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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number: 001-34568

OPENLANElogo2023.jpg

OPENLANE, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
20-8744739
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
11299 N. Illinois Street, Carmel, Indiana 46032
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (800923-3725
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareKARNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
_______________________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes     No 
The aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by stockholders who were not affiliates (as defined by regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission) of the registrant was $1,639,190,438 at June 30, 2023.
As of February 15, 2024, 108,045,559 shares of the registrant's common stock, par value $0.01 per share, were outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Certain information required by Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is incorporated by reference herein from the registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC within 120 days after the end of the registrant's fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.


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DEFINED TERMS
Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context otherwise requires, the following terms used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K have the following meanings:
"we," "us," "our," "OPENLANE" and "the Company" refer, collectively, to OPENLANE, Inc. (f/k/a KAR Auction Services, Inc.) and its subsidiaries, unless the context requires otherwise;
"ADESA" or "ADESA Auctions" refer, collectively, to ADESA, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of OPENLANE, and ADESA, Inc.'s subsidiaries, including OPENLANE US, Inc. (together with OPENLANE US, Inc.'s subsidiaries, "OPENLANE US"), BacklotCars, Inc. ("BacklotCars"), CARWAVE LLC ("CARWAVE"), Nth Gen Software Inc. ("TradeRev"), ADESA Remarketing Limited ("ADESA U.K.") and ADESA Europe NV and its subsidiaries ("ADESA Europe");
"ADESA U.S. physical auction business," "ADESA U.S. physical auctions" and "ADESA U.S." refer to the auction sales, operations and staff at ADESA’s U.S. vehicle logistics centers, which were sold to Carvana Group, LLC (together with Carvana Co. and its subsidiaries, "Carvana") in May 2022 (the "Transaction");
"AFC" refers, collectively, to Automotive Finance Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of ADESA, and Automotive Finance Corporation's subsidiaries and other related entities;
"Credit Agreement" refers to the Credit Agreement, dated June 23, 2023 (as amended, amended and restated, modified or supplemented from time to time), among the Company, as the borrower, the several banks and other financial institutions or entities from time to time party thereto and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent. The Credit Agreement provides for a $325 million senior secured revolving credit facility due June 23, 2028 (the "Revolving Credit Facility");
"Previous Credit Agreement" refers to the Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated March 11, 2014 (as amended, amended and restated, modified or supplemented prior to the date of the Credit Agreement), among the Company, as the borrower, the several banks and other financial institutions or entities party thereto and JPMorgan Chase Bank N.A., as administrative agent. The Previous Credit Agreement provided for a $950 million senior secured term loan B-6 facility due September 19, 2026 ("Term Loan B-6"), of which the outstanding amount was fully repaid in May 2022, and a $325 million senior secured revolving credit facility due September 19, 2024 (the "Previous Revolving Credit Facility"), which was replaced by the Revolving Credit Facility in June 2023;
"IAA" refers, collectively, to Insurance Auto Auctions, Inc., formerly a wholly-owned subsidiary of OPENLANE, and Insurance Auto Auctions, Inc.'s subsidiaries and other related entities;
"OPENLANE, Inc." refers to the Company and not to its subsidiaries;
"Senior notes" refers to the 5.125% senior notes due 2025 ($210 million aggregate principal was outstanding at December 31, 2023); and
"Series A Preferred Stock" refers to the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share (634,305 shares of Series A Preferred Stock were outstanding at December 31, 2023 and 2022).
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PART I
Item 1.    Business
Overview
We are a leading digital marketplace for used vehicles, connecting sellers and buyers across North America and Europe to facilitate fast, easy and transparent transactions. Our portfolio of integrated technology, data analytics, financing, logistics, reconditioning and other remarketing solutions, combined with our vehicle logistics centers in Canada, help advance our purpose: to make wholesale easy so our customers can be more successful.
In 2023, our marketplaces facilitated the sale of approximately 1.3 million used vehicles, making OPENLANE a leading digital-only wholesale marketplace for used vehicles in North America. Vehicles on our marketplaces are typically sold by commercial sellers including vehicle manufacturers and their captive finance companies, financial institutions, commercial fleet operators and rental car companies (collectively "commercial customers"), as well as used vehicle dealers, to franchised and independent used vehicle dealers (collectively "dealer customers"). We generate revenue through auction fees charged to vehicle sellers and buyers as well as by providing value-added ancillary products and services, including transportation logistics, reconditioning, vehicle inspection and certification, titling, administrative and collateral recovery services and floorplan financing. We facilitate the transfer of ownership directly from seller to buyer and, generally, we do not take title to, nor ownership of, vehicles sold through our marketplaces. However, we also sell vehicles that have been purchased, for which we do take title and record the gross selling price of the vehicle sold through our marketplaces as revenue.
For commercial sellers, our software platform supports more than 40 private label digital remarketing sites and provides comprehensive solutions to our commercial customers. For dealer customers, our platform facilitates multiple sale formats, data-driven insights and integrated services to automotive dealers, coast-to-coast in the United States, Canada and Europe.
OPENLANE Europe is our digital marketplace serving customers in the United Kingdom and Continental Europe through a consolidated online wholesale used vehicle platform. We believe our geographic network and diverse product offerings enable us to leverage relationships with providers and buyers of used vehicles.
An important component of our services to buyers is providing short-term inventory-secured financing, known as floorplan financing. This is provided primarily to independent used vehicle dealers ("independent dealer customers") through our wholly-owned subsidiary, AFC, which has approximately 90 locations (hybrid of physical locations and a digital servicing network) throughout North America.
The Company also operates a simulcast technology that supports marketplace sales at our vehicle logistics centers in Canada. Access to this proprietary technology is also sold and licensed to other auction providers, including independent auctions in North America; generally, this revenue is generated on a per vehicle basis, but we do not include these transactions in our vehicle sold numbers.
Our Corporate History
ADESA entered the vehicle remarketing industry in 1989 and first became a public company in 1992. In 1994, ADESA acquired AFC. ADESA remained a public company until 1995, and then became public again in 2004. KAR Auction Services, Inc. ("KAR") was incorporated in 2006 and acquired ADESA and IAA in 2007, taking ADESA private. KAR became a public company in 2009. In 2019, IAA was separated from KAR through a tax-free spin-off. In 2022, KAR sold the ADESA U.S. physical auction business to Carvana. In 2023, KAR rebranded to OPENLANE.
Our Industry
Wholesale used vehicles are generally sold through marketplaces that bring together sellers and buyers to facilitate transactions. Wholesale used vehicles include vehicles from dealers turning their inventory, off-lease vehicles, vehicles repossessed by financial institutions and rental and other fleet vehicles that have reached a predetermined age or mileage. The following are key industry highlights:
Wholesale Used Vehicle Industry Volumes
We believe the U.S. and Canadian wholesale used vehicle industry has a total addressable market of approximately 15 million vehicles, which can fluctuate depending on seasonality and a variety of other macro-economic and industry factors. This wholesale used vehicle industry consists of the commercial market (commercial sellers that sell to franchise and independent dealers) and the dealer-to-dealer market (franchise and independent dealers that both buy and sell vehicles). The Company supports the majority of commercial sellers in North America with our technology and we believe digital applications may provide an opportunity to expand the total addressable market for dealer-to-dealer transactions. The supply chain issues and
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market conditions facing the automotive industry in recent years, including the disruption of new vehicle production, low new vehicle supply and historically high used vehicle pricing have had a material impact on the wholesale used vehicle industry.
Wholesale Used Vehicle Market
In the North American wholesale used vehicle marketplace industry, the largest providers of physical auctions include Manheim by Cox Automotive ("Manheim"), Carvana's used vehicle auctions operated as ADESA and America's Auto Auction. In the North American wholesale used vehicle marketplace industry, the largest providers of digital marketplaces include the Company and ACV Auctions. There are several other providers in the market of varying size. Over the last several years, industry transactions have been increasingly shifting from physical marketplace venues to digital marketplace channels. This shift has attracted the entry of several new technology-driven marketplace participants, who are generally smaller in size and service more select segments of buyers and sellers.
Floorplan Financing
An important component of the wholesale used vehicle industry is the availability of short-term inventory-secured financing, known as floorplan financing. By providing buyers (primarily independent dealer customers) access to capital, the independent dealer customers are able to place inventory on their lots. AFC and its competitors play a significant role in the wholesale used vehicle industry by providing liquidity in our marketplaces. AFC's floorplan financing also supports independent dealer customers with non-auction purchases. In addition, AFC offers value-added services that generate fee-based, non-interest revenue.
Our Business Strategy
OPENLANE’s strategy is to build the world’s greatest digital marketplaces for used vehicles, and we are advancing this strategy by fulfilling our purpose, to make wholesale easy so our customers can be more successful. This progressive strategy reflects the shifting landscape of the remarketing industry and automotive sector, the evolving needs and expectations of our customers and the potential power and customer benefits inherent in a fully digital marketplace. The strategy builds on OPENLANE’s integrated technology, broad data analytics capabilities, and portfolio of financing, logistics, reconditioning and other remarketing solutions.
In 2023, we took meaningful steps towards achieving our vision by consolidating all of our marketplace platforms under the OPENLANE brand to create a single, unified marketplace within each of our geographies – bringing together all of the buyers, all of the sellers and all of the vehicles all in one place.
We believe digital platforms benefit sellers by providing greater flexibility around when and where to launch sales and attracting a larger, more engaged buyer-base, providing confidence that they are receiving the best market-based price available. We believe buyers benefit from digital platforms through greater transparency, access to inventory beyond their local market, and the ability to browse, bid and buy from any location, on any device, at any time. For OPENLANE, going digital enables a faster, more agile and asset-light operating model, which should in turn deliver greater value to our stakeholders.
OPENLANE has identified five strategic priorities that we believe will advance our strategy and continue to position our company for the future. Those priorities are:
Growing dealer consignment;
Expanding our commercial business;
Delivering strong performance in our floorplan business;
Digital innovation; and
Simplification.
Growing dealer consignment: The dealer consignment business represents approximately one-half of the Company’s transactional volume, and we believe this is an area with significant opportunity for growth. Last year, we consolidated many of the marketplace platforms acquired in previous years as part of our OPENLANE marketplace launches in the U.S., Canada and the EU. The combined OPENLANE platform now provides dealers with fast, easy, mobile-app enabled solutions to sell and source inventory from other dealers. In North America, they also feature exclusive off-lease inventory not yet available on any other competitor platform or physical auction. Our OPENLANE marketplaces provide comprehensive vehicle condition reports, greater transparency into bidding activity, and real-time market price discovery on listed vehicles. Over the last few years, the Company has integrated and leveraged technology, capabilities and staff from these businesses to deliver what we believe is the best digital dealer-to-dealer solution in the market.
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Expanding our commercial business: The commercial consignment business represents approximately one-half of the Company’s transactional volume, and growing our share in this area remains a strategic priority. The foundation of OPENLANE’s commercial offering is our digital platform powering more than 40 private label websites for our commercial OEM and financial institution consignor customers. We continue to invest in technology to enhance the digital experience for our commercial customers and continue innovating on these platforms. And through our combined OPENLANE marketplaces, the commercial inventory from these customers is now offered to the full population of our OPENLANE buyers, increasing the likelihood of sale and ensuring the best market prices available are achieved.
Delivering strong performance in our floorplan business: AFC is a leading provider of floorplan financing and affiliated solutions to independent dealers across North America. We are focused on increasing the attach rate of our finance offerings across our marketplaces, growing share across the broader floorplan finance market, and deploying innovative new, non-interest, fee-based services and offerings. Additionally, AFC maintains best-in-class safeguards and processes to identify, mitigate and manage risk across their portfolio. We believe AFC’s local presence, centralized services and processing, and their pipeline of innovation position the floorplan business well for continued growth and contribution to OPENLANE’s overall results.
Digital innovation: The cornerstone of OPENLANE's business is our digital technology, so we intend to continue investing in innovation in our digital platforms, data analytics capabilities and digital talent that power our marketplaces, make wholesale easy for our customers and differentiate our marketplace from our competitors.
Enabling capabilities: We understand that as transactions become more digital, our capabilities need to evolve to meet the increased customer needs and expectations in a digital marketplace. We are enhancing our imaging, inspection and vehicle representation capabilities to more closely simulate seeing and touching a vehicle in person. We also intend to continue to build on and diversify our data and analytics capabilities, providing our customers with actionable information to help them make better, more informed buying and selling decisions.
Talent: Our digital model has enabled us to become a more efficient organization. We are reducing our overall cost structure while increasing resource levels in our technology, engineering, analytics and product development teams. We will continue to evaluate our talent pool and seek new talent where necessary to advance our strategy and support our customers.
Vehicle logistics center locations and operations: In our Canadian market, our vehicle logistics center locations provide comprehensive services to on-premise and off-premise customers, including inspection, reconditioning, mechanical work, storage and logistics.
Simplification: At the heart of our strategy is our purpose, to make wholesale easy so our customers can be more successful. We are highly focused on simplifying the customer experience at every step of the process, from registration, to activation, to transaction and post-transaction services. Simplification also allows our business to more quickly develop and deploy innovation and better respond to changing customer needs and market conditions. Our marketplaces feature consolidated technology platforms that leverage the best features and capabilities from across our offerings, provide dealers with greater choice and flexibility and deliver an easier, more streamlined customer experience. We have also been centralizing many key customer support and administrative functions to ensure a faster, more predictable and consistent experience for our customers. As these consolidation efforts progress, we expect increased engagement from our dealers, increased efficiency in our technology development and operations and improved results across our marketplace business. Additionally, a more simplified business will help us focus our investments, accelerate the pace of innovation and manage our operating costs to the evolving market realities of our business.
Our Business Segments
We operate as two reportable business segments: Marketplace and Finance. Our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023 were distributed as follows: Marketplace 76% and Finance 24%.
Marketplace
Overview
OPENLANE is a leading digital-only wholesale used vehicle marketplace in North America. OPENLANE is committed to leading the digital transformation of the wholesale automotive remarketing industry and supporting our customers by providing fast and transparent digital marketplaces for buying and selling used vehicles. The Marketplace segment serves a domestic and international customer base through digital marketplaces for wholesale vehicles that allow the buyers to inspect and compare vehicles. Our marketplace offerings allow us to offer vehicles for sale from any location. Digital marketplace sales are initiated online and include OPENLANE US, OPENLANE Canada and OPENLANE Europe sales.
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Vehicles available on our marketplaces include vehicles from commercial customers such as off-lease vehicles, repossessed vehicles, rental vehicles and other fleet vehicles that have reached a predetermined age or mileage, as well as vehicles from dealer customers turning their inventory. The number of vehicles offered for sale on our marketplaces is a key driver of our costs incurred, and the number of vehicles sold is the key driver of the revenues generated by our marketplaces.
We offer online and mobile wholesale vehicle marketplaces, as well as value-enhancing ancillary services in an effective and efficient manner to maximize returns for the sellers of used vehicles. We transfer the vehicles and ownership to the buyer and the net funds to the seller. Our online marketplaces function 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, providing our customers with maximum exposure for their vehicles and the flexibility to offer vehicles at "buy now" prices or via marketplace sales that last for a certain amount of time. We also provide customized "private label" selling systems (including "buy now" functionality as well as other online sales formats) for our customers. At OPENLANE Canada vehicle logistics center locations, vehicles are typically offered for sale on at least a weekly basis and the marketplace sales are streamed using a simulcast technology so that remote bidders can participate via our online products.
We generate revenue from auction fees paid by vehicle buyers and sellers, as well as fees from related services. Generally, we do not take title to, or bear the risk of loss for, vehicles sold on our marketplaces. Our buyer fees are typically based on a tiered structure with fees increasing with the sale price of the vehicle, while seller fees are typically fixed. We add buyer fees to the gross sales price paid by buyers for each vehicle, and generally customers do not receive title and/or possession of vehicles after purchase until payment is received, proof of floorplan financing is provided or credit is approved. We generally deduct seller fees and other ancillary service fees to sellers from the gross sales price of each vehicle before remitting the net amount to the seller.
We also sell vehicles that have been purchased, which represent approximately 1% of the total volume of vehicles sold. The vehicles that are purchased by us (as opposed to consigned) are remarketed on our own behalf through our marketplace platforms. Since these vehicle titles transfer to us, the entire selling and purchase price of the vehicle is recorded as revenue and cost of services upon sale.
Customers
Suppliers of vehicles to our digital marketplaces primarily include (i) commercial customers; and (ii) dealer customers. Buyers of vehicles on our marketplace platforms primarily include dealer customers.
Services
Our digital marketplaces also provide a full range of innovative and value-added services to sellers and buyers that enable us to serve as a "one-stop shop" to service our customers' needs. These services include pre and post-sale inspections, key replacement, transportation and logistics, title services and floorplan financing. For vehicles at our vehicle logistics centers, we can also provide reconditioning and mechanical work. Many of these services may be provided or purchased independently from the marketplaces, including:
Services Description
Digital Marketplace Services We provide marketing and advertising for the vehicles on our marketplaces, dealer registration, storage and security of consigned inventory, marketplace vehicle registration, condition report processing, photo services, pre-sale lineups, sales of vehicles by licensed auctioneers, arbitration of disputes, post-sale inspections, title processing, clearing of funds and sales results reports.
Transportation Services 
We provide transportation services utilizing our own equipment and personnel as well as licensed and insured third-party carriers. Through our proprietary technology that provides automated vehicle shipping services, customers can instantly review price quotes and delivery times, and vehicle transporters can check available loads and also receive instant notification of available shipments.
Reconditioning Services 
Our vehicle logistics centers provide detailing, body work, paintless dent repair ("PDR"), light mechanical work, glass repair, tire and key replacement and upholstery repair. Key replacement services through a mobile field workforce are offered to digital marketplace participants as well as other non-marketplace customers.
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Inspection Services 
We inspect many of the vehicles that are offered for sale in our marketplaces through a combination of our employees and third parties using our proprietary technologies. In addition, we provide vehicle condition reporting, inventory verification auditing, program compliance auditing and facility inspections to non-marketplace customers. Field managers are equipped with handheld computers and digital cameras to record all inspection and audit data on-site. This technology is also utilized at our vehicle logistics center locations, and we believe that the expanded utilization of comprehensive vehicle condition reports with pictures, video and sound facilitates dealers sourcing vehicles digitally.
Title and Repossession Administration and Remarketing Services 
We provide end-to-end management of the remarketing process for repossession customers including titling, repossession administration, inventory management, marketplace selection, pricing and vehicle representation. We also operate a proprietary digital platform for repossession management that helps repossession companies and agents manage their accounts by providing a secure, encrypted software platform to track repossession orders.
Vehicle Research Services
We provide dealers real-time vehicle information such as pricing, history reports and market guides. The mobile app allows dealers to scan VINs using their mobile device, view marketplace offered lists and instantly access vehicle history reports and market value reports. We offer access to vehicle history resources such as CARFAX and AutoCheck, as well as pricing guides such as Black Book, Kelley Blue Book, J.D. Power and Galves. Our offering also includes a comprehensive wholesale and retail market report for all markets in the United States.
Sales and Marketing
Our sales and marketing approach is to develop strong, mutually beneficial and long-lasting relationships with our customers. We have relationship managers for the various commercial customers, including vehicle manufacturers, fleet companies, rental car companies, finance companies and others. These relationship managers focus on current trends and customer needs for their respective customers in order to better coordinate our sales effort and service offerings.
We also have local sales representatives who have experience in the used vehicle business and an intimate knowledge of local markets. These local representatives focus on the dealer sellers and buyers and are complemented by a centralized team of inventory consultants matching buyers and inventory. Both the local sales representatives and the inventory consultants are managed by a corporate-level team focused on developing and implementing standard best practices and expanding relationships with major dealer groups. We believe this combination of a centralized structure with decentralized resources enhances relationships with the local dealer community and may further increase dealer consignment business on our marketplaces.
We also provide market analysis to our customers, as they use analytical techniques in making their remarketing decisions.
Competition
In the North American wholesale used vehicle industry, we compete with physical auction providers including Manheim and Carvana who now owns and operates ADESA. We also compete with several digital marketplace providers, including ACV Auctions and others. In addition, used car retailers, such as CarMax, have developed proprietary platforms for selling vehicles to other dealers. In the United States, competition is strongest with Manheim for the supply of used vehicles from national commercial customers. In Canada, we are the largest wholesale used vehicle marketplace operator. The supply of vehicles from dealers is dispersed among all of the marketplace and auction competitors in the used vehicle market.
The wholesale used vehicle industry is highly fragmented in Europe. Our digital marketplaces primarily compete with large European digital remarketers, including BCA Group and others. There are also a number of small independent auction operations throughout Europe.
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Finance
Overview
AFC is a leading provider of floorplan financing to independent dealer customers. We provide short-term inventory-secured financing, known as floorplan financing, to independent dealer customers through a hybrid of physical locations and a digital servicing network throughout North America. In 2023, AFC serviced approximately 1.6 million loan transactions, which includes both loans paid off and loans extended, or curtailed. We sell the majority of our U.S. dollar-denominated finance receivables without recourse to a wholly-owned bankruptcy remote special purpose entity, which sells an undivided participation interest in such finance receivables to a group of bank purchasers on a revolving basis. We also securitize the majority of our Canadian dollar denominated finance receivables through a separate third-party facility. We generate a significant portion of our revenues from fees. These fees include origination, floorplan, curtailment and other related program fees. When the loan is extended or paid in full, AFC collects all accrued fees and interest.
In addition, AFC provides liquidity for customer trade-ins which can encompass settling lien holder payoff. We also provide title services for our customers. These services are provided through AFC's digital servicing network as well as its physical locations throughout North America.
Customers and Locations
Floorplan financing primarily supports independent dealer customers in North America who purchase vehicles on our marketplaces or those of our competitors and for non-auction purchases. In 2023, approximately 86% of the vehicles floorplanned by AFC were vehicles purchased by dealers on our marketplaces or through a competitor. Our ability to provide floorplan financing facilitates the growth of vehicle sales on our marketplaces. As of December 31, 2023, we serviced customers through approximately 90 locations (hybrid of physical locations and a digital servicing network) in markets with a significant concentration of AFC customers. Geographic proximity to the customers gives our employees the ability to stay in close contact with outstanding accounts, thereby better enabling them to manage credit risk and build customer relationships. In addition, the majority of U.S. titles are processed and held in a centralized location, enabling field personnel more time to focus on our dealers.
As of December 31, 2023, AFC had approximately 12,000 active dealers with an average line of credit of approximately $370,000 and no one dealer representing greater than 1.3% of our portfolio. An average of approximately 15 vehicles per active dealer were floorplanned with an approximate average value outstanding of $12,800 per vehicle as of December 31, 2023.
Sales and Marketing
AFC approaches and seeks to expand its share of the independent dealer floorplan market through a number of methods and channels. We target and solicit new dealers through both direct sales efforts at the dealer's place of business as well as location-based sales and customer service representatives, who service our dealers at our vehicle logistics centers or competitors where they replenish and rotate vehicle inventory. These largely local efforts are handled by field personnel. AFC's corporate-level team and Business Development Center also provide sales and marketing support to AFC field personnel by helping to identify new dealer opportunities, generating new leads through digital channels, and coordinating promotional activity with our marketplace platforms, competitor auctions and other vehicle supply sources. AFC also relies on the utilization of actionable data to drive the business forward (predictive modeling from historical and real-time data).
Credit
Our procedures, proprietary systems and data enable us to manage our credit risk by tracking each vehicle from origination to payoff, while expediting services through our field network. Typically, we assess a floorplan fee at the inception of a loan and we collect all accrued fees and interest when the loan is extended or repaid in full. In addition, AFC generally holds the title or other evidence of ownership to all vehicles which are floorplanned. Typical loan terms are 30 to 90 days, each with a possible loan extension. For an additional fee, this loan extension allows the dealer to extend the duration of the loan beyond the original term for another 30 to 90 days, and generally requires the dealer to make payment towards the principal and payment of accrued fees and interest.
The extension of a credit line to a dealer starts with the underwriting process. Credit lines up to $600,000 are extended using a proprietary scoring model developed internally by AFC. Credit lines in excess of $600,000 may be extended using underwriting guidelines which generally require dealership and personal financial statements, monthly bank statements, sales reports and tax returns. The underwriting of each line of credit requires an analysis, write-up and recommendation by the credit department and, in the case of credit lines in excess of $600,000, final review by a credit committee.
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Collateral Management
Collateral management is an integral part of daily operations at each AFC location, including our corporate headquarters. AFC's proprietary system facilitates this daily collateral management by providing real-time access to dealer information and enables field and corporate personnel to assess and manage potential collection issues. Restrictions are automatically placed on customer accounts in the event of a delinquency, payments by dealers from bank accounts with insufficient funds or poor audit results. Field personnel are proactive in managing collateral by monitoring loans and changes in payoff activity. In addition, over 58,000 routine audits, or inventory audits, are performed annually on the dealers' lots through our AutoVIN subsidiary. The audit reconciliation process is centralized in order to better mitigate risk and make field personnel time available to focus on the customer. Poor results from inventory audits typically require personnel to take actions to determine the status of missing collateral, including visiting the dealer personally, verifying units held off-site and collecting payments for units sold. Audits also identify troubled accounts, triggering the involvement of AFC's risk department.
AFC operates three divisions which are organized into ten regions in North America. Each division and region is monitored by managers who oversee daily operations. At the corporate level, AFC employs full-time risk specialists and collection attorneys who are assigned to specific regions and monitor collection activity for these areas. Risk specialists work closely with the field personnel to track trends before an account becomes a troubled account and to determine, together with collection attorneys, the best strategy to secure the collateral once a troubled account is identified. In addition, many of our dealers with significant credit lines are managed by a centralized team to provide customized customer service as well as enhanced risk oversight.
Securitization
AFC sells the majority of its U.S. dollar denominated finance receivables on a revolving basis and without recourse to a wholly-owned, bankruptcy remote, consolidated, special purpose subsidiary ("AFC Funding Corporation"), established for the purpose of purchasing AFC's finance receivables. A securitization agreement allows for the revolving sale by AFC Funding Corporation to a group of bank purchasers of undivided interests in certain finance receivables subject to committed liquidity. AFC's securitization facility has been in place since 1996. AFC Funding Corporation had a committed facility of $2.0 billion from a third-party facility for U.S. finance receivables at December 31, 2023. The agreement expires on January 31, 2026.
We also have an agreement in place for the securitization of Automotive Finance Canada Inc.'s ("AFCI") receivables. This securitization facility provides up to C$300 million in financing for eligible finance receivables through a third-party conduit (separate from the U.S. facility). The agreement expires on January 31, 2026. The receivables sold pursuant to both the U.S. and Canadian securitization agreements are accounted for as secured borrowings.
Competition
AFC provides short-term dealer floorplan financing of wholesale vehicles primarily to independent vehicle dealers in North America. At the national level, AFC's competition includes NextGear Capital by Cox Automotive ("NextGear Capital"), other specialty lenders, banks and financial institutions. At the local level, AFC faces competition from banks, credit unions and independent auctions who may offer floorplan financing to local customers.
Some of our wholesale used vehicle marketplace competitors may endeavor to capture a larger portion of the floorplan financing market. AFC competes primarily on a relationship basis, focusing on quality of service, convenience of payment, scope of services offered to solve customer pain points and consistent commitment to the sector. This and our long-term relationships with customers have been established over time and act as a competitive strength for us.
Seasonality
The volume of vehicles sold through our marketplaces generally fluctuates from quarter to quarter. This seasonality is caused by several factors including weather, the timing of used vehicles available for sale from selling customers, holidays, and the seasonality of the retail market for used vehicles, which affects the demand side of the auction industry. Wholesale used vehicle volumes tend to decline during prolonged periods of winter weather conditions. As a result, revenues and operating expenses related to volume will fluctuate accordingly on a quarterly basis. In North America, the fourth calendar quarter typically experiences lower used vehicle volume as well as additional costs associated with the holidays and winter weather.
In addition, changes in working capital vary from quarter-to-quarter as a result of the timing of collections and disbursements of funds to consignors from marketplace sales held near period end.
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Government Regulation
Our operations are subject to regulation, supervision and licensing under various federal, state, provincial, local and foreign authorities, agencies, statutes and ordinances, which, among other things, require us to obtain and maintain certain licenses, permits and qualifications, provide certain disclosures and notices, limit interest rates, fees and other charges and protect personal data. Some examples of the regulations and laws that impact our company are included in Item 1A. "Risk Factors" under the risk: "We are subject to a complex framework of federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations, which have in the past, and could in the future, subject us to claims, challenge our business model, or otherwise harm our business." Changes in government regulations or interpretations of existing regulations could result in increased costs, reduced vehicle prices and decreased profitability for us. In addition, failure to comply with present or future regulations or changes in existing regulations or in their interpretation could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
Environmental Regulation
Our operations are subject to various foreign, federal, state and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing the emission or discharge of pollutants into the air or water, the generation, treatment, storage and release of hazardous materials and wastes and the investigation and remediation of contamination. Our failure to comply with current or future environmental, health or safety laws or to obtain and comply with permits required under such laws, could subject us to liability, damage our reputation and require costly investigative, remedial or corrective actions.
Some of the facilities on which we operate are impacted by recognized environmental concerns and pollution conditions. We have incurred and may in the future incur expenditures relating to compliance and risk mitigation efforts, releases of hazardous materials, investigative, remedial or corrective actions, claims by third parties and other environmental issues, and such expenditures, individually or in the aggregate, could be significant.
Employees and Human Capital
At December 31, 2023, we had approximately 4,500 employees, of which approximately 2,100 were located in the U.S. and approximately 2,400 were located in Canada, Europe, Uruguay and the Philippines. Approximately 85% of our workforce consists of full-time employees. None of our employees participate in collective bargaining agreements, but we have a works council in Belgium pursuant to local law. In addition to the employee workforce, we utilize independent contractors and temporary labor services to provide certain services.
Our people drive our business, so we strive to attract, develop and retain high-performing talent. Led by our Chief People Officer, we have programs and practices in place to onboard, support and retain our talent, and to source new talent in a highly competitive environment. We recognize the importance of our workforce and the employee experience, and strive to offer competitive compensation and benefits while fostering a culture of open dialogue, inclusion and belonging. Additionally, we enable support functions and people managers that are dedicated to the growth and development of our teams.
Intellectual Property
We rely on various intellectual property laws, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our proprietary technology and brands. We have registered, and applied for the registration of, U.S. and international trademarks, service marks, domain names and copyrights. We have also filed patent applications and obtained registrations in the U.S. and foreign countries covering certain of our technology. We have licensed in the past, and expect that we may license in the future, certain of our rights to other parties. For additional information regarding the risks relating to intellectual property, see Item 1A. "Risk Factors" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Available Information
Our web address is corporate.openlane.com. Our electronic filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") (including all Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and if applicable, amendments to those reports) are available free of charge on the website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. In addition, our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, Code of Ethics for Principal Executive and Senior Financial Officers and charters of the audit committee, the compensation committee, the nominating and corporate governance committee and the risk committee of our board of directors are available on our website and available in print to any stockholder who requests it. The information posted on our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report.
The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information about issuers, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that site is www.sec.gov.
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Item 1A.    Risk Factors
Investing in our Company involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors, as well as all of the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, before deciding to invest in our Company. The occurrence of any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, prospects, results of operations and cash flows. In such case, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. These risks are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Our Business and Operations
If we are unable to successfully execute on our business strategy, if our strategy proves to be ineffective, or if we improperly align new strategies with our vision, our business, financial performance and growth could be adversely affected.
Our business, results of operations and financial condition depend on our ability to execute our business strategy. See “Our Business Strategy” under “Item 1. Business” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. There are significant risks involved with the execution of these initiatives, including significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control. Accordingly, we cannot predict whether we will succeed in implementing these strategic initiatives, and even if we do succeed, we may not realize the expected benefits of our strategy. It could take several years to realize any direct financial benefits from these initiatives, if any direct financial benefits from these initiatives are achieved at all.
We may not properly leverage or make the appropriate investment in technology advancements, which could result in the loss of any sustainable competitive advantage in products, services and processes.
Our business is dependent on information technology, particularly as we execute our digital transformation strategy. Robust information technology systems, platforms and products are critical to our operating environment, digital online products and competitive position. We have made and continue to make investments to improve our information technology infrastructure. Such improvements are often complex, costly and time consuming. If implementation of such improvements are delayed, or if we encounter unforeseen problems with our new systems and processes or in migrating away from our existing systems and processes, our operations and our ability to manage our business could be negatively impacted as we may experience disruptions in our business operations, loss of customers, loss of revenue or damage to our reputation.
We may not be successful in structuring our technology or developing, acquiring, implementing or consolidating technology systems which are competitive and responsive to the needs of our customers. We might lack sufficient resources to continue to make the significant technology investments to effectively compete with our competitors. Certain technology initiatives that management considers important to our long-term success will require capital investment, have significant risks associated with their execution, and could take several years to implement. If we are unable to develop and implement these initiatives in a cost-effective, timely manner or at all, it could damage our relationships with our customers and negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.
There can be no assurance that others will not acquire or develop similar or superior technologies sooner than we do or that we will acquire technologies on an exclusive basis or at a significant price advantage. In addition, we may not timely or effectively develop or enhance services or business processes to respond to emerging technological trends, including artificial intelligence, or our competitors may be able to develop or enhance services or business processes sooner or more effectively. If we do not accurately predict, prepare and respond to new kinds of technology innovations, market developments and changing customer needs, our revenues, profitability and long-term competitiveness could be materially adversely affected.
Unsuccessful implementation of business initiatives to reduce costs and align our business to our digital operating model, or unintended consequences of the implementation of such initiatives, may adversely affect our business.
We have taken certain steps to reduce the cost of our operations, improve efficiencies, and realign our organization and staffing to better match our market opportunities and digital initiatives. For example, following the sale of the ADESA U.S. physical auction business, we implemented permanent changes in our operating model and our cost structure to reengineer the way we do business and ultimately reduce our costs to provide services. We have continued to restructure our business to reflect the current market and asset-light digital model, reallocate our resources towards the highest growth initiatives, consolidate our platforms, transition to cloud-based solutions and leverage a global shared services model. We expect to continue to implement cost reduction and business alignment initiatives as we seek to realize operating synergies, achieve our target operating model and profitability objectives, and more closely reflect changes in the strategic direction of our business. These changes could be disruptive to our business, and we may experience a loss of accumulated knowledge, loss of continuity and inefficiency, adverse effects on employee morale, loss of key personnel and other retention issues during transitional periods. These initiatives can require a significant amount of time and focus, which may divert attention from operating and growing our business. If we fail to achieve some or all of the expected benefits of our cost reduction and business alignment initiatives, it
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could have an adverse effect on our competitive position and market share, business, financial condition and results of operations.
We operate in a highly competitive industry. If we are not successful in competing with our known competitors and/or disruptive new entrants, then our market position or competitive advantage could be threatened and our business and results of operations could be adversely impacted.
We face significant competition for the supply of used vehicles, the buyers of those vehicles and the floorplan financing of these vehicles. Our principal sources of competition historically have come from: (1) direct competitors (e.g., Manheim, ACV Auctions, EBlock and NextGear Capital), (2) new entrants, including new vehicle remarketing venues and dealer financing services, and (3) other participants in the automotive industry with vehicle remarketing capabilities (e.g., rental car companies, automobile retailers and wholesalers). We also face increasing competition from online wholesale and retail marketplaces (generally without any meaningful physical presence) and from our own customers when they sell directly to end users through such platforms rather than remarket vehicles through our marketplaces. Increased competition could result in price reductions, reduced margins or loss of market share.
Our future success also depends on our ability to respond to evolving industry trends, changes in customer requirements and new technologies. If new industry trends take hold, including adverse trends such as a market reversal towards physical auctions or the simultaneous listing and selling of vehicles on multiple online sales platforms in North America, the automotive remarketing industry’s economics could significantly change, which could cause us to lose vehicle volume and market share, and our business, revenues and profitability could be negatively impacted.
Some of our competitors may have greater financial and marketing resources than we do, may be able to respond more quickly to evolving industry dynamics and changes in customer requirements, or may be able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of new or emerging services and technologies. If we are unable to compete successfully or to successfully adapt to industry changes, our business, revenues and profitability could be materially adversely affected.
In addition, if one or more of our competitors were to merge or partner with another of our competitors, the change in the competitive landscape could adversely affect our ability to compete effectively. Our competitors may also establish or strengthen cooperative relationships with our current or future data providers, technology partners, or other parties with whom we have relationships, thereby limiting our ability to develop, improve, and promote our solutions. We may not be able to compete successfully against current or future competitors, and competitive pressures may harm our revenue, business, and financial results.
Our marketplace businesses currently compete with a number of physical auction companies and online wholesale and retail vehicle selling platforms. The dealer-to-dealer space in particular is experiencing a digital disruption as competitors and new market participants introduce new technologies. If the number of vehicles sold through our marketplaces decreases due to these competitors or other industry changes, or if we are unable to compete and gain market share in the dealer-to-dealer space, our revenue and profitability may be negatively impacted. In addition, our long-lived assets could also become subject to impairment.
At the national level, AFC's competition includes NextGear Capital, a subsidiary of Cox Enterprises, Inc., other specialty lenders, banks and financial institutions. At the local level, AFC faces competition from banks, credit unions and independent auctions who may offer floorplan financing to local auction customers. Some of our industry competitors who operate wholesale car auctions on a national scale may endeavor to capture a larger portion of the floorplan financing market. AFC offers its customers competitive rates and fees and competes primarily on the basis of quality of service, convenience of payment, scope of services offered to solve customer pain points and historical and consistent commitment to the sector. In addition, AFC offers a workforce in close proximity to its customers. If the number of loans originated and serviced decreases due to these competitors, our revenue and profitability may be negatively impacted.
Decreases in the supply of used vehicles coming to the wholesale market has impacted and may continue to impact sales volumes, which has adversely affected and may continue to adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
We are dependent on the supply of used vehicles in the wholesale market, and our financial performance depends, in part, on conditions in the automotive industry. The automotive industry has experienced unprecedented market conditions, caused in part by supply chain issues, the shortage of semiconductors and associated delays in new vehicle production. In recent years, these factors have resulted in significant fluctuations in used vehicle values and declines in vehicle volumes in the wholesale market.
In particular, the number of new and used vehicles that are leased by consumers affects the supply of vehicles coming to the wholesale market in future periods as the leases mature. As manufacturers and other lenders decrease the number of new vehicle lease originations and extend the terms of some of the existing leases, the number of off-lease vehicles available for the wholesale industry declines.
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Volumes of off-lease vehicles in subsequent periods will be affected by total new vehicle sales and the future leasing behavior of manufacturers and lenders; therefore, we are not able to accurately predict the volume of vehicles coming to the wholesale market. The supply of off-lease vehicles coming to wholesale channels is also affected by the market value of used vehicles compared to the residual value of those vehicles per the lease terms. In most cases, the lessee and the dealer have the ability to purchase the vehicle at the residual price at the end of the lease term. Generally, as market values of used vehicles rise, the number of vehicles purchased at residual value by the lessees and dealers increases, thus decreasing the number of off-lease vehicles available to the wholesale market. As a result, lower volumes of off-lease vehicles available to the wholesale market is expected to continue and will likely continue to adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
Further, macroeconomic factors, including inflationary pressures, rising interest rates, volatility of oil and natural gas prices and declining consumer confidence impact the affordability and demand for new and used vehicles. Declining economic conditions present a risk to our operations and the stability of the automotive industry.
In addition, the supply of vehicles coming to the wholesale market could be impacted by changes to the broader automotive industry. For example, an increased demand for electric vehicles could cause the number of vehicles coming to the wholesale market to decline and the ancillary services we provide to decline or change. Further, technology is being developed to produce automated, driverless vehicles that could reduce the demand for, or replace, traditional vehicles, including the used vehicles on our marketplaces. Additionally, ride-hailing and ride-sharing services are becoming increasingly popular as a means of transportation and may decrease consumer demand for the used vehicles that are offered on our marketplaces, particularly as urbanization increases. If we are unable to or otherwise fail to successfully adapt to such industry changes, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Used vehicle prices impact fee revenue per unit and conversion rates and may impact the supply of used vehicles, loan losses at AFC and could adversely affect our profitability.
The volume of new vehicle production, accuracy of lease residual estimates, interest rate fluctuations, customer demand and changes in regulations, among other things, all potentially affect the pricing of used vehicles. Used vehicle prices may affect the volume of vehicles entered for sale in our marketplaces and the demand for those used vehicles, the fee revenue per unit, marketplace conversion rates, loan losses for our dealer financing business and our ability to retain customers. When used vehicle prices are high, dealer customers may retail more of their trade-in vehicles on their own rather than selling them in the wholesale channel. A sustained reduction in used vehicle pricing could result in a potential loss of consignors, an increase in loan losses at AFC and decreased profitability.
Our marketplace businesses also sell vehicles that have been purchased (e.g., inherited vehicles, vehicles returned or vehicles purchased by OPENLANE Europe and others). When a vehicle is purchased and then resold, rather than sold on a consignment basis, we are exposed to inventory risks, including losses from theft, damage and obsolescence. In addition, when vehicles are purchased, we are subject to changes in vehicle values, which could adversely affect our revenue and profitability.
AFC is exposed to credit risk with our dealer borrowers, which could adversely affect our profitability and financial condition.
AFC is subject to credit risk resulting from defaults in payment by our dealer customers on our floorplan loans. Furthermore, a weak economic environment, decreased demand for used vehicles, disruptions in pricing of used vehicle inventory or consumers’ lack of access to financing could exert pressure on our dealer customers resulting in higher delinquencies, bankruptcies, repossessions and credit losses. There can be no assurances that our monitoring of our credit risk as it affects the collectability of these loans and our efforts to mitigate credit risk through appropriate underwriting policies and loss-mitigation strategies are, or will be, sufficient to prevent an adverse impact in our profitability and financial condition.
We may be unable to meet our customers’ expectations, which could impact customer retention and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
We believe our future success depends in part on our ability to respond to changes in customer requirements and our ability to meet regulatory requirements for our customers. Many of our customers, including our financial institution customers, are subject to significant and evolving regulations. We work to develop strong relationships and interactive dialogue with our customers to better understand current trends and customer needs. Our success will also depend, in part, on our ability to provide customers with a user-friendly digital experience. If we are not successful in meeting our customers' expectations, our customer relationships could be negatively affected and result in a loss of future business, which would adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Our business and operating results would be adversely affected if we lose one or more significant customers.
Loss of business from, or changes in the consignment patterns of, our key customers could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results. Generally, commercial and dealer customers do not make binding long-term commitments to us regarding consignment volumes. Many of our customer agreements can be terminated by the customer for convenience on
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advance written notice, which provides our customers with the opportunity to renegotiate their agreements with us or to award more business to our competitors. Any such customer could reduce its overall supply of vehicles for our marketplaces, seek protection under the bankruptcy laws, or otherwise seek to materially change the terms of its business relationship with us at any time. There is no guarantee that we will be able to retain or renew existing agreements, maintain relationships with any of our customers or business partners on acceptable terms or at all, or collect amounts owed to us from customers or business partners. Any such change could harm our business and operating results. While no single customer accounted for 10% or more of our consolidated revenues in 2023, the loss of, or material reduction in business from, our key customers could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
If we fail to attract and retain key personnel, or have inadequate succession planning, we may not be able to execute our business strategies and our financial results could be negatively affected.
Our success depends in large part on the talents and efforts of our executives and other key employees, including those with digital capabilities. Our future success will depend upon our ability to continue to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain talented personnel. If we lose the services of one or more of our key personnel, or if one or more key personnel joins a competitor or otherwise competes with us, we may not be able to effectively implement our business strategies or maintain customer relationships, and our business could be materially adversely affected.
In addition, our failure to put in place adequate succession plans for key roles or the failure of key personnel to successfully transition into new roles could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results. The unexpected or abrupt departure of one or more of our key personnel and the failure to effectively transfer knowledge and effect smooth key personnel transitions may have an adverse effect on our business.
Further, leadership changes have occurred and will continue to occur from time to time and we cannot predict whether significant resignations will occur or whether we will effectively manage leadership transitions. We may face risks related to these and other transitions in our leadership team. If we cannot effectively manage leadership transitions and management changes in the future, our reputation and future business prospects could be adversely affected.
If we fail to effectively identify, value, manage, and complete acquisitions and subsequent integrations, divestitures and other strategic transactions, our operating results, financial condition and growth prospects could be adversely affected.
Acquisitions have been a significant part of our growth strategy and have enabled us to further broaden and diversify our service offerings. Our strategy generally includes acquisitions of companies, products, services and technologies to expand our online, digital and mobile capabilities. Acquisition of businesses requires substantial time and attention of management personnel and may also require additional equity or debt financings. Further, integration of newly established or acquired businesses is often disruptive. We may incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable opportunities, whether or not the transactions are completed. There can be no assurance that we will identify appropriate targets, will acquire such businesses on favorable terms, will be able to successfully integrate such organizations into our business or will be able to realize anticipated benefits. Because these new ventures are inherently risky, no assurance can be given that such strategies and offerings will be successful and they could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Acquisitions may also have unanticipated tax, legal, regulatory and accounting ramifications, including as a result of recording goodwill that is subject to impairment testing on a regular basis and potential periodic impairment charges. Another accounting ramification includes the valuation of contingent consideration at the acquisition date which is subject to remeasurement each reporting period and could result in additional expense. In addition, we expect to compete against existing and new competitors for suitable acquisitions. If we are able to consummate acquisitions, such acquisitions could be dilutive to earnings, and we could overpay for such acquisitions.
Additional risks and challenges we face in connection with acquisitions include, but are not limited to:
incurring significantly higher capital expenditures, operating expenses and operating losses of the business acquired;
coordination of technology, research and development, and sales and marketing functions, along with integration of the acquired business’s accounting, management information, human resources, and other administrative systems;
incurring liability for pre-acquisition activities of the acquired business;
inheriting certain security or privacy vulnerabilities of the acquired business;
implementing or remediating the controls, procedures, and policies of the acquired business;
incorporating acquired technology and rights into our offerings and unanticipated expenses related to such integration;
retaining and integrating acquired employees, including cultural challenges associated with integrating employees from the acquired business into our organization;
maintaining important business relationships and contracts of the acquired business; and
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integrating the acquired business onto our systems and ensuring the acquired business meets our financial reporting requirements and timelines.
Any of these risks, if realized, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Some of the same risks exist if and when we decide to sell a business or assets. In addition, divestitures could involve additional risks, including difficulties in the separation of operations, services, data, technology, products and personnel, inability to fully reduce fixed costs previously associated with the divested assets or business, the potential need to provide transitional services and the need to agree to retain or assume certain liabilities in order to complete the divestiture. We may not be successful in managing these or any other significant risks that we encounter in divesting businesses or assets, and, as a result, we may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits of the divestitures.
Our expansion into markets outside the U.S. and our non-U.S. based operations subject us to unique operational, competitive and regulatory risks.
Acquisitions and other strategies to expand our operations beyond North America subject us to significant risks and uncertainties. As a result, we may not be successful in realizing anticipated synergies or we may experience unanticipated integration expenses. As we continue to expand our business internationally, we will need to develop policies and procedures to manage our business on a global scale. There can be no assurance that we will identify appropriate international targets, acquire such businesses on favorable terms, or be able to successfully grow and integrate such organizations into our business. Operationally, acquired businesses typically depend on key relationships and our failure to maintain those relationships could have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
In addition, we anticipate that our non-U.S. based operations will continue to subject us to risks associated with operating on an international basis, including:
exposure to foreign currency exchange rate risk, which may have an adverse impact on our revenues and profitability;
exposure to the principal or purchase auction model rather than the agency or consignment model, which may have an adverse impact on our margins and expose us to inventory risks;
restrictions on our ability to repatriate funds, as well as repatriation of funds currently held in foreign jurisdictions, which may result in higher effective tax rates;
tariffs and trade barriers and other regulatory or contractual limitations on our ability to operate in certain foreign markets;
compliance with anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act;
compliance with various privacy regulations, including but not limited to the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR");
compliance with data localization and/or data residency requirements and cross-border data transfer regulations;
dealing with unfamiliar regulatory agencies and laws, including those favoring local competitors;
dealing with political and/or economic instability, including the effects of the exit of the U.K. from the E.U.;
geopolitical instability, terrorism, war and military conflicts, including the conflict between Ukraine and Russia;
the difficulty of managing and staffing foreign offices, as well as the increased travel, infrastructure, legal and compliance costs associated with international operations;
localizing our product offerings; and
adapting to different business cultures and market structures.
As we continue to expand globally, our success will depend on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these and other risks associated with operating on an international basis. Our failure to manage these risks could have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
Significant disruptions of information technology systems could adversely affect our business and reputation.
We rely on information technology systems, some of which are managed by third parties, to process, transmit and store electronic information, and to manage or support a variety of our business processes and activities. The secure operation of these systems, and the processing, maintenance, enhancement and reliability of these systems, are critical to our business operations and strategy. The technology to operate some of our businesses is provided, in whole or in part, by third-party service providers, and we do not own or control the operation of third-party facilities. Our systems and the third-party systems
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with which we interact are subject to damage, failure or interruption due to various reasons, such as power or other critical infrastructure outages, facility damage, physical theft, telecommunications failures, malware, security incidents, cyber-attacks (including cyber-threats from nation-state actors), natural disasters and catastrophic events, legacy applications, integration delays, inadequate system hygiene and inadequate or ineffective redundancy measures. In addition, any financial difficulties, up to and including bankruptcy, faced by our service providers or any of their subcontractors, may have negative effects on our business, the nature and extent of which are difficult to predict. Our customers and vendors also rely on our information technology systems to conduct their operations. Any significant disruptions of our information technology systems could negatively impact our business and customers, damage our reputation and materially adversely affect our consolidated financial position and results of operations.
Data security concerns relating to our technology or breaches of information technology systems, could adversely affect our business and reputation.
We have experienced cyber-attacks and security incidents of varying degrees and believe we will continue to be a potential target of such threats and attacks. This threat has increased corresponding to the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists and other external parties. The technology infrastructure and systems of our suppliers, vendors, service providers and partners have also in the past experienced and may in the future experience such threats and attacks. Cyber-attacks or other security incidents could lead to service interruptions, malfunctions or other failures in the technology that supports our businesses and customers, as well as the operations of our customers or other third parties. Cyber-attacks or other security incidents could also damage our reputation with our customers and other parties and the market, and cause us to incur additional costs (such as repairing systems, adding personnel or security technologies or compliance costs), regulatory penalties, financial losses to both us and our customers and partners and the loss of customers and business opportunities. If such cyber-related events are not detected in a timely manner, their effect could be compounded.
Although we have technology and information security policies and processes and disaster recovery plans in place, these measures may not be adequate to ensure that our operations will not be compromised or disrupted should such an event occur. There can be no assurance that the systems we have designed to prevent or limit the effects of cyber incidents or attacks will be sufficient to prevent or detect material consequences arising from such incidents or attacks, or to avoid a material adverse impact on our systems after such incidents or attacks do occur. The security measures we employ to protect our systems have in the past not detected or prevented, and may in the future not detect or prevent, all attempts to hack our systems, denial-of-service attacks, viruses, malicious software (malware), employee error or malfeasance, phishing attacks, security breaches, disruptions during the process of upgrading or replacing computer software or hardware or integrating systems of acquired businesses or assets or other attacks and similar disruptions that may jeopardize the security of information stored in or transmitted by the sites, networks and systems that we otherwise maintain, which include cloud-based networks and storage. The existence and use of acquired and legacy applications and systems increase these risks.
Our network and systems are also subject to compromise from the actions or inactions of vendors and other third parties who have legitimate access (including Carvana personnel under our transition services agreement). Even if we successfully protect our own network and systems, our supply chain infrastructure and other third parties may not maintain adequate security measures (including identifying defects or vulnerabilities) to protect against unauthorized access, cyber attacks or mishandling of data, which could result in a breach of or disruption to our systems and network. Our control over and ability to monitor the security practices of our vendors and other third parties with whom we do business remains limited, and there can be no assurance that we can prevent, mitigate, or remediate the risk of any compromise or failure in the cybersecurity infrastructure owned or controlled by such third parties or others within their respective supply chains.
If our information technology systems are compromised, become inoperable for extended periods of time or cease to function properly, we may have to make a significant investment to fix or replace the information technology and our ability to provide many of our electronic and online solutions to our customers may be impaired, which would have a material adverse effect on our consolidated operating results and financial position. In addition, as cyber-threats continue to evolve in both intensity and velocity, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. Further, the rapid evolution and increased adoption of artificial intelligence increases the risk of cyber-attacks and security incidences. Use of artificial intelligence by our employees and vendors, whether authorized or unauthorized, also increases the risk that our intellectual property and other proprietary information will be unintentionally disclosed. Any of the risks described above could result in the loss or misuse of proprietary, confidential or sensitive information, disrupt our business, damage our reputation, expose us to legal liability and materially adversely affect our consolidated financial position and results of operations.
Compliance with U.S. and global privacy and data security requirements could result in additional costs and liabilities or inhibit our ability to collect, transmit and/or store data, and the failure to comply with such requirements could subject us to significant fines and penalties, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and reputation.
Aspects of our operations and businesses are subject to privacy regulations in the United States, including but not limited to the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), as amended and expanded by the California Privacy Rights Act ("CPRA"), and
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around the globe, most notably the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”). We collect, process and store sensitive data, including proprietary business and customer information, as well as personally identifiable information of our customers, their consumers and our employees. Many U.S. and foreign jurisdictions have passed, or are currently contemplating, a variety of artificial intelligence, consumer protection, data privacy, and data security laws and regulations that impact our business or the business of our customers, including consumer notification and other requirements in the event that consumer information is accessed and/or acquired by unauthorized persons and regulations regarding the use, access, accuracy, security and retention of such data. These laws and regulations are quickly evolving, with new or modified laws and regulations proposed and implemented frequently and existing laws and regulations subject to new or different interpretations and enforcement. The regulatory framework for privacy and data security issues has become increasingly burdensome and complex worldwide, and is expected to continue to be so for the foreseeable future. Our compliance with global laws and regulations relating to privacy, data protection and information security may materially increase our costs or otherwise limit our ability to continue or pursue certain business activities. Our failure to comply with applicable laws or regulations could also result in fines, sanctions, private litigation, government enforcement, business disruption, credit reporting and other expenses, damage to our reputation and loss of customers. We maintain cyber risk insurance, but this insurance may not be sufficient to cover all losses from any future disruption, security incident or breach.
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished, and our business may be adversely affected.
We rely and expect to continue to rely on a combination of confidentiality, assignment and license agreements with our employees, consultants and third parties with whom we have relationships, as well as trademark, copyright, patent, trade secret, and domain name protection laws, to protect our proprietary rights. In the United States and internationally, we have filed various applications for protection of certain aspects of our intellectual property, and we currently hold issued patents in the United States, Europe and Canada. However, third parties may knowingly or unknowingly infringe our proprietary rights, third parties may challenge proprietary rights held by us, and pending and future trademark and patent applications may not be approved. In addition, effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every country in which we operate or intend to operate our business. In any or all of these cases, we may be required to expend significant time and expense in order to prevent infringement or to enforce our rights. Although we have taken measures to protect our proprietary rights, there can be no assurance that such measures will be adequate or that others will not offer products or concepts that are substantially similar to ours and compete with our business. Changes in laws and regulations or adverse court rulings may also negatively affect our ability to protect our proprietary rights or prevent others from using our intellectual property and technology. If the protection of our proprietary rights is inadequate to prevent unauthorized use or appropriation by third parties, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished and competitors may be able to more effectively mimic our service and methods of operations. Any of these events could have an adverse effect on our business and financial results.
We may be subject to patent or other intellectual property infringement claims, which could have an impact on our business or operating results due to a disruption in our business operations, the incurrence of significant costs and other factors.
From time to time, we may receive notices from others claiming that we infringed or otherwise violated their patent or intellectual property rights, and the number of these claims could increase in the future. Claims of intellectual property infringement or other intellectual property violations could require us to enter into licensing agreements on unfavorable terms, incur substantial monetary liability or be enjoined preliminarily or permanently from further use of the intellectual property in question, which could require us to change business practices and limit our ability to compete effectively. Even if we believe that the claims are without merit, the claims can be time-consuming and costly to defend and may divert management’s attention and resources away from our businesses. If we are required to take any of these actions, it could have an adverse impact on our business and operating results.
We rely on third-party technology for key components of our business, and if these or other third parties do not perform adequately or terminate their relationships with us, our business and results of operations could be harmed.
We rely on third-party technology for certain of our critical business functions, including certain inspection, auction management and marketplace technologies. If these technologies fail, or if such third-party service providers or strategic partners were to cease operations, temporarily or permanently, face financial distress or other business disruptions, increase their fees, or if our relationships with these providers or partners deteriorate or terminate, we could suffer increased costs and we may be unable to provide similar services until an equivalent provider could be found or we could develop replacement technology or operations. In addition, if we are unsuccessful in identifying or finding high-quality partners, if we fail to negotiate cost-effective relationships with them, or if we ineffectively manage these relationships, it could have an adverse impact on our business and financial results.
Reliance on outsourcing arrangements could adversely affect our business.
As part of our initiative to reduce costs and align our business to our digital operating model, we have entered into several outsourcing arrangements with offshore third parties related to certain technology, back-office and customer support functions,
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and we will continue to evaluate additional outsourcing. As a result, the success of our business and our customer experience is partially dependent on offshore third parties over which we have limited control. If these third parties are unwilling or unable to perform to our standards or to provide the level of service required or expected by our customers, or if we are unable to maintain our agreements with them or alternative providers on attractive terms or at all, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be harmed.
Adverse economic conditions may negatively affect our business and results of operations.
Adverse economic conditions, including those resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic or otherwise, could increase our exposure to several risks, including:
Fluctuations in the supply of used vehicles. We are dependent on the supply of used vehicles coming to the wholesale market, and our financial performance depends, in part, on conditions in the automotive industry. Currently, disruptions in new vehicle production are resulting in fewer vehicles coming to wholesale channels. During the past global economic downturn and credit crisis, there was an erosion of retail demand for new and used vehicles that led many lenders to cut back on originations of new loans and leases and led to significant manufacturing capacity reductions by automakers selling vehicles in the United States and Canada. Capacity reductions or disruptions in new vehicle production could depress the number of vehicles received in wholesale channels in the future and could lead to reduced numbers of vehicles from various suppliers, negatively impacting wholesale volumes. In addition, weak growth in or declining new vehicle sales negatively impacts used vehicle trade-ins to dealers and wholesale volumes. These factors have and could continue to adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
Decline in the demand for used vehicles. We may experience a decrease in demand for used vehicles from dealer customers due to factors including the lack of availability of consumer credit and declines in consumer spending and consumer confidence. Adverse credit conditions also affect the ability of dealers to secure financing to purchase used vehicles, which further negatively affects buyer demand. In addition, a reduction in the number of franchised and independent used car dealers may reduce dealer demand for used vehicles.
Decrease in consumer spending. Consumer purchases of new and used vehicles may be adversely affected by economic conditions such as employment levels, wage and salary levels, trends in consumer confidence and spending, reductions in consumer net worth, interest rates, inflation, the availability of consumer credit and taxation policies. Consumer purchases in general may decline during recessions, periods of prolonged declines in the equity markets or housing markets and periods when disposable income and perceptions of consumer wealth are lower. Changes to U.S. federal tax policy may negatively affect consumer spending. In addition, the increased use of vehicle sharing and alternate methods of transportation, including autonomous vehicles, could lead to a decrease in consumer purchases of new and used vehicles and a decrease in vehicle rentals. To the extent retail and rental car company demand for new and used vehicles decreases, negatively impacting our auction volumes, our results of operations and financial position could be materially and adversely affected.
Volatility in the asset-backed securities market. Volatility and disruption in the asset-backed commercial paper market could lead to a narrowing of interest rate spreads at AFC in certain periods. In addition, any volatility and disruption has affected, and could affect, AFC’s cost of financing related to its securitization facility.
Ability to service and refinance indebtedness. Uncertainty in the financial markets or a downgrade in our credit ratings may negatively affect our ability to service our existing debt, access additional financing or to refinance our existing indebtedness on favorable terms or at all. If economic weakness exists, it may affect our cash flow from operations and results of operations, which may affect our ability to service payment obligations on our debt or to comply with our debt covenants.
Increased counterparty credit risk. Any market deterioration could increase the risk of the failure of financial institutions party to our Credit Agreement and other counterparties with which we do business to honor their obligations to us. Our ability to replace any such obligations on the same or similar terms may be limited if challenging credit and general economic conditions exist.
Macroeconomic conditions and geopolitical events may adversely affect our business, sources of liquidity and related costs of capital.
Global financial markets experience from time to time volatility, disruption and credit contraction. Significant volatility or disruption of global financial markets, inflation, supply chains or commercial activity due to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine or other geopolitical events, war, terrorism, natural disasters, public health issues (including pandemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic) or other factors could negatively affect our industry and business and our ability to refinance our debt or sell additional debt or equity securities or our assets on favorable terms, if at all. A disruption in the financial markets may adversely affect our ability to raise, restructure or refinance indebtedness.
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Our indebtedness and the terms of our indebtedness could impair our financial condition and adversely affect our ability to react to changes in our business.
As of December 31, 2023, our total debt was approximately $364.6 million, exclusive of liabilities related to our securitization facilities which are not secured by the general assets of OPENLANE, and we had $133.3 million of borrowing capacity under our Revolving Credit Facility (net of $54.7 million in outstanding letters of credit).
Our indebtedness could have important consequences including:
limiting our ability to borrow additional amounts to fund working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, execution of our business strategy, acquisitions and other purposes;
requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to pay principal and interest on debt, which would reduce the funds available for other purposes, including funding future expansion;
making us more vulnerable to adverse changes in general economic, industry and competitive conditions, in government regulation and in our business by limiting our flexibility in planning for, and making it more difficult to react quickly to, changing conditions; and
exposing us to risks inherent in interest rate fluctuations because a portion of our indebtedness is at variable rates of interest, which could result in higher interest expenses in the event of increases in interest rates.
In addition, if we are unable to generate sufficient cash from operations to service our debt and meet other cash needs, we may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets or operations, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to refinance our debt or sell additional debt or equity securities or our assets on favorable terms, if at all, particularly because of the restrictions imposed by the agreement governing our Revolving Credit Facility and the indenture governing our senior notes on our ability to incur additional debt and use the proceeds from asset sales. If we must sell certain of our assets, it may negatively affect our ability to generate revenue. The inability to obtain additional financing could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
If we cannot make scheduled payments on our debt, we would be in default and, as a result, our debt holders could declare all outstanding principal and interest to be due and payable, the lenders under our Revolving Credit Facility could terminate their commitments to lend us money and foreclose against the assets securing their borrowings and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation.
Furthermore, the agreement governing our Revolving Credit Facility and the indenture governing our senior notes include, and future debt instruments may include, certain restrictive covenants which could limit our ability to enter into certain transactions in the future and may adversely affect our ability to operate our business.
Changes in interest rates or market conditions could adversely impact our profitability and business.
Rising interest rates may have the effect of depressing the sales of new and used vehicles because many consumers finance their vehicle purchases and rising auto loan rates increase the cost of purchasing a vehicle. Likewise, when interest rates increase, the subprime borrowing market often tightens, making interest rates even higher for those with lower credit scores. If increased interest rates depress the sales of new and/or used vehicles, then used vehicle trade-ins to dealers and wholesale volumes could be negatively impacted. These factors could adversely affect revenues and profitability in our Marketplace segment.
In addition, AFC securitizes a majority of its finance receivables on a revolving basis. Volatility and/or market disruption in the asset-backed securities market in the United States or Canada can impact AFC’s cost of financing related to, or its ability to arrange financing on acceptable terms through, its securitization facility, which could negatively affect AFC’s business and our financial condition and operations.
As noted elsewhere, a portion of our indebtedness is at variable rates of interest. As such, increases in interest rates could also result in higher interest expenses.
A portion of our net income is derived from our international operations, primarily Canada, which exposes us to foreign exchange risks that may impact our financial statements. In addition, increases in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to certain foreign currencies may negatively impact foreign buyer participation in our marketplaces.
Fluctuations between U.S. and foreign currency values may adversely affect our results of operations and financial position, particularly fluctuations with Canadian currency values. In addition, there may be tax inefficiencies in repatriating cash from our foreign subsidiaries. Approximately 38% of our revenues from continuing operations were attributable to our foreign operations for the year ended December 31, 2023. The results of operations of our foreign subsidiaries are translated from local currency into U.S. dollars for financial reporting purposes. Changes in the value of foreign currencies, particularly the Canadian dollar and the euro relative to the U.S. dollar could negatively affect our profits from foreign operations and the value of the net
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assets of our foreign operations when reported in U.S. dollars in our financial statements. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations as reported in U.S. dollars.
In addition, fluctuations in exchange rates may make it more difficult to perform period-to-period comparisons of our reported results of operations. For purposes of accounting, the assets and liabilities of our foreign operations are translated using period-end exchange rates; such translation gains and losses are reported in “Accumulated other comprehensive income/loss” as a component of stockholders’ equity. The revenues and expenses of our foreign operations are translated using average exchange rates during each period.
Likewise, we have non-U.S. based buyers who participate in our marketplaces. Increases in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to these buyers’ local currencies may reduce the prices they are willing to pay at our marketplaces, which may negatively affect our revenues.
We are subject to a complex framework of federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations, which have in the past, and could in the future, subject us to claims, challenge our business model, or otherwise harm our business.
Our operations are subject to regulation, supervision and licensing under various federal, state, provincial, local and foreign authorities, agencies, statutes and ordinances, which, among other things, require us to obtain and maintain certain licenses, permits and qualifications, provide certain disclosures and notices and limit interest rates, fees and other charges. The regulations and laws that impact our company include, without limitation, the following:
The sale of used vehicles is regulated by various state and local motor vehicle departments and regulators.
Some of the transport vehicles used at our facilities are regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation or similar regulatory agencies in the other locations in which we operate.
AFC is subject to certain federal, state and provincial laws which regulate commercial and small business lending activities and interest rates and, in certain jurisdictions, require AFC or one of its subsidiaries to be licensed. These laws are complex and are rapidly evolving, including adverse legislative and regulatory trends towards regulating small business lending similar to consumer lending.
We are subject to various local zoning requirements with regard to the location of our facilities, which requirements vary from location to location.
We are subject to federal, state and international laws, directives and regulations relating to the collection, use, retention, disclosure, security and transfer of personally identifiable information (e.g., GDPR and CCPA). These laws, directives, regulations and their interpretation and enforcement continue to evolve and may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
We are subject to laws and regulations with respect to emerging technologies being incorporated into our business, including artificial intelligence, machine learning and data analytics.
Certain of the Company’s subsidiaries may be deemed subject to the regulations of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 due to their vendor relationships with financial institutions.
PAR is subject to laws in certain states which regulate repossession administration activities and, in certain jurisdictions, require PAR to be licensed.
We are subject to various reporting and anti-money laundering regulations.
The foregoing description of laws and regulations to which we are or may be subject is not exhaustive, and the regulatory framework governing our operations is subject to evolving interpretations and continuous change. Changes in law or governmental regulations or interpretations of existing law or regulations could result in increased costs, reduced vehicle prices and decreased profitability for us. In addition, failure to comply with present or future laws and regulations or changes in existing laws or regulations or in their interpretation could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
We are subject to risks associated with legal and regulatory proceedings. If the outcomes of these proceedings are adverse to us, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have in the past been, are currently, and may in the future become, subject to a variety of legal actions relating to our current and past business operations, including but not limited to litigation claims and legal proceedings related to environmental, intellectual property, labor and employment, privacy, regulatory compliance, securities, tax, and tort laws. Such claims may be asserted against us by individuals, either individually or through class actions, by governmental entities in civil or criminal investigations and proceedings or by other entities. These actions could expose us to adverse publicity and to substantial monetary damages and legal defense costs, injunctive relief and criminal and civil fines and penalties, including but not limited to suspension or revocation of licenses to conduct business. There is no guarantee that we will be successful in
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defending ourselves in legal and administrative actions or in asserting our rights under various laws. In addition, we could incur substantial costs in defending ourselves or in asserting our rights in such actions. Any claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could be time consuming, costly, and harmful to our reputation, and could require significant amounts of management time and corporate resources. If any of these legal proceedings were to be determined adversely to us, or we were to enter into a settlement arrangement, we could be exposed to monetary damages or be forced to change the way in which we operate our business, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.
Environmental, health and safety risks could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Our operations are subject to various foreign, federal, state and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing the emission or discharge of pollutants into the air or water, the generation, treatment, storage and release of hazardous materials and wastes and the investigation and remediation of contamination. Our failure to comply with current or future environmental, health or safety laws or to obtain and comply with permits required under such laws, could subject us to liability, damage our reputation and require costly investigative, remedial or corrective actions.
Some of the facilities on which we operate are impacted by recognized environmental concerns and pollution conditions. We have incurred and may in the future incur expenditures relating to compliance and risk mitigation efforts, releases of hazardous materials, investigative, remedial or corrective actions, claims by third parties and other environmental issues, and such expenditures, individually or in the aggregate, could be significant.
We are partially self-insured for certain losses.
We self-insure a portion of employee medical benefits under the terms of our employee health insurance program, as well as a portion of our automobile, general liability and workers’ compensation claims. We record an accrual for the claims expense related to our employee medical benefits, automobile, general liability and workers’ compensation claims based upon the expected amount of all such claims. If actual trends, including the severity of claims and medical cost inflation above expectations were to occur, our self-insured costs would increase, which could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial position.
We assume the settlement risk for vehicles sold through our marketplaces.
Typically, following the sale of a vehicle, we do not release the vehicle and/or title to a buyer until we have received full payment from the buyer or confirmation of arrangement for such payment. We may, however, remit payment to a seller before receiving payment from a buyer, and, in those circumstances, we may not have recourse against sellers for any buyer’s failure to satisfy its payment obligations. Revenue for a vehicle consigned to us for sale typically includes only the applicable buyer and seller fees associated with the transaction and not the vehicle sale proceeds. As a result, any failure to collect a receivable from the buyer in full may result in a loss up to the amount of the vehicle sale proceeds plus the applicable buyer fees and any collection related expenses. If we are unable to collect the vehicle sale price plus applicable buyer fees from buyers on a large number of vehicles, our revenue and cash flows may be negatively impacted resulting in a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Risks Related to the Sale of ADESA U.S. Physical Auction Business
The ADESA U.S. physical auction business sale transaction may result in increased costs.
In connection with the sale of the ADESA U.S. physical auction business, we entered into a transition services agreement whereby we will provide various services to Carvana following the closing. The transition services agreement may result in additional costs to us, which may make our ability to achieve the transaction’s objective of a more asset-light and lower overhead operating model more difficult. The transaction also requires us to split, or otherwise amend, existing contracts with customers and other third parties to separate the U.S. physical auction business, which may not be effective and could lead to additional costs for us.
We rely on Carvana for key components of our business and for certain revenue, which exposes us to increased risks.
In connection with the sale of the ADESA U.S. physical auction business, we entered into various agreements with Carvana, many of which require performance by Carvana. We will rely on Carvana to satisfy its various obligations under these agreements, including but not limited to performing services, meeting minimum volumes and complying with payment obligations. Carvana may fail to perform or comply as expected or be unwilling or unable to perform or comply in the future. The reliance on Carvana for certain aspects of our operations represents an inherent risk to our Company that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
For example, certain systems sold to Carvana as part of the ADESA U.S. physical auction business sale transaction are integral to our OPENLANE Canada operations and other remaining parts of our business. Carvana has agreed to maintain and make those systems available to support retained Company businesses for a period of time post-closing. Further, Carvana has agreed to continue to allow AFC to occupy office space in the ADESA U.S. physical auction locations owned by Carvana.
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If Carvana is unable or unwilling to satisfy its obligations under these agreements, or if Carvana seeks bankruptcy protection, we could incur operational difficulties or losses. Further, upon termination or expiration of those agreements, the respective services will need to be provided internally or by third parties. If we do not have agreements with other providers of these services or the ability to perform these services in-house once certain transaction agreements expire or terminate, we may not be able to operate our business effectively, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
We will be required to satisfy certain indemnification obligations to Carvana or we may not be able to collect on indemnification rights from Carvana.
In connection with the sale of the ADESA U.S. physical auction business, we agreed to indemnify Carvana for certain liabilities, and Carvana agreed to indemnify the Company for certain liabilities. Our and Carvana’s ability to satisfy these indemnities, if called upon to do so, will depend respectively upon our and Carvana’s future financial strength. If we are required to indemnify Carvana, or if we are not able to collect on indemnification rights from Carvana, our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We are restricted from conducting certain activities for three years following the ADESA U.S. physical auction business sale transaction.
The purchase agreement that we entered into as part of the sale of the ADESA U.S. physical auction business restricts us from engaging in certain activities in the United States for a period of three years, including on-premise wholesale vehicle auctions and vehicle reconditioning services. These restrictions could materially and adversely affect our business, growth strategy, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to access capital in the future may be challenging.
The sale of the ADESA U.S. physical auction business resulted in our being a smaller enterprise focused on our digital marketplaces. While we believe our transition to a more asset-light and lower overhead operating model will better position us going forward, we may face additional challenges when raising additional capital or restructuring or refinancing our indebtedness.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The market price and trading volume of our common stock may be volatile, which could result in rapid and substantial losses for our stockholders and could expose us to securities class action litigation.
You should consider an investment in our common stock to be risky, and you should invest in our common stock only if you can withstand a significant loss and wide fluctuations in the market value of your investment. Many factors could cause the market price of our common stock to rise and fall, including but not limited to the following:
announcements by us or our competitors of significant business developments, new offerings, acquisitions or strategic investments;
changes in earnings estimates or recommendations by securities analysts, if any, who cover our common stock;
results of operations that are below our announced guidance or below securities analysts’ or consensus estimates or expectations;
fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities, sales of large blocks of common stock by our stockholders or our incurrence of additional debt;
repurchases of our common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program;
investors’ general perception of us and our industry;
changes in general economic and market conditions;
changes in industry conditions (including changes in anticipated future market size and growth rate); and
changes in regulatory and other dynamics.
In addition, if the market for stocks in our industry, or the stock market in general, experiences a loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, financial condition or results of operations. If any of the foregoing occurs, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to lawsuits that, even if successfully defended, could be costly to defend and a distraction to management. Likewise, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company's securities, securities class action litigation could be initiated. If such litigation were introduced
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against us, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our attention and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
The issuance of shares of our Series A Preferred Stock reduces the relative voting power of holders of our common stock, and the conversion and sale of those shares would dilute the ownership of such holders and may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
As of December 31, 2023, 634,305 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock were outstanding, representing approximately 25% of our outstanding common stock, including the Series A Preferred Stock on an as-converted basis. Holders of Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to a cumulative dividend at the rate of 7% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears. Dividends were payable in kind through the issuance of additional shares of Series A Preferred Stock for the first eight dividend payment dates (through June 30, 2022), and thereafter, in cash or in kind, or any combination thereof, at our option. Because holders of our Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to vote, on an as-converted basis, together with holders of our common stock on all matters submitted to a vote of the holders of our common stock, the issuance of the Series A Preferred Stock, and the subsequent issuance of additional shares of Series A Preferred Stock through the payment of in kind dividends, effectively reduces the relative voting power of the holders of our common stock. In addition, the conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock into common stock would dilute the ownership interest of existing holders of our common stock. Furthermore, any sales in the public market of the common stock issuable upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock would increase the number of shares of our common stock available for public trading, and could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. Pursuant to customary registration rights agreements, we were required to register for resale the shares of Series A Preferred Stock and the shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock. This registration facilitates the resale of such securities into the public market, and any such resale would increase the number of shares of our common stock available for public trading. Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales might occur, could have a material adverse effect on the price of our common stock.
Apax and the other holders of our Series A Preferred Stock may exercise influence over us.
As of December 31, 2023, the outstanding shares of our Series A Preferred Stock represented approximately 25% of our outstanding common stock, including the Series A Preferred Stock on an as-converted basis. The terms of the Series A Preferred Stock require the approval of a majority of our Series A Preferred Stock by a separate class vote for us to:
amend our organizational documents in a manner that would have an adverse effect on the Series A Preferred Stock; or
issue securities that are senior to, or equal in priority with, the Series A Preferred Stock.
In addition, under our investment agreement, dated as of May 26, 2020 (the “Apax Investment Agreement”), with an affiliate of Apax Partners, L.P. (“Apax”), for so long as Apax and its affiliates beneficially own shares of Series A Preferred Stock (and/or shares of common stock issued upon conversion of Series A Preferred Stock) that represent, on an as-converted basis, at least 50% of Apax’s initial shares of Series A Preferred Stock on an as-converted basis, Apax and its affiliates will have the right to designate one director to our board of directors. Circumstances may occur in which the interests of Apax and its affiliates could diverge from, or even conflict with, the interests of our other stockholders. For example, the existence of Apax as a significant stockholder and Apax’s board designation rights may have the effect of delaying or preventing changes in control or management or limiting the ability of our other stockholders to approve transactions that they may deem to be in the best interests of the Company. Apax and its affiliates may seek to cause us to take courses of action that, in their judgment, could enhance its investment in the Company but which might involve risks to our other stockholders or adversely affect us or our other stockholders.
Our Series A Preferred Stock has rights, preferences and privileges that are not held by, and are preferential to, the rights of our common stockholders, which could adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition, and may result in the interests of the holders of our Series A Preferred Stock differing from those of our common stockholders.
The Series A Preferred Stock ranks senior to the shares of our common stock with respect to dividend rights and rights on the distribution of assets on any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs. The holders of Series A Preferred Stock have the right to receive a liquidation preference entitling them to be paid out of our assets available for distribution to stockholders before any payment may be made to holders of any other class or series of capital stock, an amount equal to the greater of (a) the sum of the original liquidation preference plus all accrued but unpaid dividends or (b) the amount that such holder would have been entitled to receive upon our liquidation, dissolution and winding up if all outstanding shares of such series of Series A Preferred Stock had been converted into common stock immediately prior to such liquidation, dissolution or winding up. In addition, the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to a cumulative dividend at the rate of 7% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears (dividends were payable in kind for the first eight dividend payments through June 30, 2022, and thereafter in cash or in kind). The holders of the Series A Preferred Stock are also entitled to participate in dividends declared or paid on our common stock on an as-converted basis. The holders of our Series A Preferred Stock also have the right, subject to certain exceptions, to require us to repurchase all or any portion of the Series A Preferred
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Stock upon certain change of control events at the greater of (a) the consideration the holders would have received if they had converted their shares of Series A Preferred Stock into common stock immediately prior to the change of control event and (b) 105% of the sum of i) the liquidation preference thereof and ii) all accrued but unpaid dividends.
These dividend and share repurchase obligations could impact our liquidity and reduce the amount of cash flows available for general corporate purposes. Our obligations to the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock could also limit our ability to obtain additional financing or increase our borrowing costs, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition. These preferential rights could also result in divergent interests between the holders of shares of Series A Preferred Stock and holders of our common stock.
Future offerings of debt or equity securities, which would rank senior to our common stock, may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
If, in the future, we decide to issue debt or equity securities that rank senior to our common stock, it is likely that such securities will be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our common stock and may result in dilution to owners of our common stock. We and, indirectly, our stockholders, will bear the cost of issuing and servicing such securities. Because our decision to issue debt or equity securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, holders of our common stock will bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of our common stock and diluting the value of their stock holdings in us.
The market price of our common stock could be negatively affected by sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market.
Future sales by us or by our existing stockholders of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales may occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. These sales also could impede our ability to raise future capital. Under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, we are authorized to issue up to 400,000,000 shares of common stock, of which 108,040,704 shares of common stock were outstanding as of December 31, 2023. In addition, pursuant to a registration statement under the Securities Act, we have registered shares of common stock reserved for issuance in respect of stock options and other incentive awards granted to our officers and certain of our employees. If any of these holders cause a large number of securities to be sold in the public market, including common stock issuable upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock, the sales could reduce the trading price of our common stock. We cannot predict the size of future sales of shares of our common stock or the effect, if any, that future sales, or the perception that such sales may occur, would have on the market price of our common stock.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and by-laws, and of Delaware law, may prevent or delay an acquisition of us, which could decrease the trading price of our common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and by-laws contain, and Delaware law contains, provisions that may be considered to have an anti-takeover effect and may delay or prevent a tender offer or other corporate transaction that a stockholder might consider to be in its best interest, including those transactions that might result in a premium over the market price for our shares.
These provisions include:
rules regarding how our stockholders may present proposals or nominate directors for election at stockholder meetings;
permitting our board of directors to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval;
granting to the board of directors, and not the stockholders, the sole power to set the number of directors;
authorizing vacancies on our board of directors to be filled only by a vote of the majority of the directors then in office and specifically denying our stockholders the right to fill vacancies in the board;
authorizing the removal of directors only upon the affirmative vote of holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock entitled to vote for the election of directors; and
prohibiting stockholder action by written consent.
These provisions apply even if an offer may be considered beneficial by some stockholders.
You may not receive any future dividends on our common stock.
Holders of our common stock are only entitled to receive such dividends as our board of directors may declare out of funds legally available for such payments. We are not required to declare cash dividends on our common stock. Future dividend decisions will be based on and affected by a variety of factors, including our financial condition and results of operations,
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contractual restrictions, including restrictive covenants contained in our Credit Agreement, the indenture governing our senior notes and AFC’s securitization facilities, capital requirements and other factors that our board of directors deems relevant. Therefore, no assurance can be given as to whether any future dividends may be declared by our board of directors or the amount thereof.
Our share repurchase program could affect the price of our common stock and increase volatility. In addition, it may be suspended or discontinued at any time, which could result in a decrease in the trading price of our common stock.
In October 2019, our board of directors authorized a repurchase of up to $300 million of the Company’s outstanding common stock. Since October 2019, the share repurchase program has been amended from time-to-time through subsequent approvals by the board of directors. These amendments have served to increase the size of the share repurchase program and extend its maturity date through December 31, 2024. Repurchases of our common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program, or any future share repurchase program, could affect our stock price and increase its volatility. The existence of a share repurchase program could also cause our stock price to be higher than it would be in the absence of such a program and could potentially reduce the market liquidity for our stock. There can be no assurance that any share repurchases will enhance stockholder value because the market price of our common stock may decline below the levels at which we repurchased the shares of common stock. Although our share repurchase program is intended to enhance long-term stockholder value, short-term stock price fluctuations could reduce the program's effectiveness. Furthermore, the program does not obligate the Company to repurchase any dollar amount or number of shares of common stock, and may be suspended or discontinued at any time, which could cause the market price of our stock to decline.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 1C.    Cybersecurity
Risk management and strategy
The Company’s enterprise risk management (“ERM”) program includes assessing, identifying and managing material risks from various sources, including those related to cybersecurity. The Company uses information from incident history, threat intelligence, formal and informal security networks, government information sharing and recognized information security frameworks to inform its cybersecurity risk management approach.
The Company’s cybersecurity risk management processes incorporate multiple layers of security to help identify and protect against cybersecurity threats including a dedicated cybersecurity team, technical security controls, policy enforcement, monitoring systems, employee training, contractual arrangements and management oversight. Given the dynamic nature of the cyber-threat environment, the Company engages third-party assessors, consultants and others from time to time to assist in various cyber-related matters, including assessing, enhancing, implementing and monitoring the Company's cybersecurity risk management process.
The Company maintains a vendor risk management program designed to identify and manage risks associated with third-party service providers, with management retaining responsibility for oversight of cybersecurity threats. The Company also maintains an incident response plan that includes escalation criteria and preliminary materiality assessments to guide disclosure objectives.
The Company describes risks related to cybersecurity threats that could materially impact its business strategy, results of operations or financial condition under the heading “Risk Factors.” Material impacts could include loss of access to systems and data, financial costs and reputational harm, among others.
Governance
Management is responsible for assessing and managing risk at the Company, including communicating the most material risks to the Board of Directors and its committees. The Board of Directors has primary responsibility for risk oversight, with a focus on the most significant risks facing the Company. With respect to cybersecurity risks, the Risk Committee of the Board of Directors (“Risk Committee”) provides oversight for matters specifically relating to cybersecurity and other risks related to information technology systems and procedures, including but not limited to data security and privacy.
Management leverages the collective expertise of the Company’s information security function which reports to the Chief Financial Officer through the Company’s Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”). The CISO has served in this position for the Company since 2017, holds various relevant credentials including CISSP (Certified Information Systems Security Professional), and has extensive cybersecurity experience having served in information technology roles for over 35 years and cybersecurity leadership roles for 15 years. The CISO reports to the Risk Committee quarterly on information security matters, including, among other things, the Company’s cyber risks and threats, the status of projects to further strengthen the Company’s
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information security systems, assessments of the Company’s security program and the emerging regulatory and threat landscape. The CISO also briefs the full Board of Directors on cybersecurity matters at least annually.
As described above, management informs the Risk Committee about prevention, detection, mitigation and remediation of cybersecurity incidents quarterly and monitors such matters continuously. The Risk Committee reviews and discusses with management the quality and effectiveness of the Company’s efforts to mitigate such risks and reports such findings to the Board of Directors.
Item 2.    Properties
Our corporate headquarters is located in Carmel, Indiana, where we lease office space pursuant to a lease that expires in 2034. At December 31, 2023, we also owned or leased other properties in the United States, Canada, Europe, the United Kingdom, Uruguay and the Philippines.
Facilities utilized by the Marketplace segment primarily include 15 vehicle logistics center locations across Canada at December 31, 2023, which are either owned or leased. The OPENLANE Canada facilities consist on average of approximately 60 acres of land per site and have parking areas to store vehicles and may have additional buildings for reconditioning, registration, maintenance, bodywork, and other ancillary and administrative services.
In our Finance segment, AFC has approximately 90 locations in North America at December 31, 2023, including 51 branches which are physically located at 9 OPENLANE Canada vehicle logistics centers and other competitor locations (hybrid of physical locations and a digital servicing network). Each of the remaining AFC offices is strategically located in close proximity to at least one of the auctions that it serves. AFC generally leases its branches.
We believe that our current facilities are suitable and adequate to meet our current needs, and if we require additional or substitute space, we anticipate we will be able to obtain additional suitable facilities.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
We are involved in litigation and disputes arising in the ordinary course of business. Although the outcome of litigation cannot be accurately predicted, based on evaluation of information presently available, our management does not currently believe that the ultimate resolution of these actions will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Item 4.   Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information and Holders of Record
OPENLANE's common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") under the symbol "KAR" and has been traded on the NYSE since December 11, 2009. As of February 15, 2024, there were 5 stockholders of record. Because many shares of our common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by the holders of record.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
There were no unregistered sales of equity securities made by OPENLANE during the period covered by this report.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information about purchases by OPENLANE, Inc. of its shares of common stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2023:
Period
Total Number of Shares Purchased
Average Price Paid per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (1)
(Dollars in millions)
October 1 - October 31— $— — $125.0 
November 1 - November 30— — — 125.0 
December 1 - December 31— — — 125.0 
Total— $— — 
(1)     In October 2019, the board of directors authorized a repurchase of up to $300 million of the Company’s outstanding common stock, par value $0.01 per share. Since October 2019, the share repurchase program has been amended from time-to-time through subsequent approvals by the board of directors. These amendments have served to increase the size of the share repurchase program and extend its maturity date. In October 2023, the board of directors authorized an increase in the size of the Company’s share repurchase program by an additional $20.3 million and an extension of the share repurchase program through December 31, 2024. Repurchases may be made in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions, in accordance with applicable securities laws and regulations, including pursuant to repurchase plans designed to comply with Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The timing and amount of any repurchases is subject to market and other conditions.

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Stock Price Performance Graph
The graph below shows the cumulative total stockholder return, assuming an investment of $100 and dividend reinvestment (and taking into account the value of the IAA, Inc. common shares distributed in the spin-off), for the period beginning on December 31, 2018 and ending on December 31, 2023, on each of OPENLANE's common stock, the Standard & Poor's SmallCap 600 Index and the Standard and Poor's 500 Index. Our stock price performance shown in the following graph is not indicative of future stock price performance.
3904

Company/IndexBase Period
12/31/2018
12/31/201912/31/202012/31/202112/31/202212/31/2023
OPENLANE, Inc. 
$100 $123.82 $107.18 $89.96 $75.16 $85.30 
S&P 500 Index$100 $131.49 $155.68 $200.37 $164.08 $207.21 
S&P SmallCap 600 Index$100 $122.78 $136.64 $173.29 $145.39 $168.73 

Item 6.    [Reserved]
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Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and which are subject to certain risks, trends and uncertainties. In particular, statements made in this report on Form 10-K that are not historical facts (including, but not limited to, expectations, estimates, assumptions and projections regarding the industry, business, future operating results, potential acquisitions and anticipated cash requirements) may be forward-looking statements. Words such as "should," "may," "will," "can," "of the opinion," "confident," "anticipates," "expects," "intends," "plans," "believes," "seeks," "estimates" "continues," "outlook," initiatives," "goals," "opportunities," and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. Such statements, including statements regarding adverse market conditions; our future growth; anticipated cost savings, revenue increases, credit losses and capital expenditures; contractual obligations; dividend declarations and payments; common stock repurchases; tax rates and assumptions; strategic initiatives, acquisitions and dispositions; our competitive position and retention of customers; and our continued investment in information technology, are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results projected, expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in Item 1A. "Risk Factors" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and those described from time to time in our future reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Many of these risk factors are outside of our control, and as such, they involve risks which are not currently known that could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed or implied herein. The forward-looking statements in this document are made as of the date on which they are made and we do not undertake to update our forward-looking statements.
Automotive Industry and Economic Impacts on our Business
We are dependent on the supply of used vehicles in the wholesale market, and our financial performance depends, in part, on conditions in the automotive industry. The automotive industry has experienced unprecedented market conditions, including global automotive production challenges. In recent years, these conditions have resulted in significant fluctuations in used vehicle values and declines in vehicle volumes in the wholesale market. More recently, new vehicle supply has begun to recover, which over time should increase wholesale supply.
However, macroeconomic factors, including inflationary pressures, rising interest rates, volatility of oil and natural gas prices and declining consumer confidence continue to impact the affordability and demand for new and used vehicles. Declining economic conditions present a risk to our operations and the stability of the automotive industry. Given the nature of these factors, we cannot predict whether or for how long certain trends will continue, nor to what degree these trends will impact us in the future.
Overview
We are a leading digital marketplace for used vehicles, connecting sellers and buyers across North America and Europe to facilitate fast, easy and transparent transactions. Our business is divided into two reportable business segments, each of which is an integral part of the wholesale used vehicle remarketing industry: Marketplace and Finance.
The Marketplace segment serves a domestic and international customer base through digital marketplaces in the U.S., Canada and Europe and vehicle logistics center locations across Canada. Comprehensive private label remarketing solutions are offered to automobile manufacturers, captive finance companies and other commercial customers to offer vehicles digitally. Vehicles sold on our digital platforms are typically sold by commercial fleet operators, financial institutions, rental car companies, new and used vehicle dealers and vehicle manufacturers and their captive finance companies to dealer customers. We also provide value-added ancillary services including inbound and outbound transportation logistics, reconditioning, vehicle inspection and certification, titling, administrative and collateral recovery services.
Through AFC, the Finance segment provides short-term, inventory-secured financing, known as floorplan financing, primarily to independent dealer customers throughout the United States and Canada. In addition, AFC provides liquidity for customer trade-ins which can encompass settling lien holder payoffs. AFC also provides title services for their customers. These services are provided through AFC's digital servicing network as well as its physical locations throughout North America.
Since the first quarter of 2022, results of the ADESA U.S. physical auctions have been reported as discontinued operations (see Note 4).
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Industry Trends
Wholesale Used Vehicle Industry
We believe the U.S. and Canadian wholesale used vehicle industry has a total addressable market of approximately 15 million vehicles, which can fluctuate depending on seasonality and a variety of other macro-economic and industry factors. This wholesale used vehicle industry consists of the commercial market (commercial sellers that sell to franchise and independent dealers) and the dealer-to-dealer market (franchise and independent dealers that both buy and sell vehicles). The Company supports the majority of commercial sellers in North America with our technology and we believe digital applications may provide an opportunity to expand the total addressable market for dealer-to-dealer transactions. The supply chain issues and market conditions facing the automotive industry in recent years, including the disruption of new vehicle production, low new vehicle supply and historically high used vehicle pricing have had a material impact on the wholesale used vehicle industry.
Automotive Finance
AFC works with independent dealer customers to improve their results by providing a comprehensive set of business and financial solutions that leverage its local presence of branches and in-market representatives, industry experience and scale, as well as OPENLANE affiliations. AFC's North American dealer base was comprised of approximately 14,200 dealers in 2023.
Key challenges for the independent dealer customers include demand for used vehicles, disruptions in pricing of used vehicle inventory, access to consumer financing, increased interest rates and increased used car retail activity of franchise and public dealerships (most of which do not utilize AFC or its competitors for floorplan financing). These same challenges, to the extent they occur, could result in a material negative impact on AFC's results of operations. A significant decline in used vehicle sales would result in a decrease in consumer auto loan originations and an increased number of dealers defaulting on their loans. In addition, volatility in wholesale vehicle pricing impacts the value of recovered collateral on defaulted loans and the resulting severity of credit losses at AFC. A decrease in wholesale used car pricing could lead to increased losses if dealers are unable to satisfy their obligations.
Seasonality
The volume of vehicles sold through our marketplaces generally fluctuates from quarter-to-quarter. This seasonality is caused by several factors including weather, the timing of used vehicles available for sale from selling customers, holidays, and the seasonality of the retail market for used vehicles, which affects the demand side of the auction industry. Wholesale used vehicle volumes tend to decline during prolonged periods of winter weather conditions. As a result, revenues and operating expenses related to volume will fluctuate accordingly on a quarterly basis. In North America, the fourth calendar quarter typically experiences lower used vehicle volume as well as additional costs associated with the holidays and winter weather.
In addition, changes in working capital vary from quarter-to-quarter as a result of the timing of collections and disbursements of funds to consignors from marketplace sales held near period end.
Sources of Revenues and Expenses
The vehicles sold on our marketplaces generate auction fees from buyers and sellers. The Company generally does not take title to these consigned vehicles and records only its auction fees as revenue ("Auction fees" in the consolidated statement of income (loss)) because it has no influence on the vehicle auction selling price agreed to by the seller and the buyer at the auction. The Company does not record the gross selling price of the consigned vehicles sold at auction as revenue. The Company generally enforces its rights to payment for seller transactions through net settlement provisions following the sale of a vehicle. Marketplace services such as inbound and outbound transportation logistics, reconditioning, vehicle inspection and certification, collateral recovery services and technology solutions are generally recognized at the time of service ("Service revenue" in the consolidated statement of income (loss)). The Company also sells vehicles that have been purchased, which represent approximately 1% of the total volume of vehicles sold. For these types of sales, the Company does record the gross selling price of purchased vehicles sold at auction as revenue ("Purchased vehicle sales" in the consolidated statement of income (loss)) and the gross purchase price of the vehicles as "Cost of services." AFC's revenue ("Finance-related revenue" in the consolidated statement of income (loss)) is comprised of interest and fee income, provision for credit losses and other revenues associated with our finance receivables.
Although Marketplace revenues primarily include auction fees and service revenue, our related receivables and payables include the gross value of the vehicles sold. Trade receivables include the unremitted purchase price of vehicles purchased by third parties through our marketplaces, fees to be collected from those buyers and amounts due for services provided by us related to certain consigned vehicles. The amounts due with respect to the services provided by us related to certain consigned vehicles are generally deducted from the sales proceeds upon the eventual auction or other disposition of the related vehicles. Accounts payable include amounts due sellers from the proceeds of the sale of their consigned vehicles less any fees.
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Our operating expenses consist of cost of services, selling, general and administrative and depreciation and amortization. Cost of services is composed of payroll and related costs, subcontract services, the cost of vehicles purchased, supplies, insurance, property taxes, utilities, service contract claims, maintenance and lease expense related to the auction sites and loan offices. Cost of services excludes depreciation and amortization. Selling, general and administrative expenses are comprised of payroll and related costs, sales and marketing, information technology services and professional fees.
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Results of Operations
Overview of Results of OPENLANE, Inc. for the Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022:
 Year Ended
December 31,
(Dollars in millions except per share amounts)20232022
Revenues from continuing operations  
Auction fees$395.3 $370.3 
Service revenue619.7 590.3 
Purchased vehicle sales236.7 182.9 
Finance-related revenue393.4 375.9 
Total revenues from continuing operations1,645.1 1,519.4 
Cost of services*867.6 834.3 
Gross profit*777.5 685.1 
Selling, general and administrative430.4 445.1 
Depreciation and amortization101.5 100.2 
Gain on sale of property (33.9)
Goodwill and other intangibles impairment250.8 — 
Operating profit (loss)(5.2)173.7 
Interest expense155.8 119.2 
Other (income) expense, net(15.6)(1.3)
Loss on extinguishment of debt1.1 17.2 
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes(146.5)38.6 
Income taxes8.3 10.0 
Income (loss) from continuing operations(154.8)28.6 
Income from discontinued operations, net of income taxes0.7 212.6 
Net income (loss)$(154.1)$241.2 
Income (loss) from continuing operations per share  
Basic$(1.83)$(0.10)
Diluted$(1.83)$(0.10)

* Exclusive of depreciation and amortization
Overview
For the year ended December 31, 2023, we had revenue of $1,645.1 million compared with revenue of $1,519.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of 8%. For a further discussion of revenues, gross profit and selling, general and administrative expenses, see the segment results discussions below.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization increased $1.3 million, or 1%, to $101.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with $100.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in depreciation and amortization was primarily the result of the amortization of the ADESA tradename, which was previously an indefinite-lived asset, partially offset by assets that have become fully depreciated and a reduction in assets placed in service.
Gain on Sale of Property
In October 2022, the Company closed on the sale of excess land in Montreal which resulted in a gain of $33.9 million.
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Goodwill and Other Intangibles Impairment
Goodwill represents the excess cost over fair value of identifiable net assets of businesses acquired. The Company tests goodwill and indefinite-lived tradenames for impairment at the reporting unit level annually during the second quarter, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that impairment may exist. When performing the impairment assessment, the fair value of the Company's reporting units are estimated using the expected present value of future cash flows (Level 3 inputs).
As part of this annual process, in the second quarter of 2023 the Company updated its forecasts for all of its reporting units, including an updated estimate for near-term and long-term revenue growth rates reflecting a slower overall recovery in vehicle volumes. Discount rates and other cash flow assumptions used in the valuations were also adjusted. As a result of this impairment assessment, it was determined that the fair value was lower than the carrying value for our U.S. Dealer-to-Dealer and Europe reporting units (both within the Marketplace segment). Accordingly, the Company recorded non-cash goodwill impairment charges totaling $218.9 million related to our U.S. Dealer-to-Dealer reporting unit and $6.4 million related to our Europe reporting unit. The goodwill impairment charge related to our U.S. Dealer-to-Dealer reporting unit relates to tax deductible goodwill, and as such the impairment resulted in a deferred tax benefit of $52.5 million. The goodwill impairment related to our U.S. Dealer-to-Dealer reporting unit was primarily driven by lower near-term and long-term revenue growth associated with a slower overall recovery in vehicle volumes. The goodwill impairment related to our Europe reporting unit was driven by combining two previously separate reporting units (ADESA U.K. and ADESA Europe) into a single reporting unit. Including ADESA U.K. in the reporting unit resulted in a reduction in the overall fair value of the combined reporting unit, resulting in an impairment charge. The fair value of the remaining reporting units were in excess of their carrying value. The impairment charges were reported as a component of "Goodwill and other intangibles impairment" in the consolidated statements of income (loss).
As a result of the second quarter 2023 impairment charges, the carrying value of the U.S. Dealer-to-Dealer and Europe reporting units now approximate fair value. The assumptions used in the discounted cash flow analysis are subject to inherent uncertainties and subjectivity. As such, changes in our future forecasts, operating results, cash flows, discount rates and other factors used to estimate the fair value of our reporting units may result in additional goodwill impairment charges in the future, and could have a material, non-cash, effect on our consolidated operating profit (loss) and net income (loss).
We will continue to monitor events occurring or circumstances changing which may suggest that goodwill should be reevaluated during interim periods. As of December 31, 2023, the remaining carrying value of goodwill related to the U.S. Dealer-to-Dealer and Europe reporting units was $87.3 million and $120.8 million, respectively.
In addition, the second quarter 2023 announcement of the rebrand to an OPENLANE branded marketplace from the ADESA branded marketplaces served as a triggering event requiring a re-evaluation of the useful life and impairment of the ADESA tradename. As such, the Company evaluated the $122.8 million carrying amount of its indefinite-lived ADESA tradename, resulting in a non-cash impairment charge totaling $25.5 million in the second quarter of 2023 and associated deferred tax benefit of $6.5 million (within the Marketplace segment). The impairment charge was reported as a component of "Goodwill and other intangibles impairment" in the consolidated statements of income (loss). The ADESA tradename is expected to continue to generate cash flows pursuant to the purchase and commercial agreements with Carvana and its affiliates for a defined period. The fair value of the ADESA tradename was estimated using the royalty savings method (Level 3 inputs). Furthermore, as a result of the rebrand to OPENLANE, the ADESA tradename is no longer deemed to have an indefinite life and its remaining carrying amount of $97.3 million will be amortized over a remaining useful life of approximately 6 years.
The deferred tax benefits of $52.5 million and $6.5 million associated with the goodwill and tradename impairments, respectively, resulted in the U.S. being in a net deferred tax asset position. Due to the three-year cumulative loss related to U.S. operations, we recorded a $36.4 million valuation allowance against the U.S. net deferred tax asset at December 31, 2023.
Interest Expense
Interest expense increased $36.6 million, or 31%, to $155.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with $119.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. Interest expense increased $51.6 million at AFC and the increase was attributable to an increase in the average interest rate on the AFC securitization obligations to approximately 7.4% for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared with approximately 4.0% for the year ended December 31, 2022. In addition, in 2022, there was a realized gain of $16.7 million related to the discontinuance of hedge accounting and termination of the interest rate swaps. These items were partially offset by a decrease in interest expense resulting from repayments of term loan and senior note debt in 2022 and 2023.
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Other (Income) Expense, Net
For the year ended December 31, 2023, we had other income of $15.6 million compared with $1.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in other income was primarily attributable to the receipt of $20.0 million in connection with the early termination of a contractual arrangement and a net decrease in realized and unrealized losses on investment securities of $6.7 million, partially offset by the impairment of an equity security and note receivable with the same investee aggregating $10.3 million, a $1.3 million increase in contingent consideration valuation adjustment and a decrease in other miscellaneous income items aggregating $6.2 million. In addition, there were $2.9 million in foreign currency gains on intercompany balances for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with $2.5 million in foreign currency losses on intercompany balances for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt
In 2023, we replaced the Previous Revolving Credit Facility and also prepaid a portion of the senior notes. As a result of these items, we recorded a loss on extinguishment of debt totaling $1.1 million. The loss was primarily the result of the write-off of unamortized debt issuance costs associated with lenders not participating in the Revolving Credit Facility and unamortized debt issuance costs associated with the portion of the senior notes repaid.
In 2022, we prepaid the outstanding balance on Term Loan B-6, as well as a portion of the senior notes with proceeds from the Transaction. As a result of these repayments, we recorded a loss on extinguishment of debt totaling $17.2 million primarily representative of the early repayment premium on the senior notes and the write-off of unamortized debt issuance costs associated with Term Loan B-6 and the portion of the senior notes repaid.
Income Taxes
We had an effective tax rate of -5.7% resulting in expense on a pre-tax loss for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with an effective tax rate of 25.9% for the year ended December 31, 2022. The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2023 was impacted by the goodwill and other intangibles impairment charges and resulting $59.0 million deferred tax benefit recorded with respect to the impairment of tax deductible goodwill and the impairment of other intangibles, partially offset by the $36.4 million deferred tax expense associated with the recording of valuation allowance against the U.S. net deferred tax asset.
Income from Discontinued Operations
In May 2022, Carvana acquired the ADESA U.S. physical auction business from the Company. As such, the financial results of the ADESA U.S. physical auction business have been accounted for as discontinued operations for all periods presented. For the year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company's financial statements included income from discontinued operations of $0.7 million and $212.6 million, respectively. The $0.7 million in income from discontinued operations for the year ended December 31, 2023 was comprised of an adjustment to income taxes.
Impact of Foreign Currency
For the year ended December 31, 2023 compared with the year ended December 31, 2022, the change in the Canadian dollar exchange rate decreased revenue by $13.9 million, operating profit by $3.5 million and net income by $1.5 million. For the year ended December 31, 2023 compared with the year ended December 31, 2022, the change in the euro exchange rate increased revenue by $7.0 million, operating profit by $0.5 million and net income by $0.3 million.
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Marketplace Results
 Year Ended
December 31,
(Dollars in millions, except per vehicle amounts)20232022
Auction fees$395.3 $370.3 
Service revenue619.7 590.3 
Purchased vehicle sales236.7 182.9 
Total Marketplace revenue from continuing operations1,251.7 1,143.5 
Cost of services*801.7 771.2 
Gross profit*450.0 372.3 
Selling, general and administrative380.6 398.6 
Depreciation and amortization92.2 92.3 
Gain on sale of property (33.9)
Goodwill and other intangibles impairment250.8 — 
Operating profit (loss)$(273.6)$(84.7)
Commercial vehicles sold710,000 661,000 
Dealer consignment vehicles sold621,000 636,000 
Total vehicles sold1,331,000 1,297,000 
Gross profit percentage, excluding purchased vehicles*44.3%38.8%

* Exclusive of depreciation and amortization
Total Marketplace Revenue
Revenue from the Marketplace segment increased $108.2 million, or 9%, to $1,251.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with $1,143.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The change in revenue included the impact of a decrease in revenue of $11.5 million due to fluctuations in the Canadian dollar exchange rate, partially offset by an increase in revenue of $7.0 million due to fluctuations in the euro exchange rate. The increase in revenue was primarily attributable to the increases in auction fees, service revenue and purchased vehicle sales (discussed below).
The 3% increase in the number of vehicles sold was comprised of a 7% increase in commercial volumes and a 2% decrease in dealer consignment volumes. The gross merchandise value ("GMV") of vehicles sold for the year ended December 31, 2023 was approximately $24.1 billion.
Auction Fees
Auction fees increased $25.0 million, or 7%, to $395.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with $370.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The number of vehicles sold increased 3%. Auction fees per vehicle sold for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased $11, or 4%, to $297, compared with $286 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in auction fees per vehicle sold reflects the impact of price increases and the introduction of new auction related services.
Service Revenue
Service revenue increased $29.4 million, or 5%, to $619.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with $590.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily as a result of increases in repossession and remarketing fees of $25.1 million, third-party fees for platform services of $9.0 million, inspection service revenue of $7.1 million and a net increase in other miscellaneous service revenues aggregating approximately $4.3 million, partially offset by decreases in transportation revenue of $13.6 million and reconditioning revenue of $2.5 million.
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Purchased Vehicle Sales
Purchased vehicle sales, which include the entire selling price of the vehicle, increased $53.8 million, or 29%, to $236.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with $182.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily as a result of an increase in the number of purchased vehicles sold and the average selling price of purchased vehicles sold in Europe.
Gross Profit
For the year ended December 31, 2023, gross profit from the Marketplace segment increased $77.7 million, or 21%, to $450.0 million, compared with $372.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. Revenue increased 9% for the year ended December 31, 2023, while cost of services increased 4% during the same period. Gross profit from the Marketplace segment was 36.0% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with 32.6% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022. Excluding purchased vehicle sales, gross profit as a percentage of revenue was 44.3% and 38.8% for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The entire selling and purchase price of the vehicle is recorded as revenue and cost of services for purchased vehicles sold.
Gross profit as a percentage of revenue increased for the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared with the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to improved transportation margins, improved profitability in our dealer-to-dealer platforms, cost savings initiatives and an increase in third-party fees for platform services.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses from the Marketplace segment decreased $18.0 million, or 5%, to $380.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with $398.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily as a result of decreases in professional fees of $9.8 million, severance of $5.9 million, fluctuations in the Canadian exchange rate of $5.5 million, telecom expenses of $3.0 million, information technology costs of $1.6 million and stock-based compensation of $1.0 million, partially offset by increases in incentive-based compensation of $3.4 million, marketing costs of $2.8 million, compensation expense of $1.3 million and other miscellaneous expenses aggregating $1.3 million.
Gain on Sale of Property
In October 2022, the Company closed on the sale of excess land in Montreal which resulted in a gain of $33.9 million.
Goodwill and Other Intangibles Impairment
See the above discussion of goodwill and other intangibles impairment in the consolidated results of operations for OPENLANE, Inc.
37

Finance Results
 Year Ended
December 31,
(Dollars in millions except volumes and per loan amounts)20232022
Finance-related revenue 
Interest income$248.4 $202.8 
Fee income183.3 171.9 
Other revenue12.3 11.0 
Provision for credit losses(50.6)(9.8)
Total Finance revenue393.4 375.9 
Cost of services*65.9 63.1 
Gross profit*327.5 312.8 
Selling, general and administrative49.8 46.5 
Depreciation and amortization9.3 7.9 
Operating profit$268.4 $258.4 
Loan transactions1,625,000 1,562,000 
Revenue per loan transaction$242 $241 

* Exclusive of depreciation and amortization
Revenue
For the year ended December 31, 2023, the Finance segment revenue increased $17.5 million, or 5%, to $393.4 million, compared with $375.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in revenue was primarily the result of a 4% increase in loan transactions.
Revenue per loan transaction, which includes both loans paid off and loans curtailed, increased $1, or less than 1%, primarily as a result of an increase in interest yields driven by an increase in prime rates (Federal Reserve raised interest rates 100 basis points in 2023), and an increase in other fee income per unit, partially offset by an increase in net credit losses and a decrease in loan values.
The provision for credit losses increased to 2.1% of the average managed receivables for the year ended December 31, 2023 from 0.4% for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increased loss rate was due to significant used vehicle value declines, interest rate increases and tightening retail credit availability that impacted used retail sales. The provision for credit losses is expected to be approximately 2% or under, on a long-term basis, of the average managed receivables balance. However, the actual losses in any particular quarter or year could deviate from this range.
Gross Profit
For the year ended December 31, 2023, gross profit for the Finance segment increased $14.7 million, or 5%, to $327.5 million, or 83.2% of revenue, compared with $312.8 million, or 83.2% of revenue, for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in gross profit was primarily the result of a 5% increase in revenue, partially offset by a 4% increase in cost of services. The increase in cost of services of $2.8 million was primarily the result of increases in compensation expense of $2.2 million, lot check expenses of $0.6 million and other miscellaneous expenses aggregating $1.3 million, partially offset by a decrease in incentive-based compensation of $1.3 million.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses for the Finance segment increased $3.3 million, or 7%, to $49.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with $46.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 primarily as a result of increases in postage expense of $2.8 million, information technology costs of $0.8 million, stock-based compensation of $0.8 million and other miscellaneous expenses aggregating $0.1 million, partially offset by decreases in professional fees of $0.4 million, incentive-based compensation of $0.4 million and contract labor of $0.4 million.
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Overview of Results of OPENLANE, Inc. for the Year Ended December 31, 2021:
An overview of the results of OPENLANE, Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2021 was included in Part II, Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, as filed with the SEC on March 9, 2023.
Overview of Results of OPENLANE, Inc. for the Three Months Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022:
 Three Months Ended
December 31,
(Dollars in millions except per share amounts)20232022
Revenues from continuing operations  
Auction fees$90.0 $80.8 
Service revenue144.5 146.3 
Purchased vehicle sales60.2 45.0 
Finance-related revenue96.6 100.7 
Total revenues from continuing operations391.3 372.8 
Cost of services*204.8 202.0 
Gross profit*186.5 170.8 
Selling, general and administrative103.8 93.0 
Depreciation and amortization25.3 24.0 
Gain on sale of property (33.9)
Operating profit57.4 87.7 
Interest expense39.3 35.4 
Other (income) expense, net(3.1)(7.7)
Loss on extinguishment of debt 0.2 
Income from continuing operations before income taxes21.2 59.8 
Income taxes7.6 17.9 
Income from continuing operations13.6 41.9 
Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of income taxes0.7 (4.8)
Net income$14.3 $37.1 
Income from continuing operations per share  
Basic$0.02 $0.21 
Diluted$0.02 $0.21 

* Exclusive of depreciation and amortization
Overview
For the three months ended December 31, 2023, we had revenue of $391.3 million compared with revenue of $372.8 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022, an increase of 5%. For a further discussion of revenues, gross profit and selling, general and administrative expenses, see the segment results discussions below.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization increased $1.3 million, or 5%, to $25.3 million for the three months ended December 31, 2023, compared with $24.0 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022. The increase in depreciation and amortization was primarily the result of the amortization of the ADESA tradename, which was previously an indefinite-lived asset.
Gain on Sale of Property
In October 2022, the Company closed on the sale of excess land in Montreal which resulted in a gain of $33.9 million.
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Interest Expense
Interest expense increased $3.9 million, or 11%, to $39.3 million for the three months ended December 31, 2023, compared with $35.4 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022. Interest expense increased $5.8 million at AFC and the increase was attributable to an increase in the average interest rate on the AFC securitization obligations to approximately 7.7% for the three months ended December 31, 2023, as compared with approximately 6.2% for the three months ended December 31, 2022. These items were partially offset by a decrease in interest expense resulting from the repayment of senior note debt in 2023.
Other (Income) Expense, Net
For the three months ended December 31, 2023, we had other income of $3.1 million compared with $7.7 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022. The decrease in other income was primarily attributable to a decrease in foreign currency gains on intercompany balances of $4.0 million and a decrease in other miscellaneous income aggregating $0.6 million.
Income Taxes
We had an effective tax rate of 35.8% for the three months ended December 31, 2023, compared with an effective tax rate of 29.9% for the three months ended December 31, 2022. The effective tax rate for the three months ended December 31, 2023 was unfavorably impacted by an increase in the valuation allowance related to current year movement of the adjusted U.S. net deferred tax asset and tax expense related to current and planned distribution of foreign earnings.
Income (Loss) from Discontinued Operations
In May 2022, Carvana acquired the ADESA U.S. physical auction business from the Company. As such, the financial results of the ADESA U.S. physical auction business have been accounted for as discontinued operations for all periods presented. The $0.7 million in income from discontinued operations for the three months ended December 31, 2023 was comprised of an adjustment to income taxes. The $4.8 million loss from discontinued operations for the three months ended December 31, 2022 was comprised of an adjustment to income taxes of $5.8 million, partially offset by a $1.0 million reduction to stock-based compensation expense resulting from the true-up of performance-based restricted stock units.
Impact of Foreign Currency
For the three months ended December 31, 2023 compared with the three months ended December 31, 2022, the change in the euro exchange rate increased revenue by $3.6 million, operating profit by $0.3 million and net income by $0.2 million. For the three months ended December 31, 2023 compared with the three months ended December 31, 2022, the change in the Canadian dollar exchange rate decreased revenue by $0.3 million, operating profit by $0.1 million and had no impact on net income.
40

Marketplace Results
 Three Months Ended
December 31,
(Dollars in millions, except per vehicle amounts)20232022
Auction fees$90.0 $80.8 
Service revenue144.5 146.3 
Purchased vehicle sales60.2 45.0 
Total Marketplace revenue from continuing operations294.7 272.1 
Cost of services*188.5 186.3 
Gross profit*106.2 85.8 
Selling, general and administrative91.7 82.8 
Depreciation and amortization22.7 22.2 
Gain on sale of property (33.9)
Operating profit (loss)$(8.2)$14.7 
Commercial vehicles sold183,000 151,000 
Dealer consignment vehicles sold135,000 138,000 
Total vehicles sold318,000 289,000 
Gross profit percentage, excluding purchased vehicles*45.3%37.8%

* Exclusive of depreciation and amortization
Total Marketplace Revenue
Revenue from the Marketplace segment increased $22.6 million, or 8%, to $294.7 million for the three months ended December 31, 2023, compared with $272.1 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022. The change in revenue included the impact of an increase in revenue of $3.6 million due to fluctuations in the euro exchange rate, partially offset by a decrease in revenue of $0.3 million due to fluctuations in the Canadian dollar exchange rate. The increase in revenue was primarily attributable to the increases in purchased vehicle sales and auction fees (discussed below).
The 10% increase in the number of vehicles sold was comprised of a 21% increase in commercial volumes and a 2% decrease in dealer consignment volumes. The GMV of vehicles sold for the three months ended December 31, 2023 was approximately $5.7 billion.
Auction Fees
Auction fees increased $9.2 million, or 11%, to $90.0 million for the three months ended December 31, 2023, compared with $80.8 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022. The number of vehicles sold increased 10%. Auction fees per vehicle sold for the three months ended December 31, 2023 increased $3, or 1%, to $283, compared with $280 for the three months ended December 31, 2022. The increase in auction fees per vehicle sold reflects the impact of price increases and the introduction of new auction related services.
Service Revenue
Service revenue decreased $1.8 million, or 1%, to $144.5 million for the three months ended December 31, 2023 compared with $146.3 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022, primarily as a result of a decrease in transportation revenue of $13.0 million, partially offset by increases in repossession and remarketing fees of $6.9 million, inspection service revenue of $1.4 million and a net increase in other miscellaneous service revenues aggregating approximately $2.9 million.
Purchased Vehicle Sales
Purchased vehicle sales, which include the entire selling price of the vehicle, increased $15.2 million, or 34%, to $60.2 million for the three months ended December 31, 2023, compared with $45.0 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022, primarily as a result of an increase in the number of purchased vehicles sold.
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Gross Profit
For the three months ended December 31, 2023, gross profit for the Marketplace segment increased $20.4 million, or 24%, to $106.2 million, compared with $85.8 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022. Revenue increased 8% for the three months ended December 31, 2023, while cost of services increased 1% during the same period. Gross profit for the Marketplace segment was 36.0% of revenue for the three months ended December 31, 2023, compared with 31.5% of revenue for the three months ended December 31, 2022. Excluding purchased vehicle sales, gross profit as a percentage of revenue was 45.3% and 37.8% for the three months ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The entire selling and purchase price of the vehicle is recorded as revenue and cost of services for purchased vehicles sold.
Gross profit as a percentage of revenue increased for the three months ended December 31, 2023 as compared with the three months ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to improved mix in our transportation services, improved profitability in our dealer-to-dealer platforms and cost savings initiatives.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses for the Marketplace segment increased $8.9 million, or 11%, to $91.7 million for the three months ended December 31, 2023, compared with $82.8 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022, primarily as a result of increases in stock-based compensation of $7.4 million, information technology costs of $2.4 million and compensation expense of $1.6 million, partially offset by decreases in severance of $1.9 million and other miscellaneous expenses aggregating $0.6 million.
Gain on Sale of Property
In October 2022, the Company closed on the sale of excess land in Montreal which resulted in a gain of $33.9 million.
Finance Results
 Three Months Ended
December 31,
(Dollars in millions except volumes and per loan amounts)20232022
Finance-related revenue 
Interest income$62.9 $59.7 
Fee income46.0 44.7 
Other revenue2.5 3.3 
Provision for credit losses(14.8)(7.0)
Total Finance revenue96.6 100.7 
Cost of services*16.3 15.7 
Gross profit*80.3 85.0 
Selling, general and administrative12.1 10.2 
Depreciation and amortization2.6 1.8 
Operating profit$65.6 $73.0 
Loan transactions397,000 392,000 
Revenue per loan transaction$243 $257 

* Exclusive of depreciation and amortization
Revenue
For the three months ended December 31, 2023, the Finance segment revenue decreased $4.1 million, or 4%, to $96.6 million, compared with $100.7 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022. The decrease in revenue was primarily the result of an increase in the provision for credit losses, partially offset by a 1% increase in loan transactions.
Revenue per loan transaction, which includes both loans paid off and loans curtailed, decreased $14, or 5%, primarily as a result of an increase in net credit losses, a decrease in loan values and a decrease in average portfolio duration, partially offset by an increase in interest yields driven by an increase in prime rates (Federal Reserve raised interest rates 100 basis points since December 31, 2022), and an increase in other fee income per unit.
42

The provision for credit losses increased to 2.5% of the average managed receivables for the three months ended December 31, 2023 from 1.1% for the three months ended December 31, 2022. The increased loss rate was due to significant used vehicle value declines, interest rate increases and tightening retail credit availability that impacted used retail sales. The provision for credit losses is expected to be approximately 2% or under, on a long-term basis, of the average managed receivables balance. However, the actual losses in any particular quarter or year could deviate from this range.
Gross Profit
For the three months ended December 31, 2023, gross profit for the Finance segment decreased $4.7 million, or 6%, to $80.3 million, or 83.1% of revenue, compared with $85.0 million, or 84.4% of revenue, for the three months ended December 31, 2022. The decrease in gross profit as a percent of revenue was primarily the result of a 4% decrease in revenue. In addition, there was a 4% increase in cost of services. The increase in cost of services of $0.6 million was primarily the result of increases in compensation expense of $0.4 million, professional fees of $0.2 million and travel expenses of $0.2 million, partially offset by a decrease in other miscellaneous expenses aggregating $0.2 million.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses for the Finance segment increased $1.9 million, or 19%, to $12.1 million for the three months ended December 31, 2023, compared with $10.2 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022 primarily as a result of increases in stock-based compensation of $1.9 million, postage expense of $1.1 million and information technology costs of $0.2 million, partially offset by decreases in compensation expense of $0.2 million, incentive-based compensation of $0.2 million and other miscellaneous expenses aggregating $0.9 million.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
We believe that the significant indicators of liquidity for our business are cash on hand, cash flow from operations, working capital and amounts available under our Revolving Credit Facility. Our principal sources of liquidity consist of cash generated by operations and borrowings under our Revolving Credit Facility.
 December 31,
(Dollars in millions)20232022
Cash and cash equivalents$93.5 $225.7 
Restricted cash65.4 52.0 
Working capital363.1 379.2 
Amounts available under the Revolving Credit Facility133.3 161.0 
Cash provided by operating activities for the year ended237.0 4.1 
We regularly evaluate alternatives for our capital structure and liquidity given our expected cash flows, growth and operating capital requirements as well as capital market conditions.
Working Capital
A substantial amount of our working capital is generated from the payments received for services provided. The majority of our working capital needs are short-term in nature, usually less than a week in duration. Most of the financial institutions place a temporary hold on the availability of the funds deposited that generally can range up to two business days, resulting in cash in our accounts and on our balance sheet that is unavailable for use until it is made available by the various financial institutions. There are outstanding checks (book overdrafts) to sellers and vendors included in current liabilities. Because a portion of these outstanding checks for operations in the U.S. are drawn upon bank accounts at financial institutions other than the financial institutions that hold the cash, we cannot offset all the cash and the outstanding checks on our balance sheet. Changes in working capital vary from quarter-to-quarter as a result of the timing of collections and disbursements of funds to consignors from marketplace sales held near period end.
Approximately $31.6 million of available cash was held by our foreign subsidiaries at December 31, 2023. If funds held by our foreign subsidiaries were to be repatriated, state and local income tax expense and withholding tax expense would need to be recognized, net of any applicable foreign tax credits.
AFC offers short-term inventory-secured financing, also known as floorplan financing, to independent dealer customers. Financing is primarily provided for terms of 30 to 90 days. AFC principally generates its funding through the sale of its receivables. The receivables sold pursuant to the securitization agreements are accounted for as secured borrowings. For further discussion of AFC's securitization arrangements, see "Securitization Facilities."
43

Credit Facilities
On June 23, 2023, we entered into the Credit Agreement, which replaces the Previous Credit Agreement, and provides for, among other things, the $325 million Revolving Credit Facility. As a result of replacing the Previous Revolving Credit Facility, we incurred a non-cash loss on the extinguishment of debt of $0.4 million in the second quarter of 2023. The loss was the result of the write-off of unamortized debt issuance costs associated with lenders that are not participating in the Revolving Credit Facility. We capitalized approximately $6.2 million of debt issuance costs in connection with the Credit Agreement.
The Revolving Credit Facility is available for letters of credit, working capital, permitted acquisitions and general corporate purposes. The Revolving Credit Facility also includes a $65 million sub-limit for the issuance of letters of credit and a $60 million sub-limit for swingline loans.
Loans under the Revolving Credit Facility bear interest at a rate calculated based on the type of borrowing (at the Company's election, either Adjusted Term SOFR Rate or Base Rate (each as defined in the Credit Agreement)) and the Company’s Consolidated Senior Secured Net Leverage Ratio (as defined in the Credit Agreement), with such rate ranging from 2.75% to 2.25% for Adjusted Term SOFR Rate loans and from 1.75% to 1.25% for Base Rate loans. The Company also pays a commitment fee between 25 to 35 basis points, payable quarterly, on the average daily unused amount of the Revolving Credit Facility based on the Company’s Consolidated Senior Secured Net Leverage Ratio.
As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, $137.0 million and $145.0 million was drawn on the Revolving Credit Facility and the Previous Revolving Credit Facility, respectively. We had related outstanding letters of credit in the aggregate amount of $54.7 million and $19.0 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, which reduce the amount available for borrowings under the respective revolving credit facility. Our European operations have lines of credit aggregating $33.1 million (€30 million) of which $17.6 million was drawn at December 31, 2023.
The obligations of the Company under the Revolving Credit Facility are guaranteed by certain of our domestic subsidiaries (the "Subsidiary Guarantors") and are secured by substantially all of the assets of the Company and the Subsidiary Guarantors, including but not limited to: (a) pledges of and first priority security interests in 100% of the equity interests of certain of the Company's and the Subsidiary Guarantors' domestic subsidiaries and 65% of the equity interests of certain of the Company's and the Subsidiary Guarantors' first tier foreign subsidiaries and (b) first priority security interests in substantially all other assets of the Company and each Subsidiary Guarantor, subject to certain exceptions.
Certain covenants contained within the Credit Agreement are critical to an investor’s understanding of our financial liquidity, as the failure to maintain compliance with these covenants could result in a default and allow the lenders under the Credit Agreement to declare all amounts borrowed immediately due and payable. The Credit Agreement contains a financial covenant requiring compliance with a maximum Consolidated Senior Secured Net Leverage Ratio not to exceed 3.5 as of the last day of each fiscal quarter on which any loans under the Revolving Credit Facility are outstanding. The Consolidated Senior Secured Net Leverage Ratio is calculated as Consolidated Total Debt (as defined in the Credit Agreement) divided by Consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the Credit Agreement) for the last four quarters. Consolidated Total Debt includes, among other things, term loan borrowings, revolving loans, finance lease liabilities and other obligations for borrowed money less Unrestricted Cash (as defined in the Credit Agreement). Consolidated EBITDA is EBITDA (earnings before interest expense, income taxes, depreciation and amortization) adjusted to exclude, among other things, (a) gains and losses from asset sales; (b) unrealized foreign currency translation gains and losses in respect of indebtedness; (c) certain non-recurring gains and losses; (d) stock-based compensation expense; (e) certain other non-cash amounts included in the determination of net income; (f) charges and revenue reductions resulting from purchase accounting; (g) minority interest; (h) consulting expenses incurred for cost reduction, operating restructuring and business improvement efforts; (i) expenses realized upon the termination of employees and the termination or cancellation of leases, software licenses or other contracts in connection with the operational restructuring and business improvement efforts; (j) expenses incurred in connection with permitted acquisitions; (k) any impairment charges or write-offs of intangibles; and (l) any extraordinary, unusual or non-recurring charges, expenses or losses. Our Consolidated Senior Secured Net Leverage Ratio was 0.4 at December 31, 2023.
In addition, the Credit Agreement and the indenture governing our senior notes (see Note 12, "Long-Term Debt" for additional information) contain certain limitations on our ability to pay dividends and other distributions, make certain acquisitions or investments, grant liens and sell assets, and the Credit Agreement contains certain limitations on our ability to incur indebtedness. The applicable covenants in the Credit Agreement affect our operating flexibility by, among other things, restricting our ability to incur expenses and indebtedness that could be used to grow the business, as well as to fund general corporate purposes. We were in compliance with the covenants in the Credit Agreement and the indenture governing our senior notes at December 31, 2023.
44

Recent Development
On January 19, 2024, the Company and ADESA Auctions Canada Corporation, a subsidiary of the Company (the "Canadian Borrower") entered into the First Amendment Agreement (the "First Amendment") to the Credit Agreement. The First Amendment provides for, among other things, (i) a C$175 million revolving credit facility in Canadian dollars (the "Canadian Revolving Credit Facility") and (ii) a C$50 million sub-limit (the "Canadian Sub-limit") under the Company's existing Revolving Credit Facility for borrowings in Canadian dollars. The proceeds from the Canadian Revolving Credit Facility may be used to finance a portion of the Manheim Canada acquisition, to pay for expenses related to the First Amendment and for ongoing working capital and general corporate purposes.
Loans under the Canadian Revolving Credit Facility bear interest at a rate calculated based on the type of borrowing (at the Canadian Borrower's election, either Adjusted Term CORRA Rate or Canadian Prime Rate (each as defined in the Credit Agreement, as amended by the First Amendment)) and the Company’s Consolidated Senior Secured Net Leverage Ratio, with such rate ranging from 3.00% to 2.50% for Adjusted Term CORRA loans and from 2.00% to 1.50% for Canadian Prime Rate loans. Loans under the Canadian Sub-limit will bear interest at the Adjusted Term CORRA Rate plus a margin ranging from 2.75% to 2.25% based on the Company’s Consolidated Senior Secured Net Leverage Ratio (the same margin as loans under the existing Revolving Credit Facility). The Canadian Borrower will also pay a commitment fee between 25 to 35 basis points, payable quarterly, on the average daily unused amount of the Canadian Revolving Credit Facility based on the Company’s Consolidated Senior Secured Net Leverage Ratio.
The obligations of the Canadian Borrower under the Canadian Revolving Credit Facility are guaranteed by certain of the Company’s domestic and Canadian subsidiaries (the "Canadian Revolving Credit Facility Subsidiary Guarantors") and are secured by substantially all of the assets of the Company, the Canadian Borrower and the Canadian Revolving Credit Facility Subsidiary Guarantors, subject to certain exceptions; provided, however, the Canadian Borrower and the other Canadian subsidiaries of the Company constituting the Canadian Revolving Credit Facility Subsidiary Guarantors shall guarantee and/or provide security for only the Canadian Secured Obligations (as defined in the Credit Agreement, as amended by the First Amendment).
Senior Notes
On May 31, 2017, we issued $950 million of 5.125% senior notes due June 1, 2025. The Company pays interest on the senior notes semi-annually in arrears on June 1 and December 1 of each year. The senior notes may be redeemed at par as of June 1, 2023. The senior notes are guaranteed by the Subsidiary Guarantors. In June 2023, in connection with a previously announced offer to purchase, we prepaid $140 million of the senior notes at par with proceeds from the Transaction. We incurred a loss on the extinguishment of the senior notes of $0.7 million in the second quarter of 2023 primarily representative of the write-off of unamortized debt issuance costs associated with the portion of the senior notes repaid, as well as purchase offer expenses. In August 2022, we conducted a cash tender offer to purchase up to $600 million principal amount of the senior notes. The tender offer was oversubscribed and as such, $600 million of the senior notes were accepted for prepayment and were prepaid in August 2022 with proceeds from the Transaction. We incurred a loss on the extinguishment of the senior notes of $9.5 million in 2022 primarily representative of the early repayment premium and the write-off of unamortized debt issuance costs associated with the portion of the senior notes repaid. As of December 31, 2023 there was $210.0 million of senior notes outstanding.
Use of Proceeds from the Transaction
The Company generated gross proceeds from the sale of the U.S. physical auction business of approximately $2.2 billion. The Transaction closed in May 2022. Under terms of the Previous Credit Agreement, net cash proceeds from the Transaction were used to repay the outstanding $926.2 million on Term Loan B-6 within three days of the Transaction. The Company also prepaid $600 million of the senior notes in August 2022 and $140 million of the senior notes in June 2023.
Liquidity
As of December 31, 2023, $137.0 million was drawn on the Revolving Credit Facility and is classified as current debt based on the Company’s past practice of using the Revolving Credit Facility for short term borrowings. However, the terms of the Revolving Credit Facility do not require repayment until maturity at June 23, 2028.
At December 31, 2023, cash totaled $93.5 million and there was an additional $133.3 million available for borrowing under the Revolving Credit Facility (net of $54.7 million in outstanding letters of credit). Funds held by our foreign subsidiaries could be repatriated, at which point state and local income tax expense and withholding tax expense would need to be recognized, net of any applicable foreign tax credits.
45

The Company’s auction volumes have been adversely impacted by the supply chain disruptions and associated challenges in the automotive industry. We expect to see an improvement in the used vehicle market in the coming years, which is expected to increase the volume of vehicles entering our auction platforms and have a positive impact on our operating results. We believe our sources of liquidity from our cash and cash equivalents on hand, working capital, cash provided by operating activities, and availability under our Revolving Credit Facility are sufficient to meet our operating needs for the foreseeable future. In addition, we believe the previously mentioned sources of liquidity will be sufficient to fund our capital requirements and debt service payments for the foreseeable future. A lack of recovery in market conditions, or further deterioration in market conditions, could materially affect the Company's liquidity.
Securitization Facilities
AFC sells the majority of its U.S. dollar denominated finance receivables on a revolving basis and without recourse to AFC Funding Corporation. A securitization agreement allows for the revolving sale by AFC Funding Corporation to a group of bank purchasers of undivided interests in certain finance receivables subject to committed liquidity. The agreement expires on January 31, 2026. AFC Funding Corporation had committed liquidity of $2.0 billion for U.S. finance receivables at December 31, 2023.
We also have an agreement for the securitization of AFCI's receivables, which expires on January 31, 2026. AFCI's committed facility is provided through a third-party conduit (separate from the U.S. facility) and was C$300 million at December 31, 2023. In March 2023, AFCI entered into the Receivables Purchase Agreement (the "Canadian Receivables Purchase Agreement"). The Canadian Receivables Purchase Agreement increased AFCI's committed liquidity from C$225 million to C$300 million and the facility's maturity date remains January 31, 2026. In addition, provisions providing a mechanism for determining alternative rates of interest were added. We capitalized approximately $0.6 million of costs in connection with the Canadian Receivables Purchase Agreement. The receivables sold pursuant to both the U.S. and Canadian securitization agreements are accounted for as secured borrowings.
AFC managed total finance receivables of $2,305.0 million and $2,416.6 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. AFC's allowance for losses was $23.0 million and $21.5 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, $2,296.4 million and $2,396.6 million, respectively, of finance receivables and a cash reserve of 1 or 3 percent of the obligations collateralized by finance receivables served as security for the $1,631.9 million and $1,677.6 million of obligations collateralized by finance receivables at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The amount of the cash reserve depends on circumstances which are set forth in the securitization agreements. There were unamortized securitization issuance costs of approximately $13.5 million and $19.4 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. After the occurrence of a termination event, as defined in the U.S. securitization agreement, the banks may, and could, cause the stock of AFC Funding Corporation to be transferred to the bank facility, though as a practical matter the bank facility would look to the liquidation of the receivables under the transaction documents as their primary remedy.
Proceeds from the revolving sale of receivables to the bank facilities are used to fund new loans to customers. AFC, AFC Funding Corporation and AFCI must maintain certain financial covenants including, among others, limits on the amount of debt AFC and AFCI can incur, minimum levels of tangible net worth, and other covenants tied to the performance of the finance receivables portfolio. The securitization agreements also incorporate the financial covenants of our Previous Credit Agreement. At December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with the covenants in the securitization agreements.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA, as presented herein, are supplemental measures of our performance that are not required by, or presented in accordance with, generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or GAAP. They are not measurements of our financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered substitutes for net income (loss) or any other performance measures derived in accordance with GAAP.
EBITDA is defined as net income (loss), plus interest expense net of interest income, income tax provision (benefit), depreciation and amortization. Adjusted EBITDA is EBITDA adjusted for the items of income and expense and expected incremental revenue and cost savings, as described above in the discussion of certain restrictive loan covenants under "Credit Facilities."
Management believes that the inclusion of supplementary adjustments to EBITDA applied in presenting Adjusted EBITDA is appropriate to provide additional information to investors about one of the principal measures of performance used by our creditors. In addition, management uses EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA to evaluate our performance. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA have limitations as analytical tools, and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of the results as reported under GAAP. These measures may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
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The following tables reconcile EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA to income (loss) from continuing operations for the periods presented:
 Three Months Ended December 31, 2023
(Dollars in millions)MarketplaceFinanceConsolidated
Income (loss) from continuing operations$(17.7)$31.3 $13.6 
Add back: 
Income taxes(2.5)10.1 7.6 
Interest expense, net of interest income4.9 34.0 38.9 
Depreciation and amortization22.7 2.6 25.3 
Intercompany interest9.8 (9.8)— 
EBITDA17.2 68.2 85.4 
Non-cash stock-based compensation2.7 0.9 3.6 
Acquisition related costs2.0 — 2.0 
Securitization interest— (31.4)(31.4)
Severance2.0 0.1 2.1 
Foreign currency (gains)/losses(2.1)— (2.1)
Net change in unrealized (gains) losses on investment securities— (0.4)(0.4)
Professional fees related to business improvement efforts1.7 0.4 2.1 
Other0.2 0.3 0.5 
  Total addbacks/(deductions)6.5 (30.1)(23.6)
Adjusted EBITDA$23.7 $38.1 $61.8 
 
 Three Months Ended December 31, 2022
(Dollars in millions)MarketplaceFinanceConsolidated
Income (loss) from continuing operations$5.8 $36.1 $41.9 
Add back: 
Income taxes4.5 13.4 17.9 
Interest expense, net of interest income6.8 28.1 34.9 
Depreciation and amortization22.2 1.8 24.0 
Intercompany interest5.3 (5.3)— 
EBITDA44.6 74.1 118.7 
Non-cash stock-based compensation(4.7)(1.0)(5.7)
Loss on extinguishment of debt0.2 — 0.2 
Acquisition related costs0.3 — 0.3 
Securitization interest— (25.8)(25.8)
Gain on sale of property(33.9)— (33.9)
Severance4.0 0.2 4.2 
Foreign currency (gains)/losses(6.1)— (6.1)
Net change in unrealized (gains) losses on investment securities— 0.6 0.6 
Professional fees related to business improvement efforts2.6 0.5 3.1 
Other0.7 0.2 0.9 
  Total addbacks/(deductions)(36.9)(25.3)(62.2)
Adjusted EBITDA$7.7 $48.8 $56.5 

 
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 Year Ended December 31, 2023
(Dollars in millions)MarketplaceFinanceConsolidated
Income (loss) from continuing operations$(277.5)$122.7 $(154.8)
Add back: 
Income taxes(40.4)48.7 8.3 
Interest expense, net of interest income21.7 130.6 152.3 
Depreciation and amortization92.2 9.3 101.5 
Intercompany interest33.9 (33.9)— 
EBITDA(170.1)277.4 107.3 
Non-cash stock-based compensation13.2 4.2 17.4 
Loss on extinguishment of debt1.1 — 1.1 
Acquisition related costs3.1 — 3.1 
Securitization interest— (120.4)(120.4)
Severance5.1 0.4 5.5 
Foreign currency (gains)/losses(2.9)— (2.9)
Goodwill and other intangibles impairment250.8 — 250.8 
Contingent consideration adjustment1.3 — 1.3 
Professional fees related to business improvement efforts
5.4 1.2 6.6 
Other1.3 0.9 2.2 
  Total addbacks/(deductions)278.4 (113.7)164.7 
Adjusted EBITDA$108.3 $163.7 $272.0 


 Year Ended December 31, 2022
(Dollars in millions)MarketplaceFinanceConsolidated
Income (loss) from continuing operations$(105.7)$134.3 $28.6 
Add back: 
Income taxes(36.4)46.4 10.0 
Interest expense, net of interest income37.6 78.9 116.5 
Depreciation and amortization92.3 7.9 100.2 
Intercompany interest8.4 (8.4)— 
EBITDA(3.8)259.1 255.3 
Non-cash stock-based compensation14.2 3.3 17.5 
Loss on extinguishment of debt17.2 — 17.2 
Acquisition related costs1.2 — 1.2 
Securitization interest— (70.7)(70.7)
Gain on sale of property(33.9)— (33.9)
(Gain)/Loss on asset sales(0.1)— (0.1)
Severance11.7 0.7 12.4 
Foreign currency (gains)/losses2.5 — 2.5 
Net change in unrealized (gains) losses on investment securities— 7.1 7.1 
Professional fees related to business improvement efforts
13.3 1.9 15.2 
Other7.1 0.4 7.5 
  Total addbacks/(deductions)33.2 (57.3)(24.1)
Adjusted EBITDA$29.4 $201.8 $231.2 

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Certain of our loan covenant calculations utilize financial results for the most recent four consecutive fiscal quarters. The following table reconciles EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA to net income (loss) for the periods presented:
 Three Months EndedTwelve
Months
Ended
(Dollars in millions)March 31,
2023
June 30,
2023
September 30,
2023
December 31,
2023
December 31, 2023
Net income (loss)$12.7 $(193.8)$12.7 $14.3 $(154.1)
Less: Income from discontinued operations— — — 0.7 0.7 
Income (loss) from continuing operations12.7 (193.8)12.7 13.6 (154.8)
Add back: 
Income taxes7.3 (19.3)12.7 7.6 8.3 
Interest expense, net of interest income37.437.538.538.9 152.3 
Depreciation and amortization23.0 26.8 26.4 25.3 101.5 
EBITDA80.4 (148.8)90.3 85.4 107.3 
Non-cash stock-based compensation3.8 5.5 4.5 3.6 17.4 
Loss on extinguishment of debt— 1.1 — — 1.1 
Acquisition related costs0.3 0.3 0.5 2.0 3.1 
Securitization interest(27.8)(29.6)(31.6)(31.4)(120.4)
Severance0.5 1.0 1.9 2.1 5.5 
Foreign currency (gains)/losses0.1 0.3 (1.2)(2.1)(2.9)
Goodwill and other intangibles impairment— 250.8 — — 250.8 
Contingent consideration adjustment— 1.3 — — 1.3 
Net change in unrealized (gains) losses on investment securities0.1 (0.2)0.5 (0.4)— 
Professional fees related to business improvement efforts0.7 2.1 1.7 2.1 6.6 
Other0.8 — 0.9 0.5 2.2 
     Total addbacks/(deductions)(21.5)232.6 (22.8)(23.6)164.7 
Adjusted EBITDA from continuing ops$58.9 $83.8 $67.5 $61.8 $272.0 

Summary of Cash Flows
 Year Ended
December 31,
(Dollars in millions)20232022
Net cash provided by (used by):  
Operating activities - continuing operations$237.0 $4.1 
Operating activities - discontinued operations(1.6)(459.1)
Investing activities - continuing operations(90.5)70.0 
Investing activities - discontinued operations7.0 2,077.4 
Financing activities - continuing operations(279.9)(1,621.9)
Financing activities - discontinued operations 10.8 
Net change in cash balances of discontinued operations 12.4 
Effect of exchange rate on cash9.2 (19.4)
Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$(118.8)$74.3 
Cash flow from operating activities (continuing operations) Net cash provided by operating activities (continuing operations) was $237.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with $4.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. Cash provided by continuing operations for 2023 consisted primarily of cash earnings and an increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses, partially offset by an increase in trade receivables and other assets. Cash provided by continuing operations
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for 2022 consisted primarily of cash earnings and a decrease in trade receivables and other assets, partially offset by a decrease in accounts payable and accrued expenses and the portion of contingent consideration payments classified in operating activities. The increase in operating cash flow was primarily attributable to changes in operating assets and liabilities as a result of the timing of collections and the disbursement of funds to consignors for marketplace sales held near period-ends, and changes in AFC's accounts payable balances, as well as a decrease in payments of contingent consideration in excess of acquisition-date fair value.
Changes in AFC’s accounts payable balance are presented in cash flows from operating activities while changes in AFC’s finance receivables are presented in cash flows from investing activities. Changes in these balances can cause variations in operating and investing cash flows.
Cash flow from investing activities (continuing operations) Net cash used by investing activities (continuing operations) was $90.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with net cash provided by investing activities of $70.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The cash used by investing activities in 2023 was primarily from the acquisition of Manheim Canada and purchases of property and equipment, partially offset by a decrease in finance receivables held for investment. The cash provided by investing activities in 2022 was primarily from a decrease in finance receivables held for investment and proceeds from the sale of property and equipment, partially offset by purchases of property and equipment.
Cash flow from financing activities (continuing operations) Net cash used by financing activities (continuing operations) was $279.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with $1,621.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The cash used by financing activities in 2023 was primarily due to the early repayment of senior notes, a net decrease in obligations collateralized by finance receivables, dividends paid on the Series A Preferred Stock, repurchases and retirement of common stock and payments of contingent consideration. The cash used by financing activities in 2022 was primarily due to payments made on the Company’s long-term debt and repurchases and retirement of common stock, partially offset by borrowings from lines of credit.
Cash flow from operating activities (discontinued operations) Net cash used by operating activities (discontinued operations) was $1.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with $459.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The cash used by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2023 was primarily attributable to an adjustment to income taxes. The cash used by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily attributable to income taxes paid associated with the taxable gain on the sale of the ADESA U.S. physical auction business and a decrease in accounts payable and accrued expenses.
Cash flow from investing activities (discontinued operations) Net cash provided by investing activities (discontinued operations) was $7.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with $2,077.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The cash provided by investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2023 was attributable to the final proceeds from the sale of the ADESA U.S. physical auction business. The cash provided by investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily attributable to the proceeds from the sale of the ADESA U.S. physical auction business, partially offset by purchases of property and equipment.
Cash flow from financing activities (discontinued operations) There were no financing activities (discontinued operations) for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared with net cash provided by financing activities of $10.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily attributable to a net increase in book overdrafts.
Capital Expenditures
Capital expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 approximated $52.0 million and $60.9 million, respectively. Capital expenditures were funded from internally generated funds. We continue to invest in our core information technology capabilities and our service locations. Capital expenditures related to continuing operations are expected to be approximately $55 million to $60 million for fiscal year 2024. Future capital expenditures could vary substantially based on capital project timing, capital expenditures related to acquired businesses and the initiation of new information systems projects to support our business strategies.
Dividends
The Series A Preferred Stock ranks senior to the shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, with respect to dividend rights and rights on the distribution of assets on any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of the Company. The holders of the Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to a cumulative dividend at the rate of 7% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears. Dividends were payable in kind through the issuance of additional shares of Series A Preferred Stock for the first eight dividend payments (through June 30, 2022), and thereafter, in cash or in kind, or in any combination of both, at the option of the Company. For the year ended December 31, 2023, the holders of the
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Series A Preferred Stock received cash dividends aggregating $44.4 million. For the year ended December 31, 2022, the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock received cash dividends aggregating $22.2 million and dividends in kind with a value in the aggregate of approximately $21.6 million. The holders of the Series A Preferred Stock are also entitled to participate in dividends declared or paid on our common stock on an as-converted basis.
Contractual Obligations
To provide a clear picture of matters potentially impacting our liquidity position, the table below sets forth a summary of our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2023. Some of the figures included in this table are based on management's estimates and assumptions about these obligations, including their duration, the possibility of renewal and other factors. Because these estimates and assumptions are necessarily subjective, the obligations we may actually pay in future periods could vary from those reflected in the table. This table does not include the obligations related to our Series A Preferred Stock discussed in Note 15 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following table summarizes our contractual cash obligations as of December 31, 2023 (in millions):
 Payments Due by Period
Contractual ObligationsTotal1 year or LessMore than 1 Year
Long-term debt   
$325 million Revolving Credit Facility (a)$137.0 $137.0 $— 
Senior notes (a)210.0 — 210.0 
European lines of credit17.6 17.6 — 
Finance lease obligations (b)0.9 0.9 — 
Interest payments relating to long-term debt (c)32.1 24.8 7.3 
Operating leases (d)103.7 15.4 88.3 
Total contractual cash obligations$501.3 $195.7 $305.6 
________________________________________
(a)The Company has historically included the Revolving Credit Facility in current debt based on its intent to repay the amount outstanding within one year; however, the Company is not contractually obligated to repay the borrowings until the maturity of the Revolving Credit Facility (June 2028). The senior notes are assumed to be held to maturity.
(b)We have entered into finance leases for furniture, fixtures, equipment and software. The amounts include the interest portion of the finance leases. Future finance lease obligations would change if we entered into additional finance lease agreements.
(c)Interest payments on long-term debt are projected based on the contractual rates of the debt securities. Interest rates for the variable rate term debt instruments were held constant at rates as of December 31, 2023.
(d)Operating leases are entered into in the normal course of business. We lease some of our vehicle logistics center facilities, as well as other property and equipment under operating leases. Some lease agreements contain options to renew the lease or purchase the leased property. Future operating lease obligations would change if the renewal options were exercised and/or if we entered into additional operating lease agreements.
Acquisition
In December 2023, the Company acquired Manheim Canada from Cox Automotive. The transaction included the Manheim Montreal facility and auction sales, operations and select staff across Manheim Canada. The acquisition advances OPENLANE's digital strategy by adding inventory, buyers, sellers and corresponding data to the OPENLANE Canada digital marketplace.
The purchased assets included property and equipment and customer relationships. Financial results for Manheim Canada have been included in our consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition.
The purchase price for Manheim Canada was approximately $103.0 million. The acquired assets and assumed liabilities of Manheim Canada were recorded at fair value, including $52.4 million to property and equipment and $18.6 million to intangible assets, representing the fair value of acquired customer relationships, which are being amortized over their expected useful lives. The excess earnings method was used to value the customer relationships. This method requires forward looking estimates to determine fair value, including among other assumptions, forecasted revenue growth and estimated customer attrition rates. The acquisition resulted in $25.9 million of goodwill. The factors contributing to the recognition of goodwill were strategic and synergistic benefits that are expected to be realized from the acquisition. The goodwill is recorded in the Marketplace reportable segment and is expected to be deductible for tax purposes. The financial impact of this acquisition, including pro forma financial results, was immaterial to the Company's consolidated results for the year ended December 31,
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2023. Acquisition costs of approximately $2.0 million are included in the consolidated statement of income (loss) within "Selling, general and administrative."
Critical Accounting Estimates
In preparing the financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, management must often make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and related disclosures at the date of the financial statements and during the reporting period. Some of those judgments can be subjective and complex. Consequently, actual results could differ from those estimates. Accounting measurements that management believes are most critical to the reported results of our operations and financial condition include: (1) allowance for credit losses; (2) business combinations; and (3) goodwill and other intangible assets.
In addition to the critical accounting estimates, there are other items used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements that require estimation, but are not deemed critical. Changes in estimates used in these and other items could have a material impact on our financial statements.
We continually evaluate the accounting policies and estimates used to prepare the consolidated financial statements. In cases where management estimates are used, they are based on historical experience, information from third-party professionals, and various other assumptions believed to be reasonable. In addition, our most significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 2 and elsewhere in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023, which are included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Allowance for Credit Losses
We maintain an allowance for credit losses for estimated losses resulting from the inability of customers to make required payments. Delinquencies and losses are monitored on an ongoing basis and this historical experience provides the primary basis for estimating the allowance. The allowance for credit losses is also based on management's evaluation of the receivables portfolio under current economic conditions, the size of the portfolio, overall portfolio credit quality, review of specific collection matters and such other factors which, in management's judgment, deserve recognition in estimating losses. Specific collection matters can be impacted by the outcome of negotiations, litigation and bankruptcy proceedings with individual customers.
AFC controls credit risk through credit approvals, credit limits, underwriting and collateral management monitoring procedures, including over 58,000 lot audits and holding vehicle titles where permitted. The estimates are based on management’s evaluation of many factors, including AFC’s historical credit loss experience, the value of the underlying collateral, delinquency trends and economic conditions. The estimates are based on information available as of each reporting date and reflect the expected credit losses over the entire expected term of the receivables. Actual losses may differ from the original estimates due to actual results varying from those assumed in our estimates.
As a measure of sensitivity, if we had experienced a 10% increase in net charge-offs of finance receivables for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, our provision for credit losses would have increased by approximately $4.9 million and $0.9 million in 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Business Combinations
When we acquire businesses, we estimate and recognize the fair values of tangible assets acquired, liabilities assumed and identifiable intangible assets acquired. The excess of the purchase consideration over the fair values of identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. The purchase accounting process requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions in determining the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, especially with respect to intangible assets and contingent consideration.
Critical estimates are often developed using valuation models that are based on historical experience and information obtained from the management of the acquired companies. These estimates can include, but are not limited to, the cash flows that an asset is expected to generate in the future, growth rates, the appropriate weighted-average cost of capital and the cost savings expected to be derived from acquiring an asset. These estimates are inherently uncertain and unpredictable. In addition, unanticipated events and circumstances may occur which could affect the accuracy or validity of such estimates.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
We assess goodwill for impairment annually during the second quarter or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that impairment may exist. Important factors that could trigger an impairment review include significant under-performance relative to historical or projected future operating results; significant negative industry or economic trends; and our market valuation relative to our carrying value. When evaluating goodwill for impairment, we may first perform a qualitative
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assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that a reporting unit is impaired. If we do not perform a qualitative assessment, or if we determine that a reporting unit’s fair value is not more likely than not greater than its carrying value, then we calculate the estimated fair value of the reporting unit using discounted cash flows and market approaches.
When assessing goodwill for impairment, our decision to perform a qualitative impairment assessment for a reporting unit in a given year is influenced by a number of factors, including the size of the reporting unit’s goodwill, the significance of the excess of the reporting unit’s estimated fair value over carrying value at the last quantitative assessment date, the amount of time in between quantitative fair value assessments and the date of acquisition. If we perform a quantitative assessment of a reporting unit’s goodwill, our impairment calculations contain uncertainties because they require management to make assumptions and apply judgment when estimating future cash flows and earnings, including projected revenue growth and operating expenses related to existing businesses, as well as utilizing valuation multiples of similar publicly traded companies and selecting an appropriate discount rate based on the estimated cost of capital that reflects the risk profile of the related business. Estimates of revenue growth and operating expenses are based on management estimates considering the reporting unit’s past performance and forecasted growth, strategic initiatives and changes in economic conditions. These estimates, as well as the selection of comparable companies and valuation multiples used in the market approach are highly subjective, and our ability to realize the future cash flows used in our fair value calculations is affected by factors such as the success of strategic initiatives, changes in economic conditions, changes in our operating performance and changes in our business strategies. The Company did not identify any impairment for our reporting units in 2022 or 2021.
In the second quarter of 2023 and as part of our annual goodwill impairment testing, we performed a quantitative assessment. This analysis resulted in goodwill impairment charges totaling $218.9 million ($166.4 million net of $52.5 million deferred tax benefit) in our U.S. Dealer-to-Dealer reporting unit and $6.4 million in our Europe reporting unit (both within the Marketplace segment). The goodwill impairment related to our U.S. Dealer-to-Dealer reporting unit was primarily driven by lower near-term and long-term revenue growth rates associated with a slower overall recovery in vehicle volumes. The goodwill impairment related to our Europe reporting unit was driven by combining two previously separate reporting units (ADESA U.K. and ADESA Europe) into a single reporting unit. Including ADESA U.K. in the reporting unit resulted in a reduction in the overall fair value of the combined reporting unit, resulting in an impairment charge. As a result of the impairment charges, the carrying value of the U.S. Dealer-to-Dealer and Europe reporting units now approximate fair value. The fair value of each of our other reporting units was substantially in excess of its carrying value, with the exception of our Canada reporting unit within the Marketplace segment, which exceeded its carrying value by approximately 14%. Significant assumptions used in the determination of the estimated fair values of these reporting units were the revenue and earnings growth rates and the discount rate. The revenue and expense growth rates are dependent on wholesale used vehicle supply, the competitive environment, inflation and our ability to pass price increases along to our customers, and business activities that impact market share. As a result, the revenue growth rate could be adversely impacted by market conditions, macroeconomic factors or an increased competitive environment. The discount rate, which is consistent with a weighted average cost of capital that is likely to be expected by a market participant, is based on the Company’s required rates of return, including consideration of both debt and equity components of the capital structure. Our discount rate may be impacted in the future by adverse changes in the macroeconomic environment, volatility in the equity markets and the interest rate environment. While management can and has implemented strategies to address these events, changes in operating plans or adverse changes in the future could reduce the underlying cash flows used to estimate fair values and could result in a decline in fair value that would trigger future impairment charges of the goodwill within the U.S. Dealer-to-Dealer and Europe reporting units described above. As of December 31, 2023, the carrying value of goodwill related to the U.S. Dealer-to-Dealer and Europe reporting units was $87.3 million and $120.8 million, respectively. For additional information, see Note 9 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
As with goodwill, we assess indefinite-lived tradenames for impairment annually during the second quarter or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that impairment may exist. When assessing indefinite-lived tradenames for impairment using a qualitative assessment, we evaluate if changes in events or circumstances have occurred that indicate that impairment may exist and whether the tradenames continue to have an indefinite life. If we do not perform a qualitative impairment assessment or if changes in events and circumstances indicate that a quantitative assessment should be performed, management is required to calculate the fair value of the tradename asset group. The fair value calculation includes estimates of revenue growth, which are based on past performance and internal projections for the tradename asset group's forecasted growth, and royalty rates, which are adjusted for our particular facts and circumstances. The discount rate is selected based on the estimated cost of capital that reflects the risk profile of the related assets. These estimates are highly subjective, and our ability to achieve the forecasted cash flows used in our fair value calculations is affected by factors such as the success of strategic initiatives, changes in economic conditions, changes in our operating performance and changes in our business strategies.
In the second quarter of 2023, the OPENLANE branded marketplace was announced as a replacement to the ADESA branded marketplaces. As such, the announcement served as a triggering event and we performed a quantitative impairment test on the
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ADESA tradename, resulting in an impairment charge totaling $25.5 million ($19.0 million net of $6.5 million deferred tax benefit). Furthermore, as a result of the rebranding to OPENLANE, the ADESA tradename is no longer deemed to have an indefinite life and its remaining carrying amount of $97.3 million is being amortized over a remaining useful life of approximately 6 years. For additional information, see Note 9 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We review other intangible assets for possible impairment whenever circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable. If it is determined that the carrying amount of an other intangible asset exceeds the total amount of the estimated undiscounted future cash flows from that asset, we would recognize a loss to the extent that the carrying amount exceeds the fair value of the asset. Management judgment is involved in both deciding if testing for recovery is necessary and in estimating undiscounted cash flows. Our impairment analysis is based on the current business strategy, expected growth rates and estimated future economic conditions.
New Accounting Standards
For a description of new accounting standards that could affect the Company, reference the "New Accounting Standards" section of Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
As of December 31, 2023, we had no off-balance sheet arrangements pursuant to Item 303 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), that we believe are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
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Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Foreign Currency
Our foreign currency exposure is limited and arises from transactions denominated in foreign currencies, particularly intercompany loans, as well as from translation of the results of operations from our Canadian and, to a lesser extent, United Kingdom and Continental Europe subsidiaries. However, fluctuations between U.S. and non-U.S. currency values may adversely affect our results of operations and financial position. We have not entered into any foreign exchange contracts to hedge changes in the Canadian dollar, British pound or euro. Foreign currency gains on intercompany loans were approximately $2.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 and foreign currency losses on intercompany loans were approximately $2.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. Canadian currency translation negatively affected net income by approximately $1.5 million and $2.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. A 1% change in the month-end Canadian dollar exchange rate for the year ended December 31, 2023 would have impacted foreign currency losses on intercompany loans by $0.2 million and net income by $0.2 million. A 1% change in the month-end euro exchange rate for the year ended December 31, 2023 would have impacted foreign currency losses on intercompany loans by $0.7 million and net income by $0.5 million. A 1% change in the average Canadian dollar exchange rate for the year ended December 31, 2023 would have impacted net income by approximately $0.5 million. Currency exposure of our U.K. and European operations is not material to the results of operations.
Interest Rates
We are exposed to interest rate risk on our variable rate borrowings. Accordingly, interest rate fluctuations affect the amount of interest expense we are obligated to pay. We most recently used interest rate swap agreements to manage our exposure to interest rate changes. We originally designated the interest rate swaps as cash flow hedges for accounting purposes. Accordingly, the earnings impact of the derivatives designated as cash flow hedges are recorded upon the recognition of the interest related to the hedged debt.
In January 2020, we entered into three pay-fixed interest rate swaps with an aggregate notional amount of $500 million to swap variable rate interest payments under our term loan for fixed interest payments bearing a weighted average interest rate of 1.44%. The interest rate swaps had a five-year term.
In February 2022, we discontinued hedge accounting as we concluded that the forecasted interest rate payments were no longer probable of occurring in consideration of the Transaction and expected repayment of Term Loan B-6. In connection with the repayment of Term Loan B-6 in May 2022, we entered into swap termination agreements. We received $16.7 million to settle and terminate the swaps, which was recognized as a realized gain in "Interest expense" in the consolidated statement of income (loss).
A sensitivity analysis of the impact on our variable rate corporate debt instruments to a hypothetical 100 basis point increase in short-term rates (LIBOR/Prime/SOFR) for the year ended December 31, 2023 would have resulted in an increase in interest expense of approximately $0.7 million.

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Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

Index to Financial Statements

Page
OPENLANE, Inc.

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (KPMG LLP, Indianapolis, IN, Auditor Firm ID: 185) 57








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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
OPENLANE, Inc.:
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of OPENLANE, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of income (loss), comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, and our report dated February 21, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
Assessment of qualitative risk factors in the allowance for credit losses
As discussed in Notes 2 and 7 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s allowance for credit losses as of December 31, 2023 was $23.0 million (the ACL). The Company estimates the ACL using a methodology that first considers quantitative models that calculate historical loss rates using recorded charge-offs and recoveries over a historical period as well as identified potential loss events as the primary quantitative factors. The Company’s methodology is also based on management’s evaluation of the receivables portfolio under current economic conditions, the size of the portfolio, overall portfolio credit quality, review of specific collection matters and such other factors which, in management’s judgment, deserve recognition in estimating losses (qualitative risk factors).
We identified the assessment of qualitative risk factors used in the ACL estimate as a critical audit matter. Due to significant measurement uncertainty, such assessment required complex and subjective auditor judgment, including specialized skill and knowledge. This assessment involved evaluating the qualitative framework and related risk factors. These factors increase the likelihood that qualitative risk factors were necessary in order to capture estimated credit losses not captured through the quantitative models.
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The following are the primary procedures we performed to address the critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls related to the measurement of the ACL estimate, including controls over the (1) development and approval of the overall allowance for credit losses methodology, which includes the qualitative framework and related risk factors and (2) determination of the qualitative risk factors. We evaluated the Company’s process to develop the qualitative framework and related risk factors including testing the sources of data, factors, and assumptions that the Company used and considering whether they are relevant and reliable. We evaluated credit metric trends impacting the ACL estimate, including the qualitative risk factors, for consistency with trends in the Company’s historical loan portfolio growth and credit performance. We involved credit risk professionals with specialized skills and knowledge, who assisted in evaluating (1) the Company’s ACL methodology, which included the qualitative framework and related risk factors, for compliance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and (2) the qualitative risk factors and their relationship to the quantitative models and whether additional or alternative sources of data, factors or assumptions should be used.
Fair value of certain reporting units
As discussed in Notes 2 and 9 to the consolidated financial statements, the goodwill balance as of December 31, 2023 was $1,271.2 million. The Company tests goodwill for impairment annually in the second quarter, or more frequently as impairment indicators arise, by comparing the fair value of each reporting unit with its’ carrying value. The Company determined the fair values of its’ reporting units using a discounted cash flow analysis. The Company recorded goodwill impairment charges in their U. S. Dealer-to-Dealer and Europe reporting units (certain reporting units) of $218.9 million and $6.4 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2023.
We identified the evaluation of certain reporting units’ fair values, which were utilized in the assessment of goodwill for impairment, as a critical audit matter. Subjective and complex auditor judgement was required to evaluate the projected revenue growth rate and discount rate assumptions used to determine the certain reporting units’ fair values. Changes in these assumptions could have had a significant impact on the fair values of the certain reporting units. Additionally, we involved valuation professionals with specialized skills and knowledge to evaluate the discount rates used in the valuations.
The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls related to the Company’s determination of certain reporting units’ fair value, including controls related to development of the projected revenue growth rates and discount rates. We evaluated the Company’s projected revenue growth rates by comparing them to market data for the industry and certain peer companies, as well as the Company’s historical results. We involved valuation professionals with specialized skills and knowledge, who assisted in evaluating the Company’s discount rates by comparing them to discount rates that were independently developed using publicly available market data for comparable entities.
/s/ KPMG LLP

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2007.

Indianapolis, Indiana
February 21, 2024
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OPENLANE, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Income (Loss)
(In millions, except per share data)
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Operating revenues   
Auction fees$395.3 $370.3 $399.2 
Service revenue619.7 590.3 541.3 
Purchased vehicle sales236.7 182.9 220.9 
Finance-related revenue393.4 375.9 289.2 
Total operating revenues1,645.1 1,519.4 1,450.6 
Operating expenses   
Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)867.6 834.3 792.5 
Selling, general and administrative430.4 445.1 420.7 
Depreciation and amortization101.5 100.2 109.9 
Gain on sale of property