Company Quick10K Filing
Jumei
20-F 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-04-30
20-F 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-04-30
20-F 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-05-01
20-F 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-04-29

JMEI 20F Annual Report

Part I
Item 1.Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2.Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3.Key Information
Item 4.Information on The Company
Item 4A.Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5.Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6.Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7.Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8.Financial Information
Item 9.The Offer and Listing
Item 10.Additional Information
Item 11.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 12.Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities
Part II
Item 13.Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14.Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
Item 15.Controls and Procedures
Item 16.
Item 16A.Audit Committee Financial Expert
Item 16B.Code of Ethics
Item 16C.Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 16D.Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E.Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F.Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
Item 16G.Corporate Governance
Item 16H.Mine Safety Disclosure
Part III
Item 17.Financial Statements
Item 18.Financial Statements
Item 19.Exhibits
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Jumei Earnings 2017-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

20-F 1 tv488615_20f.htm 20-F

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 20-F

 

(Mark One)

 

¨ REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017
OR
¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 OR
¨ SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Date of event requiring this shell company report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

For the transition period from                       to                        

 

Commission file number: 001-36442

 

Jumei International Holding Limited
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
N/A
(Translation of Registrant's name into English)
 
Cayman Islands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 

20th Floor, Tower B, Zhonghui Plaza

11 Dongzhimen South Road, Dongcheng District

Beijing 100007, People's Republic of China

(Address of principal executive offices)
 

Leo Ou Chen

Acting Chief Financial Officer

Telephone: + 86 10 5280 2802

E-mail: leochen@jumei.com

20th Floor, Tower B, Zhonghui Plaza

11 Dongzhimen South Road, Dongcheng District

Beijing 100007, the People's Republic of China

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

 

Title of each class   Name of each exchange on which registered

American depositary shares, each representing one Class
A ordinary share

Class A ordinary Shares, par value $0.00025 per share

 

The New York Stock Exchange

The New York Stock Exchange*

 

* Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on The New York Stock Exchange of American depositary shares.

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

 

None
(Title of Class)

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

 

None
(Title of Class)

 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

 

As of December 31, 2017, there were 149,884,681 ordinary shares outstanding, par value $0.00025 per share, being the sum of 92,992,483 Class A ordinary shares and 56,892,198 Class B ordinary shares.

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

¨ Yes   x No

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

¨ Yes   x No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

x Yes   ¨ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).

x Yes   ¨ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ¨ Accelerated filer x Non-accelerated filer ¨ Emerging growth company ¨

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

 

†The term "new or revised financial accounting standard" refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP x

 

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
by the International Accounting Standards Board Other ¨
Other ¨

 

If "Other" has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

¨ Item 17   ¨ Item 18

 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

¨ Yes   x No

 

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

¨ Yes   ¨ No

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

INTRODUCTION 1
INFORMATION REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 1
PART I   2
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers 2
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable 2
Item 3. Key Information 2
Item 4. Information on the Company 47
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments 75
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects 75
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees 93
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions 101
Item 8. Financial Information 103
Item 9. The Offer and Listing 104
Item 10. Additional Information 105
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk 115
Item 12. Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities 116
PART II   117
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies 117
Item 14. Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds 117
Item 15. Controls and Procedures 117
Item 16.   119
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert 119
Item 16B. Code of Ethics 119
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services 119
Item 16D. Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees 119
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers 119
Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant 119
Item 16G. Corporate Governance 120
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure 120
PART III   120
Item 17. Financial Statements 120
Item 18. Financial Statements 120
Item 19. Exhibits 120

 

i

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Unless otherwise indicated and except where the context otherwise requires, references in this annual report on Form 20-F to:

 

·an "active customer" for a specified period are to a customer that made at least one purchase during the period;

 

·"ADSs" are to our American depositary shares, each of which represents one Class A ordinary share;

 

·"China" or the "PRC" are to the People's Republic of China, excluding, for the purposes of this annual report only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;

 

·"GMV" are to gross merchandise volume, which is the total value of merchandise sold through Jumei;

 

·our "internet platform" are to our jumei.com and jumeiglobal.com websites and our mobile platform ;

 

·"Jumei," "we," "us," "our company" and "our" are to Jumei International Holding Limited, and, in the context of describing our business and results of operations, also include its subsidiaries, consolidated variable interest entities and subsidiaries of the consolidated variable interest entities;

 

·"net GMV" are to the sum of (i) net revenues generated from merchandise sales, and (ii) net revenues generated from marketplace services and adding back corresponding payables to our third-party merchants; net GMV can be obtained from GMV by deducting value-added tax and surcharges, customer returns and cash coupons, and adding delivery fees charged to our customers;

 

·"ordinary shares" are to our Class A and Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.00025 per share;

 

·"RMB" and "Renminbi" are to the legal currency of China;

 

·"SKUs" are to stock keeping units; and

 

·"US$," "U.S. dollars," "$," and "dollars" are to the legal currency of the United States.

 

INFORMATION REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This annual report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of current or historical facts are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

 

You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as "may," "will," "expect," "anticipate," "aim," "estimate," "intend," "plan," "believe," "is/are likely to," "potential," "continue" or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:

 

·our goals and strategies;

 

·our future business development, financial conditions and results of operations;

 

·the expected growth of the retail and online retail markets in China;

 

·our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our products and services;

 

·our expectations regarding our relationships with customers, suppliers and third-party merchants;

 

 1 

 

  

·our plans to invest in our fulfillment infrastructure and technology platform;

 

·competition in our industry; and

 

·relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry.

 

You should read thoroughly this annual report and the documents that we refer to in this annual report with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. Other sections of this annual report include additional factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this annual report and the documents that we refer to in this annual report and have filed as exhibits to this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

 

PART I

 

Item 1.Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

 

Not applicable.

 

Item 2.Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

 

Not applicable.

 

Item 3.Key Information

 

A.Selected Financial Data

 

The following summary consolidated statements of income data for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017, summary consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2016 and 2017 and summary consolidated cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. The summary consolidated statements of income/(loss) data for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2014, summary consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015 and summary consolidated cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2014 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements which are not included in this annual report. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP.

 

You should read the summary consolidated financial information in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects" included elsewhere in this annual report. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our results expected for future periods.

 

 2 

 

 

   For the Year Ended December 31, 
   2013   2014   2015   2016   2017 
   RMB   RMB   RMB   RMB   RMB   US$ 
   (in thousands, except for share, per share and per ADS data) 
                         
Summary Consolidated Statements of Income/(Loss):                              
Net revenues:                              
Merchandise sales   2,556,139    3,355,914    7,113,278    6,174,721    5,634,156    865,954 
Marketplace and other services   434,977    531,617    229,681    102,462    182,676    28,077 
Total net revenues   2,991,116    3,887,531    7,342,959    6,277,183    5,816,832    894,031 
Cost of revenues   (1,754,539)   (2,350,702)   (5,225,669)   (4,524,897)   (4,527,284)   (695,831)
Gross profit   1,236,577    1,536,829    2,117,290    1,752,286    1,289,548    198,200 
Operating expenses                              
Fulfillment expenses   (366,795)   (434,691)   (948,954)   (769,651)   (580,792)   (89,266)
Marketing expenses   (322,965)   (499,115)   (655,314)   (427,827)   (401,756)   (61,749)
Technology and content expenses   (62,068)   (135,698)   (169,694)   (216,310)   (200,342)   (30,792)
General and administrative expenses   (246,052)   (102,527)   (191,918)   (206,243)   (144,883)   (22,268)
Total operating expenses(1):   (997,880)   (1,172,031)   (1,965,880)   (1,620,031)   (1,327,773)   (204,075)
Income/(loss) from operations   238,697    364,798    151,410    132,255    (38,225)   (5,875)
Other income/(expenses)                              
Interest income   5,675    82,251    114,123    85,597    65,515    10,069 
Others, net   771    56,397    (59,289)   76,271    (45,393)   (6,977)
Share of income from equity method investment               2,452    4,903    754 
Impairment of investment security               (114,789)   -    - 
Income/(loss) before tax   245,143    503,446    206,244    181,786    (13,200)   (2,029)
Income tax expenses   (88,576)   (98,083)   (71,403)   (31,604)   (23,778)   (3,655)
Net income/(loss)   156,567    405,363    134,841    150,182    (36,978)   (5,684)
Net income/(loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests, net of tax nil       (222)   (11,925)   (7,958)   -    - 
Net income/(loss) attributable to Jumei International Holding Limited   156,567    405,141    122,916    142,224    (36,978)   (5,684)
Accretion to preferred share redemption value   (11,123)   (4,629)                
Income allocation to participating Redeemable Preferred Shares   (46,473)   (55,984)                
Net income/(loss) attributable to Jumei's ordinary shareholders   98,971    344,528    122,916    142,224    (36,978)   (5,684)

 

 3 

 

 

   For the Year Ended December 31, 
   2013   2014   2015   2016   2017 
   RMB   RMB   RMB   RMB   RMB   US$ 
   (in thousands, except for share, per share and per ADS data) 
Weighted average number of ordinary shares used in per share calculations(2):                              
- Basic   59,475,739    115,090,686    145,901,672    149,477,388    149,790,335    149,790,335 
- Diluted   83,196,788    125,217,054    149,758,825    150,069,205    149,790,335    149,790,335 
Net income/(loss) per share attributable to Jumei's ordinary shareholders:                              
- Basic   1.66    2.99    0.84    0.95    (0.25)   (0.04)
- Diluted   1.19    2.75    0.82    0.95    (0.25)   (0.04)
Net income/(loss) per ADS attributable to Jumei's ordinary shareholders(3):                              
- Basic   1.66    2.99    0.84    0.95    (0.25)   (0.04)
- Diluted   1.19    2.75    0.82    0.95    (0.25)   (0.04)

 

(1)Share-based compensation expenses are allocated in operating expenses items as follows:

 

   For the Year Ended December 31, 
   2013   2014   2015   2016   2017 
   RMB   RMB   RMB   RMB   RMB   US$ 
   (in thousands) 
Fulfillment expenses   2,347    5,865    6,860    6,299    390    60 
Marketing expenses   2,963    10,017    8,621    8,062    7,726    1,187 
Technology and content expenses   4,846    8,347    8,335    4,233    5,266    809 
General and administrative expenses   191,092    14,888    22,545    19,678    10,328    1,587 

 

(2)Immediately prior to the completion of our initial public offering in May 2014, all of the ordinary shares then held by Super ROI Global Holding Limited and Pinnacle High-Tech Limited were re-designated as Class B ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis and all of the then remaining ordinary shares and preferred shares that were issued and outstanding were automatically converted and re-designated into Class A ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis.

 

(3)Each ADS represents one Class A ordinary share.

 

   As of December 31, 
   2013   2014   2015   2016   2017 
   RMB   RMB   RMB   RMB   RMB   US$ 
   (in thousands except for share data) 
Summary Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:                              
Cash and cash equivalents   679,208    1,012,127    2,564,287    2,301,471    401,147    61,655 
Accounts receivable, net   17,116    26,942    76,937    28,868    22,334    3,433 
Inventories   199,084    621,772    965,510    646,116    603,091    92,693 
Total assets   1,191,962    4,549,430    4,991,673    4,746,101    4,967,233    763,451 
Accounts payable   541,225    889,960    1,030,200    605,131    578,881    88,972 
Total liabilities   729,818    1,179,697    1,347,661    858,969    1,025,310    157,589 
Total mezzanine equity   107,955                66,696    10,251 
Ordinary shares   135    237    239    244    244    38 
Total shareholders' equity   354,189    3,369,733    3,644,012    3,887,132    3,875,227    595,611 
Number of outstanding ordinary shares   79,124,394    145,205,128    146,634,596    149,706,286    149,884,681    149,884,681 

 

 4 

 

 

   As of December 31, 
   2013   2014   2015   2016   2017 
   RMB   RMB   RMB   RMB   RMB   US$ 
   (in thousands except for share data) 
Summary Consolidated Cash Flow Data:                              
Net cash provided by/(used in) operating activities   524,750    422,444    151,497    83,518    (440,495)   (67,706)
Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities   (28,753)   (2,575,715)   1,383,691    (440,461)   (1,309,126)   (201,210)
Net cash provided by/(used in) financing activities   (5,236)   2,486,702    4,417    13,285    (91,248)   (14,025)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents   110    (512)   12,555    80,842    (59,455)   (9,132)
Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents   490,871    332,919    1,552,160    (262,816)   (1,900,324)   (292,073)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year   188,337    679,208    1,012,127    2,564,287    2,301,471    353,728 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of year   679,208    1,012,127    2,564,287    2,301,471    401,147    61,655 

 

Exchange Rate Information

 

Our business is primarily conducted in China and almost all of our revenues are denominated in RMB, and we report our financial results in RMB. Current period amounts in this annual report are translated into U.S. dollars for the convenience of the readers. The conversion of RMB into U.S. dollars in this annual report is based on the exchange rate set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or the Federal Reserve Board. Unless otherwise noted, all translations from RMB to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to RMB in this annual report were made at a rate of RMB6.5063 to US$1.00, the exchange rate set forth in the H,10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board December 29, 2017. Our net GMV amounts for the historical periods are denominated in RMB and were translated into U.S. dollar amounts using the applicable average exchange rate for each relevant period. We make no representation that any RMB or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or RMB, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all. The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves in part through direct regulation of the conversion of RMB into foreign exchange and through restrictions on foreign trade. On April 20, 2018, the exchange rate set forth in the H,10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board was RMB6.2945 to US$1.00.

 

The following table sets forth information concerning exchange rates between the RMB and the U.S. dollar for the periods indicated.

 

 5 

 

 

   Noon Buying Rate 
Period  Period-End   Average(1)   Low   High 
   (RMB per U.S. Dollar) 
                 
2013   6.0537    6.1412    6.2438    6.0537 
2014   6.2046    6.1704    6.2591    6.0402 
2015   6.4778    6.2869    6.4896    6.1870 
2016   6.9430    6.6549    6.9580    6.4480 
2017   6.5063    6.7350    6.9575    6.4773 
October   6.6328    6.6254    6.6533    6.5712 
November   6.6090    6.6200    6.6385    6.5967 
December   6.5063    6.5932    6.6210    6.5063 
2018                    
January   6.2841    6.4233    6.5263    6.2841 
February   6.3280    6.3183    6.3471    6.2649 
March   6.2726    6.3174    6.3565    6.2685 
April (through April 20, 2018)   6.2945    6.2859    6.3045    6.2655 

 

Source: Federal Reserve Statistical Release

 

(1)Annual averages are calculated using the average of month-end rates of the relevant year. Monthly averages are calculated using the average of the daily rates during the relevant period.

 

B.Capitalization and Indebtedness

 

Not applicable.

 

C.Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

 

Not applicable.

 

D.Risk Factors

 

Risks Related to Our Business

 

Any harm to our Jumei (聚美) brand or our reputation may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

We believe that the recognition and reputation of our Jumei (聚美) brand among our customers, suppliers and third-party merchants have contributed significantly to the growth and success of our business. Maintaining and enhancing the recognition and reputation of our brand are critical to our business and market position. Many factors, some of which are beyond our control, are important to maintaining and enhancing our brand. These factors include our ability to:

 

·maintain the popularity, quality and authenticity of the products we offer;

 

·provide a superior online shopping experience to customers;

 

·increase brand awareness through various means of marketing and promotional activities;

 

·maintain the efficiency, reliability and quality of our fulfillment and delivery services;

 

·maintain and improve customers' satisfaction with our after-sales services;

 

·preserve and enhance our reputation and goodwill generally and in the event of any negative publicity on product quality or authenticity, customer service, internet security, or other issues affecting us or other online retailers in China; and

 

·maintain our cooperative relationships with quality suppliers, third-party merchants and other service providers.

 

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A public perception that non-authentic, counterfeit or defective goods are sold on our internet platform or that we do not provide satisfactory customer service, even if factually incorrect or based on isolated incidents, could damage our reputation, diminish the value of our brand, undermine the trust and credibility we have established among our customers and have a negative impact on our ability to attract new customers or retain our existing customers. In June 2014, the State Administration of Industry and Commerce launched Operation Red-shield, which was aimed at reducing the number of counterfeit products sold on e-commerce platforms in China. In July 2014, news media reported that certain luxury products sold by a third party merchant on a number of major e-commerce platforms in China, including the marketplace on our internet platform, were counterfeit. Following these reports, we received negative publicity. We immediately launched an investigation into the third-party merchant in question and closed its online store at our marketplace. We further decided to stop offering the products at issue on our marketplace. We also offered full refund for such products. Despite our remedial efforts, such negative publicity about us may have adversely damaged our brand, public image and reputation, which may harm our ability to attract customers and result in an adverse impact on our results of operations and prospects. If our reputation suffers, our business prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We face intense competition, and if we fail to compete effectively, we may lose market share and customers.

 

China's retail market for beauty products is fragmented and highly competitive. We face competition from traditional beauty products retailers, such as Watsons and Sephora, and online beauty products retailers, as well as e-commerce platform companies, such as Alibaba Group, which operates Taobao.com and Tmall.com, Amazon China, which operates Amazon.cn, JD.com, Inc., which operates JD.com, and Vipshop Holdings Limited, which operates VIP.com and Lefeng.com. See "Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Competition." Our current or future competitors may have longer operating histories, greater brand recognition, better supplier relationships, larger customer bases, more cost-effective fulfillment capabilities or greater financial, technical or marketing resources than we do. Competitors may leverage their brand recognition, experience and resources to compete with us in a variety of ways, including investing more heavily in research and development and making acquisitions for the expansion of their products and services. Some of our competitors may be able to secure more favorable terms from suppliers, devote greater resources to marketing and promotional campaigns, adopt more aggressive pricing or inventory policies and devote substantially more resources to their website and system development than us. In addition, new and enhanced technologies may increase the competition in the online retail market. Increased competition may reduce our profitability, market share, customer base and brand recognition. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully against current or future competitors, and such competitive pressures may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We incurred net losses in 2017, and we may incur net losses again in the future.

 

We commenced our beauty products retail business in March 2010 and have a limited operating history. Our total net revenues decreased by 14.5% from RMB7.3 billion in 2015 to RMB6.3 billion in 2016, and decreased by 7.3% to RMB5.8 billion(US$894.0 million) from 2016 to 2017. Our historical performance may not be indicative of our future financial results. We cannot assure you that we will be able to achieve similar positive results or grow at the same rate as we did in the past, or avoid similar negative results or decline in the future. Growth may slow or remain negative, and net revenues or net income may decline for a number of possible reasons, some of which are beyond our control, including decreasing consumer spending, increasing competition, slowing growth of our overall market, fulfillment bottlenecks, emergence of alternative business models, changes in government policies or general economic conditions. It is difficult to evaluate our prospects, as we may not have sufficient experience in addressing the risks to which companies operating in rapidly evolving markets may be exposed. You should consider our prospects in light of the risks and uncertainties that companies with a limited operating history may encounter.

 

We have incurred losses and we may continue to experience losses in the future.

 

While we have achieved positive net income in 2015 and 2016, we incurred net loss of RMB37.0 million (US$5.7 million) in 2017. We cannot assure you that we will be able to generate net profits or positive cash flow from operating activities in the future. Our ability to achieve profitability depends in large part on our ability to increase our gross margin of E-commerce and our operating income from the new businesses. We intend to continue to expand our product portfolio and to offer value-added services with higher margins and optimize the operation of new business, and we may continue to experience losses in the future.

 

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Our growth prospects could be negatively impacted by our decision to terminate our marketplace beauty products and luxury products sales to shift our marketplace beauty products sales to merchandise sales.

 

In the third quarter of 2014, we began to shift our marketplace beauty product sales to our merchandise sales. By the end of 2014, we had replaced most of our historical marketplace beauty product offerings using procurements through direct brand cooperation, department stores and our Jumei Global. While our decision to undertake such transitions were driven by our determination to ensure the authenticity and quality of the products sold through our internet platform, such transitions have resulted in a decrease in the number of SKUs available through our internet platform and exerted increased pressure on our merchandizing team to source the relevant beauty products directly. Furthermore, the termination of marketplace beauty product sales and the shift to merchandising sales had a negative impact on our financial performance since 2014. Although we are taking measures to improve operating efficiency, we cannot assure you that the shift would not continue to have negative impact on our results of operations or financial results in the future. Our decision to terminate our marketplace beauty products and luxury products sales to shift our marketplace beauty products sales to merchandise sales may negatively impact our future growth prospects and financial performance.

 

If we are unable to manage our growth or execute our strategies effectively, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We have generally been growing since our inception. Expansion has placed, and continues to place, significant strain on our management and resources. To accommodate our growth, we anticipate that we will need to implement a variety of new and upgraded operational and financial systems, procedures and controls, including the improvement of our accounting and other internal management systems. We will also need to continue to expand, train, manage and motivate our workforce and manage our relationships with customers, suppliers, brand owners, third-party merchants and other service providers. As we selectively increase our product offerings, we will need to work with different groups of new suppliers and third-party merchants efficiently and establish and maintain mutually beneficial relationships with our existing and new suppliers, brand owners and third-party merchants. All of these endeavors involve risks, and will require substantial management effort and significant additional expenditures. We cannot assure you that we will be able to manage our growth or execute our strategies effectively, and any failure to do so may have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.

 

Our expansion into new product categories and of our Jumei Global sales channel may expose us to new challenges and more risks and may lower our profit margins.

 

Since our inception, we have focused on selling beauty products online. We have expanded the product offerings on our internet platform to include selected categories of baby, children and maternity products, health supplements, light luxury products as well as apparel and other lifestyle products, pre-packaged food (excluding refrigerated food and frozen food). Expansion into new product categories involve new risks and challenges. Our lack of familiarity with these products and lack of relevant customer data relating to these products may make it more difficult for us to keep pace with the evolving customer demands and preferences.

 

We launched our Jumei Global sales channel in September 2014, which allows Chinese consumers to directly purchase products from overseas on our internet platform. We currently offer beauty products, baby, children and maternity products, light luxury products as well as health supplements through our Jumei Global sales channel, which expose us to new challenges and more risks associated with, for example, managing a global logistical network, operating directly in foreign jurisdictions and handling more complex supply and product return issues. Furthermore, our expansion of our Jumei Global sales channel has required us to make significant investment in building a global supply and logistics infrastructure and incurred considerable costs. The PRC regulatory framework, as well as the implementation policies of local authorities, in respect of overseas direct purchase and sale of merchandise are still evolving. New applicable laws and regulations and new interpretation of the existing laws and regulations may be adopted from time to time to address new issues that arise, and additional licenses and permits may be required. As a result, substantial uncertainties exist regarding the evolution of the regulatory system and the interpretation and implementation of current and future PRC laws and regulations applicable to our Jumei Global business. Further, certain regulatory changes may negatively impact the operations and financial performance of Jumei Global. For example, the change of PRC regulation of import tax on consumer goods imported through cross-border e-commerce platforms resulted in a decline in sales volume and decrease in revenue from Jumei Global.

 

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We have limited experience and operating history in our new product categories and our Jumei Global sales channel, which makes predicting our future results of operations more difficult than it otherwise would be. Therefore, our past results of operations should not be taken as indicative of our future performance. If we cannot successfully address new challenges and compete effectively, we may not be able to recover costs of our investments, and our future results of operations and growth prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We may incur liability for products sold on our internet platform that are without or have yet to receive proper authorization, or for products sold or content posted on our internet platform that infringe on third-party intellectual property rights, or for products sold on our internet platform that fail to comply with cosmetics-related permits or filing requirements.

 

In 2017, we worked with approximately 1,903 suppliers and third-party merchants on our internet platform. Although we have adopted measures to verify the authorization of products sold through us and avoid potential infringement of third-party intellectual property rights in the course of sourcing and selling products, we may not be successful in ensuring all products sold on our platform have proper authorization.

 

We have sold certain branded products that were procured by our suppliers or third-party merchants from overseas and domestic markets that are without or have yet to receive proper authorization and as a result, our relationships with brand owners, particularly the international brand owners that offer beauty products in the China market, may be adversely affected. We have in the past received and may continue to receive claims alleging that some products sold on our internet platform are without authorization from the relevant brand owners and suppliers, or otherwise infringe upon third-party intellectual property rights. Although our suppliers and third-party merchants are responsible for sourcing products to be sold on our internet platform and allegations and claims have not had material adverse impact on our business in the past, we might be required to allocate significant resources and incur material expenses regarding such claims in the future. Irrespective of the validity of such claims, we could incur significant costs and efforts in either defending or settling such claims, which could divert our management's attention from day-to-day operations. If there is a successful claim against us, we might be required to pay substantial damages or refrain from further sale of the relevant products. Regardless of whether we successfully defend against such claims, we could suffer negative publicity and our reputation could be severely damaged. Any of these events could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.

 

Furthermore, although as an online distributor we are not required to obtain customs clearance or other specific cosmetics-related permits, we are required under the relevant PRC laws to check whether importers have obtained the requisite import related permits or filings and whether the products have passed the quality inspection before they are sold and distributed in the China market. In the past, for products imported from outside of the PRC, we had requested our suppliers and third-party merchants to provide the relevant import permits or filings. To reduce any legal risks that we may be exposed to, we have adopted internal policy and procedures to periodically check import permits or filings as well as import tariff payments of our suppliers and third-party merchants. If any of our suppliers or third-party merchants has evaded import tariffs or fails to obtain clearance from the customs or inspection and quarantine bureaus and sold such imported products to us or on our internet platform, we may be subject to fines, suspension of business, as well as confiscation of products illegally sold and the proceeds from such sales, depending on the nature and gravity of such liabilities. See "Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulation — Regulation Relating to Distribution of Cosmetics."

 

Under our standard form agreements, we require suppliers or third-party merchants to indemnify us for any losses we suffer or any costs that we incur due to any products we source from these suppliers or any products sold by these third-party merchants. However, not all of our agreements with suppliers and third-party merchants have such terms, and for those agreements that have such terms, we may not be able to successfully enforce our contractual rights and may need to initiate costly and lengthy legal proceedings in China to protect our rights. Enforcing our contractual rights under those agreements will incur significant costs and efforts and will divert our management's attention from day-to-day operations. See "—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us."

 

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If counterfeit products are sold on our internet platform, our reputation and financial results could be materially and adversely affected.

 

Suppliers and third-party merchants on our internet platform are separately responsible for sourcing the products that are sold on our internet platform. Although we have adopted measures to verify the authenticity of products sold on our internet platform and to immediately remove any counterfeit products found on our internet platform, these measures may not always be successful. In July 2014, a major media outlet reported that certain luxury products sold by a third party merchant on a number of major e-commerce platforms in China, including the marketplace on our internet platform, were counterfeits. We immediately took actions to address this issue. Potential sanctions under PRC law if we were to negligently participate or assist in infringement activities associated with counterfeit goods include injunctions to cease infringing activities, rectification, compensation, administrative penalties and even criminal liability, depending on the gravity of such misconduct. Furthermore, counterfeit products may be defective or inferior in quality as compared to authentic products and may pose safety risks to our customers. If our customers are injured by counterfeit products sold on our internet platform, we may be subject to lawsuits, severe administrative penalties and criminal liability. See "—We may be subject to product liability claims if our customers are harmed by the products sold on our internet platform." We believe our brand and reputation are extremely important to our success and our competitive position. The discovery of counterfeit products sold on our internet platform may severally damage our reputation and cause customers to refrain from making future purchases from us, which would materially and adversely affect our business operations and financial results.

 

If we are unable to provide high quality customer experience, our business and reputation may be materially and adversely affected.

 

The success of our business largely depends on our ability to provide high quality customer experience, which in turn depends on a variety of factors. These factors include our ability to continue to offer authentic products at competitive prices, source products to respond to customer demands and preferences, maintain the quality of our products and services, provide reliable and user-friendly website interface and mobile applications for our customers to browse and purchase products, and provide timely and reliable delivery and superior after-sales service. If our customers are not satisfied with our products or services, or the prices at which we offer the products, or our internet platform is severely interrupted or otherwise fail to meet our customers' requests, our reputation and customer loyalty could be adversely affected.

 

We rely on contracted third-party delivery service providers to deliver our products. Interruptions to or failures in the delivery services could prevent the timely or successful delivery of our products. These interruptions or failures may be due to unforeseen events that are beyond our control or the control of our third-party delivery service providers, such as inclement weather, natural disasters or labor unrest. If our products are not delivered on time or are delivered in a damaged state, customers may refuse to accept our products and have less confidence in our services. Furthermore, the delivery personnel of contracted third-party delivery service providers act on our behalf and interact with our customers personally. Any failure to provide high-quality delivery services to our customers may negatively impact the shopping experience of our customers, damage our reputation and cause us to lose customers.

 

In addition, we depend on our customer service center and online customer service representatives to provide live assistance to our customers 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If our customer service representatives fail to provide satisfactory service, or if waiting times are too long due to the high volume of calls from customers at peak times, our brand and customer loyalty may be adversely affected. In addition, any negative publicity or poor feedback regarding our customer service may harm our brand and reputation and in turn cause us to lose customers and market share.

 

As a result, if we are unable to continue to maintain our customer experience and provide high quality customer service, we may not be able to retain existing customers or attract new customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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If we are unable to offer products at attractive prices to meet customer needs and preferences, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our future growth depends on our ability to continue attracting new customers and increasing the spending level of our existing customers. Constantly changing consumer preferences have affected and will continue to affect the online retail industry. We must stay abreast of emerging lifestyle and consumer preferences and anticipate product trends that will appeal to existing and potential customers. Our customers choose to purchase authentic and quality products on our internet platform due in part to the attractive prices that we offer, and they may choose to shop elsewhere if we cannot match the prices offered by other online retailers or by physical stores. If our customers cannot find their desired products within our product portfolio at attractive prices, they may lose interest in us and visit our internet platform less frequently or even stop visiting our internet platform altogether, which in turn may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We rely on the online retail sale of beauty products for a substantial portion of our net revenues.

 

Since our inception, we have focused on selling beauty products online. We expect that sales of beauty products will continue to be our focus and represent a substantial portion of our total net revenues in the near future. We have increased our offerings to include other product categories, mainly baby, children and maternity products, health supplements, light luxury products, apparel and other lifestyle products, and pre-packaged food. However, our sales of these new products may not increase to a level that would substantially reduce our dependence on online sales of beauty products. We face intense competition from other online retailers of beauty products and from established companies with physical stores that are moving into the online space. Any event that results in a reduction in our sales of beauty products could materially and adversely affect our ability to maintain or increase our current level of net revenue and business prospects.

 

If we fail to manage and expand our relationships with suppliers and third-party merchants, or otherwise fail to procure products at favorable terms, our business and growth prospects may suffer.

 

We worked with approximately 2,091, 2,244 and 1,903 suppliers and third-party merchants in 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. Our suppliers and third-party merchants include brand owners, brand distributors, resellers and suppliers of our exclusive products. Maintaining strong relationships with these suppliers and third-party merchants is important to the growth of our business.

 

In particular, we depend significantly on our ability to procure products from suppliers on favorable pricing terms and attract third-party merchants to offer their products on commercially attractive terms. However, our agreements do not ensure the long-term availability of products or the continuation of particular pricing practices or payment terms beyond the end of the contractual term. Other than for exclusive products, our agreements with suppliers and third-party merchants typically do not restrict them from selling products to other buyers. We cannot assure you that our current suppliers and third-party merchants will continue to sell products to us or offer products on our internet platform on commercially attractive terms, or at all, after the term of the current agreement expires. Even if we maintain good relationships with our suppliers and third-party merchants, they may be unable to remain in business due to economic conditions, labor actions, regulatory or legal decisions, natural disasters or other causes. In the event that we are not able to source products at favorable prices, our net revenues and gross profit as a percentage of net revenues may be materially and adversely affected.

 

In the event that any supplier or third-party merchant does not have authorization from the relevant brands to sell certain products to us, the suppliers may be prevented from selling products to us or the third-party merchants may be prevented from selling products at our internet platform at any time, which may adversely affect our business and net revenues. In addition, if our suppliers cease to provide us with favorable payment terms, our requirements for working capital may increase and our operations may be materially and adversely affected. We will also need to establish new supplier and third-party merchant relationships to ensure that we have access to a steady supply of products on favorable commercial terms. If we are unable to develop and maintain good relationships with suppliers and third-party merchants that would allow us to obtain a sufficient amount and variety of authentic and quality products on acceptable commercial terms, it may limit our ability to offer sufficient products sought by our customers, or to offer these products at prices acceptable to them. Any negative developments in our relationships with suppliers and third-party merchants could materially and adversely affect our business and growth prospects. If we fail to attract new suppliers and third-party merchants to sell their products to us or offer their products on our internet platform due to any reason, our business and growth prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

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If we are not able to manage our complex fulfillment network successfully, our growth potential, business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We believe our fulfillment network, currently consisting of strategically located logistics centers in Tianjin, Zhengzhou, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Suzhou and Hong Kong, is essential to our business. We have started and will continue integrating and consolidating our logistics centers to increase the overall capacity of our fulfillment network, accommodate more customer orders and provide better coverage of our target markets. In January 2016, we acquired land use rights for 169,456 square meters of warehouse land in Suzhou, on which we constructed a new self-owned logistics center. We have been using the new logistics center in Suzhou since the third quarter of 2017. Our fulfillment network is complex and challenging to operate. We cannot assure you that we will be able to lease facilities suitable to our needs on commercially acceptable terms or at all. We may not be able to recruit a sufficient number of qualified employees with regards to the expansion of our fulfillment network. In addition, the expansion of our fulfillment infrastructure may strain our managerial, financial, operational and other resources. If we fail to manage such expansion successfully, our growth potential, business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We depend on numerous third-party delivery service providers to deliver our products, and if they fail to provide reliable delivery services, our business and reputation may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We used a network of 49 third-party inter-city transportation companies and local third-party delivery service providers companies to deliver parcels to our customers as of December 31, 2017. For customers in remote areas not covered by our delivery network, we use the state-owned China postal services to deliver our products. Interacting with and coordinating the activities of many delivery companies are complicated and any major interruptions to or failures in these third parties' shipping services could prevent the timely or successful delivery of our products. These interruptions may be due to unforeseen events that are beyond our control or the control of these third-party delivery companies, such as inclement weather, natural disasters, transportation interruptions or labor unrest or shortage. If our products are not delivered on time or are delivered in a damaged state, customers may refuse to accept our products and have less confidence in our services. Thus, we may lose customers, and our financial condition and reputation could suffer. In addition, as local delivery service providers tend to be small companies with limited capital resources, they may be more likely to go bankrupt, go out of business or encounter financial difficulties, in which case we may not be able to retrieve our products in their possession, arrange for delivery of those products by an alternative carrier, receive the payments the delivery service providers collect for us, or hold them accountable for the losses they cause us. Although we generally only pay the delivery service providers after they have performed their services, such payment arrangements may not be sufficient to cover the risks to which we are exposed. In addition, if the delivery service providers cease to provide cash deposits to us or significantly reduce the amount of such deposits, our working capital requirements may increase and our operating cash flow may be materially and adversely affected. Delivery of our products could also be affected or interrupted by the merger, acquisition, insolvency or government shut-down of the delivery companies we engage to make deliveries, especially those local companies with relatively small business scales. The occurrence of any of these problems, alone or together, could damage our reputation and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

Any interruption in the operation of our logistics centers for an extended period may have an adverse impact on our business.

 

The beauty products we sell are stored in our logistics centers. We have logistics centers in each of Tianjin, Zhengzhou, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Suzhou and Hong Kong. All of our logistics centers are leased from third parties except our new logistic center in Suzhou. If any of the landlords terminate the lease agreements with us, or materially alter any existing arrangements with us, we may be forced to leave the premises and may not be adequately compensated for our investments or at all, and our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected as a result.

 

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Our ability to process and fulfill orders accurately and provide high quality customer service depends on the smooth operation of our logistics centers. Our fulfillment infrastructure may be vulnerable to damage caused by fire, flood, power outage, telecommunications failure, break-ins, earthquake, human error and other events. If any of our logistics centers were rendered incapable of operations, then we may be unable to fulfill any orders in any of the geographic areas that rely on that center. We do not carry business interruption insurance, and the occurrence of any of the foregoing risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may not be able to recoup the capital expenditures or investments we make to expand and upgrade our fulfillment and technology capabilities.

 

We have invested and will continue to invest in expanding our logistics center capability and upgrading our technology platform. Furthermore, we have already finished the construction of a self-owned logistics center in Suzhou. We expect to continue to invest in our fulfillment and technology capabilities as our business further develops. We are likely to incur costs associated with these investments earlier than some of the anticipated benefits, and the return on these investments may be lower, or may develop more slowly, than we expect. We may not be able to recover our capital expenditures or investments, in part or in full, or the recovery of these capital expenditures or investments may take longer than expected. As a result, the carrying value of the related assets may be subject to an impairment charge, which could adversely affect our profitability.

 

If we fail to adopt new technologies or adapt our website, mobile application and systems to changing customer requirements or emerging industry standards, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

 

To remain competitive, we must continue to enhance and improve the responsiveness, functionality and features of our internet platform. Our competitors are constantly developing innovations and introducing new products to increase their customer base and enhance user experience. As a result, in order to attract and retain customers and compete against our competitors, we must continue to invest significant resources in research and development to enhance our information technology and improve our existing products and services for our customers. The internet and the online retail industry are characterized by rapid technological evolution, changes in customer requirements and preferences, frequent introductions of new products and services embodying new technologies and the emergence of new industry standards and practices, any of which could render our existing technologies and systems obsolete. Our success will depend, in part, on our ability to identify, develop, acquire or license leading technologies useful in our business, and respond to technological advances and emerging industry standards and practices in a cost-effective and timely way. The development of website, mobile application and other proprietary technology entails significant technical and business risks. There can be no assurance that we will be able to use new technologies effectively or adapt our website, mobile application, proprietary technologies and systems to meet customer requirements or emerging industry standards. If we are unable to adapt in a cost-effective and timely manner in response to changing market conditions or customer requirements, whether for technical, legal, financial or other reasons, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We may be subject to product liability claims if our customers are harmed by the products sold on our internet platform.

 

We sell products manufactured by third parties, some of which may be defectively designed or manufactured, of inferior quality or counterfeit. For example, beauty products in general, regardless of their authenticity or quality, may cause allergic reactions or other illness that may be severe for certain customers. Sales and distributions of products on our internet platform could expose us to product liability claims relating to personal injury and may require product recalls or other actions. Third parties that suffered such injury may bring claims or legal proceedings against us as the retailer of the products or as the marketplace service provider. See "Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulation — Regulation Relating to Product Quality and Consumer Protection." Although we would have legal recourse against the manufacturers, suppliers or third-party merchants of such products under PRC law, attempting to enforce our rights against the manufacturers, suppliers or third-party merchants may be expensive, time-consuming and ultimately futile. Defective, inferior or counterfeit products or negative publicity as to personal injury caused by products sold on our platform may adversely affect consumer perceptions of our company or the products we sell, which could harm our reputation and brand image. In addition, we do not currently maintain any product liability insurance in relation to products we sell. Our third-party liability insurance coverage does not include products offered through third-party merchants, and the coverage on merchandise sales products might be insufficient. As a result, any material product liability claim or litigation could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Even unsuccessful claims could result in the expenditure of funds and managerial efforts in defending them and could have a negative impact on our reputation.

 

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If we are unable to conduct our marketing activities cost-effectively, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We have incurred expenses on a variety of different marketing and brand promotion efforts designed to enhance our brand recognition and increase sales of our products. Our marketing and promotional activities may not be well received by customers and may not result in the levels of product sales that we anticipate. We incurred RMB655.3 million, RMB427.8 million and RMB401.8 million (US$61.7 million) in marketing expenses in 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. Marketing approaches and tools in the consumer products market in China are evolving. This further requires us to enhance our marketing approaches and experiment with new marketing methods to keep pace with industry developments and customer preferences, which may not be as cost-effective as our marketing activities in the past and may lead to significantly higher marketing expenses in the future. While our innovative marketing campaigns, including our "I endorse myself" micro-films starring our senior executive officers, have proven to be highly successful, we cannot assure you that we can continue to produce, or benefit from, such unique and effective marketing campaigns in the future. Failure to refine our existing marketing approaches or to introduce new effective marketing approaches in a cost-effective manner could reduce our market share, cause our net revenues to decline and negatively impact our profitability.

 

If we fail to manage our inventory effectively, our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our business requires us to manage a large volume of inventory effectively. We depend on our forecasts of demand for and popularity of various products to make purchase decisions and to manage our inventory of SKUs. Demand for products, however, can change significantly between the time inventory or components are ordered and the date of sale. Demand may be affected by seasonality, new product launches, rapid changes in product cycles and pricing, product defects, changes in consumer spending patterns, changes in consumer tastes with respect to our products and other factors, and our customers may not order products in the quantities that we expect. It may be difficult to accurately forecast demand, and determine appropriate product or component. We generally have the right to return unsold items for most of our products to our suppliers. In order to secure more favorable commercial terms, we may need to continue to enter into supply arrangements without unconditional return clauses or with more restrictive return policies.

 

If we fail to manage our inventory effectively or negotiate favorable credit terms with third party suppliers, we may be subject to a heightened risk of inventory obsolescence, a decline in inventory values, and significant inventory write-downs or write-offs. In addition, if we are required to lower sale prices in order to reduce inventory level or to pay higher prices to our suppliers in order to secure the right to return products to our suppliers, our profit margins might be negatively affected. Any of the above may materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

 

Uncertainties relating to the growth and profitability of the online retail industry in China in general, and the development of the online curated and flash sales business models in particular, could adversely affect our net revenues and business prospects.

 

We generate substantially all of our net revenues from online retailing. While online retailing has existed in China since the 1990s, only recently have certain online retailers become profitable. The curated and flash sales business models were not introduced to China until recently. The long-term viability and prospects of various online retail business models in China, particularly the online curated and flash sales business models, remain relatively untested. Our future results of operations will depend on numerous factors affecting the development of the online curated and flash sales business and, more broadly, the online retail industry in China, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include:

 

·the growth of internet, broadband, personal computer and mobile penetration and usage as well as online retailing in China, and the rate of such growth;

 

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·the trust and confidence level of online shopping consumers in China, as well as changes in customer demographics and consumer tastes and preferences;

 

·the selection, price and popularity of products that we and our competitors offer online;

 

·the emergence and development of alternative retail channels or business models that better address the needs of consumers; and

 

·the development of fulfillment, payment and other ancillary services associated with online purchases.

 

A decline in the popularity of online shopping or more specifically, of online curated and flash sales, or any failure by us to adapt our internet platform and improve the online shopping experience of our customers in response to trends and consumer requirements, may adversely affect our net revenues and business prospects.

 

Furthermore, the online retail industry is very sensitive to macroeconomic changes, and retail purchases tend to decline during recessionary periods. Many factors outside of our control, including inflation and deflation, volatility of stock and property markets, interest rates, tax rates and other government policies and unemployment rates can adversely affect consumer confidence and spending, which could in turn materially and adversely affect our growth prospects and profitability.

 

The proper functioning of our technology platform is essential to our business. Any failure to maintain the satisfactory performance of our internet platform could materially and adversely affect our business and reputation.

 

The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our technology platform are critical to our success and our ability to attract and retain customers and provide quality customer service. Substantially all of our sales of products are made online through our internet platform. Our mobile customer experience relies on the effective use of mobile devices, operating systems, networks and standards that we do not control. Our net revenues depend on the number of visitors who shop on our internet platform and the volume of orders we fulfill. Any system interruptions caused by telecommunications failures, errors encountered during system upgrades or system expansions, computer viruses, hacking or other attempts to harm our systems that result in the unavailability or slowdown of our internet platform, leakage of confidential customer information, degraded order fulfillment performance, or additional shipping and handling costs, which may, individually or collectively, materially and adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any system failure or interruption could cause material damage to our reputation and brand image if our systems are perceived to be insecure or unreliable. For example, during a sales campaign in March 2013, our system was overwhelmed by unexpected spikes of large user traffic. As a result, our website was down for a couple of hours and we encountered backlogs and delays in our logistics and delivery systems. We subsequently resolved the problems, upgraded our technology system and significantly expanded its peak traffic handling capacities. We have not had any similar system failure since then. Our servers may also be vulnerable to computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins and similar disruptions, which could lead to system interruptions, website slowdown or unavailability, delays or errors in transaction processing, loss of data or the inability to accept and fulfill customer orders. Security breaches, computer viruses and hacking attacks have become more prevalent in our industry. Because of our brand recognition in the online retail industry in China, we believe we are a particularly attractive target for such attacks. We have experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, such attacks and unexpected interruptions. We can provide no assurance that our current security mechanisms will be sufficient to protect our IT systems from any third-party intrusions, viruses or hacker attacks, information or data theft or other similar activities. Any such future occurrences could reduce customer satisfaction, damage our reputation and result in a significant decrease in our net revenues.

 

Additionally, we must continue to upgrade and improve our technology platform to support our business growth, and failure to do so could impede our growth. However, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in executing these system upgrades and improvement strategies. In particular, our systems may experience interruptions during upgrades, and the new technologies or infrastructures may not be fully integrated with the existing systems on a timely basis, or at all. If our existing or future technology platform does not function properly, it could cause system disruptions and slow response times, affecting data transmission, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

 15 

 

 

Any deficiencies in China's telecommunication infrastructure could impair our ability to sell products over our internet platform, which could cause us to lose customers and materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

Substantially all of our sales of products are made online through our internet platform. Our business depends on the performance and reliability of the telecommunication infrastructure in China. The availability of our internet platform depends on telecommunications carriers and other third-party providers for communications and storage capacity, including bandwidth and server storage, among other things. Almost all access to the internet and mobile internet is maintained through state-owned telecommunication carriers under administrative control, and we obtain access to end-user networks operated by such telecommunications carriers and service providers to present our internet platform to consumers. We have experienced service interruptions in the past, which were typically caused by service interruptions at the underlying external telecommunications service providers, such as the internet data centers and broadband carriers from which we lease services. Service interruptions prevent consumers from viewing our internet platform and placing orders, and frequent interruptions could frustrate customers and discourage them from attempting to place orders, which could cause us to lose customers and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

Failure to protect confidential information of our customers and network against security breaches could damage our reputation and brand and substantially harm our business and results of operations.

 

A significant challenge to the online retail industry is the secure transmission of confidential information over public networks. Substantially all of the orders and some of the payments for products we offer are made through our internet platform. In addition, some online payments for our products are settled through third-party online payment services. We also share certain personal information about our customers with contracted third-party delivery service providers, such as their names, addresses, phone numbers and transaction records. In such cases, maintaining complete security for the transmission of confidential information on our technology platform, such as customer names, personal information and billing addresses, is essential to maintaining customer confidence.

 

We have adopted security policies and measures, including encryption technology, to protect our proprietary data and customer information. However, advances in technology, the expertise of hackers, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or other events or developments could result in a compromise or breach of the technology that we use to protect confidential information. We may not be able to prevent third parties, especially hackers or other individuals or entities engaging in similar activities, from illegally obtaining such confidential or private information we hold as a result of our customers' visits on our website. Such individuals or entities obtaining our customers' confidential or private information may further engage in various other illegal activities using such information. In addition, we have limited control or influence over the security policies or measures adopted by third-party providers of online payment services through which some of our customers may elect to make payment for purchases at our website. The contracted third-party delivery service providers we use may also violate their confidentiality obligations and disclose or use information about our customers illegally. Although we do not believe that we will be held responsible for any such illegal activities, any negative publicity on our website's safety or privacy protection mechanism and policy could have a material and adverse effect on our public image and reputation. We cannot assure you that similar events will not occur in the future. Any compromise of our information security or contracted third-party delivery service providers' information security measures could have a material and adverse effect on our reputation, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Practices regarding the collection, use, storage, transmission and security of personal information by companies operating over the internet and mobile platforms have recently come under increased public scrutiny. As online retailing continues to evolve, we believe that increased regulation by the PRC government of data privacy on the internet is likely. We may become subject to new laws and regulations applying to the solicitation, collection, processing or use of personal or consumer information that could affect how we store, process and share data with our customers, suppliers and third-party merchants. We generally comply with industry standards and are subject to the terms of our own privacy policies.

 

 16 

 

 

Significant capital and other resources may be required to protect against information security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by such breaches or to comply with our privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations. The methods used by hackers and others engaged in online criminal activities are increasingly sophisticated and constantly evolving. Any failure or perceived failure by us to prevent information security breaches or to comply with privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized release or transfer of personally identifiable information or other customer data, could cause our customers to lose trust in us. Any perception by the public that online transactions or the privacy of user information are becoming increasingly unsafe or vulnerable to attacks could inhibit the growth of online retailing and other online services generally, which may reduce the number of orders we receive.

 

Payment methods used on our internet platform subject us to third-party payment processing-related risks.

 

We accept payments using a variety of methods, including payment on delivery, online payments with credit cards and debit cards issued by major banks in China, and payment through third-party online payment platforms such as Alipay. For certain payment methods, including credit and debit cards, we pay interchange and other fees, which may increase over time and raise our operating costs and lower our profit margins. We may also be subject to fraud and other illegal activities in connection with the various payment methods we offer, including online payment and cash on delivery options. We also rely on third parties to provide payment processing services. For example, we use contracted third-party delivery service providers for our cash on delivery payment options. The delivery personnel of our contracted third-party delivery service providers collect the payment on our behalf, and we require the contracted third-party delivery service providers to remit the payment collected to us on the following day. If these companies fail to remit the payment collected to us in a timely fashion or at all, if they become unwilling or unable to provide these services to us, or if their services quality deteriorates, our business could be disrupted. We are also subject to various rules, regulations and requirements, regulatory or otherwise, governing electronic funds transfers, which could change or be reinterpreted to make it difficult or impossible for us to comply. If we fail to comply with these rules or requirements, we may be subject to fines and higher transaction fees and lose our ability to accept credit and debit card payments from our customers, process electronic funds transfers or facilitate other types of online payments, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our delivery and return policies may adversely affect our results of operations.

 

We have adopted shipping policies that do not necessarily pass the full cost of shipping on to our customers. We also have adopted customer-friendly return policies that make it convenient and easy for customers to change their minds after completing purchases. These policies improve customers' shopping experience and promote customer loyalty, which in turn help us acquire and retain customers. However, these policies also subject us to additional costs and expenses, which we may not be able to recoup through increased net revenues. Our ability to handle a large volume of returns is unproven. If our return rates are higher than we expected, or such return policy is misused by a significant number of customers, our costs may increase significantly and our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. In addition, as we cannot resell returned products that are not in their original packaging or return the products to our suppliers pursuant to our contracts with them. If return rates for such products increase significantly, we may experience an increase in our inventory balance, which may adversely affect our working capital. If we revise these policies to reduce our costs and expenses, our customers may be dissatisfied, which may result in losing existing customers or failing to acquire new customers at a desirable pace, which may materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

 17 

 

  

We may be the subject of anti-competitive, harassing, or other detrimental conduct by third parties including complaints to regulatory agencies, negative blog postings, and the public dissemination of malicious characterization of our business that could harm our reputation and cause us to lose market share, customers and net revenues and adversely affect the price of our ADSs.

 

We have been subject to negative postings and other media exposure on our business in the past. We may become the target of anti-competitive, harassing, or other detrimental conduct by third parties. Such conduct includes complaints, anonymous or otherwise, to regulatory agencies. We may be subject to government or regulatory investigation as a result of such third-party conduct and may be required to expend significant time and incur substantial costs to address such third-party conduct, and there is no assurance that we will be able to conclusively refute each of the allegations within a reasonable period of time, or at all. Additionally, allegations, directly or indirectly against us, may be posted in internet chat-rooms or on blogs or any website or social media platform by anyone, whether or not related to us, on an anonymous basis. Consumers value readily available information concerning retailers and the goods and services offered by them and often act on such information without further investigation or authentication and without regard to its accuracy. Information on social media platforms and devices is easily accessible, and any negative publicity on us or our founders and management can be quickly and widely disseminated. Social media platforms and devices immediately publish the content their subscribers and participants post, often without filters or checks on accuracy of the content posted. Information posted may be inaccurate and adverse to us, and it may harm our performance, prospects or business. The harm may be immediate without affording us an opportunity for redress or correction. Our reputation may be negatively affected as a result of the public dissemination of anonymous allegations or malicious statements about our business, which in turn may cause us to lose market share, customers and net revenues and adversely affect the price of our ADSs.

 

Our business depends on the continued efforts of our management. If we lose their services or they are unable to work together effectively or efficiently, our business may be severely disrupted.

 

Our business operations depend on the continued services of our senior management, particularly the executive officers named in this annual report. If our management team cannot work together effectively or efficiently, our business may be severely disrupted. One or more of our executive officers may be unable or unwilling to continue their service to us, and we might not be able to replace them easily or at all. For example, Tony Tao Zhou, our vice president of logistics resigned for personal reasons in 2016, and Yusen Dai resigned for personal reasons in 2017. There can be no assurance that we will not have departures from our management team in the future. Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected, and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain personnel. If any of our executive officers joins a competitor or forms a competing business, we may lose customers, suppliers, know-how and key professionals and staff members. Our executive officers have entered into employment agreements and confidentiality and non-competition agreements with us. However, if any dispute arises between our officers and us, we may have to incur substantial costs and expenses in order to enforce such agreements in China or we may be unable to enforce them at all.

 

If we are unable to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel or sufficient workforce while controlling our labor costs, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We intend to hire additional qualified employees to support our business operations and planned expansion. Our future success depends, to a significant extent, on our ability to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel, particularly technical, fulfillment, marketing and other operational personnel with experience in the online retail industry. Our experienced mid-level managers are instrumental in implementing our business strategies, executing our business plans and supporting our business operations and growth. The effective operation of our managerial and operating systems, logistics centers, customer service center and other back office functions also depends on the hard work and quality performance of our management and employees. Since our industry is characterized by high demand and intense competition for talent and labor, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to attract or retain qualified staff or other highly skilled employees that we will need to achieve our strategic objectives. We have been expanding marketing efforts through live video broadcasting, the success of which depends largely on our pool of popular hosts. Popular hosts may cease to be engaged by us, and we may be unable to attract new talent that can attract users or cause such users to increase the amount of time spent on our platform or the amount of money spent on our merchandize. Our logistics centers also require a significant number of blue-collar workers, and these positions tend to have higher than average turnover. Labor costs in China have increased with China's economic development, particularly in the large cities where we operate our logistics centers. Inflation in China is also putting pressure on wages. In addition, as we are still a young company, our ability to train and integrate new employees into our operations may also be limited and may not meet the demand for our business growth on a timely fashion, or at all. If we are unable to attract, train and retain qualified personnel, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

 

 18 

 

 

Increases in labor costs or restrictions in the supply of labor in China may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We currently use workers dispatched by third-party labor service agents to provide customer service, logistics and delivery services. Under such labor arrangement, we may also incur liabilities if we cause any damages to such dispatched workers. According to the Interim Provisions on Labor Dispatch issued in January 2014, which became effective on March 1, 2014, the number of dispatched contract workers hired by an employer shall not exceed 10% of the total number of its work force. We were required to formulate a plan to reduce the number of our dispatched contract workers to below the statutory limits prior to March 1, 2016. By April 1, 2016, we had reduced the number of our dispatched contract workers to below 4% of our total number of work force, and we have kept the number of our dispatched contract workers lower than 10% of our total number of workforce since then. Although we are allowed to continue to engage the dispatched workers pursuant to our existing agreements with labor service agents entered into before December 28, 2012, we will need to replace them with full-time employees after the expiration of these contracts. We expect this may result in an increase in our labor cost. If we are found to be in violation of the new rules regulating contract workers, we may be ordered by the labor authority to rectify the noncompliance by entering into written employment contracts with our contract workers. We may also be subject to a penalty ranging from RMB5,000 to RMB10,000 per dispatched worker if it is determined that we had failed to rectify within the time period specified by the labor authority. See "Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulation — Regulation on Employment."

 

With the rapid development of the Chinese economy, the cost of labor has increased and may continue to increase. Our results of operations will be materially and adversely affected if the labor costs of our suppliers in China increase. In addition, even if labor costs do not increase, we and our suppliers may not be able to find a sufficient number of workers to produce or provide us with the products we offer.

 

Furthermore, pursuant to the new PRC labor contract law that became effective in 2008, as amended in 2012, employers in China are subject to stricter requirements when signing labor contracts, paying remuneration, determining the term of employees' probation and unilaterally terminating labor contracts. The labor contract law and related regulations impose greater liabilities on employers and may significantly increase the costs of workforce reductions. If we decide to significantly change or reduce our workforces, the labor contract law could adversely affect our ability to make such changes in a timely, favorable and effective manner. Any of these events may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Future strategic alliances, investments, acquisitions or expansion into new businesses may have a material and adverse effect on our business, reputation and results of operations.

 

We may in the future enter into strategic alliances with various third parties to further our business purposes from time to time. Strategic alliances with third parties could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance by the counter-party, and an increase in expenses incurred in establishing new strategic alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have little ability to control or monitor their actions. To the extent the third parties suffer negative publicity or harm to their reputations from events relating to their business, we may also suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation by virtue of our association with such third parties.

 

In addition, we have made investments in complementary business and expanded into new businesses in the past and if we are presented with appropriate opportunities, we may continue to acquire additional assets, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. For instance, in 2017, we acquired 82.07% equity interest of Shenzhen Jiedian Technology Co., Ltd, or Jiedian, one of the leading players in the portable power bank sharing business. Our strategic investment in Jiedian allows us to further expand our eco-system to the forefront of mobile internet business and broaden our services to offline. We also invested in a Television drama series in 2017. Expansion into diverse new areas involves new risks and challenges. Our lack of familiarity with these new areas and lack of relevant customer data relating to these new areas may make it more difficult for us to anticipate customer demand and preferences. In addition, Furthermore, we may not have much negotiating power in new areas of business and we may not be able to reach favorable terms with our business partners. We may need to price aggressively to gain market share or remain competitive in new areas of business. It may be difficult for us to achieve profitability in the new areas and our profit margin, if any, may be lower than we anticipate, which would adversely affect our overall profitability and results of operations. We cannot assure you that we will be able to recoup our investments in new businesses. In addition, past and future acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own would require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business operations. The costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant. We may also incur significant expenses in obtaining approvals from shareholders and relevant government authorities in China and elsewhere in the world. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. In addition, acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. The cost and duration of integrating newly acquired businesses could also materially exceed our expectations. Any such negative developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

 19 

 

 

Any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to our business or failure to comply with PRC laws and regulations may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our business is subject to governmental supervision and regulation by the relevant PRC governmental authorities, including the MOFCOM, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or MIIT, the State Administration of Radio and Television, or the SART, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and State Administration for Market Regulation, including the State Drug Administration under its supervision. Together, these government authorities promulgate and enforce regulations that cover many aspects of the operation of online retailing and distribution of food and nutritional supplements, including entry into these industries, the scope of permissible business activities, licenses and permits for various business activities, and foreign investment. We are required to hold a number of licenses and permits in connection with our business operation, including the ICP license, food distribution permit or food business operation permit (as applicable), hygiene permit for nutritional supplements, as well as approvals for the establishment of foreign-invested enterprises engaging in the sale of goods over the internet. We have in the past held and currently hold all licenses and permits described above. See "Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulation — Regulations Relating to Foreign Investment" and "Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulation — Licenses and Permits."

 

We have recently engaged in live video broadcasting business to expand our marketing efforts. Pursuant to relevant PRC laws, we are obligated to obtain Online Culture Business Permit and we may be further required to obtain Video and Audio Program Internet Dissemination License before providing live video broadcasting services. If we provide such services without required permit or license, we may be subject to rectification orders, fines, suspension of business, as well as confiscation of service equipment or proceeds under PRC laws. We provide live video broadcasting service through Chengdu Li'ao Culture Communication Co., Ltd., or Chengdu Li'ao, has obtained the required Online Culture Business Permit, but is still applying for the Video and Audio Program Internet Dissemination License as of the date of this annual report. "Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulation — Regulations Relating to Foreign Investment" and "Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulation — Licenses and Permits."

 

As of the date of this annual report, we have not received any notice of warning or been subject to penalties or other disciplinary action from the relevant governmental authorities regarding our conducting our business without the above mentioned approvals and permits. However, we cannot assure you that we will not be subject to any penalties in the future. As online retailing is still evolving in China, new laws and regulations may be adopted from time to time to require additional licenses and permits other than those we currently have, and address new issues that arise from time to time. As a result, substantial uncertainties exist regarding the interpretation and implementation of current and any future PRC laws and regulations applicable to online retail businesses. For example, we are providing mobile applications to mobile device users. It is uncertain if our variable interest entities, or VIEs, will be required to obtain a separate operating license in addition to the valued-added telecommunications business operating licenses for Internet content provision service. If the PRC government considers that we were operating without the proper approvals, licenses or permits or promulgates new laws and regulations that require additional approvals or licenses or imposes additional restrictions on the operation of any part of our business, it has the power, among other things, to levy fines, confiscate our income, revoke our business licenses, and require us to discontinue our relevant business or impose restrictions on the affected portion of our business. Any of these actions by the PRC government may have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.

 

We are required by PRC laws and regulations to pay various statutory employee benefits, including pensions, housing fund, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit of our employees. The relevant government agencies may examine whether an employer has made adequate payments of the requisite statutory employee benefits, and those employers who fail to make adequate payments may be subject to late payment fees, fines and/or other penalties. If the relevant PRC authorities determine that we shall make supplemental social insurance and housing fund contributions and that we are subject to fines and legal sanctions, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

 20 

 

 

Our use of some leased properties could be challenged by third parties or government authorities, which may cause interruptions to our business operations.

 

As of December 31, 2017, we had 89 leased properties for our offices, logistics centers, dormitories, customer service center and physical stores. The lessors of all these leased properties have been able to provide proper ownership certificates for the properties we lease or prove their rights to sublease the properties to us or hold legal certificates to legally lease properties to us. If our lessors are not the owners of the properties and they have not obtained consents from the owners or their lessors or permits from the relevant government authorities, our leases could be invalidated. We may have to renegotiate the leases with the owners or the parties who have the right to lease the properties, and the terms of the new leases may be less favorable to us. In addition, our leasehold interests in leased properties have not been registered with relevant PRC government authorities as required by PRC law, which may expose us to potential fines ranging from RMB1,000 to RMB10,000 per unit leasehold.

 

As of the date of this annual report, we are not aware of any claims or actions being contemplated or initiated by government authorities, property owners or any other third parties with respect to our leasehold interests in or use of such properties. However, we cannot assure you that our use of such leased properties will not be challenged. In the event that our use of properties is successfully challenged, we may be subject to fines and forced to relocate the affected operations. In addition, we may become involved in disputes with the property owners or third parties who otherwise have rights to or interests in our leased properties. We can provide no assurance that we will be able to find suitable replacement sites on terms acceptable to us on a timely basis, or at all, or that we will not be subject to material liability resulting from third parties' challenges on our use of such properties. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Failure to renew our current leases or locate desirable alternatives for our facilities could materially and adversely affect our business.

 

As of December 31, 2017, we leased an aggregate of approximately 103 thousand square meters of properties for our offices, logistics centers, dormitories, customer service center and physical stores. We may not be able to successfully extend or renew such leases upon expiration of the current term on commercially reasonable terms or at all, and may therefore be forced to relocate our affected operations. This could disrupt our operations and result in significant relocation expenses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we compete with other businesses for premises at certain locations or of desirable sizes. As a result, even though we could extend or renew our leases, rental payments may significantly increase as a result of the high demand for the leased properties. In addition, we may not be able to locate desirable alternative sites for our facilities as our business continues to grow and such failure in relocating our affected operations could affect our business and operations.

 

We have granted, and may continue to grant, options, restricted shares and other types of awards under our share incentive plan, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.

 

We adopted a share incentive plan in 2011, or the 2011 plan, and a share incentive plan in 2014, or the 2014 plan, for the purpose of granting share-based compensation awards to employees, directors and consultants to incentivize their performance and align their interests with ours. Under the 2011 plan, we are authorized to grant options or share purchase rights to purchase up to 10,401,229 ordinary shares. As of March 31, 2018, options to purchase 908,989 ordinary shares are issued and outstanding under the 2011 plan. We account for compensation costs for all share options using a fair-value based method and recognize expenses in our consolidated statement of income in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Under the 2014 plan, we are authorized to grant options, restricted shares and restricted share units. The maximum aggregate number of shares which may be issued initially pursuant to all awards under the 2014 plan is 6,300,000 Class A ordinary shares. The number of shares reserved for future issuances under the 2014 plan will be increased by a number equal to 1.5% of the total number of outstanding shares on the last day of the immediately preceding calendar year, or such lesser number of Class A ordinary shares as determined by our board of directors, on the first day of each calendar year during the term of the 2014 plan beginning in 2015. The maximum aggregate number of shares which may be issued pursuant to all awards under the 2014 plan is 10,794,484 Class A ordinary shares as of March 31, 2018. As of March 31, 2018, 704,460 restricted share units are granted and outstanding under the 2014 plan. We believe the granting of share-based compensation is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel and employees, and we will continue to grant share-based compensation to employees in the future. As a result, our expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

 

 21 

 

 

We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.

 

We regard our trademarks, copyrights, domain names, know-how, proprietary technologies, and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on a combination of intellectual property laws and contractual arrangements, including confidentiality, invention assignment and non-compete agreements with our employees and others to protect our proprietary rights. As of December 31, 2017, we owned 432 registered trademarks, copyrights to 69 software programs developed by us relating to various aspects of our operations, and 64 registered domain names, including jumei.com and jumeiglobal.com. See "Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulation on Intellectual Property Rights." Although we are not aware of any copycat websites that attempt to cause confusion or diversion of traffic from us at the moment, we may become an attractive target to such attacks in the future because of our brand recognition in the online retail industry in China. Despite these measures, any of our intellectual property rights could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or misappropriated, or such intellectual property may not be sufficient to provide us with competitive advantages. In addition, because of the rapid pace of technological change in our industry, parts of our business rely on technologies developed or licensed by third parties, and we may not be able to obtain or continue to obtain licenses and technologies from these third parties on reasonable terms, or at all.

 

It is often difficult to register, maintain and enforce intellectual property rights in China. Statutory laws and regulations are subject to judicial interpretation and enforcement and may not be applied consistently due to the lack of clear guidance on statutory interpretation. Confidentiality, invention assignment and non-compete agreements may be breached by counterparties, and there may not be adequate remedies available to us for any such breach. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or to enforce our contractual rights in China. Policing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly and the steps we take may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our intellectual property. In the event that we resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, such litigation could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our managerial and financial resources. We can provide no assurance that we will prevail in such litigation. In addition, our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become available to, or be independently discovered by, our competitors. To the extent that our employees or consultants use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in related know-how and inventions. Any failure in protecting or enforcing our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims, which may be expensive to defend and may disrupt our business and operations.

 

We cannot be certain that our operations or any aspects of our business do not or will not infringe upon or otherwise violate trademarks, patents, copyrights, know-how or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. We have been in the past, and may be from time to time in the future, subject to legal proceedings and claims relating to the intellectual property rights of others. Some of our trademarks applications have been challenged by third parties and we may not be able to successfully register such trademarks. In addition, there may be other third-party intellectual property that is infringed by our products, services or other aspects of our business. There could also be existing patents or other intellectual property rights of which we are not aware that our products may inadvertently infringe. We cannot assure you that holders of the relevant intellectual property rights purportedly relating to some aspect of our technology platform or business, if any such holders exist, would not seek to enforce such intellectual property rights against us in China, the United States or any other jurisdictions. In addition, we strive to closely monitor the products offered on our internet platform, and also require suppliers and third-party merchants to indemnify us for any losses we suffer or any costs that we incur in relation to the products we source from such suppliers or the products offered by such third-party merchants on our internet platform. However, we cannot be certain that these measures would be effective in completely preventing the infringement of trademarks, patents, copyrights, know-how or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. Further, the application and interpretation of China's intellectual property right laws and the procedures and standards for granting trademarks, patents, copyrights, know-how or other intellectual property rights in China are still evolving and are uncertain, and we cannot assure you that PRC courts or regulatory authorities would agree with our analysis. If we are found to have violated the intellectual property rights of others, we may be subject to liability for our infringement activities or may be prohibited from using such intellectual property, and we may incur licensing fees or be forced to develop alternatives of our own. In addition, we may incur significant expenses, and may be forced to divert management's time and other resources from our business and operations to defend against these third-party infringement claims, regardless of their merits. Successful infringement or licensing claims made against us may result in significant monetary liabilities and may materially disrupt our business and operations by restricting or prohibiting our use of the intellectual property in question.

 

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Finally, we use open source software in connection with parts of our technology platform. Companies that incorporate open source software into their own products and services have, from time to time, faced claims challenging the ownership of open source software and compliance with open source license terms. As a result, we could be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or noncompliance with open source licensing terms. Some open source software licenses require users who distribute open source software as part of their software to publicly disclose all or part of the source code to such software and make available any derivative works of the open source code on unfavorable terms or at no cost. Any requirement to disclose our source code or pay damages for breach of contract could be harmful to our business results of operations and financial condition.

 

If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may be unable to accurately or timely report our results of operations or prevent fraud, and investor confidence and the market price of our ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We are subject to the reporting obligations under U.S. securities laws. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and related rules require public companies to include a report of management on their internal control over financial reporting in their annual reports. This report must contain an assessment by management of the effectiveness of a public company's internal control over financial reporting. In addition, an independent registered public accounting firm for a public company must attest to and report on management's assessment of the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting.

 

As required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and related rules promulgated by SEC, our management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017 using criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on such assessment, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2017. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm attested the effectiveness of our internal control and reported that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2017.

 

However, if we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, our management may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting at a reasonable assurance level. In addition, the process of designing and implementing an effective financial reporting system is a continuous effort that requires us to anticipate and react to changes in our business and the economic and regulatory environments and to expend significant resources to maintain a financial reporting system that satisfies our reporting obligations. Our failure to discover and address any other material weaknesses or deficiencies may result in inaccuracies in our financial statements or delay in the preparation of our financial statements. As a result, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of our ADSs, may be materially and adversely affected. Ineffective internal control over financial reporting could also expose us to increased risk of fraud or misappropriations of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which our ADSs are listed, regulatory investigations or civil or criminal sanctions.

 

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We may need additional capital, and financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

 

We believe our current cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments and anticipated cash flow from operations will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for the next 12 months. We may, however, require additional cash resources due to changed business conditions or other future developments, including any marketing initiatives or investments we may decide to pursue. If these resources are insufficient to satisfy our cash requirements, we may seek to obtain a credit facility or sell additional equity or debt securities. The sale of additional equity securities could result in dilution of our existing shareholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could result in operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations. It is uncertain whether financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

 

A severe or prolonged global economic recession and the slowdown in the Chinese economy may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

The global macroeconomic environment is facing challenges, including the escalation of the European sovereign debt crisis since 2011, the end of quantitative easing by the U.S. Federal Reserve, the economic slowdown in the Eurozone in 2014 and uncertainties over the impact of Brexit. The growth rate of the Chinese economy has slowed down since 2012 compared to the previous decade and such slowdown may continue. . There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world's leading economies, including the United States and China. There have been concerns over unrest and terrorist threats in the Middle East, Africa, Ukraine and Syria. There have also been concerns about the tensions in the relationship among China and other countries, including surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially have various economic effects, such as foreign investors closing down their business or withdrawing their investment in China and thus existing the China market. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. Any prolonged slowdown in the global or Chinese economy may have a negative impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, continued turbulence in the international markets may adversely affect our ability to access capital markets to meet liquidity needs.

 

We have limited insurance coverage which could expose us to significant costs and business disruption.

 

We maintain certain insurance policies to safeguard against risks and unexpected events. We have purchased all risk property insurance covering our inventory in all of our logistics centers and certain fixed assets such as equipment, furniture and office facilities. We do not maintain cargo transportation insurance, although we may request courier companies to purchase insurance covering our products in our agreements with them. We purchased third-party liability insurance covering our merchandise sales products against claims from consumers in relation to alleged defects in product quality. For certain of our logistics staff, we purchased personal injury insurance. However, as the insurance industry in China is still in an early stage of development, insurance companies in China currently offer limited business-related insurance products. We do not maintain business interruption insurance, nor do we maintain key-man life insurance on our directors or officers. We cannot assure you that our insurance coverage is sufficient to prevent us from any loss or that we will be able to successfully claim our losses under our current insurance policy on a timely basis, or at all. If we incur any loss that is not covered by our insurance policies, or the compensated amount is significantly less than our actual loss, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

We face risks related to natural disasters, health epidemics and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our operations.

 

Our business could be adversely affected by natural disasters or the outbreak of avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, the influenza A (H1N1), H7N9, the Ebola virus or another epidemic. Any of such occurrences could cause severe disruption to our daily operations, and may even require a temporary closure of our facilities. Such closures may disrupt our business operations and adversely affect our results of operations. Our operation could also be disrupted if our suppliers, customers or business partners were affected by such natural disasters or health epidemics.

 

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Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

 

If the PRC government deems that the contractual arrangements in relation to our VIEs do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.

 

Foreign ownership of internet-based businesses, including online retail businesses and distribution of online information, is subject to restrictions under current PRC laws and regulations. For example, foreign investors are generally not allowed to own more than 50% of the equity interests in a value-added telecommunication service provider (except for the e-commerce business) and any such foreign investor must have experience in providing value-added telecommunications services overseas and maintain a good track record in accordance with the Guidance Catalog of Industries for Foreign Investment promulgated in 2007, as amended in 2015, or the Catalog and other applicable laws and regulations. As provided for under the amendment to the Guidance Catalog of Industries for Foreign Investment in 2015, which became effective in April 2015, "e-commerce business" is an exception to the above restriction on foreign investment. However, the above amended Catalog does not define the "e-commerce business," and its interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties, therefore, we cannot assure you that whether our online retail business and distribution of online information falls into the "e-commerce business" and thus, whether we are permitted to conduct our value-added telecommunication services in the PRC through our subsidiaries in which foreign investors own more than 50% of equity interests.

 

We are a Cayman Islands company and our PRC subsidiaries are considered foreign-invested enterprises. Accordingly, as of the date of this annual report, none of our PRC subsidiaries is eligible to provide value-added telecommunication services in China. To comply with PRC laws and regulations, we conduct such business activities through Reemake Media Co., Ltd., or Reemake Media, a PRC VIE of ours. Reemake Media holds our ICP license as an internet information provider. Reemake Media is 90.04% owned by Mr. Leo Ou Chen, our founder, chairman and chief executive officer, 8.85% owned by Mr. Yusen Dai, and 1.11% owned by Mr. Hui Liu, a former employee of our company. All of the shareholders of Reemake Media are PRC citizens. We entered into a series of contractual arrangements with each of our VIEs and their respective shareholders, which enable us to:

 

·exercise effective control over our VIEs;

 

·receive substantially all of the economic benefits of our VIEs; and

 

·have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests and assets in our VIEs when and to the extent permitted by PRC law.

 

Because of these contractual arrangements, we are the primary beneficiary of our VIEs and hence consolidate their financial results as our VIEs under U.S. GAAP. For a detailed discussion of these contractual arrangements, see "Item 4. Information on the Company — C. Organizational Structure."

 

In the opinion of Fangda Partners, our PRC legal counsel, (i) the ownership structure of our wholly-owned subsidiaries and VIEs in China does not result in any violation of PRC laws and regulations currently in effect; and (ii) the contractual arrangements between our subsidiaries and VIEs and their respective shareholders governed by PRC law will not result in any violation of PRC laws or regulations currently in effect. However, we have been advised by our PRC legal counsel that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules; accordingly, the PRC regulatory authorities may take a view that is contrary to or otherwise different from the opinion of our PRC legal counsel. For example, the Ministry of Commerce published a discussion draft of the proposed Foreign Investment Law in January 2015, pursuant to which, VIEs that are controlled via contractual arrangements would also be deemed as foreign invested enterprises, or FIEs, if they are ultimately "controlled" by foreign investors. Therefore, for any companies with a VIE structure in an industry category that is in the "restriction category" on the "negative list" which is to be separately issued by the State Council in the future, the VIE structure may be deemed legitimate only if the ultimate controlling person(s) is/are of PRC nationality (either PRC state-owned enterprises or agencies, or PRC citizens). Conversely, if the actual controlling person(s) is/are of foreign nationalities, then the VIEs will be treated as FIEs and any operation in the industry category on the "negative list" without market entry clearance may be considered as illegal. Through our dual-class share structure, Mr. Leo Ou Chen, our founder and principal beneficial owner of our company, who is PRC citizen, possesses and controls 83.7% of the voting power of our company as of March 31, 2018. However, if the enacted version of the Foreign Investment Law and the final "negative list" mandate further actions, such as market entry clearance granted by the Ministry of Commerce, to be completed by companies with existing VIE structure like us, we face uncertainties as to whether such clearance can be timely obtained, or at all. See "—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the enactment timetable, the final version, interpretation and implementation of draft PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations." If our ownership structure, contractual arrangements and businesses of our PRC subsidiaries or our VIEs are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or we fail to obtain the foresaid market entry clearance, or our PRC subsidiaries or our VIEs fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures, including:

 

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·revoking the business licenses and/or operating licenses of such entities;

 

·shutting down our servers or blocking our website, or discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operation through any transactions between our PRC subsidiaries and VIEs;

 

·imposing fines, confiscating the income from our PRC subsidiaries or our VIEs, or imposing other requirements with which we or our VIEs may not be able to comply;

 

·requiring us to restructure our ownership structure or operations, including terminating the contractual arrangements with our VIEs and deregistering the equity pledges of our VIEs, which in turn would affect our ability to consolidate, derive economic interests from, or exert effective control over our VIEs; or

 

·restricting or prohibiting our use of the proceeds of our offshore offerings to finance our business and operations in China.

 

Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of these occurrences results in our inability to direct the activities of our VIEs that most significantly impact its economic performance, and/or our failure to receive the economic benefits from our VIEs, we may not be able to consolidate such entities in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

 

We rely on contractual arrangements with our VIEs and their respective shareholders for a portion of our business operations, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control.

 

We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with our VIEs and their respective shareholders to hold our ICP license as an internet information provider. For a description of these contractual arrangements, see "Item 4. Information on the Company — C. Organizational Structure." These contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over our VIEs. For example, our VIEs and their respective shareholders could breach their contractual arrangements with us by, among other things, failing to conduct their operations, including maintaining our website and using the domain names and trademarks, in an acceptable manner or taking other actions that are detrimental to our interests.

 

If we had direct ownership of our VIEs, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of our VIEs, which in turn could implement changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management and operational level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, we rely on the performance by our VIEs and their respective shareholders of their obligations under the contracts to exercise control over our VIEs. The shareholders of our consolidated VIEs may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. Such risks exist throughout the period in which we intend to operate our business through the contractual arrangements with our VIEs. If any dispute relating to these contracts remains unresolved, we will have to enforce our rights under these contracts through the operations of PRC law and arbitration, litigation and other legal proceedings and therefore will be subject to uncertainties in the PRC legal system. See "—Any failure by our VIEs or their shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business." Therefore, our contractual arrangements with our VIEs may not be as effective in ensuring our control over the relevant portion of our business operations as direct ownership would be.

 

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Any failure by our VIEs or their shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business.

 

If our VIEs or their shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements. We may also have to rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief, and claiming damages, which we cannot assure you will be effective under PRC law. For example, if the respective shareholders of our VIEs were to refuse to transfer their equity interest in the VIEs to us or our designee if we exercise the purchase option pursuant to these contractual arrangements, or if they were otherwise to act in bad faith toward us, then we may have to take legal actions to compel them to perform their contractual obligations.

 

All the agreements under our contractual arrangements are governed by PRC law and provide for the resolution of disputes through arbitration in China. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC law and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures. The legal system in the PRC is not as developed as in some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a variable interest entity should be interpreted or enforced under PRC law. There remain significant uncertainties regarding the ultimate outcome of such arbitration should legal action become necessary. In addition, under PRC law, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and if the losing parties fail to carry out the arbitration awards within a prescribed time limit, the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would require additional expenses and delay. In the event we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our VIEs, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected. See "—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us."

 

The shareholders of our VIEs may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

 

Mr. Leo Ou Chen, Mr. Yusen Dai and Mr. Hui Liu are the shareholders of Reemake Media, owning 90.04%, 8.85% and 1.11% equity interest, respectively, in Reemake Media. See "Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees — E. Share Ownership." The shareholders of our VIEs may have potential conflicts of interest with us. These shareholders may breach, or cause our VIEs to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with them and our VIEs, which would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to effectively control our VIEs and receive economic benefits from them. For example, the shareholders may be able to cause our agreements with our VIEs to be performed in a manner adverse to us by, among other things, failing to remit payments due under the contractual arrangements to us on a timely basis. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, any or all of these shareholders will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor.

 

Currently, we do not have any arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest between the respective shareholders of our VIEs and our company. Mr. Leo Ou Chen is also a director and executive officer of our company. We rely on Mr. Chen to abide by the laws of the Cayman Islands and China, which provide that directors owe a fiduciary duty to the company that requires them to act in good faith and in what they believe to be the best interests of the company and not to use their position for personal gains. There is currently no specific and clear guidance under PRC laws that address any conflict between PRC laws and laws of Cayman Islands in respect of any conflict relating to corporate governance. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and the shareholders of our VIEs, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

 

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Contractual arrangements in relation to our VIEs may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or our PRC VIEs owe additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition and the value of your investment.

 

Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year when the transactions are conducted. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements between our wholly-owned subsidiaries in China, our VIEs in China, and their respective shareholders were not entered into on an arm's length basis in such a way as to result in an impermissible reduction in taxes under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, and adjust our VIEs income in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction of expense deductions recorded by our VIEs for PRC tax purposes, which could in turn increase their tax liabilities without reducing our subsidiaries' tax expenses. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties on our VIEs for the adjusted but unpaid taxes according to the applicable regulations. Our financial position could be materially and adversely affected if our VIEs' tax liabilities increase or if they are required to pay late payment fees and other penalties.

 

We may lose the ability to use and enjoy assets held by our VIEs that are material to the operation of our business if the entities go bankrupt or become subject to dissolution or liquidation proceedings.

 

As part of our contractual arrangements with our VIEs, they hold certain assets that are material to the operation of our business, including the ICP license, and the domain names and trademarks. If our VIEs go bankrupt and all or part of their assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Under the contractual arrangements, our VIEs may not, in any manner, sell, transfer, mortgage or dispose of their assets or legal or beneficial interests in the business without our prior consent. If our VIEs undergo a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, the independent third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

 

Changes in China's economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material and adverse effect on our business and operations.

 

Substantially all of our operations are located in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally and by continued economic growth in China as a whole.

 

The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over China's economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

 

While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The Chinese government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations. In addition, in the past the Chinese government has implemented certain measures, including interest rate increases, to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity in China, and since 2012, the Chinese economy has slowed down. Although the PRC government maintained its expansionary monetary policy in 2016, there have been signs of continuing economic slowdown in China. Any prolonged slowdown in the Chinese economy may reduce the demand for our products and services and adversely affect our business and operating results.

 

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Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.

 

The PRC legal system is based on written statutes and prior court decisions have limited value as precedents. Since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.

 

From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published in a timely manner or at all) that may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

 

We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of internet-related businesses and companies.

 

The PRC government extensively regulates the internet industry, including foreign ownership of, and the licensing and permit requirements pertaining to, companies in the internet industry. These internet related laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations. Issues, risks and uncertainties relating to PRC government regulation of the internet industry include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

·We only have contractual control over our website. We do not directly own the website due to the restriction of foreign investment in businesses providing value-added telecommunication services (except for e-commerce) in China, including internet information provision services. This may significantly disrupt our business, subject us to sanctions, compromise enforceability of related contractual arrangements, or have other harmful effects on us.

 

·The online commerce industry in China is still in an early stage of development and the PRC laws applicable to the industry are still evolving. Due to the lack of clarity under the existing PRC regulatory regime, we may be required to comply with additional legal and licensing requirements. For example, we are providing mobile applications to mobile device users. It is uncertain if our VIEs will be required to obtain a separate operating license in addition to the valued-added telecommunications business operating licenses for Internet content provision service. Although we believe that we are not explicitly required to obtain such separate license which is in line with the current market practice, there can be no assurance that we will not be required to apply for an operating license for our mobile applications in the future.

 

·The evolving PRC regulatory system for the internet industry may lead to the establishment of new regulatory agencies. For example, in May 2011, the State Council announced the establishment of a new department, the State Internet Information Office (with the involvement of the State Council Information Office, the MIIT, and the Ministry of Public Security). The primary role of this new agency is to facilitate the policy-making and legislative development in this field to direct and coordinate with the relevant departments in connection with online content administration and to deal with cross-ministry regulatory matters in relation to the internet industry.

 

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·New laws and regulations may be promulgated that will regulate internet activities, including online retail. If these new laws and regulations are promulgated, additional licenses may be required for our operations. If our operations do not comply with these new regulations at the time they become effective, or if we fail to obtain any licenses required under these new laws and regulations, we could be subject to penalties.

 

The Circular on Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Investment in and Operation of Value-added Telecommunications Business, issued by the MIIT in July 2006, prohibits domestic telecommunication service providers from leasing, transferring or selling telecommunications business operating licenses to any foreign investor in any form, or providing any resources, sites or facilities to any foreign investor for their illegal operation of a telecommunications business in China. According to this circular, either the holder of a value-added telecommunication services operation permit or its shareholders must directly own the domain names and trademarks used by such license holders in their provision of value-added telecommunication services. The circular also requires each license holder to have the necessary facilities, including servers, for its approved business operations and to maintain such facilities in the regions covered by its license. If an ICP license holder fails to comply with the requirements and also fails to remedy such non-compliance within a specified period of time, the MIIT or its local counterparts have the discretion to take administrative measures against such license holder, including revoking its ICP license. Currently, Reemake Media, a PRC VIE of ours, holds an ICP license, and it operates our website. Reemake Media owns the relevant domain names and trademarks in connection with our value-added telecommunications business and has the necessary personnel to operate such website.

 

The interpretation and application of existing PRC laws, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies relating to the internet industry have created substantial uncertainties regarding the legality of existing and future foreign investments in, and the businesses and activities of, internet businesses in China, including our business. We cannot assure you that we have obtained all the permits or licenses required for conducting our business in China or will be able to maintain our existing licenses or obtain new ones.

 

Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the enactment timetable, the final version, interpretation and implementation of draft PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

 

The Ministry of Commerce published a discussion draft of the proposed Foreign Investment Law in January 2015 aiming to, upon its enactment, replace the trio of existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. The draft Foreign Investment Law embodies an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. The MOFCOM completed the solicitation of comments on this draft in February 2015, and subsequently produced a draft for further review in November 2017, which will be submitted to the National People’s Congress for review in 2018. However, there are still substantial uncertainties with respect to its enactment timetable, the final version, interpretation and implementation. The draft Foreign Investment Law, if enacted as proposed, may materially impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations in many aspects.

 

Among other things, the draft Foreign Investment Law expands the definition of foreign investment and introduces the principle of "actual control" in determining whether a company is considered a foreign-invested enterprise, or an FIE. The draft Foreign Investment Law specifically provides that entities established in China but "controlled" by foreign investors will be treated as FIEs, whereas an entity set up in a foreign jurisdiction would nonetheless be, upon market entry clearance by the Ministry of Commerce or its local counterparts, treated as a PRC domestic investor provided that the entity is "controlled" by PRC entities and/or citizens. In this connection, "control" is broadly defined in the draft law to cover the following summarized categories: (i) holding 50% of more of the voting rights of the subject entity; (ii) holding less than 50% of the voting rights of the subject entity but having the power to secure at least 50% of the seats on the board or other equivalent decision making bodies, or having the voting power to exert material influence on the board, the shareholders' meeting or other equivalent decision making bodies; or (iii) having the power to exert decisive influence, via contractual or trust arrangements, over the subject entity's operations, financial matters or other key aspects of business operations. Once an entity is determined to be an FIE, it will be subject to the foreign investment restrictions or prohibitions, if the FIE is engaged in the industry listed in the "negative list" which will be separately issued by the State Council later. Unless the underlying business of the FIE falls within the negative list, which calls for market entry clearance by the Ministry of Commerce or its local counterparts, prior approval from the government authorities as mandated by the existing foreign investment legal regime would no longer be required for establishment of the FIE.

 

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The "variable interest entity" structure, or VIE structure, has been adopted by many PRC-based companies, including us, to obtain necessary licenses and permits in the industries that are currently subject to foreign investment restrictions in China. See "—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government deems that the contractual arrangements in relation to our VIEs do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations" and "Item 4. Information on the Company — C. Organizational Structure." Under the draft Foreign Investment Law, VIEs that are controlled via contractual arrangement would also be deemed as FIEs, if they are ultimately "controlled" by foreign investors. Therefore, for any companies with a VIE structure in an industry category that is in the "restriction category" on the "negative list," the VIE structure may be deemed legitimate only if the ultimate controlling person(s) is/are of PRC nationality (either PRC State-owned enterprises or agencies or PRC citizens). Conversely, if the actual controlling person(s) is/are of foreign nationalities, then the VIEs will be treated as FIEs and any operation in the industry category on the "negative list" without market entry clearance may be considered as illegal.

 

Through our dual-class share structure, Mr. Leo Ou Chen, our founder and principal beneficial owner, who is a PRC citizen, possesses and controls 83.7% of the voting power of our Company as of March 31, 2018. However, in the draft Foreign Investment Law, the Ministry of Commerce has not taken a position on what actions shall be taken with respect to the existing companies with a VIE structure, whether or not these companies are controlled by Chinese parties. Moreover, it is uncertain whether the value-added telecommunication service industry, in which our VIEs operate, will be subject to the foreign investment restrictions or prohibitions set forth in the "negative list" to be issued. If the enacted version of the Foreign Investment Law and the final "negative list" mandate further actions, such as market entry clearance granted by the Ministry of Commerce, to be completed by companies with existing VIE structure like us, we face uncertainties as to whether such clearance can be timely obtained, or at all.

 

The draft Foreign Investment Law, if enacted as proposed, may also materially impact our corporate governance practice and increase our compliance costs. For instance, the draft Foreign Investment Law imposes stringent ad hoc and periodic information reporting requirements on foreign investors and the applicable FIEs. Aside from investment implementation report and investment amendment report that are required at each investment and alteration of investment specifics, an annual report is mandatory, and large foreign investors meeting certain criteria are required to report on a quarterly basis. Any company found to be non-compliant with these information reporting obligations may potentially be subject to fines and/or administrative or criminal liabilities, and the persons directly responsible may be subject to criminal liabilities.

 

Regulation and censorship of information disseminated over the internet in China may adversely affect our business, and we may be liable for content that is displayed on our website.

 

China has enacted laws and regulations governing internet access and the distribution of products, services, news, information, audio-video programs and other content through the internet. In the past, the PRC government has prohibited the distribution of information through the internet that it deems to be in violation of PRC laws and regulations. If any of our internet information were deemed by the PRC government to violate any content restrictions, we would not be able to continue to display such content and could become subject to penalties, including confiscation of income, fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may also be subject to potential liability for any unlawful actions of our customers or users of our website or for content we distribute that is deemed inappropriate. It may be difficult to determine the type of content that may result in liability to us, and if we are found to be liable, we may be prevented from operating our website in China.

 

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We may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

 

We are a holding company, and we may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiaries for our cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders and service any debt we may incur. If our PRC subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may require our subsidiaries to adjust their taxable income under the contractual arrangements they currently has in place with our VIEs in a manner that would materially and adversely affect their ability to pay dividends and other distributions to us. See "—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—Contractual arrangements in relation to our VIEs may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or our PRC VIEs owe additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition and the value of your investment."

 

Under PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiaries, as wholly foreign-owned enterprises in China, may pay dividends only out of their respective accumulated after-tax profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise is required to set aside at least 10% of its accumulated after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund certain statutory reserve funds, until the aggregate amount of such funds reaches 50% of its registered capital. At its discretion, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise may allocate a portion of its after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to staff welfare and bonus funds. These reserve funds and staff welfare and bonus funds are not distributable as cash dividends.

 

Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other distributions to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends, or otherwise fund and conduct our business. See also "—If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders."

 

PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of our offshore offerings to make loans to or make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

Under PRC laws and regulations, we are permitted to utilize the proceeds from our offshore offerings to fund our PRC subsidiaries by making loans to or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, subject to applicable government registration and approval requirements.

 

Any loans to our PRC subsidiaries, which are treated as foreign-invested enterprises under PRC law, are subject to PRC regulations and foreign exchange loan registrations. For example, loans by us to our PRC subsidiaries to finance their activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with the local counterpart of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE. The statutory limit for the total amount of foreign debts of a foreign-invested company is the difference between the amount of total investment as approved by the Ministry of Commerce or its local counterpart and the amount of registered capital of such foreign-invested company.

 

We may also decide to finance our PRC subsidiaries by means of capital contributions. These capital contributions must be approved by the Ministry of Commerce or its local counterpart according to the PRC laws and regulations currently in effect. In addition, SAFE issued a circular in September 2008, SAFE Circular No. 142, regulating the conversion by a foreign-invested enterprise of foreign currency registered capital into RMB by restricting how the converted RMB may be used. SAFE Circular No. 142 provides that the RMB capital converted from foreign currency registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise may only be used for purposes within the business scope approved by the applicable government authority and unless otherwise provided by law, may not be used for equity investments within the PRC. In addition, SAFE strengthened its oversight of the flow and use of the RMB capital converted from foreign currency registered capital of a foreign-invested company. The use of such RMB capital may not be altered without SAFE's approval, and such RMB capital may not in any case be used to repay RMB loans if the proceeds of such loans have not been used. Violations of SAFE Circular No. 142 could result in severe monetary or other penalties. To satisfy and facilitate the business and capital operations of foreign invested enterprises in the PRC. On July 15, 2014, SAFE issued a SAFE Circular 36 which launched the pilot reform of administration regarding conversion of foreign currency registered capitals of foreign-invested enterprises in 16 pilot areas. According to the SAFE Circular 36, an ordinary foreign-invested enterprise with a business scope containing "investment" in the pilot areas is permitted to use Renminbi converted from its foreign-currency registered capital to make equity investments in the PRC, subject to certain registration and settlement procedure as set forth in the SAFE Circular 36. On April 8, 2015, SAFE released the Notice on the Reform of the Management Method for the Settlement of Foreign Exchange Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19, which has come into force and supersede SAFE Circular No. 142 and SAFE Circular 36 from June 1, 2015. SAFE Circular 19 has made certain adjustments to some regulatory requirements on the settlement of foreign currency capital of foreign-invested enterprises, and some foreign exchange restrictions under SAFE Circular No. 142 has been lifted. For example, the RMB capital converted from foreign currency registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise can be used for equity investments in the PRC but cannot be used to provide entrusted loans or repay loans between non-financial enterprises. Nevertheless, Circular 19 also reiterates the principle that Renminbi converted from foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested company may not be directly or indirectly used for purposes beyond its business scope. SAFE issued the Circular on Reforming and Regulating Policies on the Control over Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital Accounts, or SAFE Circular 16, effective June 19, 2016. Compared to SAFE Circular 19, SAFE Circular 16 provides that discretionary foreign exchange settlement apply to foreign exchange capital, foreign debt offering proceeds and remitted foreign listing proceeds, and the corresponding Renminbi obtained from foreign exchange settlement may be used to extend loans to related parties or repaying the inter-company loans (including advances by third parties). However, since SAFE Circular 16 came into effect recently, there exist substantial uncertainties with respect to its interpretation and implementation in practice.

 

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In light of the above requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans to our PRC subsidiaries or future capital contributions by us to our PRC subsidiaries. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use the proceeds we received or expect to receive from our offshore offerings and to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

PRC regulation of loans by offshore holding companies to PRC entities and governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to fund the operations of our consolidated VIEs.

 

Due to the restrictions imposed on loans in foreign currencies extended to any PRC domestic companies, we are not likely to have our Cayman Islands holding company or other offshore entities to use the proceeds from our offshore offerings to extend loans to our VIEs, the PRC domestic companies. Meanwhile, we are not likely to finance the activities of our VIEs by means of capital contributions due to regulatory restrictions relating to foreign investment in PRC domestic enterprises engaged in value-added telecommunications services. In addition, due to the restrictions on a foreign-invested enterprise's use of Renminbi converted from foreign-currency registered capital under PRC regulations, as described under the foregoing risk factor, our PRC subsidiaries may be unable to use the Renminbi converted from their registered capital to provide entrusted loans through financial institutions to our VIEs. Additionally, our PRC subsidiaries are not prohibited under PRC laws and regulations from using their capital generated from their operating activities to provide entrusted loans through financial institutions to our VIEs. We will assess the working capital requirements of our VIEs on an ongoing basis and, if needed, may have our PRC subsidiaries to use their capital from operating activities to provide financial support to our VIEs.

 

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

 

The value of the RMB against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by, among other things, changes in China's political and economic conditions and foreign exchange policies. In July 2005, the PRC government changed its decades-old policy of pegging the value of the RMB to the U.S. dollar, and the RMB appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. dollar over the following three years. Between July 2008 and June 2010, this appreciation halted and the exchange rate between the RMB and the U.S. dollar remained within a narrow band. Since June 2010, the RMB has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably, including depreciation in 2016. Since October 1, 2016, the RMB has joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF)'s basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right (SDR), along with the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the British pound. In the fourth quarter of 2016, the RMB has depreciated significantly in the backdrop of a surging U.S. dollar and persistent capital outflows from China. With the development of the foreign exchange market and progress towards interest rate liberalization and Renminbi internationalization, the PRC government may in the future announce further changes to the exchange rate system and there is no guarantee that the RMB will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between the RMB and the U.S. dollar in the future.

 

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Significant revaluation of the RMB may have a material and adverse effect on your investment. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars into RMB for capital expenditures and working capital and other business purposes, appreciation of the RMB against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the RMB amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert our RMB into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our ordinary shares or ADSs or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the RMB would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us. In addition, appreciation or depreciation in the value of the RMB relative to U.S. dollars would affect the U.S. dollar equivalent of our earnings, regardless of any underlying change in our business or results of operations.

 

Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert RMB into foreign currency.

 

Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our net revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment.

 

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the RMB into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive substantially all of our net revenues in RMB. Under our current corporate structure, our company in the Cayman Islands may rely on dividend payments from our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, such as profit distributions and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. Therefore, our PRC subsidiaries are able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to us without prior approval from SAFE, subject to the condition that the remittance of such dividends outside of the PRC complies with certain procedures under PRC foreign exchange regulation, such as the overseas investment registrations by the beneficial owners of our company who are PRC residents. But approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where RMB is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. The PRC government may also at its discretion restrict access in the future to foreign currencies for current account transactions. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs.

 

The M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

 

The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Companies by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in August 2006 and amended in 2009, and some other regulations and rules concerning mergers and acquisitions established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the Ministry of Commerce be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law requires that the anti-monopoly regulating authority shall be notified in advance of any concentration of undertaking if certain thresholds are triggered. In addition, the security review rules issued by the Ministry of Commerce that became effective in September 2011 specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise "national defense and security" concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise "national security" concerns are subject to strict review by the Ministry of Commerce, and the rules prohibit any activities attempting to bypass a security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement. In the future, we may grow our business by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the above-mentioned regulations and other relevant rules to complete such transactions could be time consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from the relevant government authorities may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

 

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PRC regulations relating to the establishment of offshore special purpose companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into our PRC subsidiaries, limit our PRC subsidiaries' ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us, or may otherwise adversely affect us.

 

On July 4, 2014, the SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents' Overseas Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular No. 37, which replaced the former Circular on Issues Relating to the Administration of Foreign Exchange in Fund-Raising and Round Trip Investment Activities of Domestic Residents Conducted via Offshore Special Purpose Vehicles (generally known as SAFE Circular No. 75) promulgated by the SAFE on October 21, 2005.

 

SAFE Circular No. 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents' legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in SAFE Circular No. 37 as a "special purpose vehicle." SAFE Circular No. 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. In the event that a PRC shareholder holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to complete the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiary. Furthermore, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls. On February 28, 2015, SAFE released the Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving Policies for the Foreign Exchange Administration of Direct Investment, or SAFE Circular 13, which came into effect on June 1, 2015. According to this notice, local banks will examine and handle foreign exchange registrations for overseas direct investment, including the initial foreign exchange registrations and amendment registrations, under SAFE Circular No.37. See "Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulation — SAFE Regulations on Offshore Special Purpose Companies Held by PRC Residents" for more information about SAFE Circular No. 37.

 

We have requested PRC residents who we know hold direct or indirect interest in our company to make the necessary applications, filings and amendments as required under SAFE Circular No. 37 and other related rules. To our knowledge, all of our shareholders who are PRC citizens and hold interest in us, have registered with the local SAFE branch as required under SAFE Circular No. 37. However, we may not be informed of the identities of all the PRC residents holding direct or indirect interest in our company, and we cannot provide any assurance that these PRC residents will comply with our request to make or obtain any applicable registrations or comply with other requirements under SAFE Circular No. 37 or other related rules. The failure or inability of our PRC resident shareholders to comply with the registration procedures set forth in these regulations may subject us to fines and legal sanctions, restrict our cross-border investment activities, limit our PRC subsidiaries' ability to distribute dividends and the proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to us, and we may also be prohibited from injecting additional capital into our PRC subsidiaries. Moreover, failure to comply with the various foreign exchange registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for circumventing applicable foreign exchange restrictions. As a result, our business operations and our ability to distribute profits to you could be materially and adversely affected.

 

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Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

 

In February 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly-Listed Company, replacing earlier rules promulgated in March 2007. Pursuant to these rules, PRC citizens and non-PRC citizens who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year who participate in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be the PRC subsidiaries of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. In addition, an overseas entrusted institution must be retained to handle matters in connection with the exercise or sale of stock options and the purchase or sale of shares and interests. We and our executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who reside in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year and who have been granted options are subject to these regulations. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiaries and limit our PRC subsidiaries' ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional incentive plans for our directors, executive officers and employees under PRC law. See "Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulation — SAFE Regulations on Employee Stock Incentive Plan." We have made SAFE registrations for employee stock incentive plans.

 

Discontinuation of any of the preferential tax treatments and government subsidies or imposition of any additional taxes and surcharges could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules have adopted a uniform statutory enterprise income tax rate of 25% to all enterprises in China. The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules also permit qualified "high and new technology enterprises," or HNTEs, to enjoy a preferential enterprise income tax rate of 15% upon filing with relevant tax authorities. The qualification as a HNTE generally has a valid term of three years and the renewal of such qualification is subject to review by the relevant authorities in China. Reemake Media, our consolidated VIE, obtained its HNTE certificate in September 2015 with a valid period of three years, and we plan to renew such certificate in September 2018. Tianjin Cyril Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Tianjin Cyril, one of our PRC subsidiaries, has renewed its HNTE certificate in October 2017, with a valid period of three years. The discontinuation of the preferential income tax treatments currently available to Reemake Media and Tianjin Cyril could have a material and adverse effect on our result of operations and financial condition. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain or lower our current effective tax rate in the future.

 

According to the Notice on the Enterprise Income Tax regarding Deepening Implementation of Grand Development of the Western Region issued by the State Administration of Taxation, enterprises located in the western region of the PRC with principal net revenues of over 70% generated from encouraged category of western region are entitled to a preferential income tax rate of 15% for ten years from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2020. Chengdu Jumeiyoupin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., or Chengdu Jumei, a subsidiary of our company located within the western region of the PRC and meets the criteria as set forth in the notice, is entitled to the preferential income tax rate of 15% starting from 2013 upon filing with the relevant tax authority. If Chengdu Jumei fails to continue to meet the criteria set forth in the notice, its applicable enterprise income tax rate may increase to 25%, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations

 

In addition, our PRC subsidiaries have received various financial subsidies from PRC local government authorities. The financial subsidies are discretionary incentives and policies adopted by PRC local government authorities. Local governments may decide to change or discontinue such financial subsidies at any time. The discontinuation of such financial subsidies or imposition of any additional taxes could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

The change of PRC regulation of import tax on consumer goods imported through cross-border e-commerce platforms could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Pursuant to the Notice on Pilot Bonded Area Import Pattern of Cross-Border Trade E-Commerce Services, which was issued by the PRC General Administration of Customs on March 4, 2014, consumer goods imported through cross-border e-commerce platforms shall be classified as "personal baggage or postal articles". A personal baggage or postal articles tax was levied before the online retailors could deliver goods to buyers, and the personal baggage or postal articles tax shall be exempted if the payable amount is lower than RMB50. The rate of personal baggage or postal articles tax was respectively 10%, 20%, 30% and 50% for different categories of products imported. Specifically, a 50% rate was applied to cosmetics and a 10% rate was applied to maternity and baby care products. Pursuant to the Notice on Tax Policies of Cross-Border E-Commerce Retail Importation issued by PRC Ministry of Finance, General Administration of Customs and State Administration of Taxation on March 24, 2016, which came into effect on April 8, 2016, the pilot bonded area import pattern of cross-border e-commerce was abolished. Under the new pattern, the goods imported through cross-border e-commerce platforms will no longer be treated as "personal baggage or postal articles" but normal goods, so the value-added tax and the consumption tax on those goods will be levied as on normal imported goods but on a 70% basis, and the tariff on those goods will be exempted. Normally, a 17% value-added tax will be levied on most products sold on our platform and a 15% consumption tax will be levied on high-end cosmetics without tax preference under the new pattern, while no consumption tax will be levied on ordinary cosmetics products.

 

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Furthermore, the new pattern only applies to goods listed within the scope of the Cross-Border E-Commerce Retail Importation Goods Inventory, or the Inventory, and thus goods beyond the scope of this Inventory will not have a tax code and may be prohibited from selling on the cross-border e-commerce platforms. Ministry of Finance, National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, State Administration of Taxation, General Administration of Customs and other relevant authorities have jointed issued the Cross-Border E-Commerce Retail Importation Goods Inventory and the Cross-Border E-Commerce Retail Importation Goods Inventory (Second Batch) separately on April 6, 2016 and April 15, 2016. The Inventory may be updated from time to time. Specifically, cosmetics imported for the first time, nutrition supplements and other special food products required to be registered with the State Drug Administration are excluded from the scope of the Inventory. We are prohibited from selling the cosmetics imported for the first time on our platform and we are also prohibited from selling nutrition supplements and other special food products before required registration certificates for these products have been legitimately obtained. However, pursuant to a transition policy issued by the General Administration of Customs, the goods which have been imported to or in transit to the bonded areas and special regulated areas of customs before April 8, 2016, can still be sold on the cross-border e-commerce platforms, even if these goods are not listed on the Inventory.

 

Besides, pursuant to the Notice of Relevant Matters on Implementation of New Cross-Border E-Commerce Retail Importation Supervision and Administration Requirements, or the New Cross-Border E-Commerce Tax Implementation Notice, issued by the General Administration of Customs on May 24, 2016, the implementation of certain provisions of the Notice on Tax Policies of Cross-Border E-Commerce Retail Importation will be suspended until the expiration of a transition period, which, according to an announcement by a  spokesman of MOFCOM in November 2016 and confirmed by an official MOFCOM news release issued on March 17, 2017, or the MOFCOM News Release, will be over by the end of 2017. According to the New Cross-Border E-Commerce Tax Implementation Notice, the requirement of presenting customs clearance for bonded goods purchased online is suspended in ten cities, and the requirement of presenting first-time import license, registration or filing for online purchased cosmetics imported for the first time, nutrition supplements and other special food products, is suspended until the end of transition period. Further, according to the MOFCOM News Release, from January 1, 2018 the retail goods imported on cross-border e-commerce platforms will be temporarily treated as personal items which are not subject to stricter regulation and higher tax rates applicable to general imported goods in 15 cross-border e-commerce trial areas. On September 20, 2017, the State Council extended the transition period of cross-border e-commerce retail importation regulation policy by a year to the end of 2018, by which time the import goods from cross-border e-commerce retail will be temporarily regulated as personal items. See "Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulation —Regulations on Tax-Import Tax" for more information about the pattern change. Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to regulation pattern change regarding the import tax on consumer goods imported through cross-border e-commerce platforms, which may substantially increase import tax imposed on buyers and thus raise the price of goods sold on our online platform and impair our competitive advantage and could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders.

 

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, an enterprise established outside of the PRC with "de facto management body" within the PRC is considered a resident enterprise and will be subject to the enterprise income tax on its global income at the rate of 25%. The implementation rules define the term "de facto management body" as the body that exercises full and substantial control and overall management over the business, productions, personnel, accounts and properties of an enterprise. In April 2009, the State Administration of Taxation issued a circular, known as Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the "de facto management body" of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Although this circular only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners like us, the criteria set forth in the circular may reflect the State Administration of Taxation's general position on how the "de facto management body" text should be applied in determining the tax resident status of all offshore enterprises. According to Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be regarded as a PRC tax resident by virtue of having its "de facto management body" in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its global income only if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the primary location of the day-to-day operational management is in the PRC; (ii) decisions relating to the enterprise's financial and human resource matters are made or are subject to approval by organizations or personnel in the PRC; (iii) the enterprise's primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholder resolutions, are located or maintained in the PRC; and (iv) at least 50% of voting board members or senior executives habitually reside in the PRC.

 

We believe Jumei International Holding Limited is not a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. See "Item 10. Additional Information — E. Taxation — People's Republic of China Taxation." However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term "de facto management body." If the PRC tax authorities determine that Jumei International Holding Limited is a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, we may be required to withhold a 10% withholding tax from dividends we pay to our shareholders that are non-resident enterprises, including the holders of our ADSs. In addition, non-resident enterprise shareholders (including our ADS holders) may be subject to PRC tax on gains realized on the sale or other disposition of ADSs or ordinary shares, if such income is treated as sourced from within the PRC. It is unclear whether our non-PRC individual shareholders (including our ADS holders) would be subject to any PRC tax on dividends or gains obtained by such non-PRC individual shareholders in the event we are determined to be a PRC resident enterprise. If any PRC tax were to apply to such dividends or gains, it would generally apply at a rate of 20% unless a reduced rate is available under an applicable tax treaty. However, it is also unclear whether non-PRC shareholders of Jumei International Holding Limited would be able to claim the benefits of any tax treaties between their country of tax residence and the PRC in the event that Jumei International Holding Limited is treated as a PRC resident enterprise.

 

We may not be able to obtain certain benefits under relevant tax treaty on dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries to us through Jumei Hongkong Limited.

 

We are a holding company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and as such rely on dividends and other distributions on equity from our PRC subsidiaries to satisfy part of our liquidity requirements. Pursuant to the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, a withholding tax rate of 10% currently applies to dividends paid by a PRC "resident enterprise" to a foreign enterprise investor, unless any such foreign investor's jurisdiction of incorporation has a tax treaty with China that provides for preferential tax treatment. Pursuant to the Arrangement between the Mainland China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Tax Evasion on Income, or the Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement, and a Circular 81 issued by the State Administration of Taxation, such withholding tax rate may be lowered to 5% if the PRC enterprise is at least 25% held by a Hong Kong enterprise throughout the 12 months prior to distribution of the dividends and is determined by the relevant PRC tax authority to have satisfied other conditions and requirements under the Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement and other applicable PRC laws. Furthermore, the Administrative Measures for Non-Resident Enterprises to Enjoy Treatments under Tax Treaties (For Trial Implementation), which became effective in October 2009, require that non-resident enterprises must obtain approval from the relevant tax authority in order to enjoy the reduced withholding tax rate. There are also other conditions for enjoying the reduced withholding tax rate according to other relevant tax rules and regulations. See "Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulation — Regulations on Tax." The relevant PRC tax authority will conduct a comprehensive analysis and determine whether to grant approval on a case-by-case basis. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain the approval from the relevant PRC tax authority and enjoy the preferential withholding tax rate of 5% under the Double Taxation Arrangement with respect to dividends to be paid by our PRC subsidiaries to Jumei Hongkong Limited.

 

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We may face uncertainties with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises or other assets attributed to a Chinese establishment of a non-Chinese company, or immovable properties located in China owned by non-Chinese companies

 

On February 3, 2015, the State Administration of Taxation issued the Bulletin on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfers of Assets by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or Bulletin 7, which replaced previous rules under the Notice on Strengthening Administration of Enterprise Income Tax for Share Transfer by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or Circular 698, issued by the State Administration of Taxation, on December 10, 2009. Pursuant to Bulletin 7, an "indirect transfer" of assets, including equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by non-PRC resident enterprises may be treated as a direct transfer of PRC taxable assets, if such arrangement does not have a reasonable commercial purpose and is established for the purpose of avoiding payment of PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax. According to Bulletin 7, "PRC taxable assets" include assets attributed to an establishment in China, immoveable properties located in China, and equity investments in PRC resident enterprises, in respect of which gains from their transfer by a direct holder, being a non-PRC resident enterprise, would be subject to PRC enterprise income taxes. When determining whether there is a "reasonable commercial purpose" of the transaction arrangement, features to be taken into consideration include the followings: whether the main value of the equity interest of the relevant offshore enterprise derives from PRC taxable assets; whether the assets of the relevant offshore enterprise mainly consist of direct or indirect investment in China or if their income mainly derive from China; whether the offshore enterprise and its subsidiaries directly or indirectly holding PRC taxable assets have real commercial nature which is evidenced by their actual function and risk exposure; the duration of existence of the business model and organizational structure; the replicability of the transaction by direct transfer of PRC taxable assets; and the tax situation of such indirect transfer and applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements. In respect of an indirect offshore transfer of assets of a PRC establishment, the resulting gain is to be included with the enterprise income tax filing of the PRC establishment or place of business being transferred, and would consequently be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at a rate of 25%. Where the underlying transfer relates to the immoveable properties located in China or to equity investments in a PRC resident enterprise, which is not related to a PRC establishment or place of business of a non-resident enterprise, a PRC enterprise income tax at 10% would apply, subject to available preferential tax treatment under applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements, and the party who is obligated to make the transfer payments has the withholding obligation. Where the payor fails to withhold any or sufficient tax, the transferor shall declare and pay such tax to the tax authority by itself within the statutory time limit. Late payment of applicable tax will subject the transferor to default interest. Bulletin 7 does not apply to transactions of sale of shares by investors through a public stock exchange where such shares are acquired from a transaction through a public stock exchange.

 

As Bulletin 7 is lately promulgated, it is not clear how it will be implemented. We may pursue acquisitions in the future that may involve complex corporate structures. If we are considered a non-resident enterprise under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and if the PRC tax authorities make adjustments to the taxable income of the transactions under Bulletin 7, our income tax costs associated with such potential acquisitions will be increased, which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Registered public accounting firms in China, including our independent registered public accounting firm, are not fully inspected by the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, which deprives us and our investors of the benefits of such inspection.

 

Auditors of companies whose shares are registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, and traded publicly in the United States, including our independent registered public accounting firm, must be registered with the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, and are required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess their compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards applicable to auditors. Our independent registered public accounting firm is located in, and organized under the laws of, the PRC, which is a jurisdiction where the PCAOB, notwithstanding the requirements of U.S. law, is currently unable to conduct full inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities. In May 2013, PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, and the PRC Ministry of Finance, which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations undertaken by PCAOB, the CSRC or the PRC Ministry of Finance in the United States and the PRC, respectively. PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the CSRC and the PRC Ministry of Finance to permit full inspections in the PRC of audit firms that are registered with PCAOB and audit Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges.

 

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This lack of PCAOB inspections in China prevents the PCAOB from fully evaluating audits and quality control procedures of our independent registered public accounting firm. As a result, we and investors in our common stock are deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct full inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm's audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to PCAOB inspections, which could cause investors and potential investors in our stock to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.

 

If additional remedial measures are imposed on the Big Four PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, in administrative proceedings brought by the SEC alleging the firms' failure to meet specific criteria set by the SEC, we could be unable to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

 

In December 2012, the SEC instituted administrative proceedings against the Big Four PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, alleging that these firms had violated U.S. securities laws and the SEC's rules and regulations thereunder by failing to provide to the SEC the firms' audit work papers with respect to certain PRC-based companies that are publicly traded in the United States. On January 22, 2014, the administrative law judge presiding over the matter rendered an initial decision that each of the firms had violated the SEC's rules of practice by failing to produce audit workpapers to the SEC. The initial decision censured each of the firms and barred them from practicing before the SEC for a period of six months. The Big Four PRC-based accounting firms appealed the administrative law judge's initial decision to the SEC. The administrative law judge's decision does not take effect unless and until it is endorsed by the SEC. On February 6, 2015, the four China-based accounting firms each agreed to a censure and to pay a fine to the SEC to settle the dispute and avoid suspension of their ability to practice before the SEC and audit U.S.-listed companies. The settlement required the firms to follow detailed procedures and to seek to provide the SEC with access to Chinese firms' audit documents via the CSRC in response to future document requests by the SEC made through the CSRC. If the Big Four PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, fail to comply with the documentation production procedures that are in the settlement agreement or if there is a failure of the process between the SEC and CSRC, the SEC retains authority to impose a variety of additional remedial measures on the firms, such as imposing penalties on the firms and restarting the proceedings against the firms, depending on the nature of the failure. If the accounting firms are subject to additional remedial measures, our ability to file our financial statements in compliance with SEC requirements could be impacted. A determination that we have not timely filed financial statements in compliance with SEC requirements could ultimately lead to the delisting of our ADSs from the NYSE or the termination of the registration of our ordinary shares under the Exchange Act, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.

 

Risks Related to Our American Depositary Shares

 

The market price for our ADSs has fluctuated significantly and may continue to be volatile.

 

The trading prices of our ADSs have fluctuated significantly since we first listed our ADSs. Since our ADSs became listed on the NYSE on May 16, 2014, the trading price of our ADSs has ranged from US$2.00 to US$5.01 per ADS in 2017. The trading prices of our ADSs may continue to fluctuate widely and be volatile due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, like the performance and fluctuation in the market prices or the underperformance or deteriorating financial results of other listed internet or other companies based in China that have listed their securities in the United States in recent years. The securities of some of these companies have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings, including, in some cases, substantial price declines in the trading prices of their securities. The trading performances of other Chinese companies' securities after their offerings, including internet and e-commerce companies, may affect the attitudes of investors toward Chinese companies listed in the United States, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting, corporate structure or matters of other Chinese companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have conducted any inappropriate activities. In addition, securities markets may from time to time experience significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to our operating performance, such as the large decline in share prices in the United States, China and other jurisdictions in late 2008, early 2009 and the second half of 2011, which may have a material and adverse effect on the market price of our ADSs.

 

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In addition to the above factors, the price and trading volume of our ADSs may be highly volatile due to multiple factors, including the following:

 

·regulatory developments affecting us, our customers, suppliers or our industry;

 

·announcements of studies and reports relating to the quality of our product and service offerings or those of our competitors;

 

·changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other online retailers;

 

·actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations and changes or revisions of our expected results;

 

·changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;

 

·conditions in the online retail industry;

 

·announcements by us or our competitors of new product and service offerings, acquisitions, strategic relationships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

·additions to or departures of our senior management;

 

·detrimental negative publicity about us, our management or our industry;

 

·fluctuations of exchange rates between the RMB and the U.S. dollar;

 

·release or expiry of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding ordinary shares or ADSs; and

 

·sales or perceived potential sales of additional ordinary shares or ADSs.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price for our ADSs and trading volume could decline.

 

The trading market for our ADSs will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If research analysts do not establish and maintain adequate research coverage or if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our ADSs or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price for our ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which, in turn, could cause the market price or trading volume for our ADSs to decline.

 

As we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, you must rely on price appreciation of our ADSs for return on your investment.

 

We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in our ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.

 

Our board of directors has discretion as to whether to distribute dividends, subject to applicable laws. Under Cayman Islands law, a Cayman Islands company may pay a dividend out of either profit or additional paid-in capital, provided that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in the company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on, among other things, our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in our ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of our ADSs. There is no guarantee that our ADSs will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which you purchased the ADSs. You may not realize a return on your investment in our ADSs and you may even lose your entire investment in our ADSs.

 

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Substantial future sales or perceived potential sales of our ADSs in the public market could cause the price of our ADSs to decline.

 

Sales of our ADSs in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of our ADSs to decline and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. Certain holders of our ordinary shares may cause us to register under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, the sale of their shares. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in ADSs representing these shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act immediately upon the effectiveness of the registration. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of our ADSs.

 

Our dual-class voting structure with different voting rights will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

 

Our ordinary shares are divided into Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. In respect of matters requiring the votes of shareholders, holders of Class A ordinary shares are entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B ordinary shares are entitled to ten votes per share. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof, while Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. Upon any transfer of Class B ordinary shares by a holder thereof to any person or entity which is not an affiliate of such holder, such Class B ordinary shares shall be automatically and immediately converted into the equal number of Class A ordinary shares. As of March 31, 2018, Mr. Leo Ou Chen held 50,892,198 Class B ordinary shares, representing approximately 83.7% of the aggregate voting power of our company.

 

As a result of the dual class share structure and the concentration of ownership, holders of our Class B ordinary shares have considerable influence over matters such as decisions regarding mergers, consolidations and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. They may take actions that are not in the best interest of us or our other shareholders. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could have the dual effect of depriving our other shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and may reduce the price of our ADSs. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transactions that holders of Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

 

Certain existing shareholders have substantial influence over our company and their interests may not be aligned with the interests of our other shareholders.

 

As of March 31, 2018, Mr. Leo Ou Chen owns of 33.9% of our outstanding ordinary shares on an as-converted basis, representing 83.7% of the total voting power of our outstanding ordinary shares. As a result, he has substantial influence over our business, including significant corporate actions such as mergers, consolidations, sales of all or substantially all of our assets and election of directors.

 

He may take actions that are not in the best interest of us or our other shareholders. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and may reduce the price of the ADSs. These actions may be taken even if he is opposed by our other shareholders. In addition, the significant concentration of share ownership may adversely affect the trading price of the ADSs due to investors' perception that conflicts of interest may exist or arise. For more information regarding our principal shareholders and their affiliated entities, see "Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees — E. Share Ownership."

 

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In addition, we are a "controlled company" as defined under NYSE Listed Company Manual because Mr. Leo Ou Chen beneficially owns a majority of the aggregate voting power of our company. For so long as we remain a controlled company, we are permitted to elect to rely on certain exemptions from corporate governance rules:

 

·an exemption from the rule that a majority of our board of directors must be independent directors;

 

·the requirement that the compensation committee be composed entirely of independent directors and have a written charter addressing the committee's purpose and responsibilities;

 

·the requirement that the nominating committee be composed entirely of independent directors and have a written charter addressing the committee's purpose and responsibilities; and

 

·the requirement of an annual performance evaluation of the nominating and corporate governance and compensation committees.

 

As a result, our independent directors may not have as much influence over our corporate governance as they would if we were not a controlled company.

 

You, as holders of ADSs, may have fewer rights than holders of our ordinary shares and must act through the depositary to exercise those rights.

 

Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights as our registered shareholders. As a holder of our ADSs, you will not have any direct right to attend general meetings of our shareholders or to cast any votes at such meetings. You will only be able to exercise the voting rights which are carried by the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs indirectly by giving voting instructions to the depositary in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under the deposit agreement, you may vote only by giving voting instructions to the depositary. Upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will vote the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs in accordance with these instructions. You will not be able to directly exercise your right to vote with respect to the underlying Class A ordinary shares unless you withdraw the shares and become the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date for the general meeting. Under our second amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the minimum notice period required to be given by our company to our registered shareholders to convene a general meeting is ten calendar days. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient advance notice of the meeting to permit you to withdraw the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs and become the registered holder of such shares to allow you to attend the general meeting and to cast your vote directly with respect to any specific matter or resolution to be considered and voted upon at the general meeting. Furthermore, under our second amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, for the purposes of determining those shareholders who are entitled to attend and vote at any general meeting, our directors may close our register of members and/or fix in advance a record date for such meeting, and such closure of our register of members or the setting of such a record date may prevent you from withdrawing the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs and becoming the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date, so that you would not be able to attend the general meeting or to vote directly. If we ask for your instructions, the depositary will notify you of the upcoming vote and will arrange to deliver our voting materials to you. We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out your voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to direct how the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs are voted and you may have no legal remedy if the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs are not voted as you requested. In addition, in your capacity as an ADS holder, you will not be able to call a shareholders' meeting.

 

Your right to participate in any future rights offerings may be limited, which may cause dilution to your holdings.

 

We may from time to time distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. However, we cannot make rights available to you in the United States unless we register both the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not make rights available to you unless both the rights and the underlying securities to be distributed to ADS holders are either registered under the Securities Act or exempt from registration under the Securities Act. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective and we may not be able to establish a necessary exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, you may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution in your holdings.

 

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You may not receive cash dividends if the depositary decides it is impractical to make them available to you.

 

The depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our Class A ordinary shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of Class A ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary may, at its discretion, decide that it is inequitable or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, the depositary may determine that it is not practicable to distribute certain property through the mail, or that the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may decide not to distribute such property to you.

 

You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.

 

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deems it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

 

Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

 

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. We conduct our operations mainly in China and substantially all of our assets are located outside of the United States. In addition, our directors and executive officers reside within China, and most of the assets of these persons are located outside of the U.S. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that you believe your rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of the PRC may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.

 

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

 

We are an exempted company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our second amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Law (2018 Revision) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

 

Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our existing articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

 

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As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States.

 

Our memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could discourage a third party from acquiring us and adversely affect the rights of holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs.

 

Our second amended and restated memorandum and articles of association contain certain provisions that could limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company, including a dual-class voting structure that gives disproportionate voting power to the Class B ordinary shares beneficially owned by our founders, and a provision that grants authority to our board of directors to establish from time to time one or more series of preferred shares without action by our shareholders and to determine, with respect to any series of preferred shares, the terms and rights of that series. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of the opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over the prevailing market price by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transactions.

 

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.

 

Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

 

·the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K;

 

·the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

 

·the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

 

·the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

 

We are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC are less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

 

As a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from the NYSE corporate governance listing standards; these practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with the NYSE corporate governance listing standards.

 

As a Cayman Islands company listed on the NYSE, we are subject to the NYSE corporate governance listing standards. However, NYSE rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from the NYSE corporate governance listing standards. Currently, we do not rely on home country practice with respect to our corporate governance. However, if we choose to follow home country practice in the future, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under the NYSE corporate governance listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

 

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There is a significant risk that we will be classified as a passive foreign investment company for United States federal income tax purposes, which would result in adverse United States federal income tax consequences to United States investors in the ADSs or Class A ordinary shares.

 

We will be a "passive foreign investment company" ("PFIC") if, in any particular taxable year, either (a) 75% or more of our gross income for such year consists of certain types of "passive" income or (b) 50% or more of the average quarterly value of our assets (as determined on the basis of fair market value) during such year produce or are held for the production of passive income. Because we currently hold, and expect to continue to hold, a substantial amount of cash, cash equivalents, investments that produce passive income, and other passive assets, and because the fair market value of our assets is determined in part by reference to the market price of our ADSs and Class A ordinary shares, we believe that we were a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for our taxable year ended December 31, 2017, and unless the market price of our ADSs and Class A ordinary shares substantially increases or the proportion of our assets producing passive income substantially decreases, we will very likely be a PFIC for our current taxable year ending December 31, 2018. Because of the uncertainties in the application of the relevant rules and because PFIC status is a factual determination made annually after the close of each taxable year, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for the current or any future taxable year.

 

If we are classified as a PFIC, a U.S. Holder (as defined in "Item 10. Additional Information — E. Taxation — United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—General") may incur significantly increased United States federal income tax on gain recognized on the sale or other disposition of the ADSs or Class A ordinary shares and on the receipt of distributions on the ADSs or Class A ordinary shares to the extent such gain or distribution is treated as an "excess distribution" under the United States federal income tax rules. Further, if we are classified as a PFIC for any year during which a U.S. Holder holds our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares, we generally will continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which such U.S. Holder holds our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares. You are urged to consult your tax advisor concerning the United States federal income tax consequences of holding and disposing of ADSs or Class A ordinary shares. For more information see "Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation— United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—Passive Foreign Investment Company Considerations" and "—Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules."

 

We incurred increased costs as a result of being a public company, and we cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional future costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

 

We are a public company and have incurred significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and NYSE, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. As we generated more than US$1.0 billion in net revenues for our fiscal year ended December 31, 2015, we ceased to be an "emerging growth company" and incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. We cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

 

In the past, we have been named as a defendant in a putative shareholder class action lawsuit in the United States, which has been dismissed by the court, but we may be involved in more class action lawsuits in the future. Such lawsuits could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations, which could harm our results of operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the lawsuits. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Item 4.Information on the Company

 

A.History and Development of the Company

 

Our founder, chairman and chief executive officer Mr. Leo Ou Chen and two co-founders formed Reemake Media Co., Ltd., or Reemake Media, in Beijing, China in August 2009 and commenced our online beauty products retail business under our Jumei (聚美) brand through Reemake Media in March 2010. In January 2011, Reemake Media acquired 100% of the equity interests in Beijing Shengjinteng Network Science and Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Shengjinteng.

 

In August 2010, we incorporated Jumei International Holding Limited, an exempted company with limited liability, under the laws of the Cayman Islands as our offshore holding company in order to facilitate international financing. In September 2010, we established a wholly-owned Hong Kong subsidiary, Jumei Hongkong Limited to be our intermediate holding company. In March 2011, Jumei Hongkong Limited established a wholly-owned PRC subsidiary, Jumei Youpin (Beijing) Science and Technology Services Co., Ltd., which was subsequently renamed as Beijing Silvia Technology Service Co., Ltd, or Beijing Jumei. In July 2012, Jumei Hongkong Limited established a wholly-owned PRC subsidiary, Chengdu Jumeiyoupin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., or Chengdu Jumei. In March 2014, we established a new wholly-owned Hong Kong subsidiary named Jumei Hongkong Holding Limited, which operates our Jumei Global business.

 

Due to PRC legal restrictions on foreign ownership and investment in value-added telecommunication service businesses, we conduct such activities through contractual arrangements with Reemake Media, a consolidated VIE of ours in China. Through Beijing Jumei, we obtained control over Reemake Media in April 2011 by entering into a series of contractual arrangements with Reemake Media and the shareholders of Reemake Media, or VIE arrangements. The VIE arrangements, except for the exclusive consulting and services agreement, were subsequently amended and restated in January 2014. The VIE arrangements with Reemake Media and its shareholders through Beijing Jumei were terminated in April 2017, and we entered into VIE arrangements with Reemake Media and its shareholders through Chengdu Jumei on the same day, no material terms or conditions of these agreements were changed or altered and our control over Reemake Media remains unchanged. Reemake Media holds an ICP license for our operation as an internet information provider and operates our website.

 

In addition to Reemake Media and its subsidiaries, we have certain other consolidated VIEs. For example, we have VIE arrangements with Chengdu Li'ao through Tianjin Cyril. We provide live video broadcasting service though Chengdu Li'ao.

 

The VIE arrangements we enter into with our VIEs and their respective shareholders allow us to:

 

·exercise effective control over our VIEs;

 

·receive substantially all of the economic benefits of our VIEs; and

 

·have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests and assets in our VIEs at the lowest price when and to the extent permitted by PRC law.

 

As a result of these contractual arrangements, we are the primary beneficiary of each of our consolidated VIEs. We have consolidated the financial results of our VIEs and their subsidiaries in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

 

Jumei Hongkong Limited established Shanghai Paddy Commerce and Trade Co., Ltd. in June 2012, and Tianjin Cyril Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Tianjin Cyril, and Tianjin Darren Trading Co., Ltd. in March 2013. Tianjin Darren Trading Co., Ltd. was subsequently renamed as Tianjin Qianmei International Trading Co., Ltd., or Tianjin Qianmei, in March 2014. Shanghai Paddy Commerce and Trade Co., Ltd. was subsequently renamed Shanghai Jumeiyoupin Technology Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Jumei, in June 2014. In December 2013, Jumei Hongkong Limited established Tianjin Venus Technology Co., Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary, which was subsequently renamed as Tianjin Jumeiyoupin Technology Co., Ltd. Tianjin Jumei established Zhengzhou Venus Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Zhengzhou Venus in August 2014, Ningbo Jumeiyoupin Network Technology Co., Ltd. in May, 2015, Hangzhou Youpin Technology Co., Ltd. in August, 2015, Zhuhai Jumeiyoupin Technology Co., Ltd. in June, 2015, and Shenzhen Hepo Technology Co., Ltd. in August, 2015, all of which are wholly-owned subsidiaries of Tianjin Jumei. Jumei Hongkong Limited established Suzhou Jumeiyoupin Technology Co., Ltd., or Suzhou Jumei, in October 2014. Chengdu Jumei established Shanghai Youpin E-commerce Co., Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Chengdu Jumei, in June, 2015.

 

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In December 2015, we started a restructuring of our wholly-owned subsidiaries in China, during which Chengdu Jumei acquired 100% of the equity interests in Tianjin Jumei, Tianjin Cyril, Tianjin Qianmei, Shanghai Jumei and Suzhou Jumei from Jumei Hongkong Limited. The competent authorities have approved these equity transfers, and have registered with the relevant corporate registration authorities regarding those transfers. Meanwhile, Chengdu Jumei also acquired 100% equity interest in Jumei Hongkong Holding Limited from Jumei Hongkong Limited.

 

In January and February 2015, we established two wholly-owned subsidiaries in Suzhou and South Korea. The subsidiary in South Korea was subsequently closed in September 2016 and had never carried out any material business operation or held any operating license that was material to our company during its lifetime. The subsidiary in Suzhou currently conducts the business of selling our merchandise sales products.

 

Currently, the business scope of each of our wholly-owned subsidiaries in the PRC contains the business of development of computer software and technology, which falls in the encouraged category under the Catalog. The other businesses listed in the business scope of each of these wholly owned subsidiaries are not listed in the Catalog and thus fall in the permitted category for foreign investment under PRC law. See "— B. Business Overview — Regulation — Regulation Relating to Foreign Investment."

 

We believe that, other than online business conducted through our website that requires an ICP license and thus is subject to foreign ownership restriction, our business operations can be conducted by our wholly owned subsidiaries in China. Since 2011, we have started to conduct our business operations that are not subject to PRC legal restrictions on foreign ownership through our wholly owned subsidiaries.

 

On May 16, 2014, our ADSs commenced trading on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol "JMEI." We sold a total of 12,723,854 ADSs, representing 12,723,854 Class A ordinary shares, at the price of US$22.00 per ADS, in our initial public offering. Concurrently with our initial public offering, we also issued 6,818,182 Class A ordinary shares at a price of US$22.00 per share to General Atlantic Singapore Fund Pte. Ltd. through a private placement.

 

On July 22, 2015, we made an investment in BabyTree Inc. and its subsidiaries and variable interest entities in PRC, or, collectively, BabyTree, in the form of a convertible loan of RMB558 million, or the Convertible Loan. Pursuant to the original loan agreement, on or prior to July 22, 2016, or the Maturity Date, and subject to certain conditions, all outstanding balance of the Convertible Loan is convertible into certain equity interests in BabyTree's Chinese operating entity if BabyTree had completed its proposed restructuring. On March 16, 2016, we and the relevant BabyTree parties entered into a supplemental agreement to the loan agreement to accelerate RMB186.0 million of the balance of the Convertible Loan. Pursuant to the supplemental agreement, we received RMB186.0 million of repayment from BabyTree and the balance of the Convertible Loan was reduced to RMB372 million. On September 8, 2016, we and the relevant BabyTree parties entered into capital increase agreements to convert the remaining balance of the Convertible Loan to capital injections into two of BabyTree's Chinese operating entities. We currently hold minority equity interests in each of these two BabyTree operating entities.

 

In August 2016, we entered into definitive agreements for investing approximately RMB100 million in a venture capital fund set up to focus on investments in the culture and entertainment industries in China. The venture capital fund is locally set up, managed and operated in China.

 

On February 17, 2016, our board of directors received a non-binding proposal letter from Mr. Leo Ou Chen, Mr. Yusen Dai, Sequoia funds (together, the "buyer group"), proposing a "going-private" transaction to acquire all of our outstanding ordinary shares not already owned by the buyer group for US$7.00 in cash per ADS (the "proposal"). Our board of directors has formed a special committee consisting of two independent and disinterested directors, Mr. Sean Shao (as chairman) and Mr. Adam J. Zhao, to consider the "going-private" proposal. On November 27, 2017, the special committee of our board of directors received a letter from the buyer group, stating that it would withdraw the proposal with immediate effect.

 

In May 2017, we entered into a purchase agreement and acquired a majority interest in Shenzhen Jiedian Technology Co., Ltd., or Jiedian, for cash consideration of RMB300 million (US$46.1 million). Subsequently, we acquired additional equity interests in Jiedian from the non-controlling interest holders of Jiedian for a total cash consideration of RMB92,610 (US$14,234). As a result, we held 82.07% equity interest of Jiedian as of December 31, 2017. We have agreed on non-binding key terms with a potential investor on its investment in Jiedian.

 

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On July 28, 2017, we entered into definitive agreements to invest an aggregate of RMB84 million (US$12.91 million) in the production of a television drama series titled "Here to Heart". The series is based on a book of the same title, and has an expected total budget of RMB210 million (US$32.3 million). The film is still in production as of December 2017.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at 20th Floor, Tower B, Zhonghui Plaza, 11 Dongzhimen South Road, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100007, the People's Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +86 10-5676-6999. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the offices of Maples Corporate Services Limited at PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Law Debenture Corporate Services Inc., located at 801 2nd Avenue, Suite 403, New York, NY 10017.

 

B.Business Overview

 

OVERVIEW

 

We are China's leading online retailer specializing in beauty products. We believe that our internet platform is a trusted destination for consumers to discover and purchase branded beauty products, baby, children and maternity products, pre-packaged food, as well as fashionable apparel and other lifestyle products. Leveraging our deep understanding of customer needs and preferences, as well as our strong merchandizing capabilities, we have adopted multiple effective sales formats to encourage product purchases on our platform. Our current sales formats consist of curated sales, online shopping mall and flash sales. Our Jumei Global sales channel is part of our curated sales format.

 

For curated sales, we recommend a carefully selected collection of branded products, including beauty products, baby, children and maternity products, light luxury products as well as health supplements, for a limited period of time at attractive prices. Our curated sales format captures online shoppers' attention through product recommendations and insightful product descriptions, which has helped us build a strong customer base. As part of our curated sales format, we launched our Jumei Global sales channel in September 2014, which offers Chinese consumers convenient access to products sourced at attractive prices directly from overseas, without the need to travel abroad, and allows our consumers to make payments in Renminbi. We also sell a wider selection of branded beauty products through our online shopping mall on a long-term basis to enhance customer stickiness. To further enhance and complement our customer experience with more choices, we provide a limited-time offering of fashionable apparel and other lifestyle products at deep discounts through flash sales.

 

We have built a large base of highly engaged and loyal customers, as well as a wide variety of well-selected products. Our active customers totaled approximately 16.0 million, 15.4 million and 15.1 million in 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. Our suppliers and third-party merchants include brand owners, brand distributors, resellers and certain exclusive product suppliers. We worked with approximately 1,903 suppliers and third-party merchants in 2017.

 

We have invested substantial resources to build a mobile platform that is dedicated to providing a superior mobile shopping experience. As a result, sales through our mobile platform have grown significantly since its launch in May 2012. In the fourth quarter of 2017, approximately 95.8% of our GMV was generated through our mobile platform.

 

Under our visionary management's leadership, we have attracted a large and loyal user base through our creative and cost-efficient marketing campaigns, live broadcasting function as well as word-of-mouth referrals resulting from our well-selected products and superior customer experience. We further enhance the attractiveness of our product offerings by entering into arrangements with beauty product suppliers for exclusive sales and distribution of selected products in China. We have at times pursued strategic investments and expanded into new businesses. For example, we entered into the portable power bank sharing business in 2017 with our strategic investment in Jiedian. However, our revenues attributable to this business were immaterial in 2017.

 

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Our net revenues were RMB7.3 billion in 2015, RMB6.3 billion in 2016 and RMB5.8 billion (US$894.0 million) in 2017. Our net income was RMB134.8 million in 2015 and RMB150.2 million in 2016. But we incurred net loss of RMB37.0 million (US$5.7 million) in 2017. Our net cash provided by operating activities were RMB151.5 million in 2015 and RMB83.5 million in 2016. But net cash used in operating activities of RMB440.5 million (US$67.7 million) in 2017.

 

OUR SALES FORMATS

 

We currently utilize three sales formats: curated sales, online shopping mall and flash sales. The following table summarizes the key features of our three sales formats:

 

    Curated Sales   Online
Shopping Mall
  Flash Sales
             
Products   Branded beauty products, baby, children and maternity products, light luxury products and health supplements   Branded beauty products   Branded apparel and other lifestyle products
             
Duration   Usually one to three days   Long-term offerings   Usually five days
             
Breadth of Offering   Selected, focusing on SKUs   Wide   Selected, focusing on brands
             
Pricing   Attractive price   Attractive price   Deep discount
             
Our Role  

·      Select, curate and recommend a carefully selected collection of SKUs each day

·      Act as principal

 

·      Merchandize a wider selection of products

·      Act as principal

 

·      Select brands

·      Act as service provider for third-party merchants

 

Jumei Global and Curated Sales

 

We believe the curated sales format embraces value, quality and convenience for our customers and enhances our trendsetting image. We curate and recommend a carefully selected collection of branded products for a limited period of time at attractive prices. Launched in September 2014, our Jumei Global offers Chinese consumers convenient access to products sourced at attractive prices directly from overseas and allows our consumers to make payments in Renminbi. Our Jumei Global currently offers branded beauty products, baby, children and maternity products, light luxury products and health supplements from South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, the United States, Australia and a number of European countries. We centralize the customs clearance and domestic fulfillment processes for all products sold through Jumei Global in order to ensure fast product delivery to our customers. Customers may also return unwanted products directly to us within the product return period.

 

Online Shopping Mall

 

In addition to curated sales, we offer a wider selection of branded beauty products through our online shopping mall on a long-term basis and at attractive prices to enhance customer stickiness. Our shopping mall allows customers to browse products based on category, functionality, brand, price and whether they are sold exclusively by us. We collaborate with an extensive range of international and domestic suppliers, who offer diversified and branded beauty products.

 

Flash Sales

 

We offer apparel and other lifestyle products sold by third-party merchants to meet our customers' growing needs and enhance their shopping experience with more choices. Launched in December 2012, our flash sales format features virtual stores of selected third-party merchants, offering apparel and accessories, footwear, handbags and luggage, as well as home goods and other lifestyle products at deep discounts. Products offered through our flash sales format are directly sold and fulfilled by third-party merchants.

 

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PRODUCT OFFERINGS

 

Product Categories

 

The following table illustrates the categories of products we sell on Jumei Global through curated sales format.

 

Product category   Product description
Cosmetics   Foundation, powder, concealer, makeup remover, eye liner, eye shadow, brow powder, brow pencil, mascara, lip gloss, lipstick and nail polish
Skin care   Facial cleanser, whitening products, sun block, moisturizer, facial mask, eye mask, eye gel, exfoliating scrub, lotion, cream pore cleanser, lip care and toner
Cosmetic applicators   Brush, puff, curler, hair iron and shaver
Fragrance   Perfume and cologne for women and men
Body care   Shampoo, conditioner and body wash
For men   Facial wash, firming lotion, astringent and moisturizer
For baby and children   Lip balm, lotion, shampoo, soap, essence oil, formula milk and diapers
Light luxury products   Bags, shoes, watches
Health supplements   Weight control products and nutritional supplements
Pre-packaged foods   Snacks, cereals and instant noodles

 

The following table illustrates the categories of beauty products we sell through our online shopping mall format:

 

Product category   Product description
Cosmetics   Foundation, powder, concealer, makeup remover, eye liner, eye shadow, brow powder, brow pencil, mascara, lip gloss, lipstick and nail polish
Skin care   Facial cleanser, whitening products, sun block, moisturizer, facial mask, eye mask, eye gel, exfoliating scrub, lotion, cream pore cleanser, lip care and toner
Cosmetic applicators   Brush, puff, curler, hair iron and shaver
Fragrance   Perfume and cologne for women and men
Body care   Shampoo, conditioner and body wash
For men   Facial wash, firming lotion, astringent and moisturizer
For baby and children   Lip balm, lotion, shampoo, soap, essence oil, formula milk and diapers
Pre-packaged foods   Snacks and cereals

 

We supplement our product offerings with apparel and other lifestyle products through flash sales format as illustrated by the following table:

 

Product category   Product description
Womenswear   Women's apparel, featuring a variety of apparel for different age groups, including casual wear, jeans, dresses, outerwear and swimsuits
Footwear   Shoes for women and men designed in a variety of styles, for both casual and formal occasions
Lingerie   Underwear, stockings and pajamas
Handbags and luggage   Purses, satchels, backpacks, duffel bags and luggage
Menswear   Men's apparel in various styles for different age groups, including casual and smart-casual T-shirts, polo shirts, jackets, pants and underwear
Sportswear and sporting goods   Sports apparel, and sports gear and footwear for tennis, badminton, soccer and swimming
Accessories   Fashion accessories in a variety of styles and materials, including belts, jewelry, watches and glasses complementing apparel for all seasons and types of customers
Home goods and other lifestyle products  

Home goods with an extensive selection of home furnishings, including bedding and bath products, home decor, dining and tabletop items, and small household appliances

Miscellaneous   Snacks and health supplements

 

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Exclusive Products

 

To enhance the attractiveness of our product offerings, we enter into exclusive arrangements from time to time with manufacturers and other suppliers to offer exclusive products, including products under our private label brands, on our internet platform. Our exclusive products primarily consist of beauty products. In addition, through exclusive arrangements with suppliers, we are able to offer selected SKUs and sets of beauty products under popular brands exclusively on our internet platform. We do not substantially depend on any of our exclusive products suppliers. We also have exclusive distribution rights for the sale of beauty products under global brands seeking to enter into the Chinese market.

 

Our exclusive products have proven to be highly popular among our customers. For example, our Hippo Family brand of face masks has constantly ranked as one of the most popular curated sales products on our internet platform since its debut.

 

CUSTOMERS

 

The majority of our active customers are females. The loyalty of our customer base is demonstrated by the repeat purchase rates and growing willingness of our customers to try new products on our internet platform. The numbers of our active customers were approximately 16.0 million in 2015, 15.4 million in 2016 and 15.1 million in 2017. The number of new customers was approximately 10.9 million in 2015, 9.0 million in 2016 and 8.9 million in 2017. Orders placed by our repeat customers accounted for approximately 92.0%, 91.2% and 90.8% of our total orders in 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively.

 

MARKETING

 

We believe that the most efficient form of marketing for our business is to continuously roll out creative and cost-efficient marketing campaigns to establish our brand image as the trendsetter for beauty and stylish living. These marketing campaigns promote word-of-mouth referrals and enhance repeat customer visits to our internet platform. We have launched a number of television, live broadcasting and internet video-based advertising campaigns aimed at promoting our brand image. We have been expanding our live broadcasting function by engaging and cooperating with celebrities and popular hosts. Our live broadcasting function has proven to be an effective means of promoting our products to our key consumer demographics.

 

As part of our latest marketing efforts, we have invested to produce a Television drama series titled "Here to Heart" staring popular actors and actresses in China, depicting city life of white collars targeting to turning viewers into our customers. We also launched a mini program in WeChat selling exclusive products in January 2017.

 

As part of our viral marketing strategy, we offer various incentives to our existing customers in order to increase their spending and loyalty. Our customers can earn cash coupons for eligible purchases and gain elite membership status, which offers enhanced benefits such as larger cash coupon rewards, exclusive products and free samples. We offer gifts and lucky draw promotions on our internet platform. Our customers can also earn cash coupons for successful referrals of new members and customers. In addition, we encourage our customers to share their shopping experiences with us through social media and networking websites in China.

 

We conduct online advertising via search engines, portals, advertising networks, video sharing websites, and social networking and microblogging sites. Our collaboration with search engines is mainly through paid search, whereby we purchase key words and brand-link products. With the help of online advertising networks, we can run our advertisements through a variety of online media. We also upload our promotional videos to top video sharing websites in China, embed our brand imagine into popular internet shows, and conduct offline advertising by placing television commercials.

 

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OUR SHOPPING PLATFORM

 

Our Websites

 

We focus on creating a superior online shopping experience for our customers whereby they are aided by detailed product descriptions, thoughtful peer reviews and multi-angle picture illustrations in making purchase decisions. Our website interface is fully integrated with our warehouse management system, enabling us to track order and delivery status on a real-time basis.

 

Our website design offers several user-friendly features that enhance customer experience and convenience:

 

·Browsing. Our jumei.com home page arranges our product offerings into segments, namely separate webpages for curated sales of beauty products, baby and maternity products and light luxury products, store fronts of beauty products by brands in our online shopping mall, flash sales of apparel and other lifestyle products and a link to our jumeiglobal.com page. Our websites provide customers with detailed product information, including product specifications, user guides, photographs, peer reviews and ratings.

 

·Sales Functionalities. Our jumei.com website allows users to view the popularity of each product and see other users who are viewing the products, and by featuring countdown clocks next to products on our curated sales webpages. Our customers can conveniently share their shopping experiences with us on various social media and networking websites through links prominently set out on our website interface.

 

·Product Reviews. To help customers make informed purchasing decisions, we devote a large part of our websites to display recent purchase records for each beauty product to highlight the item's popularity and encourage previous purchasers to share their feedback. The product descriptions and reviews on our jumei.com website feature detailed statistical analysis and visual aids, including, for example, customer purchase distribution by age group, skin type and zodiac sign. We also provide tools that allow customers to identify suitable products based on their skin type and age group on our jumei.com website. We only allow customers who have made purchases to post reviews on the relevant products, and we incentivize customers by offering them rewards for posting reviews. Our websites allow users to follow other customers who have posted reviews and to receive feeds on the purchase history of such customers.

 

·Personalized Services. We offer personalized services to our customers via our account management system by allowing them to customize their payment and delivery preferences. Customers can link their Jumei accounts with other popular social networks and payment platforms in China. To facilitate the ease of the checkout process for our repeat customers, our database keeps track of their preferred delivery address, shipping method and payment option based on information they previously provided. We allow users to subscribe to future curated sales notices via text messages, emails and mobile push notifications. We believe all these features improve the shopping experience of our customers and deepen their loyalty.

 

Our Mobile Platform

 

Sales through our mobile platform have grown significantly since its launch in May 2012. Approximately 95.8% of our GMV was generated from our mobile platform in the fourth quarter of 2017.

 

Our Android- and iOS-based mobile applications allow customers to quickly and efficiently view, discover, select and purchase our products offered at our sales events. Customers can browse our recommended product selections, in particular our curated sales which are immediately accessible as soon as our mobile applications are activated on their mobile devices, and make quick purchases at any time and regardless of their locations. In addition, customers can conveniently browse and search for products based on brand, category, product functionality, and can sort product listings by popularity, price and discount level. Users may also subscribe to future curated sales notifications sent by our mobile applications.

 

The unique product offerings and functions on our mobile platform further enhance mobile user experience and engagement. We have also launched some of our sales events a few hours earlier on mobile applications to further boost traffic and purchases on our mobile platform. Some selected products and sales events are offered exclusively on our mobile applications to increase their popularity. We introduced our live broadcasting function exclusively on our mobile platform. Our live broadcasting function allows our users to watch live shows performed by our hosts, to interact with our live hosts through communication and virtual gifting tools, and to conveniently purchase products promoted by our hosts. Our mobile live broadcasting function has become an important marketing channel. In addition, we are in collaboration with telecommunication service providers by offering free data usage to customers shopping on our mobile applications. We offer selected products exclusively on our mobile applications to increase their popularity. We also launched a mini program selling products in WeChat to expand channels. We also seek to provide customers with a customized shopping experience through analyzing and understanding their transaction histories and browsing patterns on our mobile application and develop targeted sales events to increase customer stickiness and enhance cross-selling opportunities. A direct dial feature on our mobile platform allows users to call our customer service with a single click. We periodically send product promotional information to our mobile application users through text messages and mobile push notifications. We also continuously work on developing additional features to better utilize mobile device functionalities to enhance user experience.

 

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Our Physical Stores

 

To complement our internet platform, we opened our first physical store in Beijing in December 2013, which showcases our high quality products, professional knowledge in beauty and skincare as well as superior customer services. We have opened one additional physical stores since then. After our customers have sampled our products, they are encouraged and guided to make purchases on our website through the tablets in our stores or on our mobile applications through their mobile devices with the assistance of free Wi-Fi provided in our stores. Our customers can also directly purchase beauty products sold at our physical stores. However, we do not offer any discount on products sold directly offline, so as to encourage our customers to make purchases online.

 

OUR SUPPLIERS AND THIRD-PARTY MERCHANTS

 

Our suppliers and third-party merchants include brand owners, brand distributors, resellers and exclusive product suppliers. In 2015, 2016 and 2017, we worked with approximately 2,091, 2,244 and 1,903 suppliers and third-party merchants, respectively.

 

Supplier and third-party merchant selection. We have implemented a strict and systematic selection process for suppliers and third-party merchants. Our merchandizing team is responsible for identifying potential suppliers and third-party merchants globally based on our selection guidelines. Our key supplier and third-party merchant selection criteria include size, reputation, sales records in offline and online channels and product offerings. We generally choose to work with reputable suppliers and third-party merchants with good track records and high quality product offerings. Once a potential supplier or third-party merchant is identified, we conduct due diligence reviews on its qualifications based on our selection criteria. For our exclusive products, we typically identify suppliers from trade shows and on-site visits based on our selection criteria, including the relevant qualifications and governmental permits. We also conduct detailed factory auditing on the supplier's manufacturing capability and production process to control product quality.

 

Supply arrangements. We generally enter into framework supply agreements with suppliers and third-party merchants annually based on our standard form. We constantly communicate with our suppliers and third-party merchants to keep them informed of any changes to the inventory levels of their products in order for them to timely respond to our sales demands. Before hosting a major sales event, we provide advance notice to our suppliers and third-party merchants so that they can prepare ample stock to meet potential surge in demand and increased purchases.

 

Product selection. Our merchandizing team members possess insightful knowledge and understanding of existing and potential customers' needs and preferences. Before selecting each product, we consider and analyze historical sales data, fashion trends, seasonality and customer feedbacks to project how many items of a particular product we should offer for curated sales, in our online shopping mall or for flash sales. To maximize the outcome of our curated sales, we carefully plan our product mix to achieve a balanced and complementary product offering across different beauty product categories.

 

Quality control. In addition to our product selection process, we believe we have one of the most stringent quality assurance and control procedures in the e-commerce industry for products delivered through our logistics network. In July 2013, the Authentic Beauty Products Alliance, or the Alliance, an online organization that aims to call on the whole beauty product industry to commit to authentication and provide only authentic products to consumers, was launched. We were one of the founding organizers of the Alliance, whose organizers also include China Quality Long March (质量万里行), one of the most influential nationwide not-for-profit organizations focusing on product quality in China. The Alliance invites our beauty product suppliers to become members, whereby they agree to place stickers containing unique authentication pin numbers on their products sold through us. Customers may then peel the sticker to reveal authentication pin numbers and validate the product authenticity through the Alliance website or websites of the participating brands. The Alliance had 169 members as of December 31, 2017. A significant portion of our beauty products are sold with verifiable authentication pin numbers.

 

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In addition to the Alliance, we conduct daily laboratory tests using our in-house facilities on randomly selected samples of beauty products provided by our suppliers. The tests are designed to analyze the chemical composition of sample beauty products to ensure their authenticity. Any non-compliant products identified will subject the supplier to fines of up to five times the value of the merchandise as well as permanent termination of business relationship with such supplier.

 

Furthermore, we diligently examine the product sourcing channel and qualification of our suppliers, carefully inspect all beauty products delivered to our logistics centers, and reject or return products that do not meet our quality standards or the purchase order specifications. We also reject any products with broken or otherwise compromised packaging. In addition, we inspect all products before shipment from our logistics centers to our customers and conduct random periodic quality checks on our inventory. For non-compliant products, we immediately take them off from our internet platform. For apparel and other lifestyle products that are not processed by our logistics centers, we carefully scrutinize the product sourcing channels of third-party merchants and impose penalties, typically in amounts equal to several times the value of the relevant products, for any quality non-compliance that we discover through customer feedback.

 

Products offered through our Jumei Global are examined by the relevant government authorities at customs. We use our best efforts to cooperate with the authorities and facilitate these examinations, including the provision of required documentations and samples.

 

Inventory management. For curated sales (other than Jumei Global) or for our online shopping mall, we either pay in advance for the products that we purchase from our suppliers, or settle payment upon receipt of such products. Most of our suppliers of beauty products grant us a credit term of 30 days. For beauty products sold through Jumei Global, we now settle all payments upon receipt. For selected suppliers, we only have to settle payment after such products are sold to our customers.

 

PAYMENT AND FULFILLMENT

 

Payment

 

We provide our customers with a number of payment options including cash on delivery (for selected cities), bank transfers, online payments with credit cards and debit cards issued by major banks in China, and payment through major third-party online payment platforms, such as alipay.com and tenpay.com.

 

As part of our marketing efforts, we distribute cash coupons that can be used to deduct from the purchase price of our beauty products. Furthermore, our customers can use the account balances on Jumei accumulated from prior product refunds to make future purchases.

 

Fulfillment

 

We have established a logistics and delivery network with nationwide coverage. We have adopted a flexible logistics model supported by our robust and advanced warehouse management system. We use a mix of third-party nationwide and regional delivery companies to ensure reliable and timely delivery.

 

Logistics Network and Warehouse Management System. Our logistics network consists of regional logistics centers strategically located in Tianjin in Northern China, Chengdu in Western China, Guangzhou in Southern China, Suzhou in Eastern China and Zhengzhou in Central China. Globally, we also have logistics centers located in Hong Kong.

 

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Our warehouse management system enables us to closely monitor each step of the fulfillment process from the time a purchase order is confirmed and the product stocked in our logistics centers, up to when the product is packaged and picked up by delivery service providers for delivery to a customer. Shipments from suppliers first arrive at one of our regional logistics centers, depending on demand from each logistics center. At each logistics center, inventory is bar-coded and tracked through our management information system, allowing real-time monitoring of inventory levels across our logistics network and item tracking at each logistics center. We repackage all products to our standardized boxes for optimized storage and sourcing in our logistics centers. Our warehouse management system is specifically designed to support the frequent curated sales events on our internet platform and a large volume of inventory turnover. We closely monitor the speed and service quality of the third-party merchants through customer surveys and feedbacks from our customers to ensure customer satisfaction.

 

Delivery Services

 

We deliver orders placed on our internet platform to all areas in China through reputable third-party delivery companies with nationwide coverage, and regional delivery companies. For delivery to remote regions of China, we use China Post.

 

We leverage our large-scale operations and reputation to obtain favorable contractual terms from third-party delivery companies. To reduce the risk of reliance on any single delivery company, we typically contract with two or more regional delivery companies in each major city. We regularly monitor and review the delivery companies' performance and their compliance with our contractual terms. For our cash on delivery payment option, we typically require the delivery companies to pay deposits or provide payment guarantees before providing services to us. We typically negotiate and enter into logistics agreements every two years.

 

CUSTOMER SERVICE

 

Customers can access our sales and after-sales service hotlines and online representatives 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Our customer service centers, located in Beijing and Chengdu, had 284 customer service representatives as of December 31, 2017. We train our customer service representatives to answer customer inquiries and proactively educate potential customers about our products and promptly resolve customer complaints. Each representative is required to complete mandatory training, conducted by experienced managers on product knowledge, complaint handling and communication skills.

 

For beauty products, we generally offer a 30-day product return policy for curated sales and online shopping mall, and a seven-day product return policy for Jumei Global, in both cases generally even if the products have been used or are no longer in their original packaging or original condition. For our apparel and other lifestyle products, our third-party merchants offer a 7-day product return policy, as long as the products are unwashed, undamaged, in their original condition and can be resold. For our merchandised baby and maternity products, we generally grant product return only in cases of quality issues. For other baby and maternity products, the suppliers usually have a 7-day return policy for any unopened products or ad hoc product return in case of quality issues. For light luxury products other than underwear, watches and jewels, we generally have a 7-day return policy for unopened products. For health supplements, we generally do not grant product return. Customers in cities where the payment option of cash on delivery is available can open the packaging and inspect the products ordered upon delivery and refuse acceptance should they be dissatisfied.

 

Once a customer submits a return application request online, our customer service representatives will review and process the request or contact the customer by e-mail or by phone if there are any questions relating to the request. Upon receipt of the returned product, we credit the customer's Jumei member or payment account with the purchase price. We provide a shipping allowance of up to RMB10 for our merchandized products and as well as other products sold through our internet platform.

 

TECHNOLOGY

 

Our technology systems are designed to enhance efficiency and scalability, and play an important role in the success of our business. We rely on a combination of internally developed proprietary technologies and commercially available licensed technologies to improve our website and management systems in order to optimize every aspect of our operations for the benefit of our customers, suppliers and third-party merchants.

 

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We have adopted a service-oriented architecture supported by data processing technologies which consists of front-end, mid-end and back-end modules. Our network infrastructure is built upon self-owned servers located in data centers operated by third-party internet data center providers. We are implementing enhanced cloud architecture and infrastructure for our core data processing system to augment our existing virtual private network as we continue to expand our operations, enabling us to achieve significant internal efficiency through a virtual and centralized network platform.

 

Our front-end modules facilitate the online shopping processes of our customers. Our front-end modules are supported by our content distribution network, dynamic and distributed cluster and a core database, providing our customers with quicker access to the product display they are interested in, and facilitating faster processing of their purchases. We have designed our systems to cope with our maximum peak concurrent visitors at all times. As a result of such foresight, we are able to provide our customers constantly smooth online shopping experience. Our mid-end modules support our daily administrative and business operations and our back-end modules support our supply chain and greatly enhance the efficiency of our operations.

 

Our business intelligence systems enable us to effectively gather, analyze and make use of internally-generated customer behavior and transaction data. We regularly use this information in planning our marketing initiatives for upcoming curated sales and merchandizing for our online shopping mall. Our business intelligence system is built with the proprietary cloud computing infrastructure, providing decision-making intelligence such as dashboard operation, operational analysis, market analysis, sales forecasts and products such as anti-fraud filters, precision marketing, and other application-oriented intelligent products that facilitate data-driven decision-making and increase our product sales.

 

We have developed most of the key business modules in-house. We also license software from reputable third-party providers, and work closely with these third-party providers to customize the software for our operations. We have implemented a number of measures to prevent data failure and loss. We have developed a disaster tolerant system for our key business modules which includes real-time data mirroring, real-time data back-up and redundancy and load balancing.

 

In addition, we have also adopted rigorous security policies and measures to protect our proprietary data and customer information.

 

SEASONALITY

 

Sales in the traditional retail industry are significantly higher in the fourth quarter of each calendar year than in the preceding three quarters. E-commerce companies in China, including us, hold special promotional campaigns on festivals or days popular among young people, such as November 11 each year, which falls in the fourth quarter. We also hold special promotional campaigns in March and August each year to celebrate our anniversary. These special promotional campaigns typically increase the net revenues in the relevant quarters. Our seasonality may increase in the future. Due to our limited operating history, the seasonal trends that we have experienced in the past may not apply to, or be indicative of, our future operating results. Our future operating results will be affected by the timing of promotional or marketing campaigns that we may launch from time to time.

 

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

 

We regard our trademarks, software copyrights, service marks, domain names, trade secrets, proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on trademark, copyright and trade secret protection laws in the PRC, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions with our employees, service providers, suppliers, third-party merchants and others to protect our proprietary rights. As of December 31, 2017, we owned 432 registered trademarks, copyrights to 69 software programs developed by us relating to various aspects of our operations, and 64 registered domain names, includingjumei.com and jumeiglobal.com.

 

COMPETITION

 

The retail market of beauty products in China is fragmented and highly competitive. We face competition from traditional beauty products retailers, such as Watsons and Sephora, and online beauty products retailers, as well as e-commerce platform companies, such as Alibaba Group, which operates Taobao.com and Tmall.com, AmazonChina, which operates Amazon.cn, JD.com, Inc., which operates JD.com, the entity which operates Dangdang.com, and Vipshop Holdings Limited, which operates VIP.com and Lefeng.com.

 

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We believe we compete primarily on the basis of our ability to identify beauty products in demand among consumers and source these products on favorable terms from suppliers and third-party merchants; our ability to ensure the authenticity and quality of our products; our ability to acquire new customers at relative low cost and provide superior customer service; our internet platform features; our customer service and fulfillment capabilities; and our reputation among consumers, suppliers and third-party merchants.

 

INSURANCE

 

We maintain certain insurance policies to safeguard against risks and unexpected events. We have purchased property insurance covering our inventory in our logistics centers and certain fixed assets such as equipment, furniture and office facilities. We do not maintain cargo transportation insurance, although we may request courier companies to purchase insurance covering our products in our agreements with them. We purchased third-party liability insurance covering our merchandise sales products against claims from consumers in relation to alleged defects in product quality. For certain of our logistics staff, we purchased personal injury insurance.

 

REGULATION

 

This section sets forth a summary of the most significant rules and regulations that affect our business activities in China or our shareholders' rights to receive dividends and other distributions from us.

 

Regulations Relating to Foreign Investment

 

Industry Catalog Relating to Foreign Investment. Investment activities in the PRC by foreign investors are principally governed by the Guidance Catalog of Industries for Foreign Investment, or the Catalog, which was promulgated and is amended from time to time by the Ministry of Commerce and the National Development and Reform Commission. The Catalog divides industries into three categories: encouraged, restricted and prohibited. Industries not listed in the Catalog are generally open to foreign investment unless specifically restricted by other PRC regulations.

 

Establishment of wholly foreign-owned enterprises is generally permitted in encouraged industries. Some restricted industries are limited to equity or contractual joint ventures, while in some cases Chinese partners are required to hold the majority interests in such joint ventures. In addition, restricted category projects are subject to higher-level government approvals. Foreign investors are not allowed to invest in industries in the prohibited category. For example, pursuant to the latest Catalog that was amended in 2017 and became effective on July 28, 2017, the provision of value-added telecommunications services falls in the restricted category and the percentage of foreign ownership generally cannot exceed 50% (except for the e-commerce business). Under the Catalog, "e-commerce business" is an exception to the above 50% restriction on foreign investment on the value-added telecommunication services. However, the Catalog does not define the "e-commerce business", and its interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties. Although according to the Notice on Lifting the Restriction to Foreign Shareholding Percentage in Online Data Processing and Transaction Processing Business (Operational E-commerce) promulgated by the MIIT on June 19, 2015, foreign investors are allowed to hold up to 100% of all equity interests in the online data processing and transaction processing business (operation e-commerce) in China, other requirements provided by the Foreign Investment Telecommunications Rules (such as the track record and experience requirement for a major foreign investor) shall still apply. It is unclear how this notice will be implemented and there exist high uncertainties with respect to its interpretation and implementation by authorities. Therefore, we cannot assure you whether our online retail business and distribution of online information falls into the "e-commerce business" and thus, whether we are permitted to conduct our value-added telecommunication services in the PRC through our subsidiaries in which foreign investors own more than 50% of equity interests.

 

On January 12, 2017, the State Council issued the Notice on Several Measures for Expansion of Opening-up Policy and Active Use of Foreign Capital, or the Notice No. 5, which purport to relax restriction on foreign investment in sectors including service, manufacturing and mining. Specifically, the Notice No. 5 proposes to gradually open up telecommunication, Internet, culture, education and transportation industries to foreign investors. However, there are still substantial uncertainties with respect to the implementing rules and regulations of Notice No. 5.

 

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Currently, the business scope of each of our wholly-owned subsidiaries in the PRC contains the business of development of computer software and technology, which falls in the encouraged category under the Catalog. The other businesses listed in the business scope of each of our wholly-owned enterprises are not listed in the Catalog and thus fall in the permitted category for foreign investment under PRC law.

 

In addition, the Ministry of Commerce published a discussion draft of the proposed Foreign Investment Law in January 2015, which embodies an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to its enactment timetable, the final version, interpretation and implementation. The draft Foreign Investment Law, if enacted as proposed, may materially impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations in many aspects. For more details, see "Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the enactment timetable, the final version, interpretation and implementation of draft PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations."

 

Foreign Investment in Value-Added Telecommunications Businesses. The Regulations for Administration of Foreign-invested Telecommunications Enterprises promulgated by the PRC State Council in December 2001 and subsequently amended in September 2008 set forth detailed requirements with respect to capitalization, investor qualifications and application procedures in connection with the establishment of a foreign-invested telecommunications enterprise. These regulations prohibit a foreign entity from owning more than 50% of the total equity interest in any value-added telecommunications service business in China and require the major foreign investor in any value-added telecommunications service business in China have a good and profitable record and operating experience in this industry.

 

In July 2006, the Ministry of Information Industry, the predecessor of the MIIT, issued the Circular on Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Investment in the Operation of Value-added Telecommunications Business, pursuant to which a domestic PRC company that holds an operating license for value-added telecommunications business, which we refer to as an ICP license, is prohibited from leasing, transferring or selling the ICP license to foreign investors in any form and from providing any assistance, including resources, sites or facilities, to foreign investors that conduct a value-added telecommunications business illegally in China. Further, the domain names and registered trademarks used by an operating company providing value-added telecommunications services must be legally owned by that company or its shareholders. In addition, the company's operational premises and equipment must comply with the approved coverage region on its ICP license, and the company must establish and improve its internal internet and information security policies and standards and emergency management procedures. If an ICP license holder fails to comply with the above requirements and also fails to remedy such non-compliance within a specified period of time, the MIIT or its local counterparts have the discretion to take administrative measures against the license holder, including revoking its ICP license.

 

To comply with the PRC regulations discussed above, we operate our jumei.com website and value-added telecommunications services through Reemake Media, a PRC consolidated VIE of ours, which holds an ICP license. Reemake Media, the operator of our jumei.com website, also owns the relevant domain names and trademarks used in our value-added telecommunications businesses. Jumei Hongkong Holding Limited operates our jumeiglobal.com website and owns the domain name.

 

Licenses and Permits

 

We are required to hold a variety of licenses and permits in connection with various aspects of our business, including the following:

 

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ICP License. The Telecommunications Regulations promulgated by the State Council and its related implementation rules, including the Catalog of Classification of Telecommunications Business issued by the MIIT, categorize various types of telecommunications and telecommunications-related activities into basic or value-added telecommunications services, and internet information services, or ICP services, are classified as value-added telecommunications businesses. Under the Telecommunications Regulations, commercial operators of value-added telecommunications services must first obtain an ICP license from the MIIT or its provincial level counterparts. In September 2000, the State Council also issued the Administrative Measures on Internet Information Services, which was amended in January 2011. According to these measures, a commercial ICP service operator must obtain an ICP license from the relevant government authorities before engaging in any commercial ICP service in China. When the ICP service involves areas of news, publication, education, medical treatment, health, pharmaceuticals and medical equipment, and if required by law or relevant regulations, specific approval from the respective regulatory authorities must be obtained prior to applying for the ICP license from the MIIT or its provincial level counterpart. In March 2009, the MIIT promulgated the Administrative Measures on Telecommunications Business Operating Licenses, which set forth more specific provisions regarding the types of licenses required to operate value-added telecommunications services, the qualifications and procedures for obtaining such licenses and the administration and supervision of such licenses. Reemake Media, as our ICP operator, holds an ICP license issued by the Beijing Telecommunications Administration. See "Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to our business or failure to comply with PRC laws and regulations may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations."

 

Food Distribution Permit / Food Business Operation Permit. China has adopted a licensing system for food supply operations under the Food Safety Law and its implementation rules. Entities or individuals that intend to engage in food production, food distribution or food service businesses must obtain licenses or permits for such businesses. Pursuant to the Administrative Measures on Food Distribution Permits issued by the State Administration of Industry and Commerce, in July 2009, an enterprise needs to obtain a Food Distribution Permit from a local branch of State Administration for Market Regulation, to engage in the food distribution business. Furthermore, if enterprises engage in the distribution of nutritional supplements, a Hygiene Permit for Nutritional Supplements is required pursuant to Nutritional Supplements Regulations promulgated by Ministry of Health of the PRC, whose authority to supervise food and cosmetic products was taken over by the State Administration for Market Regulation. We sell food and nutritional supplements through our website. Reemake Media, our consolidated VIE, has obtained a Food Distribution Permit and a Hygiene Permit for Nutritional Supplements.

 

Pursuant to the newly revised Food Safety Law, State Food and Drug Administration issued the Administrative Measures for the Licensing of Food Business Operations, effective October 2015, which superseded Administrative Measures on Food Distribution Permits. Under Administrative Measures for the Licensing of Food Business Operations, Food Business Operation Permits replaces Food Distribution Permit and Hygiene Permit for Nutritional Supplements as license for food distribution (including nutritional supplements) or food service businesses. The Food Distribution Permits and Hygiene Permit for Nutritional Supplements obtained before October 1, 2015 remain effective until expiration of the effective terms. Reemake Media has obtained the new Food Business Operation Permit.

 

Online Culture Business Permit / Video and Audio Program Internet Dissemination License. We have recently engaged in live video broadcasting business to expand our marketing efforts. Pursuant to Administrative Measures for the Business Activities of Online Performances issued by Ministry of Culture and Tourism on December 2, 2016, business entities that engage in the business activities of online performances shall apply for the Online Culture Business Permit in accordance with the Interim Administrative Provisions on Internet Culture, and the business scope of the such permit shall specifically cover online performances. Where a performance channel is opened for a domestic performer, the online performance service provider shall make filings on the performance channel to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism for recordation within ten days. If we operate online performance without such required permits or filings, we may be subject to penalties including fines, suspension of business, as well as confiscation of proceeds under PRC law, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Pursuant to the Notice on Relevant Matters about Strengthening the Administration of Internet Live Video and Audio Program Service issued by SART on September 2, 2016, live video and audio program broadcasting service provider shall apply for the Video and Audio Program Internet Dissemination License before broadcasting video programs online. According to the Internet Video and Audio Program Service Catalogue issued by SAPPRFT on March 10, 2017, "transmission of video and audio programs uploaded by personal users" is categorized as Type III Internet Video and Audio Program Service and substantially uncertainties exist with respect to whether our live video broadcasting service falls into this category of service. If our live video broadcasting services are deemed as Video and Audio Program Service by SART and we provide such service without required license, we may be subject to rectification orders, fines, suspension of business, as well as confiscation of service equipment under PRC law. Further, the SART and the MIIT jointly issued the Rules for the Administration of Internet Audio and Video Program Services, commonly known as Circular 56, effective January 2008 and amended in August 2015. Circular 56 requires all online audio/video service providers applying for the Video and Audio Program Internet Dissemination Licenses to be either wholly state-owned or state-controlled.

 

We provide live video broadcasting service though Chengdu Li'ao, and have obtained the Online Culture Business Permit, but have not obtained the Video and Audio Program Internet Dissemination License.

 

Regulation Relating to Distribution of Cosmetics

 

China has established a regulatory system concerning the production and sale of cosmetics according to the Hygiene Supervision over Cosmetics and its implementation rules and other applicable rules. Cosmetic producers in the PRC need to obtain various licenses and permits or make filings for their production of cosmetics, including: (i) a Cosmetics Production Permit issued by the State Drug Administration or its local counterparts, (ii) a Special Cosmetics Approval Certificate issued by the State Drug Administration or its local counterparts for production of cosmetics for special uses such as hair nourishment, hair-dye, hair perm, hair removal, breast massage, deodorant, freckle fading and anti-sunburn, and (iii) a Non-special Cosmetics Filing made with the local counterparts of the State Drug Administration for production of cosmetics for non-special uses. For imported cosmetics, pursuant to the Hygiene Supervision over Cosmetics and its implementation rules, producers of overseas cosmetics shall directly or through its designate entity apply for the License or Filing for the First Import of Cosmetics before such cosmetics are imported into the PRC. According to the Measures for the Inspection, Quarantine, Supervision and Administration of Imported and Exported Cosmetics and the Laws of Customs, the import of cosmetics is also subject to the inspection and quarantine procedure required by the Entry & Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau or its local counterparts and customs clearance procedure by the General Administration of Customs or its local counterparts, and the importer shall pay import tariffs, value-added tax and excise duty for the import of cosmetics according to the relevant tariffs and tax rules.

 

As an online distributor of cosmetics, we source the cosmetics from the producers or suppliers, and we are not required to obtain specific cosmetics-related permits, certificates or make filings for our sale of cosmetics via the internet. However, according to Provisions on the Administration of Recordation of Domestic Consignees, Import Records and Sales Records of Imported Cosmetics issued by General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine on August 15, 2016, if we import cosmetics directly from foreign producers, we are obligated to make filings to local Entry & Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau as a "domestic consignee" and maintain an import and sales record of imported cosmetics. Besides, under the relevant PRC laws, we are obliged to check whether the cosmetics we sold on our internet platform have been issued the requisite permits, certificates or filings in relation to the production or import of such products and whether such products have passed the quality inspection before they are sold. If we sell any cosmetics products without such required permits, certificates or filings, we may be subject to fines, suspension of business, as well as confiscation of products illegally sold and the proceeds from such sales under PRC law. In addition, if any cosmetics sold on our internet platform fail to meet the statutory sanitary standards, we may be subject to fines, confiscation of products illegally sold and the proceeds from such sales, and even criminal liabilities in severe circumstances.

 

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Regulations Relating to E-Commerce, Internet Content and Information Security and Privacy

 

China's e-commerce industry is at an early stage of development and there are few PRC laws or regulations specifically regulating the e-commerce industry. In May 2010, the State Administration of Industry and Commerce adopted the Interim Measures for the Administration of Online Commodities Trading and Relevant Services, which took effective in July 2010. Under these measures, enterprises or other operators which engage in online commodities trading and other services and have been registered with the State Administration for Market Regulation or its local branches must make the information stated in their business license available to the public or provide a link to their business license on their website. Online distributors must adopt measures to ensure safe online transactions, protect online shoppers' rights and prevent the sale of counterfeit goods. Information on products and transactions released by online distributors must be authentic, accurate, complete and sufficient. The above measures were replaced by the Measures for the Administration of Online Commodities Trading issued by the State Administration of Industry and Commerce on January 26, 2014 which became effective on March 15, 2014. These newly issued measures further impose more stringent requirements and obligations on the online trading or service operators. For example, customers are entitled to return goods (except for certain fresh and perishable goods) which are purchased online within seven days upon receipt without reasons. Where the online distributors also act as marketplace platforms that provide service to third-party merchants, the online distributors are obligated to examine the legal status of the third-party merchants and make the information stated in the business licenses of such third-party merchants available to the public or provide a link to their business licenses on the website, as well as make clear distinction between their online direct sales and sales of third-party merchant products on the marketplace platform. We are subject to such rules as a result of our online direct sales and online marketplace business. The Administrative Measures on Internet Information Services specify that internet information services regarding news, publication, education, medical and health care, pharmacy and medical appliances, among others, are to be examined, approved and regulated by the relevant authorities. Internet information providers are prohibited from providing services beyond those included in the scope of their ICP licenses or filings.

 

Furthermore, the Administrative Measures on Internet Information Services clearly specify a list of prohibited content. Internet information providers are prohibited from producing, copying, publishing or distributing information that is humiliating or defamatory to others or that infringes the lawful rights and interests of others. Internet information providers that violate the prohibition may face criminal charges or administrative sanctions by the PRC authorities. Internet information providers must monitor and control the information posted on their websites. If any prohibited content is found, they must remove the offending content immediately, keep a record of it and report to the relevant authorities.

 

Internet information in China is also regulated and restricted from a national security standpoint. The National People's Congress, China's national legislative body, has enacted the Decisions on Maintaining Internet Security, which may subject violators to criminal punishment in China for any effort to: (i) gain improper entry into a computer or system of strategic importance; (ii) disseminate politically disruptive information; (iii) leak state secrets; (iv) spread false commercial information; or (v) infringe intellectual property rights. The Ministry of Public Security has promulgated measures that prohibit use of the internet in ways which, among other things, result in a leakage of state secrets or a spread of socially destabilizing content.

 

In recent years, PRC government authorities have enacted laws and regulations on internet use to protect personal information from any unauthorized disclosure. The Administrative Measures on Internet Information Services prohibit ICP service operators from insulting or slandering a third party or infringing upon the lawful rights and interests of a third party. Under the Several Provisions on Regulating the Market Order of Internet Information Services, issued by the MIIT in 2011, an ICP operator may not collect any user personal information or provide any such information to third parties without the consent of a user. An ICP service operator must expressly inform the users of the method, content and purpose of the collection and processing of such user personal information and may only collect such information necessary for the provision of its services. An ICP service operator is also required to properly keep user's personal information confidential, and in case of any leakage or likely leakage of the user personal information, the ICP service operator must take immediate remedial measures and, in severe circumstances, make an immediate report to the telecommunications regulatory authority. In addition, pursuant to the Decision on Strengthening the Protection of Online Information issued by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress in December 2012 and the Order for the Protection of Telecommunication and Internet User Personal Information issued by the MIIT in July 2013, any collection and use of user personal information must be subject to the consent of the user, abide by the principles of legality, rationality and necessity and be within the specified purposes, methods and scopes. An ICP service operator must also keep such information strictly confidential, and is further prohibited from divulging, tampering or destroying of any such information, or selling or providing such information to other parties. Any violation of the above decision or order may subject the ICP service operator to warnings, fines, confiscation of illegal gains, revocation of licenses, cancellation of filings, closedown of websites or even criminal liabilities. We have required our users to consent to our collecting and using their personal information, and established information security systems to protect user's privacy.

 

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The Network Security Law of the People's Republic of China, or the Network Security Law, promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, took effect on June 1, 2017. The Network Security Law requires that a network operator, which includes, among others, internet information services providers, implement technical and other necessary measures in accordance with the provisions of applicable laws and regulations as well as the mandatory requirements of the national and industrial standards to safeguard the secure and stable operation of the networks, effectively respond to the network security incidents, prevent illegal and criminal activities, and maintain the integrity, confidentiality and availability of network data. The Network Security Law emphasizes that any individuals and organizations that use networks is required to comply with the PRC Constitution and laws and abide by public order, and shall not endanger network security or make use of networks to engage in unlawful activities, such as endangering national security, economic and social order, and infringing the reputation, privacy, intellectual property rights and other legal rights and interests of other people. The Network Security Law has reaffirmed the basic principles and requirements as specified in other existing laws and regulations on personal information protections, such as the requirements on the collection, use, processing, storage and disclosure of personal information, and internet service providers being required to take technical and other necessary measures to ensure the security of the personal information they have collected and prevent the personal information from being divulged, damaged or lost. Any violation of the provisions and requirements under the Network Security Law may subject the internet service providers to warnings, fines, confiscation of illegal gains, revocation of licenses, cancellation of filings, closedown of websites or even criminal liabilities.

 

In relation to cross-border e-commerce trade, such as Jumei Global, the General Administration of Customs has promulgated the Announcement on the Regulatory Issues concerning the Inbound and Outbound Cargos and Items under Cross-border E-commerce Trade, or Customs Circular No. 56, which took effect on August 1, 2014. Under the Customs Circular No. 56, e-commerce enterprises shall make record filing with the local customs bureau and the e-commerce transactions shall be conducted on the platforms that are approved by the customs and are connected to customs networks. For each item that is sold to the PRC customers under cross-border e-commerce, e-commerce enterprises shall submit separate information about orders, payment and logistics to the customs bureau before making customs declaration and shall report the cargo list and import and export goods declaration form to the customs bureau on a monthly basis. Currently, we set up our cross-border e-commerce center in Zhengzhou Free Trade Zone and our e-commerce platform is connected to Zhengzhou customs bureau.

 

Regulation of Mobile Application

 

On June 28, 2016, the Cyberspace Administration of China promulgated the Regulations for the Administration of Mobile Internet Application Information Services, which came into effect as of August 1, 2016, requiring mobile application operators who provide information services through mobile Internet applications, to: (i) verify the identities of registered users through mobile phone numbers or other similar means; (ii) establish and improve procedures for protection of user information; (iii) establish and improve procedures for information content censorship; (iv) ensure that users are given adequate information concerning an mobile application, and choice of whether to install an mobile application and use of its functions; (v) respect and protect intellectual property rights; and (vi) keep records of users' log-in information for 60 days.

 

If a mobile application operator who provides information services through mobile application violates these regulations, mobile application stores through which the mobile application operator distributes its mobile application may issue warnings, suspend the release of its mobile application, or terminate the sale of its mobile application, and/or report such violations to governmental authorities.

 

Regulation Relating to Product Quality and Consumer Protection

 

The PRC Product Quality Law applies to all production and sale activities in China. Pursuant to this law, products offered for sale must satisfy relevant quality and safety standards. Enterprises may not produce or sell counterfeit products in any fashion, including forging brand labels or giving false information regarding a product's manufacturer. Violations of state or industrial standards for health and safety and any other related violations may result in civil liabilities and administrative penalties, such as compensation for damages, fines, suspension or shutdown of business, as well as confiscation of products illegally produced and sold and the proceeds from such sales. Severe violations may subject the responsible individual or enterprise to criminal liabilities. Where a defective product causes physical injury to a person or damage to another person's property, the victim may claim compensation from the manufacturer or from the seller of the product. If the seller pays compensation and it is the manufacturer that should bear the liability, the seller has a right of recourse against the manufacturer. Similarly, if the manufacturer pays compensation and it is the seller that should bear the liability, the manufacturer has a right of recourse against the seller.

 

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The PRC Consumer Protection Law, as amended on October 25, 2013, sets out the obligations of business operators and the rights and interests of the consumers. Pursuant to this law, business operators must guarantee that the commodities they sell satisfy the requirements for personal or property safety, provide consumers with authentic information about the commodities, and guarantee the quality, function, usage and term of validity of the commodities. Failure to comply with the Consumer Protection Law may subject business operators to civil liabilities such as refunding purchase prices, replacement of commodities, repairing, ceasing damages, compensation, and restoring reputation, and even subject the business operators or the responsible individuals to criminal penalties when personal damages are involved or if the circumstances are severe. Furthermore, The Consumer Protection Law was further amended in October 2013 and became effective on March 15, 2014. The amended Consumer Protection Law further strengthens the protection of consumers and imposes more stringent requirements and obligations on business operators, especially on the business operators through the internet. For example, the consumers are entitled to return the goods (except for certain specific goods) within seven days upon receipt without any reasons when they purchase the goods from business operators via the internet. The consumers whose interests are harmed due to their purchase of goods or acceptance of services on online marketplace platforms may claim damages from sellers or service providers. As to legal liabilities of the online marketplace platform provider, the Consumer Protection Law and the Regulations of Several Issues on the Application of Laws in the Trial of Food and Drugs Cases issued by the Supreme People's Court of the PRC on December 9, 2013 set forth that, where a consumer purchases products (including cosmetics and food) or accepts services via an online trading platform and his or her interests are prejudiced, if the online trading platform provider fails to provide the name, address and valid contact information of the seller, the manufacturer or the service provider, the consumer is entitled to demand compensation from the online trading platform provider. If the online trading platform provider gives an undertaking that is more favorable to consumers, it shall perform such undertaking. Once the online trading platform provider has paid compensation, it shall have a right of recourse against the seller, the manufacturer or the service provider. If an online trading platform provider is aware or ought to have been aware that a seller, manufacturer or service provider is using the online platform to infringe upon the lawful rights and interests of consumers and it fails to take necessary measures, it shall bear joint and several liabilities with the seller, the manufacturer or service provider for such infringement.

 

The Tort Liability Law of the PRC, which was enacted by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on December 26, 2009, also provides that if an online service provider is aware that an online user is committing infringing activities, such as selling counterfeit products, through its internet services and fails to take necessary measures, it shall be jointly liable with the said online user for such infringement. If the online service provider receives any notice from the infringed party on any infringing activities, the online service provider shall take necessary measures, including deleting, blocking and unlinking the infringing content, in a timely manner. Otherwise, it will be jointly liable with the relevant online user for the extended damages.

 

The State Administration of Industry and Commerce issued the Interim Measures for No-Reason Return of Online Purchased Commodities within Seven Days, effective March 15, 2017, further clarifying the scope of exceptions of consumers' no-reason return rights, return procedures, online marketplace platform providers' responsibility to formulate seven-day no-reason return rules and related consumer protection systems, and supervise the merchants for compliance with seven-day no-reason return rules.

 

We are subject to the above laws and regulations as an online distributor of commodities and a marketplace service provider and believe that we are currently in compliance with these regulations in all material aspects.

 

Regulation on Intellectual Property Rights

 

The PRC has adopted comprehensive legislation governing intellectual property rights, including trademarks, domain names and copyrights.

 

Trademark. The PRC Trademark Law and its implementation rules protect registered trademarks. The PRC State Intellectual Property Office is responsible for the registration and administration of trademarks throughout the PRC. The Trademark Law has adopted a "first-to-file" principle with respect to trademark registration. As of December 31, 2017, we owned 432 registered trademarks in different applicable trademark categories and were in the process of applying to register 48 trademarks in China.

 

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In addition, pursuant to the PRC Trademark Law, counterfeit or unauthorized production of the label of another person's registered trademark, or sale of any label that is counterfeited or produced without authorization will be deemed as an infringement to the exclusive right to use a registered trademark. The infringing party will be ordered to stop the infringement immediately, a fine may be imposed and the counterfeit goods will be confiscated. The infringing party may also be held liable for the right holder's damages, which will be equal to the gains obtained by the infringing party or the losses suffered by the right holder as a result of the infringement, including reasonable expenses incurred by the right holder for stopping the infringement. If the gains or losses are difficult to determine, the court may render a judgment awarding damages of no more than RMB0.5 million.

 

Domain Name. Domain names are protected under the Administrative Measures on the Internet Domain Names promulgated by the MIIT. The MIIT is the major regulatory body responsible for the administration of the PRC internet domain names, under supervision of which the China Internet Network Information Center, or CNNIC, is responsible for the daily administration of .cn domain names and Chinese domain names. CNNIC adopts the "first to file" principle with respect to the registration of domain names. We have registered a number of domain names including jumei.com and jumeiglobal.com.

 

Copyright. Pursuant to the PRC Copyright Law and its implementation rules, creators of protected works enjoy personal and property rights, including, among others, the right of disseminating the works through information network. Pursuant to the relevant PRC regulations, rules and interpretations, internet service providers will be jointly liable with the infringer if they (i) participate in, assist in or abet infringing activities committed by any other person through the internet, (ii) are or should be aware of the infringing activities committed by their website users through the internet, or (iii) fail to remove infringing content or take other action to eliminate infringing consequences after receiving a warning with evidence of such infringing activities from the copyright holder. In addition, where an ICP service operator is clearly aware of the infringement of certain content against another's copyright through the internet, or fails to take measures to remove relevant contents upon receipt of the copyright owner's notice, and as a result, it damages the public interest, the ICP service operator could be ordered to stop the tortious act and be subject to other administrative penalties such as confiscation of illegal income and fines. To comply with these laws and regulations, we have implemented internal procedures to monitor and review the content we have licensed from content providers before they are released on our website and remove any infringing content promptly after we receive notice of infringement from the legitimate rights holder.

 

Software Copyrights. The Administrative Measures on Software Products, issued by the MIIT in October 2000 and subsequently amended, provide a registration and filing system with respect to software products made in or imported into China. These software products may be registered with the relevant local authorities in charge of software industry administration. Registered software products may enjoy preferential treatment status granted by relevant software industry regulations. Software products can be registered for five years, and the registration is renewable upon expiration.

 

In order to further implement the Computer Software Protection Regulations promulgated by the State Council in December 2001, the State Copyright Bureau issued the Computer Software Copyright Registration Procedures in February 2002, which apply to software copyright registration, license contract registration and transfer contract registration. We have registered 69 computer software copyrights in China as of December 31, 2017.

 

Regulation on Employment

 

The PRC Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules provide requirements concerning employment contracts between an employer and its employees. If an employer fails to enter into a written employment contract with an employee within one year from the date on which the employment relationship is established, the employer must rectify the situation by entering into a written employment contract with the employee and pay the employee twice the employee's salary for the period from the day following the lapse of one month from the date of establishment of the employment relationship to the day prior to the execution of the written employment contract. The Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules also require compensation to be paid upon certain terminations. In addition, if an employer intends to enforce a non-compete provision with an employee in an employment contract or non-competition agreement, it has to compensate the employee on a monthly basis during the term of the restriction period after the termination or ending of the labor contract. Employers in most cases are also required to provide a severance payment to their employees after their employment relationships are terminated.

 

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Enterprises in China are required by PRC laws and regulations to participate in certain employee benefit plans, including social insurance funds, namely a pension plan, a medical insurance plan, an unemployment insurance plan, a work-related injury insurance plan and a maternity insurance plan, and a housing provident fund, and contribute to the plans or funds in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of the employees as specified by the local government from time to time at locations where they operate their businesses or where they are located.

 

On December 28, 2012, the PRC Labor Contract Law was amended to impose more stringent requirements on labor dispatch which became effective on July 1, 2013. Pursuant to amended PRC Labor Contract Law, the dispatched contract workers shall be entitled to equal pay for equal work as a fulltime employee of an employer, and they shall only be engaged to perform temporary, ancillary or substitute works, and an employer shall strictly control the number of dispatched contract workers so that they do not exceed certain percentage of total number of employees. "Temporary work" means a position with a term of less than six (6) months; "auxiliary work" means a non-core business position that provides services for the core business of the employer; and "substitute worker" means a position that can be temporarily replaced with a dispatched contract worker for the period that a regular employee is away from work for vacation, study or for other reasons. According to the Interim Provisions on Labor Dispatch, or the Labor Dispatch Provisions, promulgated by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security on January 24, 2014, which became effective on March 1, 2014, (i) the number of dispatched contract workers hired by an employer should not exceed 10% of the total number of its total employees (including both directly hired employees and dispatched contract workers); (ii) in the case that the number of dispatched contract workers exceeds 10% of the total number of its employees at the time when the Labor Dispatch Provisions became effective (i.e., March 1, 2014), the employer shall formulate a plan to reduce the number of its dispatched contract workers to below the statutory cap prior to March 1, 2016, and (iii) such plan shall be filed with the local bureau of human resources and social security. Nevertheless, the Labor Dispatch Provisions do not invalidate the labor contracts and dispatch agreements entered into prior to December 28, 2012. In addition, the employer shall not hire any new dispatched contract worker before the number of its dispatched contract workers is reduced to below 10% of the total number of its employees.

 

Regulations on Tax

 

Enterprise Income Tax. The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law imposes a uniform enterprise income tax rate of 25% on all PRC resident enterprises, including foreign-invested enterprises, unless they qualify for certain exceptions. The enterprise income tax is calculated based on the PRC resident enterprise's global income as determined under PRC tax laws and accounting standards. If a non-resident enterprise sets up an organization or establishment in the PRC, it will be subject to enterprise income tax for the income derived from such organization or establishment in the PRC and for the income derived from outside the PRC but with an actual connection with such organization or establishment in the PRC.

 

The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules permit certain "high and new technology enterprise strongly supported by the state" that hold independent ownership of core intellectual property and meet statutory criteria, to enjoy a reduced 15% enterprise income tax rate. In April 2008, the State Administration of Taxation, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Finance jointly issued the Administrative Rules for the Certification of High and New Technology Enterprises specifying the criteria and procedures for the certification of HNTEs. In January 2016, the amended Administrative Rules for the Certification of High and New Technology Enterprises were jointly issued by State Administration of Taxation, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Finance and replaced the 2008 version, but the material criteria of HNTEs remain unchanged. Reemake Media, our consolidated VIE, obtained its HNTE certificate in September 2015 with a valid period of three years. Tianjin Cyril Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Tianjin Cyril, one of our PRC Subsidiaries, renewed its HNTE certificate in October 2017 with a valid period of three years.

 

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According to the Notice on the Enterprise Income Tax regarding Deepening Implementation of Grand Development of the Western Region issued by the State Administration of Taxation, enterprises located in the western region of the PRC with principal revenue of over 70% generated from encouraged category of western region are entitled to a preferential income tax rate of 15% for ten years from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2020. Chengdu Jumei, which is located within the western region of the PRC and meets the criteria as set forth in the notice, is entitled to the preferential income tax rate of 15% starting from 2013 upon filing with the relevant tax authority.

 

Value-Added Tax and Business Tax. Pursuant to the PRC Provisional Regulations on Value-Added Tax and its implementation regulations, unless otherwise specified by relevant laws and regulations, any entity or individual engage in the sales of goods, provision of processing, repairs and replacement services and importation of goods into China is generally required to pay a value-added tax, or VAT, at the rate of 17% for revenues generated from sales of products, less any deductible VAT already paid or borne by such entity.

 

Prior to January 1, 2012, pursuant to the PRC Provisional Regulations on Business Tax and its implementing rules, taxpayers providing taxable services falling under the category of service industry in China are required to pay a business tax at a normal tax rate of 5% of their revenues with certain exceptions. Our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated VIEs were subject to business tax at the rate of 5% for the marketplace services. Since January 1, 2012, the PRC Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation have been implementing the VAT pilot program, which imposes VAT in lieu of business tax for certain industries in Shanghai, and since September 1, 2012, such pilot program has been expanded to eight other provinces or municipalities in the PRC. Since August 2013, this tax pilot program has been expanded to other areas on the nationwide basis in the PRC. On November 19, 2017 the State Council further amended the Interim Regulation of the People's Republic of China on Value Added Tax to reflect the normalization of such pilot program. VAT is applicable at a rate of 6% in lieu of business tax for the services rendered by our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated VIEs.

 

Dividend Withholding Tax. Pursuant to the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, if a non-resident enterprise has not set up an organization or establishment in the PRC, or has set up an organization or establishment but the income derived has no actual connection with such organization or establishment, it will be subject to a withholding tax on its PRC-sourced income at a rate of 10%.

 

Pursuant to the Arrangement between the Mainland China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Tax Evasion on Income, the withholding tax rate in respect to the payment of dividends by a PRC enterprise to a Hong Kong enterprise is reduced to 5% from a standard rate of 10% if the Hong Kong enterprise directly holds at least 25% of the PRC enterprise. Pursuant to the Notice of the State Administration of Taxation on the Issues concerning the Application of the Dividend Clauses of Tax Agreements, or Circular 81, a Hong Kong resident enterprise must meet the following conditions, among others, in order to enjoy the reduced withholding tax: (i) it must directly own the required percentage of equity interests and voting rights in the PRC resident enterprise; and (ii) it must have directly owned such percentage in the PRC resident enterprise throughout the 12 months prior to receiving the dividends. Furthermore, the Administrative Measures for Non-Resident Enterprises to Enjoy Treatments under Tax Treaties (For Trial Implementation), which became effective in October 2009, require that non-resident enterprises must obtain approval from the relevant tax authority in order to enjoy the reduced withholding tax rate. There are also other conditions for enjoying the reduced withholding tax rate according to other relevant tax rules and regulations. Accordingly, Jumei Hongkong Limited may be able to enjoy the 5% withholding tax rate for the dividends they receive from our PRC subsidiaries, if it satisfies the conditions prescribed under Circular 81 and other relevant tax rules and regulations, and obtain the approvals as required. However, according to Circular 81, if the relevant tax authorities consider the transactions or arrangements we have are for the primary purpose of enjoying a favorable tax treatment, the relevant tax authorities may adjust the favorable withholding tax in the future.

 

Import Tax. Consumer goods imported through cross-border e-commerce platforms shall be classified as "personal baggage or postal articles" pursuant to Notice on Pilot Bonded Area Import Pattern of Cross-Border Trade E-Commerce Services, which was issued by PRC General Administration of Customs on March 4, 2014. A personal baggage or postal articles tax was levied before the online retailors could deliver goods to buyers. The personal baggage or postal articles tax shall be exempted if the payable amount is lower than RMB50. The rate of personal baggage or postal articles tax was respectively 10%, 20%, 30% and 50% for different categories of products imported. Specifically, a 50% rate was applied to cosmetics and a 10% rate was applied to maternity and baby care products. Under this pattern, a quota of RMB1,000 for each purchase order is imposed on online buyers, otherwise the imported goods shall be classified as normal goods and buyers shall pay the value-added tax, the consumption tax and the tariff instead of a personal baggage or postal articles tax for the imported goods.

 

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Pursuant to the Notice on Tax Policies of Cross-Border E-Commerce Retail Importation issued by PRC Ministry of Finance, General Administration of Customs and State Administration of Taxation on March 24, 2016, which came into effect on April 8, 2016, the pilot bonded area import pattern of cross-border e-commerce will be abolished. The goods imported through cross-border e-commerce platforms will no longer be treated as "personal baggage or postal articles" but normal goods, so the value-added tax and consumption tax will be levied as on normal imported goods but on a 70% basis, and the tariff on those goods will be exempted. Normally, a 17% value-added tax will be levied on most products sold on our platform and a 15% consumption tax will be levied on high-end cosmetics without tax preference under the new pattern, while no consumption tax will be levied on ordinary cosmetics products. Under this new pattern, the quota of RMB1,000 for each purchase order is raised to RMB2,000 and a new quota of RMB20,000 per year for each buyer will be imposed on buyers. For the imported goods within the quota, buyers could enjoy a tax reduction of 30% on the value-added tax and the consumption tax and a reduction of 100% on the tariff. Furthermore, the new pattern only applies to goods listed within the scope of the Cross-Border E-Commerce Retail Importation Goods Inventory, or the Inventory, and thus goods beyond the scope of this Inventory will not have a tax code and may be prohibited from selling on the cross-border e-commerce platforms. Ministry of Finance, National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, State Administration of Taxation, General Administration of Customs and other relevant authorities have jointed issued the Cross-Border E-Commerce Retail Importation Goods Inventory and the Cross-Border E-Commerce Retail Importation Goods Inventory (Second Batch) separately on April 6, 2016 and April 15, 2016. The Inventory may be updated from time to time. Specifically, cosmetics imported for the first time, nutrition supplements and other special food products required to be registered with the Administration for Market Regulation are excluded from the scope of the Inventory. We are prohibited from selling the cosmetics imported for the first time on our platform and we are also prohibited from selling nutrition supplements and other special food products before required registration certificates for these products have been legitimately obtained. However, pursuant to a transition policy issued by the General Administration of Customs, the goods which have been imported to or in transit to the bonded areas and special regulated areas of customs before April 8, 2016, can still be sold on the cross-border e-commerce platforms, even if these goods are not listed on the Inventory.

 

Further, pursuant to the Notice of Relevant Matters on Implementation of New Cross-Border E-Commerce Retail Importation Supervision and Administration Requirements, or the New Cross-Border E-Commerce Tax Implementation Notice, issued by the General Administration of Customs on May 24, 2016, the implementation of certain provisions of the Notice on Tax Policies of Cross-Border E-Commerce Retail Importation will be suspended until the expiration of a transition period, which, according to an announcement by a spokesman of MOFCOM in November 2016 and confirmed by an official MOFCOM news release issued on March 17, 2017, or the MOFCOM News Release, shall be over by the end of 2017. According to the New Cross-Border E-Commerce Tax Implementation Notice, the requirement of presenting customs clearance for bonded goods purchased online is suspended in ten cities, and the requirement of presenting first-time import license, registration or filing for online purchased cosmetics imported for the first time, nutrition supplements and other special food products, is suspended until the end of transition period. Further, according to the MOFCOM News Release, from January 1, 2018 the retail goods imported on cross-border e-commerce platforms will be temporarily treated as personal items which are not subject to stricter regulation and higher tax rates applicable to general imported goods in 15 cross-border e-commerce trial areas. On September 20, 2017, the State Council extended the transition period for cross-border e-commerce retail importation regulation policy by a year to the end of 2018, by which time, the import goods from cross-border e-commerce retail will be temporarily regulated as personal items.

 

Regulations Relating to Foreign Exchange

 

The principal regulations governing foreign currency exchange in China are the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations, most recently amended in August 2008. Under the PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, such as profit distributions and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. By contrast, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where RMB is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of foreign currency—denominated loans.

 

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In August 2008, SAFE issued the Circular on the Relevant Operating Issues Concerning the Improvement of the Administration of the Payment and Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular No. 142, regulating the conversion by a foreign-invested enterprise of foreign currency—registered capital into RMB by restricting how the converted RMB may be used. SAFE Circular No. 142 provides that the RMB capital converted from foreign currency registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise may only be used for purposes within the business scope approved by the applicable government authority and may not be used for equity investments within the PRC. In addition, SAFE strengthened its oversight of the flow and use of the RMB capital converted from foreign currency registered capital of foreign-invested enterprises. The use of such RMB capital may not be changed without SAFE's approval, and such RMB capital may not in any case be used to repay RMB loans if the proceeds of such loans have not been used. To satisfy and facilitate the business and capital operations of foreign invested enterprises in the PRC, on July 15, 2014, SAFE issued a SAFE Circular 36 which launched the pilot reform of administration regarding conversion of foreign currency registered capitals of foreign-invested enterprises in 16 pilot areas. According to the SAFE Circular 36, an ordinary foreign-invested enterprise with a business scope containing "investment" in the pilot areas is permitted to use Renminbi converted from its foreign-currency registered capital to make equity investments in the PRC, subject to certain registration and settlement procedure as set forth in the SAFE Circular 36. On April 8, 2015, SAFE released the Notice on the Reform of the Management Method for the Settlement of Foreign Exchange Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19, which came into force and superseded SAFE Circular No. 142 and SAFE Circular 36 from June 1, 2015. SAFE Circular 19 has made certain adjustments to some regulatory requirements on the settlement of foreign currency capital of foreign-invested enterprises, and some foreign exchange restrictions under SAFE Circular No. 142 has been lifted. For example, the RMB capital converted from foreign currency registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise can be used for equity investments in the PRC but cannot be used to provide entrusted loans or repay loans between non-financial enterprises. Nevertheless, Circular 19 also reiterates the principle that Renminbi converted from foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested company may not be directly or indirectly used for purposes beyond its business scope.  SAFE issued the Circular on Reforming and Regulating Policies on the Control over Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital Accounts, or SAFE Circular 16, effective June 2016. Compared to SAFE Circular 19, SAFE Circular 16 provides that discretionary foreign exchange settlement apply to foreign exchange capital, foreign debt offering proceeds and remitted foreign listing proceeds, and the corresponding Renminbi obtained from foreign exchange settlement are allowed to extend loans to related parties or repaying the inter-company loans (including advances by third parties). However, since SAFE Circular 16 came into effect recently, there exist substantial uncertainties with respect to its interpretation and implementation in practice.

 

In November 2012, SAFE promulgated the Circular of Further Improving and Adjusting Foreign Exchange Administration Policies on Foreign Direct Investment which substantially amends and simplifies the current foreign exchange procedure. Pursuant to this circular, the opening of various special purpose foreign exchange accounts, such as pre-establishment expenses account, foreign exchange capital account, guarantee account, the reinvestment of RMB proceeds by foreign investors in the PRC, and remittance of foreign exchange profits and dividends by a foreign-invested enterprise to its foreign shareholders no longer require the approval or verification of SAFE, and multiple capital accounts for the same entity may be opened in different provinces, which was not possible before. In addition, SAFE promulgated the Circular on Printing and Distributing the Provisions on Foreign Exchange Administration over Domestic Direct Investment by Foreign Investors and the Supporting Documents in May 2013, which specifies that the administration by SAFE or its local branches over direct investment by foreign investors in the PRC shall be conducted by way of registration and banks shall process foreign exchange business relating to the direct investment in the PRC based on the registration information provided by SAFE and its branches. On February 28, 2015, SAFE released SAFE Circular 13, which came into effect on June 1, 2015. According to this notice, local banks will examine and handle foreign exchange registrations for direct investment by foreign investors in the PRC.

 

SAFE promulgated the Circular on Further Improving Reform of Foreign Exchange Administration and Optimizing Genuineness and Compliance Verification, or SAFE Circular 3, effective January 26, 2017. SAFE Circular 3 sets out various measures, including the following:

 

·relaxing the policy restriction on foreign exchange inflow to further enhance trade and investment facilitation, including (a) expanding the scope of foreign exchange settlement for domestic foreign exchange loans, (b) allowing the capital repatriation for offshore financing against domestic guarantee, (c) facilitating the centralized management of foreign exchange funds of multinational companies, and (d) allowing the offshore institutions within pilot free trade zones to settle foreign exchange in domestic foreign exchange accounts;

 

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·tightening genuineness and compliance verification of cross-border transactions and cross-border capital flow, including (a) improving the statistics of current account foreign currency earnings deposited offshore, (b) requiring banks to verify board resolutions, tax filing form, and audited financial statements before wiring foreign invested enterprises' foreign exchange distribution above US$50,000, (c) strengthening genuineness and compliance verification of foreign direct investments and (d) implementing full scale management of offshore loans in Renminbi and foreign currencies by requiring the total amount of offshore loans be no higher than 30% of the onshore lender's equity shown on its audited financial statements of the last year.

 

Regulations Relating to Dividend Distribution

 

Wholly foreign-owned companies in the PRC may pay dividends only out of their accumulated profits after tax as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards. Remittance of dividends by a wholly foreign-owned company out of China is subject to examination by the banks designated by SAFE. Wholly foreign-owned companies may not pay dividends unless they set aside at least 10% of their respective accumulated profits after tax each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds, until such time as the accumulative amount of such fund reaches 50% of the wholly foreign-owned company's registered capital. In addition, these companies also may allocate a portion of their after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to employee welfare and bonus funds at their discretion. These reserve funds and employee welfare and bonus funds are not distributable as cash dividends. Our PRC subsidiaries are wholly foreign-owned enterprises subject to the described regulations.

 

SAFE Regulations on Offshore Special Purpose Companies Held by PRC Residents

 

On July 4, 2014, the SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents' Overseas Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular No. 37, which replaced the former Circular on Issues Relating to the Administration of Foreign Exchange in Fund-Raising and Round Trip Investment Activities of Domestic Residents Conducted via Offshore Special Purpose Vehicles (generally known as SAFE Circular No. 75) promulgated by the SAFE on October 21, 2005. SAFE Circular No. 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents' legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in SAFE Circular No. 37 as a "special purpose vehicle." SAFE Circular No. 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. In the event that a PRC shareholder holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to complete the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiary. Furthermore, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls. We have requested PRC residents who we know hold direct or indirect interest in our company to make the necessary applications, filings and amendments as required under SAFE Circular No. 37 and other related rules. To our knowledge, all of our shareholders who are PRC citizens and hold interest in us, have registered with the local SAFE branch as required under SAFE Circular No. 37. However, we may not be informed of the identities of all the PRC residents holding direct or indirect interests in our company, and we cannot provide any assurance that these PRC residents will comply with our request to make or obtain any applicable registrations or comply with other requirements under SAFE Circular No. 37 or other related rules. Any failure or inability of our PRC resident beneficial owners to make any required registrations or comply with other requirements under SAFE Circular No. 37 and other related rules may subject such PRC residents or our PRC subsidiaries to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to raise additional financing and contribute additional capital into or provide loans to our PRC subsidiaries, limit our PRC subsidiaries' ability to pay dividends or otherwise distribute profits to us, or otherwise adversely affect us.

 

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SAFE Regulations on Employee Stock Incentive Plan

 

In February 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly-Listed Company, replacing earlier rules promulgated in March 2007, to regulate the foreign exchange administration of PRC citizens and non-PRC citizens who reside in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year, with a few exceptions, who participate in stock incentive plans of overseas publicly-listed companies. Pursuant to these rules, these individuals who participate in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly-listed company, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be the PRC subsidiaries of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. We and our executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or non-PRC citizens who reside in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year and have been granted options re subject to these regulations. Failure of our PRC option holders or restricted shareholders to complete their SAFE registrations may subject us and these employees to fines and other legal sanctions.

 

The State Administration of Taxation has issued certain circulars concerning employee share options or restricted shares. Under these circulars, our employees working in the PRC who exercise share options or are granted restricted shares will be subject to PRC individual income tax. Our PRC subsidiaries have obligations to file documents related to employee share options or restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of those employees who exercise their share options. We have made SAFE registrations for employee stock incentive plans. If our employees fail to pay or we fail to withhold their income taxes according to relevant laws and regulations, we may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other PRC government authorities.

 

M&A Rules

 

In August 2006, six PRC regulatory agencies, including the CSRC, adopted the M&A Rules, which were amended in June 2009. The M&A Rules establish procedures and requirements that could make some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the Ministry of Commerce be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a Chinese domestic enterprise. In addition, the Security Review Rules issued by the Ministry of Commerce that became effective in September 2011 specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise "national defense and security" concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise "national security" concerns are subject to strict review by the Ministry of Commerce, and prohibit any activities attempting to bypass such security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement. See "Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China."

 

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C. Organizational Structure

 

The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure, including our significant subsidiaries and consolidated VIEs and their subsidiaries, as of the date of this annual report:

 

 

(1)Leo Ou Chen, Yusen Dai and Hui Liu hold 90.04%, 8.85% and 1.11% equity interests in Reemake Media, respectively.

 

(2)Leo Ou Chen and Yusen Dai hold 80% and 20% equity interest in Tianjin Yingxun Technology Co., Ltd., respectively.

 

(3)Leo Ou Chen holds 100% equity interests in Chengdu Li’ao Culture Communication Co., Ltd.

 

(4)Leo Ou Chen and Yusen Dai hold 80% and 20% equity interests in Jumei Film Media Wuxi Co., Ltd., respectively.

 

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We are a "controlled company" as defined under NYSE Listed Company Manual because Mr. Leo Ou Chen beneficially owns a majority of the aggregate voting power of our company.

 

The VIE arrangements with Reemake Media and its shareholders through Beijing Jumei were terminated in April 2017, and we entered into VIE arrangements with Reemake Media and its shareholders through Chengdu Jumei on the same day. No material terms or conditions of these agreements were changed or altered and our control over Reemake Media remains unchanged.

 

The following is a summary of the currently effective contractual arrangements by and among our wholly-owned subsidiary, Chengdu Jumei, our VIE, Reemake Media, and the shareholders of Reemake Media.

 

Shareholders' Voting Rights Agreement. On April 20, 2017, the shareholders of Reemake Media entered into a shareholders' voting rights agreement with Chengdu Jumei. Pursuant to the shareholders' voting rights agreement, each of the shareholders of Reemake Media appointed Chengdu Jumei's designated person as their attorney-in-fact to exercise all shareholder rights, including, but not limited to, attending the shareholders' meeting, voting all matters of Reemake Media requiring shareholder approval, appointing or removing directors and executive officers, and disposing of all or part of the shareholder's equity interests in Reemake Media. The shareholders' voting rights agreement will remain in force for 20 years from the date of the agreement and shall be automatically extended for a period of one year unless Chengdu Jumei selects to terminate the agreement. The agreement can be extended for unlimited times.

 

Equity Pledge Agreements. On April 20, 2017, Chengdu Jumei, Reemake Media and the shareholders of Reemake Media entered into an equity pledge agreements. Pursuant to the equity pledge agreements, each of the shareholders of Reemake Media pledges all of their equity interests in Reemake Media to guarantee their and Reemake Media's performance of their obligations under the contractual arrangements including, but not limited to, the exclusive consulting and services agreement, exclusive purchase option agreement and shareholders' voting rights agreement. If Reemake Media or its shareholders breach their contractual obligations under these agreements, Chengdu Jumei, as pledgee, will have the right to dispose of the pledged equity interests. The shareholders of Reemake Media agree that, during the term of the equity pledge agreement, they will not dispose of the pledged equity interests or create or allow any encumbrance on the pledged equity interests, and they also agree that they will take all necessary measures to prevent Chengdu Jumei's rights relating to the equity pledges from being prejudiced by the legal actions of the shareholders of Reemake Media. During the term of the equity pledge agreements, Chengdu Jumei has the right to receive all of the dividends and profits distributed on the pledged equity interests. The equity pledges will become effective on the date when the pledge of equity interests contemplated in the agreement are registered with the relevant administration for industry and commerce in accordance with the PRC Property Rights Law and will remain effective until Reemake Media and its shareholders discharge all their obligations under the contractual arrangements.

 

Exclusive Purchase Option Agreement. On April 20, 2017, Chengdu Jumei, Reemake Media and the shareholders of Reemake Media entered into an exclusive purchase option agreement. Pursuant to the exclusive purchase option agreement, each of the shareholders of Reemake Media irrevocably grants Chengdu Jumei an exclusive option to purchase, or have its designated person to purchase, at its discretion, to the extent permitted under PRC law, all or part of the shareholders' equity interests in Reemake Media, and the purchase price shall equal the lower of : (1) the amount shareholders contributed to Reemake Media as registered capital for the equity interests to be purchased, or (2) the lowest price permitted by applicable PRC law. The purchase consideration shall be refunded by the nominee shareholders to Chengdu Jumei. In addition, Reemake Media grants Chengdu Jumei an exclusive option to purchase, or have its designated person to purchase, at its discretion, to the extent permitted under PRC law, all or part of Reemake Media's assets at the lowest price permitted by applicable PRC law. Without the prior written consent of Chengdu Jumei, the shareholders of Reemake Media may not, and shall procure Reemake Media not to, transfer or otherwise dispose of their equity interests in Reemake Media or create or allow any encumbrance on the equity interests, increase or decrease the registered capital, dispose of its assets, terminate any material contract or enter into any contract that is in conflict with its material contracts, appoint or remove any management members, distribute dividends to the shareholders, guarantee its continuance, amend its articles of association and provide any loans to any third parties. The exclusive purchase option agreement will remain effective until all equity interests in Reemake Media held by its shareholders and all assets of Reemake Media are transferred or assigned to Chengdu Jumei or its designated representatives.

 

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Exclusive Consulting and Services Agreement. Under the exclusive consulting and services agreement between Chengdu Jumei and Reemake Media, dated April 20, 2017, Chengdu Jumei has the exclusive right to provide to Reemake Media consulting and services related to all technologies needed for Reemake Media's business. Chengdu Jumei owns the exclusive intellectual property rights created as a result of the performance of this agreement. Reemake Media agrees to pay Chengdu Jumei an annual service fee, at an amount equal to 95% of Reemake Media's annual revenue or an amount otherwise agreed by Chengdu Jumei and Reemake Media. In addition, Chengdu Jumei may provide other technology services specified by Reemake Media from time to time, and charge Reemake Media for the services at a rate mutually agreed by the parties. This agreement will remain effective for an unlimited term, unless Chengdu Jumei and Reemake Media mutually agree to terminate the agreement in writing, or the agreement is required to be terminated by applicable PRC law. Reemake Media is not permitted to terminate the agreement in any event unless required by applicable law.

 

Shareholders' voting rights agreements, exclusive consulting and service agreements, exclusive purchase option agreements and equity pledge agreements, substantially the same as those described above, were also entered into with respect to our other consolidated VIEs.

 

In the opinion of Fangda Partners, our PRC legal counsel:

 

·the ownership structures of our VIEs and wholly foreign-invested subsidiaries will not result in any violation of PRC laws or regulations currently in effect; and

 

·the contractual arrangements among our subsidiaries, VIEs and their respective shareholders governed by PRC law are valid, binding and enforceable, and will not result in any violation of PRC laws or regulations currently in effect.

 

However, there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules. Accordingly, the PRC regulatory authorities may in the future take a view that is contrary to or otherwise different from the above opinion of our PRC legal counsel. If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our online retail business do not comply with PRC government restrictions on foreign investment in e-commerce and related businesses, including but not limited to online retail businesses, we could be subject to severe penalties including being prohibited from continuing operations. See "Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government deems that the contractual arrangements in relation to our VIEs do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations." and "Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the enactment timetable, the final version, interpretation and implementation of draft PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations."

 

D.Property, Plant and Equipment

 

We are headquartered in Beijing and have leased an aggregate of approximately 12 thousand square meters of office, physical stores and customer service center space in Beijing. As of December 31, 2017, we also have leased an aggregate of approximately 91 thousand square meters in office, logistics center and/or customer service center space in Tianjin, Zhengzhou, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Suzhou and Hong Kong. We lease most of our premises under operating lease agreements from independent third parties. A summary of our leased properties as of December 31, 2017 is shown below:

 

Location   Space
(in thousands of
square meters)
  Use   Lease Term (years)
Beijing   12   Office, physical stores and customer service center   One to five
Tianjin   29   Logistics center and office   One to two
Zhengzhou   29   Office and logistics center   One to three
Chengdu   17   Office, logistics center and customer service center   One to four
Guangzhou   12   Office, Logistics center   One to three
Shenzhen   1   Office, Logistics center   One
Hong Kong   1   Logistics center   Two

 

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We typically enter into leasing agreements that are renewable every one to five years. We believe our existing facilities are sufficient for our near term needs.

 

On January 29, 2016, we acquired land use rights with RMB84.1 million for 169,456 square meters of warehouse land in Suzhou, on which we constructed a self-owned logistics center. We have been using this new logistics center in Suzhou since the third quarter of 2017.

 

Item 4A.Unresolved Staff Comments

 

None.

 

Item 5.Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

 

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F. This discussion and analysis may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under "Item 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors" or in other parts of this annual report on Form 20-F.

 

A.Operating Results

 

Overview

 

We generate net revenues from merchandise sales and marketplace services. We generate net revenues from merchandise sales when we act as principal for the direct sale of beauty products, baby, children and maternity products, light luxury products, pre-packaged food and health supplements to customers. We generate net revenues from marketplace services when we act as service provider for third-party merchants and charge them fees for the sale of their products through our internet platform.

 

The following table summarizes the key features of our two revenue streams:

 

  Revenue Stream
  Merchandise Sales   Marketplace Services
Products Beauty products, baby, children and maternity products, light luxury products, pre-packaged food and health supplements   Apparel and other lifestyle products
Sales formats Curated sales and online shopping mall   Flash sales
Our Role Act as principal   Act as service provider for third-party merchants

 

Our net revenues were RMB7.3 billion in 2015, RMB6.3 billion in 2016 and RMB5.8 billion (US$894.0 million) in 2017. Our net income was RMB134.8 million in 2015 and RMB150.2 million in 2016. But we incurred net loss of RMB37.0 million (US$5.7 million) in 2017. Our net cash provided by operating activities were RMB151.5 million in 2015 and RMB83.5 million in 2016. But our net cash used in operating activities were RMB440.5 million (US$67.7 million) in 2017.

 

Our business and results of operations are affected by general factors affecting the online retail market in China, including China's overall economic growth, the increase in per capita disposable income, the growth in consumer spending and the retail industry and the expansion of internet penetration. Our operating results are more directly affected by certain company specific factors, including:

 

·our ability to attract and retain customers at reasonable cost;

 

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·our ability to establish and maintain relationships with suppliers, third-party merchants and other service providers;

 

·our ability to invest in growth while improving operating efficiency;

 

·our ability to control marketing expenses, while promoting our brand and internet platform cost-effectively;

 

·our ability to source products to meet customer demands; and

 

·our ability to compete effectively and to execute our strategies successfully.

 

Net revenues

 

We generate net revenues from merchandise sales and marketplace services. Merchandise sales revenues are generated when we act as principal for the direct sale of beauty products, baby, children and maternity products, light luxury products, pre-packaged food and health supplements to customers through our internet platform. Merchandise sales revenues are recorded on a gross basis, net of surcharges and taxes. Marketplace service revenues are generated when we act as a service provider to third-party merchants and charge them fees for the sale of apparel and other lifestyle products through our internet platform. We historically offered certain beauty products through third-party merchants and generated marketplace service revenues from such third-party merchants. In the third quarter of 2014, we began the process of terminating our marketplace beauty product sales and shifting our marketplace beauty product sales to our merchandise sales. We have completed the termination of our marketplace beauty product sales. We historically provided fulfillment services to third-party merchants who sold beauty products through our internet platform and charged such third-party merchants for such services.

 

The following table sets forth the principal components of our net revenues by amounts and percentages of our total net revenues for the periods presented:

 

   Year Ended December 31, 
   2015   2016   2017 
   RMB   %   RMB   %   RMB   US$   % 
   (in thousands, except for percentages) 
Net revenues                                   
Merchandise sales   7,113,278    96.9    6,174,721    98.4    5,634,156    865,954    96.9 
Marketplace and other services   229,681    3.1    102,462    1.6    182,676    28,077    3.1 
Total net revenues   7,342,959    100.0    6,277,183    100.0    5,816,832    894,031    100.0 

 

We monitor and strive to improve the following key business metrics to generate higher net revenues:

 

·Total number of active customers. We define active customers for a given period as customers who have purchased products offered by us or by our third-party merchants at least once during that period. The numbers of our active customers were approximately 16.0 million in 2015, 15.4 million in 2016 and 15.1 million in 2017.

 

·Total number of orders. The total numbers of orders were approximately 73.2 million in 2015, 61.5 million in 2016 and 63.5 million in 2017.

 

·Net GMV. We define net GMV as the sum of (i) net revenues generated from merchandise sales, and (ii) net revenues generated from marketplace services and adding back corresponding payables to our third-party merchants. Our net GMV was RMB8.9 billion in 2015, RMB7.3 billion in 2016 and RMB6.6 billion (US$1.0 billion) in 2017.

 

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Sales in the traditional retail industry are significantly higher in the fourth quarter of each calendar year than in the preceding three quarters. E-commerce companies in China, including us, hold special promotional campaigns on festivals or days popular among young people, such as November 11 each year, which falls in the fourth quarter. We also hold special promotional campaigns in March and August each year to celebrate our anniversary. These special promotional campaigns typically increase our net revenues in the relevant quarters. Our seasonality may increase in the future. Due to our limited operating history, the seasonal trends that we have experienced in the past may not apply to, or be indicative of, our future operating results. Our future operating results will be affected by the timing of promotional or marketing campaigns that we may launch from time to time.

 

Cost of Revenues

 

Our cost of revenues primarily consists of cost of goods sold and inventory write-downs. The cost of goods sold does not include shipping and handling expenses, payroll, bonus and benefits of fulfillment staff or rental expenses for logistics centers. Therefore, our cost of revenues may not be comparable to other companies which include such expenses in their cost of revenues. We procure inventory from our suppliers and our inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or estimated marketable value. As net revenues generated from our marketplace services are recorded on a net basis, our cost of revenues is all attributable to our net revenues from merchandise sales.

 

Operating Expenses

 

Our operating expenses consist of fulfillment expenses, marketing expenses, technology and content expenses and general and administrative expenses. Share-based compensation expenses are included in our operating expenses when incurred.

 

Fulfillment expenses. Fulfillment expenses consist primarily of expenses incurred in shipment, operations and staffing of our logistics and customer service centers. Such expenses include costs attributable to receiving, inspecting and warehousing inventories; picking, packaging and preparing customer orders for shipment; collecting payments from customers; and customer services. Fulfillment expenses also include amounts payable to third parties that assist us in fulfillment and customer service operations.

 

Marketing expenses. Marketing expenses consist primarily of advertising expenses, promotion expenses, and payroll and related expenses for personnel engaged in marketing. Advertising expenses, which are primarily spent on online and offline advertising, are expensed when the relevant services are received. Advertising expenses totaled RMB599.7 million, RMB365.9 million and RMB319.3 million (US$49.1 million) in 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. The decrease of our advertising expenses are mainly due to a decrease in use of live streaming promotional videos and a decrease in traditional advertising.

 

Technology and content expenses. Technology and content development expenses consist primarily of payroll and related costs for employees involved in application development, category expansion, editorial content production on our internet platform and system support expenses, as well as server charges and costs associated with telecommunications. The decrease was mainly due to a decrease of server rental which were replaced by self-owned servers in order to build up new network infrastructure to enhance efficiency and scalability.

 

General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of payroll and related costs for employees involved in general corporate functions, including accounting, finance, tax, legal, procurement, business development and human resources, professional fees and other general corporate costs, as well as costs associated with the use of facilities and equipment for these general corporate functions, such as depreciation and rental expenses. The decrease was primarily attributed to greater efficiency in general and administrative efforts.

 

Taxation

 

Cayman Islands

 

We are an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. Under the current law of the Cayman Islands, we are not subject to income or capital gains tax in the Cayman Islands. In addition, our payment of dividends to our shareholders, if any, is not subject to withholding tax in the Cayman Islands.

 

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Hong Kong

 

Our subsidiaries incorporated in Hong Kong are subject to the uniform tax rate of 16.5%. Under the Hong Kong tax laws, they are exempt from Hong Kong income tax on their foreign-derived income and there are no withholding taxes in Hong Kong on the payment of dividends.

 

PRC

 

Our PRC subsidiaries and our consolidated VIEs are companies incorporated under PRC law and, as such, are subject to PRC enterprise income tax on their taxable income in accordance with the relevant PRC income tax laws. Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, both of which became effective on January 1, 2008, a uniform 25% enterprise income tax rate is generally applicable to both foreign-invested enterprises and domestic enterprises, unless they qualify for certain exceptions. Most of our PRC subsidiaries and our consolidated VIEs are all subject to the tax rate of 25% for the periods presented in the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.

 

In April 2008, the State Administration of Taxation, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Finance jointly issued the Administrative Rules for the Certification of High and New Technology Enterprises specifying the criteria and procedures for the Certification of High and New Technology Enterprises, or HNTEs. HNTEs enjoy a preferential enterprise income tax rate of 15% upon filing with relevant tax authorities. Reemake Media, our consolidated VIE, obtained its HNTE certificate in September 2015 with a valid period of three years, and we plan to renew such certificate in 2018. Tianjin Cyril Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Tianjin Cyril, one of our PRC Subsidiaries, has renewed its HNTE certificate in October 2017 with a valid period of three years.

 

According to the Notice on the Enterprise Income Tax regarding Deepening Implementation of Grand Development of the Western Region issued by the State Administration of Taxation, enterprises located in the western region of the PRC with principal revenues of over 70% generated from encouraged category of the western region are entitled to a preferential income tax rate of 15% for ten years from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2020. Chengdu Jumei, which is located within the western region of the PRC and meets the criteria as set forth in the notice, is entitled to the preferential income tax rate of 15% starting from 2013 upon filing with the relevant tax authority.

 

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, dividends from our PRC subsidiaries paid out of profits generated after January 1, 2008, are subject to a withholding tax of 10%, unless there is a tax treaty with China that provides for a different withholding arrangement. Distributions of profits generated before January 1, 2008 by our PRC subsidiaries are exempt from PRC withholding tax.

 

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, an enterprise established outside of the PRC with "de facto management bodies" within the PRC is considered a resident enterprise and will be subject to the enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on its global income. The implementation rules define the term "de facto management bodies" as establishments that carry out substantial and overall management and control over the manufacturing and business operations, personnel, accounting, properties, etc. of an enterprise. The State Administration of Taxation issued the Notice Regarding the Determination of Chinese-Controlled Offshore Incorporated Enterprises as PRC Tax Resident Enterprises on the Basis of De Facto Management Bodies, or Circular 82, on April 22, 2009. Circular 82 provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the "de facto management body" of a Chinese-controlled offshore-incorporated enterprise is located in China. Although Circular 82 only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises, not those controlled by PRC individuals, the determining criteria set forth in Circular 82 may reflect the State Administration of Taxation's general position on how the "de facto management body" test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises or individuals. Although we do not believe that our legal entities organized outside of the PRC constitute PRC resident enterprises, it is possible that the PRC tax authorities could reach a different conclusion. See "Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders." However, even if one or more of our legal entities organized outside of the PRC were characterized as PRC resident enterprises, we do not expect any material change in our net current tax payable balance and the net deferred tax balance as none of these entities had any profit during the periods presented in the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.

 

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Change in PRC regulation of import tax on consumer goods imported through cross-border e-commerce platforms could also have a significant impact on our operating results. For instance, under the new pattern of cross-border e-commerce which came into effect on April 8, 2016, our sales tax would increase, which would decrease our gross margin. In addition, under the new pattern, we are prohibited from selling the cosmetics imported for the first time on our platform and we are also prohibited from selling nutrition supplements and other special food products before required registration certificates for these products have been legitimately obtained. Before we obtain the required registration certificates for these products, our sales of these products could be negatively impacted during the interim periods. See "Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China— The change of PRC regulation of import tax on consumer goods imported through cross-border e-commerce platforms could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations."

 

Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

 

We are subject to the reporting obligations under U.S. securities laws. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and related rules require public companies to include a report of management on their internal control over financial reporting in their annual reports. This report must contain an assessment by management of the effectiveness of a public company's internal control over financial reporting. In addition, an independent registered public accounting firm for a public company must attest to and report on management's assessment of the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting.

 

As required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and related rules promulgated by SEC, our management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017 using criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on this assessment, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2017. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm attested the effectiveness of our internal control and reported that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2017.

 

Our management’s assessment of and conclusion on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting did not include the internal controls of Shenzhen Jiedian Technology Co., Ltd., of which we acquired control in 2017. As of December 31, 2017, Shenzhen Jiedian Technology Co., Ltd. constituted 9% and 6% of total and net assets, respectively, as of December 31, 2017 and contributed 1% and 340% of revenues and net loss, respectively, for the year then ended.

 

However, if we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, our management may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting at a reasonable assurance level. In addition, the process of designing and implementing an effective financial reporting system is a continuous effort that requires us to anticipate and react to changes in our business and the economic and regulatory environments and to expend significant resources to maintain a financial reporting system that satisfies our reporting obligations. Our failure to discover and address any other material weaknesses or deficiencies may result in inaccuracies in our financial statements or delay in the preparation of our financial statements. As a result, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of our ADSs, may be materially and adversely affected. Ineffective internal control over financial reporting could also expose us to increased risk of fraud or misappropriations of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which our ADSs are listed, regulatory investigations or civil or criminal sanctions. See "Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may be unable to accurately or timely report our results of operations or prevent fraud, and investor confidence and the market price of our ADSs may be materially and adversely affected."

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in conformity with the U.S. GAAP, which requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect our reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates and changes in facts and circumstances may result in revised estimates. The following descriptions of critical accounting policies, judgments and estimates should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and other disclosures included in this annual report.

 

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Segment Reporting

 

Historically we had only one single reportable segment because the CODM formerly relied on the consolidated results of operations when making decisions about allocating resources and assessing performance. With the development of the new business initiatives, the CODM started to separately evaluate performance and allocate resources by different business segments, thus we changed our reportable segments in 2017. Our principal operations are currently organized into two business segments, the E-commerce segment and the New businesses segment, which are defined based on the products and services provided. E-commerce represents e-commerce business. New businesses mainly includes film production, Jiedian and other technology initiatives business. Accordingly, we updated the presentation of its reportable segments in prior periods to conform to the current year’s presentation in accordance with ASC 280 Segment Reporting.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

Revenue comes primarily from merchandise sales and marketplace services. We generate revenues from merchandise sales when we act as principal for the direct sales of beauty products to customers. We generate revenues from marketplace services when we act as the service provider for other vendors and charges third-party merchant fees for the sales of their products, which include beauty products, apparel and other life style products. We collect cash from customers before or upon deliveries of products mainly through banks, third party online payment platforms or delivery companies. Cash collected from customers before product delivery is recognized as advances from customers first and then recognized as revenue upon deliveries and acceptances by customers.

 

Revenues from merchandise sales and marketplace services are recognized when the following four criteria are met:

 

(i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (ii) delivery has occurred or services have been rendered; (iii) the selling price is fixed or determinable; and (iv) collectability is reasonably assured.

 

We recognize merchandise sales revenues upon acceptance of delivery of products by customers. Marketplace service revenues primarily consist of fees charged to third-party merchants for selling their products through our internet platform and fees for providing fulfillment services. We recognize marketplace service revenues upon acceptances of deliveries by customers for sales that we provide fulfillment services or upon shipping by third party merchants for sales for which we do not provide fulfillment services. For customer orders and cash collected from customers before delivery, we account for it in advance from customers.

 

We consider several factors in determining whether it is appropriate to record the gross amount of product sales and related costs or the net amount earned as service fees. Generally, when we are the primary obligor in a transaction, is subject to substantial inventory risk, and has latitude in establishing prices, revenues are recorded at the gross sales price. If we do not have substantial inventory risk or latitude in establishing prices and amounts earned are determined using a predetermined service rate, we record the net amounts as marketplace service fees earned.

 

Sales allowances, which reduce revenues, are estimated using management's best estimate based on historical experience. Revenues are recorded net of value-added taxes, business taxes and surcharges.

 

We acquired Jiedian, one of the leading players in the portable power bank sharing business. Jiedian facilitates master power charging boxes in highly frequented points of interest, such as restaurants, bars, gyms, airports, train stations, shopping malls, beauty salons, hospitals and parks. Each charging box contains multiple portable power banks. Revenue from the provision of portable power bank charging services is generally recognized upon completion of the services.

 

Loans receivable, net

 

Our loans receivable consist of a loan receivable from a venture capital fund with annual interest rate of from 4.35% and up to 10% based on different conditions.

 

Loan receivable is carried at amortized cost. An allowance for doubtful accounts is recorded in the period in which a loss is determined to be probable.

 

Inventories

 

Inventories consisting of products available for sell, are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost of inventory is determined using the weighted average cost method. Inventory reserve is recorded to write down the cost of inventory to the estimated market value due to slow-moving merchandise and damaged goods, which is dependent upon factors such as historical and forecasted consumer demand, and promotional environment. Write downs are recorded in cost of revenues in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income.

 

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Long-term investments

 

Long-term investments are comprised of investments in privately-held companies and limited partnerships, which are accounted for under the cost method or equity method.

 

Cost method investments

 

In accordance with ASC 325-20, "Investments-Other: Cost Method Investments", we account for our investment using the cost method of accounting when we do not have significant influence over the investments' business and operations. We carry such investment at cost and recognize as income any dividends received from a distribution of investee's earnings. We review the investment for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may no longer be recoverable.

 

Equity method investments

 

In accordance with ASC 323 "Investment-Equity Method and Joint Ventures", we apply the equity method of accounting to equity investments, in common stock or in-substance common stock, over which we have significant influence but do not own a majority equity interest or otherwise control. Significant influence is generally considered to exist when we have an ownership interest in the voting stock of the investee between 20% and 50%, and other factors, such as representation in the investee's board of directors, voting rights and the impact of commercial arrangements, are considered in determining whether the equity method of accounting is appropriate. For the investment in limited partnerships, where we hold less than a 20% equity or voting interest, our influence over the partnership operating and financial policies is more than minor, and thus is subject to equity method as well.

 

Under the equity method of accounting, the affiliated company's accounts are not reflected within our consolidated balance sheets and statements of comprehensive income; however, our share of the earnings or losses of the affiliated company is reflected in the caption "share income from equity method investments" in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income. An impairment charge is recorded if the carrying amount of the investment exceeds its fair value and this condition is determined to be other-than temporary.

 

Investment security

 

We invest in marketable equity security to meet business objectives. In accordance with ASC 320, "Investment Debt and Equity Securities" this marketable security is stated at fair value, classified and accounted for as available-for-sale securities in investment security. The treatment of a decline in the fair value of an individual security is based on whether the decline is other-than-temporary. We assess its available-for-sale securities for other-than-temporary impairment by considering factors including, but not limited to, its ability and intent to hold the individual security, severity of the impairment, expected duration of the impairment and forecasted recovery of fair value. Investments classified as available-for-sale securities are reported at fair value with unrealized gains or losses, if any, recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income in shareholders' equity. If we determine a decline in fair value is other-than-temporary, the cost basis of the individual security is written down to fair value as a new cost basis and the amount of the write-down is accounted for as a realized loss charged in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income.

 

Fair value 

 

Financial assets and liabilities primarily consist of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, accounts receivable, net, loans receivable, net, and certain other current assets, accounts payable, certain other current liabilities, long-term investments and investment security.

 

Fair value is an exit price, representing the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability.

 

The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, accounts receivable, loans receivable, net, certain other current assets, accounts payable, certain other current liabilities, approximate their fair value due to the short term maturities of these instruments.

 

We adopted ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosure. ASC 820-10 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. Although the adoption of ASC 820 did not impact our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows, ASC 820 requires additional disclosures to be provided on fair value measurement.

 

ASC 820 establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in the valuation methodologies in measuring fair value as follows:

 

Level 1 — Observable inputs that reflect quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.

 

Level 2 — Include other inputs that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace.

 

Level 3 — Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity.

 

ASC 820 describes three main approaches to measuring the fair value of assets and liabilities: (1) market approach; (2) income approach and (3) cost approach. The market approach uses prices and other relevant information generated from market transactions involving identical or comparable assets or liabilities. The income approach uses valuation techniques to convert future amounts to a single present value amount. The measurement is based on the value indicated by current market expectations about those future amounts. The cost approach is based on the amount that would currently be required to replace an asset.

 

Goodwill

 

Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities acquired in a business acquisition.

 

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Goodwill is not depreciated or amortized but is tested for impairment on an annual basis as of December 31, and in between annual tests when an event occurs or circumstances change that could indicate that the asset might be impaired. Commencing in September 2011, in accordance with the FASB revised guidance on “Testing of Goodwill for Impairment,” a company first has the option to assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the company decides, as a result of its qualitative assessment, that it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the quantitative impairment test is mandatory. Otherwise, no further testing is required. The quantitative impairment test consists of a comparison of the fair value of each reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the carrying amount of each reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss equal to the difference between the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill and the carrying amount of goodwill will be recorded. Application of a goodwill impairment test requires significant management judgment, including the identification of reporting units, assigning assets and liabilities to reporting units, assigning goodwill to reporting units, and determining the fair value of each reporting unit. The judgment in estimating the fair value of reporting units includes estimating future cash flows, determining appropriate discount rates and making other assumptions. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value for each reporting unit. Goodwill was allocated to one and two reporting units as of December 31, 2016 and 2017, respectively

 

Business Combinations

 

We account for our business combinations using the purchase method of accounting in accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations (“ASC 805”). The purchase method of accounting requires that the consideration transferred to be allocated to the assets, including separately identifiable assets and liabilities we acquired, based on their estimated fair values. The consideration transferred in an acquisition is measured as the aggregate of the fair values at the date of exchange of the assets given, liabilities incurred, and equity instruments issued as well as the contingent considerations and all contractual contingencies as of the acquisition date. The costs directly attributable to the acquisition are expensed as incurred. Identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities acquired or assumed are measured separately at their fair value as of the acquisition date, irrespective of the extent of any non-controlling interests. The excess of (i) the total of cost of acquisition, fair value of the non-controlling interests and acquisition date fair value of any previously held equity interest in the acquiree over (ii) the fair value of the identifiable net assets of the acquiree, is recorded as goodwill. If the cost of acquisition is less than the fair value of the net assets of the subsidiary acquired, the difference is recognized directly in earnings. The determination and allocation of fair values to the identifiable assets acquired, liabilities assumed and non-controlling interests is based on various assumptions and valuation methodologies requiring considerable judgment from management. The most significant variables in these valuations are discount rates, terminal values, the number of years on which to base the cash flow projections, as well as the assumptions and estimates used to determine the cash inflows and outflows. We determine discount rates to be used based on the risk inherent in the related activity’s current business model and industry comparisons. Terminal values are based on the expected life of assets, forecasted life cycle and forecasted cash flows over that period.

 

Impairment of long-lived assets

 

Long-lived assets are evaluated for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances (such as a significant adverse change to market conditions that will impact the future use of the assets) indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be fully recoverable or that the useful life is shorter than we had originally estimated. When these events occur, we evaluate the impairment for the long-lived assets by comparing the carrying value of the assets to an estimate of future undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use of the assets and their eventual disposition. If the sum of the expected undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying value of the asset, we recognize an impairment loss based on the excess of the carrying value of the assets over its fair value.

 

Share-Based Compensation

 

All stock-based awards granted to the Founders, employees and directors, including Founders’ share, stock options and restricted share units (“RSUs”) are measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and are recognized as expenses using straight line method, net of estimated forfeitures, over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period. Forfeitures are estimated at the time of grant and revised in the subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. We adopted Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) ASU 2016-09—Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting on January 1, 2017 and elected to account for forfeitures as they occur. There was no cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings given that the historical estimated forfeiture rates approximated actual forfeiture rates.

 

We adopted the 2011 plan in March 2011. The maximum number of ordinary shares in respect of which share awards may be granted under the 2011 plan is 10,401,229. The 2011 plan will terminate automatically 10 years after its adoption, unless terminated earlier by our board's approval. As of March 31, 2018, options to purchase 908,989 ordinary shares have been granted and outstanding under the 2011 plan, excluding awards that were forfeited or cancelled after the relevant grant dates.

 

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We adopted the 2014 plan in April 2014. The maximum aggregate number of shares which may be issued pursuant to all awards under the 2014 plan is 6,300,000 Class A ordinary shares initially. The number of shares reserved for future issuances under the 2014 plan will be increased by a number equal to 1.5% of the total number of outstanding shares on the last day of the immediately preceding calendar year, or such lesser number of Class A ordinary shares as determined by our board of directors, on the first day of each calendar year during the term of the 2014 plan beginning in 2015. Unless terminated earlier, the 2014 plan will terminate automatically in 2024. The maximum aggregate number of shares which may be issued pursuant to all awards under the 2014 plan is 10,794,484 Class A ordinary shares as of March 31, 2018. As of March 31, 2018, 704,460 restricted share units are granted and outstanding under the 2014 plan.

 

A summary of our share option activities through March 31, 2018 is presented below (share and per share information is presented to give retroactive effect to the share splits that we have conducted so far).

 

   Number of
Options
Granted
   Exercise
Price
   Fair Value
of
the Options
as of the
Grant Date
   Fair Value
of the
Underlying
Ordinary
Shares as
of the
Grant Date
   Intrinsic
Value as of
the Grant
Date
 
       US$   US$   US$   US$ 
May 9, 2011   3,640,000    0.00    0.09    0.09    0.09 
May 9, 2011   832,000    0.25    0.03    0.09     
February 23, 2012   250,000    1.08    0.36    0.80     
September 23, 2012   950,000    1.08    1.98    2.83    1.75 
April 8, 2013   500,000    1.08    5.67    6.66    5.58 
April 18, 2013   517,500    1.08    5.65    6.66    5.58 
May 1, 2013   500,000    1.08    5.66    6.66    5.58 
July 1, 2013   50,000    1.08    6.91    7.91    6.83 
August 1, 2013   870,000    1.08    6.92    7.91    6.83 
December 31, 2013   250,000    1.20    12.41    13.52    12.32 
December 31, 2013   150,000    1.08    12.75    13.52    12.44 
April 1, 2014   500,000    15.00    10.68    20.02    5.02 
March 31, 2015   145,000    15.00    7.70    15.82    0.82 
March 31, 2015   600,000    15.00    8.14    15.82    0.82 
August 1, 2017   500,000    2.21    

1.25

    2.25    0.04 
August 1, 2017   100,000    2.23    1.25    2.25    0.02 
December 1, 2017   500,000    2.50    1.77    2.97    0.47 

 

We estimated the fair value of share options using the binomial option-pricing model with the assistance of an independent valuation firm. The fair value of each option grant up to December 1, 2017 is estimated on the date of grant or date of repurchase with the following assumptions.

 

   May
9,
2011
   May
9,
2011
   February
23, 
2012
   September
23, 
2012
   April
8,
2013
   April
18,
2013
   May
1,
2013
   July
1,
2013
   August
1,
2013
   December
31,
2013
   April
1,
2014
   March
31,
2015
   August
1,
2017
   December
1,
2017
 
Risk-free interest rates (%)(1)   3.42%   3.42%   3.21%   2.55%   2.33%   2.24%   2.20%   3.13%   2.92%   3.07%   3.35%   2.52%   2.33%   2.41%
Exercise multiples(2)   2.8    2    2.8    2.8    2.8    2    2.8    2    2.8    2.8    2.2    2.2    2.5    2.5 
Expected dividend yield(3)   0.00%   0.00%   0.00%   0.00%   0.00%   0.00%   0.00%   0.00%   0.00%   0.00%   0.00%   0.00%   0.00%   0.00%
Expected volatility (%)(4)   54%   54%   47%   45%   44%   44%   44%   43%   43%   43%   43%   46%   63%   65%
Fair market value of ordinary shares (US$)   0.09    0.09    0.80    2.83    6.66    6.66    6.66    7.91    7.91    13.52    20.02    15.82    2.25    2.97 

 

Notes:

(1)We estimated risk-free interest rate based on the yield to maturity of U.S. dollar denominated Chinese Government bonds with a maturity similar to the expected expiry of the term.

 

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(2)The exercise multiple is estimated as the ratio of fair value of underlying shares over the exercise price as at the time the option is exercised, based on a consideration of research study regarding exercise pattern based on historical statistical data.

 

(3)We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock, and we do not anticipate any dividend payments on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future.

 

(4)We estimated expected volatility based on the annualized standard deviation of the daily return embedded in historical share prices of comparable companies with a time horizon close to the expected expiry of the term.

 

Determining the fair value of our ordinary shares historically required us to make complex and subjective judgments, assumptions and estimates, which involved inherent uncertainty. Had our management used different assumptions and estimates, the resulting fair value of our ordinary shares and the resulting share-based compensation expenses could have been different.

 

We measure the awards at their then-current fair values at each of the financial reporting dates, and attribute the changes in those fair values over the future services period.

 

We recognize the estimated compensation cost of service-based restricted share units based on the fair value of our ordinary shares on the date of the grant. We recognize the compensation cost over a vesting term of generally four years and starting January 1, 2017, accounts for forfeitures as they occur.

 

On March 31, 2015, we granted 248,575 restricted shares units of our company, as well as 745,000 share options (at exercise price of US$15.00 per share) to our employees, subject to four-year service vesting schedule.

 

On August 1, 2016, we granted 100,000 restricted shares of our company to our employees, subject to four-year service vesting schedule.

 

On January 1, 2017, we granted 125,000 restricted shares of our company to our employees, subject to four-year service vesting schedule.

 

On March 31, 2017, we granted 250,000 restricted shares of our company to our employees, subject to four-year service vesting schedule.

 

On May 8, 2017, we granted 100,000 restricted shares of our company to our employees, subject to four-year service vesting schedule.

 

On August 1, 2017, we granted 600,000 share options (at exercise price from US$2.21 to US$2.23 per share) to our employees, subject to four-year service vesting schedule.

 

On December 1, 2017, we granted 500,000 share options (at an exercise price of US$2.50 per share) and 100,000 restricted shares of our company to our employees, subject to four-year service vesting schedule.

 

Income taxes

 

Current income taxes are provided on the basis of net income for financial reporting purposes, adjusted for income and expense items which are not assessable or deductible for income tax purposes, in accordance with the regulations of the relevant tax jurisdictions. Deferred income taxes are provided using the liability method. Under this method, deferred income taxes are recognized for the tax consequences of temporary differences by applying enacted statutory rates applicable to future years to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax bases of existing assets and liabilities. The tax base of an asset or liability is the amount attributed to that asset or liability for tax purposes. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rates is recognized in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income in the period of change. A valuation allowance is provided to reduce the amount of deferred tax assets if it is considered more likely than not that some portion of, or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Group adopted ASU 2015-17, Income Taxes-Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes on January 1, 2017, which classifies all deferred tax assets and liabilities as noncurrent. There was no impact to the prior period balance sheet as all deferred tax assets were noncurrent in nature as of December 31, 2016.

 

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Uncertain tax positions

 

ASC 740, "Tax provision" prescribes a more likely than not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. Guidance was also provided on de-recognition of income tax assets and liabilities, classification of current and deferred income tax assets and liabilities, accounting for interest and penalties associated with tax positions, accounting for income taxes in interim periods, and income tax disclosures. Significant judgment is required in evaluating our uncertain tax positions and determining its provision for income taxes. We recognize interests and penalties, if any, under accrued expenses and other current liabilities on our balance sheet and under other expenses in our consolidated statement of comprehensive income. As of December 31, 2016 and 2017, we did not have any material unrecognized uncertain tax positions.

 

In order to assess uncertain tax positions, we apply a more likely than not threshold and a two-step approach for the tax position measurement and financial statement recognition. Under the two-step approach, the first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon settlement.

 

Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities

 

In order to comply with the PRC laws and regulations which prohibit foreign control of companies involved in the value-added telecommunication service businesses, we operate our website in the PRC through Reemake Media, a consolidated VIE of ours. The equity interests of Reemake Media are legally held by certain shareholders of our company, who are PRC individuals. We obtained control over Reemake Media through Beijing Jumei in April 2011 by entering into a series of contractual arrangements with Reemake Media and the PRC individual shareholders of Reemake Media. These Contractual Agreements include Shareholders' Voting Rights Agreement, Exclusive Consulting and Services Agreement, Exclusive Purchase Option Agreement and Equity Pledge Agreements ("Contractual Agreements"). We obtained control over our other consolidated VIEs through contractual arrangements, substantially the same as those described above. On April 20, 2017, the Contractual Agreements with Reemake Media and its shareholders through Beijing Jumei were terminated, and simultaneously Chengdu Jumei entered into Contractual Agreements with Reemake Media and its shareholders. No material terms or conditions of these agreements were changed or altered and there was no impact to our effective control over Reemake Media.

 

As a result of these contractual arrangements, we maintain the ability to exercise effective control over our consolidated VIEs and VIEs’ subsidiaries, receive substantially all of the economic benefits and have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests and assets in our consolidated VIEs and VIEs' subsidiaries when and to the extent permitted by PRC law at a minimum price. We conclude that we are the primary beneficiary of each of our consolidated VIEs and VIEs' subsidiaries. As such, we consolidated the financial results of the VIEs in our consolidated financial statements as required by SEC Regulation SX-3A-02 and ASC subtopic 810-10, "Consolidation": Overall. We will reconsider the initial determination of whether a legal entity is a consolidated VIEs upon occurrence of certain events listed in ASC 810-10-35-4. We will also continuously reconsider whether we are the primary beneficiary of our VIEs as facts and circumstances change. See "Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure."

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

A list of recently issued accounting pronouncements that are relevant to us is included in note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.

 

Results of Operations

 

The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated results of operations for the periods indicated, both in absolute amounts and as percentages of our total net revenues. This information should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this annual report. The results of operations in any period are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future period.

 

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   For the Year Ended December 31, 
   2015   2016   2017 
   RMB   %   RMB   %   RMB   US$   % 
   (in thousands, except for share, per share and per ADS data) 
Summary Consolidated Statements of Income:                                   
Net revenues:                                   
Merchandise sales   7,113,278    96.9    6,174,721    98.4    5,634,156    865,954    96.9 
Marketplace and other services   229,681    3.1    102,462    1.6    182,676    28,077    3.1 
Total net revenues   7,342,959    100.0    6,277,183    100.0    5,816,832    894,031    100.0 
Cost of revenues   (5,225,669)   (71.2)   (4,524,897)   (72.1)   (4,527,284)   (695,831)   77.8 
Gross profit   2,117,290    28.8    1,752,286    27.9    1,289,548    198,200    22.2 
Operating expenses                                   
Fulfillment expenses   (948,954)   (12.9)   (769,651)   (12.3)   (580,792)   (89,266)   (10.0)
Marketing expenses   (655,314)   (8.9)   (427,827)   (6.8)   (401,756)   (61,749)   (6.9)
Technology and content expenses   (169,694)   (2.3)   (216,310)   (3.4)   (200,342)   (30,792)   (3.4)
General and administrative expenses   (191,918)   (2.6)   (206,243)   (3.3)   (144,883)   (22,268)   (2.5)
Total operating expenses   (1,965,880)   (26.7)   (1,620,031)   (25.8)   (1,327,773)   (204,075)   (22.8)
Income from operations   151,410    2.1    132,255    2.1    (38,225)   (5,875)   (0.7)
Other income/(expenses)                                   
Interest income   114,123    1.6    85,597    1.4    65,515    10,069    1.1 
Others, net   (59,289)   (0.8)   76,271    1.2    (45,393)   (6,977)   (0.8)
Share of income from equity method investment           2,452    0.0    4,903    754    0.1 
Impairment of investment security, net of nil tax           (114,789)   (1.8)   -    -     
Income before tax   206,244    2.9    181,786    2.9    (13,200)   (2,029)   (0.2)
Income tax expenses   (71,403)   (1.0)   (31,604)   (0.5)   (23,778)   (3,655)   (0.4)
Net income   134,841    1.9    150,182    2.4    (36,978)   (5,684)   (0.6)
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests   (11,925)   (0.2)   (7,958)   (0.1)   -    -     
Net income attributable to Jumei's ordinary shareholders   122,916    1.7    142,224    2.3    (36,978)   (5,684)   (0.6)

 

Year Ended December 31, 2017 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2016

 

Net revenues. Our net revenues decreased by 7.3% from RMB6.3 billion in 2016 to RMB5.8 billion (US$894.0 million) in 2017, which included RMB5.6 billion (US$866.0 million) generated from merchandise sales and RMB182.7 million (US$28.1 million) generated from marketplace services. The decrease of net revenue was primarily attributable to the decrease in active customers. The decrease in revenue from domestic merchandise was a result of decline in sales volume, mainly attributable to the fierce competition in China’s online sales market. The number of our active customers decreased from approximately 15.4 million in 2016 to approximately 15.1 million in 2017. The number of our total orders increased from approximately 61.5 million in 2016 to approximately 63.5 million in 2017.

 

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Cost of revenues. Our cost of revenues generally remain the same of RMB4.5 billion in 2016 as RMB4.5 billion (US$695.8 million) in 2017, which was mainly due to the increase in sales tax under the regulation of import tax on consumer goods imported through cross-border e-commerce platforms.

 

Gross profit. Our gross profit decreased by 26.4% from RMB1.8 billion in 2016 to RMB1.3 billion (US$198.2 million) in 2017, and our gross profit as a percentage of net revenues decreased from 27.9% to 22.2% during the same period. Our gross profit as a percentage of our net GMV decreased from 24.0% in 2016 to 19.5% in 2017. The lower gross profit margin in 2017 is mainly attributed to the change of PRC regulation of import tax on consumer goods imported through cross-border e-commerce platforms.

 

Operating expenses. Our operating expenses decreased from RMB1.6 billion in 2016 to RMB1.3 billion (US$204.1 million) in 2017. Our operating expenses as a percentage of our net GMV decreased from 22.2% in 2016 to 20.1% in 2017.

 

·Fulfillment expenses. Our fulfillment expenses decreased from RMB769.7 million in 2016 to RMB580.8 million (US$89.3 million) in 2017. The decrease was primarily attributable to the decrease in the number of orders fulfilled. The number of orders that we fulfilled decreased from approximately 56.5 million in 2016 to approximately 52.8 million in 2017. Our fulfillment expenses as a percentage of our net GMV remained stable at 8.8% from 2016 to 2017. In particular, expenses related to wrap pages and revolving materials decreased mainly due to the decline in sales volume of baby and maternity products, which consume relatively higher level of wrap page expenses.

 

In 2017, we offer free shipping for two items or above, or RMB299 or above order size. Although our shipping policies do not necessarily pass the full cost of shipping on to our customers, these policies improve customers' shopping experience and promote customer loyalty, which in turn help us acquire and retain customers. Shipping expenses amounted to RMB311.4 million in 2016 and RMB242.4 million (US$37.3 million) in 2017, primarily because of a decrease in fulfilled orders generated by Jumei Global.

 

·Marketing expenses. Our marketing expenses decreased from RMB427.8 million in 2016 to RMB401.8 million (US$61.7 million) in 2017, which was primarily attributable to a decrease in use of live streaming promotional videos and a decrease in traditional advertising. Our marketing expenses as a percentage of our net GMV slightly increased from 5.9% in 2016 to 6.1% in 2017.

 

·Technology and content expenses. Our technology and content expenses decreased from RMB216.3 million in 2016 to RMB200.3 million (US$30.8 million) in 2017. The decrease in our technology and content expenses was primarily attributable to the decrease of RMB26.5 million (US$4.1 million) in server rental and bandwidth fees, and the decrease of RMB2.6 million (US$0.4 million) in rental expenses. Our technology and content expenses as a percentage of our net GMV remained at 3.0% in 2017 compared with 2016.

 

·General and administrative expenses. Our general and administrative expenses decreased from RMB206.2 million in 2016 to RMB144.9 million (US$22.3 million) in 2017, primarily due to the decrease of RMB30.5 million (US$4.7 million) in bad expenses and the decrease of RMB11.0 million (US$1.7 million) in office expenses on general and administrative personnel. Our general and administrative personnel decreased from 467 in 2016 to 412 in 2017. Our general and administrative expenses as a percentage of our net GMV increased from 2.8% in 2016 to 2.2% in 2017.

 

Interest income. Our interest income decreased from RMB85.6 million in 2016 to RMB65.5 million (US$10.1 million) in 2017 primarily due to reduced purchase of wealth management products.

 

Other income/expense. We had net other expense of RMB45.4 million (US$7.0 million) in 2017 as compared to RMB76.3 million in 2016 of net other income we incurred in 2016, primarily due to an exchange loss of RMB87.8 million (US$13.5 million) in 2017 and ADS reimbursement of RMB10.8 million (US$1.7 million) recognized in 2017.

 

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Income tax expense. Our income tax expense decreased RMB31.6 million in 2016 to RMB23.8 million (US$3.7 million) in 2017 primarily due to a decrease in our taxable income. Our effective tax rate decreased from 17.4% in 2016 to negative 180.1% in 2017 due to the reverse of valuation allowance accrued in 2017 as a result of that the entities previously projected as loss turned out to be gain in 2017.

 

Net income. As a result of the foregoing, our net income decreased from RMB150.2 million in 2016 to net losses of RMB37.0 million (US$5.7 million) in 2017.

 

Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2015

 

Net revenues. Our net revenues decreased by 14.5% from RMB7.3 billion in 2015 to RMB6.3 billion in 2016, which included RMB6.2 billion generated from merchandise sales and RMB102.5 million generated from marketplace services. The decrease of net revenue was primarily attributable to the decrease in active customers and total orders, especially such decrease as contributed by Jumei Global. The decrease in revenue from Jumei Global was a result of decline in sales volume, mainly attributable to the change of PRC regulation of import tax on consumer goods imported through cross-border e-commerce platforms. The number of our active customers decreased from approximately 16.0 million in 2015 to approximately 15.4 million in 2016. The number of our total orders decreased from approximately 73.2 million in 2015 to approximately 61.5 million in 2016.

 

Cost of revenues. Our cost of revenues decreased from RMB5.2 billion in 2015 to RMB4.5 billion in 2016, which was generally in line with the decrease in merchandise sales for the same period.

 

Gross profit. Our gross profit decreased by 17.2% from RMB2.1 billion in 2015 to RMB1.8 billion in 2016, and our gross profit as a percentage of net revenues decreased from 28.8% to 27.9% during the same period. Our gross profit as a percentage of our net GMV increased from 23.7% in 2015 to 24.0% in 2016. The lower gross profit margin in 2016 is mainly attributed to the change of PRC regulation of import tax on consumer goods imported through cross-border e-commerce platforms.

 

Operating expenses. Our operating expenses decreased from RMB2.0 billion in 2015 to RMB1.6 billion in 2016. Our operating expenses as a percentage of our net GMV increased from 22.0% in 2015 to 22.2% in 2016.

 

·Fulfillment expenses. Our fulfillment expenses decreased from RMB949.0 million in 2015 to RMB769.7 million in 2016. The decrease was primarily attributable to the decrease in the number of orders fulfilled. The number of orders that we fulfilled decreased from approximately 64.2 million in 2015 to 56.5 million in 2016. Our fulfillment expenses as a percentage of our net GMV remained stable at 10.6% from 2015 to 2016. In particular, expenses related to wrap pages and revolving materials decreased mainly due to the decline in sales volume of baby and maternity products, which consume relatively higher level of wrap page expenses.

 

In 2016, we offer free shipping for two items or above, or RMB299 or above order size. Although our shipping policies do not necessarily pass the full cost of shipping on to our customers, these policies improve customers' shopping experience and promote customer loyalty, which in turn help us acquire and retain customers. Shipping expenses amounted to RMB338.1 million in 2015 and RMB311.4 million in 2016, primarily because a decrease in fulfilled orders generated by Jumei Global.

 

·Marketing expenses. Our marketing expenses decreased from RMB655.3 million in 2015 to RMB427.8 million in 2016, which was primarily attributable to less spending on traditional marketing campaigns, partially offset by the increase of live broadcasting promotional videos as our major marketing efforts. Our marketing expenses as a percentage of our net GMV decreased from 7.3% in 2015 to 5.9% in 2016.

 

·Technology and content expenses. Our technology and content expenses increased from RMB169.7 million in 2015 to RMB216.3 million in 2016. The increase in our technology and content expenses was primarily attributable to the increase of RMB12.8 million in server rental and bandwidth fees, and the increase of RMB27.7 million in staff costs on technology and content personnel. Our technology and content personnel increased from 674 in 2015 to 726 in 2016. Our technology and content expenses as a percentage of our net GMV increased from 1.9% in 2015 to 3.0% in 2016.

 

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·General and administrative expenses. Our general and administrative expenses increased from RMB191.9 million in 2015 to RMB206.2 million in 2016, primarily due to the increase of RMB5.1 million in staff costs on general and administrative personnel and the increase of RMB11.0 million in professional consulting fees. Our general and administrative personnel increased from 403 in 2015 to 467 in 2016. Our general and administrative expenses as a percentage of our net GMV increased from 2.2% in 2015 to 2.8% in 2016.

 

Interest income. Our interest income decreased from RMB114.1 million in 2015 to RMB85.6 million in 2016 primarily due to reduced purchase of wealth management products.

 

Other income/expense, net. We had net other income of RMB76.3 million in 2016, as compared to RMB59.3 million of net other expense we incurred in 2015, primarily due to an exchange gain of RMB28.0 million in 2016 and ADS reimbursement of RMB10.6 million recognized in 2016.

 

Income tax expense. Our income tax expense decreased from RMB71.4 million in 2015 to RMB31.6 million in 2016 primarily due to a decrease in our taxable income. Our effective tax rate decreased from 34.5% in 2015 to 17.4% in 2016 due to the reverse of valuation allowance accrued in 2015 as a result of that the entities previously projected as loss turned out to be gain in 2016.

 

Net income. As a result of the foregoing, our net income increased from RMB134.8 million in 2015 to RMB150.2 million in 2016.

 

B.Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

To date, we have financed our operations primarily through cash generated by operating activities and the issuance of Class A ordinary shares in our initial public offering and our concurrent private placement in May 2014, as well as of preferred shares in private placements. As of December 31, 2017, our principal sources of liquidity was RMB2.4 billion (US$364.8 million) of cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments. Our cash and cash equivalents represent cash on hand, time deposits and highly liquid investments placed with banks or other financial institutions, which have original maturities of three months or less and are readily convertible to known amounts of cash. Short-term investments comprise of the term deposits as well as highly liquid investments placed with banks with original maturities longer than three months but less than one year. We believe that our current cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments and our anticipated cash flows from operations will be sufficient to meet our anticipated working capital requirements and capital expenditures for the next 12 months. We may, however, need additional capital in the future to fund our continued operations.

 

Although we consolidate the results of our consolidated VIEs, we only have access to the assets or earnings of our consolidated VIEs through our contractual arrangements with them. See "Item 4. Information on the Company — C. Organizational Structure." For restrictions and limitations on liquidity and capital resources as a result of our corporate structure, see "—Holding Company Structure."

 

As of December 31, 2017, our subsidiaries in China held cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments in the amount of RMB2.1 billion (US$315.7 million), and our consolidated VIEs and their subsidiaries held cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments in the amount of RMB9.5 million (US$1.5 million), which includes cash reserved to settle payables to our subsidiary in China. We would need to accrue and pay withholding taxes if we were to distribute funds from our subsidiaries in China to our offshore subsidiaries. We do not intend to repatriate such funds in the foreseeable future, as we plan to use existing cash balance in China for general corporate purpose.

 

The following table sets forth a summary of our cash flows for the periods indicated:

 

   As of December 31, 
   2015   2016   2017 
   RMB   RMB   RMB   US$ 
   (in thousands) 
Net cash provided by/(used in) operating activities   151,497    83,518    (440,495)   (67,706)
Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities   1,383,691    (440,461)   (1,309,126)   (201,210)
Net cash provided by/(used in) financing activities   4,417    13,285    (91,248)   (14,025)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents   12,555    80,842    (59,455)   (9,132)
Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents   1,552,160    (262,816)   (1,900,324)   (292,073)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year   1,012,127    2,564,287    2,301,471    353,728 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of year   2,564,287    2,301,471    401,147    61,655 

 

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Operating Activities

 

Net cash used in operating activities amounted to RMB440.5 million (US$67.7 million) in 2017, which was primarily attributable to a net loss of RMB37.0 million (US$5.7 million), adjusted for non-cash items of RMB204.0 million (US$31.3 million) and a net decrease of RMB119.5 million (US$18.4 million) in change in working capital. The net decrease in change in working capital was primarily attributable to decreases in prepayments of RMB236.4 million (US$36.3million) and accounts payable of RMB66.2 million (US$10.2 million), respectively, partially offset by decreases in accrued expense of RMB171.2 million (US$26.3 million) and inventories of RMB32.0 million (US$4.9 million).

 

Net cash provided by operating activities amounted to RMB83.5 million in 2016, which was primarily attributable to a net income of RMB150.2 million, adjusted for non-cash items of RMB155.0 million and a net decrease of RMB221.7 million in change in working capital. The net decrease in change in working capital was primarily attributable to a decrease in accounts payable of RMB455.9 million, partially offset by a decrease in inventories of RMB307.2 million.

 

Net cash provided by operating activities amounted to RMB151.5 million in 2015, which was primarily attributable to a net income of RMB134.8 million, adjusted for non-cash items of RMB245.6 million and a net decrease of RMB228.9 million in change in working capital. The net decrease in change in working capital was primarily attributable to an increase in inventories of RMB340.0 million, partially offset by an increase in accounts payable of RMB131.6 million.

 

Investing Activities

 

Net cash used in investing activities amounted to RMB1.3 billion (US$201.2 million) in 2017, which was primarily attributable to the maturity of RMB5.6 billion of our short term investment, partially offset by our purchase of RMB4.3 billion of short term investment.

 

Net cash used in investing activities amounted to RMB440.5 million in 2016, which was primarily attributable to the maturity of RMB3.1 billion of our short term investment, partially offset by our purchase of RMB3.4 billion of short term investment.

 

Net cash provided by investing activities amounted to RMB1.4 billion in 2015, which was primarily attributable to the maturity of RMB5.0 billion of our short term investments, partially offset by our purchase of RMB2.8 billion of short term investments, and the investment of RMB558.0 million in BabyTree and RMB172.6 million in investment security.

 

Financing Activities

 

Net cash used in financing activities amounted to RMB91.2 million (US$14.0 million) in 2017, which was attributable to RMB92.6 million (US$14.2 million) purchase of redeemable noncontrolling interests.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities amounted to RMB13.3 million in 2016, which was attributable to RMB2.4 million of proceed from exercises of share options and RMB11.1 million of proceeds from bank loans which derived from a disposed subsidiary in South Korea.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities amounted to RMB4.4 million in 2015, which was attributable to RMB9.8 million of proceeds from exercises of share options and RMB11.1 million of proceeds from bank loans, partially offset by RMB15.4 million in payback of short-term borrowings.

 

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Capital Expenditures

 

Our capital expenditures amounted to RMB36.5 million, RMB130.2 million and RMB586.3 million (US$90.1 million) in 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. Our capital expenditures have been principally used for purchasing land use rights, renovation and purchase of equipment for new logistics centers and our leased office in Beijing, as well as purchases of equipment related to our research and development efforts. On January 29, 2016, we acquired land use rights with RMB84.1 million for 169,456 square meters of warehouse land in Suzhou. In 2017, our investment on construction in process was RMB78.8 million (US$12.1 million).

 

Holding Company Structure

 

Jumei International Holding Limited is a holding company with no material operations of its own. We conduct our operations primarily through our wholly owned subsidiaries and our consolidated VIEs in China. As a result, our ability to pay dividends depends upon dividends paid by our wholly owned subsidiaries. If our wholly owned subsidiaries or any newly formed subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing their debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends to us. In addition, our wholly owned subsidiaries are permitted to pay dividends to us only out of their retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Under PRC law, each of our wholly owned PRC subsidiaries and our consolidated affiliated entity is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund a statutory reserve until such reserve reaches 50% of its registered capital. Although the statutory reserves can be used, among other ways, to increase the registered capital and eliminate future losses in excess of retained earnings of the respective companies, the reserve funds are not distributable as cash dividends except in the event of liquidation. As a result of these PRC laws and regulations, as of December 31, 2017, we had RMB42.6 million (US$6.5 million) in statutory reserves that are not distributable as cash dividends. We currently plan to reinvest all earnings from our PRC subsidiaries to their business developments and do not plan to request dividend distributions from them.

 

The exclusive consulting and services agreement entered into among Chengdu Jumei, Reemake Media and the shareholders of Reemake Media requires Reemake Media to pay service fees in Renminbi to Chengdu Jumei in the manner and amount set forth in such agreement. After paying the applicable withholding taxes and making appropriations for the statutory reserve, the remaining net profits of our PRC subsidiaries would be available for distribution to our offshore companies. As an offshore holding company of our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated VIEs, we may make loans to our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated VIEs. Any loans to our PRC subsidiaries are subject to foreign exchange loan registrations with relevant governmental authorities in China, and loans by us to our VIEs, which are domestic PRC entities, must be registered with the National Development and Reform Commission and must also be registered with SAFE or its local branches. We may also finance our subsidiaries by means of capital contributions. See "Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of our offshore offerings to make loans to or make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business."

 

Furthermore, cash transfers from our PRC subsidiaries to our offshore companies are subject to PRC government control of currency conversion. For example, remittance of dividends by our PRC subsidiaries out of China is subject to examination by the banks designated by SAFE. Restrictions on the availability of foreign currency may affect the ability of our PRC subsidiaries and our consolidated VIEs to remit sufficient foreign currency to pay dividends or other payments to us, or otherwise satisfy their foreign currency denominated obligations. See "Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our net revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment."

 

Inflation

 

Since our inception, inflation in China has not materially impacted our results of operations. According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the year-over-year percent changes in the consumer price index for December 2015, 2016 and 2017 were increases of 1.6%, 2.1% and 1.6%, respectively. Although we have not in the past been materially affected by inflation since our inception, we can provide no assurance that we will not be affected in the future by higher rates of inflation in China.

 

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C.Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, etc.

 

Research and Development

 

Our technology systems are designed to enhance efficiency and scalability, and play an important role in the success of our business. We rely on a combination of internally developed proprietary technologies and commercially available licensed technologies to improve our website and management systems in order to optimize every aspect of our operations for the benefit of our customers, suppliers and third-party merchants.

 

We have adopted a service-oriented architecture supported by data processing technologies which consists of front-end, mid-end and back-end modules. Our network infrastructure is built upon self-owned servers located in data centers operated by third-party internet data center providers. We are implementing enhanced cloud architecture and infrastructure for our core data processing system to augment our existing virtual private network as we continue to expand our operations, enabling us to achieve significant internal efficiency through a virtual and centralized network platform.

 

Technology and content development expenses consist primarily of payroll and related costs for employees involved in application development, category expansion, editorial content production on our internet platform and system support expenses, as well as server charges and costs associated with telecommunications. We incurred RMB169.7 million, RMB216.3 million and RMB200.3 million (US$30.8 million) in technology and content development expenses in 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively.

 

Intellectual Property

 

We regard our trademarks, software copyrights, service marks, domain names, trade secrets, proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on trademark, copyright and trade secret protection laws in the PRC, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions with our employees, service providers, suppliers, third-party merchants and others to protect our proprietary rights. As of December 31, 2017, we owned 432 registered trademarks, copyrights to 69 software programs developed by us relating to various aspects of our operations, and 64 registered domain names, including jumei.com and jumeiglobal.com.

 

D.Trend Information

 

Other than as disclosed elsewhere in this annual report, we are not aware of any trends, uncertainties, demands, commitments or events for the period from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017 that are reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on our net revenues, income, profitability, liquidity or capital resources, or that caused the disclosed financial information to be not necessarily indicative of future operating results or financial conditions.