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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________
FORM 10-K
____________________________
(Mark One)
xANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
oTRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___________ to __________
Commission file number 001-39463
____________________________
Joby Aviation, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
____________________________
Delaware98-1548118
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
333 Encinal Street,
Santa Cruz, CA
95060
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
(831) 201-6700
Registrant's telephone number, including area code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001JOBYNew York Stock Exchange
Warrants to purchase common stockJOBY WSNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o   No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o   No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x   No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x   No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filerxAccelerated filero
Non-accelerated fileroSmaller reporting companyo
Emerging growth companyo
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. x
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. o
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o  No x
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $5.62 billion, based upon the closing sales price of the common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange. Shares of common stock held by executive officers and directors have been excluded from this calculation because such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
APPLICABLE ONLY TO REGISTRANTS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY
PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PRECEDING FIVE YEARS:
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Section 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. o Yes   o No
APPLICABLE ONLY TO CORPORATE REGISTRANTS:
The registrant had outstanding 702,857,098 shares of common stock as of February 21, 2024.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated herein by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. The registrant’s Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.



Table of Contents
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Part I
Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
Statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K which are not historical facts are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements regarding the future financial position, business strategy and plans and objectives of management of Joby Aviation, Inc. (the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”). These statements constitute projections and forecasts and are not guarantees of performance. Such statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. When used in this Annual Report, words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “strive,” “would”, “look forward to” and similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking.
These forward-looking statements are based on information available as of the date of this Annual Report and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve a number of judgments, risks and uncertainties including those set forth in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report and in other documents we file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. These risks and uncertainties may cause actual results or performance to differ materially from the expectations expressed or implied. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date, and we do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.
Market and Industry Data
This Annual Report includes industry and market data obtained from periodic industry publications, third-party surveys and studies, including from Morgan Stanley and government and industry sources. Industry publications and surveys generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Although we believe the industry and market data to be reliable as of the date of this Annual Report, this information could prove to be inaccurate. Industry and market data could be wrong because of the method by which sources obtained their data and because information cannot always be verified with complete certainty due to the limits on the availability and reliability of raw data, the voluntary nature of the data gathering process and other limitations and uncertainties. Each publication, study and report speaks as of its original publication date (and not as of the date of this Annual Report). Certain of these publications, studies and reports were published before the COVID-19 pandemic and therefore do not reflect any impact of COVID-19 on any specific market. In addition, we do not know all of the assumptions regarding general economic conditions or growth that were used in preparing the forecasts from the sources replied upon or cited herein.
Item 1. Business
Overview
We are developing an all-electric, vertical take-off and landing (“eVTOL”) air taxi which we intend to operate in cities around the world. Our mission is to help the world connect faster and more easily with the people and places that matter most by delivering a new form of clean, fast, quiet and convenient aerial transportation service. The Joby eVTOL is designed to transport a pilot and four passengers at speeds of up to 200 mph with a range of 100 miles. According to our modeling, more than 99% of urban routes in cities such as New York City and Los Angeles are significantly shorter than this, enabling higher utilization through faster turnaround times of our aircraft. By combining the freedom of air travel with the efficiency of our aircraft, we expect to deliver journeys that are up to 5 times faster than driving, and it is our goal to steadily drive down end-user pricing in the years following commercial launch to make the service widely accessible.
Our aircraft has been specifically designed with multiple redundancies across systems and components for enhanced safety and to achieve a considerably lower noise footprint than that of similarly sized conventional aircraft or helicopters. It is quiet at takeoff and near silent when flying overhead, which we anticipate will allow us to operate from new skyport locations nearer to where people live and work, in addition to utilizing the more than 5,000 heliport and airport infrastructure facilities already in existence in the U.S.
We are in the process of certifying our aircraft with the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”). This involves a rigorous process of design, testing, verification and quality control. We have also begun working with regulators in other countries, including the United Kingdom, Japan, South Korea and the United Arab Emirates (“UAE”) to pursue commercialization opportunities in those markets. While foreign certification in many countries leverages our work with
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the FAA, in some, such as the UAE, it may also provide a path to commercial operations prior to receiving certification in the United States.
Through 2023 we have flown more than 30,000 miles in our prototype aircraft. In November 2023, we completed our first urban flight exhibition at an event in New York City hosted by Mayor Eric Adams and the New York City Economic Development Corporation, and attended by critical stakeholders such as the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and elected officials.
We do not currently intend to sell our aircraft to independent third parties or individual customers as a primary business model. Instead, we plan to manufacture, own and operate our aircraft ourselves, building a vertically integrated transportation company that will deliver transportation services to customers, including government agencies such as the U.S. Air Force (“USAF”) through sales or contracted operations, and to individual end-users through a convenient app-based aerial ridesharing service. We believe this vertically-integrated business model will generate the greatest economic returns, while providing us with end-to-end control over the customer experience to optimize for customer safety, comfort and value. There may be circumstances in which it is either required (for example, due to operating restrictions on foreign ownership in other countries) or otherwise desirable to sell aircraft in the future. We do not expect this would change our core focus on building a vertically integrated transportation company. We began initial service operations with the U.S. Department of Defense (“DOD”) in September 2023 and are targeting commercial passenger operations in 2025.
We operate a powertrain and electronics engineering and manufacturing facility in San Carlos, California, as well as 130,000 square feet of additive and subtractive manufacturing, machining, aircraft assembly and flight test facilities in Marina, California. These facilities are utilized to design, build and test the components, systems and assemblies for our aircraft as we refine our design and hone our production process. We believe that our California operations will both be able to support our initial low-rate production plans as well as serve as a testing and development facility for future innovations. Our high-rate production facility is planned for Dayton, Ohio where we have identified a 140-acre site that has the potential to support significant growth over time, with enough land to build over two million square feet of manufacturing space. With strong financial incentives and support from state and local governments, we look forward to expanding our manufacturing in the birthplace of aviation as our business grows.
Our preparations for commercial passenger service include forming sector-leading relationships with partners such as Toyota, Uber, Delta Air Lines, and SK Telecom in South Korea, all of whom have invested in Joby, as well as global partners such as ANA Airlines in Japan and the Road and Transport Authority in Dubai. We have also established relationships with infrastructure providers including fixed base operators of landing sites such as Atlantic Aviation, Helo Holdings, Inc. (“HHI”) and Skyports to facilitate infrastructure development in key markets. Additionally, we have long-standing relationships in research and development with federal government agencies as we evolved our design for the fastest, quietest eVTOL in its class.
Joby Aero, Inc. (“Legacy Joby”) was incorporated in Delaware on November 21, 2016. In August 2021, Legacy Joby and Reinvent Technology Partners, a Cayman Islands exempted company and special purpose acquisition company (“RTP”), completed a merger and other transactions pursuant to which a subsidiary of RTP was merged with and into Legacy Joby and Legacy Joby survived as a wholly owned subsidiary of RTP. In connection with the transactions, Legacy Joby changed its name to Joby Aviation, Inc. See Part II, Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Part II, Item 8. “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for more information.
Our principal executive office is located at 333 Encinal Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060. Our telephone number is (831) 201-6700. Our website address is www.jobyaviation.com. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) maintains a website at www.sec.gov, that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. We also make available, free of charge, all of our SEC filings on our website at ir.jobyaviation.com as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. The information contained on any of the websites referenced in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are not part of or incorporated by reference into this or any other report we file with or furnish to the SEC.
Our Aircraft
Our team of world-class engineers has been working for more than a decade to develop an aircraft specifically designed for aerial ridesharing. Over that period, we have built a team that is deeply committed to vertically integrated engineering, testing, prototyping and manufacturing. Developing much of the aircraft in-house has required greater up-front investment, but has also allowed us to develop systems and components that are specifically engineered for their intended applications. We believe this has resulted in an aircraft with best-in-class capabilities across key performance metrics, while reducing
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reliance on program critical third-party suppliers that add cost to the final product and risk to development and certification schedules.
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We designed our aircraft to be safe, quiet and performant - all characteristics that we believe are critical to unlocking the aerial ridesharing market.
Safe: Distributed electric propulsion has greater redundancy than centrally-located internal combustion engines. Each of our six propellers is powered by two independent electric motors, each in turn driven by independent drive-units. Each drive-unit draws power from one of four separate batteries onboard the aircraft.
This emphasis on redundancy is extended to other critical subsystems of the aircraft, including the flight computers, control surfaces, communications network and actuators. The result is a design intended to enhance safety across critical aircraft systems compared to similarly sized conventional aircraft and helicopters.
While these advancements in technology contribute to the overall safety of the aircraft, we recognize that safely delivering a commercial aviation operation requires both organizational and cultural commitments. We’ve made safety a core value, and we actively promote that value across the team.
Given our intent to both manufacture and operate our aircraft, we are developing a comprehensive, vertically-integrated, Enterprise Safety Management System (“SMS”), covering aircraft, manufacturing, operations, maintenance and flight training. Through the enterprise approach, SMS interfaces will facilitate the exchange of information to continuously improve the safety of our aircraft and operations.
Quiet: Developing an aircraft with a low noise footprint that allows for regular operations within metropolitan areas is critical to community acceptance. In addition to the benefits afforded by an all-electric powertrain, we’ve spent substantial engineering resources to reduce the noise signature of the aircraft even further. The result is an aircraft that is significantly quieter than a twin-engine helicopter, exhibiting a noise profile in the range of 65 dBA during takeoff and landing (the noisiest configuration), roughly the volume of a normal speaking voice. In over-head flight as low as 500 feet the aircraft is near silent. We have independently validated the noise footprint of our prototype aircraft through our work with NASA.
Performant: Our commitment to vertical integration and in-house development has allowed for optimization of systems and components across the aircraft, resulting in better energy efficiency, range, and speed than what would otherwise be available using commercial-off-the-shelf components. Our aircraft demonstrates energy efficiency comparable to best-in-class electric ground vehicles. While we anticipate our average journey to be around 25 miles, we believe the expected range and speed of our aircraft will allow us to service a more diverse set of passengers and trips, resulting in greater operational flexibility and reduced operating costs.
The end result is a transformational new electric aircraft that is uniquely capable of pioneering this exciting new market - all with a minimal environmental footprint.
The innovations that we’ve produced to deliver this best-in-class performance are supported by extensive proprietary intellectual property and defended by a robust patent portfolio. Over more than a decade of development, we have generated broad fundamental patents around the architecture of our aircraft and the core technologies that enable our best-in-class performance. We intend to continue to build our intellectual property (“IP”) portfolio with respect to the technologies that we develop and refine.
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Charging
We have developed proprietary charging infrastructure optimized for electric aircraft. Joby’s Global Electric Aviation Charging System (GEACS) is designed to support the safe and efficient operation of all electric aircraft under development today, including our own quiet, emissions-free air taxi. After 10 years of development, in 2023, we announced that we would open-source and share the specifications for the universal charging interface we developed, making it freely available to our industry. We believe this will help spur adoption of new transportation technologies and specifically, of air taxis.
The Urban Air Mobility Market
Ground-Based Transportation Networks are Under Strain
Population growth and urbanization are stretching ground-based transportation infrastructure to its limits. Today, more than fifty percent of the world’s 7.8 billion people live in urban areas. The top fifteen megacities alone are home to more than 300 million inhabitants, and the United Nations (“UN”) predicts that by 2050 the world’s urban population will grow by an additional 2.5 billion people.
Transportation is the life-blood of urban areas, and population growth combined with increased urbanization will continue to push this infrastructure to the brink. According to recent research, the cost of traffic congestion to the U.S. economy alone was more than $190 billion in 2019. The same study found that, in the top 15 metro areas alone, automobile commuters spent an aggregate of nearly 5 billion hours per year in traffic congestion and burned an extra 1.83 billion gallons of fuel.
New light rail lines cost more than $100 million per mile in the U.S. and routinely exceed twice that number. Moving beneath the surface to expand our subway networks is even more expensive, with new subway lines often costing nearly a $1 billion per mile. These ground-based networks can’t scale efficiently, and the costs are prohibitive. We believe that cities need a new, sustainable mobility solution.
Sizable Untapped Market Opportunity
Developing sustainable mobility solutions is particularly critical and timely given the threat that climate change poses to our communities and to our planet. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”), the top source of CO2 emissions in the U.S. is the transportation sector. Any solution to current and future transportation demands must embrace sustainability.
Over the past two decades, improvements in lithium-ion batteries and power electronics alongside the ever-increasing performance of microelectronics have enabled the development and deployment of new sustainable energy and transportation solutions. The success of electric ground vehicles has fueled continued investments in improving these technologies. Battery energy densities, in particular, have improved enough that application to aviation is now practical. Additionally, we believe that other future technologies, such as hydrogen and solid-state batteries, have the potential to play an important role in decarbonizing flight in the longer term.

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We believe that deploying a new type of aerial mobility network in cities represents an extensive market opportunity. Fundamentally, an aerial mobility network is nodal vs. the path-based nature of ground mobility. Each new node added to the network adds connectivity to all the other nodes, whereas each new mile of road, rail, or tunnel only extends one single route by one mile. In a nodal network, a linear increase in the number of nodes leads to an exponential increase in the number of connections.
In addition, the challenges associated with getting in and out of city centers can make frequent, casual travel impractical. We expect that streamlining this experience will open up previously untapped sources of latent demand, much the same way that the development of modern jetliners unlocked demand for transatlantic travel.
Leading investment banks and consulting firms have recently assessed the scale of this market. According to a 2021 report by Morgan Stanley, the urban air mobility sector's total addressable market is projected to reach $1 trillion globally by 2040. While this may initially reflect replacement of loud, carbon-fuel focused transportation with clean energy eVTOL options, we believe additional use cases and applications will emerge as the market evolves.
Business Model
Our business model is based on capturing the most value through vertical integration. We believe it is an important part of our design, manufacturing and operations as it enables us to develop a more performant aircraft and tightly-integrated operations with a goal of long-term, durable margins. Particularly in a new industry such as Urban Air Mobility, everything from the exacting requirements for an electric air taxi to the experience of end users utilizing new transportation solutions can best be managed with a vertical integration business model. When we started the business, the existing supply base did not have the technology we required in the size, dimensions and power needed. There are multiple examples of Joby-engineered parts, such as our flight control computer or direct drive electronic propulsion unit, that we believe generate more power in a smaller footprint and with fewer moving parts than ever before possible. Close collaboration between design, production and testing teams yield tight, iterative cycles which yield innovative solutions in less time than if we were dependent on outside vendors. We expect this will be a competitive advantage now and in future years as our experience operating the air taxi service will flow into the design of next generation products.
Our Aerial Ridesharing Service
We intend to build an aerial ridesharing service powered by a network of eVTOL aircraft that we will manufacture and operate. We are developing an app-based platform that will enable consumers to book rides directly through our service. We also plan to integrate access to our service into leading third-party demand aggregation platforms, including through our partnerships with Uber and Delta Air Lines. Whether our service is accessed through our own platform, or through a partner app, we will integrate ground transportation providers for the first and last mile with our aerial service, providing a seamless, end-to-end travel experience.
We refer to trips that integrate air and ground legs together as ‘multimodal’. By building network management software that efficiently sequences multimodal trips, we believe we can provide substantial time savings to travelers while coordinating the development of optimally-located skyport infrastructure. Additionally, we are developing software that will coordinate multiple riders into each air leg, allowing us to drive high utilization rates for our aircraft and, in turn, progressive reduction in end-user pricing.
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We believe that our app-based aerial ridesharing service will be fast, convenient, comfortable, environmentally sustainable and, over time, progressively more affordable. By maintaining full control over the design, development, test, manufacture and operations of our aircraft, we intend to deliver a service that is optimized from beginning to end, positioning us to be the leading company in this market.
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Our vertically integrated business model ensures we are not simply manufacturing aircraft for sale and receiving one-time revenues, but instead generating recurring revenues over the lifetime of the aircraft with corresponding benefits to contribution margin.

Additional Opportunities at Scale
We believe that being early to market with the right aircraft will provide important first mover advantages that will enable us to steadily drive down end-user pricing in the years following commercial launch. Emerging technologies often benefit from positive network effects as the product or service enters the market, and we expect this to hold true for aerial ridesharing.
As additional passengers enter the network, we expect utilization rates for our aircraft will increase, thereby improving unit economics and allowing costs to be amortized over a greater number of trips. At the same time, we believe reductions in per aircraft costs driven by greater manufacturing scale will be able to support progressively lower pricing while maintaining similar per aircraft unit profitability.
Certification
Type Certification
In the U.S., new aircraft designs are required to pass through the rigorous FAA design certification process, known as type certification, before the aircraft can be issued a standard airworthiness certificate to fly in the National Airspace System (“NAS”). This is an exacting process often extending over 5 or more years that requires extensive ground and in-flight testing with the FAA. We anticipate we will initially certify the aircraft for day and night visual flight rules (“VFR”) operations and we plan to amend the design to include instrument flight rules (“IFR”) capabilities.
Our aircraft was originally intended to be certified in line with the FAA's existing Part 23 requirements as a normal category piloted electric airplane that can also takeoff and land vertically. We began working with the FAA in 2017, and in 2020 we became the first eVTOL company to receive a signed, stage 4 G-1 certification basis from the FAA. The G-1 certification basis is an agreement with the FAA that lays out the specific requirements that need to be met by our aircraft for it to be certified for commercial operations. In May 2022, the FAA indicated that they were revisiting the decision to
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certify all eVTOLs under Part 23 and would, instead, require certification under the “powered lift” classification. Based on the FAA’s revised certification requirements, we signed an updated G-1 certification basis in July 2022, which was published in the federal register in November 2022.
We think of the type certification process in five stages. Stages one to three can be considered the “definition”
phase, while stages four and five are the “implementation” phase. Progress in type certification is not always linear, meaning it is possible to make simultaneous progress in different stages on different aircraft parts or systems, depending on their maturity.
Stage 1 - Certification Basis: The company works with the FAA to define the scope of the type certification project, reaching an agreement on what type of aircraft is being built and which set of rules and regulations will apply.
Stage 2 - Means of Compliance: The company looks more closely at the safety rules and identifies the means of demonstrating compliance with them.
Stage 3 - Certification Plans: The company develops a wide range of detailed certification plans stipulating which tests need to be performed for each system area in order to satisfy the means of compliance.
Stage 4 - Testing & Analysis: The company plans, documents and completes thousands of inspections, tests and analyses in accordance with the certification plans previously drawn up in the third stage.
Stage 5 - Show & Verify: The results of the testing are verified by the FAA. Upon successful completion of this stage, a type certification is issued.
With a mature design based on more than 1,000 test flights to date, we are well on our way towards certification and are engaging with the FAA to perform the hard work and testing required to earn FAA type certification.
We expect the FAA type certificate will be reciprocated in certain international markets pursuant to bilateral agreements between the FAA and its counterpart civil aviation authorities. In 2022, we applied for aircraft certification in the United Kingdom and Japan, following announcements by regulators in those countries adopting streamlined certification processes based on FAA certification. In 2023, we signed an agreement with Road and Transport Authority of Dubai (“RTA”) for Joby to provide air taxi services in Dubai. The RTA agreement includes a roadmap for local approval by the UAE General Civil Aviation Authority that could precede type certification by the FAA. These arrangements provide a means of efficient international expansion as we develop commercial operations around the world.
Our path to certification leverages a large body of existing processes, procedures and standards. However, many of the rules for eVTOL certification and operations are still being finalized by the FAA, and the FAA could revise the existing rules and regulations or impose additional requirements that would extend our timeline for certification.
Production Certification
We are developing the systems and processes needed to obtain FAA production certification and intend to obtain our production certificate shortly after completion of our aircraft type certificate. We believe there are opportunities to leverage advanced manufacturing techniques such as additive manufacturing to further improve the performance of the aircraft. However, if additively manufactured components or other advanced production processes cannot be certified expediently, our aircraft can be produced using conventional aerospace manufacturing techniques.
Operating Certification
The U.S. Department of Transportation (“DOT”) and the FAA exercise regulatory authority over air transportation operations in the U.S. Our intended transportation service is expected to be regulated by the Federal Aviation Regulations, including 14 Code of Federal Regulations 135 (“Part 135”). We received our Part 135 Air Carrier Certificate in 2022, demonstrating the advancement of our procedures and training program and, importantly, enabling our team to begin utilizing the operations and customer technology platforms that will underpin our multi-modal ridesharing service in the future. Air carriers holding Part 135 operations specifications can conduct on-demand operations, which may include limited scheduled operations. If such an air carrier receives a commuter air carrier authorization from the DOT, the air carrier may provide unlimited scheduled operations as well as on-demand operations. We also received our Part 145 Repair Station Certificate in February 2024, which qualifies us to perform select aircraft maintenance activities and will lay the foundation for us to perform maintenance, repair, and overhaul services on our eVTOL aircraft once it is certified for commercial operations.
The FAA recently indicated that they do not expect the relevant operational regulations, or Special Federal Aviation Regulations (“SFARs”), for eVTOL aircraft to be finalized until late 2024. If the publication of the SFARs is further delayed or if there are other regulatory changes or revisions, this could delay our ability to obtain type certification, and could delay our ability to launch our commercial passenger service.
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Our operations may become subject to additional federal, state and local requirements in the future.
Airspace Integration
The aircraft has been designed to be operated under fixed-wing flight rules and regulations with a qualified pilot in command onboard the aircraft.
As the density of air traffic increases, we believe there are opportunities to expand ground infrastructure and create air traffic efficiencies. Over time, we anticipate the importance of working with the FAA, local authorities and other stakeholders to identify and develop procedures along high demand routes to support increased scale and operational tempo. Constructs for operating along those routes may include specific airspace corridors like those outlined by the FAA. In the long term, digital clearance deliveries, airspace authorizations and automated coordination between service providers and operators may be required to further increase airspace scalability. We expect to continue to be involved in long-term activities to develop concepts and technologies (for example those led by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (“NASA”) and the FAA) to further enable scaling towards mature and autonomous operations.
Policy Engagements with Decision Makers & Communities
Providing a successful air transportation service requires collaboration with local communities to assure the services provide the right solutions in the right locations. We plan to grow our engagement at the state and local levels within the U.S. and with key international partners in the coming years.
While the regulation of the aircraft and its operation with the NAS falls within the purview of the FAA, takeoff and landing locations often require state and local approval for zoning and land use. In many cases, existing airports and heliports are subject to regulations by local authorities.
Noise Regulations
The Airport Noise and Capacity Act of 1990 recognizes the rights of operators of airports to implement noise and access restrictions so long as such programs do not interfere unreasonably with interstate or foreign commerce or the national air transportation system. In addition, states and local municipalities are able to set ordinances for zoning and land use, which may include noise or other restrictions such as curfews. Finally, foreign governments may allow airports and/or municipalities to enact similar restrictions. Accordingly, minimizing the volume and characteristics of noise within and above communities has been an important focus for us in order to drive community acceptance.
Our aircraft has been designed to minimize noise to allow for operations in and out of new skyports that are nearer to where people want to live and work. At our noisiest configuration, the aircraft has a noise profile in the range of 65 dBA, roughly the volume of a normal talking voice. Given our low noise profile, we do not expect our operations to be constrained to on-airport operations.
Partnerships
We believe that our strategic relationships provide us with another point of competitive differentiation. Across each of the important activities of high-volume manufacturing, go-to-market strategy and pre-certification operations, we have established strong collaborations and relationships with Toyota, Delta, Uber, SK Telecom and the DOD to help achieve our objectives and de-risk our commercial strategy.
Toyota Motor Corporation
Toyota has invested nearly $400 million in Joby to date, making Toyota our largest outside investor. In addition to their substantial financial backing, Toyota engineers are working shoulder to shoulder with their Joby counterparts on a daily basis, collaborating on projects such as factory planning and layout, manufacturing process development and design for manufacturability. Additionally, in 2023 we signed a long-term supply agreement with Toyota to supply key powertrain and actuation components for our aircraft.
We believe that our collaboration with Toyota has provided and continues to provide us with a significant competitive advantage as we design and build out our high-volume manufacturing capability. In addition to being the world’s largest automaker, Toyota is globally recognized for delivering quality, safety and reliability at scale, all of which are necessary characteristics in aerospace manufacturing. We believe this makes Toyota a strong collaboration partner as we continue to develop our high-volume manufacturing capabilities.
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Uber Technologies, Inc.
We believe that our partnership with Uber Technologies, Inc. and our acquisition of Uber’s Elevate business, provides us with two important competitive advantages in our go-to-market planning and execution.
First, through our acquisition of Elevate we were able to welcome experienced team members from Uber, along with a set of software tools focused on planning and operations the Elevate team had developed over several years. We believe the acquisition of Elevate positions us to make uniquely informed, data-driven decisions in the lead up to commercial launch, as well as accelerating our operational readiness.
Additionally, our collaboration agreement with Uber provides for the integration of our aerial ridesharing service into the Uber app across global markets. We believe this will provide a best-in-class platform to funnel demand to our aerial ridesharing service, while allowing us to reduce customer acquisition costs in the early years of commercial operations. Uber will also be reciprocally integrated into any future Joby Aviation mobile application on a non-exclusive basis to service the ground-based component of multi-modal journeys booked by customers through our application. The goal of this mutual integration is to ensure passengers can access a multi-modal travel experience, seamlessly transitioning from ground-to-air-to-ground with unified, one-click booking.

Delta Air Lines, Inc.
In October 2022, we entered into a collaboration agreement with Delta Air Lines, Inc. (“Delta”) to develop a long-term strategic relationship for a premium airport transportation service that we plan to offer to Delta passengers in select markets through the Delta booking platform. At the same time, Delta invested $60 million through a purchase of our common stock and also received warrants which, if exercised, could expand their total investment to $200 million. We believe that our relationship with Delta, in addition to providing additional capital, will be another important method of customer acquisition when we launch our commercial passenger service, and will also provide opportunities to leverage Delta’s expertise in providing a seamless passenger experience and expertise in building out infrastructure at key airports.
SK Telecom
In June 2023, SK Telecom, South Korea’s leading telecommunications conglomerate (“SKT”), invested $100 million in Joby. As one of the largest and most innovative companies in Asia, SKT operates many complementary lines of business including telecom data, navigation systems, EV charging network and operations, rideshare and real estate assets. Joby expects to participate alongside SKT in Korea’s 2024 K-UAM Grand Challenge, a phased demonstration program designed to foster the adoption of aerial ridesharing in Korea.

U.S. Air Force
In December 2020, we became, to our knowledge, the first company to receive airworthiness approval for an eVTOL aircraft from the USAF, and in the first quarter of 2021 we officially began on-base operations under contract pursuant to the USAF’s Agility Prime program. Our multi-year relationship with the USAF and other U.S. Government agencies provides us with a compelling opportunity to more thoroughly understand the operational capabilities and maintenance profiles of our aircraft in advance of commercial launch. We believe it will also provide an opportunity to test various aspects of the consumer-facing aerial ridesharing service. By operating our aircraft on U.S. military installations we expect to gain valuable insight that will result in a more reliable service at launch. In 2023, we marked our first delivery to a customer by delivering and flying the first eVTOL aircraft at Edwards Air Force base as part of our contract with the DOD worth up to $131 million. The Joby aircraft will be used to demonstrate a range of logistics missions, in addition to providing a showcase for other federal agencies and airspace studies for NASA.
Future Market Opportunities
We believe there are opportunities to address markets that are adjacent to our core mobility business, including delivery and logistics as well as emergency services. We may make select investments to address these market adjacencies over time.
We also believe that developments in advanced flight controls, battery technologies and alternative methods of energy storage could have a meaningful impact on our core mobility business. Advanced flight controls, including additional “pilot assist” features and, in time, fully-autonomous flight, may allow us to drive-down cost and lower customer pricing as well as relieve operational constraints to scaling our service. Improvements in battery technology or alternative methods of energy storage may allow us to increase the range, speed and/or payload of our vehicles, dramatically expanding the range of trips and use-cases we can serve.
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We are investing, and will continue to invest, strategically in these areas to ensure that we are well-positioned to capture the benefits offered by these new developments. From time to time, we may seek to partner with or acquire, when appropriate, companies that have products, personnel, and technologies that complement our strategic direction. For example, we believe that other future technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells or solid-state batteries, have the potential to play an important role in decarbonizing flight in the longer term and may seek to invest in or develop these opportunities as they arise. In 2021 we acquired H2FLY, which, in 2023, accomplished the world’s first piloted flight of a liquid hydrogen-powered electric aircraft.
Intellectual Property
Our success depends in part upon our ability to protect our core technology and intellectual property. To establish and protect our proprietary rights, we rely on a combination of intellectual property rights (e.g., patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets, including know-how and expertise) and contracts (e.g., license agreements, confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements with third parties, employee and contractor disclosure and invention assignment agreements, and other similar contractual rights).
As of January 15, 2024, we have 223 issued or allowed patents (of which 169 are U.S. filings) and 193 pending patent applications (of which 106 are U.S. filings). The patent portfolio is primarily related to eVTOL vehicle technology and UAM/aerial rideshare technology. We regularly file patent applications and from time to time acquire patents from third parties.
Our patent filings include 104 issued or allowed patents and 132 pending patent applications relating to our aircraft, its architecture, powertrain, acoustics, energy storage and distribution systems, flight control system and system resiliency, as well as certain additional aircraft configurations and technologies. Additionally, we have 119 issued or allowed patents and 61 pending patent applications related to aerial rideshare technology, such as fleet and infrastructure utilization, routing, air traffic coordination, rideshare software applications, vertiport infrastructure, and ancillary computer technologies.
Our Commitment to Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Leadership
By developing an efficient, all-electric aircraft with no operating emissions, a low noise footprint and high levels of safety, we believe we can make a meaningful contribution to tackling the dual challenges of congestion and climate change.
We are building a dedicated, diverse and inclusive workforce to achieve this goal while adhering to best practices in risk assessment, mitigation and corporate governance. In 2023 we released our first ESG report, in which we described how we oversee and manage ESG factors material to our business.
Our ESG initiative is organized into three pillars, which, in turn, contain focus areas for our attention and action:
Environmental - Our Environmental pillar is focused on being a good steward of the natural environment through our own operations and the production and development of innovative designs that reduce resource use and energy consumption.
Social - Our Social pillar is focused on promoting diversity, equity, and inclusion, while underpinning all of our activities with a core focus on health and safety.
Governance - Our Governance pillar focuses on upholding our commitment to ethical business conduct, integrity, and corporate responsibility, and integrating strong governance and enterprise risk management oversight across all aspects of our business.
Our Focus on Sustainable Manufacturing and Safety
Our engineering and design standards are designed with the goal of operating in an efficient, safe, sustainable and compliant manner, and encourage us to be leaders in pursuing environmentally friendly production practices. Our Environmental Sustainability Team works closely with our Facilities team and operating units to track energy consumption and material inputs and outputs, to build strategies for energy reduction and to review the proper handling and disposal of our materials. In 2023, we reported our first greenhouse gas inventory for our offices and manufacturing locations. Where possible, we strive to increase our percentage of electricity that is renewable, further reducing our manufacturing impact. In 2023, we also expanded two recycling programs for the manufacturing processes. We now recycle our aircraft batteries after testing or end-of-life and expanded our carbon fiber scraps to include additional types of carbon fiber. These programs allow us to streamline our manufacturing lines while reducing our impact.
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With safety as a core value, we emphasize the importance of safety in everything that we do. This includes adherence to safety rules, best practices, and compliance. Every employee is trained in the safety policies and procedures that are relevant to their role, and we encourage all employees to participate in company-wide safety initiatives, including participating in our non-punitive safety reporting program to identify hazards and reduce risks. Employees are encouraged to own and participate in safety and we conduct regular audits to ensure proper safety procedures are being used and that hazard identification and risk assessment information is being conducted.
Social and Human Capital
To achieve our goal of enabling the world to connect faster and more easily with the people and places that matter most, we will need to attract and retain employees with a diverse set of skills and perspectives as we grow our business. Many of our employees are located in highly competitive labor markets. In addition to competitive cash and equity compensation, offering employees a compelling vision and an opportunity to positively impact their communities is a key part of our strategy to grow our workforce. Additionally, we invest in the communities where we operate, with programs enabling accessibility, education and training. This has multiple benefits including broadening the reach of new technologies such as electric aviation, improving awareness and social license to operate in communities, extending opportunities to underserved communities, and developing our future workforce. For example, we are working with Aviation High School in New York City to prepare the next generation of aircraft maintenance technicians and aerospace leaders for career opportunities created by the electric age of flight.
Our annual employee engagement survey captures team member feedback. The measurement model is a combination of vendor content and in-house-developed content led by our Industrial/Organizational Psychologists on the Talent Development & Analytics team. For 2023, we achieved a response rate of 85% and the survey included 48 items capturing 13 key areas of the employee experience.
As of January 31, 2024, we had 1,777 employees. None of our employees are represented by a labor union. We believe we have good relationships with our employees and have not experienced any interruptions of operations due to labor disagreements.
Diversity and Inclusion
We work diligently to create a diverse, inclusive and equitable work environment. We provide equal opportunities for growth, success, promotion, learning and development, and aim to achieve parity in the way we organize, assign and manage projects. We encourage employee engagement through resource groups including Women of Joby and Joby Pride. We also host seminars to discuss gender and racial equality issues and other topics that are important to our employees. We are focused on building support across all teams and individuals, ensuring everyone has a voice, and treats each other with respect.
Competition
We believe that the primary sources of competition for our service are ground-based mobility solutions, other eVTOL developers/operators and local/regional incumbent aircraft charter services.
We believe the primary factors that will drive success in the UAM market include:
the performance of our eVTOL aircraft relative to both competitive eVTOL aircraft and traditional aircraft;
the ability to certify the aircraft and begin service operations in a timely manner;
the ability to manufacture efficiently at scale;
the ability to scale the service adequately to drive down end-user pricing;
the ability to capture first-mover advantage, if any;
the ability to offer services and routes that provide adequate value proposition for passengers;
the ability to develop or otherwise capture the benefits of next generation technologies; and
the ability to deliver products and services to a high-level of quality, reliability and safety.
While there are differentiated approaches to vehicle designs and business models, we believe that our aircraft and vertically-integrated approach offer the greatest long-term prospects to certify and produce the best aircraft to serve our customers and, in turn, to monetize the full value chain from development through operations.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
RISK FACTORS
In the course of conducting our business operations, we are exposed to a variety of risks. Any of the risk factors we describe below have affected or could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and brand. The market price of shares of our common stock could decline, possibly significantly or permanently, if one or more of these risks and uncertainties occurs. Certain statements in “Risk Factors” are forward-looking statements. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Certification & Regulatory
We may be unable to obtain relevant regulatory approvals for the commercialization of our aircraft or operation of our mobility service.
The commercialization of new aircraft and the operation of an aerial mobility service requires certain regulatory authorizations and certifications, including Type Certification, Production Certification and an air carrier certificate issued by the FAA under Part 119 with Part 135 operations specifications. While we have received our Part 135 Air Carrier Certificate and anticipate being able to obtain the remaining required authorizations and certifications, we may be unable to do so on the timeline we project or at all. Circumstances outside of our control could delay the receipt of our required certifications. For example, FAA staffing depends, in large part, on the annual appropriations process and their ability to retain and recruit sufficient resources with relevant experience. Failure to pass an annual appropriation bill has in the past resulted in temporary government shutdowns. A future shutdown, or a failure by Congress to pass an FAA reauthorization bill (or extension) could delay the rulemaking and certification process. If we fail to obtain any of the required authorizations or certificates, or do so in a timely manner, or any of these authorizations or certificates are modified, suspended or revoked after we obtain them, we may be unable to launch our commercial service or do so on the timelines we project and may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Regulatory authorities may disagree with our view that integrating our service into the National Airspace System is possible without changes to existing regulations and procedures.
There are a number of existing laws, regulations and standards that apply to our aircraft and our service, including standards that were not originally intended to apply to electric aircraft. While our aircraft and our service are designed, at launch, to operate within the existing U.S. regulatory framework, the FAA or other regulatory authorities within the markets in which we intend to operate may disagree with this view, which may prohibit, restrict, or delay our ability to launch in the relevant market. Regulatory authorities have in the past and may in the future introduce changes specifically to address high-volume flights that could delay our ability to launch our service and have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If current airspace regulations are not modified to increase air traffic capacity, our business could be subject to considerable capacity limitations.
A failure to increase air traffic capacity in the airspace serving key markets, including around major airports, could create capacity limitations for our future operations and could have a material adverse effect on our business. Weaknesses in the National Airspace System and the Air Traffic Control (“ATC”) system, such as outdated procedures and technologies, could result in capacity constraints during peak travel periods or adverse weather conditions, resulting in delays and disruptions to our service. While our aircraft is designed to operate in the National Airspace System under existing rules, our business at scale will likely require airspace allocation for UAM operations and could result in regulatory changes. Our inability to obtain sufficient access to the National Airspace System or to comply with any regulatory changes could increase our costs and pricing of our services, which could reduce demand and have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in government regulation could increase our operating costs or extend our certification timeline.

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Aerospace manufacturers and aircraft operators are subject to extensive regulatory and legal requirements that involve significant compliance costs. In May 2022, the FAA decided to certify eVTOLs under the “powered lift” classification, rather than existing Part 23 requirements for Normal Category Airplanes. In addition, the FAA indicated that they do not expect the relevant operational regulations, or Special Federal Aviation Regulations (“SFARs”), for eVTOL aircraft to be finalized until late 2024. If the publication of the SFARs is further delayed, if the FAA requires further modification to our existing G-1 certification basis, or if there are other regulatory changes or revisions this could delay our ability to obtain type certification, and could delay our ability to launch our commercial passenger service.

The DOT and the FAA could issue additional regulations relating to the operation of our aircraft or further revise existing requirements that could require significant expenditures, resulting in additional time to certification as well as increased costs for us and our passengers. Additional laws, regulations, taxes and airport rates and charges have been proposed from time to time that could significantly increase the cost of our operations or reduce the demand for air travel. If adopted, these measures could have the effect of raising fares, reducing revenue and increasing costs, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
To sell air transportation services in the United States, we will also need DOT authorization of the sale of any charter flights and by-the-seat ridesharing services. The DOT further prescribes standards for, among other things, advertising, ticket refunds, baggage liability, consumer disclosures, customer service commitments, customer complaints and the transportation of passengers with disabilities. In the future, the DOT may adopt additional regulations that increase the costs or otherwise adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to security regulation that will increase our operating costs.
The Transportation Security Administration (“TSA”) is responsible for certain civil aviation security matters, including the regulation of air carriers that operate under Part 135 of the Federal Aviation Regulations as well as passenger and baggage screening at U.S. airports. Because we are introducing an innovative service that operates from both airports and skyports, the security regulatory scheme that will apply is uncertain. If the TSA imposes burdensome security requirements on our services, it could reduce the convenience of our service for our customers, resulting in lower demand and higher cost and have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to stringent U.S. export and import control laws and regulations, which may change. We may be unable to comply with these laws and regulations or U.S. government licensing policies, or to secure required authorizations in a timely manner.
Our business is subject to stringent U.S. import and export control laws and regulations as well as economic sanctions laws and regulations. We are required to import and export our products, software, technology and services, and run our operations in the United States, in full compliance with such laws and regulations, which may include the Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”), the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”), and economic sanctions administered by the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”). Similar laws impact our business in other jurisdictions. These trade controls prohibit, restrict, or regulate our ability to, directly or indirectly, export or transfer certain hardware, technical data, technology, software, or services to certain countries and territories, entities, and individuals, and for certain end uses. If we are found to be in violation of these laws and regulations it could result in civil and criminal penalties, including the loss of export or import privileges, debarment and reputational harm. While none of our current technologies require us to maintain a registration under ITAR, we may become subject to ITAR in the future.
Pursuant to these trade control laws and regulations, we are required, among other things, to (i) determine the proper licensing jurisdiction and export classification of products, software and technology, and (ii) obtain licenses or other forms of authorization to conduct our business. These requirements include the need to get permission to release controlled technology to foreign person employees and other foreign persons. Changes in U.S. trade control laws and regulations, or reclassifications of our products or technologies, may restrict our operations. The inability to secure and maintain necessary licenses and other authorizations could negatively impact our ability to compete successfully or to operate our business as planned. Any changes in the export control regulations or U.S. licensing policy, such as those necessary to implement U.S. commitments to multilateral control regimes, may restrict our operations. Given the great discretion the government has in issuing or denying such authorizations, there can be no assurance we will be successful in our future efforts to secure and maintain necessary licenses, registrations, or other regulatory approvals which may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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We will be subject to rapidly changing and increasingly restrictive laws, regulations and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection, and data security, which may be costly and difficult to comply with.
We will be collecting, using, and disclosing personal information of passengers and others in the course of operating our business. These activities are or may become regulated by a variety of domestic and foreign laws and regulations relating to privacy, data protection, and data security, which are complex, rapidly evolving, and increasingly restrictive.
Several states and foreign countries have granted residents expanded rights related to their personal information, including the right to request deletion of their personal information and receive detailed reports of how their personal information is used and shared. Such laws and any laws adopted in the future could have potentially conflicting requirements that would make compliance challenging.
Despite our best efforts, we may not be successful in complying with the rapidly evolving privacy, data protection, and data security requirements. Any actual or perceived non-compliance could result in litigation and proceedings against us by governmental entities, passengers, or others, which could result in fines, civil or criminal penalties, limited ability or inability to operate our business, offer services, or market our platform in certain jurisdictions, negative publicity and harm to our brand and reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Market & Service
The market for UAM has not been established with precision, is still emerging and may not achieve the growth potential we expect or may grow more slowly than expected.
The UAM market is still emerging and has not been established with precision. It is uncertain to what extent market acceptance will grow, if at all. This market is new, rapidly evolving, characterized by rapidly changing technologies, price competition, additional competitors, evolving government regulation and industry standards, new aircraft and unknown consumer demands and behaviors. We intend to initially launch operations in a limited number of metropolitan areas. The success of these markets and the opportunity for future growth in these markets may not be representative of the potential market for UAM in other metropolitan areas. Our success will depend to a substantial extent on regulatory approval and availability of eVTOL technology, as well as the willingness of commuters and travelers to widely adopt air mobility as an alternative to ground transportation. If the public does not perceive UAM as beneficial, or chooses not to adopt UAM then the market for our offerings may not develop, may develop more slowly than we expect or may not achieve the growth potential we expect. As a result, the number of potential passengers using our services cannot be predicted with any degree of certainty, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to operate in a profitable manner in any of our targeted markets. Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
There may be reluctance by consumers to adopt this new form of mobility, or unwillingness to pay our projected prices.
Our growth is highly dependent upon consumer adoption of an entirely new form of mobility offered by eVTOL aircraft and the UAM market. If consumers do not adopt this new form of mobility or are not willing to pay the prices we project for our services, our business may never materialize.
Our success in a given market will depend on our ability to develop a service network that provides passengers significant time savings when compared with alternative modes of transportation and accurately assess and predict passenger demand and price sensitivity, which may fluctuate based on a variety of factors, including general economic conditions, quality of service, negative publicity, safety incidents, perceived political or geopolitical affiliations, or general dissatisfaction with our services. If we fail to attract passengers, deliver sufficient value to our passengers, or accurately predict demand and price sensitivity, it would harm our financial performance and our competitors’ products may achieve greater market adoption and may grow at a faster rate than our service.
We may not be able to launch our aerial ridesharing service beginning in 2025, as currently projected.
We will need to address significant regulatory, political, operational, logistical, and other challenges in order to launch our aerial ridesharing service. We do not currently have infrastructure in place to operate the service and such infrastructure may not be available or may be occupied on an exclusive basis by competitors. We also have not yet received FAA certification of our aircraft or other required airspace or operational authority and approvals, which are essential to operate our service, and for aircraft production and operation.
Our pre-certification operations may also reveal issues with our aircraft, which could result in certification delays. For example, in February 2022, one of our remotely piloted, experimental prototype aircraft was involved in an accident during flight testing. At this time, we do not expect the accident to have a significant impact on our business operations or
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certification timing. Any delay in the financing, design, manufacture and commercial release of our aircraft, which are often experienced by aircraft manufacturers, could materially damage our brand, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. If we are not able to overcome these challenges, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition will be negatively impacted and our ability to grow our business will be harmed.
We may be unable to effectively build a customer-facing business or app.
The application through which users will book trips is still under development. We may experience difficulty in developing the applications necessary to operate the business, including the customer-facing application. The software underlying the application will be complex and may contain undetected errors or vulnerabilities, some of which may only be discovered after the code has been released. The third-party software that we incorporate into our platform may also be subject to errors or vulnerabilities. Any errors or vulnerabilities, whether in our proprietary code or any third-party software on which we rely, could result in negative publicity, a loss of users or revenue, access or other performance issues, security incidents, or other liabilities. Such vulnerabilities could also prevent passengers from booking flights, which would adversely affect our passenger utilization rates, or disrupt communications within the Company (e.g., flight schedules or passenger manifests), which could affect our performance. We may need to expend significant financial and development resources to address any errors or vulnerabilities. Any failure to timely and effectively resolve any such errors or vulnerabilities could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations as well as negatively impact our reputation or brand.
We may be unable to reduce end-user pricing at rates sufficient to drive expected growth for our service.
We may not be able to reduce end-user pricing over time to increase demand, address new market segments and develop a significantly broader customer base. We expect that our initial end-user pricing may be most attractive to relatively affluent consumers, and we will need to address new markets and expand our customer base in order to further grow our business. In particular, we intend for our aerial ridesharing service to be economically accessible to a broad segment of the population and appeal to the customers of ground-based ridesharing services, taxis, and other methods of transportation.
Reducing end-user pricing is dependent on accurately estimating the unit economics of our aircraft and the corresponding service. Our estimates rely, in part, on future technology advancements, such as aerial and ground-based autonomy. If our estimates are inaccurate regarding factors such as production volumes, utilization rates, demand elasticity, operating conditions, deployment volumes, production costs, indirect cost of goods sold, landing fees, charging fees, electricity availability and/or other operating expenses, or if technology such as aerial and ground-based autonomy fails to develop, mature or be commercially available within the periods we expect, we may be unable to offer our service at pricing that is sufficiently compelling to bring about the local network effects that we are predicting and may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our competitors may commercialize their technology before us, or we may not be able to fully capture the first mover advantage that we anticipate.
While we believe we are well positioned to be first to market with an eVTOL piloted aerial ridesharing service, we expect this industry to be increasingly competitive and our competitors could get to market before or at the same time as us, either generally or in specific markets. Even if we are first to market, we may not fully realize the benefits we anticipate, and we may not receive any competitive advantage or may be overcome by other competitors. If new or existing companies launch competing solutions in the markets in which we intend to operate and obtain large scale capital investment, we may face increased competition. Additionally, our competitors may benefit from our efforts in developing consumer and community acceptance for eVTOL aircraft and aerial ridesharing, making it easier for them to obtain the permits and authorizations required to operate an aerial ridesharing service.
Many of our current and potential competitors are larger and have substantially greater resources or are affiliated with larger companies that may allocate greater resources than we have and expect to have in the future, which may allow them to devote greater resources to the development, certification and marketing of their products and services or to offer lower prices. Our competitors may also establish strategic relationships amongst themselves or with third parties that may further enhance their resources and offerings. Some have more experience in the aerospace industry than we have, and foreign competitors could benefit from subsidies or other protective measures offered by their home countries. If our competitors commercialize their technology before us, or if we do not capture the first mover advantage that we anticipate, it may harm our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
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If we are unable to integrate our service with ground transportation services it may limit customer adoption and harm our business.
Our service will depend, in part, on third-party ground operators to take customers from their origin to their departure skyport and from their arrival skyport to their ultimate destination. While we expect to be able to integrate these third-party ground operators into our service, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so effectively, at prices that are favorable to us, or at all. We do not intend to own or operate the ground portion of our multimodal service. Our business and our brand will be affiliated with these third-party ground operators, and we may experience harm to our reputation if they suffer from financial instability, poor service, negative publicity, accidents, or safety incidents which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our reputation may be harmed by the broader industry, and customers may not differentiate our services from our competitors.
Passengers and other stakeholders may not differentiate between us and the broader aviation industry or, more specifically, the UAM service industry. If other participants in this market have problems such as safety, technology development, engagement with certification authorities or other regulators, community engagement, security, data privacy, flight delays, or customer service, such problems could impact the public perception of the entire industry, including our business. We may fail to adequately differentiate our brand, our services and our aircraft from others in the market which could impact our ability to attract passengers or engage with other key stakeholders and have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our prospects may be adversely affected by changes in consumer preferences, discretionary spending and other economic conditions that affect demand for our services, including changes resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic.
Our business is primarily concentrated on UAM services, which we expect may be vulnerable to changes in consumer preferences, discretionary spending and other market changes. The global economy has in the past, and will in the future, experience periods of economic instability, inflation and recession, such as the financial impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic. During such periods, passengers may reduce overall spending on discretionary purchases. Such changes could result in reduced consumer demand for our services, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we are unable to obtain and maintain adequate facilities and infrastructure, including access to key infrastructure such as airports, we may be unable to offer our service in a way that is useful to passengers.
To operate and expand our proposed aerial ridesharing service, we must secure or otherwise develop adequate landing, charging and maintenance infrastructure in desirable locations in metropolitan areas for our aircraft. We may not be able to ensure that our plans for new service can be implemented in a commercially viable manner given present landing fee structures and infrastructure constraints, including those imposed by inadequate facilities at desirable locations and increasingly congested airports and heliports. Access to these facilities may be prohibitively expensive, unavailable, or may be inconsistent with our projections. Additionally, our industry has not aligned around a single charging standard. While we have developed a charging system designed to support all types of electric aircraft, if skyport operators select a different charging system it could result in longer charge times and increase our operating costs.
There is also a complex patchwork of federal, regional and municipal regulatory considerations applicable to asset management and property development in general, and aviation assets and infrastructure in particular. Applicable regulations can vary widely by locality. Local community groups, some of which may be opposed to property development in general, and new aviation infrastructure in particular, can impact the application of these regulations or the development of new regulations. Additionally, we may not be able to obtain necessary permits and approvals and to make necessary infrastructure changes to enable adoption of our aircraft, such as installation of charging equipment. If we are unable to acquire or maintain space for passenger terminal or maintenance operations in desirable locations, this could prevent our service from being practical for our customers and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our aircraft utilization may be lower than expected due to weather and other factors.
Our aircraft may not be able to fly safely in poor weather conditions, including snowstorms, thunderstorms, high winds, lightning, hail, known icing conditions and/or fog. Our inability to operate in these conditions will reduce our aircraft utilization and cause delays and disruptions in our services. We intend to maintain a high daily aircraft utilization rate,
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which is the amount of time our aircraft spend in the air carrying passengers. This is achieved, in part, by reducing turnaround times at skyports. Aircraft utilization is reduced by delays and cancellations from various factors, many of which are beyond our control, including adverse weather conditions, security requirements, air traffic congestion and unscheduled maintenance events. The success of our business is dependent, in part, on the utilization rate of our aircraft, and reductions in utilization will adversely impact our financial performance, cause passenger dissatisfaction and may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Aircraft and Production
Our aircraft may fail to achieve performance expectations.
Our aircraft may fail to achieve our performance expectations. For example, our aircraft may have a higher noise profile, carry a lower payload or have shorter maximum range than we estimate. Our aircraft also use a substantial amount of software code to operate. Software is inherently complex and often contains defects and errors when first introduced. While we have performed extensive testing, in some instances we are still relying on projections and models to validate the expected performance of our aircraft. To date, we have been unable to validate the performance of our aircraft over the expected lifetime of the aircraft. We may incur significant costs to address any performance issues, or if not detected or addressed, such issues could negatively impact our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
We expect to introduce new and additional features and capabilities to the aircraft and our service over time. For example, we may initially operate under VFR only, and then add the ability to operate under IFR pursuant to block upgrade to the aircraft. We may be unable to develop or certify these upgrades in a timely manner or at all which may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to produce aircraft in the volumes and on the timelines we project.
There are significant challenges associated with producing aircraft in the volumes that we are projecting. Our manufacturing facility and processes remain in the prototype stage. The aerospace industry has traditionally been characterized by significant barriers to entry, including large capital requirements, investment costs of designing and manufacturing aircraft, long lead times to bring aircraft to market, the need for specialized design and development expertise, extensive regulatory requirements, and the need to establish maintenance and service locations. As a manufacturer of electric aircraft, we face a variety of added barriers to entry including additional costs of developing and producing an electric powertrain, regulations associated with the transport of lithium-ion batteries and unproven customer demand for a fully electric aerial mobility service. Additionally, we are developing production lines for components and at volumes for which there is little precedent within the traditional aerospace industry.
We have not yet constructed a high-volume production facility in which to manufacture and assemble our aircraft. Final designs for the build out of the planned manufacturing facility are still in process, and various aspects of the component procurement and manufacturing plans have not yet been determined. We are currently evaluating, qualifying and selecting our suppliers for the planned production aircraft, and we have engaged suppliers for certain necessary components. However, we may not be able to engage suppliers for the remaining components in a timely manner, at an acceptable price, in the necessary quantities or at all.
We will need to do extensive testing to ensure that the aircraft is in compliance with all applicable regulations prior to beginning mass production. In addition to certification of the aircraft, we will be required to obtain approval from the FAA to manufacture completed aircraft pursuant to an FAA-approved type design (e.g., type certificate). Production approval involves initial FAA manufacturing approval and extensive ongoing oversight of mass-produced aircraft. If we are unable to obtain production approval for the aircraft, or the FAA imposes unanticipated restrictions as a condition of approval, our projected costs of production could increase substantially.
The timing of our production ramp is dependent upon finalizing certain aspects of the design, engineering, component procurement, testing, build out, and manufacturing plans in a timely manner and upon our ability to execute these plans within the current timeline. It also depends on being able to obtain timely Production Certification from the FAA and sufficient staffing to support production objectives. We intend to fund the build out of our manufacturing facility using existing cash and future financing opportunities. If we are unable to obtain the funds required on the timeline that we anticipate, our plans for building our manufacturing plants could be delayed. If any of the foregoing risks occurs, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
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Crashes, accidents or incidents of eVTOL aircraft or involving lithium-ion batteries involving us or our competitors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Test flying prototype aircraft is inherently risky, and crashes, accidents or incidents involving our aircraft are possible. In February 2022, one our remotely piloted, experimental prototype aircraft was involved in an accident during flight testing. At this time, we do not expect the accident to have a significant impact on our business operations or certification timing. This, or any other such occurrence may negatively impact our development, testing and certification efforts, and could result in re-design, certification delay and/or postponements or delays to our commercial service launch.
Operating aircraft is subject to various risks, and we expect demand for our aerial ridesharing services to be impacted by accidents or other safety issues regardless of whether such accidents or issues involve our aircraft. Such accidents or incidents could also have a material impact on our ability to obtain or maintain FAA certification for our aircraft and could impact confidence in our aircraft type or the eVTOL industry as a whole, particularly if such accidents were due to a safety issue. We believe that regulators and the general public are still forming their opinions about the safety and utility of aircraft that are highly reliant on lithium-ion batteries and advanced flight control software capabilities and that operate in and around urban areas. An accident or incident involving either our aircraft or a competitor’s aircraft while these opinions are being formed could have a disproportionate impact on the longer-term view of the emerging UAM market.
Additionally, adverse publicity stemming from actual or alleged behavior of any of our employees or third-party contractors could expose us to significant reputational harm and potential legal liability. The insurance we carry may be inapplicable or inadequate to cover any such matter, in which case we may be forced to bear substantial losses. Any such incident, even if unrelated to the safety of our aircraft or our services, could result in passengers being reluctant to use our services, which could adversely impact our business, results of operations, financial conditions and prospects.
We will initially rely on a single type of aircraft to support our commercial UAM business, which makes us vulnerable to design defects or mechanical problems.
Our service will initially rely on a single aircraft type. Our dependence on our aircraft makes us particularly vulnerable to any design defects, performance shortfalls or mechanical problems associated with our aircraft or its component parts. Any actual or perceived safety issues may result in significant reputational harm to our businesses, in addition to legal liability, increased maintenance, safety infrastructure and other costs. Such issues could result in delaying or cancelling planned flights, increased regulation, grounding of aircraft or other systemic consequences, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
We depend on suppliers and service partners for raw materials, parts and components.
Despite our high degree of vertical integration, we still rely on purchased parts and materials for aircraft production and manufacturing equipment which we source from suppliers globally, some of whom are currently single source suppliers. Many of the components used in our aircraft must be custom made for us. This exposes us to multiple potential sources of production constraints, disruption, delivery failure, or component shortages. While we believe that we may be able to establish alternate supply relationships and can obtain replacement components, we may be unable to do so in the short term, or at all, at prices that are favorable to us. While we have not experienced material supply chain disruptions to date, we may in the future, which could cause delays in our production process for both prototype and commercial production aircraft. Furthermore, if we experience significant increased demand, or need to replace our existing suppliers, there can be no assurance that additional supplies will be available when required on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. The disruption in the supply of components from suppliers could lead to delays in aircraft production, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
Our aircraft may require maintenance at frequencies or at costs which are unexpected.
Our aircraft are highly technical vehicles that require regular maintenance and support. We are still developing our understanding of the long-term maintenance profile of the aircraft. If useful lifetimes are shorter than expected this may lead to greater maintenance costs than we anticipate. If our aircraft and related equipment require maintenance more frequently than we plan for or at costs that exceed our estimates, that would disrupt the operation of our service and result in higher operating cost, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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U.S. Government Contracts and Pre-Certification Operations
The U.S. government may modify or terminate one or more of our existing contracts.
The U.S. government may modify or terminate its contracts with us, without prior notice and at its convenience. In addition, funding may be reduced or withheld as part of the annual U.S. Congressional appropriations process due to fiscal constraints, changing priorities or other reasons. Any loss or reduction of expected funding and/or modification or termination of one or more of our U.S. government contracts could have a material adverse effect on our access to government testing facilities and/or our ability to secure pre-certification operating experience and/or revenues, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be unable to grow our relationship with the U.S. government and the Department of Defense, which will limit our ability to operate prior to receiving an FAA certification of airworthiness.
We are projecting that we will enter into additional contracts with the U.S. government which would enable us to operate our aircraft as a service provider for the Department of Defense or other U.S. government agencies both prior to receiving an airworthiness certificate from the FAA and after. Failure to obtain these contracts would limit our ability to gain operational learnings about our aircraft and secure meaningful revenue, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We conduct a portion of our business pursuant to U.S. government contracts, which are subject to unique risks.
Contracts with the U.S. government are subject to extensive regulations. New regulations, or changes to existing regulations, could result in increased compliance costs, and we could be subject to withheld payments and/or reduced future business if we fail to comply with new or existing requirements in the future. Compliance costs attributable to current or future regulations such as these could negatively impact our financial condition and operating results.
Contracts with the U.S. government are also subject to a variety of other requirements and risks including government reviews, audits, investigations, False Claims Act cases, suspension and debarment as well as other legal actions and proceedings that generally do not apply to purely commercial contracts. In addition, transactions involving government contractors may be subject to government review and approvals. Failure to comply with these requirements or secure necessary approvals could negatively impact our business, financial condition and operating results.
Risks Related to Our Finances and Operations
We have incurred significant losses since inception, we expect to incur losses in the future, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.
We have incurred significant losses since inception. We incurred net losses of $513.1 million, $258.0 million and $180.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. We have not yet started commercial operations, and it is difficult for us to predict our future operating results. As a result, our losses may be larger than anticipated, and we may not achieve profitability when expected, or at all, and even if we do, we may not be able to maintain or increase profitability.
We expect our operating expenses to increase over the next several years as we move towards commercial launch, expand our manufacturing operations, increase our flight cadence, hire more employees and continue research and development efforts relating to new products and technologies. These efforts may be more costly than we expect and may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. Any failure to generate revenue sufficient to keep pace with our investments and other expenses could prevent us from achieving or maintaining profitability or positive cash flow. Furthermore, if our future growth and operating performance fail to meet investor or analyst expectations, or if we have future negative cash flow or losses resulting from our investment in acquiring customers or expanding our operations, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We will need additional capital in the future, including to build high-volume manufacturing, and to develop a skyport network to support a high-volume service.
Our proposed operations contemplate significant manufacturing capacity, aircraft fleet and infrastructure development, including additional skyports where our aircraft can land, both within the United States and internationally. Construction of manufacturing facilities, skyports or other operating facilities will require significant capital expenditures, as will future expansion of and improvements to our operations.
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In addition, as our facilities and aircraft mature, our business will require capital expenditures for the maintenance, renovation and improvement of such locations to remain competitive. This creates an ongoing need for capital, and, to the extent we cannot fund capital expenditures from cash flows from operations, we will need to borrow or otherwise obtain funds.
Prior to the consummation of the Merger, we financed our operations and capital expenditures primarily through private financing rounds. In the future, we may need to raise capital through public or private financing or other arrangements. Such financing may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all, and our failure to raise capital when needed could harm our business. For example, the global COVID-19 health crisis and related financial impact resulted in significant disruption and volatility of global financial markets. Similar pandemics or other disruptions to global markets could adversely impact our ability to access capital. In addition, increased interest rates in 2022 and 2023 led to a widespread slowdown in investment and funding opportunities, especially for pre-revenue companies, that is expected to continue in the near-term.
We may sell equity securities or debt securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner that may materially dilute our current investors. Any debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants that could reduce our operational flexibility or profitability. Debt financing, if available, may result in a significant financial burden if interest rates remain high for a prolonged period or increase in the future. If we cannot raise funds on acceptable terms, we may not be able to grow our business or respond to competitive pressures which may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have broad discretion in how we use our assets, and we may not use them effectively.
Our management has broad discretion in the use of our assets, including capital raised. We may use capital for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses, and capital expenditures, and we may acquire complementary businesses, products, offerings, or technologies. We may also spend or invest in a way with which our stockholders disagree. If our management fails to use our capital effectively, our business could be seriously harmed.
Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
As of December 31, 2023, Joby had approximately $608.6 million and $82.0 million of federal and state net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”) and $44.9 million and $36.4 million federal and state research and development tax credits. Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, federal NOLs generated by the Company in tax years through December 31, 2017 may be carried forward for 20 years and may fully offset taxable income in the year utilized and federal NOLs generated by the Company in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 may be carried forward indefinitely but may only be used to offset 80% of our taxable income annually. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change federal NOLs and other tax attributes (such as research and development tax credits) to offset its post-change income and taxes may be limited. In general, an “ownership change” occurs if there is a greater than 50 percentage point change (by value) in a corporation’s equity ownership by certain stockholders over a rolling three-year period. We may have experienced ownership changes in the past and may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership (some of which shifts are outside our control). As a result, our ability to use our pre-change federal NOLs and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income and taxes could be subject to limitations. Similar provisions of state tax law may also apply. For these reasons, even if we achieve profitability, we may be unable to use a material portion of our NOLs and other tax attributes which may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and our ability to comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.
As a public company we are required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for each annual report on Form 10-K to be filed with the SEC. This assessment needs to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. Additionally, our independent registered public accounting firm is required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. An adverse report may be issued if our auditor is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed, or operating.
In connection with the audit of our consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2022, we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting which was fully remediated as of the year ended December 31, 2023. If we fail to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could
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result in errors in our financial statements that may lead to a restatement of our financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, our internal control over financial reporting will not prevent or detect all errors and fraud. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.
In order to maintain and improve the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, we have expended, and anticipate that we will continue to expend, significant resources, including accounting-related costs and significant management oversight. If any of these new or improved controls and systems, or the existing systems and third-party software applications that we rely on for financial reporting, do not perform as expected, we may experience further deficiencies in our controls and we may not be able to meet our financial reporting obligations.
If there are material weaknesses or failures in our ability to meet any of the requirements related to the maintenance and reporting of our internal control, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and that could cause the price of our common stock to decline. In addition, we could become subject to investigations by the SEC, the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional management attention and which could adversely affect our business.
We may be unable to protect our intellectual property rights from unauthorized use by third parties.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect our proprietary intellectual property rights, including technologies deployed in our current or future aircraft or utilized in arranging air transportation. To date, we have relied primarily on patents and trade secrets to protect our proprietary technology. Our software is also subject to certain protection under copyright law, though we have chosen not to register any of our copyrights to date. We routinely enter into non-disclosure agreements with our employees, consultants, third parties and others and take other measures to protect our intellectual property rights, such as limiting access to our trade secrets and other confidential information. We intend to continue to rely on these and other means, including patent protection, in the future. However, the steps we take to protect our intellectual property may be inadequate, and unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of our intellectual property or obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary. If successful, these attempts may harm our ability to compete, accelerate the development of our competitors’ programs, and/or harm our competitive position in the market. Moreover, our non-disclosure agreements do not prevent our competitors from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to ours. Our competitors or third parties may not comply with the terms of these agreements, and we may not be able to successfully enforce such agreements or obtain sufficient remedies if they are breached. In addition, we accept government funding for the development of some intellectual property which may result in the government obtaining some rights in our intellectual property. The intellectual property rights we own or license may not provide competitive advantages and could be challenged or circumvented by our competitors.
Further, obtaining and maintaining patent, copyright, and trademark protection can be costly. We may choose not to, or may fail to, pursue or maintain such forms of protection for our technology in the United States or foreign jurisdictions, which could harm our ability to maintain our competitive advantage in such jurisdictions. It is also possible that we will fail to identify patentable aspects of our technology before it is too late to obtain patent protection, that we will be unable to devote the resources to file and prosecute all patent applications for such technology, or that we will lose protection for failing to comply with all procedural, documentary, payment, and other obligations during the patent prosecution process. The laws of some countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights in some foreign countries may be inadequate to prevent other parties from infringing our proprietary technology. We may also fail to detect unauthorized use of our intellectual property, or be required to expend significant resources to monitor and protect our intellectual property rights, including engaging in litigation, which may be costly, time-consuming, and divert the attention of management and resources, and may not ultimately be successful. If we fail to meaningfully establish, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If conflicts arise between us and our strategic partners, our business could be adversely affected, or these parties may act in a manner adverse to us.
If conflicts arise between our collaborators or strategic partners and us, the other party may act in a manner adverse to us which could limit our ability to implement our strategies. Our collaborators or strategic partners may develop, either alone or with others, products in related fields that are competitive with our products. Specifically, conflicts with Toyota Motor Corporation may adversely impact our ability to manufacture aircraft or scale production, while conflicts with Uber Technologies, Inc. and Delta Air Lines may adversely impact our ability to successfully launch and maintain our consumer-facing UAM services. Conflicts with foreign partners may adversely impact our ability to scale operations
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outside the U.S. effectively. If such conflicts arise it may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may invest significant resources in developing new offerings and exploring the application of our proprietary technologies for other uses and those opportunities may never materialize.
While our primary focus is on the design, manufacture and operation of our eVTOL aircraft and the related aerial mobility service, we may invest significant resources in developing new technologies, services, products and offerings. However, we may not realize the expected benefits of these investments.
Such research and development initiatives may also have a high degree of risk and involve unproven business strategies and technologies with which we have limited operating or development experience. They may involve claims and liabilities, expenses, regulatory challenges and other risks that we may not be able to anticipate. We may not be able to predict whether consumer demand for such initiatives will exist or be sustained at the levels that we anticipate, or whether any of these initiatives will generate sufficient revenue to offset any expenses or liabilities associated with these investments. For example, our subsidiary, H2FLY, is working on the development of an optimized fuel cell system for hydrogen-electric aircraft. Any such research and development efforts could distract management from current operations and would divert capital and other resources from our more established technologies. Even if we are successful in developing new products, services, offerings or technologies, regulatory authorities may subject us to new rules or restrictions in response to our innovations that may increase our expenses or prevent us from successfully commercializing new products, services, offerings or technologies and have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Any material disruption in our information systems could adversely affect our business.
Our systems, or those of third-parties upon which we rely, may experience service interruptions, outages, or degradation because of hardware and software defects or malfunctions, human error or intentional bad acts by third parties or our employees, contractors, or service providers, natural disasters, power losses, disruptions in telecommunications services, fraud, military or political conflicts, terrorist attacks, cyberattacks or other events. Our insurance may not be sufficient, and we may not have sufficient remedies available to us from our third-party service providers, to cover all of our losses that may result from such issues which may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we or our third-party service providers experience a security breach, or if unauthorized parties otherwise obtain access to our customers’ data, our reputation may be harmed, demand for services may be reduced, and we may incur significant liabilities.
We rely on information technology networks and systems to operate and manage our business and store our confidential and proprietary information. Our services will also involve the storage, processing and transmission of our customers’ data, including personal and financial information. We also engage and plan to engage third-party service providers to store and process this data. While we believe we and our service providers take reasonable steps to secure these networks and systems, our information technology infrastructure may be vulnerable to computer viruses or physical or electronic intrusions that our security measures may not detect. Any such security incident, including those resulting from cybersecurity attacks, phishing attacks, unauthorized access or usage, virus or similar breach or disruption could result in the loss, destruction, alteration or disclosure of this data, which could damage our reputation and lead to litigation, regulatory investigations, or other liabilities. These attacks may come from individual hackers, corporations, criminal groups, and state-sponsored organizations. Even the perception of inadequate security may damage our reputation and negatively impact our ability to win new customers and retain existing customers. Further, we could be required to expend significant capital and other resources to address any data security incident or breach, which may not be fully covered by our insurance or at all, and which may involve payments for investigations, forensic analyses, legal advice, public relations advice, system repair or replacement, or other services. Any actual or alleged security breaches or alleged violations of federal, state, or foreign laws or regulations relating to privacy and data security could result in mandated user notifications, litigation, government investigations, significant fines, and expenditures; divert management’s attention from operations; deter customers from using our services; damage our brand and reputation; force us to cease operations for some length of time; and materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Techniques used to sabotage or obtain unauthorized access to systems or networks are constantly evolving and, in some instances, are not identified until after they have been launched against a target. We and our service providers may be unable to anticipate these techniques, react in a timely manner, or implement adequate preventative and mitigating
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measures. If we are unable to efficiently and effectively maintain and upgrade our system safeguards, we may incur unexpected costs and certain of our systems may become more vulnerable to unauthorized access or disruption.
Our intended initial operations are concentrated in a small number of metropolitan areas and airports which makes our business particularly susceptible to natural disasters, outbreaks and pandemics, growth constraints, economic, social, weather, and regulatory conditions or other circumstances affecting these metropolitan areas.
We intend to initially service larger metropolitan areas that will be the source of the majority of our revenue. As a result, our business and financial results are particularly susceptible to natural disasters, outbreaks and pandemics, growth constraints, economic, social, weather, and regulatory conditions or other circumstances applicable to these metropolitan areas. Because we will initially have a limited number of locations, a significant interruption or disruption in service at an individual skyport or metropolitan area where we have a significant volume of flights could have a severe impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our concentration in large metropolitan areas and heavily trafficked airports also makes our business susceptible to an outbreak of a contagious disease, such as COVID-19, both due to the high volume of travelers flying into and out of such airports and the ease at which contagious diseases can spread through densely populated areas.
Disruption of operations at skyports, whether caused by labor relations, utility or communications issues, power outages, or changes in federal, state and local regulatory requirements could harm our business. Certain airports may regulate our flight operations, including limiting the number of landings per year, banning our operations or introducing new permitting requirements, which could significantly disrupt our operations. In addition, demand for our advanced air mobility services could be impacted if drop-offs or pick-ups of passengers become inconvenient because of airport rules or regulations, or more expensive because of airport-imposed fees, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
We currently have subsidiaries located outside of the United States and plans for international operations in the future, which could subject us to political, operational and regulatory challenges.
While our primary operations are in the United States, we have established relationships with subsidiaries, suppliers and potential partners in select international markets. In addition, we currently have subsidiaries engaged in limited test manufacturing, R&D and other activities in foreign countries. We have also begun working with regulators in other countries, including the United Kingdom, Japan, South Korea and the UAE to pursue commercialization opportunities in those markets and have signed contracts with potential partners in each of these markets under which we make various commitments related to early operations. While foreign certification in many countries leverages our work with the FAA and in some cases, such as the UAE, it may also provide a path to commercial operations prior to receiving certification in the United States, applicable regulations outside the U.S. may differ from or be more stringent than analogous U.S. regulations. International operations are subject to a number of additional risks, including local political or economic instability, cross-border political tensions, challenges in effectively managing employees in foreign jurisdictions, including local labor laws that may be stricter or more costly to comply with than in the U.S., and exposure to potential liabilities under anti-corruption or anti-bribery laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the UK Bribery Act and similar laws and regulations. If any of these risks materialize it could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to risks arising from natural disasters and severe weather conditions and risks associated with climate change, including the potential increased impacts of severe weather events on our operations and infrastructure.
Natural disasters, including wildfires, tornados, hurricanes, floods and earthquakes, and severe weather conditions, may damage our manufacturing plants, facilities or aircraft or disrupt our operating routes. Our Bonny Doon facilities, in particular, are located in an area that is at high risk due to wildfire. Our Bonny Doon facilities are also subject to a risk of closure due to zoning and permitting issues. Destruction or our inability to use any of our facilities for a prolonged period of time could materially impact our ability to meet our projected timelines.
The potential effects of climate change, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, floods, fires, sea-level rise and other climate-related events, could affect our operations, infrastructure and financial results. We could incur significant costs to improve the climate resiliency of our infrastructure and otherwise prepare for, respond to, and mitigate such effects. We cannot accurately predict the materiality of any potential losses or costs associated with the effects of climate change.
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We are subject to many hazards and operational risks that can disrupt our business, including interruptions or disruptions in service at our facilities, for which we may not be able to secure adequate insurance policies, or secure insurance policies at reasonable prices.
Our operations are subject to many hazards and operational risks, including general business risks, product liability and damage to third parties, our infrastructure or properties that may be caused by natural disasters, power losses, telecommunications failures, terrorist attacks (including hijacking, use of the aircraft as a weapon, or use of the aircraft to disperse a chemical or biological agent), security related incidents or human errors. Additionally, our manufacturing operations are hazardous at times and may expose us to safety risks, including environmental risks and health and safety hazards to our employees or third parties. Furthermore, there is an increasing focus on environmental disclosure and regulation at the local, state and federal levels. Additional laws in these areas, if enacted, could be difficult or costly to comply with.
We maintain general liability insurance, aviation flight testing insurance, aircraft liability coverage, directors and officers (“D&O”) insurance, and other insurance policies and we believe our level of coverage is customary in the industry and adequate to protect against claims. However, there can be no assurance that our insurance will be sufficient to cover all potential claims or that present levels of coverage will be available in the future at reasonable cost or at all. Further, we expect our insurance needs and costs to increase as we build production facilities, manufacture aircraft, establish commercial operations, add routes, increase flight and passenger volumes and expand into new markets. It is too early to determine what impact, if any, the commercial operation of eVTOLs will have on our insurance costs which may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and result of operations.
We are dependent on our senior management team and other highly skilled personnel, including pilots and mechanics, and we may not be successful in attracting or retaining these personnel.
Our success depends, in significant part, on the continued services of our senior management team and on our ability to attract, motivate, develop and retain a sufficient number of other highly skilled personnel. While our efforts to hire key personnel have generally been successful overall, hiring in the areas of software development and verification has progressed more slowly than initially expected, due to high levels of competition in the markets in which we operate.
In addition, there is a shortage of pilots that is expected to exacerbate over time as more pilots in the industry approach mandatory retirement age. Trained and qualified aircraft mechanics are also in short supply. Our service is dependent on recruiting and retaining qualified pilots and mechanics, either or both of which may be difficult due to the corresponding personnel shortages. We compete against airlines and other air mobility and transportation services for pilots and other skilled labor, some of which will offer wages or benefit packages exceeding ours.
The loss of any of the members of our senior management team or other highly skilled personnel, or our inability to hire, train, and retain qualified pilots and mechanics could harm our business and prevent us from implementing our growth plans.
Our business may be adversely affected by union activities.
Although none of our employees are currently represented by a labor union, it is common throughout the aerospace and airline industries for employees to belong to a union, which can result in higher employee costs and an increased risk of work stoppages. As we expand our business our employees could join or form a labor union and we could be required to become a union signatory. We are also directly or indirectly dependent upon companies with unionized work forces, such as parts suppliers, and work stoppages or strikes organized by such unions could delay the manufacture of our aircraft or disrupt our operations, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or operating results.
Additional Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The price of our common stock has been and may continue to be volatile.
The price of our common stock has been volatile and will likely continue to fluctuate due to a variety of factors. The stock market in general, and the market for pre-revenue technology companies in particular, has had and may continue to have significant price and volume fluctuations. The market for our common stock may continue to be influenced by events or occurrences including: changes to the regulations that impact our business or adverse decisions by regulators; our ability to develop the market we expect for UAM services, whether due to competition, market acceptance, performance, pricing or other factors; manufacturing and operational challenges; our failure to meet financial projections or manage our cash;
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actions by shareholders, including the sale of a large volume of shares or campaigns by activist investors or short-sellers; actions taken by our competitors; and public perception of our business and our industry as a whole.
These factors, along with the occurrence of any of the risk factors described in this Annual Report, many of which are not within our control, could cause the price of our common stock to decline materially, regardless of our operating performance.
We do not intend to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future.
We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to finance the further development and expansion of our business and do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future decision to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, restrictions contained in future agreements and financing instruments, business prospects and such other factors.
If analysts do not publish research about our business or if they publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The market for our common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us, our business, our market and our competitors. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock, provide more favorable recommendations about our competitors or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our common stock would likely decline. If few analysts cover us, or if analysts who cover us cease coverage or fail to publish regular reports, demand for our common stock could decrease and our common stock price and trading volume may decline.
We may be subject to securities litigation, activist investors and short-selling campaigns, which are expensive and could divert management attention.
The market price of our common stock has been and may continue to be volatile. Companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have, in the past, been subject to securities class action litigation, activist investor campaigns and short-selling. We may be the target of these types of activities in the future, any for which could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.
Future resales of common stock may cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly.
Certain Joby stockholders are contractually restricted from selling or transferring shares of common stock (the “Lock-up Shares”) for an agreed-upon period of time. For example, certain significant stockholders have agreed to a five-year lockup, with 20% of the Lock-up Shares being released on each anniversary of the closing of the Merger, subject to provisions that allow for a complete release of the Lock-Up Shares if the Company undergoes a change of control (the “Major Company Equityholders Lock-Up Agreement”). Under the Sponsor Agreement (the “Sponsor Agreement”), by and among the Company, Reinvent Sponsor, LLC (“Sponsor”) and RTP, the Sponsor’s Lock-up Shares are subject to the same releases agreed to in the Major Company Equityholders’ Lock-Up Agreement in addition to vesting conditions. Following the expiration of each lockup tranche, the applicable stockholders will no longer be restricted from selling shares of our common stock held by them, other than by applicable securities laws. As such, sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell their shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. As of February 15, 2024, there were approximately 227,835,867 shares subject to the Major Company Equityholders Lock-Up Agreement. As restrictions on resale end, the sale or possibility of sale of these shares could have the effect of increasing the volatility in our share price or the market price of our common stock could decline if the holders of currently restricted shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
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Item 1C. Cybersecurity
Risk Management & Strategy
We have established a risk-based process for assessing, identifying and managing material cybersecurity threats. Our security program utilizes various tools, including physical, administrative and technical safeguards designed to help prevent and respond to cybersecurity threats and incidents. As risks are identified, we implement a variety of measures to manage and mitigate these risks such as firewalls, intrusion detection processes/systems, and vulnerability management. We have a Cyber Defense Center that utilizes incident response plans and various tools such as Splunk and Crowdstrike to respond and recover from cyber incidents. We also have an outside firm on retainer should the need arise to obtain additional assistance.
In addition, we have established an Information Security Awareness Program focused of several areas:
Formal training on topics such as phishing each month;
During Cyber Security Awareness month we provide additional training on topics like IT Policy, access management, and effective password management;
Company-wide informal training through lunch & learn sessions and department meetings;
Tabletop exercises with key personnel during which we simulate cybersecurity threats to test our capabilities and continually improve our response protocols.
We are actively engaged with the Aviation Information Sharing and Analysis Center (ISAC) which gathers, analyzes and shares information to combat cyber-related threats and weaknesses. We use this information to ensure we are aware of possible threats that could occur within our industry.
During the last three fiscal years, our business strategy, results of operations and financial condition have not been materially affected by risks from cybersecurity threats. For more information on our cybersecurity related risks, see Item 1A “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Governance
The Audit Committee of our Board of Directors is primarily responsible for oversight of the Company’s risk assessment and risk management, including cybersecurity risks. The committee meets at least annually with our Head of Information Technology, who provides a report on the Company’s current risk assessment as well as mitigation efforts. The Audit Committee also periodically updates the Board of Directors on risk matters.
Keith Moss, our Head of Information Technology, oversees our cybersecurity and information security program. He has over 30 years of experience in various CISO and information technology roles, and was previously the IT Director at Ford Motor Company North America. He holds a Master of Science in Computer Engineering and a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science from the University of Michigan and an MBA from Bowling Green State University.

Item 2. Properties
Our corporate headquarters are located in Santa Cruz, California, and consist of approximately 162,000 square feet. We operate primarily out of facilities located in the U.S., in Santa Cruz, San Carlos and Marina, California, Washington, D.C. and internationally in Munich and Stuttgart, Germany, Linz, Austria, San Jose, Costa Rica, and Shenzhen, China. All of our facilities, except for the newly-purchased corporate headquarters, are located on land that is leased from third parties or, in the case of certain of our Santa Cruz facilities, from entities partially or wholly owned by our CEO, JoeBen Bevirt.
The facilities that house our prototype production line in Marina, California span approximately 130,000 square feet and are leased from the City of Marina. We have also entered into a ground lease agreement with the City of Marina that can be extended for up to 50 years.
We believe our facilities are adequate and suitable for our current needs and that, should it be needed, suitable additional or alternative space will be available to accommodate our operations.
Our testing facility in Santa Cruz, California is a retired rock quarry. While the nature of this facility is suitable for advanced R&D and testing activities, this facility lacks compliance with applicable building codes, zoning codes and similar regulations and ordinances. We have transitioned most of the research and development work to our facility in Santa Cruz. In addition, we are working with the County of Santa Cruz to bring the site into compliance for our remaining limited testing operations at the facility.
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Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are subject to a variety of claims that arise from time to time in the ordinary course of our business. While management currently believes that resolving claims against us, individually or in aggregate, will not have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations or statement of cash flows, these matters are subject to inherent uncertainties and management’s view of these matters may change in the future. If an unfavorable final outcome were to occur, it may have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows for the period in which the effect becomes reasonably estimable.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Our common stock and public warrants to purchase common stock are traded on The New York Stock Exchange under the symbols “JOBY” and "JOBY WS", respectively.
Holders
As of February 15, 2023, there were approximately 302 holders of record of our common stock. Because many of our shares of common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of beneficial owners represented by these record holders.
Dividends
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. The payment of cash dividends in the future will be dependent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements and general financial condition. The payment of any cash dividends will be within the discretion of our board of directors. Our ability to declare dividends may be limited by the terms of financing or other agreements entered into by us or our subsidiaries from time to time.
Stock Performance Graph
This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of Joby Aviation, Inc. under the Securities Act, or the Exchange Act. The returns shown are based on historical results and are not intended to suggest future performance.
The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return of our common stock to the Russell 2000 Index and in a peer group consisting of Archer Aviation Inc., Eve Holding, Inc., Joby Aviation, Inc., Lilium N.V., Vertical Aerospace Ltd. (“Peer Group”). The chart shows the annual change in value of $100 invested in each of our common stock, the index and the Peer Group on August 10, 2021, the date of our Merger with RTP, and assumes reinvestment of dividends, if any. Each of the companies in our Peer Group went public via merger with a special purpose acquisition company (“SPAC”). For Peer Group companies that completed their SPAC merger after August 10, 2021, the cumulative return for the Peer Group was weighted based on the market capitalization of each company based on the date of its SPAC merger.
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Recent Sale of Unregistered Securities and Use of Proceeds
Recent Sale of Unregistered Securities
None.
Use of Proceeds
None.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
None.
Item 6. [Reserved]
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis provides information that our management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of our consolidated results of operations and financial condition. The discussion should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We have elected to omit discussion on the earliest of the three years covered by the consolidated financial statements presented. Refer to Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations located in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed on March 1, 2023, for reference to discussion of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, the earliest of the three fiscal years presented. This discussion and analysis includes forward looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Please see the section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Overview
We have spent more than a decade designing and testing a piloted all-electric, vertical take-off and landing (“eVTOL”) aircraft that we intend to operate as part of a fast, quiet and convenient service in cities around the world. The aircraft is quiet when taking off, near silent when flying overhead and is designed to transport a pilot and four passengers at speeds of up to 200 mph, with a range optimized for urban markets of 100 miles on a single charge. The low noise enabled by the all-electric powertrain will allow the aircraft to operate around dense, urban areas while blending into the background noise of cities. With more than 1,000 successful test flights already completed, and as the first eVTOL aircraft developer to receive a signed, stage 4 G-1 certification basis, we believe we are well positioned to be the first eVTOL manufacturer to earn airworthiness certification from the Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”).
We do not currently intend to sell these aircraft to independent third parties or individual consumers as a primary business model. Instead, we plan to manufacture, own and operate our aircraft, building a vertically integrated transportation company that will deliver transportation services to our customers, including government agencies such as the U.S. Air Force (“USAF”) through sales or contracted operations, and to individual end-users through a convenient app-based aerial ridesharing service. We delivered our first aircraft for initial service operations with the U.S Department of Defense (“DOD”) in September 2023 and are targeting commercial passenger operations in 2025. We believe this vertically-integrated business model will generate the greatest economic returns, while providing us with end-to-end control over the customer experience to optimize for customer safety, comfort and value. There may be circumstances in which it is either required (for example, due to operating restrictions on foreign ownership in other countries) or otherwise desirable to sell aircraft in the future. We do not expect this would change our core focus on building a vertically integrated transportation company.
Since our inception in 2009, we have been primarily engaged in research and development of eVTOL aircraft. We have incurred net operating losses and negative cash flows from operations in every year since our inception. As of December 31, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit of $1,247.7 million. We have funded our operations primarily with proceeds from the issuance of stock, convertible notes and the proceeds from our February 2021 merger with Reinvent Technology Partners, a special purpose acquisition company (the “Merger”).
Key Factors Affecting Operating Results
See the section entitled “Risk Factors” for a further discussion of these considerations.
Development of the Urban Air Mobility (“UAM”) Market
Our revenue will be directly tied to the continued development of short distance aerial transportation. While we believe the market for UAM will be large, it remains undeveloped and there is no guarantee of future demand. We delivered our first aircraft for initial service operations with the DOD in September 2023 and are targeting commercial passenger operations in 2025. Our business will require significant investment leading up to launching these services, including, but not limited to, final engineering designs, prototyping and testing, manufacturing, software development, certification, pilot training, infrastructure and commercialization.
We believe one of the primary drivers for adoption of our aerial ridesharing service is the value proposition and time savings offered by aerial mobility relative to traditional ground-based transportation. Additional factors impacting the pace of adoption of our aerial ridesharing service may include but are not limited to: perceptions about eVTOL quality, safety, performance and cost; perceptions about the limited range over which eVTOL may be flown on a single battery charge; volatility in the cost of oil and gasoline; availability of competing forms of transportation, such as ground, air taxi or ride-hailing services; the development of adequate infrastructure; consumers’ perception about the safety, convenience and cost
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of transportation using eVTOL relative to ground-based alternatives; and increases in fuel efficiency, autonomy, or electrification of cars. In addition, macroeconomic factors could impact demand for UAM services, particularly if end-user pricing is at a premium to ground-based transportation alternatives or more permanent work-from-home behaviors persist. We anticipate initial operations with our U.S. government customers to be followed by operations in selected high-density metropolitan areas where traffic congestion is particularly acute and operating conditions are suitable for early eVTOL operations.
Competition
We believe that the primary sources of competition for our service are ground-based mobility solutions, other eVTOL developers/operators and local/regional incumbent aircraft charter services. While we expect to be first to market with an eVTOL facilitated aerial ridesharing service, we expect this industry to be dynamic and increasingly competitive; and our competitors could get to market before us, either generally or in specific markets. Even if we are first to market, we may not receive any competitive advantage or may be overtaken by other competitors. If new or existing aerospace companies launch competing solutions in the markets in which we intend to operate or obtain large-scale capital investment, we may face increased competition. Additionally, our competitors may benefit from our efforts in developing consumer and community acceptance for eVTOL aircraft and aerial ridesharing, making it easier for them to obtain the permits and authorizations required to operate an aerial ridesharing service in the markets in which we intend to launch or in other markets. If we do not capture the first mover advantage that we anticipate, it may harm our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
Government Certification
We agreed to a signed, stage 4 “G-1” certification basis for our aircraft with the FAA in 2020. This agreement lays out the specific requirements that need to be met by our aircraft for it to be certified for commercial operations. Reaching this milestone marks a key step towards certifying any new aircraft in the U.S. Our aircraft was originally intended to be certified in line with the FAA’s existing Part 23 requirements for Normal Category Airplanes, with special conditions introduced to address requirements specific to our unique aircraft. In May 2022, the FAA indicated that they were revisiting the decision to certify all eVTOLs under Part 23 and would, instead, require certification under the “powered lift” classification. Based on the FAA’s revised certification requirements, we re-signed an updated stage 4 "G-1" certification basis in July 2022, which was published in the federal register in November 2022.
In 2022, we received our Part 135 operating certificate, which is required for us to operate an on-demand air service. While that currently allows us to operate the service with conventional aircraft, the FAA will need to publish operational regulations related to eVTOLs before we add our aircraft to our Part 135 operating certificate. The FAA has indicated that they do not expect the relevant operational regulations, or Special Federal Aviation Regulations (“SFARs”), for eVTOL aircraft to be finalized until late 2024. If the publication of the SFARs is further delayed, if the FAA requires further modifications to our existing G-1 certification basis, or if there are other regulatory changes or revisions, this could delay our ability to obtain type certification, and could delay our ability to launch our commercial passenger service.
In addition to certifying our aircraft, we will also need to obtain authorizations and certifications related to the production of our aircraft and the deployment of our aerial ridesharing service. We anticipate being able to meet the requirements of such authorizations and certifications. If we fail to obtain any of the required authorizations or certifications, or do so in a timely manner, or if any of these authorizations or certifications are modified, suspended or revoked after we obtain them, we may be unable to launch our commercial service or do so on the timelines we project, which would have adverse effects on our business, prospects, financial condition and/or results of operations.
U.S.Government Contracts
In December 2020, we became, to our knowledge, the first company to receive airworthiness approval for an eVTOL aircraft from the USAF, and in the first quarter of 2021 we officially began on-base operations under contract pursuant to the USAF’s Agility Prime program. Our multi-year relationship with the DOD and other U.S. government agencies provides us with a compelling opportunity to more thoroughly understand the operational capabilities and maintenance profiles of our aircraft in advance of commercial launch. In addition to the operational learnings and advanced research support, our contracts, which we expanded in July 2022 and again in April 2023, have a total potential value of more than $131 million through 2026. We are actively pursuing additional contracts and relationships that would further secure these on-base operations going forward. Our U.S. government contracting parties may modify, curtail or terminate its contracts with us without prior notice, either at its convenience or for default based on performance, or may decline to accept
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performance or exercise subsequent option years. We may also be unable to secure additional contracts or continue to grow our relationship with the U.S. government and/or DOD.
Vertically-Integrated Business Model
Our business model is to serve as a vertically-integrated eVTOL transportation service provider. Present projections indicate that payback periods on aircraft will result in a viable business model over the long-term as production volumes scale and unit economics improve to support sufficient market adoption. As with any new industry and business model, numerous risks and uncertainties exist. Our projections are dependent on certifying and delivering aircraft on time and at a cost that will allow us to offer our service at prices that a sufficient number of customers will be willing to pay for the time and efficiency savings they receive from utilizing our eVTOL services. Our aircraft include parts and manufacturing processes unique to eVTOL aircraft, in general, and our product design, in particular. We have used our best efforts to estimate costs in our planning projections; however, the variable cost associated with assembling our aircraft at scale remains uncertain at this stage of development. Our vertically-integrated business model also relies, in part, on developing and certifying component parts rather than sourcing already certified parts from third-party suppliers. While we believe this model will ultimately result in a more performant aircraft and better operating economics, the increased time and effort required to develop and certify these components may result in delays compared to alternative approaches.
Our vertically-integrated approach is also dependent on recruiting, developing and retaining the right talent at the right time to support engineering, certification, manufacturing, and go-to-market operations. As we progress through the certification process, we will have an increasing need to accelerate hiring in selected areas. If we are unable to add sufficient headcount it could impact our ability to meet our expected timelines for certification and entry into service.
The success of our business is also dependent, in part, on the utilization rate of our aircraft, which is the amount of time our aircraft spend in the air carrying passengers. We intend to maintain a high daily aircraft utilization rate, and reductions in utilization will adversely impact our financial performance. High daily aircraft utilization is achieved in part by reducing turnaround times at skyports. Aircraft utilization is reduced by delays and cancellations from various factors, many of which are beyond our control, including adverse weather conditions, security requirements, air traffic congestion and unscheduled maintenance events.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
Flight services
Flight services revenue primarily includes consideration received for our performance of customer-directed flights and on-base operations for various DOD agencies. We recognize revenue as we fulfill our performance obligations in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive.
Operating expenses
Flight services
Flight services expenses consist primarily of costs related to flight, flight support, and maintenance personnel, expenses associated with support aircraft such as rent and fuel, depreciation of capitalized ground support equipment, and our aircraft electricity cost, as directly attributed to our performance of the flight services. Flight services expenses do not include the costs of manufacturing our aircraft and aircraft parts as such costs are expensed when incurred as Research and Development Expenses (see below).
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel expenses, including salaries, benefits, and stock-based compensation, costs of consulting, equipment and materials, depreciation and amortization and allocations of overhead, including rent, information technology costs and utilities. Research and development expenses are partially offset by payments we received in the form of government grants, including those received under the Agility Prime program.
We expect our research and development expenses to increase as we increase staffing to support aircraft engineering and software development, build aircraft, and continue to explore and develop next generation aircraft and technologies.
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Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses consist of personnel expenses, including salaries, benefits, and stock-based compensation, related to executive management, finance, legal, and human resource functions. Other costs include business development, contractor and professional services fees, audit and compliance expenses, insurance costs and general corporate expenses, including allocated depreciation, rent, information technology costs and utilities.
We expect our selling, general and administrative expenses to increase as we hire additional personnel and consultants to support our operations and comply with applicable regulations, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“SOX”) and other SEC rules and regulations.
Investment in SummerBio, LLC
Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, our management determined that certain previously developed technology that was accessible to us could be repurposed and applied to providing high-volume, rapid COVID-19 diagnostic testing through its investment in SummerBio, LLC (“SummerBio”), a related party. The Company accounted for its investment in SummerBio under the equity method of accounting with an ownership interest of approximately 44.5% as of December 31, 2022.
In June 2022, SummerBio notified us of its decision to wind down testing operations and close the business, which SummerBio substantially executed by the end of December 2022.
The Company recognized income of nil and $19.5 million (net of impairment loss) for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Gain (Loss) from changes in Fair Value of Warrants and Earnout Shares Liabilities
Publicly-traded warrants (“Public Warrants”), private placement warrants issued to Sponsor (“Private Placement Warrants”), warrants issued to Delta Air Lines, Inc. (“Delta Warrants”) and shares of common stock owned by Sponsor subject to certain terms on vesting, lock-up and transfer (“Earnout Shares”) are recorded as liabilities and subject to remeasurement to fair value at each balance sheet date. We expect to incur an incremental income (expense) in the consolidated statements of operations for the fair value adjustments for these outstanding liabilities at the end of each reporting period.
2022 Acquisitions
On March 9, 2022, we completed the acquisition of an aerospace composite manufacturing company, whereby we acquired all the purchased assets and assumed selected liabilities in exchange for a total consideration consisting of (i) $1.5 million in cash, and (ii) RSUs with the aggregate acquisition date value of $0.1 million. The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination as the assets acquired and liabilities assumed constituted a business in accordance with ASC 805 Business Combinations. The purchase consideration of $1.5 million was allocated to the following: $1.1 million in favorable lease assets, $0.4 million of acquired machinery and equipment, $0.1 million of acquired current assets, and $0.1 million of acquired current liabilities.
On May 17, 2022, we completed the acquisition of an aerospace software engineering company that specializes in full-lifecycle software and firmware development and verification to aviation regulatory standards, in exchange for total cash consideration of $7.2 million. The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination as the assets acquired and liabilities assumed constituted a business in accordance with ASC 805 Business Combinations. Part of the cash consideration in an amount of $2.2 million was temporarily retained by us to satisfy our post-closing indemnification claims, if any, against the seller. This retained amount of $2.2 million was released and paid to the seller during the three month ended June 30, 2023.
In relation to the acquisition, we issued 790,529 RSUs with an aggregate acquisition date value of approximately $4.5 million. We also paid $0.5 million to the employees of the acquired company, and settled accounts payable to the acquired company of $0.2 million. The RSUs vest contingent upon each employee’s continued employment with the Company or its subsidiaries, and are recognized as stock-based compensation expense over the RSUs’ vesting terms, commencing on the acquisition date.
The purchase consideration of $7.2 million was, preliminary, allocated to $3.3 million of goodwill, primarily resulting from the combined workforce and expected increased regulatory efficiencies, $2.5 million of total intangible assets comprising of $2.4 million of acquired customer relationships intangible asset and $0.1 million of acquired developed technology intangible asset, $1.5 million of acquired current assets, primarily cash and accounts receivable, $0.3 million of acquired
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fixed assets, and $0.4 million of acquired current liabilities. Amounts recognized as of the acquisition date are provisional and subject to change within the measurement period as the Company’s fair value assessments are finalized. In September 2022, the company made certain measurement period adjustments, which included a working capital adjustment with the seller in accordance with the agreement terms, resulting in an increase to the purchase consideration of $0.1 million which was paid during the three months ended December 31, 2022. No other adjustments were made through the end of the measurement period which ended on May 16, 2023.
On November 30, 2022, the Company completed the purchase of certain real property, improvements and other assets (“Property”) from Frederick Electronics Corporation, a Maryland corporation and Plantronics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Sellers”) for a cash purchase price of $25.5 million. The Property consists of approximately 162,000 square feet across five buildings located at 333 Encinal Street, Santa Cruz, California and will be used as the Company’s corporate headquarters. The acquisition was accounted for as an asset acquisition as substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired was represented by a group of similar assets. The purchase consideration was allocated to $6.3 million of land, $17.7 million of buildings and site improvements and $1.5 million of equipment, fixtures and furniture.
Interest and Other Income, Net
Interest income consists primarily of interest earned on our cash and cash equivalents and investments in marketable securities.
Provision for Income Taxes
Our provision for income taxes consists of an estimate of federal, state, and foreign income taxes based on enacted federal, state, and foreign tax rates, as adjusted for allowable credits, deductions, uncertain tax positions, changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities, and changes in tax law. Due to the level of historical losses, we maintain a valuation allowance against U.S. federal and state deferred tax assets as it has been concluded it is more likely than not that these deferred tax assets will not be realized.
Results of Operations
Comparison of the Year Ended December 31, 2023 to the Year Ended December 31, 2022
The following table summarizes our historical results of operations for the periods indicated (in thousands, except percentage):
December 31, Change
20232022($) (%)
Revenue:
Flight services
$1,032 $— 1,032 100%
Operating expenses:
Flight services
200 — 200 100%
Research and development367,049 296,281 70,768 24 %
Selling, general and administrative105,877 95,922 9,954 10 %
Total operating expenses473,126 392,203 80,923 21 %
Loss from operations(472,094)(392,203)(79,891)20 %
Interest and other income, net45,561 16,787 28,774 171 %
Income from equity method investment— 19,463 (19,463)(100)%
Gain/(loss) from change in fair value of warrants and earnout shares
(86,378)98,002 (184,379)(188)%
Total other income (loss), net
(40,817)134,252 (175,069)(130)%
Loss before income taxes(512,911)(257,951)(254,960)99 %
Income tax expense
139 92 47 51 %
Net loss$(513,050)$(258,043)(255,007)99 %
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Revenue
Flight Services
Flight services revenue primarily includes consideration for our performance of customer-directed flights and on-base operations for various DOD agencies. We recognize revenue as we fulfill our performance obligations in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive.
Operating expenses
Flight services
Flight services expenses consist primarily of costs related to flight, flight support, and maintenance personnel, expenses associated with support aircraft such as rent and fuel, depreciation of capitalized ground support equipment, and our aircraft electricity cost, as directly attributed to our performance of the flight services. Flight services expenses do not include the costs of manufacturing our aircraft and aircraft parts as such costs are expensed when incurred as Research and Development Expenses.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses increased by $70.8 million, or 24%, to $367.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2023 from $296.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to increases in personnel to support aircraft engineering, software development, manufacturing process development, and certification, as well as increased quantity of materials used in prototype development and testing. These costs were partially offset by government research and development grants earned through operations as part of our Department of Defense contracts.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by $10.0 million, or 10%, to $105.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2023 from $95.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to increased headcount to support operations growth, including IT, legal, facilities, HR, and finance, as well as an increase in professional services cost related to legal, accounting and recruiting support.
Total Other Income (loss), Net
Total other income (loss), net decreased by $175.1 million, or 130%, to a loss of $40.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2023 from a gain of $134.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was primarily driven by a $184.4 million loss from changes in fair value of warrants and earnout shares, a $19.5 million decrease in income from equity method investment due to winding down of SummerBio’s business operations, partially offset by $28.8 million increase in interest and other income due to increased interest rates on higher invested funds.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity

We have incurred net losses and negative operating cash flows from operations since inception, and we expect to continue to incur losses and negative operating cash flows for the foreseeable future until we successfully commence sustainable commercial operations. To date, we have funded our operations primarily with proceeds from the Merger and issuance of stock and convertible notes. From inception through December 31, 2023, we raised net proceeds of $1,067.9 million from the Merger, $843.3 million from the issuances of redeemable convertible preferred stock and convertible notes prior to the Merger, $60.0 million from issuance of shares and warrants to Delta Air Lines, Inc., $180.2 million in net proceeds from our registered direct offering to certain institutional investors and net proceeds of $99.9 million from our issuance of shares to SKT. As of December 31, 2023, we had cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash of $204.8 million and short-term investment in marketable securities of $828.2 million. Restricted cash, totaling $0.8 million, reflects cash temporarily retained for security deposit on leased facilities. We believe that our cash, cash equivalent and short-term investments will satisfy our working capital and capital requirements for at least the next twelve months.
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Long-Term Liquidity Requirements
We expect our cash and cash equivalents on hand together with the cash we expect to generate from future operations will provide sufficient funding to support us through the initial launch of our commercial operations in 2025. Until we generate sufficient operating cash flow to fully cover our operating expenses, working capital needs and planned capital expenditures, or if circumstances evolve differently than anticipated, we expect to utilize a combination of equity and debt financing to fund any future remaining capital needs. If we raise funds by issuing equity securities, dilution to stockholders may result. Any equity securities issued may also provide for rights, preferences, or privileges senior to those of holders of common stock. If we raise funds by issuing debt securities, these debt securities would have rights, preferences, and privileges senior to those of preferred and common stockholders. The terms of debt securities or borrowings could impose significant restrictions on our operations. The capital markets have in the past, and may in the future, experience periods of upheaval that could impact the availability and cost of equity and debt financing.
Our principal uses of cash in recent periods were to fund our research and development activities, personnel cost and support services. Near-term cash requirements will also include spending on manufacturing facilities, ramping up production and supporting production certification, scaled manufacturing operations for commercialization, infrastructure and skyport development, pilot training facilities, software development and production of aircraft. We do not have material cash requirements related to current contractual obligations. As such, our cash requirements are highly dependent upon management’s decisions about the pace and focus of both our short and long-term spending.
Cash requirements can fluctuate based on business decisions that could accelerate or defer spending, including the timing or pace of investments, infrastructure and production of aircraft. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our revenue growth rate, the timing and the amount of cash received from our customers, the expansion of sales and marketing activities, and the timing and extent of spending to support development efforts. In the future, we may enter into arrangements to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, products, and technologies, which could require us to seek additional equity or debt financing. If we require additional financing we may not be able to raise such financing on acceptable terms or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to continue our research and development and invest in continued innovation, we may not be able to compete successfully, which would harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition. If adequate funds are not available, we may need to reconsider our investments in production operations, the pace of our production ramp-up, infrastructure investments in skyports, expansion plans or limit our research and development activities, which could have a material adverse impact on our business prospects and results of operations.
Cash Flows
The following tables set forth a summary of our cash flows for the periods indicated (in thousands, except percentage):
Year Ended December 31, Change
20232022($) (%)
Net cash (used in) provided by:
Operating activities$(313,831)$(235,925)$(77,906)33 %
Investing activities80,304 (630,789)711,093 (113)%
Financing activities288,239 60,456 227,783 377 %
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$54,712 $(806,258)$860,970 (107)%

Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $313.8 million, consisting primarily of a net loss of $513.1 million, adjusted for non-cash items and statement of operations impact from investing and financing activities which includes $93.6 million in stock-based compensation expense, a $86.4 million loss from change in the fair value of warrants and earnout shares, $30.5 million in depreciation and amortization expense and a net decrease in our net working capital of $8.9 million, partially offset by $20.2 million net accretion of our investments in marketable securities.
Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $235.9 million, consisting primarily of a net loss of $258.0 million, adjusted for non-cash items and statement of operations impact from investing and financing activities which includes $69.1 million in stock-based compensation expense, $24.0 million in depreciation and amortization expense and a net decrease in our net working capital of $51.8 million, primarily related to distributions from equity investment in Summerbio, partially offset by a $98.0 million gain from change in the fair value of warrants and
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earnout shares, $19.5 million in income from equity method investment and a $5.2 million net accretion and amortization of our investments in marketable securities.
Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Investing Activities
Net cash provided by investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2023 of $80.3 million was primarily due to proceeds from the sales and maturities of marketable securities of $920.9 million, partially offset by purchases of marketable securities of $810.0 million and purchases of property and equipment of $30.6 million
Net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 of $630.8 million was primarily due to purchases of marketable securities of $1,359.0 million, purchases of property and equipment of $54.9 million and acquisition of assets of $5.7 million, partially offset by proceeds from the sales and maturities of marketable securities of $788.8 million.
Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2023 of $288.2 million was primarily due to net proceeds of $180.2 million from our registered direct offering to certain institutional investors and net proceeds of $99.9 million from our issuance of common shares to SKT, proceeds from the issuance of common stock under the employee stock purchase plan of $6.9 million and $2.1 million, proceeds from exercise of stock options and issuance of common stock warrants, partially offset by repayments for finance lease obligations and tenant improvement loan totaling $0.8 million.
Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 of $60.5 million was primarily due to proceeds from the issuance of common stock and warrants of $60.1 million , $1.4 million from exercise of stock options, partially offset by repayments for capital lease obligations and tenant improvement loan totaling $1.0 million.
Critical Accounting Estimates
Management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these Consolidated Financial Statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions for the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses and related disclosures. Our estimates are based on our historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions and any such differences may be material.
The significant accounting policies of the Company are described in more detail in Note 2 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We believe the following accounting policies and estimates to be critical to the preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Stock-Based Compensation
We measure and record the expense related to stock-based payment awards based on the fair value of those awards as determined on the date of grant. When the observable market price or volatility we use to determine grant date fair value does not reflect certain material non-public information known to the Company but unavailable to marketplace participants at the time the market price is observed, we determine whether an adjustment to the observable market price is required. We recognize stock-based compensation expense over the requisite service period of the individual grant, generally equal to the vesting period and use the straight-line method to recognize stock-based compensation, and account for forfeitures as they occur. Some of our awards contain service-based vesting condition as well as performance-based vesting condition. We consider the probability of achieving each of the performance goals at the end of each reporting period and recognize expense over the requisite period when achievement of the goal is determined to be probable, and adjust the expense if the probability of achieving the goal later changes. The Company estimates the probabilities based on available information about the progress made towards performance goals at each reporting period. Our performance based awards issued under annual Bonus Plan are classified as a liability until such time that the respective milestones have been met, at which point the liability is reclassified to equity. If it is determined that the milestone cannot be met, the liability is reversed.
We selected the Black-Scholes-Merton (“Black-Scholes”) option-pricing model as the method for determining the estimated fair value for stock options and awards under our ESPP program. The Black-Scholes model requires the use of
38

highly subjective and complex assumptions, which determine the fair value of share-based awards, including the option’s expected term, expected volatility of the underlying stock, risk-free interest rate and expected dividend yield.
Expected volatility - We estimate the expected volatility of our common stock on the date of grant based on the historical stock price volatility of our own common shares within the same length of period as the expected term. Where, in some cases, our common share trading history is shorter than the expected term, and for periods prior to the Merger since we were not a publicly traded company, we estimated the expected volatility for our stock options and awards under our ESPP program by using an average of historical volatilities of selected industry peers deemed to be comparable to our business corresponding to the expected term of the awards.
Risk-free interest rate - The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant for zero-coupon U.S. Treasury notes with maturities corresponding to the expected term of the awards.
Expected dividend yield - The expected dividend rate is zero as we currently have no history or expectation of declaring dividends on our common stock.
Expected term - The expected term represents the period these stock awards are expected to remain outstanding and is based on historical experience of similar awards, giving consideration to the contractual terms of the stock-based awards, vesting schedules, and expectations of future employee behavior.
Accounting for Long-Lived Assets
In accounting for long-lived assets, we make estimates about the expected useful lives, projected residual values, and the potential for impairment. In estimating useful lives and residual values of our property and equipment, we have relied upon actual industry experience with the same or similar property and equipment types and our anticipated utilization of the property and equipment. Changing market prices of new and used property and equipment, government regulations, and changes in our maintenance program or operations could result in changes to these estimates.
Our long-lived assets are evaluated for impairment as of the end of each reporting period for events and circumstances that indicate the assets may be impaired. Indicators include operating or cash flow losses, significant decreases in market value, or changes in technology.
If we conclude that events and circumstances indicate the assets may be impaired, to determine if impairment exists for our property and equipment used in operations, we group our property and equipment by type (the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows) and then estimate their future cash flows based on projections of capacity, asset age, maintenance requirements, and other relevant conditions. An impairment occurs when the sum of the estimated undiscounted future cash flows are less than the aggregate carrying value of the assets. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the assets' carrying value exceeds its estimated fair value. We estimate our property and equipment's fair value using third party valuations which consider the effects of the current market environment, age of the assets, and marketability.
We have not identified any events and circumstances that would indicate that our long-lived assets may be impaired. Accordingly, we have not recorded any impairment charge to our existing property and equipment during the twelve months ended December 31, 2023.
Accounting for Leases
We determine if an arrangement is a lease, or contains a lease, at inception. We analyze our contractual arrangements to evaluate whether they have any embedded leases. The asset component of our operating leases is recorded as right-of-use assets, and the liability component is recorded as current lease liabilities and long-term lease liabilities in our consolidated balance sheets. Right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date. Due to significant volume of contractual arrangements we enter, we may not be able to identify all embedded leases arrangements, resulting in understatement of our right-of-use assets and liabilities.
As most of our leases do not provide an implicit rate, we use incremental borrowing rate (“IBR”) to calculate present value of future minimum lease payments, which is the estimated rate we would be required to pay for fully collateralized borrowing over the period similar to lease terms. Determining IBR requires us to estimate our credit rating for secured borrowing and to identify appropriate interest rates for comparable companies with similar credit rating. If we are not able to correctly estimate IBR, our right-of-use assets and liabilities may be incorrect.
Our lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. Determining that options are reasonably certain to be exercised requires us to make certain assumptions about our
39

future operations and space and assets requirements. Incorrect assumptions may result in our lease term being incorrect, impacting our right-of-use assets and liabilities.
Assumptions made by us at the commencement date are re-evaluated upon occurrence of certain events, including a lease modification. A lease modification results in a separate contract when the modification grants the lessee an additional right of use not included in the original lease and when lease payments increase commensurate with the standalone price for the additional right of use. When a lease modification results in a separate contract, it is accounted for in the same manner as a new lease. If we are not able to re-evaluate lease changes and modifications appropriately, our right-of-use assets and liabilities may be incorrect.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2 of our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information regarding recently issued accounting pronouncements.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Interest Rate Risk
We are exposed to market risk for changes in interest rates applicable to our short-term investments. We had cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and investments in short-term marketable securities totaling $1,033.0 million as of December 31, 2023. Cash equivalents and short-term investments were invested primarily in money market funds, U.S. treasury bills and government and corporate bonds. Our investment policy is focused on the preservation of capital and supporting our liquidity needs. Under the policy, we invest in highly rated securities, issued by the U.S. government and corporations or liquid money market funds. We do not invest in financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes, nor do we use leveraged financial instruments. We utilize external investment managers who adhere to the guidelines of their investment policies. A hypothetical 10% change in interest rates would not have a material impact on the value of our cash, cash equivalents or short-term investments or our interest income.
Foreign Currency Risk
We are not exposed to significant foreign currency risks related to our operating expenses as our foreign operations are not material to our consolidated financial statements.
40

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JOBY AVIATION, INC.
Consolidated Financial Statements
41

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the stockholders and the Board of Directors of Joby Aviation, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Joby Aviation, Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, changes in redeemable convertible preferred stock, shareholders' equity (deficit), and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 26, 2024, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Revenue Recognition — Refer to Notes 2 and 13 to the financial statements
Critical Audit Matter Description
The Company receives payments from certain United States (“U.S.”) government entities as part of the Company’s research and development and service arrangements with these entities. To evaluate if these payments are contributions received or are in exchange for goods or services and are therefore within the scope of Financial Accounting Standard Board Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606, Revenue form Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”), the Company first determines if counterparties meet ASC 606’s definition of a customer in the context of the arrangements. The counterparty is a customer if it obtains goods or services that are an output of the Company’s ordinary activities in exchange for consideration.
We identified management’s accounting evaluation and conclusion on whether certain of the Company’s agreements entered into with U.S. government entities during 2023 represent contracts with a customer in the scope of ASC606 as a critical audit matter. This required a high degree of auditor judgement and an increased extent of effort, including the involvement of professionals in our firm having expertise in revenue recognition when performing audit procedures to evaluate the accounting conclusion.

42

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to management’s accounting evaluation and conclusion on whether certain of the Company’s agreements entered into with U.S. government entities during 2023 are in the scope of ASC 606 included the following, among others:

We tested the effectiveness of the control over management’s review of complex non-routine transactions that includes transactions with U.S. government entities.
With the assistance of professionals in our firm having expertise in revenue recognition, we evaluated management’s accounting evaluation and conclusion on whether certain of the Company’s agreements entered into with U.S. government entities during 2023 result in the Company being obligated to transfer goods or services to the U.S. government entities.
We evaluated whether the assertions and assumptions made by management supporting their conclusion regarding the application of certain of the Company’s agreements entered into with U.S. government entities during 2023 were consistent with underlying agreements.
We evaluated the Company’s disclosures related to the accounting for certain of the Company’s agreements entered into with U.S. government entities during 2023 for conformity with the relevant requirements under ASC606.

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP
San Jose, California
February 26, 2024

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2020.

43

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the stockholders and the Board of Directors of Joby Aviation, Inc.
Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of Joby Aviation, Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by COSO.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2023, of the Company and our report dated February 26, 2024, expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management's report on internal control over financial reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP
San Jose, California
February 26, 2024
44

JOBY AVIATION, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
December 31,
20232022
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$204,017 $146,101 
Short-term investments828,233 910,692 
Total cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments1,032,250 1,056,793 
Restricted cash 3,204 
Other receivables4,659 4,021 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets18,842 20,160 
Total current assets1,055,751 1,084,178 
Property and equipment, net103,430 92,103 
Operating lease right-of-use assets28,286 25,149 
Restricted cash762 762 
Intangible assets6,585 12,581 
Goodwill14,011 14,011 
Other non-current assets60,610 64,200 
Total assets$1,269,435 $1,292,984 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities
Accounts payable$3,006 $7,710 
Operating lease liabilities, current portion4,312 3,710 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities37,818 18,783 
Total current liabilities45,136 30,203 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion26,349 23,613 
Warrant liability62,936 28,783 
Earnout shares liability95,969 44,055 
Other non-current liabilities4,683 1,589 
Total liabilities235,073 128,243 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 9)
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock: $0.0001 par value - 100,000,000 shares authorized at December 31, 2023 and 2022. No shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2023 and 2022.
  
Common stock: $0.0001 par value - 1,400,000,000 shares authorized at December 31, 2023 and 2022, 698,262,025 and 622,602,815 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
70 61 
Additional paid-in capital2,282,475 1,908,179 
Accumulated deficit(1,247,703)(734,653)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(480)(8,846)
Total stockholders’ equity1,034,362 1,164,741 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,269,435 $1,292,984 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
45

JOBY AVIATION, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Revenue:
Flight services$1,032 $ $ 
Operating expenses:
Flight services200   
Research and development (including related party purchases of $1,667, $1,600 and $2,339 for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 respectively)
367,049 296,281 197,568 
Selling, general and administrative (including related party purchases of $286, $360 and $533 for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 respectively)
105,877 95,922 61,521 
Total operating expenses473,126 392,203 259,089 
Loss from operations(472,094)(392,203)(259,089)
Interest and other income (loss), net45,561 16,787 (1,278)
Income from equity method investment 19,463 29,405 
Transaction expenses related to merger  (9,087)
Gain (loss) from change in fair value of warrants and earnout shares(86,378)98,002 49,853 
Convertible note extinguishment loss  (665)
Total other income (loss), net(40,817)134,252 68,228 
Loss before income taxes(512,911)(257,951)(190,861)
Income tax expense (benefit)139 92 (10,537)
Net loss$(513,050)$(258,043)$(180,324)
Net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.79)$(0.44)$(0.61)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted647,907,598 585,544,043 294,851,732 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
46

JOBY AVIATION, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(In thousands)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net loss$(513,050)$(258,043)$(180,324)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale securities8,240 (7,985)(546)
Foreign currency translation gain (loss)126 (739)(103)
Total other comprehensive income (loss)8,366 (8,724)(649)
Comprehensive loss$(504,684)$(266,767)$(180,973)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
47

JOBY AVIATION, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF REDEEMABLE CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
(In thousands, except share data)
Redeemable Convertible
Preferred Stock
Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Gain (Loss)
Total
Stockholders’
Equity (Deficit)
Shares Amount Shares Amount
Balance at January 1, 2021332,764,215 $768,312 122,058,940 $12 $12,579 $(296,286)$527 $(283,168)
Net loss— — — — (180,324)— (180,324)
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — — (649)(649)
Issuance of redeemable convertible preferred stock11,601,210 77,619 — — — — — — 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options— — 2,435,543 — 1,113 — — 1,113 
Repurchase of common stock— — (138,291)—  — —  
Vesting of early exercised stock options— — — — 568 — — 568 
Stock-based compensation— — — — 26,932 — — 26,932 
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units— — 26,634 — — — — — 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of SVB warrants— — 752,732 — — — — — 
Issuance of redeemable convertible preferred stock upon exercise of In-Q-Tel warrants68,629 — — — 691 — — 691 
Issuance of common stock upon conversion of Uber convertible notes— — 7,716,780 1 77,398 — — 77,399 
Conversion of redeemable convertible preferred stock into common stock in connection with the reverse recapitalization(344,434,054)(845,931)344,434,054 34 845,897 — — 845,931 
Issuance of common stock upon the reverse recapitalization, net of issuance costs— — 127,333,290 13 823,167 — — 823,180 
Other noncash compensation— — — — 5,086 — — 5,086 
Cancelation of common shares upon reorganization, net— — (445,353)— — — — — 
Balance at December 31, 2021 $ 604,174,329 $60 $1,793,431 $(476,610)$(122)$1,316,759 
Net loss— — — — (258,043)— (258,043)
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — — (8,724)(8,724)
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options— — 2,532,788 — 1,530 — — 1,530 
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units— — 4,864,507 — — — — — 
Issuance of common stock in private placement— — 11,044,232 1 43,905 — — 43,906 
Shares withheld related to net share settlement— — (13,041)— (85)— — (85)
Vesting of early exercised stock options— — — — 326 — — 326 
Stock-based compensation— — — — 69,072 — — 69,072 
Balance at December 31, 2022 $ 622,602,815 $61 $1,908,179 $(734,653)$(8,846)$1,164,741 
Net loss— — — — (513,050)— (513,050)
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — — 8,366 8,366 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options— — 2,923,022 3 1,907 — — 1,910 
Issuance of common stock in private placement— — 59,160,449 6 279,893 — — 279,899 
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units— — 11,694,630 — — — — — 
Issuance of common stock under Employee Stock Purchase Plan1,881,109 6,918 6,918 
Vesting of early exercised stock options and common stock issued in private placement— — — — 523 — — 523 
Stock-based compensation— — — — 85,055 — — 85,055 
Balance at December 31, 2023 $ 698,262,025 $70 $2,282,475 $(1,247,703)$(480)$1,034,362 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
48

JOBY AVIATION, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Cash flows from operating activities
Net loss$(513,050)$(258,043)$(180,324)
Reconciliation of net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization expense30,493 23,995 15,943 
Non-cash interest expense and amortization of debt costs  2,893 
Stock-based compensation expense93,636 69,072 26,932 
Other non-cash compensation expense  5,046 
(Gain)/loss from change in the fair value of warrants and earnout shares86,378 (98,002)(49,853)
Loss from transaction costs related to merger  9,087 
Write-off of in-process research and development project  5,030 
Income from equity method investment (19,463)(29,405)
Net accretion and amortization of investments in marketable debt securities(20,202)(5,237)4,335 
Deferred income taxes  (10,544)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities
Other receivables and prepaid expenses and other current assets(573)(1,823)(11,807)
Other non-current assets309 20,016 10,480 
Accounts payable and accrued and other liabilities6,442 10,884 6,438 
Non-current liabilities2,736 22,676  
Net cash used in operating activities(313,831)(235,925)(195,749)
Cash flows from investing activities
Purchase of marketable securities(809,978)(1,358,953)(401,626)
Proceeds from sales and maturities of marketable securities920,879 788,761 422,084 
Purchases of property and equipment(30,597)(54,890)(32,340)
Acquisitions, net of cash (5,707)(6,854)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities80,304 (630,789)(18,736)
Cash flows from financing activities
Proceeds from merger  1,067,922 
Payments for offering costs  (50,391)
Proceeds from issuance of convertible notes and convertible preferred stock, net  74,972 
Proceeds from issuance of common stock in private placement, net280,110 60,060  
Proceeds from the issuance of common stock under the Employee Stock Purchase Plan6,918   
Proceeds from the exercise of stock options and warrants issuance2,055 1,437 1,456 
Repayments of tenant improvement loan and obligations under finance lease(844)(1,041)(1,179)
Net cash provided by financing activities288,239 60,456 1,092,780 
Net change in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash54,712 (806,258)878,295 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, at the beginning of the year150,067 956,325 78,030 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, at the end of the year$204,779 $150,067 $956,325 
Reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash to consolidated balance sheets
Cash and cash equivalents$204,017 $146,101 $955,563 
Restricted cash762 3,966 762 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash in consolidated balance sheets$204,779 $150,067 $956,325 
Non-cash investing and financing activities
Unpaid property and equipment purchases$1,769 $3,553 $654 
Property and equipment purchased through finacing leases$5,221 $694 $926 
Right-of-use assets acquired through operating leases$5,652 $29,202 $ 
Uber Elevate acquisition in exchange for Series C redeemable convertible preferred stock$ $ $77,154 
Conversion of Uber note payable to Series C preferred stock$ $ $77,399 
Conversion of preferred stock$ $ $846,622 
Net non-cash assets acquired in merger$ $ $1,159 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
49

JOBY AVIATION, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Note 1. Company and Nature of Business
Description of Business
Joby Aviation, Inc. (“Joby Aviation” or the “Company”) is a vertically integrated air mobility company that is building a clean, quiet, fully electric vertical takeoff and landing (“eVTOL”) aircraft to be used by the Company to deliver air transportation as a service. The Company is headquartered in Santa Cruz, California.
Merger with RTP
On August 10, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), Reinvent Technology Partners, a Cayman Islands exempted company and special purpose acquisition company (“RTP”), completed the transactions contemplated by that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”), dated as of February 23, 2021, by and among RTP, RTP Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of RTP (“RTP Merger Sub”), and Joby Aero, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Legacy Joby”). On the Closing Date, RTP was domesticated as a Delaware corporation, Merger Sub merged with and into Legacy Joby and the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub ceased (the “Merger”), and Legacy Joby survived as a wholly owned subsidiary of RTP, which changed its name to Joby Aviation, Inc.
In connection with the execution of the Merger Agreement, RTP entered into separate subscription agreements (each a “Subscription Agreement”) with a number of investors (each a “PIPE Investor”), pursuant to which the PIPE Investors agreed to purchase, and RTP agreed to sell to the PIPE Investors, shares of Common Stock (“PIPE Shares”), in a private placement (“PIPE Financing”). The PIPE Financing closed substantially concurrently with the consummation of the Merger.
The Merger, together with the other transactions described in the Merger Agreement and the PIPE Financing, are referred to herein as the (“Reverse Recapitalization”). The number of Legacy Joby common shares and redeemable convertible preferred shares for all periods prior to the Closing Date have been retrospectively increased using the exchange ratio that was established in accordance with the Merger Agreement. Please refer to Note 3, “Reverse Recapitalization,” for more details.
Significant Risks and Uncertainties
Management expects losses and negative cash flows to continue for the foreseeable future, primarily as a result of continued research and development efforts. The Company historically funded its research and development efforts through equity and debt issuances. In 2020, the Company received $70.5 million in gross proceeds from additional issuances of Legacy Joby Series C Preferred Stock. In January 2021, the Company received $75.0 million in gross proceeds from the issuance of a convertible promissory note. In August 2021, the Company raised approximately $1.0 billion in net proceeds from the Reverse Recapitalization (Note 3). In October 2022, the Company received $60.0 million from the issuance of stock and warrant (Note 11). In May 2023, the Company received $180.2 million for the issuance of stock in a registered direct offering to certain institutional investors and in June 2023, the Company received $99.9 million for the issuance of stock in a private placement to SK Telecom, Co., Ltd., a corporation organized under the laws of the Republic of Korea (“SKT”) (Note 12).
Failure to raise additional funding or generate sufficient positive cash flows from operations in the longer term could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to achieve its intended business objectives.
The Company operates in a dynamic high-technology industry. The Company is subject to a number of risks, including the possibility of the Urban Air Mobility (“UAM”) market not achieving its expected potential; potential competition from ground-based mobility solutions and other eVTOL developers and operators; the Company’s ability to secure adequate infrastructure; the possibility that its aircraft may not meet the required safety and performance standards; the Company’s ability to obtain relevant regulatory approvals for the certification and manufacture of its aircraft and the commercialization of its service in a timely manner or at all; the ability of the U.S. government to modify or terminate existing contracts; the Company’s ability to raise future capital when needed; and risks related to the Company’s vertically-integrated business model.
The Company's foreign operations are subject to risks inherent in operating under different legal systems and various political and economic environments. Among the risks are changes in existing income tax and other laws, possible
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limitations on foreign investment and income repatriation, government pricing or foreign exchange controls, and restrictions on currency exchange.
In March, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a global pandemic and recommended containment measures worldwide. Although many of the restrictions have since been lifted or scaled back, the pandemic significantly impacted supply chains, employee workforce, governmental regulators and global capital markets. A resurgence of COVID-19 or the occurrence of a new global pandemic could significantly impact the Company’s certification timeline, manufacturing capabilities or UAM operations.
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements include accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and include all adjustments necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s financial position, results of operations, and cash flows for the periods presented. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to current year’s presentation.
Foreign Currency
The Company determined that the local currency is the functional currency for its foreign operations. Assets and liabilities of each foreign subsidiary are translated to United States dollars using the current exchange rate at the balance sheet date. Income and expenses are translated using the average exchange rate during the period. Cumulative translation adjustments related to the Company’s foreign subsidiaries are presented within the accumulated other comprehensive loss line on the consolidated balance sheets. Net gains and losses resulting from foreign currency transactions are included in interest and other income, net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Common Stock Warrants Liabilities
The Company evaluates terms of its common stock warrants to conclude if warrants meet the criteria to be classified within stockholders’ equity. The agreements governing the common stock warrants may include provisions which could result in a different settlement value of the warrants depending on various inputs, for example depending on the registration status of the underlying shares, holder of warrants, or other events. If these inputs are not an input into the pricing of a fixed-for-fixed equity-linked instrument, and are not within the scope of allowed exceptions described in indexation accounting guidance, the common stock warrants are not considered to be indexed to the Company’s own stock. In such cases, the Company records these warrants as liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets at fair value, with subsequent changes in their respective fair values recognized in the consolidated statements of operations at each reporting date.
Earnout Shares Liability
In connection with the Reverse Recapitalization and pursuant to the Sponsor Agreement by and among the Company, Reinvent Sponsor, LLC (“Sponsor”) and RTP (“Sponsor Agreement”), Sponsor agreed to certain terms of vesting, lock-up and transfer with respect to the 17,130,000 common shares held by it (“Earnout Shares”). The terms of the Sponsor Agreement specify that the Earnout Shares will vest upon achieving certain specified Release Events, as further described in Note 11. In accordance with ASC 815-40, the Earnout Shares are not indexed to the Common Stock and therefore are accounted for as a liability (“Earnout Shares Liability”) as of the Closing Date and subsequently remeasured at each reporting date with changes in fair value recorded as a component of other income (loss), net in the consolidated statements of operations.
The estimated fair value of the Earnout Shares Liability was determined using a Monte Carlo simulation using a distribution of potential outcomes on a monthly basis over the Earnout Period (as defined in Note 11) prioritizing the most reliable information available. The assumptions utilized in the calculation are based on the achievement of certain stock price milestones, including the current Company Common Stock price, expected volatility, risk-free rate, expected term and dividend rate.
Determination of the fair value of the Earnout Shares Liability involves certain assumptions requiring significant judgment and actual results may differ from assumed and estimated amounts..
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Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, expenses, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. The most significant estimates are related to the stock-based awards, long-lived assets and leases. These estimates and assumptions are based on current facts, historical experience and various other factors believed to be reasonable under related circumstances. The estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the recording of expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ materially and adversely from these estimates.
Segments
Operating segments are defined as components of an entity where discrete financial information is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company operates as one operating segment because its CODM, who is its Chief Executive Officer, reviews Company’s financial information on a consolidated basis for purposes of making decisions regarding allocating resources and assessing performance. The Company has no segment managers who are held accountable by the CODM for operations, operating results, and planning of components below the consolidated level.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, other receivables, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, short-term and long-term debt, redeemable convertible preferred stock, common stock warrants, redeemable convertible preferred stock warrants, common stock warrants and earnout shares liability. The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, other receivables, accounts payable, and accrued and other current liabilities approximate their fair values due to the short time to the expected receipt or payment. The carrying amount of the Company’s short-term debt approximates its fair value as the effective interest rate approximates market rates currently available to the Company. Common stock warrants which are initially recorded in equity at the value allocated to them are not subject to remeasurement in subsequent periods. At initial recognition, the Company recorded the common stock warrants liabilities and earnout shares liability on the balance sheet at their fair value. The common stock warrants liabilities and earnout shares liability are subject to remeasurement at each balance sheet date, with changes in fair value recognized as a component of other income, net in the consolidated statements of operations.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that subject the Company to credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, short-term investments and other receivables. At December 31, 2023 and 2022, cash and cash equivalents consisted of cash deposited with domestic and foreign financial institutions that are of high-credit quality. The Company is exposed to credit risk in the event of default by the domestic financial institutions to the extent that cash and cash equivalent deposits are in excess of amounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Foreign cash balances are not insured. The Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits since inception. Short-term investments consist of government and corporate debt securities and corporate asset backed securities that carry high-credit ratings and accordingly, minimal credit risk exists with respect to these balances.
The Company has other receivables due from United States and foreign government agencies under the Company’s government grant contracts. At December 31, 2023 and 2022, those government agencies receivables accounted for 73% and 44% of the Company’s other receivables, respectively. The Company provides for uncollectible amounts on an expected credit loss basis by recording an allowance for doubtful receivables based on historical information, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts.
Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with remaining original maturity of three months or less from the date of purchase to be cash and cash equivalents. The recorded carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents approximates their fair value. At December 31, 2023, restricted cash primarily related to a security deposit for a lease obligation of approximately $0.8 million. At December 31, 2022, restricted cash primarily related to (i) approximately $2.2 million of cash temporarily retained by the Company to satisfy the Company’s post-closing indemnification claims, if any, against the seller, in connection with the acquisition of an aerospace software engineering company in May 2022 (Note 5) which was settled during the three months ended June 30, 2023, (ii) a security deposit for a lease obligation of approximately
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$0.8 million and (iii) collateral on a letter of credit associated with key equipment purchases of approximately $1.0 million which was settled during the three months ended March 31, 2023.
Marketable Debt Securities
The Company classifies marketable debt securities as available-for-sale at the time of purchase and reevaluates such classification at each balance sheet date. The Company may sell these securities at any time for use in current operations even if they have not yet reached maturity. As a result, the Company classifies its marketable debt securities, including those with maturities beyond twelve months, as current assets in the consolidated balance sheets. These marketable debt securities are carried at fair value and unrealized gains and losses are recorded in the accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), which is reflected as a component of stockholders’ equity (deficit). Realized gains and losses are reported in other income, net in the consolidated statements of operations.
Prior to January 1, 2022, these marketable debt securities were assessed as to whether those with unrealized loss positions are other than temporarily impaired. The Company considered impairments to be other than temporary if they were related to deterioration in credit risk or if it is likely the securities will be sold before the recovery of their cost basis. Realized gains and losses from the sale of marketable debt securities and declines in value deemed to be other than temporary were determined based on the specific identification method.
On January 1, 2022, the Company adopted ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, as amended, on a modified retrospective basis. At each reporting period, the Company evaluates its marketable debt securities at the individual security level to determine whether there is a decline in the fair value below its amortized cost basis (an impairment). In circumstances where the Company intends to sell, or are more likely than not required to sell, the security before it recovers its amortized cost basis, the difference between fair value and amortized cost is recognized as a loss in the consolidated statements of operations, with a corresponding write-down of the security’s amortized cost. In circumstances where neither condition exists, the Company then evaluates whether a decline is due to credit-related factors. The factors considered in determining whether a credit loss exists include the extent to which fair value is less than the amortized cost basis, changes in the credit quality of the underlying security issuers, credit ratings actions, as well as other factors.
If Company concludes that credit loss exists, to determine the portion of a decline in fair value that is credit-related, the Company compares the present value of the expected cash flows of the security discounted at the security’s effective interest rate to the amortized cost basis of the security. A credit-related impairment is limited to the difference between fair value and amortized cost, and recognized as an allowance for credit loss on the consolidated balance sheet with a corresponding adjustment to net income (loss). Any remaining decline in fair value that is non-credit related is recognized in other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax. Improvements in expected cash flows due to improvements in credit are recognized through reversal of the credit loss and corresponding reduction in the allowance for credit loss.
The Company did not record any allowance for credit losses during the year ended December 31, 2023.
Investment in SummerBio, LLC
Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company’s management determined that certain previously developed technology that was accessible to the Company could be repurposed and applied in providing high-volume rapid COVID-19 testing through its investment in SummerBio, LLC (“SummerBio”), a related party. The Company has determined that it is not the primary beneficiary of SummerBio. Therefore, it accounted for its investment in SummerBio under the equity method of accounting with an ownership interest of approximately 44.5% as of December 31, 2022. In June 2022, SummerBio notified the Company of its decision to wind down testing operations and close the business, which SummerBio substantially completed by the end of December 2022.
The Company recognized income of nil, $19.5 million (net of impairment loss) and $29.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively, within income from equity method investment on the consolidated statement of operations for its investment in SummerBio.
Property and Equipment, net
Property and equipment, net is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and