10-K 1 jhg20221231c_10k.htm FORM 10-K jhg20221231c_10k.htm
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The majority of the 2023 loss carryforward relates to the UK capital loss of $294.7 million, before tax effects, which may be carried forward without time limitation. 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Table of Contents

 



UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

 

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from           to         

 

Commission File Number 001-38103

 ​

jhg.jpg

JANUS HENDERSON GROUP PLC

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Jersey, Channel Islands
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

98-1376360
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

201 Bishopsgate

London, United Kingdom
(Address of principal executive offices)

EC2M3AE
(Zip Code)

 ​

+44 (0) 20 7818 1818

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 ​

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $1.50 Per Share Par Value

JHG

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☒

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to the filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

​Accelerated filer ☐

​Non-accelerated filer ☐

​Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No ☒

As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of common equity held by non-affiliates was $4,514,177,911.25. As of February 23, 2024, there were 161,734,074 shares of the Company’s common stock, $1.50 par value per share, issued and outstanding.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Part III of this report incorporates by reference portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement relating to its 2024 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders (the “Proxy Statement”) to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.



 ​

 

 

JANUS HENDERSON GROUP PLC

2023 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

PART I

Item 1.

Business

3

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

12

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

21

Item 1C. Cybersecurity  21

Item 2.

Properties

22

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

22

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

22

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

23

Item 6.

[Reserved]

24

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

24

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

40

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

42

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

80

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

80

Item 9B.

Other Information

80

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions That Prevent Inspections

80

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

80

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

80

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

80

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

80

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

80

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

81

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

85

Signatures

86

 ​

 

 

PART I

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

Certain statements in this report not based on historical facts are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws, including the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended, Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act), and Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (Securities Act). Such forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict and could cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those discussed. These include statements as to our future expectations, beliefs, plans, strategies, objectives, events, conditions, financial performance, prospects or future events. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as may, could, expect, intend, plan, seek, anticipate, believe, estimate, predict, potential, continue, likely, will, would and similar words and phrases. Forward-looking statements are necessarily based on estimates and assumptions that, while considered reasonable by us and our management, are inherently uncertain. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made and are not guarantees of future performance. We do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise these forward-looking statements.

 ​

Various risks, uncertainties, assumptions and factors that could cause our future results to differ materially from those expressed by the forward-looking statements included in this report include, but are not limited to, recent changes in interest rates and inflation, volatility or disruption in financial markets, our investment performance as compared to third-party benchmarks or competitive products, redemptions and other withdrawals from the funds and accounts we manage, and other risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and factors discussed under headings such as Risk Factors, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, and in other filings or furnishings made by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) from time to time.

 ​

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

 

Overview

 

Janus Henderson Group plc (“JHG,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms), a company incorporated and registered in Jersey, Channel Islands, is an independent global asset manager, specializing in investment management across all major asset classes. Through its predecessor companies, JHG traces its linage back to 1934 when Henderson Group plc (“Henderson”) was founded. 

 

We are a client-focused global business with approximately 2,200 employees worldwide and assets under management (“AUM”) of $334.9 billion as of December 31, 2023. We have operations in North America, the United Kingdom (“UK”), continental Europe, Latin America, Japan, Asia and Australia. Our mission is to help clients define and achieve superior financial outcomes through differentiated insights, disciplined investments and world-class service. We are mindful that our thinking and investments help shape the futures of millions of people as we fulfill our purpose of “Investing in a brighter future together.” We manage a broad range of investment products for institutional and retail investors across four capabilities: Equities, Fixed Income, Multi-Asset and Alternatives.

 

Clients entrust money to us, either their own or money they manage or advise on for their clients, and expect us to deliver the benefits specified in their mandate or by the prospectus for the fund in which they invest. We measure the amount of these funds as AUM. AUM increases or decreases primarily depending on our ability to attract and retain client investments, on investment performance and as a function of market and currency movements. AUM is also impacted when we invest in new asset management teams or businesses or divest from existing businesses.

 

Clients pay a management fee, which is usually calculated as a percentage of AUM. Certain investment products are also subject to performance fees, which vary based on when performance hurdles or other specified criteria are achieved. The level of assets subject to such fees can positively or negatively affect our revenue. Management and performance fees are generated from a diverse group of funds and other investment products and are the primary drivers of our revenue. We believe that the more diverse the range of investment strategies from which management and performance fees are derived, the more successful our business model will be through market cycles.

 

Strategy

 

Our strategy is based on three strategic pillars: Protect & Grow, Amplify and Diversify. Our strategy is centered on the belief that a combination of relentless focus and disciplined execution across our core business will drive future success as a global active asset manager. Specifically, our strategy lays a strong foundation for sustained organic growth and opportunistic inorganic growth to create value for all of our stakeholders: clients, shareholders and employees. Each of our three strategic pillars is further detailed below.

 

 

Protect and grow our core business: We have identified existing opportunities in our core business where we believe we can increase market share, including regional intermediary distribution and good-performing smaller strategies.

 

 

Amplify strengths not fully leveraged: Our research, portfolio management and client service strengths can be amplified with adjacent products, channels, geographies and vehicles (e.g., Institutional and Diversified Alternatives).

 

 

Diversify where clients give us the right to win: We are seeking to expand our investment capabilities in areas where our clients are seeking more solutions from us and new investment capabilities that can open new client types (e.g., private credit and insurance).

 

 

Financial Highlights

 

We present our financial results in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”); however, JHG management evaluates the profitability of the Company and its ongoing operations using non-GAAP financial measures that are consistent with internal management reporting. See Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, for additional information on non-GAAP adjusted measures, including a reconciliation to the comparable GAAP measure.

 

   

Year ended December 31,

 
   

2023

   

2022

   

2021

 

GAAP basis (in millions):

                       

Revenue

  $ 2,101.8     $ 2,203.6     $ 2,767.0  

Operating expenses

  $ 1,618.1     $ 1,713.8     $ 1,946.1  

Operating income

  $ 483.7     $ 489.8     $ 820.9  

Operating margin

    23.0 %     22.2 %     29.7 %

Net income attributable to JHG

  $ 392.0     $ 372.4     $ 620.0  

Diluted earnings per share

  $ 2.37     $ 2.23     $ 3.57  
                         

Adjusted basis (in millions):

                       

Revenue

  $ 1,645.9     $ 1,705.3     $ 2,212.9  

Operating expenses

  $ 1,137.2     $ 1,128.6     $ 1,251.9  

Operating income

  $ 508.7     $ 576.7     $ 961.0  

Operating margin

    30.9 %     33.8 %     43.4 %

Net income attributable to JHG

  $ 435.2     $ 433.8     $ 739.5  

Diluted earnings per share

  $ 2.63     $ 2.60     $ 4.26  

 

Assets Under Management

 

Our AUM by client type, capability and client location as of December 31, 2023, is presented below (in billions).

 

aumchart.jpg

 

Client Type and Distribution Channel

 

We have a diverse group of intermediary, self-directed and institutional clients around the globe. While we seek to leverage our global model where possible, we also recognize the importance of tailoring our services to the needs of clients in different regions. For this reason, we maintain a local presence in most of the markets in which we operate and provide investment material that takes into account local customs, preferences and language needs. We have a global distribution team of nearly 900 staff members. A description of each client type and distribution channel is presented below.

 ​

Intermediary Channel

 

The intermediary channel distributes U.S. mutual funds, separately managed accounts (“SMAs”), exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”), UK Open Ended Investment Companies (“OEICs”), Société d’Investissement À Capital Variable (“SICAVs”), Collective Investment Trusts (“CITs”) and Undertakings for Collective Investments in Transferable Securities (“UCITS”) through financial intermediaries, including banks, broker-dealers, financial advisors, fund platforms and discretionary wealth managers. We have made significant investments to grow our presence in the financial advisor subchannel, including enhancing our technology platform and recruiting highly seasoned leaders and client relationship managers. At December 31, 2023, AUM in our intermediary channel totaled $183.4 billion, or 55% of total AUM.

 

 

Self-Directed Channel

 

The self-directed channel serves individual investors who invest in our products through a mutual fund supermarket or directly with us. At December 31, 2023, AUM in our self-directed channel totaled $76.1 billion, or 23% of total AUM.

 

Institutional Channel

 

The institutional channel serves corporations, endowments, pension funds, foundations, Taft-Hartley funds, public fund clients and sovereign entities, with distribution direct to the plan sponsor and through consultants. At December 31, 2023, AUM in our institutional channel totaled $75.4 billion, or 22% of total AUM.

 

Investment Capabilities

 

Equities

 

We offer a wide range of equity strategies encompassing different geographic focuses and investment styles. The Equities teams include those with a global perspective, those with a regional focus (including the U.S., Europe and Asia) and those invested in specialist sectors. A range of growth, value and absolute return styles are employed. These teams generally apply processes based on fundamental research and bottom-up stock picking. As of December 31, 2023, AUM in our Equities capability totaled $205.1 billion, or 61% of total AUM.

 

Fixed Income

 

Our Fixed Income teams provide coverage across the asset class, applying a wide range of innovative and differentiated techniques in support of a variety of investment objectives and risk criteria. Our fixed income offering includes teams that apply global unconstrained approaches as well as teams with more focused mandates — based in the U.S., Europe, Asia and Australia. The capabilities of these teams are available through individual strategies and, where appropriate, combined to create multi-strategy offerings. As of December 31, 2023, AUM in our Fixed Income capability totaled $71.5 billion, or 21% of total AUM.

 

Multi-Asset

 

Our Multi-Asset capability includes teams in the U.S. and UK that focus on balanced, multi-asset income and strategic asset allocation, as well as multiple adaptive asset allocation strategies. As of December 31, 2023, AUM in our Multi-Asset capability totaled $48.9 billion, or 15% of total AUM.

 

Alternatives

 

Our Alternatives capability includes teams with various areas of focus and approach. Alternatives brings together a cross-asset class combination of alpha generation, risk management and efficient beta replication strategies. These include Global Multi-Strategy, Managed Futures, Risk Premia and Global Commodities, and Long/Short Equity. As of December 31, 2023, AUM in our Alternatives capability totaled $9.4 billion, or 3% of total AUM.

 

Client Locations

 

North America

 

Our North America region serves clients throughout North America and represents our largest geographical concentration of AUM. The North America distribution network serves a diverse set of clients across financial intermediaries, institutions and self-directed channels. As of December 31, 2023, total North America AUM was $198.6 billion, and we employed 143 and 244 investment and distribution professionals, respectively, across this region.

 

EMEA and Latin America

 

Our EMEA (“Europe, the Middle East and Africa”) and Latin America region serves clients throughout the UK and Continental Europe and supports our evolving business in Latin America and the Middle East. The region includes a strong retail and institutional client base in the UK; strong relationships with global distributors in Continental Europe; and an organic build-out of our Latin America business, which is gaining momentum. As of December 31, 2023, total EMEA and Latin America AUM was $102.9 billion, and the region employed 155 and 230 investment and distribution professionals, respectively.

 

Asia Pacific

 

Our Asia Pacific region serves clients throughout Australia, Japan and other regions of Asia. Australian distribution offers a suite of global and domestic capabilities. Our broader business in the Asia Pacific region continues to evolve with growing brand presence. As of December 31, 2023, Asia Pacific AUM was $33.4 billion, and the region employed 43 and 68 investment and distribution professionals, respectively.

 

 

Human Capital

 

With nearly 2,200 employees worldwide, we are proud of our global presence and diversity. It is through the diversity of our people — whose varied skills, backgrounds and cultures shape our outlook — that we can explore unique avenues and uncover opportunities unseen by others in our industry. Our people-focused culture is driven by collaboration and connection. Our employees are committed to achieving our purpose, and their values and actions align to JHG’s values: Clients come first, always; Execution supersedes intention; Together we win; Diversity improves results; and Truth builds trust. We recognize that the success of JHG is dependent on the unique talents and contributions of our diverse workforce, and we are invested in our employees’ success. We are committed to:

 ​

 

Attracting great people into roles with a sense of purpose;

 

Helping them realize their highest potential and make a real impact; and

 

Supporting their ambitions throughout their career.

 

Headcount

 

As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we had 2,196 and 2,181 employees, respectively. Our diverse workforce includes trainees, apprentices and fixed-term employees working alongside our permanent part- and full-time employees. Contractors and other temporary employees are excluded in the tables below.

 

2023 Headcount

Permanent

Fixed-Term Worker

Trainee

Apprentice

Total

EMEA

980

31

11

11

1,033

North America

977

1

978

Asia Pacific

174

9

2

185

Total

2,131

40

13

12

2,196

 ​

2022 Headcount

Permanent

Fixed-Term Worker

Trainee

Apprentice

Total

EMEA

965

32

6

15

1,018

North America

979

2

981

Asia Pacific

168

13

1

182

Total

2,112

45

7

17

2,181

 ​

Talent Acquisition

 

We build our workforce from within our existing talent pool whenever possible. If we are unable to identify the right candidate for an open position from within, we look externally for the best talent. We search for candidates through a variety of different channels to ensure we access a diverse slate of candidates. Where possible, our internal talent acquisition team will source for this talent directly. For a few roles, we will engage the support of external recruitment consultants or search firms, whose values and methods of recruitment align with our goals of finding the best talent in the market. Our Talent Acquisition team strives to source a diverse candidate pool for every open position with the goal of creating a workforce that reflects the communities in which we operate.

 ​

Professional Development

 ​

We are committed to helping people realize their highest potential and fostering a culture that prioritizes and supports personal and professional development for individuals, leaders and teams across the organization. Employees own their individual development, and we are invested in a wide variety of programs to support their ambitions. Ongoing development opportunities include business acumen (our industry and products), understanding our clients, leadership development, mentoring schemes, global collaboration and culture, career development, interpersonal communication, presentation skills and technology training. We encourage and financially support continuing education through a tuition reimbursement program for employees wishing to pursue approved degree programs.

 

Employee Engagement

 

We value feedback from our employees. We look for opportunities to solicit their opinions and insights to help us understand what we are doing well and potential areas of improvement. In 2023, approximately 88% of our employees responded to our annual employee opinion survey. Results are shared with our Board of Directors and are cascaded from senior leaders to all employees. Managers and employees develop action plans to address topics of concern and continually improve our workplace. In addition to the 2023 employee opinion survey, we:

 ​

 

Placed significant focus on the adoption and embedding of our rearticulated mission, values and purpose to encourage a sense of belonging and common objective across our employee base;
 

Continued to dedicate time and resources to employee career progression by hosting a career week where employees participated in live learning events and discussions; invested in our high potential talent through the Leadership Excellence and Development program (“LEAD”); and relaunched our early careers initiatives across the globe; and
  Maintained focus on our diversity, equity and inclusion (“DEI”) initiatives, as well as supporting our many Employee Resource Groups to achieve their aims.

 ​

 

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion

 ​

We are committed to creating an inclusive environment that promotes equality, cultural awareness and respect by implementing policies, benefits, training, recruiting and recognition practices to support our employees. DEI efforts are about valuing our differences and continually identifying ways to improve our cultural intelligence, which ultimately leads to better decision-making and a more tailored client experience.

 ​

Our recent accomplishments include the following:

 ​

 

Continued to foster a diverse workforce where:

 

o

38% of employees globally are women and

 

o

22% of employees globally are ethnically diverse;

 

Increased the number of employees that identify as having a disability from 7% to 8%;

 

Enhanced our global parental leave policy and leave pay;
 

Streamlined our job descriptions to remove unintended barriers and created them for the skill sets needed for tomorrow;

 

Facilitated over 35 sessions focused on topics such as neurodiversity, allyship, sign language, single parenting, belonging and mental health support for employees in the workplace;
 

Achieved a DEI Employee Engagement score of 85%, which is aligned with the 75th percentile New Measures industry benchmark;

 

Recognized by Bloomberg Gender Equality, LGBT Great and Human Rights Campaign Foundation Index for our transparent and inclusive practices and received 100% on the Human Rights Campaign Foundation Index;

 

Implemented interview training for hiring managers and reinforced our commitment to having diverse interview panels and candidates for open roles; and
 

Globally, our base pay gender pay gap has continued to improve year-over-year but our mean bonus gap slightly increased due to outperformance in a specific portion of our investor base with low female representation.

 

Employee Compensation and Benefits

 

Our compensation framework is designed to reward performance and reinforce the alignment of interests among our employees, clients and shareholders. We regularly review industry benchmark data and maintain competitive compensation levels to ensure we are able to attract and retain top talent. Variable incentive compensation for most of our employees is funded based on JHG profits. While individual awards are fully discretionary, performance assessments take into account financial and strategic (non-financial) factors, including company, department, team and individual performance.

 

The ongoing health and well-being of our employees is important to us, and the inclusive benefits we provide enable employees and their families to achieve healthy, balanced and happy lifestyles. We support our employees’ financial goals and retirement saving by making contributions toward their retirement and pension schemes and offering an employee stock purchase plan.

 ​

Turnover

 

We monitor and analyze turnover, including voluntary, involuntary and reduction in force (“RIF”)/layoffs. Our voluntary turnover rates are consistent with a certain benchmark for our industry. We develop talent profiles and succession plans to ensure we are cultivating the next generation of leaders to contribute to our long-term business success. These provide us with the ability to effectively manage turnover and to retain and develop our most highly skilled employees.

 ​

Intellectual Property

 

We have used, registered and/or applied to register certain trademarks, service marks and trade names to distinguish our sponsored investment products and services from those of our competitors in the jurisdictions in which we operate, including the U.S., the UK, the European Union (“EU”), Australia, China, Japan and Singapore. These trademarks, service marks and trade names are important to us and, accordingly, we actively enforce our trademarks, service marks and trade name rights. Our brand has been, and continues to be, extremely well-received both in the asset management industry and with clients.

 

Seasonality

 

Our revenue streams are not seasonal in nature, with management fees and other income generally accruing evenly throughout the year. However, performance fee revenue is the exception. Performance fees are specified in certain fund and client contracts and are based on investment performance either on an absolute basis or compared to an established index over a specified period of time. These fees are often subject to a high-water mark (“HWM”). Performance fees are recognized at the end of the contractual period (typically monthly, quarterly or annually) if the stated performance criteria are achieved. Certain fund and client contracts allow for negative performance fees where there is underperformance against the relevant index. Given the uncertain nature of performance fees, they tend to fluctuate from period to period.

 

Competition

 

The investment management industry is relatively mature and saturated with competitors that provide similar services. As such, we encounter significant competition in all areas of our business. We compete with other investment managers, mutual fund advisers, brokerage and investment banking firms, insurance companies, hedge funds, venture capitalists, banks and other financial institutions, many of which have proprietary access to certain distribution channels and are larger, have greater capital resources and have a broader range of product choices and investment capabilities than we do. In addition, the marketplace for investment products is rapidly changing, investors are becoming more sophisticated, the demand for and access to investment advice and information are becoming more widespread, passive investment strategies are becoming more prevalent, and more investors are demanding investment vehicles that are customized to their individual requirements.

 

 

We believe our ability to successfully compete in the investment management industry depends upon our ability to achieve consistently strong investment performance, provide exceptional client service, and develop and innovate products that will best serve our clients.

 

Regulation

 

The investment management industry is subject to extensive federal, state and international laws and regulations intended to benefit and protect investment advisory clients and investors in pooled investment vehicles, such as those managed, advised or subadvised by us. The costs of complying with such laws and regulations have grown significantly in recent years and may continue to grow in the future, which could significantly increase our costs of doing business as a global asset manager. These laws and regulations generally grant supervisory agencies broad administrative powers, including the power to limit or restrict the conduct of businesses and to impose sanctions for failure to comply with laws and regulations. Possible consequences for failure to comply include voiding of investment advisory and subadvisory agreements, suspension of individual employees (particularly investment management and sales personnel), limitations on engaging in certain lines of business for specified periods of time, revocation of registrations, disgorgement of profits, and imposition of censures and fines. Further, failure to comply with such laws and regulations may provide the basis for civil litigation that may also result in significant costs and reputational harm to us.

 

U.S. Regulation

 

Certain of our U.S. subsidiaries are subject to laws and regulations from a number of government agencies and self-regulatory bodies, including the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Department of Labor (“DOL”), Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”), Internal Revenue Service, U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and National Futures Association (“NFA”). We continue to see enhanced legislative and regulatory interest in the regulation of financial services and investment products in the U.S. through existing and proposed rules and regulations, regulatory priorities and pronouncements, enforcement actions and general discussions around expanded and updated requirements. For example, the SEC has recently proposed and/or adopted a number of new rules covering a wide range of topics, including derivatives usage; liquidity management; marketing; swing pricing; safeguarding of client assets; outsourcing of covered functions; cybersecurity; predictive analytics; private fund disclosures and restrictions; shareholder and regulatory reporting; fund names; and environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) disclosures. We also continue to see continued enforcement of, and changes in enforcement practices around, existing laws, rules and regulations, including new applications of the compliance program rule to address current regulatory gaps (e.g., maintenance of electronic records and “off-channel” communications). 

 

Investment Advisory Laws and Regulations

 

Our subsidiary, Janus Henderson Investors US LLC (“JHIUS”), is a registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (“Advisers Act”), and regulated by the SEC. The Advisers Act requires registered investment advisers to comply with numerous and pervasive obligations, including fiduciary duties, disclosure obligations, recordkeeping requirements, custodial obligations, operational and marketing restrictions, and registration and reporting requirements. Certain of our employees may also be registered with regulatory authorities in various states and subject to oversight and regulation by such states’ regulatory agencies where consistent with the Advisers Act.

 

Investment Company Laws and Regulations

 

Our subsidiary, JHIUS, acts as adviser or subadviser to mutual funds and ETFs, which are registered with the SEC pursuant to the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (“1940 Act”). Certain of our subsidiaries also serve as adviser or subadviser to investment products that are not required to be registered under the 1940 Act. As an adviser or subadviser to pooled investment vehicles that operate under exemptions to the 1940 Act and related regulations, we are subject to various requirements relating to operations, fees charged, sales, accounting, recordkeeping, disclosure and governance. In addition, the adviser or subadviser to a registered investment company generally has obligations with respect to the qualification of the registered investment company under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (“Code”).

 

Broker-Dealer Regulations

 

Our subsidiary, Janus Henderson Distributors US LLC (“JHD”), is registered with the SEC under the Exchange Act and is a member of FINRA, the U.S. securities industry’s self-regulatory organization. JHD is a limited-purpose broker-dealer, which acts as the general distributor and agent for the sale and distribution of shares of U.S. mutual funds that are sponsored by certain of our subsidiaries, as well as the distribution of certain exchange-traded products (“ETPs”) and other pooled investment vehicles. The SEC imposes various requirements on JHD’s operations, including disclosure, recordkeeping and accounting. FINRA has established conduct rules for all securities transactions among broker-dealers and private investors, trading rules for the over-the-counter (“OTC”) markets and operational rules for its member firms. The SEC and FINRA also impose net capital requirements on registered broker-dealers.

 

JHD is subject to regulation under state law. The federal securities laws prohibit states from imposing substantive requirements on broker-dealers that exceed those under federal law. This does not preclude the states from imposing registration requirements on broker-dealers that operate within their jurisdiction or from sanctioning broker-dealers and their employees for engaging in misconduct.

 

 

Employee Retirement Income Security Act

 

Certain of our subsidiaries are also subject to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (“ERISA”) and related regulations to the extent they are considered fiduciaries under ERISA with respect to some of their investment advisory clients. ERISA-related provisions of the Code and regulations issued by the DOL impose duties on persons who are fiduciaries under ERISA and prohibit some transactions involving the assets of each ERISA plan that is a client of a subsidiary of ours, as well as some transactions by the fiduciaries and various other related parties of such plans.

 

U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission

 

Certain of our subsidiaries are registered with the CFTC as commodity pool operators (“CPOs”) and/or commodity trading advisers (“CTAs”), and certain of our subsidiaries have become members of the NFA in connection with the operation of certain of our products. The Commodity Exchange Act and related regulations generally impose certain registration, reporting and disclosure requirements on CPOs; CTAs; and products that utilize the futures, swaps and other derivatives that are subject to CFTC regulation. These rules adopted by the CFTC eliminated or limited previously available exemptions and exclusions from many CFTC requirements and impose additional registration and reporting requirements for operators of certain registered investment companies and certain other pooled vehicles that use or trade in futures, swaps and other derivatives that are subject to CFTC regulation. The CFTC or NFA may institute proceedings to enforce applicable rules and regulations, and violations may result in fines, censure or the termination of CPO and/or CTA registration and NFA membership.

 

Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

 

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”) was signed into law in July 2010. The Dodd-Frank Act established enhanced regulatory requirements for non-bank financial institutions designated as systemically important financial institutions (“SIFI”) by the Financial Stability Oversight Council (“FSOC”). In April 2012, the FSOC issued a final rule and interpretive guidance related to the process by which it will designate non-bank financial companies, potentially including large asset managers, as SIFI. Since that time, the FSOC has considered and invited comments on the circumstances under which asset managers might present risks to financial stability. While the FSOC still retains discretion to designate asset managers as SIFI, it has not named any non-bank asset managers as SIFI to date. If we were designated a SIFI, we would be subject to enhanced prudential measures, which could include capital and liquidity requirements, leverage limits, enhanced public disclosures and risk management requirements, annual stress testing by the Federal Reserve, credit exposure and concentration limits, and supervisory and other requirements. These heightened regulatory requirements could adversely affect our business and operations.

 

State Laws and Regulations 

 

As reflected above, certain of our activities, products, entities and employees are also subject to state laws and regulations. Those laws and regulations reinforce, supplement and, in certain cases, extend beyond the federal laws and regulations in various respects. For instance, the processing of personal information of California residents is subject to the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”). Similar to the EU Global Data Protection Regulation, the CCPA and CPRA create rights in favor of natural persons and impose obligations on businesses for the handling, disclosure and deletion of personal information. Other U.S. states have adopted similarly comprehensive data privacy laws over the past several years. The failure to comply with applicable state laws and regulations may result in fines, heightened regulatory scrutiny, litigation and/or reputational harm. 

 

International Regulation

 

UK

 

The Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) regulates certain of our subsidiaries, as well as products and services we offer and manage in the UK. The FCA’s powers are derived from the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (“FSMA”), and FCA authorization is required to conduct any investment management business in the UK under the FSMA. The FCA’s Handbook of Rules and Guidance governs UK-authorized firms’ capital resources requirements, senior management arrangements, systems and controls, conduct of business and interaction with clients and the markets. The FCA also regulates the design and manufacture of UK-domiciled investment funds intended for public distribution and, on a more limited basis, those that are for investment by professional investors.

 

Europe

 

Certain of our UK-regulated entities previously (until December 31, 2020) had to comply with a range of EU regulatory measures and are required to comply with EU law, which was transposed into UK legislation under the European Union (Withdrawal) Act of 2018 (“EUWA”). These measures include the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (“MiFID II”). MiFID II regulates the provision of investment services and the conduct of investment activities throughout the European Economic Area (“EEA”), and the UK version of MiFID II (implemented through UK primary and secondary legislation under the EUWA and FCA rules) regulates the provision of similar services in the UK. MiFID II establishes detailed requirements for the governance, organization and conduct of business of investment firms and regulated markets. It also includes pre- and post-trade transparency requirements for equity markets and extensive transaction reporting requirements.

 ​

The EU’s Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (“AIFMD”) was transposed into EU member state law. AIFMD regulates managers of, and service providers to, alternative investment funds (“AIFs”) that are domiciled and offered in the EU and that are not authorized as retail funds under the UCITS directive discussed below. The AIFMD also regulates the marketing within the EU of all AIFs, including those domiciled outside the EU. Compliance with the AIFMD’s requirements may restrict AIF marketing and imposes compliance obligations in the form of remuneration policies; capital requirements; reporting requirements; leverage oversight; valuation; reporting stakes in EU companies; the domicile, duties and liability of custodians; and liquidity management. The UK has adopted the AIFMD rules principally via secondary legislation FCA rules.

 

 

UCITS are investment funds regulated at the EU level under the UCITS Directive V (“UCITS V”). UCITS are capable of being freely marketed throughout the EU on the basis of a single authorization in a member state — so-called passporting. UCITS V covers a range of matters relating to UCITS, including the fund structure and domicile of UCITS, service providers to UCITS and marketing arrangements. In addition, UCITS funds are distributed in other jurisdictions outside the EU where marketing and sales are governed by local country-specific regulations. The UK has adopted the UCITS rules through the framework of secondary legislation and FCA rules, although UCITS established in the UK cannot benefit from the passporting arrangement described below.

 

Following the UK’s withdrawal from the EU (“Brexit”) on January 31, 2020, the UK and the EU entered into a transition period (“Transition Period”) during which directly effective EU law continued to apply in the UK, and the UK continued to be treated as a member state of the EU. The Transition Period ended on December 31, 2020, and since then, directly effective EU law is no longer applicable in the UK, although the UK has retained certain EU legislation governing financial services under the EUWA. One of the effects of the end of the Transition Period (irrespective of the retention of EU law under the EUWA) is that financial services firms authorized in the UK lost their passporting rights. “Passporting” is an arrangement under which firms authorized in an EU member state (or a non-EU state that is an EEA member) can rely on authorization in their “home” EEA member state to provide regulated services throughout the EEA. Because UK-authorized firms can no longer passport their services throughout the EEA, the extent to which UK-authorized firms can continue to provide services to customers in the EEA will now be dependent on regulatory requirements and regulators’ expectations in the individual EEA member states in which the UK-authorized firm wishes to provide services. Discussions between the EU and UK regarding equivalence of the EU and UK regulatory frameworks are ongoing. The way in which UK firms provide services in EEA member states may change depending on the outcome of these discussions. For a discussion of the risks associated with the UK’s withdrawal from the EU, refer to Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, including the risk factor titled, “The exit of the UK from the EU could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.”

 

Luxembourg

 

In Luxembourg, our subsidiary, Janus Henderson Investors Europe S.A. (“JHIESA”), is authorized and regulated by the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier as a UCITS management company, with additional regulatory permissions to provide portfolio management services regulated under MiFID II. JHIESA has established six branches: Italy (Milan), Germany (Frankfurt), Spain (Madrid), France (Paris), the Netherlands (Amsterdam) and Denmark (Copenhagen). The main objective of these branches is the distribution of JHG Group products within the EU. Since September 2022, the Danish branch has also made use of JHIESA’s extended portfolio management permissions under MiFID II. JHIESA has been appointed management company of the following funds and fund structures:

 

 

Two UCITS umbrella funds, incorporated under the laws of Luxembourg in the form of a SICAV;

 

One AIF, incorporated under the laws of Luxembourg in the form of a SICAV;

 

One UCITS fund, incorporated under the laws of Ireland in the form of an umbrella investment company with segregated liability between funds with variable capital;

 

One AIF, incorporated under the laws of Ireland in the form of an open-ended unit trust; and

 

One AIF, incorporated under the laws of Jersey in the form of an unregulated eligible investor fund.

 

Jersey

 

Janus Henderson Investors (Jersey) Limited is registered under Article 9 of the Financial Services (Jersey) Law 1998, as amended (“Law”) in respect of Fund Services Business. The company was established to operate a fund management business in Jersey, providing portfolio management services to funds and segregated mandates. The company is authorized and supervised by the Jersey Financial Services Commission in respect of its activities.

 

Singapore

 

In Singapore, our subsidiary, Janus Henderson Investors (Singapore) Limited (“JHISL”), is licensed with the Monetary Authority of Singapore (“MAS”) as a Capital Market Services License holder and an exempt financial adviser to conduct regulated activities in fund management and dealing in capital market products. It is subject to various laws, including the Securities and Futures Act, the Financial Advisers Act and the subsidiary legislation promulgated pursuant to these acts, which are administered by the MAS. Our asset management subsidiary and its employees conducting regulated activities specified in the Securities and Futures Act or the Financial Advisers Act are required to be licensed with the MAS. JHISL is also registered with South Korea’s Financial Services Commission (“FSC”) as a cross-border discretionary investment manager and investment advisor.

 ​

Australia

 

In Australia, several of our subsidiaries operate under an Australian Financial Services license, and their activities are governed primarily by the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) and its associated regulations. Their main regulator is the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (“ASIC”), which is Australia’s integrated corporate, markets, financial services and consumer credit regulator. ASIC imposes certain conditions on licensed financial services organizations that apply to our subsidiaries, including requirements relating to capital resources, operational capability and controls. Multiple subsidiaries also act as product issuers for ETFs that are Quoted Managed Funds on the Cboe exchange (“Cboe”) and the AQUA market of the Australian Securities Exchange (“ASX”). Therefore, our subsidiaries must comply with the Cboe operating rules and procedures as well as the ASX Operating Rules and the ASX Operating Rules Procedures. Another key regulator is the Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre (“AUSTRAC”), which applies a number of reporting and other obligations under the Anti-Money Laundering and Countering Financing of Terrorism Act 2006 (“AML/CFT Act”).

 

 

Hong Kong

 

In Hong Kong, our subsidiary, Janus Henderson Investors Hong Kong Limited, is subject to the Securities and Futures Ordinance (“SFO”) and related legislation, which govern the securities and futures markets and regulate the offerings of investments to the public. This legislation is administered by the Securities and Futures Commission (“SFC”), which is also empowered under the SFO to establish standards for compliance as well as codes and guidelines. Our subsidiary and its employees conducting any of the regulated activities specified in the SFO are required to be licensed with the SFC and are subject to the rules, codes and guidelines issued by the SFC from time to time.

 

Japan

 

In Japan, our subsidiary, Janus Henderson Investors (Japan) Limited, is subject to the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act and the Act on Investment Trusts and Investment Corporations. These laws are administered and enforced by the Japanese Financial Services Agency, which establishes standards for compliance, including capital adequacy and financial soundness requirements, customer protection requirements and conduct of business rules.

 

This regulatory agency has broad supervisory and disciplinary powers, including, among others, the power to temporarily or permanently revoke the authorization to conduct regulated business, suspend registered employees, and censure and fine both regulated businesses and their registered employees.

 ​

Other

 

Our operations in Ireland are regulated by the Central Bank of Ireland.

 

Many of the non-U.S. securities exchanges and regulatory authorities have imposed rules (and others may impose rules) relating to capital requirements applicable to our foreign subsidiaries. These rules, which specify minimum capital requirements, are designed to measure general financial integrity and liquidity, and require that a minimum amount of assets be kept in relatively liquid form.

 

ESG and Climate Disclosure Regulations

 

ESG topics and climate-related disclosures continue to be the focus of increased regulatory scrutiny across jurisdictions. In the U.S., the SEC has proposed climate disclosure rules to require public issuers to include enhanced disclosure regarding corporate climate-related information in their periodic reports and registration statements. In addition, we expect state laws and regulations regarding these topics to continue to evolve and impose new and additional requirements. Outside of the U.S., the EU has published the corporate sustainability reporting directive (“CSRD”) which requires EU businesses to report on the environmental and social impact of their business activities, and on the business impact of their ESG efforts and initiatives. In the UK, the FCA published a new regime on sustainability disclosure requirements (“SDR”) and investment labels, which will be applicable to our UK subsidiaries in 2024. We are continuing to evaluate how the evolving regulations will impact JHG and its subsidiaries.

 

Available Information

 

We make available free of charge our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments thereto as soon as reasonably practical after such filings are made with the SEC. These reports may be obtained through our Investor Relations website (ir.janushenderson.com) and are available in print at no charge upon request by any shareholder. The contents of our website are not incorporated herein for any purpose. The SEC also maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.

 

Charters for the Audit Committee, Human Capital and Compensation Committee, Governance and Nominations Committee, and Risk Committee of our Board of Directors, as well as our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Business Conduct and Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Officers (our “Senior Officer Code”) are posted on the Investor Relations website (ir.janushenderson.com) and are available in print at no charge upon request by any shareholder. Within the time period prescribed by the SEC and New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) regulations, we will post on our website any amendment to our Senior Officer Code or our Code of Business Conduct and any waivers thereof for directors or executive officers. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this report.

 

Corporate Information

 

We are a public limited company incorporated in Jersey, Channel Islands, and tax resident in the UK. Our registered address in Jersey, Channel Islands is 13 Castle Street, St Helier, Jersey JE1 1ES. Our principal business address is 201 Bishopsgate, London, EC2M 3AE, United Kingdom, and our telephone number is +44 (0) 20 7818 1818.

 

 

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our common stock involves various risks, including those mentioned below and those that are discussed from time to time in our periodic filings with the SEC. Investors should carefully consider these risks, along with the other information contained in this report, before making an investment decision regarding our common stock. There may be additional risks of which we are currently unaware, or which we currently consider immaterial. Any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and value of our common stock.

 

Market and Investment Performance Risks

 

Our results of operations and financial condition are primarily dependent on the value, composition and relative investment performance of our AUM, all of which are subject to fluctuation caused by factors outside of our control.

 

We derive our revenues primarily from investment management and related services we provide to institutional and retail investors worldwide through our investment products. Our investment management fees typically are calculated as a percentage of the market value of our AUM. Certain of our investment products are also subject to performance fees, which vary based on a product’s relative performance as compared to a benchmark index. As a result, our revenues are dependent on the value, composition and investment performance of our AUM, all of which are subject to fluctuation caused by factors outside of our control.

 

Factors that could cause our AUM and revenue to decline include the following:

 

 

Declines in equity markets. Our AUM is concentrated in the U.S. and European equity markets. Equity securities may decline in value as a result of many factors, including an issuer’s actual or perceived financial condition and growth prospects, investor perception of an industry or sector, changes in currency exchange rates, changes in regulations, inflation, and geopolitical and economic risks. Declines in the equity markets, or in the market segments in which our investment products are concentrated, have in the past, and could in the future, cause our AUM to decrease.

 ​

 

Declines in fixed income markets. Fixed income investment products may decline in value as a result of various factors, principally increases in interest rates (partly due to inflationary expectations), changes in currency exchange rates, changes in relative yield among instruments with different maturities, geopolitical and general economic risks, available liquidity in the markets in which a security trades, an issuer’s actual or perceived creditworthiness, or an issuer’s ability to meet its obligations. Declines in the fixed income markets, or in the market segments in which our investment products are concentrated, have in the past, and could in the future, cause our AUM to decrease.

 ​

 

Investment performance. Our investment performance, along with achieving and maintaining superior distribution and client services, is critical to the success of our business. Strong investment performance has historically stimulated sales of our investment products. Poor investment performance as compared to third-party benchmarks or competitive products has in the past, and could in the future, lead to a decrease in sales of investment products we manage and stimulate redemptions from existing products, generally lowering the overall level of our AUM and reducing our management fees, and may have an adverse effect on our revenue and net income. In addition, certain of our investment products are subject to performance fees that are based either on investment performance as compared to an established benchmark index or on positive absolute return over a specified period of time. If our investment products that are subject to performance fees underperform, our revenue, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. In addition, performance fees subject our revenue to increased volatility. No assurance can be given that past or present investment performance in the investment products we manage is indicative of future performance.

 

Our revenue and profitability would be adversely affected by any reduction in our AUM as a result of redemptions and other withdrawals from the funds and accounts we manage.

 

Investors may reduce their investments in the funds and accounts we manage, or reduce their investments generally, for many reasons, including:

 

 

In response to adverse market conditions;

 

To pursue other investment opportunities;

 

To reallocate investments to lower-fee strategies;

 

To take profits from their investments;

 

As a result of poor investment performance of the funds and accounts we manage;

 

As a result of the failure or negative performance of investment products offered by competitors that could lead investors to lose confidence in similar investment products we manage, irrespective of the investment performance of such products;

 

As a consequence of damage to our reputation;

 

Due to portfolio risk characteristics, which could cause investors to move assets to other investment managers; or

 

As a result of changes to the investor’s business model that could cause them to reduce their investments with us, such as moving away from a sub-advised business model or exiting the mutual fund business.

 

In addition, the loss of key personnel or significant investment management professionals could reduce the attractiveness of our products to current and potential clients and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

 ​

 

Volatility and disruption of the capital and credit markets, and adverse changes in the global economy, may significantly affect our results of operations and may put pressure on our financial results.

 

The capital and credit markets may, from time to time, experience volatility and disruption worldwide. Declines in global financial market conditions have, in the past, and could in the future, result in significant decreases in our AUM, revenues and income. Such declines have had, and may in the future have, an adverse impact on our results of operations. We may need to modify our business, strategies or operations, and we may be subject to additional constraints or costs in order to compete in a changing global economy and business environment.

 

Disruptions in the markets, to market participants and to the operations of third parties whose functions are integral to our ETF platforms may adversely affect the prices at which ETFs trade, particularly during periods of market volatility.

 

The trading price of an ETF’s shares or units fluctuates continuously throughout trading hours. While an ETF’s creation/redemption feature and the arbitrage mechanism are designed to make it more likely that the ETF’s shares or units normally will trade at prices close to the ETF’s net asset value (“NAV”), exchange prices may deviate significantly from the NAV. ETF market prices are subject to numerous potential risks, including:

 

 

Significant market volatility;

 

Imbalances in supply and demand;

 

Trading halts invoked by a stock exchange; and

 

Inability or unwillingness of market markers, authorized participants, settlement systems or other market participants to perform functions necessary for an ETF’s arbitrage mechanism to function effectively.

 

If market events lead to instances where an ETF trades at prices that deviate significantly from the ETF’s NAV or indicative value, or trading halts are invoked by the relevant stock exchange or market, investors may lose confidence in ETF products and sell their holdings, which may cause the ETF’s AUM, revenue and earnings to decline.

 

Illiquidity in certain securities in which we invest may negatively impact the financial condition of our investment products and may impede our ability to effect redemptions.

 

Some of our funds or mandates invest in certain securities or other assets in which the secondary trading market is illiquid or does not exist. Illiquidity may occur with respect to the securities of a specific issuer, based on industry, sector or geographic region, or with respect to an asset class or an investment type. An illiquid trading market may increase market volatility and may make it difficult to sell investments promptly without suffering a loss. This may have an adverse impact on the investment performance of such funds and mandates, and on our AUM, revenues and results of operations.

 

Investors in certain funds we manage have contractual terms that provide for a shorter notice period for redemptions or withdrawals than the time period during which these funds may be able to sell underlying investments within the fund. This liquidity mismatch may be exacerbated during periods of market illiquidity and, in circumstances in which there are high levels of investor redemptions, it may be necessary for us to impose restrictions on redeeming investors or suspend redemptions. Such actions could increase the risk of legal claims by investors and regulatory investigations and/or fines and may adversely affect our reputation.

 

Changes in the value of our seeded investment products could adversely affect our earnings and financial condition.

 

We have a significant seed portfolio. Periodically, we add new investment strategies to our investment product offering and provide the initial cash investment, or seeding, to facilitate the launch of the new product. We may also provide substantial supplemental capital to an existing investment product to accelerate the growth of a strategy and attract outside investment in the product. A decline in the valuation of these seeded investments could negatively impact our earnings and financial condition.

 

We could be adversely impacted by changes in assumptions used to calculate pension assets and liabilities.

 

We provide retirement benefits for our current and former employees in the UK through the Janus Henderson Group Pension Scheme (“UK Pension Scheme”). The UK Pension Scheme operates a number of defined benefit sections, which closed to new entrants on November 15, 1999, and a money purchase section. As of December 31, 2023, the UK Pension Scheme had a net pension asset of $85.3 million. Our funding obligations for the UK Pension Scheme may be adversely affected by many factors, including poorer than expected long-term return on plan assets; longer life expectancy; changes in actuarial assumptions by reference to which our contributions are assessed, such as changes to assumptions on interest rates and inflation; changes to the regulatory regime for funding defined benefit pension schemes in the UK; and other factors. We may also be subject to obligations to contribute funds or take other action imposed by the Pension Protection Fund in connection with the UK Pension Scheme. If we were required to increase our contributions in the future to cover any increased funding shortfall, levy by the Pension Protection Fund and/or expenses in the UK Pension Scheme, our results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

 

The global scope of our business subjects us to currency exchange rate risk that may adversely impact revenue and income.

 

We generate a substantial portion of our revenue in Great British pounds (“GBP”), euro (“EUR”) and Australian dollars (“AUD”). As a result, we are subject to foreign currency exchange risk relative to the U.S. dollar (“USD”), our financial reporting currency, through our non-U.S. operations, including through our exposure to non-USD income, expenses, assets and liabilities of our overseas subsidiaries, as well as net assets and liabilities denominated in a currency other than USD. Fluctuations in the exchange rates to the USD have adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our financial results from one period to the next. In addition, there is risk associated with the foreign exchange revaluation of balances held by certain of our subsidiaries for which the local currency is different from our functional currency.

 

 

We could be impacted by counterparty or client defaults.

 

In periods of significant market volatility, the deteriorating financial condition of one financial institution may materially and adversely impact the performance of others. We, and the funds and accounts we manage, have exposure to many different counterparties, and routinely execute transactions with counterparties across the financial industry. As a result, we and our managed funds and accounts may be exposed to credit, operational or other risk in the event of a default by a counterparty or client, or in the event of other unrelated systemic market failures.

 

Business and Strategic Risks

 

We operate in a highly competitive environment, and revenue from fees may be reduced.

 

The investment management business is highly competitive. In recent years, established firms and new entrants to the asset management industry have expanded their application of technology, including the use of robo advisers and artificial intelligence (“AI”), to provide services to clients. Our traditional fee structures may be subject to downward pressure due to these factors. Moreover, the asset management industry is facing transformative pressures and trends from a variety of different sources, including a trend toward lower fee investment products, as evidenced by the movement toward passively managed mutual funds and the growth of lower cost funds such as exchange-traded, smart beta and quantitative funds. Fees for actively managed investment products may continue to come under increased pressure if such products fail to outperform returns for comparable passively managed products or as a consequence of regulatory intervention. Fee reductions on existing or future new business, as well as changes in regulations pertaining to fees, could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, we compete with investment management companies on the basis of investment performance, fees, diversity of products, distribution capability, scope and quality of services, reputation and the ability to develop new investment products to meet the changing needs of investors. Failure to adequately compete could adversely affect our AUM, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Our success depends on our key personnel, and our financial performance could be negatively affected by the loss of their services.

 

The success of our business is highly dependent on our ability to attract, retain and motivate highly skilled and often highly specialized technical, executive, sales and investment management personnel. The market for qualified investment and sales professionals is extremely competitive and is characterized by the frequent movement of portfolio managers, analysts and salespeople among different firms. Any changes to management structure, shifts in corporate culture, changes to corporate governance authority, or adjustments or reductions to compensation could affect our ability to retain key personnel and could result in legal claims. To retain certain key personnel, we may be required to increase compensation to such individuals, resulting in additional expense. Laws and regulations could impose restrictions on the amount of compensation paid by financial institutions as well as the processes for paying and deferring compensation, which could restrict our ability to compete effectively for qualified professionals. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in finding, attracting and retaining qualified individuals, and the departure of key personnel, particularly those personnel responsible for managing client funds that account for a high proportion of our revenue, could cause us to lose clients, which could have a material adverse effect on our AUM, results of operations and financial condition. Effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. Failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution.

 

We are dependent upon third-party distribution channels to access clients and potential clients.

 

Our ability to market and distribute our investment products is significantly dependent on access to the client base of financial intermediaries, such as insurance companies, defined contribution plan administrators, securities firms, broker-dealers, financial advisors, multi-managers, banks and other distribution channels. These companies generally offer their clients’ various investment products in addition to, and competitive with, products offered by us. In addition, our existing relationships with third-party distributors and access to new distributors could be adversely affected by recent consolidation within the financial services industry. Consolidation may result in increased distribution costs, a reduction in the number of third parties distributing our investment products or increased competition to access third-party distribution channels. Moreover, fiduciary regulations have led to significant shifts in distributors’ business models and more limited product offerings, and additional fiduciary or other regulations could lead to further changes, potentially resulting in reduced distribution of certain of our products. Our inability to access clients through third-party distribution channels could adversely affect our business prospects, AUM, results of operations and financial condition.

 

The global scope of our business subjects us to market-specific political, economic and other risks that may adversely impact our revenue and income generated overseas.

 

Our global portfolios and revenue derived from managing these portfolios are subject to significant risks of loss as a result of political, economic and diplomatic developments; currency fluctuations; social instability; global hostilities; changes in governmental policies, regulation and enforcement; expropriation; nationalization; asset confiscation; and changes in legislation related to ownership of non-U.S. securities.

 

Individual financial, equity, debt and commodity markets may be adversely affected by financial, economic, political, electoral, diplomatic or other instabilities that are particular to the country or region in which a market is located, and such events may also adversely impact other markets. Global economic conditions also affect the mix, market values and levels of our AUM and are difficult to predict. Political, economic and environmental events in any country or region could result in significant declines in equity and/or fixed income securities with exposure to such a country or region and, to the extent that we have a concentration of AUM in such a country or region, could result in a material adverse effect on our AUM, results of operations and financial condition. For example, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the conflict between Israel and Hamas have significantly impacted the global economy and financial markets and may continue to have an adverse impact on our investment performance and flows in certain products. There is a risk that these conflicts, as well as any future conflicts, may spread more broadly, increasing the potential adverse impact on our AUM, results of operations and financial condition. We will continue to monitor any direct and indirect impacts of these circumstances on our business, financial results and operations, although it is not possible to predict the broader consequences of these ongoing conflicts at this time. 

 

 

In addition, international trading markets, particularly in some emerging market countries, are often smaller, less liquid, less regulated and significantly more volatile than those in the U.S. Local regulatory environments may vary widely in terms of scope, adequacy and sophistication. Moreover, regulators in non-U.S. jurisdictions could change their policies or laws in a manner that might restrict or otherwise impede our ability to distribute or authorize products or maintain our authorizations in their respective markets. Similarly, local distributors and their policies and practices, as well as financial viability, may also vary widely or be inconsistent, less developed or less mature than other, more internationally focused distributors. As our business grows in non-U.S. markets, any ongoing and future business, political, economic or social unrest affecting these markets may have a negative impact on the long-term investment climate in these and other areas, and, as a result, our AUM and the revenue and income we generate from these markets may be negatively affected.

 

Our reputation is critical to the success of our business. Harm to our reputation could reduce our AUM and impact sales, which could adversely affect our revenue and net income.

 

We believe that our brand name is well-received both in the asset management industry and with our clients, reflecting the fact that our brand, like our business, is based in part on trust and confidence. If our reputation is harmed, existing clients may reduce their investments or withdraw from funds we manage, or funds may terminate or reduce AUM under their management agreements with us, which could reduce our AUM and negatively impact our revenue and profitability.

 

As part of our business, we are required to continuously manage actual and potential conflicts of interest, including situations where our services to a particular client conflict, or are perceived to conflict, with the interests of another client or those of JHG or our employees. The willingness of clients to enter into transactions in which such a conflict might arise may be affected if we fail, or appear to fail, to deal appropriately with conflicts of interest. In addition, failure to appropriately manage potential, perceived or actual conflicts could damage our reputation and give rise to litigation or regulatory enforcement actions.

 

Our reputation could also be damaged by factors such as:

 

 

Litigation;

 

Regulatory action;

 

Loss of key personnel;

 

Operational failures;

 

Underperformance of our investment products;

 

Fraud, misconduct or mismanagement, theft, loss or misuse of client data by our personnel or third parties;

 

Failure to manage conflicts of interest or satisfy fiduciary responsibilities; and

 

Negative publicity or press speculation (whether or not any such allegations or claims are valid or ultimately disproved, dismissed or withdrawn).

 

Reputational harm may cause us to lose current clients and we may be unable to continue to attract new clients or develop new business. If we fail to effectively address the underlying causes of any harm to our reputation, our financial results and future business prospects would likely be adversely affected.

 

The carrying value of goodwill and other intangible assets on our balance sheet could become impaired, which would adversely affect our results of operations.

 

At December 31, 2023, our goodwill and intangible assets totaled $3,721.6 million. The value of these assets may not be realized for a variety of reasons, including significant redemptions, loss of clients, damage to brand name and unfavorable economic conditions. We have recorded goodwill and intangible asset impairments in the past and could incur similar charges in the future. Under U.S. GAAP, goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives are not amortized but are tested for impairment annually or more often if an event or circumstance indicates that an impairment loss may have been incurred. Other intangible assets with finite lives are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives and reviewed whenever there is an indication of impairment. Should such reviews indicate impairment, a reduction of the carrying value of the intangible asset could occur, resulting in a charge that may, in turn, adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

 

Our business depends on investment management agreements that are subject to termination, non-renewal or reductions in fees.

 

We derive revenue from investment management agreements with investment funds, institutional investors and other investors. With respect to investment management agreements with U.S. mutual funds, these agreements may be terminated by either party with notice, or in the event of an “assignment” (as defined in the Investment Company Act), and must be approved and renewed annually by the independent members of each fund’s board of directors or trustees or its shareholders, as required by law. In addition, the board of directors or trustees of certain investment funds and institutional and other investors generally may terminate their investment management agreements upon written notice for any reason and without penalty. U.S. mutual funds, investment funds or other investors may choose to exercise such termination rights at any time. In addition, the annual review of investment management agreements with U.S. mutual funds, as required by law, could result in a reduction in our advisory fee revenues. The termination of, or failure to renew, one or more of these agreements could have a material adverse effect on our AUM, results of operations and financial condition.

 

 

Our expenses are subject to fluctuations that could materially affect our operating results.

 

Our results of operations are dependent on our level of expenses, which can vary significantly for many reasons, including:

 

 

Changes in the level and scope of our operating expenses in response to market conditions or regulations;

 

Variations in the level of total compensation expense due to changes in bonuses and stock-based awards, changes in employee benefit costs due to regulatory or plan design changes, changes in our employee count and mix, competitive factors, market performance and other factors;

 

Expenses incurred to support distribution of our investment strategies and services, develop new strategies and services, and enhance our technology, compliance and other infrastructure;

 

Impairments of intangible assets or goodwill; and

 

Impact of inflation and interest rate changes.

 

Increases in the level of our expenses, or our inability to reduce the level of expenses when necessary, could materially affect our operating results.

 

We may engage in strategic transactions that could pose risks to our business, financial condition and global operations. 

 

As part of our global business strategy, we regularly consider, and have discussions with respect to, potential strategic transactions, including acquisitions, dispositions, consolidations, joint ventures or similar transactions, some of which may be deemed material. There can be no assurance that we will find suitable candidates for strategic transactions at acceptable prices or other terms, have sufficient capital resources to accomplish our strategy or be successful in entering into agreements for strategic transactions. In addition, such transactions typically involve a number of risks and present financial, managerial and operational challenges, including:

 

 

Difficulties in the integration of acquired businesses into our operations and control environment (including our risk management policies and procedures);

 

Assumed or unforeseen liabilities that arise in connection with the acquired businesses;
 

Disputes with counterparties, including the possible failure of counterparties to satisfy any obligations to indemnify us against liabilities arising from the acquired businesses;
 

Adverse effects on our earnings if acquired intangible assets or goodwill become impaired; and
 

The possible need for us to increase our firm's leverage or, if we issue equity securities to pay for acquisitions, dilute the holdings of our existing shareholders.

 

Acquisitions also pose the risk that any business we acquire may lose customers, intermediaries or employees or could under-perform relative to growth expectations or expected synergies from the acquired businesses. Additionally, the loss of investment personnel poses the risk that we may lose the AUM we expected to manage, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

 

Entries into definitive agreements for material transactions typically are announced publicly even though completion of these transactions may remain subject to numerous closing conditions, contingencies and approvals, and there is no assurance that any announced transaction will actually be consummated. 

 

In addition, from time to time, we may enter into joint ventures or take minority stakes in companies in which we do not have control. These investments may involve risks, including the risk that the controlling stakeholder or joint venture partner may have business interests, strategies or goals that are inconsistent with ours. The business decisions or other actions or omissions of the controlling stakeholder, joint venture partner or the entity itself may result in liability to us or harm to our reputation, or adversely affect the value of our investment in the entity.

 

Our business and operations are subject to adverse effects from the outbreak and spread of contagious diseases, such as COVID-19, and such adverse effects may continue.

 

The outbreak and spread of COVID-19, a highly transmissible and pathogenic disease, resulted in a widespread national and global public health crisis and created significant volatility, uncertainty and economic disruption. While COVID-19 did not have a material adverse effect on our business, operations and financial results during the year ended December 31, 2023, the extent to which the pandemic and other epidemics or pandemics impact our business, operations and financial results in the future will depend on numerous factors that we may not be able to accurately predict, including the duration and scope of the pandemic; governmental, business and individuals’ actions taken in response to the pandemic; the impact of the pandemic on economic activity and actions taken in response; and the effect on our ability to sell and provide our services.

 

 

Operational and Technology Risks

 ​

We could be subject to losses and reputational harm if we, or our agents, fail to properly safeguard sensitive and confidential information against cyberattacks or other security breaches or if our business processes are not sufficiently resilient.

 

We depend on the continued effectiveness of our information and cybersecurity policies, procedures and capabilities to protect our computer and telecommunications systems and the data that resides in or is transmitted through such systems.

 

As part of our normal operations, we maintain and transmit confidential information about our clients and employees as well as proprietary information relating to our business operations. We maintain a system of internal controls designed to secure and protect such information. Nevertheless, all technology systems remain susceptible to unauthorized access and may be corrupted by cyberattacks, computer viruses or other malicious software code. In addition, authorized persons could inadvertently or intentionally misappropriate or release confidential or proprietary information. Any breach or other failure of our technology or operational controls, including those of third parties with which we do business, or any failure to timely and effectively identify and respond to a breach or failure, could result in the loss of valuable information, liability for stolen assets or information, remediation costs to repair damage caused by the incident, additional costs to mitigate against future incidents and litigation costs resulting from the incident. Our use of mobile and cloud technologies and AI applications could heighten these and other operational risks, and any failure by the providers of these services to prevent cyberattacks could disrupt our operations and result in misappropriation, corruption or loss of confidential or proprietary information. Moreover, any loss of confidential customer identification information could harm our reputation, result in the termination of certain contracts by our existing customers and subject us to liability under laws that protect confidential personal data, resulting in increased costs or loss of revenue.

 

Security breaches, including cyberattacks and phishing attacks, have become increasingly sophisticated. Cyberattacks can originate from a variety of sources, including third parties affiliated with foreign governments, organized crime or terrorist organizations. Third parties may also attempt to place individuals within our firm, or induce employees, clients or other users of our systems, to disclose sensitive information or provide access to our data, and these types of risks may be difficult to detect or prevent. Also, increasing use of AI may heighten these risks. There can be no assurance that our investments in precautions and safeguards will protect our business from all attempted cyberattacks or other incidents. Recent well-publicized security breaches at other companies have exposed failures to keep pace with the threats posed by cyberattackers and have led to increased government and regulatory scrutiny, including investigations and enforcement actions, which could lead to increased costs or fines or public censure. In addition, although we maintain insurance coverage that may, subject to terms and conditions, cover certain aspects of cyber and information security risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses, such as litigation costs or financial losses that exceed our policy limits or are not covered under any of our current insurance policies.

 

Due to our interconnectivity with third-party vendors, advisors, central agents, exchanges, clearing organizations and other financial institutions, we may be adversely affected if any of them are subject to a successful cyberattack or other information security event, including those arising from the use of mobile technology, a third-party cloud environment or AI applications. Certain software applications that we use in our business are licensed by, and supported, upgraded and maintained by, third-party vendors. A suspension or termination of certain of these licenses or the related support, upgrades and maintenance could cause temporary system delays or interruption that could adversely impact our business. Also, such third-party applications may include confidential and proprietary data provided by vendors and by us. We may be subject to indemnification costs and liability to third parties if we breach any confidentiality obligations regarding vendor data for losses related to the data, or if data we provide is deemed to infringe upon the rights of others.

 

Finally, cybersecurity, data privacy and AI have become high priorities for regulators, and many jurisdictions are enacting laws and regulations in these areas. Our failure to comply with these and other applicable requirements could result in regulatory investigations and penalties as well as negative publicity, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

We are incorporating artificial intelligence into some of our business workflows and processes, and challenges with properly managing its use could result in reputational harm, competitive harm and legal liability, and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

We have begun using AI and machine learning technologies to enhance certain workflows and processes used in our business, and our research into and continued deployment of such capabilities remain ongoing. AI is still in its early stages, and the introduction and incorporation of AI technologies may result in unintended consequences or other new or expanded risks and liabilities. If the content, analyses or recommendations that AI applications assist in producing are, or are alleged to be, deficient, inaccurate or biased, such as due to limitations in AI algorithms, insufficient or biased base data or flawed training methodologies, our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation may be adversely affected. Additionally, AI technology is continuously evolving, and we may incur costs to adopt and deploy AI technologies that could become obsolete earlier than expected, and there can be no assurance that we will realize the desired or anticipated benefits from AI. Also, our competitors or other third parties may incorporate AI into their products and services more quickly or more successfully than us, which could impair our ability to compete effectively and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

The use of AI applications to support business processes carries inherent risks related to data privacy and security, such as unintended or inadvertent transmission of proprietary or sensitive information, including personal data. AI presents emerging ethical issues, and we may be unsuccessful in identifying and resolving these issues before they arise. If our use of AI becomes controversial, we may experience brand or reputational harm, competitive harm, or legal liability. There is uncertainty in the legal and regulatory landscape for AI, which is not fully developed, and any laws, regulations or industry standards adopted in response to the emergence of AI may be burdensome, could entail significant costs, and may restrict or impede our ability to successfully develop, adopt and deploy AI technologies efficiently and effectively.

 

Failure to maintain adequate controls and risk management policies, the circumvention of controls and policies, or fraud, as well as failure to maintain adequate infrastructure or failures in operational or risk management processes and systems could have an adverse effect on our AUM, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Although we have a comprehensive risk management process, there can be no assurances that our controls, procedures, policies and systems will successfully identify and manage internal and external risks to our business. For example, our employees, contractors or other third parties may deliberately seek to circumvent established controls to commit fraud or act in ways that are inconsistent with our controls, policies and procedures. Any operational errors or negligence by our employees, or others acting on our behalf, or weaknesses in the internal controls over those processes could result in losses for us, and we may be required to compensate clients for losses suffered and/or regulatory fines. Persistent or repeated incidents involving conflicts of interest, circumvention of policies and controls, fraud or insider trading could have a materially adverse impact on our reputation and could lead to costly regulatory inquiries.

 

 

Our business is also highly dependent on the integrity, security and reliability of our information technology systems and infrastructure. If any of our critical systems or infrastructure do not operate properly or are disabled, our ability to perform effective investment management on behalf of our clients could be impaired. In addition, if we fail to maintain our information technology systems and an infrastructure commensurate with the size, scope and technological requirements of our business, our productivity, growth and reputation could be negatively affected, which could have an adverse impact on our AUM, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Insurance may not be available on a cost-effective basis to protect us from potential liabilities.

 

We face the inherent risk of liability and costs related to or arising from claims from clients, employees and other third parties; actions taken by regulatory agencies; losses arising from fraud or other criminal activity; and costs and losses associated with cyber incidents. To help protect against these and other potential liabilities, we have purchased insurance in amounts, and against risks, that we consider appropriate, where such insurance is available at prices, we deem reasonable. There can be no assurance, however, that a claim or claims will be covered by insurance or, if covered, will not exceed coverage limits; that an insurer will meet its obligations regarding coverage; or that insurance coverage will continue to be available on a cost-effective basis. Insurance costs are impacted by market conditions and the risk profile of the insured, and may increase significantly over relatively short periods. In addition, certain types of insurance coverage may not be available or may only be available at prohibitive cost. Renewals of insurance policies may expose us to additional costs through higher premiums or the assumption of higher deductibles or co-insurance liability.

 

Our business may be vulnerable to failures of support systems and client service functions provided by third-party vendors.

 

Our client service capabilities as well as our ability to obtain prompt and accurate securities pricing information and to process client transactions and reports are significantly dependent on communication and information systems and services provided by third-party vendors. The ability to consistently and reliably obtain securities pricing information, process client transactions and provide reports and other client services to the shareholders of funds and other investment products we manage is essential to our operations. Any delays, errors or inaccuracies in pricing information, processing client transactions or providing reports, and any other inadequacies in other client service functions could impact client relationships, result in financial losses and potentially give rise to regulatory actions and claims against us.

 

We depend on third-party service providers and other key vendors for various fund administration, accounting, custody, risk analytics, market data, market indices and transfer agent roles, and other distribution and operational needs. If our third-party service providers or other key vendors fail to fulfill their obligations, experience service interruptions, cease providing their services on short notice or otherwise provide inadequate service, operational and regulatory problems could occur, including with respect to certain of our products, which could result in losses, enforcement actions or reputational harm, and which could negatively impact our AUM, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Our inability to recover successfully, should we experience a disaster or other business continuity problem, could cause material financial loss, regulatory actions, legal liability and/or reputational harm.

 

Significant portions of our business operations and those of our critical third-party service providers are concentrated in a few geographic areas, including the UK, the U.S., Luxembourg and Australia. Should we, or any of our critical service providers, experience a significant local or regional disaster or other event that disrupts business continuity, such as an earthquake, hurricane, tsunami, terrorist attack, epidemic or pandemic, or other natural or man-made disaster, our continued success will depend in part on the safety and availability of our personnel, our office facilities and the proper functioning of our technology, computer, telecommunications and other systems and operations that are critical to our business. We have developed various backup systems and contingency plans, but no assurance can be given that they will be adequate in all circumstances that could arise or that material interruptions and disruptions will not occur. In addition, we will rely to varying degrees on outside vendors for disaster recovery support, and no assurance can be given that these vendors will be able to perform in an adequate and timely manner. If we, or any of our critical service providers, are unable to respond adequately to such an event in a timely manner, we may be unable to continue our business operations, which could damage our reputation and lead to a loss of customers and have an adverse effect on our AUM, revenue and net income.

 

Climate change-related risks could adversely affect our business, products, operations and clients, which may cause our AUM, revenue and earnings to decline.

 

Our business and those of our clients could be impacted by risks related to climate change. Climate change may present risk to us through changes in the physical climate or from the process of transitioning to a lower-carbon economy. Climate-related physical risks arise from the direct impacts of a changing climate over the short, medium and long term. Such risks may include extreme weather events, rising sea levels and changes in temperature, which may damage infrastructure and facilities, as well as disrupt connectivity or supply chains. Climate-related transition risks arise from our exposure to the transition to a lower-carbon economy through policy, regulatory, technology and market changes. For instance, new regulations or guidance relating to climate change, as well as the perspectives of stakeholders regarding climate change, may impact our investment products, business processes and reputation, which could increase our costs of doing business. At times, regulations and market demands regarding climate impact in one region may be in direct conflict with regulations and market demands in another region, which may create risk that our activity in one region adversely impacts activity in the other. Climate-related physical and transition risks could impact us both directly and indirectly through adverse impacts on our clients, including as a result of declines in asset values, changes in client investing preferences, increased regulatory and compliance costs, and significant business disruptions. Any of these risks may cause our AUM, revenue and earnings to decline. 

 

Negative changes in our credit ratings and global market volatility may impair our ability to obtain financing and may increase our borrowing costs.

 

Our ability to access the capital markets, as well as our borrowing costs under our credit facility, depend significantly on our credit ratings and credit outlook. Changes in our credit ratings or credit outlook, which are determined by rating agencies such as Standard & Poor’s (“S&P’s”) and Moody’s Investors Service, as well as global market volatility and interest rate increases, could cause us to incur higher borrowing costs or to have greater difficulty in accessing the capital markets. In addition, volatility in global financial and capital markets may also affect our ability to access the capital markets in a timely manner.

 

 

Legal and Regulatory Risks

 

Regulatory and governmental examinations and/or investigations, litigation and the legal risks associated with our business could adversely impact our AUM, increase costs and negatively impact our profitability and/or our future financial results.

 

From time to time, we receive and respond to regulatory and governmental requests for documents or other information, subpoenas, examinations and investigations in connection with our business activities. In addition, from time to time, we are named as a party in litigation. Even if claims made against us are without merit, litigation typically is an expensive process. Risks associated with legal liability often are difficult to assess or quantify and their existence and magnitude can remain unknown for significant periods of time. Among other things, such matters may result in substantial fines, censure, legal damages, suspension of personnel, revocation of licenses and reputational damage, which may reduce our sales and increase redemptions. Eventual exposures from and expenses incurred relating to any examinations, investigations, litigation and/or settlements could adversely impact our AUM, increase costs and/or negatively impact our profitability and financial results. Allegations, findings or judgments of wrongdoing by regulatory or governmental authorities or in litigation against us, or settlements with respect thereto, could affect our reputation, increase our costs of doing business and/or negatively impact our revenues, any of which could have a material negative impact on our financial results.

 

We operate in an industry that is subject to extensive, complex, overlapping and sometimes conflicting regulation and supervision around the world, and any enforcement action or changes in the laws or regulations governing our business could adversely affect our AUM, results of operations or financial condition.

 

Like all investment management firms, our activities, products and services are highly regulated in almost all markets in which we conduct business, including the U.S., the UK, Continental Europe, Australia, Singapore and other international markets. Compliance with these regulations is costly and complex.

 

Laws and regulations applied at the international, national, state or provincial and local levels generally grant governmental agencies and industry self-regulatory authorities' broad administrative discretion over our activities, including the power to limit or restrict our business activities; conduct examinations, risk assessments, investigations and capital adequacy reviews; and impose remedial programs to address perceived deficiencies. As a result of regulatory oversight, we could face requirements that negatively impact the way in which we conduct business, increase compliance costs, impose additional capital requirements and/or involve enforcement actions that could lead to sanctions, including the potential revocation of licenses to operate certain businesses, the suspension or expulsion from a particular jurisdiction or market of any of our business organizations or key personnel, or the imposition of increasingly substantial fines and censures on us or our employees. Judgments or findings of wrongdoing by regulatory or governmental authorities, or in private litigation against us, could affect our reputation, increase our costs of doing business and/or negatively impact our AUM and revenues, any of which could have an adverse impact on our results of operations or financial condition.

 

The regulatory environment in which we operate changes frequently and has seen a significant increase in proposed and adopted regulations in recent years. Certain enacted provisions and proposals for new regulation are potentially far-reaching and, depending upon their implementation, could increase the cost of offering investment products and services in the markets where we conduct business and have material adverse effects on our business, results of operations or financial condition. Additionally, challenges associated with interpreting regulations issued in numerous countries in a globally consistent manner may add to such risks and impacts if regulators in different jurisdictions have inconsistent views or provide only limited regulatory guidance. The aggressive pace, scope and complexity of regulatory change place additional demands on resources and introduces additional operational strains, which may impact our ability to fully and timely satisfy those regulatory requirements or constrain our ability to pursue other strategic projects and business priorities.

 

In the U.S., government agencies like the SEC have proposed or adopted several new regulations that have increased our regulatory burdens and related compliance costs. These include the Dodd-Frank Act and regulations related to private funds, cybersecurity risk management, shortening the securities transaction settlement cycle, the investment company names rule, ESG disclosures for investment advisers and investment companies, outsourcing and fund liquidity risk management programs, swing pricing and money market fund reforms. The SEC and other agencies and institutions have taken action, and may continue to take further action, in response to global financial market developments, internal political dynamics and perennial industry challenges, such as conflicts of interest. Further actions by regulatory authorities could include new rules and requirements that may be applicable to us, the effect of which could have additional adverse consequences to our business, results of operations or financial condition.

 

The EU has promulgated or is considering various new or revised legislation pertaining to financial services firms, including investment managers. On November 10, 2023, the EU published the final compromise text amending the Alternative Investment Funds Managers Directive (“AIFMD II”). Key changes include a new pan-European regime for loan origination funds, amendments to delegation and depositary processes, and enhanced reporting and transparency requirements. Such regulatory changes may have a direct impact on the revenue of our business should they result in structural or operational changes and may increase operational or compliance costs. We do not believe implementation of these requirements will fundamentally change the asset management industry or cause us to reconsider our fundamental strategy, but certain provisions may require us to change or impose new limitations on the manner in which we conduct business and may result in increased fee and margin pressure from clients.

 

The full extent of the impact on us of any laws, regulations or initiatives that may be proposed, and regulatory reform initiatives and enforcement agendas pursued by regulators such as the SEC and the DOL (which have separately expressed support for investor protection initiatives that may impact how and to whom certain investment products can be distributed in the U.S.), is impossible to determine. Recent changes have imposed, and may continue to impose, new compliance costs and/or capital requirements or impact us in other ways that could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations or financial condition. Moreover, certain legal or regulatory changes could require us to modify our strategies, businesses or operations, and these changes may result in the incurrence of other new constraints or costs, including the investment of significant management time and resources in order to satisfy new regulatory requirements or to compete in a changed business environment.

 

 

Regulators may impose increased capital requirements on our subsidiaries, which could negatively impact our ability to return capital or pay dividends to our shareholders and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

 

Regulators typically have broad discretion to impose increased regulatory capital requirements on the regulated entities within their jurisdiction. It is possible that the regulatory capital requirements that currently apply to our subsidiaries could be increased. The imposition of increased regulatory capital requirements could negatively impact our ability to return capital or pay dividends to shareholders, restrict our ability to make future acquisitions or, should we be required to raise additional capital, negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.

 

Failure to comply with client contractual requirements and/or investment guidelines could negatively impact our AUM, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Many of the investment management agreements under which we manage assets or provide services specify investment guidelines or requirements that we are required to observe. Laws and regulations also impose similar requirements for certain accounts. A failure to follow these guidelines or requirements, or implement them appropriately, could result in damage to our reputation or in clients seeking to recover losses, withdrawing their assets or terminating their contracts, any one of which could cause revenues and profitability to decline. In addition, a breach of these investment guidelines or requirements could result in regulatory investigation, censure and/or fines.

 

The exit of the UK from the EU could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

The UK’s withdrawal from the EU occurred on January 31, 2020, and following a transition period, the UK and the EU agreed to a Trade and Cooperation Agreement on December 24, 2020 (“TCA”), which governs the UK’s relationship with the EU. While the TCA regulates a number of important areas, significant parts of the UK economy are not addressed in detail, including the services sector, which represents the largest component of the UK economy. A number of issues have been the subject of further bilateral negotiations. One of the subjects of these negotiations has been a Memorandum of Understanding (“MoU”) between the EU and UK covering financial services, which was signed on June 27, 2023. The MoU established a cooperative framework, focusing on shared objectives and creating a forum for official market dialogue, rather than a roadmap to restore pre-Brexit mutual freedoms. The new relationship between the UK and the EU remains uncertain and could in the short term, and possibly for longer, cause disruptions to, and create uncertainty in, the UK and European economies; prejudice to financial services businesses such as ours that are conducting business in the EU and that are based in the UK; legal uncertainty regarding achievement of compliance with applicable financial and commercial laws and regulations; and the unavailability of timely information as to expected legal, tax and other regimes. A failure to reach an agreement for a sustainable and practical financial services regulatory relationship between the UK and the EU, whether on the basis of equivalence, mutual recognition or otherwise, could harm our operations and returns. To date, neither the EU nor UK have granted one another meaningful forms of market access, leaving financial services firms wishing to service either market to set up local operations with suitable regulatory licenses or to operate under exemptions from licensing requirements.

 

Accordingly, and notwithstanding steps we took prior to the UK’s withdrawal from the EU and the end of the Transition Period, we may incur additional costs due to having to relocate or augment activities within the EU and carry out any related restructuring, as well as incur additional costs to address potential new impediments to conducting EU business.

 

These and related issues, or a decline in trade between the UK and the EU, could affect the attractiveness of the UK as a global investment center and could have a detrimental impact on UK economic growth. Although we have a diverse international customer base, our results could be adversely affected by the market impacts of reduced UK economic growth and greater volatility in currency exchange rates and interest rates. The full effects of Brexit remain uncertain, and Brexit may result in divergent laws, regulations and licensing requirements for any operations we conduct or may conduct in the UK or EU in the future.

 

Any of the foregoing factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.

 ​

We may not effectively manage risks associated with the replacement of benchmark indices.

 

The withdrawal and replacement of widely used benchmark indices, such as the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), with alternative benchmark rates introduce a number of risks for our business, our clients and the financial services industry more widely. These risks include:

 

 

Legal implementation risks, as extensive changes to documentation for new and existing clients and transactions may be required;

 

Financial risks, arising from any changes in the valuation of financial instruments linked to benchmark indices;

 

Pricing risks, as changes to benchmark indices could impact pricing mechanisms on some instruments;

 

Operational risks, due to the potential requirement to adapt information technology systems, trade reporting infrastructure and operational processes; and

 

Conduct risks, relating to communications with a potential impact on customers and engagement with customers during the transition away from benchmark indices such as LIBOR.

 

 

The publication of non-USD LIBOR and one-week and two-month USD LIBOR ceased after December 31, 2021, and the remaining USD LIBOR tenors ceased after June 30, 2023. As a result of LIBOR’s phase-out, our credit facility was amended to incorporate the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as the successor rate to USD LIBOR and the Sterling Overnight Index Average (“SONIA”) as the successor rate to GBP LIBOR. There are significant differences between how LIBOR and SOFR or SONIA are calculated, which could result in increased borrowing costs. It is not currently possible to determine precisely to what extent the withdrawal and replacement of LIBOR will affect us. However, the replacement of LIBOR with alternative benchmark rates may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.

 

We may be subject to claims of lack of suitability.

 

If our clients suffer losses on funds or investment mandates we manage, they may seek compensation from us on the basis of allegations that these funds or mandates were not suitable for them or that the fund prospectuses or other marketing materials contained material errors or were misleading. Despite the controls relating to disclosure in fund prospectuses and marketing materials, it is possible that such action may be successful, which in turn could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any claim for lack of suitability could also result in a regulatory investigation, censure or fines, and may damage our reputation.

 

Changes to tax laws could adversely affect us.

 

The determination of our provision for income taxes requires judgment, the use of estimates and the interpretation and application of complex tax laws. Our provision for income taxes reflects a combination of income earned and taxed in the various U.S. federal and state, UK and other jurisdictions. Jurisdictional tax law changes, increases or decreases in permanent differences between book and tax items, accruals or adjustments of accruals for unrecognized tax benefits or valuation allowances, and any changes in our mix of earnings from these taxing jurisdictions affect the overall effective tax rate and the amount of taxes payable.

 

Our tax affairs will, in the ordinary course of business, be reviewed by tax authorities, which may disagree with certain positions that we have taken or will take in the future and assess additional taxes. We regularly assess the likely outcomes of such tax inquiries, investigations or audits in order to determine the appropriateness of their respective tax provisions. However, there can be no assurance that we will accurately predict the outcomes of these inquiries, investigations or audits, and the actual outcomes of these inquiries, investigations or audits could have a material impact on our financial results.

 

In addition, changes to tax laws or income tax rates could materially impact our tax provision, cash tax liability, deferred income tax balances and effective tax rate.

 

Jersey Company Risks

 

Our ordinary shares, which we refer to as our common stock, are governed by the laws of Jersey, Channel Islands, which may not provide the level of legal certainty and transparency afforded by incorporation in a U.S. state.

 

We are organized under the laws of Jersey, Channel Islands, a British crown dependency that is an island located off the coast of Normandy, France. Jersey is not a member of the EU. Jersey, Channel Islands, legislation regarding companies is largely based on English corporate law principles. However, there can be no assurance that the laws of Jersey, Channel Islands, will not change in the future or that it will serve to protect investors in a similar fashion afforded under corporate law principles in the U.S., which could adversely affect the rights of investors.

 

U.S. shareholders may not be able to enforce civil liabilities against us.

 

Certain of our directors and executive officers are not residents of the U.S. A substantial portion of the assets of such persons are located outside the U.S. As a result, it may not be possible for investors to effect service of process within the U.S. upon such persons.

 

Judgments of U.S. courts may not be directly enforceable outside of the U.S., and the enforcement of judgments of U.S. courts outside of the U.S. may be subject to limitations. Investors may also have difficulties pursuing an original action brought in a court in a jurisdiction outside the U.S. for liabilities under the securities laws of the U.S.

 ​

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

None.

 

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

 

Risk Management and Strategy

 

We maintain a cybersecurity risk management program to identify, assess and manage material risks from cybersecurity threats and to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our critical systems and information.

 

Our cybersecurity program takes a risk-based approach and was developed to align with ISO 27001, the international standard for information security, and we also assess ourselves against the NIST Cybersecurity framework. In addition, our cybersecurity risk management program aligns with ISO 31000, the international standard for risk management. The foregoing does not imply that we meet any technical standards, specifications or requirements, or that we have been certified on these requirements in any respect, only that we have used these industry standards as guides when designing our cybersecurity and risk management programs.

 

 

Our cybersecurity risk management program is integrated into our overall enterprise risk management program and shares common methodologies, reporting channels and governance processes that apply across our enterprise risk management program to other legal, compliance, strategic, operational and financial risk areas. For example, cybersecurity threats are subject to our firm-wide Risk Events Policy, which sets forth procedures for the identification, escalation, recording, investigation and approval of handling of such risk events.

 

Our cybersecurity risk management program includes a cybersecurity incident response plan. Major incidents emanating from cybersecurity threats are notified to our Operational Risk team through our enterprise risk management system and escalated in accordance with our incident response plan. In addition, cybersecurity has been designated as a principal risk by the Risk Committee of our Board of Directors (the “Risk Committee”), which requires regular monitoring and reporting.

 

We identify material risks from cybersecurity threats through various sources, including, but not limited to, controls testing, compliance testing of our security standards, penetration testing, threat intelligence, and lessons learned and assessments against control frameworks. These threats are assessed by applying our Risk and Control Self-Assessment (“RCSA”), IT risk, and cybersecurity risk management processes, each of which we review regularly. Based on the RCSA, risks from cybersecurity threats that exceed established risk tolerance thresholds are recorded and incorporated into our reporting to the Risk Committee and senior management as described in more detail below. We also engage third-party assessors, consultants and auditors to assist in the administration, assessment and improvement of our cybersecurity risk management program.

 

To help bring risks from cybersecurity threats within an acceptable range, we address risks through compensating controls or remediation, commensurate with the assessed risk level from such threats. Cybersecurity incidents that are determined to be major are escalated on a timely basis in accordance with our cybersecurity incident response plan.

 

With respect to third-party service providers with access to our information systems, assets or data, our security policies and procedures are designed so that diligence is conducted as appropriate on the cybersecurity controls maintained by such third parties and to ensure that the Company has cybersecurity measures in place with respect to their access to our information systems, assets or data.

 

We have not identified any risks from cybersecurity threats or incidents that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect the business strategy, results of operations or financial condition of the Company. Please refer to the risk factor captioned “We could be subject to losses and reputational harm if we, or our agents, fail to properly safeguard sensitive and confidential information against cyberattacks or other security breaches or if our business processes are not sufficiently resilient.” in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors, for additional description of cybersecurity risks and potential related impacts on the Company.

 

Governance

 

Our Board of Directors has established a Risk Committee to assist the Board in its oversight of risk. As part of its responsibilities, the Risk Committee oversees management’s implementation of our cybersecurity risk management program.

 

The Risk Committee receives regular reports from our Information Security leadership on our cybersecurity risks, including key status updates, security issues, current and future priorities, independent assurance, threat landscape and audit findings. The Risk Committee regularly reports to the full Board regarding its activities, including those related to cybersecurity oversight. The full Board also receives periodic presentations on cybersecurity topics from our Information Security leadership or other internal security staff or external experts as part of the Board’s continuing education program.

 

Our Information Security team, including our Information Security leadership, has primary responsibility for assessing and managing material risks to the Company from cybersecurity threats, including our overall cybersecurity risk management program and supervision of our internal cybersecurity personnel and our external cybersecurity consultants. 

 

Our Information Security team supervises efforts to prevent, detect, mitigate and remediate cybersecurity risks and incidents through various means, including receiving regular briefings from internal security personnel; threat intelligence and other information obtained from governmental, public or private sources, including external consultants engaged by us; and alerts and reports produced by security tools deployed in the IT environment.

 

Our Information Security leadership regularly briefs our Global Chief Operating Officer on cybersecurity issues, the scope of which is similar to the information presented by the Information Security leadership to the Risk Committee as described above. Major risks from cybersecurity threats determined following application of an RCSA are escalated by our Information Security leadership to the Risk Committee, Global Chief Operating Officer, Chief Technology Officer and other senior management.

ITEM 2.  PROPERTIES

 

We have 23 offices across the UK, Europe, North America, Asia and Australia. Our corporate headquarters is located in London, where it occupies approximately 116,000 square feet on a long-term lease that expires in 2028. We also have significant operations in Denver, Colorado, occupying approximately 161,000 square feet of office space, and its lease expires in 2025. The remaining 21 offices total approximately 69,000 square feet and are all leased. In the opinion of management, the space and equipment we lease is adequate for existing operating needs. See Note 9 — Leases, in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, for further information on our property leases.

 ​

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

The information set forth in response to Item 103 of Regulation S-K under “Legal Proceedings” is incorporated by reference from Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 19 — Commitments and Contingencies: Litigation and Other Regulatory Matters.

 ​

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

Not applicable.

 

 

PART II

 

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANTS COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

JHG Common Stock

 

Our common stock is traded on the NYSE (symbol: JHG). On February 23, 2024, there were approximately 4,650 holders of record of our common stock. On November 1, 2023, JHG announced that it had requested and received approval from ASX to be delisted, and on December 6, 2023, we delisted from ASX. The ASX delisting is not expected to have a material impact on our financial position or operating results other than in relation to savings in compliance and certain ancillary costs associated with maintaining the ASX listing.

 ​

Dividends

 

On January 31, 2024, our Board of Directors declared a cash dividend of $0.39 per share. The quarterly dividend will be paid on February 28, 2024, to shareholders of record at the close of business February 12, 2024.

 

Performance Graph

 

The following graph illustrates the cumulative total shareholder return of our common stock over the five-year period ending December 29, 2023, the last trading day of 2023, and compares it to the cumulative total return on the S&P 500 Index(1) and to the S&P U.S. BMI Asset Management & Custody Banks Index.(2) The S&P 500 Index consists of 500 stocks chosen for market size, liquidity and industry group representation and is one of the most widely used benchmarks of U.S. equity performance. The S&P U.S. BMI Asset Management & Custody Banks Index is a market-value weighted index of 40 asset management companies. The comparison assumes a $100 investment on December 31, 2018, in our common stock and in each of the foregoing indices, and assumes reinvestment of dividends, if any. This data is not intended to forecast future performance of our common stock.

 ​

sharechart.jpg

 ​

(1) STANDARD & POOR’S®, S&P® and S&P 500® are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC.

 ​

(2) As of December 31, 2023, the S&P U.S. BMI Asset Management & Custody Banks Index comprised the following companies: Affiliated Managers Group, Inc.; AlTi Global, Inc.; Ameriprise Financial, Inc.; Ares Management Corporation; Artisan Partners Asset Management Inc.; AssetMark Financial Holdings, Inc.; Associated Capital Group, Inc.; BlackRock, Inc.; Blackstone Inc.; Blue Owl Capital Inc.; Bridge Investment Group Holdings Inc.; BrightSphere Investment Group Inc.; Cohen & Steers, Inc.; Diamond Hill Investment Group, Inc.; Federated Hermes, Inc.; Franklin Resources, Inc.; Galaxy Digital Holdings Ltd.; GQG Partners Inc.; Grosvenor Capital Management, L.P.; Hamilton Lane Incorporated; Heritage Global Inc.; Invesco Ltd.; Janus Henderson Group plc; KKR & Co. Inc.; Northern Trust Corporation; P10, Inc.; SEI Investments Company; Silvercrest Asset Management Group Inc.; State Street Corporation; StepStone Group LP; T. Rowe Price Group, Inc.; The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation; The Carlyle Group Inc.; TPG Inc.; Victory Capital Holdings, Inc.; Virtus Investment Partners, Inc.; WisdomTree, Inc.

 ​

(3) Data source: S&P Global Market Intelligence.

 

 

Common Stock Purchases

 

On October 31, 2023, our Board of Directors approved the 2023 Corporate Buyback Program pursuant to which we are authorized to repurchase up to $150.0 million of our common stock on the NYSE at any time prior to the date of our 2024 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders. We commenced repurchases under the 2023 Corporate Buyback Program in November 2023, and we repurchased 2,319,870 shares of common stock for $61.9 million during the three months ended December 31, 2023. 

 

Some of our executives and employees obtain rights to receive our common stock as part of their remuneration arrangements and employee entitlements. We satisfy these entitlements by transferring shares of existing common stock that we repurchase on-market for this purpose (“Share Plan Repurchases”). The Board of Directors separately approved the repurchase of up to 4 million additional shares of common stock for the purpose of making grants to executives and employees. During the fourth quarter 2023, we did not purchase any shares related to remuneration arrangements or employee entitlements.

 ​

The following table summarizes our common stock repurchases by month during the three months ended December 31, 2023.

 

       

   

Total number of

   

Approximate U.S. dollar

 

 

Total

         

shares purchased

   

value of shares that may

 
    number of     Average     as part of     yet be purchased  

 

shares

   

price paid

   

publicly announced

   

under the programs

 

Period

 

purchased

   

per share

   

programs

   

(end of month, in millions)

 

October 1, 2023, through October 31, 2023

        $           $ 150  

November 1, 2023, through November 30, 2023

    1,303,582       25.37       1,303,582     $ 117  

December 1, 2023, through December 31, 2023

    1,016,288       28.36       1,016,288     $ 88  

Total

    2,319,870     $ 26.68       2,319,870    

 

 ​ ​

ITEM 6.  [RESERVED]

 ​

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENTS DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Business Overview

 

We are an independent global asset manager, specializing in active investment across all major asset classes. We actively manage a broad range of investment products for institutional and retail investors across four capabilities: Equities, Fixed Income, Multi-Asset and Alternatives. Our strategy revolves around three strategic pillars: Protect & Grow, Amplify, and Diversify, emphasizing relentless focus and disciplined execution in our core business for future success as a global active asset manager. Our strategy aims to foster sustained organic growth while also capitalizing on opportunistic inorganic growth opportunities to generate value for all of our stakeholders. We serve a diverse clientele worldwide, comprising intermediaries, institutional investors and self-directed clients. To cater to regional needs effectively, we maintain local presence across most markets and provide investment materials tailored to local customs, preferences and languages supported by our global distribution team. 

 

Segment Considerations

 

We are a global asset manager and manage a range of investment products, operating across various product lines, distribution channels and geographic regions. However, information is reported to the chief operating decision-maker, our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”), on an aggregated basis. Strategic and financial management decisions are determined centrally by our CEO and, on this basis, we operate as a single-segment investment management business.

 

Revenue

 

Revenue primarily consists of management fees and performance fees. Management fees are generally based on a percentage of the market value of our AUM and are calculated using either the daily, month-end or quarter-end average asset balance in accordance with contractual agreements. Accordingly, fluctuations in the financial markets have a direct effect on our operating results. Additionally, our AUM may outperform or underperform the financial markets and, therefore, may fluctuate in varying degrees from that of the general market.

 

Performance fees are specified in certain fund and client contracts, and are based on investment performance either on an absolute basis or compared to an established index over a specified period of time. These fees are often subject to an HWM. Performance fees are recognized at the end of the contractual period (typically monthly, quarterly or annually) if the stated performance criteria are achieved. Certain fund contracts allow for negative performance fees where there is underperformance against the relevant index.

 

 

2023 SUMMARY

 

2023 Highlights

 

 

Solid long-term investment performance, with 60%, 69% and 71% of our AUM outperforming benchmarks on a three-, five- and 10-year basis, respectively, as of December 31, 2023.

 ​

 

AUM increased to $334.9 billion, up 17% from the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to positive market performance.

 ​

 

Net outflows for the year ended December 31, 2023, were $0.7 billion compared to $30.8 billion of net outflows, excluding Intech, for the year ended December 31, 2022. Refer to Note 3 — Dispositions, in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, for information regarding the divesture of Intech.

 

 

2023 diluted earnings per share was $2.37, or $2.63 on an adjusted basis. Refer to the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section for information on adjusted non-GAAP figures.

 ​

 

Strong balance sheet and cash generation, with $1.2 billion in cash and cash equivalents and $441.6 million of cash provided by operating activities in the year ended December 31, 2023.

 

 

During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Board of Directors declared and paid dividends of $1.56 per share.

 ​

 

During the year ended December 31, 2023, we acquired 2,319,870 shares of our common stock for $61.9 million as part of the share buyback program.

 ​

Financial Summary

 

Results are reported on a U.S. GAAP basis. Adjusted non-GAAP figures are presented in the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section.

 

Revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023, was $2,101.8 million, a decrease of $101.8 million, or (5%), compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. The key driver of the decrease was:

 ​

 

A decline of $99.3 million in management fees primarily due to the impact of lower average AUM.

 

 ​Total operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023, were $1,618.1 million, a decline of $95.7 million, or (6%), compared to operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2022. Key drivers of the decrease include the following:

 

 

A decrease of $42.4 million in distribution expenses primarily due to lower average AUM;

 ​

 

A decrease of $35.8 million in intangible asset impairment charges; and

 ​

 

A decrease of $18.2 million in employee compensation and benefits due to lower variable compensation charges.

 ​

Operating income for the year ended December 31, 2023, was $483.7 million, a decrease of $6.1 million, or (1%), compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. Our operating margin was 23.0% in 2023 compared to 22.2% in 2022.

 

Net income attributable to JHG for the year ended December 31, 2023, was $392.0 million, an increase of $19.6 million, or 5%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. In addition to the aforementioned factors affecting revenue and operating expenses, key drivers of the increase include the following:

 

 

A favorable movement of $156.7 million in investment gains (losses), net, partially offset by a decline of $132.6 million in net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interests in 2023 compared to 2022. Movements in investment gains (losses), net and net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interests are primarily due to market movements in relation to our seeded investment products and derivative instruments and the consolidation or deconsolidation of third-party ownership interests in seeded investment products.

 ​

Investment Performance of Assets Under Management

 ​

The following table is a summary of our investment performance as of December 31, 2023:

 ​

Percentage of AUM outperforming benchmark

 

1 year

   

3 years

   

5 years

   

10 years

 

Equities

    42 %     48 %     57 %     60 %

Fixed Income

    79 %     66 %     88 %     91 %

Multi-Asset

    8 %     96 %     97 %     97 %

Alternatives

    57 %     97 %     100 %     100 %

Total

    44 %     60 %     69 %     71 %

 ​

 

Assets Under Management

 

Our AUM as of December 31, 2023, was $334.9 billion, an increase of $47.6 billion, or 17%, from December 31, 2022, driven primarily by positive market movements of $45.1 billion.

 ​

Our non-USD AUM is primarily denominated in GBP, EUR and AUD. During the year ended December 31, 2023, the USD weakened against GBP, EUR and AUD, resulting in a $3.2 billion increase in our AUM. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 30% of our AUM was non-USD-denominated.

 

Our AUM and flows by capability for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, were as follows (in billions):

 ​

 

Closing AUM

   

   

                                   

Closing AUM

 
   

December 31,

                   

Net sales

                   

Reclassifications

   

December 31,

 

 

2022

   

Sales

   

Redemptions(1)

   

(redemptions)

   

Markets

   

FX(2)

   

and disposals(3)

   

2023

 

By capability:

 

   

   

                                         

Equities

  $ 171.3     $ 31.0     $ (33.2 )   $ (2.2 )   $ 34.8     $ 2.1     $ (0.9 )   $ 205.1  

Fixed Income

    59.8       24.1       (16.9 )     7.2       3.8       0.7             71.5  

Multi-Asset

    45.5       4.1       (7.7 )     (3.6 )     6.2       0.2       0.6       48.9  

Alternatives

    10.7       1.7       (3.8 )     (2.1 )     0.3       0.2       0.3       9.4  

Total

  $ 287.3     $ 60.9     $ (61.6 )   $ (0.7 )   $ 45.1     $ 3.2     $     $ 334.9  

 ​

 

Closing AUM

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

Closing AUM

 

 

December 31,

   

   

   

Net sales

   

   

   

Reclassifications

   

December 31,

 

 

2021

   

Sales

   

Redemptions(1)

   

(redemptions)

   

Markets

   

FX(2)

   

and disposals(3)

   

2022

 

By capability:

                                                               

Equities

  $ 244.3     $ 24.4     $ (45.6 )   $ (21.2 )   $ (47.2 )   $ (5.9 )   $ 1.3     $ 171.3  

Fixed Income

    79.6       23.0       (29.4 )     (6.4 )     (8.9 )     (4.5 )           59.8  

Multi-Asset

    59.7       6.5       (10.8 )     (4.3 )     (9.3 )     (0.6 )           45.5  

Alternatives

    10.7       6.4       (5.3 )     1.1       (0.3 )     (0.8 )           10.7  

Quantitative Equities

    38.0       0.2       (5.9 )     (5.7 )     (2.6 )     (0.1 )     (29.6 )      

Total

  $ 432.3     $ 60.5     $ (97.0 )   $ (36.5 )   $ (68.3 )   $ (11.9 )   $ (28.3 )   $ 287.3  

 ​

 

Closing AUM

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

Closing AUM

 

 

December 31,

   

   

   

Net sales

   

   

   

Reclassifications

   

December 31,

 

 

2020

   

Sales

   

Redemptions(1)

   

(redemptions)

   

Markets

   

FX(2)

   

and disposals(3)

   

2021

 

By capability:

                                                               

Equities

  $ 219.4     $ 34.7     $ (43.9 )   $ (9.2 )   $ 36.0     $ (1.9 )   $     $ 244.3  

Fixed Income

    81.5       22.1       (21.0 )     1.1       (1.1 )     (1.9 )           79.6  

Multi-Asset

    48.0       12.3       (8.1 )     4.2       7.7       (0.2 )           59.7  

Quantitative Equities

    42.0       0.6       (12.6 )     (12.0 )     8.0                   38.0  

Alternatives

    10.7       4.7       (5.0 )     (0.3 )     0.7       (0.4 )           10.7  

Total

  $ 401.6     $ 74.4     $ (90.6 )   $ (16.2 )   $ 51.3     $ (4.4 )   $     $ 432.3  

 


(1)

Redemptions include the impact of client transfers.

(2)

FX reflects movements in AUM resulting from changes in foreign currency rates as non-USD-denominated AUM is translated into USD.

(3)

Reclassifications relate to reclassifications of existing funds from Equities to Multi-Asset and Alternatives in 2023 and from Quantitative Equities to Equities in 2022. Disposal activity in 2022 relates to the sale of Intech. Refer to Note 3 — Dispositions, in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, for information regarding the divesture of Intech.

 ​

 

Our AUM and flows by client type for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, were as follows (in billions):

 

   

Closing AUM

                                                   

Closing AUM

 
   

December 31,

                   

Net sales

                   

Reclassifications

   

December 31,

 
   

2022

   

Sales

   

Redemptions(1)

   

(redemptions)

   

Markets

   

FX(2)

   

and disposals(3)

   

2023

 

By client type:

                                                               

Intermediary

  $ 162.0     $ 39.5     $ (43.1 )   $ (3.6 )   $ 22.8     $ 2.1     $ 0.1     $ 183.4  

Self-directed

    64.3       1.3       (4.8 )     (3.5 )     14.9       0.2       0.2       76.1  

Institutional

    61.0       20.1       (13.7 )     6.4       7.4       0.9       (0.3 )     75.4  

Total

  $ 287.3     $ 60.9     $ (61.6 )   $ (0.7 )   $ 45.1     $ 3.2     $     $ 334.9  

 

   

Closing AUM

                                                   

Closing AUM

 
   

December 31,

                   

Net sales

                   

Reclassifications

   

December 31,

 
   

2021

   

Sales

   

Redemptions(1)

   

(redemptions)

   

Markets

   

FX(2)

   

and disposals(3)

   

2022

 

By client type:

                                                               

Intermediary

  $ 215.0     $ 39.9     $ (53.3 )   $ (13.4 )   $ (32.8 )   $ (5.9 )   $ (0.9 )   $ 162.0  

Self-directed

    90.1       1.5       (5.1 )     (3.6 )     (21.6 )     (0.6 )           64.3  

Institutional

    127.2       19.1       (38.6 )     (19.5 )     (13.9 )     (5.4 )     (27.4 )     61.0  

Total

  $ 432.3     $ 60.5     $ (97.0 )   $ (36.5 )   $ (68.3 )   $ (11.9 )   $ (28.3 )   $ 287.3  

 

   

Closing AUM

                                                   

Closing AUM

 
   

December 31,

                   

Net sales

                   

Reclassifications

   

December 31,

 
   

2020

   

Sales

   

Redemptions(1)

   

(redemptions)

   

Markets

   

FX(2)

   

and disposals(3)

   

2021

 

By client type:

                                                               

Intermediary

  $ 192.9     $ 56.9     $ (54.8 )   $ 2.1     $ 23.8     $ (2.0 )   $ (1.8 )   $ 215.0  

Institutional

    127.6       14.3       (29.6 )     (15.3 )     15.4       (2.3 )     1.8       127.2  

Self-directed

    81.1       3.2       (6.2 )     (3.0 )     12.1       (0.1 )           90.1  

Total

  $ 401.6     $ 74.4     $ (90.6 )   $ (16.2 )   $ 51.3     $ (4.4 )   $     $ 432.3  

 


(1)

Redemptions include the impact of client transfers.

(2)

FX reflects movements in AUM resulting from changes in foreign currency rates as non-USD-denominated AUM is translated into USD.

(3)

Reclassifications relate to reclassifications of existing funds from Institutional to Self-directed and Intermediary in 2023 and from Intermediary to Institutional in 2021. Disposal activity in 2022 relates to the sale of Intech. Refer to Note 3 — Dispositions, in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, for information regarding the divesture of Intech.

 ​

Average Assets Under Management

 

The following table presents our average AUM by capability for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 (in billions):

 

   

Average AUM

                 
   

Year ended December 31,

   

2023 vs.

   

2022 vs.

 

By capability:

 

2023

   

2022

   

2021

   

2022

   

2021

 

Equities

  $ 191.6     $ 193.2     $ 236.4       (1 )%     (18 )%

Fixed Income

    65.5       67.2       80.6       (3 )%     (17 )%

Multi-Asset

    47.1       49.2       53.2       (4 )%     (8 )%

Alternatives

    9.6       11.5       10.5       (17 )%     10 %

Quantitative Equities(1)

          7.7       41.3       (100 )%     (81 )%

Total

  $ 313.8     $ 328.8     $ 422.0       (5 )%     (22 )%

 

(1)  On March 31, 2022, we completed the sale of our 97%-owned Quantitative Equities subsidiary, Intech.

 

 

Closing Assets Under Management

 

The following table presents our closing AUM by client location, as of December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 (in billions):

 ​

 

Closing AUM

   

Closing AUM

   

Closing AUM

                 

 

December 31,

   

December 31,

   

December 31,

   

2023 vs.

   

2022 vs.

 

By client location:

 

2023

   

2022

   

2021

   

2022

   

2021

 

North America

  $ 198.6     $ 168.6     $ 241.0       18 %     (30 )%

EMEA and Latin America

    102.9       85.7       132.3       20 %     (35 )%

Asia Pacific

    33.4       33.0       59.0       1 %     (44 )%

Total

  $ 334.9     $ 287.3     $ 432.3       17 %     (34 )%

 

Valuation of Assets Under Management

 

The fair value of our AUM is based on the value of the underlying cash and investments of our funds, trusts and segregated mandates. A significant proportion of these securities is listed or quoted on a recognized securities exchange or market and is regularly traded thereon; these investments are valued based on unadjusted quoted market prices. However, for non-U.S. equity securities held by U.S. mutual funds, excluding ETFs, the quoted market prices may be adjusted to capture market movement between the time the local market closes and the NYSE closes. Other investments, including OTC derivative contracts (which are dealt in or through a clearing firm, exchanges or financial institutions), are valued by reference to the most recent official settlement price quoted by the appointed market vendor, and in the event no price is available from this source, a broker quotation may be used. Physical property held is valued monthly by a specialist independent appraiser.

 ​

When a readily ascertainable market value does not exist for an investment, the fair value is calculated using a variety of methodologies, including the expected cash flows of its underlying net asset base, taking into account applicable discount rates and other factors; comparable securities or relevant indices; recent financing rounds; revenue multiples; or a combination thereof. Judgment is used to ascertain if a formerly active market has become inactive and to determine fair values when markets have become inactive. Our Fair Value Pricing Committees are responsible for determining or approving these unquoted prices, which are reported to those charged with governance of the funds and trusts. For funds that invest in markets that are closed at their valuation point, an assessment is made daily to determine whether a fair value pricing adjustment is required to the fund’s valuation. This may be due to significant market movements in other correlated open markets, scheduled market closures or unscheduled market closures as a result of natural disaster or government intervention.

 ​

Third-party administrators hold a key role in the collection and validation of prices used in the valuation of the securities. Daily price validation is completed using techniques such as day-on-day tolerance movements, invariant prices, excessive movement checks and intra-vendor tolerance checks. Our data management team performs oversight of this process and completes annual due diligence on the processes of third parties.

 ​

In other cases, we and the sub-administrators perform a number of procedures to validate the pricing received from third-party providers. For actively traded equity and fixed income securities, prices are received daily from both a primary and secondary vendor. Prices from the primary and secondary vendors are compared to identify any discrepancies. In the event of a discrepancy, a price challenge may be issued to both vendors. Securities with significant day-to-day price changes require additional research, which may include a review of all news pertaining to the issue and issuer, and any corporate actions. All fixed income prices are reviewed by our fixed income trading desk to incorporate market activity information available to our traders. In the event the traders have received price indications from market makers for a particular issue, this information is transmitted to the pricing vendors.

 ​

We leverage the expertise of our fund management teams across the business to cross-invest assets and create value for our clients. Where cross investment occurs, assets and flows are identified, and the duplication is removed.

 

Results of Operations

 

Foreign Currency Translation

 ​

Foreign currency translation impacts our Results of Operations. Revenue is impacted by foreign currency translation, but the impact is generally determined by the primary currency of the individual funds. Expenses are also impacted by foreign currency translation, primarily driven by the translation of GBP to USD. The GBP strengthened against the USD during the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, and the GBP weakened against the USD during the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. Meaningful foreign currency translation impacts to our operating expenses are discussed in the Operating Expenses section below.

 ​

Revenue

 

   

Year ended December 31,

   

2023 vs.

   

2022 vs.

 
   

2023

   

2022

   

2021

   

2022

   

2021

 

Revenue (in millions):

                                       

Management fees

  $ 1,700.1     $ 1,799.4     $ 2,189.4       (6 )%     (18 )%

Performance fees

    5.1       (10.7 )     102.7    

n/m

*  

n/m

*

Shareowner servicing fees

    213.3       224.0       260.7       (5 )%     (14 )%

Other revenue

    183.3       190.9       214.2       (4 )%     (11 )%

Total revenue

  $ 2,101.8     $ 2,203.6     $ 2,767.0       (5 )%     (20 )%

                                       * n/m - Not meaningful.

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Management fees

 

Management fees decreased $99.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to a decline in average AUM.

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Management fees decreased $390.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, primarily due to the impact of lower average AUM, which caused management fees to decline by $421.4 million. This decrease was partially offset by an increase of $17.8 million driven by an improvement in management fee margins primarily due to a product mix shift toward higher yielding products.

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Average net management fee margins, by capability, consisted of the following for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021:

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Year ended December 31,

   

2023 vs.

   

2022 vs.

 

 

2023

   

2022

   

2021

   

2022

   

2021

 

Average net management fee margin (bps)(1):

                                       

Equities

    54.4       55.2       56.1       (1 )%     (2 )%

Fixed Income

    27.8       29.6       29.1       (6 )%     2 %

Multi-Asset

    52.9       53.1       52.9       (0 )%     0 %

Alternatives

    61.9       60.4       68.4       2 %     (12 )%

Quantitative Equities(2)

          15.8       16.5       (100 )%     (4 )%

Total average

    48.9       48.9       47.0