quality products and acquire or develop the intellectual property necessary to develop new products or improve our existing products. There can be no assurance that the products we develop, even those to which we devote substantial resources, will be successful. While we continue to invest in innovation, brand building, and brand awareness, and intend to increase our investments in these areas in the future, these initiatives may not be successful. Failure to
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anticipate and successfully react to changing consumer preferences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
In addition, our competitors could introduce new or improved products that would replace or reduce demand for our products or create new proprietary designs and/or changes in manufacturing technologies that may render our products obsolete or too expensive for efficient competition in the marketplace. Our failure to competitively respond to changing consumer and customer trends, demands, and preferences could cause us to lose market share, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Manufacturing realignments and cost savings programs may result in a decrease in our short-term earnings and operating efficiency or expected benefits may not be achieved.
We continually review our manufacturing operations to address market changes and to implement efficiencies presented by acquisitions. Effects of periodic manufacturing integrations, realignments, and cost savings programs have in the past and could in the future result in a decrease in our short-term earnings and operating efficiency until the expected results are achieved. Such programs may include the consolidation, integration, and upgrading of facilities, functions, systems, and procedures. Such programs involve substantial planning, often require capital investments, and may result in charges for fixed asset impairments or obsolescence and substantial severance costs. We also cannot assure you that we will achieve all of our cost savings. Our ability to achieve cost savings and other benefits within expected time frames is subject to many estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions are subject to significant economic, competitive, and other uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. If these estimates and assumptions are incorrect, if we experience delays, or if other unforeseen events occur, our operations could experience disruption, and our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Our business is seasonal, and revenue and profit can vary significantly throughout the year, which may adversely impact the timing of our cash flows and limit our liquidity at certain times of the year.
Our business is seasonal, and our net revenues and operating results vary significantly from quarter to quarter based upon the timing of the building season in our markets. Our sales typically follow seasonal new construction and R&R industry patterns. The peak season for home construction and R&R activity in the majority of the geographies where we market and sell our products generally corresponds with the second and third calendar quarters, and therefore our sales volume is typically higher during those quarters. Our first and fourth quarter sales volumes are generally lower due to reduced R&R and new construction activity as a result of less favorable climate conditions in the majority of our geographic end markets. Failure to effectively manage our inventory in anticipation of or in response to seasonal fluctuations could negatively impact our liquidity profile during certain seasonal periods.
We may be unable to protect our intellectual property, and we may face claims of intellectual property infringement.
We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality agreements, nondisclosure agreements, and other contractual commitments, to protect our intellectual property rights. However, these measures may not be adequate or sufficient, and third parties may not always respect these legal protections even if they are aware of them. In addition, our competitors may develop similar technologies and know-how without violating our intellectual property rights. Furthermore, the laws of foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.S. The failure to obtain worldwide patent and trademark protection may result in other companies copying and marketing products based on our technologies or under brand or trade names similar to ours outside the jurisdictions in which we are protected. This could impede our growth in existing regions, create confusion among consumers, and result in a greater supply of similar products that could erode prices for our protected products.
Litigation may be necessary to protect our intellectual property rights. Intellectual property litigation can result in substantial costs, could distract our management, and could impinge upon other resources. Our failure to enforce and protect our intellectual property rights may cause us to lose brand recognition and result in a decrease in sales of our products.
Moreover, while we are not aware that any of our products or brands infringes upon the proprietary rights of others, third parties may make such claims in the future. From time to time, third parties may claim that we have infringed upon their intellectual property rights and we may receive notices from such third parties asserting such claims. Any such infringement claims are thoroughly investigated and, regardless of merit, could be time-consuming and result in costly litigation or damages, undermine the exclusivity and value of our brands, decrease sales, or require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements that may not be on acceptable terms and that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We continue to implement strategic initiatives, including JEM and our global footprint rationalization initiatives. If we fail to implement these initiatives as expected, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our future financial performance depends in part on our management’s ability to successfully implement our strategic initiatives, including JEM and our global footprint rationalization initiatives. We cannot assure you that we will be able to continue to successfully implement these initiatives and related strategies throughout the geographic regions in which we operate or be able to
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continue improving our operating results. Similarly, these initiatives, even if implemented in all of our geographic regions, may not produce similar results. Any failure to successfully implement these initiatives and related strategies could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations, including increases in our severance and impairment charges. We may, in addition, decide to alter or discontinue certain aspects of our business strategy at any time.
Changes in weather patterns, including as a result of global climate change, could significantly affect our financial results or financial condition.
Weather patterns may affect our operating results and our ability to maintain our sales volume throughout the year. Because our customers depend on suitable weather to engage in construction projects, increased frequency or duration of extreme weather conditions could have a material adverse effect on our financial results or financial condition. For example, unseasonably cool weather or extraordinary amounts of rainfall may decrease construction activity, thereby decreasing our sales. Also, we cannot predict the effects that global climate change may have on our business. In addition to changes in weather patterns, it might, for example, reduce the demand for construction, destroy forests (increasing the cost and reducing the availability of wood products used in construction), and increase the cost and reduce the availability of raw materials and energy. New laws and regulations related to global climate change may also increase our expenses or reduce our sales.
We are exposed to political, economic, and other risks that arise from operating a multinational business.
We have operations in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia. In the year ended December 31, 2020, our North America segment accounted for approximately 60% of net revenues, our Europe segment accounted for approximately 28% of net revenues, and our Australasia segment accounted for approximately 12% of our net revenues. Further, certain of our businesses obtain raw materials and finished goods from foreign suppliers. Accordingly, our business is subject to political, economic, and other risks that are inherent in operating in numerous countries.
These risks include:
the difficulty of enforcing agreements and collecting receivables through foreign legal systems;
trade protection measures and import or export licensing requirements;
the imposition of, or increases in, tariffs or other trade restrictions;
required compliance with a variety of foreign laws and regulations, including the application of foreign labor regulations;
tax rates in foreign countries and the imposition of withholding requirements on foreign earnings;
difficulty in staffing and managing widespread operations;
the imposition of, or increases in, currency exchange controls;
potential inflation in applicable non-U.S. economies; and
changes in general economic and political conditions in countries where we operate, including as a result of the impact of the withdrawal of the U.K. from the E.U.
The success of our business depends in part on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these and other risks. We cannot assure you that these and other factors will not have a material adverse effect on our international operations or ultimately on our global business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Certain of our customers may expand through consolidation and internal growth, which may increase their buying power. The increased size of our customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Certain of our significant customers are large companies with strong buying power, and our customers may expand through consolidation or internal growth. Consolidation could decrease the number of potential significant customers for our products and increase our reliance on key customers. Further, the increased size of our customers could result in our customers seeking more favorable terms, including pricing, for the products that they purchase from us. Accordingly, the increased size of our customers may further limit our ability to maintain or raise prices in the future. This could have a material adverse effect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
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We are subject to the credit risk of our customers, suppliers, and other counterparties.
We are subject to the credit risk of our customers, because we provide credit to our customers in the normal course of business. All of our customers are sensitive to economic changes and to the cyclical nature of the building industry. Especially during protracted or severe economic declines and cyclical downturns in the building industry, our customers may be unable to perform on their payment obligations, including their debts to us. Any failure by our customers to meet their obligations to us may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, we may incur increased expenses related to collections in the future if we find it necessary to take legal action to enforce the contractual obligations of a significant number of our customers.
Exchange rate fluctuations may impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our operations expose us to both transaction and translation exchange rate risks. In the year ended December 31, 2020, 45% of our net revenues came from sales outside of the U.S., and we anticipate that our operations outside of the U.S. will continue to represent a significant portion of our net revenues for the foreseeable future. In addition, the nature of our operations often requires that we incur expenses in currencies other than those in which we earn revenue. Because of the mismatch between revenues and expenses, we are exposed to significant currency exchange rate risk and we may not be successful in achieving balances in currencies throughout our operations. In addition, if the effective price of our products were to increase as a result of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, demand for our products could decline, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Also, because our financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars, we must translate the financial statements of our foreign subsidiaries and affiliates into U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect during or at the end of each reporting period, and increases or decreases in the value of the U.S. dollar against other major currencies will affect our reported financial results, including the amount of our outstanding indebtedness. Exchange rates, net, had a minimal impact on our consolidated net revenues in the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to a negative impact of 3% in the year ended December 31, 2019. We cannot assure you that fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, particularly the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against major currencies, such as the Euro, the Australian dollar, the Canadian dollar, the British pound, or the currencies of large developing countries, would not materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We may be the subject of product liability claims or product recalls and we may not accurately estimate costs related to warranty claims. Expenses associated with product liability claims and lawsuits and related negative publicity or warranty claims in excess of our reserves could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our products are used in a wide variety of residential, non-residential, and architectural applications. We face the risk of exposure to product liability or other claims, including class action lawsuits, in the event our products are alleged to be defective or have resulted in harm to others or to property. We may in the future incur liability if product liability lawsuits against us are successful. Moreover, any such lawsuits, whether or not successful, could result in adverse publicity to us, which could cause our sales to decline materially. In addition, it may be necessary for us to recall defective products, which would also result in adverse publicity, as well as resulting in costs connected to the recall and loss of sales. We maintain insurance coverage to protect us against product liability claims, but that coverage may not be adequate to cover all claims that may arise, or we may not be able to maintain adequate insurance coverage in the future at an acceptable cost. Any liability not covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
In addition, consistent with industry practice, we provide warranties on many of our products and we may experience costs associated with warranty claims if our products have defects in manufacture or design or they do not meet contractual specifications. We estimate our future warranty costs based on historical trends and product sales, but we may fail to accurately estimate those costs and thereby fail to establish adequate warranty reserves for them. If warranty claims exceed our estimates, it may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We may make acquisitions or investments in other businesses, which may involve risks or may not be successful.
Generally, we seek to acquire businesses that broaden our existing product lines and service offerings or expand our geographic reach. There can be no assurance that we will be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates or that our acquisitions or investments in other businesses will be successful. These acquisitions or investments in other businesses may also involve risks, many of which may be unpredictable and beyond our control, and which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations, including risks related to:
the nature of the acquired company’s business;
any acquired business not performing as well as anticipated;
the potential loss of key employees of the acquired company;
any damage to our reputation as a result of performance or customer satisfaction problems relating to an acquired business;
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the failure of our due diligence procedures to detect material issues related to the acquired business, including exposure to legal claims for activities of the acquired business prior to the acquisition;
unexpected liabilities resulting from the acquisition for which we may not be adequately indemnified;
our inability to enforce indemnification and non-compete agreements;
the integration of the personnel, operations, technologies, and products of the acquired business, and establishment of internal controls, including the implementation of our enterprise resource planning system, into the acquired company’s operations;
our failure to achieve projected synergies or cost savings;
our inability to establish uniform standards, controls, procedures, and policies;
any requirement that we make divestitures of operations or properties in order to comply with applicable antitrust laws in connection with future acquisitions;
the diversion of management attention and financial resources; and
any unforeseen management and operational difficulties, particularly if we acquire assets or businesses in new foreign jurisdictions where we have little or no operational experience.
In furtherance of our strategy of growth through acquisitions, we routinely review and conduct investigations of potential acquisitions, some of which may be material. When we believe a favorable opportunity exists, we seek to enter into discussions with targets or sellers regarding the possibility of such acquisitions. At any given time, we may be in discussions with one or more counterparties. There can be no assurances that any such negotiations will lead to definitive agreements, or if such agreements are reached, that any transactions would be consummated.
Our inability to achieve the anticipated benefits of acquisitions and other investments could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
In addition, the means by which we finance an acquisition may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations, including changes to our equity, debt, and liquidity position. If we issue Convertible Preferred or Common Stock to pay for an acquisition, the ownership percentage of our existing shareholders may be diluted. Using our existing cash may reduce our liquidity. Incurring additional debt to fund an acquisition may result in higher debt service and a requirement to comply with additional financial and other covenants, including potential restrictions on future acquisitions and distributions.
Risks Relating to Labor and Supply Chain
Prices and availability of the raw materials we use to manufacture our products are subject to fluctuations, and we may be unable to pass along to our customers the effects of any price increases.
We use wood, glass, vinyl and other plastics, fiberglass and other composites, aluminum, steel and other metals, as well as hardware, resins, adhesives, and other components to manufacture our products. Prices and availability of our materials fluctuate for a variety of reasons beyond our control, many of which cannot be anticipated with any degree of reliability. Our most significant raw materials include logs and lumber, vinyl extrusions, glass, steel, and aluminum, each of which has been subject to periods of rapid and significant fluctuations in price. The reasons for these fluctuations include, among other things, variable worldwide supply and demand across different industries, speculation in commodities futures, general economic or environmental conditions, labor costs, competition, import duties, tariffs, worldwide currency fluctuations, freight, regulatory costs, and product and process evolutions that impact demand for the same materials.
The U.S. has imposed tariffs on certain products imported into the U.S. from China, as well as tariffs on certain steel and aluminum products imported from certain countries, and could impose additional tariffs or trade restrictions. The imposition of tariffs may impact the prices of materials purchased outside of the U.S. and include goods in transit as well as increasing the price of domestically sourced materials, including, in particular, steel and aluminum. Impositions of tariffs by other countries could also impact pricing and availability of raw materials. As another example, as global demand for key chemicals increases, the limited number of suppliers and investment in greater supply capacity drives increased global pricing. Additionally, anti-dumping and countervailing duty trade cases, such as the January 8, 2020, Coalition of American Millwork Producers’ anti-dumping petitions on imports of wood moldings and millwork products from Brazil and China and a countervailing duty petition on imports of wood moldings and millwork products from China, could impact our business and results of operations. While we believe our exposure to the potential increased costs of these tariffs and duties is no greater than the industry as a whole, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected if our efforts to mitigate their effects are unsuccessful.
We have short-term supply contracts with certain of our largest suppliers that limit our exposure to short term fluctuations in prices and availability of our materials, but we are susceptible to longer-term fluctuations in prices. We generally do not hedge against commodity price fluctuations. Significant increases in the prices of raw materials for finished goods, including as a result of
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significant or protracted material shortages due to pandemic or otherwise, may be difficult to pass through to customers and may negatively impact our profitability and net revenues. We may attempt to modify products that use certain raw materials, but these changes may not be successful.
Our business may be affected by delays or interruptions in the delivery of raw materials, finished goods, and certain component parts. A supply shortage or delivery chain interruption could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We rely upon regular deliveries of raw materials, finished goods, and certain component parts. For certain raw materials that are used in our products, we depend on a single or limited number of suppliers for our materials, and we typically do not have long-term contracts with our suppliers. If we are not able to accurately forecast our supply needs, our limited number of suppliers may make it difficult to quickly obtain additional raw materials to respond to shifting or increased demand. In addition, a supply shortage could occur as a result of unanticipated increases in market demand, including as a result of accelerated demand in reaction to the threat of tariffs or trade restrictions; difficulties in production or delivery, including insufficient energy supply; financial difficulties; or catastrophic events in the supply chain. Furthermore, because our products and the components of some of our products are subject to regulation, changes to these regulations could cause delays in delivery of raw materials, finished goods, and certain component parts.
Until we can make acceptable arrangements with alternate suppliers, any interruption or disruption could impact our ability to ship orders on time and could idle some of our manufacturing capability for those products. This could result in a loss of revenues, reduced margins, and damage to our relationships with customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Increases in labor costs, potential labor disputes, and work stoppages at our facilities or the facilities of our suppliers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our financial performance is affected by the availability of qualified personnel and the cost of labor. As of December 31, 2020, we had over 23,000 employees worldwide, including approximately 11,300 employees in the U.S. and Canada. Approximately 1,140, or 10%, of our employees in the U.S. and Canada are unionized workers, and the majority of our workforce in other countries belong to work councils or are otherwise subject to labor agreements. U.S. and Canada employees represented by these unions are subject to collective bargaining agreements that are subject to periodic negotiation and renewal. If we are unable to enter into new, satisfactory labor agreements with our unionized employees upon expiration of their agreements, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations, which could cause us to be unable to deliver products to customers on a timely basis. Such disruptions could result in a loss of business and an increase in our operating expenses, which could reduce our net revenues and profit margins. In addition, our non-unionized labor force may become subject to labor union organizing efforts, which could cause us to incur additional labor costs and increase the related risks that we now face.
We believe many of our direct and indirect suppliers also have unionized workforces. Strikes, work stoppages, or slowdowns experienced by suppliers could result in slowdowns or closures of facilities where components of our products are manufactured or delivered. Any interruption in the production or delivery of these components could reduce sales, increase costs, and have a material adverse effect on us.
Our business will suffer if certain key officers or employees discontinue employment with us or if we are unable to recruit and retain highly skilled staff at a competitive cost.
The success of our business depends upon the skills, experience, and efforts of our key officers and employees. In recent years, we have hired key executives who have and will continue to be integral in the continuing transformation of our business. The loss of key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. We do not maintain key-man life insurance policies on any members of management. Our business also depends on our ability to continue to recruit, train, and retain skilled employees, particularly skilled sales personnel. The loss of the services of certain key personnel, or our inability to hire new personnel with the requisite skills, could impair our ability to develop new products or enhance existing products, sell products to our customers, or manage our business effectively. Should we lose the services of any member of our senior management team, our Board of Directors would have to conduct a search for a qualified replacement. This search may be prolonged, and we may not be able to locate and hire a qualified replacement. A significant increase in the wages paid by competing employers could result in a reduction of our qualified labor force, increases in the wage rates that we must pay, or both.
Our pension plan obligations are currently not fully funded, and we may have to make significant cash payments to these plans, which would reduce the cash available for our businesses.
Although we have closed our U.S. pension plan to new participants and have frozen future benefit accruals for current participants, we continue to have unfunded obligations under that plan. The funded levels of our pension plan depend upon many factors, including returns on invested assets, certain market interest rates, and the discount rate used to determine pension obligations. The projected benefit obligation and unfunded liability included in our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020 for our U.S. pension plan were approximately $474.1 million and $77.2 million, respectively. Unfavorable returns on the plan assets or
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unfavorable changes in applicable laws or regulations could materially change the timing and amount of required plan funding, which would reduce the cash available for our operations. In addition, a decrease in the discount rate used to determine pension obligations could increase the estimated value of our pension obligations, which would affect the reported funding status of our pension plans and would require us to increase the amounts of future contributions. Additionally, we have foreign defined benefit plans, some of which continue to be open to new participants. As of December 31, 2020, our foreign defined benefit plans had unfunded pension liabilities of approximately $44.1 million and overfunded pension assets of approximately $1.7 million.
Under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, or “ERISA”, the U.S. Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, or the “PBGC”, also has the authority to terminate an underfunded tax-qualified U.S. pension plan under certain circumstances. In the event our tax-qualified U.S. pension plans were terminated by the PBGC, we could be liable to the PBGC for an amount that exceeds the underfunding disclosed in our consolidated financial statements. In addition, because our U.S. pension plan has unfunded obligations, if we have a substantial cessation of operations at a U.S. facility and, as a result of such cessation of operations an event under ERISA Section 4062(e) is triggered, additional liabilities that exceed the amounts disclosed in our consolidated financial statements could arise, including an obligation for us to provide additional contributions or alternative security for a period of time after such an event occurs. Any such action could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Relating to Cybersecurity and Data Privacy
We are highly dependent on information technology, the disruption of which could significantly impede our ability to do business.
Our operations depend on our network of information technology systems, which are vulnerable to damage from hardware failure, fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, and impacts of terrorism, natural disasters, or other disasters. We rely on our information technology systems to accurately maintain books and records, record transactions, provide information to management and prepare our financial statements. We may not have sufficient redundant operations to cover a loss or failure in a timely manner. Any damage to our information technology systems could cause interruptions to our operations that materially adversely affect our ability to meet customers’ requirements, resulting in an adverse impact to our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Periodically, these systems need to be expanded, updated, or upgraded as our business needs change. We may not be able to successfully implement changes in our information technology systems without experiencing difficulties, which could require significant financial and human resources. Moreover, our increasing dependence on technology may exacerbate this risk.
We are implementing new systems, including a new Enterprise Resource Planning system, as part of our ongoing technology and process improvements. If these new systems prove ineffective, we may be unable to timely or accurately prepare financial reports, make payments to our suppliers and employees, or invoice and collect from our customers.
We are implementing new systems, including our continued implementation of a new ERP system, as part of our ongoing technology and process improvements. This ERP system will provide a standardized method of accounting for, among other things, order entry and inventory and should enhance our ability to implement our strategic initiatives. Failure to properly plan and design the ERP system could result in future impairments relating to a portion or all associated capitalized costs. Any delay in the implementation, or disruption in the upgrade, of these systems could adversely affect our ability to timely and accurately report financial information, including the filing of our quarterly or annual reports with the SEC. Such delay or disruption could also impact our ability to timely or accurately make payments to our suppliers and employees and could also inhibit our ability to invoice and collect from our customers. Data integrity problems or other issues may be discovered which could impact our business, accuracy of our reporting, or financial results. In addition, we may experience periodic or prolonged disruption of our financial functions arising out of this conversion, general use of such systems, other periodic upgrades or updates, or other external factors that are outside of our control. If we encounter unforeseen problems with our financial system or related systems and infrastructure, our business, operations, and financial systems could be adversely affected. We may also need to implement additional systems or transition to other new systems that require further expenditures in order to function effectively as a public company. There can be no assurance that our implementation of additional systems or transition to new systems will be successful, or that such implementation or transition will not present unforeseen costs or demands on our management.
Our systems and IT infrastructure may be subject to security breaches and other cybersecurity incidents.
We rely on the accuracy, capacity, and security of our IT systems, some of which are managed or hosted by third parties, and the sale of our products may involve the transmission and/or storage of data, including in certain instances customers’ and employees’ business and personally identifiable information. Maintaining the security of computers, computer networks, and data storage resources is a critical issue for us and our customers, as security breaches, including computer viruses and malware, denial of service actions, misappropriation of data and similar events through the interest, including via devices and applications connected to the internet, and through email attachments and persons with access to these information systems could result in vulnerabilities and loss of and/or unauthorized access to confidential information. We have experienced and may in the future face attempts by experienced hackers, cybercriminals, or others with authorized access to our systems to misappropriate our proprietary information and technology, interrupt our business, and/or gain unauthorized access to confidential information. The reliability and security of our information
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technology infrastructure and software, and our ability to expand and continually update technologies in response to our changing needs is critical to our business. To the extent that any disruptions or security breaches result in a loss or damage to our data, it could cause harm to our reputation or brand and could potentially cause production downtimes, operational delays, and other detrimental impacts on our operations. This could lead some customers to stop purchasing our products and reduce or delay future purchases of our products or use competing products. In addition, we could face enforcement actions by U.S. states, the U.S. federal government, or foreign governments, which could result in fines, penalties, and/or other liabilities, which may cause us to incur legal fees and costs, and/or additional costs associated with responding to the cyberattack. Increased regulation regarding cybersecurity may increase our costs of compliance, including fines and penalties, as well as costs of cybersecurity audits and associated repairs or updates to infrastructure, physical systems or data processing systems. Any of these actions could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations. Although we maintain insurance coverage to protect us against some of the risks, those policies may be insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise in the event we experience a cybersecurity incident, data breach or disruption, unauthorized access, or failure of systems.
In addition, we are subject to state, foreign, and international laws and regulations, as well as contractual obligations, that apply to the collection, use, retention, protection, disclosure, transfer and other processing of personal data. These privacy and data-protection related laws and regulations are evolving, with new or modified laws and regulations proposed and implemented frequently and existing laws and regulations subject to new or different interpretations. In particular, the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which became effective in 2018, poses increased compliance challenges both for companies operating within the E.U. and non-E.U. companies that administer or process certain personal data of E.U. residents. It is not possible to predict the ultimate content, and therefore effect, of data protection regulation over time, and efforts to comply with evolving regulation may result in additional costs.
We believe we have invested in industry-appropriate protections and monitoring practices for our data and information technology to reduce these risks and continue to monitor our systems on an ongoing basis for compliance with applicable privacy regulations and any current or potential threats. While we have not experienced any material breaches in security in our recent history, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent breakdowns or breaches to databases or systems that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations, or that we will be subject to enforcement actions or penalties in connection with a failure or alleged failure to comply with applicable laws.
Risks Relating to our Governmental and Regulatory Environment
Changes in building codes and standards, including ENERGY STAR standards, could increase the cost of our products, lower the demand for our windows and doors, or otherwise adversely affect our business.
Our products and markets are subject to extensive and complex local, state, federal and foreign statutes, ordinances, rules, and regulations. These mandates, including building design and safety and construction standards and zoning requirements, affect the cost, selection, and quality requirements of building components like windows and doors.
These regulations often provide broad discretion to governmental authorities as to the types and quality specifications of products used in new residential and non-residential construction and home renovations and improvement projects, and different governmental authorities can impose different standards. Compliance with these standards and changes in such regulations may increase the costs of manufacturing our products or may reduce the demand for certain of our products in the affected geographical areas or product markets. Conversely, a decrease in product safety standards could reduce demand for our more modern products if less expensive alternatives that did not meet higher standards became available for use in that market. All or any of these changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
In addition, in order for our products to obtain the “ENERGY STAR” certification, they must meet certain requirements set by the EPA. Changes in the energy efficiency requirements established by the EPA for the ENERGY STAR label could increase our costs, and a lapse in our ability to label our products as such or to comply with the new standards, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Domestic and foreign governmental regulations applicable to general business operations could increase the costs of operating our business and adversely affect our business.
We are subject to a variety of regulations from U.S. and foreign governmental authorities relating to wage requirements, employee benefits, and other workplace matters. Changes in local minimum or living wage requirements, rights of employees to unionize, healthcare regulations, and other requirements relating to employee benefits could increase our labor costs, which would in turn increase our cost of doing business. In addition, our international operations are subject to laws applicable to foreign operations, trade protection measures, foreign labor relations, differing intellectual property rights, privacy regulations, other legal and regulatory constraints, and currency regulations of the countries or regions in which we currently operate or where we may operate in the future. These factors may restrict the sales of, or increase costs of, manufacturing and selling our products.
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We may be subject to significant compliance costs, as well as liabilities under environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations.
Our past and present operations, assets, and products are subject to extensive environmental laws and regulations at the federal, state, and local level worldwide. These laws regulate, among other things, air emissions, the discharge or release of materials into the environment, the handling and disposal of wastes, remediation of contaminated sites, worker health and safety, and the impact of products on human health and safety and the environment. Under certain of these laws, liability for contaminated property may be imposed on current or former owners or operators of the property or on parties that generated or arranged for waste sent to the property for disposal. Liability under these laws may be joint and several and may be imposed without regard to fault or the legality of the activity giving rise to the contamination. Notwithstanding our compliance efforts, we may still face material liability, limitations on our operations, fines, or penalties for violations of environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations, including releases of regulated materials and contamination by us or previous occupants at our current or former properties or at offsite disposal locations we use.
The applicable environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations, and any changes to them or in their enforcement, may require us to make material expenditures with respect to ongoing compliance with or remediation under these laws and regulations or require that we modify our products or processes in a manner that increases our costs and/or reduces our profitability. For example, additional pollution control equipment, process changes, or other environmental control measures may be needed at some of our facilities to meet future requirements. In addition, discovery of currently unknown or unanticipated soil or groundwater conditions at our properties could result in significant liabilities and costs. Accordingly, we are unable to predict the exact future costs of compliance with or liability under environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations.
We may be subject to significant compliance costs with respect to legislative and regulatory proposals to restrict emissions of GHGs and other sustainability initiatives.
Various legislative, regulatory, and inter-governmental proposals to restrict emissions of GHGs, such as carbon dioxide (“CO2), are under consideration by governmental legislative bodies and regulators in the jurisdictions where we operate. In the U.S., the EPA adopted the Affordable Clean Energy Rule, or “ACE”, in June 2019, which repealed the previously adopted Clean Power Plan and was expected to be significantly less burdensome for producers of energy than the requirements of the Clean Power Plan. As a result, certain states have adopted or may adopt more stringent regulations governing emissions of GHGs. In January 2021, the D.C. Circuit vacated the ACE rule, enabling the opportunity for a new federal rule to be adopted. In addition, many other jurisdictions in which we operate have continued to commit to limiting emissions of GHGs, most prominently through an agreement reached in Paris in December 2015 at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Paris Agreement sets out a new process for achieving global GHG reductions. Although the Trump Administration withdrew the United States from the agreement effective November 2020, President Biden issued an executive order in January 2021 for the U.S. to commit to the Paris Agreement. As a result of the D.C. Circuit’s decision to vacate the ACE Rule, it is likely the Biden Administration may propose federal regulation to replace the ACE Rule that, if enacted, would reverse the trend of deregulation. As some of our manufacturing facilities operate boilers or other process equipment that emit GHGs, such regulatory and global initiatives may require us to modify our operating procedures or production levels, incur capital expenditures, change fuel sources, or take other actions that may adversely affect our financial results.
Given the high degree of uncertainty about the ultimate parameters of any such regulatory or global initiatives, and the degree to which the U.S. will participate in initiatives at the federal or global level, we cannot predict at this time the ultimate impact of such initiatives on our operations or financial results.
Increasing regulations to reduce GHG emissions, as proposed throughout many of our operating regions, would be expected to increase energy costs, increase price volatility for fossil fuels and petroleum, and reduce petroleum production levels, which in turn could impact the prices of those raw materials. In addition, laws and regulations relating to forestry practices limit the volume and manner of harvesting timber to mitigate environmental impacts, such as deforestation, soil erosion, damage to riparian areas, and GHG levels. The extent of these regulations and related compliance costs has grown in recent years and will increase our materials costs and may increase other aspects of our production costs.
Changes to legislative and regulatory policies that currently promote home ownership may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our markets are also affected by legislative and regulatory policies, such as U.S. tax rules, allowing for deductions of mortgage interest and the mandate of government-sponsored entities like Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to promote home ownership through mortgage guarantees on certain types of home loans. The Tax Act passed in the U.S. in December 2017 made significant changes to some of these historical benefits of home ownership. The specific changes which could affect our markets are, among others, a reduction of the maximum amount of home mortgage indebtedness for which a tax deduction for interest paid may be claimed, an elimination of the deduction for interest paid on home equity indebtedness, and a limitation on the amount of state and local taxes allowed to be deducted annually as itemized deductions. These changes to the tax code and any future policy changes may
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adversely impact demand for our products and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Lack of transparency, threat of fraud, public sector corruption, and other forms of criminal activity involving government officials increases the risk of potential liability under anti-bribery/anti-corruption or anti-fraud legislation, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act, and similar laws and regulations.
We operate manufacturing and distribution facilities in 19 countries and sell our products in approximately 100 countries around the world. As a result of the international nature of our operations, we may enter from time to time into negotiations and contractual arrangements with parties affiliated with foreign governments and their officials in the ordinary course of business. In connection with these activities, we may be subject to anti-corruption laws in various jurisdictions, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or the “FCPA”, the U.K. Bribery Act and other anti-bribery laws applicable to jurisdictions where we do business that prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign government officials and political parties and others for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, or otherwise receiving discretionary favorable treatment of any kind, and require the maintenance of internal controls to prevent such payments. In particular, we may be held liable for actions taken by agents in foreign countries where we operate, even though such parties are not always subject to our control. We have established anti-bribery/anti-corruption policies and procedures and offer several channels for raising concerns in an effort to comply with the laws and regulations applicable to us. However, there can be no assurance that our policies and procedures will effectively prevent us from violating these laws and regulations in every transaction in which we may engage. Allegations of violations of the FCPA or other anti-bribery or anti-corruption laws may result in internal, independent, or government investigations. Any determination that we have violated the FCPA or other anti-bribery/anti-corruption laws (whether directly or through acts of others, intentionally or through inadvertence) could result in severe criminal and civil sanctions and other liabilities that could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition, and results of operations.
As we continue to expand our business globally, including through foreign acquisitions, we may have difficulty anticipating and effectively managing these and other risks that our international operations may face, which may adversely impact our business outside of the U.S. and our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any acquisition of businesses with operations outside of the U.S. may exacerbate this risk.
The U.K.’s withdrawal from the E.U. could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
In June 2016, the U.K. electorate voted in a referendum to voluntarily depart from the E.U., known as “Brexit”. Following the formation of a majority Conservative government in December 2019, the U.K. approved the withdrawal agreement and left the E.U. on January 31, 2020. On December 31, 2020, the U.K. passed legislation giving effect to a trade and cooperation agreement, with the E.U. expected to formally adopt the agreement in early 2021. The trade and cooperation agreement covers the general objectives and framework of the relationship between the U.K. and the E.U., including as it relates to trade, transport, visas, judicial, law enforcement and security matters, and provides for continued participation in community programs and mechanisms for dispute resolution.
The effects of the U.K.’s withdrawal from the E.U. on the global economy, and on our business in particular, will depend on the finalization and application of the trade and cooperation agreement between the U.K. and the E.U, and the finalization of trade negotiations between the U.K. and other countries. The final outcome of Brexit negotiations could impair the ability of our operations in the E.U. to transact business in the future in the U.K., as well as the ability of our U.K. operations to transact business in the future in the E.U.
Volatility associated with Brexit could continue to adversely affect European and worldwide economic conditions and may contribute to greater instability in the global financial markets. Among other things, Brexit could reduce consumer spending in the U.K. and the E.U., which could result in decreased demand for our products within these regions. Similarly, housing sales and home values in the U.K. and in the E.U. could be negatively impacted and Brexit could also influence foreign currency exchange rates. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we derived 4% of our net revenues from the U.K., and our Europe headquarters is located in the U.K. As a result, the ultimate effects of Brexit could inhibit the growth of our business and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Changes in legislation, regulation, and government policy, including as a result of U.S. presidential and congressional elections, may have a material adverse effect on our business in the future.
We cannot predict the impact that may result from changes in the federal or administrative landscape under the Biden Administration and recently elected U.S. Congress officials. While it is not possible to predict whether and when any such changes will occur, changes at the local, state, and federal level could significantly impact our business. Specific legislative and regulatory proposals that could have a material impact on us include, but are not limited to: infrastructure renewal programs, changes to immigration policy, modifications to international trade policy, including renegotiation of or withdrawal from trade agreements, the imposition of tariffs or trade restrictions, and changes to financial legislation and public company reporting requirements.
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In addition, U.S. lawmakers have made substantial changes to U.S. fiscal and tax policies, including the adoption of the Tax Act, which introduced a variety of tax reforms that significantly impact U.S. taxation of multi-national corporations. These include, among others, reductions in the U.S. corporate tax rate, repeal of the corporate alternative minimum tax, introduction of immediate cost recovery for capital investments, the limitation of the interest deduction, the limitation of certain deductions for executive compensation, and changes to the international tax system, including the adoption of a territorial tax system and taxation of the accumulated foreign earnings of U.S. multinational corporations. The specific provisions of the Tax Act, while generally favorable to our U.S. operations, may have certain negative implications, such as the GILTI provisions, which could materially impact our financial performance. Certain aspects of the Tax Act took effect or material additional guidance was issued during fiscal year 2020, including certain regulations relating to the GILTI high-tax exclusion provisions under Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”) §951A, foreign tax credits, and interest expense limitations. Final guidance continues to be issued by the U.S. Treasury, and, once issued, may materially affect the Company’s conclusions regarding the net related effects of the Tax Act on its financial statements. These provisions will continue to have a significant impact on our future performance. The Biden Administrations’ proposed legislation, in conjunction with his 2020 presidential campaign, indicate increases to corporate tax rates. If such legislation is enacted, it may have a material adverse impact to our tax rate, and in turn, our profitability.
Changes in accounting standards, new interpretations of existing standards and subjective assumptions, estimates, and judgments by management related to complex accounting matters could significantly affect our financial results or financial condition.
Generally accepted accounting principles and related accounting pronouncements, implementation guidelines and interpretations with regard to a wide range of matters that are relevant to our business, such as revenue recognition, asset impairment, impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets, inventories, lease obligations, pensions, self-insurance, tax matters, and litigation, are highly complex and involve many subjective assumptions, estimates, and judgments. Changes in these rules or their interpretation or changes in underlying assumptions, estimates, or judgments could significantly change our reported results.
Risks Relating to our Indebtedness
Our failure to comply with the credit agreements governing our Credit Facilities and indentures governing the Senior Notes and Senior Secured Notes, including as a result of events beyond our control, could trigger events of default and acceleration of our indebtedness. Defaults under our debt agreements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
If there were an event of default under the credit agreements governing our Credit Facilities, the indentures governing the Senior Notes and Senior Secured Notes, or other indebtedness that we may incur, the holders of the defaulted indebtedness could cause all amounts outstanding with respect to that indebtedness to be immediately due and payable. It is likely that our cash flows would not be sufficient to fully repay borrowings under our Credit Facilities and principal amounts of the Senior Notes and Senior Secured Notes, if accelerated upon an event of default. If we are unable to repay, refinance, or restructure our secured debt, the holders of such indebtedness may proceed against the collateral securing that indebtedness.
Furthermore, any event of default or declaration of acceleration under one debt instrument may also result in an event of default under one or more of our other debt instruments. In exacerbated or prolonged circumstances, one or more of these events could result in our bankruptcy or liquidation. Accordingly, any default by us on our debt could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial flexibility and our competitive position.
    Financial information regarding our indebtedness is included in Note 13 - Long-Term Debt to our financial statements included in this 10-K.
Our level of indebtedness increases the risk that we may be unable to generate cash sufficient to pay amounts due in respect of our indebtedness and could have other material consequences, including:
limiting our ability to obtain financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service, or other general corporate purposes;
requiring us to use a substantial portion of our available cash flow to service our debt, which will reduce the amount of cash flow available for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, and other general corporate purposes;
increasing our vulnerability to general economic downturns and adverse industry conditions;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and in our industry in general;
limiting our ability to invest in and develop new products;
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placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that are not as highly leveraged, as we may be less capable of responding to adverse economic conditions, general economic downturns, and adverse industry conditions;
restricting the way we conduct our business because of financial and operating covenants in the agreements governing our existing and future indebtedness;
increasing the risk of our failing to satisfy our obligations with respect to borrowings outstanding under our Credit Facilities, Senior Notes, and Senior Secured Notes and/or being able to comply with the financial and operating covenants contained in our debt instruments, which could result in an event of default under the credit agreements governing our Credit Facilities and the agreements governing our other debt, including the indentures governing the Senior Notes and Senior Secured Notes, that, if not cured or waived, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations; and
increasing our cost of borrowing.
The credit agreements governing our Credit Facilities and the indentures governing the Senior Notes and Senior Secured Notes impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us that may prevent us from capitalizing on business opportunities.
The credit agreements governing our Credit Facilities and the indentures governing the Senior Notes and Senior Secured Notes impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us. These restrictions limit our ability, among other things, to:
incur or guarantee additional indebtedness;
make certain loans, investments, or restricted payments, including dividends to our shareholders;
repurchase or redeem capital stock;
engage in certain transactions with affiliates;
sell certain assets (including stock of subsidiaries) or merge with or into other companies; and
create or incur liens.
Under the terms of the ABL Facility, we will at times be required to comply with a specified fixed charge coverage ratio when the amount of certain unrestricted cash balances of the U.S. and Canadian loan parties plus the amount available for borrowing by the U.S. borrowers and Canadian borrowers is less than a specified amount. The Australia Senior Secured Credit Facility also contains financial maintenance covenants. Our ability to meet the specified covenants could be affected by events beyond our control, and our failure to meet these covenants will result in an event of default as defined in the applicable facility.
In addition, our ability to borrow under the ABL Facility is limited by the amount of the borrowing base applicable to U.S. dollar and Canadian dollar borrowings. Any negative impact on the elements of our borrowing base, such as eligible accounts receivable and inventory, will reduce our borrowing capacity under the ABL Facility. Moreover, the ABL Facility provides discretion to the agent bank acting on behalf of the lenders to impose additional requirements on what accounts receivable and inventory may be counted toward the borrowing base availability and to impose other reserves, which could materially impair the amount of borrowings that would otherwise be available to us. There can be no assurance that the agent bank will not impose such reserves or, were it to do so, that the resulting impact of this action would not materially and adversely impair our liquidity.
As a result of these covenants and restrictions, we are limited in how we conduct our business, and we may be unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities or engage in other activities that may be in our long-term best interests. The terms of any future indebtedness we may incur could include more restrictive covenants. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain compliance with these covenants in the future and, if we fail to do so, we may be unable to obtain waivers from the lenders or amend the covenants.
We require a significant amount of liquidity to fund our operations, and borrowing may increase our vulnerability to negative unforeseen events.
Our liquidity needs vary throughout the year. If our business experiences materially negative unforeseen events, we may be unable to generate sufficient cash flow from operations to fund our needs or maintain sufficient liquidity to operate and remain in compliance with our debt covenants, which could result in reduced or delayed purchases of raw materials, planned capital expenditures, and other investments and adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations. Our ability to borrow under the ABL Facility may be limited due to decreases in the borrowing base as described above.
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Risks Relating to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The market price of our Common Stock may be highly volatile.
Our Common Stock has only been listed for public trading since January 27, 2017. As of December 31, 2020, the price of our Common Stock since the date of our IPO, as reported by the NYSE, has ranged from an intraday high of $42.27 to an intraday low of $6.06. The trading price of our Common Stock may continue to be volatile. Securities markets worldwide experience significant price and volume fluctuations. This market volatility, as well as other general economic, market or political conditions, could reduce the market price of our shares in spite of our operating performance. The following factors may have a significant impact on the market price of our Common Stock:
negative trends in global economic conditions or activity levels in our end markets;
increases in interest rates used to finance home construction and improvements;
our ability to compete effectively against our competitors;
changes in consumer needs, expectations, or trends;
our ability to maintain our relationships with key customers;
our ability to implement our business strategy;
our ability to complete and integrate new acquisitions;
variations in the prices of raw materials used to manufacture our products;
adverse changes in building codes and standards or governmental regulations applicable to general business operations;
product liability claims or product recalls;
any legal actions in which we may become involved, including disputes relating to our intellectual property;
our ability to recruit and retain highly skilled staff;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;
trading volume of our Common Stock;
sales of our Common Stock by us, our executive officers and directors, or our shareholders (including Onex) in the future; and
general economic and market conditions and overall fluctuations in the U.S. equity markets.
In addition, broad market and industry factors, including the trading prices of the securities of our publicly traded competitors, may negatively affect the market price of our Common Stock, regardless of our actual operating performance, and factors beyond our control may cause our stock price to decline rapidly and unexpectedly. Furthermore, the stock market has experienced extreme volatility that, in some cases, has been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies.
Publishing earnings guidance subjects us to risks, including increased stock volatility, that could lead to potential lawsuits by investors.
Because we publish earnings guidance, we are subject to a number of risks. Actual results may vary significantly from the guidance we provide investors from time to time, such that our stock price may decline following, among other things, any earnings release or guidance that does not meet market expectations. It has become increasingly commonplace for investors to file lawsuits against companies following a rapid decrease in market capitalization. We may be named in these types of lawsuits. These types of lawsuits can be costly and divert management attention and other resources away from our business, regardless of their merits, and could result in adverse settlements or judgments.
Some provisions of our charter documents and Delaware law may have anti-takeover effects that could discourage an acquisition of us by others, even if an acquisition would be beneficial to our shareholders and may prevent attempts by our shareholders to replace or remove our current management.
Provisions in our Charter and our Bylaws, as well as provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the “DGCL”, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us or increase the cost of acquiring us, even if doing so would benefit our shareholders, including transactions in which shareholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. Our Charter and Bylaws currently provide for the following, among other things:
our Board of Directors is expressly authorized to adopt, amend, or repeal our Bylaws;
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our Board of Directors can issue blank check preferred stock to increase the number of outstanding shares and potentially discourage a takeover attempt; and
advance notice for nominations for election to our Board of Directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by shareholders at shareholder meetings.
We have also opted out of Section 203 of the DGCL, which, subject to some exceptions, prohibits business combinations between a Delaware corporation and an interested shareholder, which is generally defined as a shareholder who becomes a beneficial owner of 15% or more of a Delaware corporation’s voting stock for a three-year period following the date that the shareholder became an interested shareholder. At some time in the future, we may again be governed by Section 203. Section 203 could have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing a change in control that our shareholders might consider to be in their best interests. In addition, our largest shareholder, Onex, has the ability to nominate one or two directors to our Board of Directors to the extent Onex maintains at least 12.5% or 20%, respectively, of our outstanding Common Stock.
These anti-takeover defenses could discourage, delay, or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our company. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other shareholders to elect directors of your choosing and cause us to take corporate actions other than those you desire.
Because Onex owns a substantial portion of our Common Stock, it may influence major corporate decisions and its interests may conflict with the interests of other holders of our Common Stock.
Onex beneficially owns approximately 32.9 million shares of our Common Stock representing approximately 33% of our outstanding shares as of December 31, 2020. As a result, Onex continues to be able to influence matters requiring approval by our shareholders or our Board of Directors, including the election of directors and the approval of business combinations or dispositions and other extraordinary transactions. They also may have interests that differ from other shareholders and may vote in a way with which other shareholders disagree and which may be adverse to their interests. The concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying, preventing, or deterring a change of control of our company, could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their Common Stock as part of a sale of our company and may materially and adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock. In addition, Onex may in the future own businesses that directly compete with ours. Further, for so long as Onex owns at least 5% of our outstanding shares, Onex has the right to purchase its pro rata portion of the primary shares offered in any future public offering. This right could result in Onex continuing to maintain a substantial ownership of our Common Stock. Onex also has the right to nominate one or two directors to our Board of Directors for as long as Onex maintains at least 12.5% or 20%, respectively, of our outstanding Common Stock.
We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.
Our share price may be volatile and, in the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation. Litigation of this type could result in substantial costs and diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Any adverse determination in litigation could also subject us to significant liabilities and may negatively impact our share price.
Our directors who have relationships with Onex may have conflicts of interest with respect to matters involving our Company.
Two of our directors are affiliated with Onex. These persons have fiduciary duties to both us and Onex. As a result, they may have real or apparent conflicts of interest on matters affecting both us and Onex, which in some circumstances may have interests adverse to ours. Onex is in the business of making or advising on investments in companies and may hold, and from time to time may acquire, interests in, or provide advice to, businesses that directly or indirectly compete with certain portions of our business or that are suppliers or customers of ours. In addition, as a result of Onex’s ownership interest, conflicts of interest could arise with respect to transactions involving business dealings between us and Onex, including potential acquisitions of businesses or properties, the issuance of additional securities, the payment of dividends, and other matters.
In addition, our Charter provides that the doctrine of “corporate opportunity” will not apply with respect to us, to Onex or certain related parties, or any of our directors who are employees of Onex or its affiliates in a manner that would prohibit them from investing in competing businesses or doing business with our customers. To the extent they invest in such other businesses, Onex may have differing interests than our other shareholders.
Future sales, or the perception of future sales, of shares of our Common Stock in the public market by us or our existing shareholders could cause our stock price to fall.
The sales of a substantial number of shares of our Common Stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, including sales by Onex, could materially adversely affect the prevailing market price of our Common Stock. As of December 31, 2020, we had 100,806,068 shares of Common Stock outstanding.
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    Shares held by Onex and certain of our directors, officers, and shareholders are eligible for resale, subject to volume, manner of sale and other limitations under Rule 144. In addition, pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement (as defined below), each have the right, subject to certain conditions, to require us to register the sale of shares owned by such persons under the federal securities laws. By exercising their registration rights and selling a large number of shares, these holders could cause the prevailing market price of our Common Stock to decline. In addition, shares issued or issuable upon exercise of options and vested RSUs and PSUs will be eligible for sale from time to time.
As of December 31, 2020, we had 1,277,040 shares reserved for issuance pursuant to equity awards outstanding under our 2011 Stock Incentive Plan and 3,120,289 shares reserved for issuance pursuant to equity awards under our 2017 Omnibus Equity Plan. These shares, upon exercise of options and vesting of RSUs and PSUs, will be eligible for sale from time to time or will be eligible for sale immediately following exercise of such options.
Our employees, officers, and directors may elect to sell shares of our Common Stock in the public market. Sales of a substantial number of shares of our Common Stock in the public market could depress the market price of our Common Stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.
The ESOP and the JELD-WEN, Inc. KSOP (“KSOP”), are designed as a tax-qualified retirement plans and employee stock ownership plans under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (“Code”). Former employees are entitled to receive distributions of accounts held under the ESOP and KSOP at specified times and in specified forms. In addition, each plan permits diversification of our Common Stock held in participants’ accounts. The ESOP and KSOP may sell shares in the open market to fund hardship distributions and diversifications or participants may sell shares received as part of their distributions. In the year ended December 31, 2020, 292,979 shares were either sold by the plans to cover cash distributions and diversifications or distributed to participants.
In the future, we may issue securities to raise cash for acquisitions or otherwise. We may also acquire interests in other companies by using a combination of cash and our Common Stock or just our Common Stock and we may issue securities convertible into our Common Stock. Any of these events may dilute your ownership interest in our company and have an adverse impact on the price of our Common Stock.
If securities or industry analysts cease publishing research or reports about us, our business, or our market, or if they adversely change their recommendations or publish negative reports regarding our business or our stock, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our Common Stock can be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market, or our competitors. We do not have any control over these analysts, and we cannot provide any assurance that analysts will cover us or provide favorable coverage. If any of the analysts who may cover us adversely change their recommendation regarding our stock, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, our stock price could decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
Because we have no current plans to pay cash dividends on our shares of Common Stock, shareholders must rely on appreciation of the value of our Common Stock for any return on their investment.
We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation, and expansion of our business and have no current plans to declare or pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. In addition, the terms of our Credit Facilities, Senior Notes, Senior Secured Notes, and any future debt agreements may preclude us from paying dividends. As a result, we expect that only appreciation of the price of our Common Stock, if any, will provide a return to shareholders for the foreseeable future.
Our Charter provides, subject to limited exceptions, that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for certain disputes between us and our shareholders, which could limit our shareholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.
Our Charter provides, unless we consent to an alternative forum, that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action or proceeding asserting a breach of fiduciary duty owned by any director or officer to us or our shareholders, any action or proceedings asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL or our Charter or Bylaws, or any action or proceeding asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. This provision may limit a shareholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the provision contained in our Charter to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
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Because we are a holding company with no operations of our own, we rely on dividends, distributions, and transfers of funds from our subsidiaries, and we could be harmed if such distributions were not made in the future.
We are a holding company that conducts all of our operations through subsidiaries and the majority of our operating income is derived from JWI, our main operating subsidiary. Consequently, we rely on dividends or advances from our subsidiaries. We have no current plans to declare or pay dividends on our Common Stock for the foreseeable future; however, to the extent that we determine in the future to pay dividends on our Common Stock, none of our subsidiaries will be obligated to make funds available to us for the payment of dividends. The ability of such subsidiaries to pay dividends to us is subject to applicable local law and may be limited due to terms of other contractual arrangements, including our indebtedness. Such laws and restrictions would restrict our ability to continue operations. In addition, Delaware law may impose requirements that may restrict our ability to pay dividends to holders of our Common Stock.

Item 1B - Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

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Item 2 - Properties

Our principal executive office is located in Charlotte, North Carolina. We also own other properties, including sales offices, closed facilities, and administrative office space in Klamath Falls, Oregon, which we own, and lease properties in Charlotte, North Carolina; Birmingham, U.K.; and Sydney, Australia.
ManufacturingDistribution
North America
United States459
Canada42
St. Kitts1
Mexico1
5012
Europe
United Kingdom51
France2
Austria3
Czech Republic1
Switzerland1
Hungary1
Germany41
Sweden3
Denmark3
Latvia3
Estonia3
Finland3
322
Australasia
Australia354
Indonesia2
Malaysia2
394
Total JELD-WEN12118
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Item 3 - Legal Proceedings
    Information relating to this item is included within Note 25- Commitments and Contingencies of our financial statements included elsewhere in this 10-K.

Item 4 - Mine Safety Disclosures.

    Not applicable.


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PART II

Item 5 - Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information and Holders
Our Common Stock has been listed and traded on the NYSE under the symbol “JELD” since January 27, 2017. Prior to that time, there was no public trading market for our stock. As of February 19, 2021, there were approximately 1,377 shareholders of record of our Common Stock. The number of record holders does not include a substantially greater number of holders whose shares are held of record in nominee or “street name” accounts through banks, brokers, and other financial institutions.
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph depicts the total return to shareholders from January 27, 2017, the date our Common Shares became listed on the NYSE, through December 31, 2020, relative to the performance of the Standard & Poor's 500 Index and the Standard & Poor's 1500 Building Products Index. The graph assumes an investment of $100 in our Common Stock and each index on January 27, 2017, and the reinvestment of dividends paid since that date. The stock performance shown in the graph is not necessarily indicative of future price performance.
jeld-20201231_g4.jpg
*$100 invested on 1/27/17 in stock or 12/31/16 in index, including reinvestment of dividends.
Fiscal year ended December 31.

Copyright© 2021 Standard & Poor's, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.
1/27/201712/31/201712/31/201812/31/201912/31/2020
JELD-WEN Holding, Inc.$100.00$150.73$54.40$89.62$97.09
S&P 500$100.00$121.83$116.49$153.17$181.35
S&P 1500 Building Products Index$100.00$110.00$86.71$123.14$173.84

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Equity Compensation Plans
    See Item 12- Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters for the information required by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K regarding equity compensation plans.
Dividends
    We do not currently expect to pay any cash dividends on our Common Stock for the foreseeable future. Instead, we intend to retain future earnings, if any, for the future operation and expansion of our business and the repayment of debt. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon our results of operations, cash requirements, financial condition, contractual restrictions, restrictions imposed by applicable laws, and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant.
The terms of the agreements governing our existing or future indebtedness may limit our ability to pay dividends and make distributions to our shareholders. Our business is conducted through our subsidiaries and dividends from, and cash generated by, our subsidiaries will be our principal sources of cash to repay indebtedness, fund operations, and pay any dividends. Accordingly, our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders is dependent on the earnings and distributions of funds from our subsidiaries (which distributions may be restricted by the terms of our Corporate Credit Facilities, Senior Secured Notes, and Senior Notes).
Item 6 - Selected Financial Data
Not applicable.
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Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
This MD&A contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Please see “Forward-Looking Statements” in Item 1- Business and Item 1A- Risk Factors in this Form 10-K for a discussion of the uncertainties, risks and assumptions associated with these statements. This discussion should be read in conjunction with our historical financial statements and related notes thereto and the other disclosures contained elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The results of operations for the periods reflected herein are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for future periods, and our actual results may differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including but not limited to those listed under Item 1A- Risk Factors and included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
This MD&A is a supplement to our financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this 10-K and is provided to enhance your understanding of our results of operations and financial condition. Our discussion of results of operations is presented in millions throughout the MD&A and due to rounding may not sum or calculate precisely to the totals and percentages provided in the tables. Our MD&A is organized as follows:
Overview and Background. This section provides a general description of our Company and reportable segments, business and industry trends, our key business strategies and background information on other matters discussed in this MD&A.
Consolidated Results of Operations and Operating Results by Business Segment. This section provides our analysis and outlook for the significant line items on our consolidated statements of operations, as well as other information that we deem meaningful to an understanding of our results of operations on both a consolidated basis and a business segment basis.
Liquidity and Capital Resources. This section contains an overview of our financing arrangements and provides an analysis of trends and uncertainties affecting liquidity, cash requirements for our business, and sources and uses of our cash.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates. This section discusses the accounting policies that we consider important to the evaluation and reporting of our financial condition and results of operations, and whose application requires significant judgments or a complex estimation process.
Overview and Background
We are one of the world’s largest door and window manufacturers, and we hold a leading position by net revenues in the majority of the countries and markets we serve. We design, produce, and distribute an extensive range of interior and exterior doors, wood, vinyl, and aluminum windows, and related products for use in the new construction, R&R of residential homes, and, to a lesser extent, non-residential buildings.
We operate manufacturing and distribution facilities in 19 countries, located primarily in North America, Europe, and Australia. For many product lines, our manufacturing processes are vertically integrated, enhancing our range of capabilities, our ability to innovate, and our quality control as well as providing supply chain, transportation, and working capital savings.
In October 2011, certain funds managed by affiliates of Onex acquired a majority of the combined voting power in the Company through the acquisition of convertible debt and convertible preferred equity. After the Onex investment, we began the transformation of our business from a family-run operation to a global organization with independent, professional management. The transformation accelerated after 2013 with the hiring of a new senior management team strategically recruited from a number of world-class industrial companies. Our current management team has extensive experience driving operational improvement, innovation, and growth, both organically and through acquisitions. As of December 31, 2020, Onex owned approximately 33% of our outstanding shares of Common Stock.
In February 2017, we completed an initial public offering of our Common Stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “JELD”.
Business Segments
Our business is organized in geographic regions to ensure integration across operations serving common end markets and customers. We have three reportable segments: North America, Europe, and Australasia. Financial information related to our business segments can be found in Note 16 - Segment Information of our financial statements included elsewhere in this 10-K.
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Acquisitions
In March 2019, we acquired VPI Quality Windows, Inc., a leading manufacturer of vinyl windows, specializing in customized solutions for mid-rise multi-family, industrial, hospitality and commercial projects, primarily in the western U.S. VPI is located in Spokane, Washington. VPI is part of our North America segment. We paid $57.8 million in cash, net of cash acquired, for the acquisition of VPI.
In April 2018, we acquired the assets of D&K, a long-standing supplier of cavity sliders to our Corinthian Doors business. D&K is part of our Australasia segment.
    In March 2018, we acquired the remaining issued and outstanding shares and membership interests of ABS, headquartered in Sacramento, California. ABS is a premier supplier of value-added services for the millwork industry. ABS is part of our North America segment.
    In February 2018, we acquired A&L, a leading Australian manufacturer of residential aluminum windows and patio doors. A&L has a network of manufacturing facilities across the eastern seaboard of Australia, which we expect will deliver synergies through operational savings from the implementation of JEM and by leveraging the benefits of our combined supply chain. A&L is part of our Australasia segment.
    In February 2018, we acquired Domoferm, headquartered in Gänserndorf, Austria. Domoferm is a leading European provider of steel doors, steel door frames, and fire doors for commercial and residential markets with four manufacturing sites in Austria, Germany, and the Czech Republic. Domoferm is part of our Europe segment.
We paid an aggregate of approximately $229.2 million in cash, including contingent consideration, (net of cash acquired) for the 2019 and 2018 acquisitions. In addition, we assumed no debt in our 2019 acquisition and we assumed debt of approximately $70.6 million associated with our 2018 acquired companies.
    For additional information on our acquisition activity, see Note 2 - Acquisitions of our financial statements included elsewhere in this 10-K.
Factors and Trends Affecting Our Business
Components of Net Revenues
The key components of our net revenues include core net revenues (which we define to include the impact of pricing and volume/mix, as discussed further under the heading, “Product Pricing and Volume/Mix” below), contribution from acquisitions made within the prior twelve months, and the impact of foreign exchange. Core net revenues reported in our financial statements are impacted by the fluctuating currency values in the geographies in which we operate, which we refer to as the impact of foreign exchange. Throughout this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, percentage changes in pricing are based on management schedules and are not derived directly from our accounting records.
Product Demand
General business, financial market, and economic conditions globally and in the regions where we operate influence overall demand in our end markets and for our products. In particular, the following factors may have a direct impact on demand for our products in the countries and regions where our products are marketed and sold: 
the strength of the economy;
employment rates and consumer confidence and spending rates;
the availability and cost of credit;
the amount and type of residential and non-residential construction;
housing sales and home values;
the age of existing home stock, home vacancy rates, and foreclosures;
interest rate fluctuations for our customers and consumers;
increases in the cost of raw materials or any shortage in supplies or labor;
the effects of governmental regulation and initiatives to manage economic conditions;
geographical shifts in population and other changes in demographics; and
changes in weather patterns.
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In addition, we seek to drive demand for our products through the implementation of various strategies and initiatives. We believe we can enhance demand for our new and existing products by: 
innovating and developing new products and technologies;
investing in branding and marketing strategies, including marketing campaigns in both print and social media, as well as our investments in training centers and mobile training facilities; and
implementing channel initiatives to enhance our relationships with key channel partners and customers, including the True BLU dealer management program in North America.
Product Pricing and Volume/Mix
The price and mix of products that we sell are important drivers of our net revenues and net income. Under the heading “Results of Operations,” references to (i) “pricing” refer to the impact of price increases or decreases, as applicable, for particular products between periods and (ii) “volume/mix” refer to the combined impact of both the number of products we sell in a particular period and the types of products sold, in each case, on net revenues. While we operate in competitive markets, pricing discipline is an important element of our strategy to achieve profitable growth through improved margins. Our strategy also includes incentivizing our channel partners to sell our higher margin products, and we believe a renewed focus on innovation and the development of new technologies will increase our sales volumes and the overall profitability of our product mix.
Cost Reduction Initiatives
Prior to the ongoing operational transformation being executed by our senior executive team, our operations were managed in a decentralized manner with varying degrees of emphasis on cost efficiency and limited focus on continuous improvement or strategic sourcing. Our senior management team has a proven track record of implementing operational excellence programs at some of the world’s leading industrial manufacturing businesses, and we believe the same successes can be realized at JELD-WEN. Key areas of focus of our operational excellence and footprint rationalization programs include:
reducing labor, overtime, and waste costs by reducing facility count while optimizing manufacturing capacity and improving planning and manufacturing processes;
reducing or minimizing increases in material costs through strategic global sourcing and value-added re-engineering of components, in part by leveraging our significant spend and the global nature of our purchases;
reducing warranty costs by improving quality; and
a JEM-enabled facility rationalization and modernization initiative that will reduce overhead costs and complexity, while increasing our overall capacity and improving our service levels.
We continue to implement our strategic initiatives under JEM to develop the culture and processes of operational excellence and continuous improvement. These cost reduction initiatives, which include plant closures and consolidations, headcount reductions, and various initiatives aimed at lowering production and overhead costs, may not produce the intended results within the intended timeframe.
Raw Material Costs
    Commodities such as vinyl extrusions, glass, aluminum, wood, steel, plastics, fiberglass, and other composites are major components in the production of our products. Changes in the underlying prices of these commodities have a direct impact on the cost of products sold. While we attempt to pass on a substantial portion of such cost increases to our customers, we may not be successful in doing so. In addition, our results of operations for individual quarters may be negatively impacted by a delay between the time of raw material cost increases and a corresponding price increase. Conversely, our results of operations for individual quarters may be positively impacted by a delay between the time of a raw material price decrease and a corresponding competitive pricing decrease.
Freight Costs
    We incur substantial freight costs to third party logistics providers to transport raw materials and work-in-process inventory to our manufacturing facilities and to deliver finished goods to our customers. Changes in freight rates and the availability of freight services can have a significant impact on our cost of goods sold. Freight costs have risen significantly due to a number of factors that have affected the supply and demand of trucking services, including increased regulation, such as data logging of miles, increases in general economic activity, and an aging workforce. We attempt to mitigate some of these cost increases through various internal initiatives and to pass a substantial portion of these increases to our customers; however, we may not realize the intended results within the intended timeframe.
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Working Capital and Seasonality
Working capital, which is defined as accounts receivable plus inventory less accounts payable, fluctuates throughout the year and is affected by seasonality of sales of our products and of customer payment patterns. The peak season for home construction and remodeling in our North America and Europe segments, which represent the substantial majority of our revenues, generally corresponds with the second and third calendar quarters, and therefore our sales volume is usually higher during those quarters. Typically, working capital increases at the end of the first quarter and beginning of the second quarter in conjunction with, and in preparation for, our peak season, and working capital decreases starting in the third quarter as inventory levels and accounts receivable decline. Inventories fluctuate for some raw materials with long delivery lead times, such as steel, as we work through prior shipments and take delivery of new orders.
Foreign Currency Exchange Rates
We report our consolidated financial results in U.S. dollars. Due to our international operations, the weakening or strengthening of foreign currencies against the U.S. dollar can affect our reported operating results and our cash flows as we translate our foreign subsidiaries’ financial statements from their reporting currencies into U.S. dollars. In the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, the depreciation or appreciation of the U.S. dollar relative to the reporting currencies of our foreign subsidiaries resulted in higher or lower reported results in such foreign reporting entities. In particular, the exchange rates used to translate our foreign subsidiaries’ financial results for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 reflected, on average, the U.S. dollar strengthened against both the Australian dollar and Canadian dollar by 1% and weakened against the Euro by 2%. See Item 1A- Risk Factors- Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry, Item 1A- Risk Factors- Exchange rate fluctuations may impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations, and Item 7A- Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk- Exchange Rate Risk.
Components of our Operating Results
Net Revenues
Our net revenues are a function of sales volumes and selling prices, each of which is a function of product mix, and consist primarily of:
sales of a wide variety of interior and exterior doors, including patio doors, for use in residential and non-residential applications, with and without frames, to a broad group of wholesale and retail customers in all of our geographic markets;
sales of a wide variety of windows for both residential and certain non-residential uses, to a broad group of wholesale and retail customers primarily in North America, Australia, and the U.K.; and
other sales, including sales of moldings, trim board, cut-stock, glass, stairs, hardware and locks, door skins, shower enclosures, wardrobes, window screens, and miscellaneous installation and other services revenue.
Net revenues do not include internal transfers of products between our component manufacturing, product manufacturing and assembly, and distribution facilities.
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales consists primarily of material costs, direct labor and benefit costs, including payroll taxes, repair and maintenance, depreciation, utility, rent and warranty expenses, outbound freight, insurance and benefits, supervision and tax expenses.
Material Costs. The single largest component of cost of sales is material costs, which include raw materials, components, and finished goods purchased for use in manufacturing our products or for resale. Our most significant material costs include glass, wood, wood components, doors, door facings, door parts, hardware, vinyl extrusions, steel, fiberglass, packaging materials, adhesives, resins and other chemicals, core material, and aluminum extrusions. The cost of each of these items is impacted by global supply and demand trends, both within and outside our industry, as well as commodity price fluctuations, conversion costs, energy costs, and transportation costs. The imposition of new tariffs on imports, new trade restrictions, or changes in tariff rates or trade restrictions may further impact material costs. See Item 7A- Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk- Raw Materials Risk.
Direct Labor and Benefit Costs. Direct labor and benefit costs reflect a combination of production hours, average headcount, general wage levels, payroll taxes, and benefits provided to employees. Direct labor and benefit costs include wages, overtime, payroll taxes, and benefits paid to hourly employees at our facilities that are involved in the production and/or distribution of our products. These costs are generally managed by each facility and headcount is adjusted according to overall and seasonal production demand. We run multi-shift operations in many of our facilities to maximize return on assets and utilization. Direct labor and benefit costs fluctuate with headcount, but generally tend to increase with inflation due to increases in wages and health benefit costs.
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Repair and Maintenance, Depreciation, Utility, Rent, and Warranty Expenses.
Repairs and maintenance costs consist of equipment and facility maintenance expenses, purchases of maintenance supplies, and the labor costs involved in performing maintenance on our equipment and facilities.
Depreciation includes depreciation expense associated with our production assets and plants.
Rent is predominantly comprised of lease costs for facilities we do not own as well as vehicle fleet and equipment lease costs. Facility leases are typically multi-year and may include increases tied to certain measures of inflation.
Warranty expenses represent all costs related to servicing warranty claims and product issues and are mostly related to our window and door products sold in the U.S. and Canada.
Outbound Freight. Outbound freight includes payments to third-party carriers for shipments of orders to our customers, as well as driver, vehicle, and fuel expenses when we deliver orders to customers. The majority of our products are shipped by third-party carriers.
Insurance and Benefits, Supervision, and Tax Expenses.
Insurance and benefit costs are the expenses relating to our insurance programs, health benefits, retirement benefit programs (including the pension plan), and other benefits that are not included in direct labor and benefits costs.
Supervision costs are the wages and bonus expenses related to plant managers. Both insurance and benefits and supervision expenses tend to be influenced by headcount and wage levels.
Tax costs are mostly payroll taxes for employees not included in direct labor and benefit costs, and property taxes. Tax expenses are impacted by changes in tax rates, headcount and wage levels, and the number and value of properties owned.
In addition, an appropriate portion of each of the insurance and benefits, supervision and tax expenses are allocated to SG&A expenses.
Selling, general, and administrative expenses
SG&A expenses consist primarily of research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses.
Research and Development. Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel expenses related to research and development, consulting and contractor expenses, tooling and prototype materials, and overhead costs allocated to such expenses. Substantially all of our research and development expenses are related to developing new products and services and improving our existing products and services. To date, research and development expenses have been expensed as incurred, because the period between achieving technological feasibility and the release of products and services for sale has been short and development costs qualifying for capitalization have been insignificant.
We expect our research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to make significant investments in developing new products and enhancing existing products.
Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of advertising and marketing promotions of our products and services and related personnel expenses, as well as sales incentives, trade show and event costs, sponsorship costs, consulting and contractor expenses, travel, display expenses, and related amortization. Sales and marketing expenses are generally variable expenses and not fixed expenses. We expect our sales and marketing expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to actively promote our products and services.
General and Administrative. General and administrative expenses consist of personnel expenses for our finance, legal, human resources, and administrative personnel, as well as the costs of professional services, any allocated overhead, information technology, amortization of intangible assets acquired, and other administrative expenses. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute dollars due to the anticipated growth of our business and related infrastructure as well as legal, accounting, insurance, investor relations, and other costs associated with being a public company.
Impairment and Restructuring Costs
Impairment and restructuring costs consist primarily of all salary-related severance benefits that are accrued and expensed when a restructuring plan has been put into place, the plan has received approval from the appropriate level of management and the benefit is probable and reasonably estimable. In addition to salary-related costs, we incur other restructuring costs when facilities are closed or capacity is realigned within the organization. Upon termination of an employment or commercial contract we record liabilities and expenses pursuant to the terms of the relevant agreement. For non-contractual restructuring activities, liabilities and expenses are measured and recorded at fair value in the period in which they are incurred.
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Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net relates primarily to interest payments on our then-outstanding credit facilities and debt securities, as well as commitment fees and amortization of any original issue discount or debt issuance costs. Debt issuance costs are included as an offset to long-term debt in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets and are amortized to interest expense over the life of the applicable facility using the effective interest method. For additional details, see Note 13 - Long-Term Debt in our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020 included elsewhere in this 10-K.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net includes profit and losses related to various miscellaneous non-operating expenses primarily relating to pension benefit expenses, governmental pandemic assistance reimbursements relating to COVID-19, gain on previously held shares of an equity investment, legal settlement income, insurance reimbursements, gains and losses on sale of business units, property, and equipment, and certain foreign currency related gains and losses, including from our hedging activities used to mitigate foreign exchange impacts.
Income Taxes
Income taxes are recorded using the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the deferred tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities due to a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the date of enactment. We recognize the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not of being sustained. Recognized income tax positions are measured at the largest amount that is greater than 50% likely of being realized. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs. We record interest related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense. As of December 31, 2020, our U.S. federal, state, and foreign net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards were $1,428.9 million in the aggregate and $94.1 million of such NOL carryforwards do not expire.