Company Quick10K Filing
Kenon Holdings
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$0.00 54 $834
20-F 2019-04-08 Annual: 2018-12-31
20-F 2018-04-09 Annual: 2017-12-31
20-F 2017-04-19 Annual: 2016-12-31
20-F 2016-04-22 Annual: 2015-12-31
KEN 2018-12-31
Item 17 ☐ Item 18 ☐
Part I
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Information on The Company
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8. Financial Information
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities
Part II
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16. [Reserved]
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert
Item 16B. Code of Ethics
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
Item 16G. Corporate Governance
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure
Part III
Item 17. Financial Statements
Item 18. Financial Statements
Item 19. Exhibits
Note 1 - Financial Reporting Principles and Accounting Policies
Note 2 - Basis of Preparation of The Financial Statements
Note 2 - Basis of Preparation of The Financial Statements (Cont'D)
Note 3 - Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3 - Significant Accounting Policies (Cont'D)
Note 4 - Determination of Fair Value
Note 5 - Cash and Cash Equivalents
Note 6 - Short-Term Investments and Deposits
Note 7 - Trade Receivables
Note 8 - Other Current Assets, Including Derivative Instruments
Note 9 - Investment in Associated Companies
Note 9 - Investment in Associated Companies (Cont'D)
Note 10 - Subsidiaries
Note 10 - Subsidiaries (Cont'D)
Note 11 - Deposits, Loans and Other Receivables, Including Derivative Instruments
Note 12 - Deferred Payment Receivable
Note 13 - Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
Note 13 - Property, Plant and Equipment, Net (Cont'D)
Note 14 - Intangible Assets, Net
Note 14 - Intangible Assets, Net (Con'T)
Note 14 - Intangible Assets, Net (Cont'D)
Note 15 - Loans and Debentures
Note 15 - Loans and Debentures (Cont'D)
Note 16 - Trade Payables
Note 17 - Other Payables, Including Derivative Instruments
Note 18 - Provisions
Note 19 - Contingent Liabilities, Commitments and Concessions
Note 19 - Contingent Liabilities, Commitments and Concessions (Cont'D)
Note 20 - Share Capital and Reserves
Note 20 - Share Capital and Reserves (Cont'D)
Note 21 - Opc Energy Ltd's Initial Public Offering
Note 22 - Revenue and Cost of Sales and Services
Note 22 - Revenue and Cost of Sales and Services (Cont'D)
Note 23 - Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Note 24 - Financing Income (Expenses), Net
Note 25 - Income Taxes
Note 25 - Income Taxes (Cont'D)
Note 26 - Earnings per Share
Note 28 - Segment, Customer and Geographic Information
Note 28 - Segment, Customer and Geographic Information (Cont'D)
Note 29 - Related-Party Information
Note 29 - Related-Party Information (Cont'D)
Note 30 - Financial Instruments
Note 30 - Financial Instruments (Cont'D)
Note 31 - Subsequent Events
Item 19. Exhibits
EX-4.15 exhibit_4-15.htm
EX-4.16 exhibit_4-16.htm
EX-8.1 exhibit_8-1.htm
EX-12.1 exhibit_12-1.htm
EX-12.2 exhibit_12-2.htm
EX-13.1 exhibit_13-1.htm
EX-15.1 exhibit_15-1.htm
EX-15.2 exhibit_15-2.htm

Kenon Holdings Earnings 2018-12-31

KEN 20F Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

Comparables ($MM TTM)
Ticker M Cap Assets Liab Rev G Profit Net Inc EBITDA EV G Margin EV/EBITDA ROA
KEN 834 1,455 739 0 0 0 0 784 0%
AZRE 464 108,864 83,467 0 0 0 0 56,261 0%
AT 328 994 804 288 0 27 99 256 0% 2.6 3%
SKYS 248 585 507 0 0 0 0 248 0%
ELLO 83 211 134 0 0 0 0 47 0%
ESNC 20 10 4 11 2 -12 -12 17 22% -1.5 -116%
ELC 18 5 2 0 0 -0 -0 20 0% -144.3 -3%
OPTT 12 16 3 1 -1 -12 -12 -2 -90% 0.2 -74%
EAB
GPJA

20-F 1 zk1922527.htm 20-F

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 

Form 20-F
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
OR
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
 
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
OR
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
Commission File Number: 001-36761
 
KENON HOLDINGS LTD.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
          
(Company Registration No. 201406588W)
 
Singapore
4911
Not Applicable
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
1 Temasek Avenue #36-01
Millenia Tower
Singapore 039192
+65 6351 1780
 
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
       
   
Copies to:
Scott V. Simpson
James A. McDonald
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher and Flom (UK) LLP
40 Bank Street
London E14 5DS
Telephone: +44 20 7519 7000
Facsimile: +44 20 7519 7070
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of Each Class
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Ordinary Shares, no par value
The New York Stock Exchange
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:
 
53,826,749 shares
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
 
Yes No
 
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
 
Yes No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such a shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
 
Yes No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit files).
 
Yes ☒ No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards † provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
 
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
 
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
U.S. GAAP
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board
Other
 
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the Registrant has elected to follow:
 
Item 17 Item 18
 
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
 
Yes No
 
 

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
9
9
A.
Directors and Senior Management
9
B.
Advisers
9
C.
Auditors
9
9
9
A.
Selected Financial Data
9
B.
Capitalization and Indebtedness
15
C.
Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
15
D.
Risk Factors
15
49
A.
History and Development of the Company
49
B.
Business Overview
50
C.
Organizational Structure
88
D.
Property, Plants and Equipment
88
88
88
A.
Operating Results
95
B.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
105
C.
Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Etc.
114
D.
Trend Information
114
E.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
115
F.
Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations
115
G.
Safe Harbor
115
116
A.
Directors and Senior Management
116
B.
Compensation
118
C.
Board Practices
118
D.
Employees
120
E.
Share Ownership
121
121
A.
Major Shareholders
121
B.
Related Party Transactions
122
C.
Interests of Experts and Counsel
123
123
A.
Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information
123
B.
Significant Changes
123
123
A.
Offer and Listing Details.
123
B.
Plan of Distribution
123
C.
Markets
123
D.
Selling Shareholders
123
E.
Dilution.
123
F.
Expenses of the Issue
123
123
A.
Share Capital
123
B.
Constitution
124
C.
Material Contracts
135
D.
Exchange Controls
135
E.
Taxation
135
F.
Dividends and Paying Agents
139
G.
Statement by Experts
139
H.
Documents on Display
139
I.
Subsidiary Information
140
140
 
1

 
 
 
INTRODUCTION AND USE OF CERTAIN TERMS
 
We have prepared this annual report using a number of conventions, which you should consider when reading the information contained herein. In this annual report, the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” shall refer to Kenon Holdings Ltd., or Kenon, and each of our subsidiaries and associated companies, collectively, as the context may require, including:
 
·
I.C. Power Asia Development Ltd. (“ICP”), formerly I.C. Power Ltd., an Israeli company, in which Kenon has a direct 100% interest;
 
·
IC Power Ltd. (“IC Power”), formerly IC Power Pte. Ltd, a Singaporean company, in which Kenon has a direct 100% interest;
 
·
IC Power Distribution Holdings Pte. Ltd. (“ICPDH”), a Singaporean corporation in which Kenon has an indirect 100% interest;
 
·
“Inkia” means Inkia Energy Limited, a Bermudian corporation and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Kenon, which is in the process of being liquidated. In December 2017, Inkia sold the Inkia Business (as defined below);
 
·
OPC Energy Ltd. (“OPC”), an owner, developer and operator of power generation facilities in the Israeli power market, in which Kenon has a 76% interest;
 
·
Qoros Automotive Co., Ltd. (“Qoros”), a Chinese automotive company based in China, in which Kenon, through its 100%-owned subsidiary Quantum (as defined below), has a 24% interest. In January 2019, Kenon announced it had entered into an agreement to sell half of its remaining interest in Qoros (i.e. 12%) to the Majority Shareholder in Qoros (as defined below). The sale is subject to obtaining relevant third-party consents and other closing conditions, including approvals by relevant government authorities;
 
·
ZIM Integrated Shipping Services, Ltd. (“ZIM”), an Israeli global container shipping company, in which Kenon has a 32% interest; and
 
·
Primus Green Energy, Inc. (“Primus”), a New Jersey corporation which is a developer of an alternative fuel technology, in which Kenon, through IC Green (as defined below), has a 91% interest.
 
Additionally, this annual report uses the following conventions:
 
·
“Ansonia” means Ansonia Holdings Singapore B.V., a company organized under the laws of Singapore, which owns approximately 58% of the outstanding shares of Kenon;
 
·
“CDA” means Cerro del Águila S.A., a Peruvian corporation;
 
·
“DEOCSA” means Distribuidora de Electricidad de Occidente, S.A., a Guatemalan corporation, which was owned by Inkia prior to the sale of the Inkia Business in December 2017;
 
·
“DEORSA” means Distribuidora de Electricidad de Oriente, S.A., a Guatemalan corporation, which was owned by Inkia prior to the sale of the Inkia Business in December 2017;
 
·
“Hadera Paper” means Hadera Paper Ltd., an Israeli corporation, which is owned by OPC;
 
·
“HelioFocus” means HelioFocus Ltd., an Israeli corporation, in which Kenon, through IC Green, held a 70% interest, and which was liquidated on July 6, 2017;
 
·
“IC” means Israel Corporation Ltd., an Israeli corporation traded on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, or the “TASE,” and Kenon’s former parent company;
 
·
“IC Green” means IC Green Energy Ltd., an Israeli corporation and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Kenon, which holds Kenon’s equity interests in Primus and previously held Kenon’s equity interest in HelioFocus;
 
·
“IEC” means Israel Electric Corporation, a government-owned entity, which generates and supplies the majority of electricity in Israel, transmits and distributes all of the electricity in Israel, acts as the system operator of Israel’s electricity system, determines the dispatch order of generation units, grants interconnection surveys, and sets spot prices, among other roles;
 
3

 
·
“Inkia Business” means Inkia’s Latin American and Caribbean power generation and distribution businesses, which were sold in December 2017;
 
·
“Kallpa” means Kallpa Generación SA, a company within the Inkia Business. In August 2017, Kallpa merged with CDA, with the surviving entity renamed Kallpa Generación SA. Kallpa was owned by Inkia until December 2017;
 
·
“Majority Shareholder in Qoros” means the China-based investor related to the Baoneng group that acquired 51% of Qoros from Kenon and Chery Automobile Co. Ltd., or Chery, in 2018. In January 2019, Kenon announced it had entered into an agreement to sell half of its remaining interest in Qoros (i.e. 12%) to the Majority Shareholder in Qoros. Following completion of the sale, this investor will hold 63% of Qoros;
 
·
“OPC-Rotem” means O.P.C. Rotem Ltd., an Israeli corporation, in which OPC has an 80% interest;
 
·
“OPC-Hadera” is the trade name of Advanced Integrated Energy Ltd., an Israeli corporation, in which OPC has a 100% interest;
 
·
“OPC Solar” means OPC Solar Limited Partnership, a limited partnership engaged in the initiation of solar projects;
 
·
“our businesses” shall refer to each of our subsidiaries and associated companies, collectively, as the context may require;
 
·
“Petrotec” means Petrotec AG, a German company, which IC Green sold in December 2014;
 
·
“Quantum” means Quantum (2007) LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Kenon and which is the direct owner of our interest in Qoros;
 
·
“Samay I” means Samay I S.A., a Peruvian corporation;
 
·
“spin-off” shall refer to (i) IC’s January 7, 2015 contribution to Kenon of its interests in each of IC Power, Qoros, ZIM, Tower, Primus, HelioFocus and the Renewable Energy Group, as well as other intermediate holding companies related to these entities, and (ii) IC’s January 9, 2015 distribution of Kenon’s issued and outstanding ordinary shares, via a dividend-in-kind, to IC’s shareholders;
 
·
“Tower” means Tower Semiconductor Ltd., an Israeli specialty foundry semiconductor manufacturer, listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange, or “NASDAQ,” and the TASE, in which Kenon used to hold an interest; and
 
·
“Tzomet” means Tzomet Energy Ltd., an Israeli corporation in which OPC has a 95% interest. In January 2019, OPC entered into an agreement to acquire the remaining 5% interest in Tzomet from minority shareholders.
 
Additionally, this annual report uses the following conventions for OPC:
 
·
“Availability factor” refers to the number of hours that a generation facility is available to produce electricity divided by the total number of hours in a year.
 
·
“COD” means the commercial operation date of a development project;
 
·
“distribution” refers to the transfer of electricity from the transmission lines at grid supply points and its delivery to consumers at lower voltages through a distribution system;
 
·
“Hadera Energy Center” means Hadera Paper’s existing gas consuming facilities;
 
·
“EPC” means engineering, procurement and construction;
 
·
“firm capacity” means the amount of energy available for production that, pursuant to applicable regulations, must be guaranteed to be available at a given time for injection to a certain power grid;
 
·
“Greenfield” means a project constructed on unused land with no need to demolish or remodel existing structures;
 
·
“GWh” means gigawatt hours (one GWh is equal to 1,000 MWh);
 
·
“OPC’s capacity” or “OPC’s installed capacity” means, with respect to each asset, 100% of the capacity of such asset, regardless of OPC’s ownership interest in the entity that owns such asset;
 
4

 
·
“installed capacity” means the intended full-load sustained output of energy that a generation unit is designed to produce (also referred to as name-plate capacity);
 
·
“IPP” means independent power producer, excluding co-generators and generators for self-consumption;
 
·
“kWh” means kilowatts per hour;
 
·
“MW” means megawatts (one MW is equal to 1,000 kilowatts or kW);
 
·
“MWh” means megawatt per hour;
 
·
“OEM” means original equipment manufacturer;
 
·
“PPA” means power purchase agreement; and
 
·
“transmission” refers to the bulk transfer of electricity from generating facilities to the distribution system at load center station in which the electricity is stabilized by means of the transmission grid.
 
SALE OF THE INKIA BUSINESS
 
On December 31, 2017, our subsidiary Inkia completed the sale of substantially all of its businesses, the Inkia Business, consisting of power generation and distribution businesses in Latin America and the Caribbean. The sale is described in more detail under “Item 4.B. – Business Overview – Discontinued Operations – Inkia Business – Sale of the Inkia Business.” As a result of this sale, our power generation business consists of our 76% interest in OPC. The results of the Inkia Business are presented as discontinued operations in our audited financial statements for the two years ended December 31, 2017, and prior periods presented herein have been reclassified for comparative purposes.
 
FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
We produce financial statements in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or IFRS, and all financial information included in this annual report is derived from our IFRS financial statements, except as otherwise indicated. In particular, this annual report contains certain non-IFRS financial measures which are defined under “Item 3.A Selected Financial Data” and “Item 4.B Business Overview—Our Businesses—OPC.
 
Our consolidated financial statements included in this annual report comprise the consolidated statements of profit and loss, other comprehensive income (loss), changes in equity, and cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 and the consolidated statements of financial position as of December 31, 2018 and 2017. We present our consolidated financial statements in U.S. Dollars.
 
Our financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2014 included within selected financial data presented in Item 3.A., are presented as combined carve-out financial statements and have been derived from the consolidated financial statements of IC, our former parent. These combined financial statements reflect the assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses directly attributable to us, as well as allocations deemed reasonable by us, to present our combined financial position, profit and loss and other comprehensive income, changes in equity attributable to the owners of the company and cash flows. These combined carve-out financial statements are not necessarily indicative of our financial position, profit and loss and other comprehensive income, or cash flows had we operated as a separate entity throughout the periods presented. We present our combined carve-out financial statements in U.S. Dollars.
 
The results of the Inkia Business are presented as discontinued operations in our audited financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016. Our consolidated selected data as of and for the year ended December 31, 2015 and our combined carve-out selected data as of and for the year ended December 31, 2014 have been reclassified for comparative purposes to reflect the Inkia Business as discontinued operations. 
 
In July 2014, ZIM restructured its outstanding indebtedness, which resulted in IC, and consequently, Kenon, owning 32% of the restructured ZIM as compared to IC’s previous interest in ZIM of approximately 99.7%. As a result of the restructuring, ZIM’s results of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2014 are presented as discontinued operations.
 
All references in this annual report to (i) “U.S. Dollars,” “$” or “USD” are to the legal currency of the United States of America; (ii) “RMB” are to Yuan, the legal currency of the People’s Republic of China, or China; and (iii) “NIS” or “New Israeli Shekel” are to the legal currency of the State of Israel, or Israel. We have made rounding adjustments to reach some of the figures included in this annual report. Consequently, numerical figures shown as totals in some tables may not be arithmetic aggregations of the figures that precede them.
 
5

 
NON-IFRS FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
In this annual report, we disclose non-IFRS financial measures, namely EBITDA and net debt, each as defined under “Item 3.A Selected Financial Data–Selected Reportable Segment Data” and “Item 3.A Selected Financial Data–Selected Reportable Segment Data–OPC” and “Item 4.B Business Overview—Our Businesses—OPC—OPC’s Description of Operations.” Each of these measures are important measures used by us, and our businesses, to assess financial performance. We believe that the disclosure of EBITDA and net debt provides transparent and useful information to investors and financial analysts in their review of our, or our subsidiaries’, operating performance and in the comparison of such operating performance to the operating performance of other companies in the same industry or in other industries that have different capital structures, debt levels and/or income tax rates.
 
MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA
 
Certain information relating to the industries in which each of our subsidiaries and associated companies operate and their position in such industries used or referenced in this annual report were obtained from internal analysis, surveys, market research, publicly available information and industry publications. Unless otherwise indicated, all sources for industry data and statistics are estimates or forecasts contained in or derived from internal or industry sources we believe to be reliable. Market data used throughout this annual report was obtained from independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Such data, as well as internal surveys, industry forecasts and market research, while believed to be reliable, have not been independently verified. In addition, in certain cases we have made statements in this annual report regarding the industries in which each of our subsidiaries and associated companies operate and their position in such industries based upon the experience of our businesses and their individual investigations of the market conditions affecting their respective operations. We cannot assure you that any of these statements are accurate or correctly reflect the position of subsidiaries and associated companies in such industries, and none of our internal surveys or information has been verified by independent sources.
 
Market data and statistics are inherently predictive and speculative and are not necessarily reflective of actual market conditions. Such statistics are based upon market research, which itself is based upon sampling and subjective judgments by both the researchers and the respondents. In addition, the value of comparisons of statistics for different markets is limited by many factors, including that (i) the markets are defined differently, (ii) the underlying information was gathered by different methods and (iii) different assumptions were applied in compiling the data. Accordingly, although we believe and operate as though all market and industry information presented in this annual report is accurate, the market statistics included in this annual report should be viewed with caution.
 
PRESENTATION OF OPC CAPACITY AND PRODUCTION FIGURES
 
Unless otherwise indicated, statistics provided throughout this annual report with respect to power generation units are expressed in MW, in the case of the capacity of such power generation units, and in GWh, in the case of the electricity production of such power generation units. One GWh is equal to 1,000 MWh, and one MWh is equal to 1,000 kWh. Statistics relating to aggregate annual electricity production are expressed in GWh and are based on a year of 8,760 hours. Unless otherwise indicated, OPC’s capacity figures provided in this annual report reflect 100% of the capacity of all of OPC’s assets, regardless of OPC’s ownership interest in the entity that owns each such asset. For information on OPC’s ownership interest in each of its operating companies, see “Item 4.B Business Overview—Our Businesses—OPC.”
 
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This annual report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, and reflects our current expectations and views of the quality of our assets, our anticipated financial performance, our future growth prospects, the future growth prospects of our businesses, the liquidity of our ordinary shares, and other future events. Forward-looking statements relate to expectations, beliefs, projections, future plans and strategies, anticipated events or trends and similar expressions concerning matters that are not historical facts, and are principally contained in the sections entitled “Item 3. Key Information,” “Item 4. Information on the Company” and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.” These statements are made under the “safe harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Some of these forward-looking statements can be identified by terms and phrases such as “anticipate,” “should,” “likely,” “foresee,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “continue,” “could,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” “predict,” “will,” and similar expressions.
 
These forward-looking statements relate to:
 
·
our goals and strategies;
 
·
our capital commitments and/or intentions with respect to each of our businesses;
 
·
our capital allocation principles, as set forth in “Item 4.B Business Overview”;
 
6

 
·
the funding requirements, strategies, and business plans of our businesses;
 
·
the potential listing, offering, distribution or monetization of our businesses;
 
·
expected trends in the industries and markets in which each of our businesses operate;
 
·
our expected tax status and treatment;
 
·
statements relating to litigation and/or regulatory proceedings, including expected settlement amounts;
 
·
statements relating to the sale of the Inkia Business including the pledge of OPC’s shares, the deferred payment agreement and Kenon’s guarantee and risks related thereto, and statements with respect to claims relating to the Inkia Business sale retained by Kenon;
 
·
the expected effect of new accounting standards on Kenon;
 
·
with respect to OPC:
 
·
the expected cost and timing of commencement and completion of development and construction projects, as well as the anticipated installed capacities and expected performance (e.g. efficiency) of such projects, including:
 
·
the Tzomet project, including the license and approvals for the development of the project, financing and the expected payment of the remaining consideration, and
 
·
the OPC-Hadera project, including the expected financing, total cost of construction, expected capacity, COD date, expected level of energy utilization, efficiency, and energy source of the OPC-Hadera power plant;
 
·
the OPC restructuring, including statements with respect to Kenon’s expectation in relation to future tax liability;
 
·
expected macroeconomic trends in Israel, including the expected growth in energy demand;
 
·
potential expansions (including new projects or existing projects);
 
·
its gas supply agreements;
 
·
its strategy;
 
·
expected trends in energy consumption;
 
·
regulatory trends;
 
·
its anticipated capital expenditures, and the expected sources of funding for capital expenditures;
 
·
projections and expected trends in the electricity market in Israel; and
 
·
the price and volume of gas available to OPC and other IPPs in Israel;
 
·
with respect to Qoros:
 
·
Qoros’ expectation to renew or refinance its working capital facilities to support its continued operations and development;
 
·
statements with respect to trends in the Chinese passenger vehicle market, particularly within the C-segment, C-segment SUV and New Energy Vehicle, or NEV, markets;
 
·
Qoros’ expectation of pricing trends in the Chinese passenger vehicle market;
 
·
Qoros’ liquidity position;
 
·
Qoros’ dealer network;
 
·
environmental regulations and the expected effect of such regulations on Qoros’ business;
 
7

 
·
Qoros’ ability to increase its production capacity;
 
·
the investment by the Majority Shareholder in Qoros into Qoros, including the various elements of the investment and expected timing thereof, including, the commitment by the investor or an affiliate to introduce vehicle purchase orders to Qoros, the requirement that Chery make payments to Kenon in connection with guarantee releases, the put option and investor’s right to make further investments under the investment agreement, and the Majority Shareholder in Qoros’ commitment to assume its proportionate share of Kenon and Chery’s guarantee and pledge obligations;
 
·
the agreement to sell half of Kenon's remaining interest in Qoros; and
 
·
Qoros’ expectation of the development of the NEV market in China, including expected trends regarding government subsidies for the purchase of NEVs and the growth of NEV infrastructure;
 
·
with respect to ZIM:
 
·
the assumptions used in Kenon’s and ZIM’s impairment analysis with respect to Kenon’s investment in ZIM, and ZIM’s assets, respectively, including with respect to expected fuel price, freight rates, demand trends;
 
·
ZIM’s strategy with respect to its debt obligations;
 
·
ZIM’s expectation of modifications with respect to its and other shipping companies’ operating fleet and lines, including the utilization of larger vessels within certain trade zones and modifications made in light of environmental regulations;
 
·
ZIM’s compliance with International Maritime Organization, or IMO, regulations expected to come into effect in 2020 and other regulations, including the expected effects of such regulations;
 
·
statements regarding the 2M alliance and expected benefits of the alliance; and
 
·
trends related to the global container shipping industry, including with respect to fluctuations in container supply, industry consolidation, demand, bunker prices and charter/freights rates; and
 
·
with respect to Primus, its:
 
·
strategy;
 
·
plans to seek equity partners for projects;
 
·
potential customers;
 
·
potential project pipeline, including in relation to the non-binding term sheets it has executed; and
 
·
potential sources of revenue.
 
The preceding list is not intended to be an exhaustive list of each of our forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of future performance, taking into account the information currently available to us and are only predictions based upon our current expectations and projections about future events. There are important factors that could cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from the results, level of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements which are set forth in “Item 3.D Risk Factors.” Given these risks and uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results.
 
Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. The foregoing factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those contemplated in any forward-looking statement included in this annual report should not be construed as exhaustive. You should read this annual report, and each of the documents filed as exhibits to the annual report, completely, with this cautionary note in mind, and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.
 
 
8

PART I
 
ITEM 1.          Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
 
A.    Directors and Senior Management
 
Not applicable.
 
B.    Advisers
 
Not applicable.
 
C.    Auditors
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 2.          Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 3.          Key Information
 
A.    Selected Financial Data
 
The following tables set forth our selected combined carve-out financial and other data as of and for the year ended December 31, 2014 and selected consolidated financial and other data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016 and 2015. This selected financial data should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements, and the related notes thereto, as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, included elsewhere in this annual report, and the information contained in “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and “Item 3.D Risk Factors.” The historical financial and other data included here and elsewhere in this annual report should not be assumed to be indicative of our future financial condition or results of operations.
 
Our consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2017 reflect the Inkia Business as discontinued operations and our consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended 2016 and our selected consolidated financials as of and for the year ended December 31, 2015 and our selected combined carve-out financials as of and for the year ended December 31, 2014 set forth below have been reclassified for comparative purposes to account for the Inkia Business as discontinued operations. ZIM’s results of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2014 are also presented as discontinued operations for the relevant period.
 
Our financial statements presented in this annual report have been prepared in accordance with IFRS.
 
9

 
The selected financial data below also includes certain non-IFRS measures used by us to evaluate our economic and financial performance. These measures are not identified as accounting measures under IFRS and therefore should not be considered as an alternative measure to evaluate our performance.
 
   
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2018
   
2017
   
20161
   
20151
   
20141
 
   
(in millions of USD, except share data)
 
Statements of Profit and Loss Data2
                             
Revenue          
 
$
364
   
$
366
   
$
324
   
$
326
   
$
413
 
Cost of sales and services (excluding depreciation)
   
(259
)
   
(267
)
   
(251
)
   
(245
)
   
(297
)
Depreciation              
(30
)
   
(31
)
   
(27
)
   
(25
)
   
(24
)
Gross profit          
 
$
75
   
$
68
   
$
46
   
$
56
   
$
92
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses          
   
(34
)
   
(56
)
   
(47
)
   
(50
)
   
(86
)
Gain from distribution of dividend in kind          
   
     
     
     
210
     
 
Gain from disposal of investees          
   
     
     
     
     
157
 
Impairment of assets and investments          
   
     
29
     
(72
)
   
(7
)
   
(48
)
Dilution gains from reduction in equity interest held in associates
   
     
     
     
33
     
 
Other expenses          
   
(1
)
   
     
     
(1
)
   
(6
)
Other income          
   
2
     
1
     
1
     
4
     
(55
)
Financing expenses          
   
(30
)
   
(70
)
   
(47
)
   
(36
)
   
(49
)
Financing income              
28
     
3
     
7
     
11
     
14
 
Financing expenses, net          
 
$
(2
)
 
$
(67
)
 
$
(40
)
 
$
(25
)
 
$
(35
)
Gain on third party investment in Qoros          
   
504
     
     
     
     
 
Fair value loss on option          
   
(40
)
   
     
     
     
 
Write back / (provision) of financial guarantee          
   
63
     
     
(130
)
   
     
 
Share in losses of associated companies, net of tax3    
(105
)
   
(111
)
   
(186
)
   
(187
)
   
(185
)
Profit / (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes
 
$
462
   
$
(136
)
 
$
(428
)
 
$
33
   
$
(166
)
Income taxes              
(11
)
   
(73
)
   
(2
)
   
(9
)
   
(68
)
Profit / (loss) for the year from continuing operations
 
$
451
   
$
(209
)
 
$
(430
)
 
$
24
   
$
(234
)
(Loss) / profit and gain from sale of discontinued operations (after taxes)4    
(6
)
   
478
     
36
     
72
     
711
 
Profit / (loss) for the year          
 
$
445
   
$
269
   
$
(394
)
 
$
96
   
$
477
 
Attributable to:
                                       
Kenon’s shareholders          
   
434
     
237
     
(412
)
   
73
     
459
 
Non-controlling interests          
   
11
     
32
     
18
     
23
     
18
 
Basic/diluted profit/(loss) per share attributable to Kenon’s shareholders (in Dollars):
                                       
Basic/diluted profit/(loss) per share          
   
8.07
     
4.40
     
(7.67
)
   
1.36
     
8.58
 
Basic/diluted profit/(loss) per share from continuing operations
   
8.17
     
(4.00
)
   
(8.08
)
   
0.24
     
(4.44
)
Basic/diluted (loss)/profit per share from discontinued operations
   
(0.10
)
   
8.40
     
0.41
     
1.12
     
13.02
 
Statements of Financial Position Data
                                       
Cash and cash equivalents          
 
$
131
   
$
1,417
   
$
327
   
$
384
   
$
610
 
Short-term investments and deposits          
   
50
     
7
     
90
     
309
     
227
 
Trade receivables          
   
36
     
44
     
284
     
123
     
181
 
Other current assets, including derivatives          
   
41
     
36
     
50
     
45
     
59
 
Income tax receivable          
   
     
     
11
     
4
     
3
 
Inventories          
   
     
     
92
     
51
     
56
 
Assets held for sale              
70
     
     
     
     
 
Total current assets              
328
     
1,504
     
854
     
916
     
1,136
 
Total non-current assets5              
1,127
     
1,022
     
4,284
     
3,567
     
3,184
 
Total assets            
$
1,455
   
$
2,526
   
$
5,138
   
$
4,483
   
$
4,320
 
Total current liabilities              
90
     
806
     
1,045
     
653
     
497
 
Total non-current liabilities            
$
649
   
$
669
   
$
3,199
   
$
2,566
   
$
2,385
 
Equity attributable to the owners of the Company              
649
     
983
     
681
     
1,061
     
1,230
 
Share capital            
$
602
   
$
1,267
   
$
1,267
   
$
1,267
   
$
 
Total equity            
$
716
   
$
1,051
   
$
894
   
$
1,264
   
$
1,438
 
Total liabilities and equity            
$
1,455
   
$
2,526
   
$
5,138
   
$
4,483
   
$
4,320
 
Basic/Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding used in calculating profit/(loss) per share (thousands)
   
53,826
     
53,761
     
53,720
     
53,649
     
53,383
6 
Statements of Cash Flow Data
                                       
Net cash provided by operating activities          
 
$
52
   
$
392
   
$
162
   
$
290
   
$
410
 
Net cash (used in) / provided by investing activities
   
(113
)
   
585
     
(400
)
   
(737
)
   
(883
)
Net cash (used in) / provided by financing activities
   
(1,218
)
   
97
     
175
     
233
     
430
 
(Decrease) / increase in cash and cash equivalents
   
(1,279
)
   
1,074
     
(63
)
   
(214
)
   
(43
)
 
                                                                                  
(1)
Results during these periods have been reclassified to reflect the Inkia Business as discontinued operations. For further information, see Note 27 to our financial statements included in this annual report.
 
(2)
Consists of the consolidated results of OPC and Primus and, from June 30, 2014 until its liquidation in July 2016, the consolidated results of HelioFocus.
 
(3)
Includes Kenon’s share in ZIM’s loss for the six months ended December 31, 2014 and the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018. As from July 1, 2014, Kenon accounted for ZIM’s results of operations pursuant to the equity method of accounting.
 
(4)
Consists of (i) ZIM’s results of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2014, (ii) Petrotec’s results of operations for 2014 and (iii) the results of operations of the Inkia Business for 2014 through 2017.
 
(5)
Includes Kenon’s associated companies: (i) Qoros, (ii) Tower (until June 30, 2015), (iii) ZIM (from July 1, 2014); and (iv) HelioFocus (prior to June 30, 2014).
 
(6)
Based on 53,383,015 shares which were issued as of January 7, 2015, the date of our spin-off from IC.
 
10

 
Selected Reportable Segment Data
 
Kenon is a holding company of (i) a 76% interest in OPC, (ii) a 100% interest in Quantum (Kenon owns a 24% interest in Qoros through Quantum and Kenon has agreed to sell half of its interest to the Majority Shareholder in Qoros, subject to closing conditions; upon completion of this sale, Kenon will hold a 12% interest in Qoros), (iii) a 32% interest in ZIM, and (iv) a 91% interest in Primus. Kenon used to also hold interests in (i) the Inkia Business, which was sold effective December 31, 2017, (ii) a 22.5% interest in Tower, which was distributed to Kenon shareholders on July 23, 2015 and (iii) HelioFocus, which was liquidated in July 2017.
 
The results of the following companies are included in Kenon’s statements of profit and loss as share in losses of associated companies, net of tax, for the years set forth below, except as otherwise indicated: (i) Qoros, (ii) ZIM from July 1, 2014 and (iii) Tower until June 30, 2015.
 
Kenon’s segments are OPC, Quantum and Other. Kenon’s Other segment includes the results of ZIM, Primus, and from June 30, 2014, the results of HelioFocus and Kenon (Company level).
 
The following table sets forth selected financial data for Kenon’s reportable segments for the periods presented:
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
 
 
OPC
   
Quantum1
   
Other2
   
Adjustments3
   
Consolidated Results
 
 
 
(in millions of USD, unless otherwise indicated)
 
Sales
 
$
363
   
$
   
$
1
   
$
   
$
364
 
Depreciation and amortization
   
(30
)
   
     
     
     
(30
)
Financing income
   
2
     
10
     
48
     
(32
)
   
28
 
Financing expenses
   
(27
)
   
(2
)
   
(33
)
   
32
     
(30
)
Gain on third party investment in Qoros
   
     
504
     
     
     
504
 
Fair value loss on option
   
     
(40
)
   
     
     
(40
)
Write back of financial guarantee
   
     
63
     
     
     
63
 
Share in losses of associatedcompanies
   
     
(78
)
   
(27
)
   
     
(105
)
Profit / (Loss) before taxes
 
$
36
   
$
457
   
$
(31
)
 
$
   
$
462
 
Income taxes
   
(10
)
   
     
(1
)
   
     
(11
)
Profit / (Loss) from continuing operations
 
$
26
   
$
457
   
$
(32
)
 
$
   
$
451
 
 
                                       
Segment assets4
 
$
893
   
$
92
   
$
2395
   
$
   
$
1,224
 
Investments in associated companies
   
     
139
     
92
     
     
231
 
Segment liabilities
   
700
     
     
396
     
     
739
 
Capital expenditure7
   
100
     
     
     
     
100
 
                                                                                  
 
(1)
Subsidiary of Kenon that owns Kenon’s equity holding in Qoros.
 
(2)
Includes the results of Primus, the results of ZIM, as an associated company; as well as Kenon’s and IC Green’s holding company and general and administrative expenses.
 
(3)
“Adjustments” includes inter segment financing income and expense.
 
(4)
Includes investments in associates.
 
(5)
Includes Kenon’s, IC Green’s and IC Power holding company assets.
 
(6)
Includes Kenon’s, IC Green’s and IC Power holding company liabilities.
 
(7)
Includes the additions of Property, Plant and Equipment, or PP&E, and intangibles based on an accrual basis.
 
11

 
 
 
Year Ended December 31, 20171
 
 
 
OPC
   
Quantum2
   
Other3
   
Adjustments4
   
Consolidated Results
 
 
 
(in millions of USD, unless otherwise indicated)
 
Sales
 
$
365
   
$
   
$
1
   
$
   
$
366
 
Depreciation and amortization
   
(30
)
   
     
(1
)
   
     
(31
)
Impairment of assets and investments
   
     
     
29
     
     
29
 
Financing income
   
1
     
     
13
     
(11
)
   
3
 
Financing expenses
   
(34
)
   
(6
)
   
(41
)
   
11
     
(70
)
Share in (losses) income of associated companies
   
     
(121
)
   
10
     
     
(111
)
Profit / (Loss) before taxes
 
$
23
   
$
(127
)
 
$
(32
)
 
$
   
$
(136
)
Income taxes
   
(9
)
   
     
(64
)
   
     
(73
)
Profit / (Loss) from continuing operations
 
$
14
   
$
(127
)
 
$
(96
)
 
$
   
$
(209
)
 
                                       
Segment assets5
 
$
940
   
$
16
   
$
1,448
6 
 
$
   
$
2,404
 
Investments in associated companies
   
     
2
     
120
     
     
122
 
Segment liabilities
   
743
     
75
     
657
7     
     
1,475
 
Capital expenditure8
   
109
     
     
121
     
     
230
 
                                                                                  
 
(1)
Results for this period reflect the results of the Inkia Business as discontinued operations. For further information, see Note 27 to our financial statements included in this annual report.
 
(2)
Subsidiary of Kenon that owns Kenon’s equity holding in Qoros.
 
(3)
Includes the results of Primus and HelioFocus (which was liquidated in July 2017); the results of ZIM, as an associated company; as well as Kenon’s and IC Green’s holding company and general and administrative expenses.
 
(4)
“Adjustments” includes inter-segment financing income and expenses.
 
(5)
Excludes investments in associates.
 
(6)
Includes Kenon’s, IC Green’s and IC Power holding company assets.
 
(7)
Includes Kenon’s, IC Green’s and IC Power holding company liabilities.
 
(8)
Includes the additions of PP&E, and intangibles based on an accrual basis.
 
12

 
 
 
Year Ended December 31, 20161
 
 
 
OPC
   
Quantum2
   
Other3
   
Adjustments4
   
Consolidated Results
 
 
 
(in millions of USD, unless otherwise indicated)
 
Sales
 
$
324
   
$
   
$
   
$
   
$
324
 
Depreciation and amortization
   
(27
)
   
     
     
     
(27
)
Impairment of assets and investments
   
     
     
(72
)
   
     
(72
)
Financing income
   
3
     
     
16
     
(12
)
   
7
 
Financing expenses
   
(23
)
   
     
(36
)
   
12
     
(47
)
Share in losses of associated companies
   
     
(143
)
   
(43
)
   
     
(186
)
Provision of financial guarantee
   
     
     
(130
)
   
     
(130
)
Profit/(Loss) before taxes
 
$
20
   
$
(143
)
 
$
(305
)
 
$
   
$
(428
)
Income taxes
   
     
     
(2
)
   
     
(2
)
Profit/(Loss) from continuing operations
 
$
20
   
$
(143
)
 
$
(307
)
 
$
   
$
(430
)
 
                                       
Segment assets5
 
$
668
   
$
2
   
$
4,260
   
$
   
$
4,930
 
Investments in associated companies
   
     
118
     
90
     
     
208
 
Segment liabilities
   
534
     
     
3,710
7    
     
4,244
 
Capital expenditure8
   
73
     
     
245
     
     
318
 

                                                                                  
 
(1)
Results for this period have been reclassified to reflect the results of the Inkia Business as discontinued operations. For further information, see Note 27 to our financial statements included in this annual report.
 
(2)
Subsidiary of Kenon that owns Kenon’s equity holding in Qoros.
 
(3)
Includes the results of Primus and HelioFocus (which was liquidated in July 2017); the results of ZIM, as an associated company; as well as Kenon’s and IC Green’s holding company and general and administrative expenses.
 
(4)
“Adjustments” includes inter-segment financing income and expenses.
 
(5)
Excludes investments in associates.
 
(6)
Includes Kenon’s, IC Green’s and IC Power holding company assets.
 
(7)
Includes Kenon’s, IC Green’s and IC Power holding company liabilities.
 
(8)
Includes the additions of PP&E and intangibles based on an accrual basis.
 
13

 
OPC
 
The following tables set forth other financial and key operating data for OPC for the periods presented:
 
   
2018
   
2017
   
2016
 
   
($ millions, except as otherwise indicated)
 
Net income for the period          
   
26
     
14
     
20
 
EBITDA1          
   
91
     
86
     
67
 
Net Debt2          
   
401
     
395
     
371
 
Net energy generated (GWh)          
   
3,383
     
3,655
     
3,510
 
Energy sales (GWh)          
   
3,965
     
3,988
     
3,996
 

                                                                                  
 
(1)
OPC defines “EBITDA” for each period as net income for the period before depreciation and amortization, financing expenses, net and income tax expense.

EBITDA is not recognized under IFRS or any other generally accepted accounting principles as a measure of financial performance and should not be considered as a substitute for net income or loss, cash flow from operations or other measures of operating performance or liquidity determined in accordance with IFRS. EBITDA is not intended to represent funds available for dividends or other discretionary uses because those funds may be required for debt service, capital expenditures, working capital and other commitments and contingencies. EBITDA presents limitations that impair its use as a measure of OPC’s profitability since it does not take into consideration certain costs and expenses that result from its business that could have a significant effect on OPC’s net income, such as finance expenses, taxes and depreciation.
 
The following table sets forth a reconciliation of OPC’s net income to its EBITDA for the periods presented. Other companies may calculate EBITDA differently, and therefore this presentation of EBITDA may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures used by other companies:
 
   
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2018
   
2017
   
2016
 
   
(in millions of USD)
 
Net income for the period          
 
$
26
   
$
14
   
$
20
 
Depreciation and amortization          
   
30
     
30
     
27
 
Finance expenses, net          
   
25
     
33
     
20
 
Income tax expense          
   
10
     
9
     
 
EBITDA          
 
$
91
   
$
86
   
$
67
 
 
(2)
Net debt is calculated as total debt, minus cash (which includes short term deposits and restricted cash and long-term deposits and restricted cash). Net debt is not a measure recognized under IFRS. The tables below sets forth a reconciliation of OPC’s total debt to net debt.
 
   
Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
   
OPC-Rotem
   
OPC-Hadera
   
Energy & Others
   
Total OPC
 
   
(in millions of USD)
 
Total debt(i)          
   
336
     
172
     
79
     
587
 
Cash(ii)          
   
72
     
14
     
100
     
186
 
Net Debt          
 
$
264
   
$
158
   
$
(21
)
 
$
401
 
 
(i)
Total debt comprises loans from banks and third parties and debentures, and includes long term and short term debt.
 
(ii)
Includes short-term deposits and restricted cash of $50 million; and includes long-term deposits and restricted cash of $48 million including $22 million in cash that was deposited into an escrow account in connection with the Tamar gas dispute. For further information, see “Item 4.B Business Overview—Our Businesses—OPC—Legal Proceedings.
 
 
14

 
   
Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
   
OPC-Rotem
   
OPC-Hadera
   
Energy & Others
   
Total OPC
 
   
(in millions of USD)
 
Total debt(i)          
   
383
     
144
     
91
     
618
 
Cash(ii)          
   
86
     
31
     
106
     
223
 
Net Debt          
 
$
297
   
$
113
   
$
(15
)
 
$
395
 
 
(i)
Total debt comprises loans from banks and third parties and debentures, and includes long term and short term debt.
 
(ii)
Includes short-term deposits and restricted cash of $0 million; and includes long-term deposits and restricted cash of $76 million including $22 million in cash that was deposited into an escrow account in connection with the Tamar gas dispute. For further information, see “Item 4.B Business Overview—Our Businesses—OPC—Legal Proceedings.”
 
   
Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
   
OPC-Rotem
   
OPC-Hadera
   
Energy & Others
   
Total OPC
 
   
(in millions of USD)
 
Total debt(i)          
   
365
     
     
52
     
417
 
Cash(ii)          
   
22
     
1
     
23
     
46
 
Net Debt          
 
$
343
   
$
(1
)
 
$
29
   
$
371
 
 
(i)
Total debt comprises loans from banks and third parties and debentures, and includes long term and short term debt.
 
(ii)
Includes short-term deposits and restricted cash of $4 million and long-term deposits and restricted cash of $19 million.
 
Set forth below is a summary of certain OPC key historical financial and other operational information, for the periods set forth below.
 
   
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2018
   
2017
   
2016
 
   
($ millions, except as otherwise indicated)
 
Sales          
   
363
     
365
     
324
 
Cost of Sales          
   
(258
)
   
(266
)
   
(251
)
Operating income          
   
75
     
69
     
46
 
Operating margins          
   
21
%
   
19
%
   
14
%
Financing expenses, net          
   
25
     
33
     
20
 
Net income for the period          
   
26
     
14
     
20
 
                         
Net Energy sales (GWh)          
   
3,965
     
3,988
     
3,996
 
 
B.    Capitalization and Indebtedness
 
Not applicable.
 
C.    Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
 
Not applicable.
 
D.    Risk Factors
 
Our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity can suffer materially as a result of any of the risks described below. While we have described all of the risks we consider material, these risks are not the only ones we face. We are also subject to the same risks that affect many other companies, such as technological obsolescence, labor relations, geopolitical events, climate change and risks related to the conducting of international operations. Additional risks not known to us or that we currently consider immaterial may also adversely impact our businesses. Our businesses routinely encounter and address risks, some of which may cause our future results to be different—sometimes materially different—than we presently anticipate.
 
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Risks Related to Our Strategy and Operations
 
Some of our businesses have significant capital requirements.
 
The business plans of our businesses contemplate additional debt or equity financing which is expected to be raised from third parties. However, our businesses may be unable to raise the necessary capital from third party financing sources.
 
In the event that one or more of our businesses require capital, either in accordance with their business plans or in response to new developments or to meet operating expenses, and such businesses are unable to raise such financing, Kenon may provide such financing by (i) issuing equity in the form of shares or convertible instruments (through a pre-emptive offering or otherwise), (ii) from third parties using funds received from the operations or sales of Kenon’s other businesses, (iii) selling part, or all, of its interest in any of its businesses, (iv) raising debt financing at the Kenon level or (v) providing guarantees or collateral in support of the debt of its businesses. To the extent that Kenon is able to raise debt financing, any debt financing that Kenon incurs may not be on favorable terms, may impose restrictive covenants that limit how Kenon manages its investments in its businesses, and may also limit dividends or other distributions by Kenon. In addition, any equity financing, whether in the form of a sale of shares or convertible instruments, would dilute existing holders of our ordinary shares and any such equity financing could be at prices that are lower than the current trading prices.
 
Third party financing sources for Kenon’s businesses may require Kenon to guarantee an individual business’ indebtedness and/or provide collateral, including collateral via a cross-collateralization of assets across businesses (i.e., pledging shares or assets of one of our businesses to secure debt of another of our businesses). To the extent Kenon guarantees an individual business’ indebtedness, it may divert funds received from one business to another business. We may also sell some or all of our interests in any of our businesses to provide funding for another business. Additionally, if we cross-collateralize certain assets in order to provide additional collateral to a lender, we may lose an asset associated with one business in the event that a separate business is unable to meet its debt obligations. Furthermore, if Kenon provides any of its businesses with additional capital, provides any third parties with indemnification rights or a guarantee, and/or provides additional collateral, including via cross-collateralization, this could reduce our liquidity. For further information on the capital resources and requirements of each of our businesses, see “Item 5.B Liquidity and Capital Resources.
 
Disruptions in the financial markets could adversely affect Kenon or its businesses, which may not be able to obtain additional financing on acceptable terms or at all.
 
Kenon’s businesses may seek to access capital markets for various purposes, which may include raising funding for the repayment of indebtedness, acquisitions, capital expenditures and for general corporate purposes. The ability of Kenon’s businesses to access capital markets, and the cost of such capital, could be negatively impacted by disruptions in those markets. Capital markets have demonstrated significant volatility in recent years. These disruptions impacted other areas of the economy and led to a slowdown in general economic activity. Similar disruptions in the credit markets could make it more difficult or expensive for our businesses to access the capital or lending markets if the need arises and may make financing terms for borrowers less attractive or available. Furthermore, a decline in the value of any of our businesses, which are or may be used as collateral in financing agreements, could also impact their ability to access financing.
 
Kenon may seek to access the capital or lending markets to obtain financing in the future, including to support its businesses. The availability of such financing and the terms thereof will be impacted by many factors, including: (i) our financial performance, (ii) our credit ratings or absence of a credit rating, (iii) the liquidity of the overall capital markets, and (iv) the state of the economy. There can be no assurance that Kenon will be able to access the capital markets on acceptable terms or at all. If Kenon deems it necessary to access financing and is unable to do so on acceptable terms or at all, this could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or liquidity.
 
We are subject to fluctuations in the capital markets.
 
Our strategy may include sales or distributions of our interests in our businesses. For example, in August 2017, OPC completed an initial public offering, or IPO, in Israel, and a listing on the TASE. Our ability to complete an initial public offering, distribution or listing of one or more of our businesses is heavily dependent upon the public equity markets.
 
To the extent that the securities of our business are publicly traded, we are exposed to risks of downward movement in market prices. In addition, large holdings of securities can often be disposed only over a substantial length of time. Accordingly, under certain conditions, we may be forced to either sell our equity interest in a particular business at lower prices than expected to realize or defer such a sale, potentially for a long period of time.
 
We have pledged a portion of our shares in OPC to secure obligations to the buyer of the Inkia Business under the indemnification obligations in the share purchase agreement for the sale. To the extent that we are required to make payments under the indemnity obligation in the share purchase agreement, we may be required to sell shares in OPC and we would be subject to market conditions at the time of such sale (and the TASE regulations in relation to such sale) which could mean that we are forced to sell our shares for a lower price than we would otherwise be able to do so, particularly if we need to sell a significant amount of shares. If we do not make required payments in the event we are required to make payments under the share purchase agreement, then, in certain circumstances, the pledge can be enforced to satisfy the indemnity obligations, which would result in a loss of some or all of the pledged OPC shares.
 
16

 
We are a holding company and are dependent upon cash flows from our businesses to meet our existing and future obligations.
 
We are a holding company of various operating companies, and as a result, do not conduct independent operations or possess significant assets other than investments in and advances to our businesses. As a result, we depend on funds from our businesses or external financing to meet our operating expenses and obligations, including our operating expenses, our guarantee of the indemnification obligations under the share purchase agreement for the sale of the Inkia Business and our guarantee obligations in respect of Qoros debt.
 
Kenon may also seek to raise financing at the Kenon level to meet its obligations. In the event that funds from its businesses or external financing are not available to meet such obligations on reasonable terms or at all, Kenon may need to sell assets to meet such obligations, and its ability to sell assets may be limited, particularly in light the various pledges over the shares and assets of some of Kenon’s businesses. Any sales of assets may not be at attractive prices, particularly if such sales must be made quickly to meet Kenon’s obligations.
 
Kenon has provided loans and guarantees to support our businesses, such as Qoros, and may provide additional loans to or make other investments in or provide guarantees in support of its businesses. Kenon’s liquidity requirements will increase to the extent it makes further loans or other investments in or grants additional guarantees to support its businesses.
 
In addition, as Kenon’s businesses are legally distinct from it and will generally be required to service their debt obligations before making distributions to Kenon, Kenon’s ability to access such cash flow from its businesses may be limited in some circumstances and it may not have the ability to cause its subsidiaries and associated companies to make distributions to Kenon, even if they are able to do so. Additionally, the terms of existing and future joint venture, financing, or cooperative operational agreements and/or the laws and jurisdictions under which each of Kenon’s businesses are organized may also limit the timing and amount of any dividends, other distributions, loans or loan repayments to Kenon.
 
Additionally, as dividends are generally taxed and governed by the relevant authority in the jurisdiction in which the company is incorporated, there may be numerous and significant tax or other legal restrictions on the ability of Kenon’s businesses to remit funds to us, or to remit such funds without incurring significant tax liabilities or incurring a ratings downgrade.
 
We do not have the right to manage, and in some cases do not control, some of our businesses, and therefore we may not be able to realize some or all of the benefits that we expect to realize from our businesses.
 
As we own minority interests in Qoros and ZIM, we are subject to the operating and financial risks of these businesses, the risk that these businesses may make business, operational, financial, legal or regulatory decisions that we do not agree with, and the risk that we may have objectives that differ from those of the applicable business itself or its other shareholders. Our ability to control the development and operation of these investments may be limited, and we may not be able to realize some or all of the benefits that we expect to realize from these investments. For example, we may not be able to cause these businesses to make distributions to us in the amount or at the time that we may need or want such distributions.
 
In 2018, the Majority Shareholder in Qoros acquired 51% of Qoros from Kenon and Chery. As a result, Kenon and Chery now have 24% and 25% stakes in Qoros, respectively. In addition, Kenon can now appoint two of nine Qoros directors (as opposed to half of the Qoros directors prior to the investment). Although we still actively participate in the management of Qoros through our 24% interest and board representatives, our right to control Qoros decreased with the new investment. Furthermore, in January 2019, Kenon agreed to sell half of its remaining interest in Qoros (i.e. 12%) to the Majority Shareholder in Qoros. The sale is subject to obtaining relevant third-party consents and other closing conditions, including approvals by relevant government authorities. Following completion of the sale, Kenon will hold a 12% interest in Qoros, the Majority Shareholder in Qoros will hold 63% and Chery will own 25%. For further information, see “Item 4.B Business Overview—Our Businesses—Qoros —Qoros’ Investment Agreement” and “Item 4.B Business Overview—Our Businesses—Qoros —2019 Qoros Sale Agreement.
 
In addition, we rely on the internal controls and financial reporting controls of our businesses and the failure of our businesses to maintain effective controls or to comply with applicable standards could make it difficult to comply with applicable reporting and audit standards. For example, the preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires the prompt receipt of financial statements from each of our subsidiaries and associated companies, some of whom rely on the prompt receipt of financial statements from each of their subsidiaries and associated companies. Additionally, in certain circumstances, we may be required to file with our annual report on Form 20-F, or a registration statement filed with the SEC, financial information of associated companies which has been audited in conformity with SEC rules and regulations and relevant audit standards. We may not, however, be able to procure such financial statements, or such audited financial statements, as applicable, from our subsidiaries and associated companies and this could render us unable to comply with applicable SEC reporting standards.
 
Our businesses are leveraged.
 
Some of our businesses are significantly leveraged and may incur additional debt financing in the future. As of December 31, 2018, OPC had $587 million of outstanding indebtedness, Qoros had outstanding indebtedness of RMB5.1 billion (approximately $742 million), and ZIM had outstanding indebtedness of approximately $1.5 billion.
 
Highly leveraged assets are inherently more sensitive to declines in earnings, increases in expenses and interest rates, and adverse market conditions. A leveraged company’s income and net assets also tend to increase or decrease at a greater rate than would otherwise be the case if money had not been borrowed. Consequently, the risk of loss associated with a leveraged company is generally greater than for companies with comparatively less debt. Additionally, some of our businesses’ assets have been pledged to secure indebtedness, and as a result, the amount of collateral that is available for future secured debt or credit support and a business’ flexibility in dealing with its secured assets may be limited. Our businesses use a substantial portion of their consolidated cash flows from operations to make debt service payments, thereby reducing its ability to use their cash flows to fund operations, capital expenditures, or future business opportunities. Additionally, ZIM remains highly leveraged and notwithstanding its debt restructuring in 2014, continues to face risks associated with those of a highly leveraged company.
 
17

 
Our businesses will generally have to service their debt obligations before making distributions to us or to any other shareholder. In addition, many of the financing agreements relating to the debt facilities of our operating companies contain covenants and limitations, including the following:
 
·
leverage ratio;
 
·
minimum equity;
 
·
debt service coverage ratio;
 
·
limits on the incurrence of liens or the pledging of certain assets;
 
·
limits on the incurrence of subsidiary debt;
 
·
limits on the ability to enter into transactions with affiliates, including us;
 
·
minimum liquidity and fixed charge cover ratios;
 
·
limits on the ability to pay dividends to shareholders, including us;
 
·
limits on our ability to sell assets; and
 
·
other non-financial covenants and limitations and various reporting obligations.
 
If any of our businesses are unable to repay or refinance their indebtedness as it becomes due, or if they are unable to comply with their covenants, we may decide to sell assets or to take other actions, including (i) reducing financing in the future for investments, acquisitions or general corporate purposes or (ii) dedicating an unsustainable level of our cash flow from operations to the payment of principal and interest on their indebtedness. As a result, the ability of our businesses to withstand competitive pressures and to react to changes in the various industries in which we operate could be impaired. A breach of any of our businesses’ debt instruments and/or covenants could result in a default under the relevant debt instrument(s), which could lead to an event of default. Upon the occurrence of such an event of default, the lenders could elect to declare all amounts outstanding thereunder to be immediately due and payable and, in the case of credit facility lenders, terminate all commitments to extend further credit. If the lenders accelerate the repayment of the relevant borrowings, the relevant business may not have sufficient assets to repay any outstanding indebtedness, which could result in a complete loss of that business for us. Furthermore, the acceleration of any obligation under certain debt instrument may permit the holders of other material debt to accelerate their obligations pursuant to “cross default” provisions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and liquidity.
 
As a result, our businesses’ leverage could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
 
In addition, we have back-to-back guarantee obligations to Chery of RMB288 million (approximately $44 million), with respect to debt in principal of RMB320 million (approximately $47 million), and have pledged a substantial portion of our interest in Qoros to support certain Qoros debt, as well as Chery’s guarantees of Qoros debt.
 
We face risks in relation to the Majority Shareholder in Qoros’ investment in Qoros
 
In 2018, the Majority Shareholder in Qoros acquired 51% of Qoros from Kenon and Chery. As a result, Kenon and Chery have 24% and 25% stakes in Qoros, respectively. The investment was made pursuant to an investment agreement among the Majority Shareholder in Qoros, Quantum, Wuhu Chery Automobile Investment Co., Ltd., or Wuhu Chery, (a subsidiary of Chery) and Qoros. Under the investment agreement, during the three-year period beginning from the closing of the investment, Kenon has the right to cause the Majority Shareholder in Qoros to purchase up to 50% of its remaining equity interest in Qoros for up to RMB1.56 billion (approximately $227 million), being the price for 50% of Kenon’s remaining 24% interest in Qoros, subject to adjustments for inflation. From the third anniversary of the closing until April 2023, Kenon has the right to cause the Majority Shareholder in Qoros to purchase up to all of its remaining equity interests in Qoros for up to a total of RMB3.12 billion (approximately $454 million) (for Kenon’s full 24% interest in Qoros), subject to adjustment for inflation. If the Majority Shareholder in Qoros (and the other company within the Baoeneng group has effectively guaranteed the Majority Shareholder in Qoros’ obligations under the put right by also serving as a grantor of the put) is unable to purchase Kenon’s equity interest in Qoros upon exercise of the put option, or if any exercise of the put option does not result in a purchase of Kenon’s shares in accordance with the terms thereof for any other reason, this could have a material adverse effect on Kenon.
 
18

 
As part of the investment agreement, the Majority Shareholder in Qoros assumed its pro rata share (based on its 51% equity ownership) of the guarantees and pledges provided by Quantum and Wuhu Chery in respect of Qoros debt, which is subject to further adjustment following any future changes in the equity ownership in Qoros (including as a result of the exercise of the put option or investment right by a shareholder under the investment agreement). The Majority Shareholder in Qoros is still in the process of assuming its proportionate pledge obligations with respect to the RMB1.2 billion loan facility after which Kenon will also be proportionately released from its pledge obligations thereunder, subject to the Qoros bank lender consent. Failure to obtain bank consents could adversely impact Kenon.
 
In January 2019, Kenon agreed to sell half of its remaining interest in Qoros (i.e. 12%) to the Majority Shareholder in Qoros for a purchase price of RMB1,560 million (approximately US$227 million). The sale is subject to obtaining customary relevant third-party consents and other closing conditions, including approvals by relevant government authorities. Following completion of the sale Kenon will hold a 12% interest in Qoros, the Majority Shareholder in Qoros will hold 63% and Chery will own 25%. The sale was not made pursuant to the put option described above. Furthermore, following completion of the sale, the Majority Shareholder in Qoros will be required to assume its pro rata share of guarantees and equity pledges of Kenon and Chery based on the change to its equity ownership. Failure to complete the sale of the 12% interest to the Majority Shareholder in Qoros or failure by the Majority Shareholder in Qoros to assume its pro rata share of guarantees and equity pledges could adversely impact Kenon.
 
In connection with its January 2018 investment in Qoros, the Majority Shareholder in Qoros agreed to introduce a minimum number of vehicle purchase orders to Qoros each year between 2018 and 2020 following the entry into further agreements with respect to these purchases. This minimum number of purchases orders was not met in 2018 and there is no assurance that it will be met in the future.
 
Our success will be dependent upon the efforts of our directors and executive officers.
 
Our success will be dependent upon the decision-making of our directors and executive officers as well as the directors and executive officers of our businesses. The loss of any or all of our directors and executive officers could delay the implementation of our strategies or divert our directors and executive officers’ attention from our operations which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
 
Foreign exchange rate fluctuations and controls could have a material adverse effect on our earnings and the strength of our balance sheet.
 
Through our businesses, we have facilities and generate costs and revenues in a number of geographic regions across the globe. As a result, a significant portion of our revenue and certain of our businesses’ operating expenses, assets and liabilities, are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar. The predominance of certain currencies varies from business to business, with many of our businesses generating revenues or incurring indebtedness in more than one currency. For example, most of ZIM’s revenues and a significant portion of its expenses are denominated in the U.S. Dollar. However, a material portion of ZIM’s expenses are denominated in local currencies.
 
We have outstanding back-to-back guarantees to Chery of up to RMB288 million (approximately $44 million), with respect to debt in principal of RMB320 million (approximately $47 million), plus certain interest and fees, in respect of certain of Qoros’ indebtedness. In addition, from time to time, we have held, and may hold, a portion of our available cash in RMB, which may expose us to RMB exchange rate fluctuations.
 
Furthermore, our businesses may pay distributions or make payments to us in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar, which we must convert to U.S. Dollars prior to making dividends or other distributions to our shareholders if we decide to make any distributions in the future. Foreign exchange controls in countries in which our businesses operate may further limit our ability to repatriate funds from unconsolidated foreign affiliates or otherwise convert local currencies into U.S. Dollars.
 
Consequently, as with any international business, our liquidity, earnings, expenses, asset book value, and/or amount of equity may be materially affected by short-term or long-term exchange rate movements or controls. Such movements may give rise to one or more of the following risks, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity:
 
·
Transaction Risk—exists where sales or purchases are denominated in overseas currencies and the exchange rate changes after our entry into a purchase or sale commitment but prior to the completion of the underlying transaction itself;
 
19

 
·
Translation Risk—exists where the currency in which the results of a business are reported differs from the underlying currency in which the business’ operations are transacted;
 
·
Economic Risk—exists where the manufacturing cost base of a business is denominated in a currency different from the currency of the market into which the business’ products are sold; and
 
·
Reinvestment Risk—exists where our ability to reinvest earnings from operations in one country to fund the capital needs of operations in other countries becomes limited.
 
·
If our businesses are unable to manage their interest rate risks effectively, our cash flows and operating results may suffer.
 
Certain of our businesses’ indebtedness bears interest at variable, floating rates. In particular, some of this indebtedness is in the form of Consumer Price Index (or CPI)-linked, NIS-denominated bonds. We, or our businesses, may incur further indebtedness in the future that also bears interest at a variable rate or at a rate that is linked to fluctuations in a currency in the form of other than the U.S. Dollar. Although our businesses attempt to manage their interest rate risk, there can be no assurance that they will hedge such exposure effectively or at all in the future. Accordingly, increases in interest rates or changes in the CPI that are greater than changes anticipated based upon historical trends could have a material adverse effect on our or any of our businesses’ business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
 
Risks Related to the Industries in Which Our Businesses Operate
 
Conditions in the global economy, and in the industries in which our businesses operate in particular, could have a material adverse effect on us.
 
The business and operating results of each of our businesses are affected by worldwide economic conditions, particularly conditions in the energy generation, passenger vehicle, and shipping industries our businesses operate in. The operating results and profitability of our businesses may be adversely affected by slower global economic growth, credit market crises, lower levels of consumer and business confidence, downward pressure on prices, high unemployment levels, reduced levels of capital expenditures, fluctuating commodity prices (particularly prices for electricity, natural gas, bunker, gasoline, and crude oil), bankruptcies, government deficit reduction and austerity measures, heightened volatility, uncertainties with respect to the stability of the emerging markets, increased tariffs and other forms of trade protectionism and other challenges affecting the global economy. Volatility in global financial markets and in prices for oil and other commodities could result in a worsening of global economic conditions. As a result of global economic conditions, some of the customers of our businesses have experienced, and may experience, deterioration of their businesses, cash flow shortages, and/or difficulty in obtaining financing. As a result, existing or potential customers may delay or cancel plans to purchase the products and/or services of our businesses, or may not be able to fulfill their obligations to us in a timely fashion. Furthermore, the vendors, suppliers and/or partners of each of our businesses may experience similar conditions, which may impact their ability to fulfill their obligations.
 
Additionally, economic downturns may alter the priorities of governments to subsidize and/or incentivize participation in any of the markets in which our businesses operate. For example, economic downturns or political dynamics may impact the availability of financial incentives provided by the Chinese government for Chinese automobile purchases. Slower growth or deterioration in the global economy (as a result of recent volatility in global markets, trade protectionism and commodity prices, or otherwise) could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
 
Our businesses’ operations expose us to risks associated with conditions in those markets.
 
Through our businesses, we operate and service customers in geographic regions around the world which exposes us to risks, including:
 
·
heightened economic volatility;
 
·
difficulty in enforcing agreements, collecting receivables and protecting assets;
 
·
the possibility of encountering unfavorable circumstances from host country laws or regulations;
 
·
fluctuations in revenues, operating margins and/or other financial measures due to currency exchange rate fluctuations and restrictions on currency and earnings repatriation;
 
·
unfavorable changes in regulated electricity tariffs;
 
·
trade protection measures, import or export restrictions, licensing requirements and local fire and security codes and standards;
 
20

 
·
increased costs and risks of developing, staffing and simultaneously managing a number of operations across a number of countries as a result of language and cultural differences;
 
·
issues related to occupational safety, work hazard, and adherence to local labor laws and regulations;
 
·
adverse tax developments;
 
·
changes in the general political, social and/or economic conditions in the countries where we operate; and
 
·
the presence of corruption in certain countries.
 
If any of our businesses are impacted by any of the aforementioned factors, such an impact could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
 
We require qualified personnel to manage and operate our various businesses.
 
As a result of our decentralized structure, we require qualified and competent management to independently direct the day-to-day business activities of each of our businesses, execute their respective business plans, and service their respective customers, suppliers and other stakeholders, in each case across numerous geographic locations. We must be able to retain employees and professionals with the skills necessary to understand the continuously developing needs of our customers and to maximize the value of each of our businesses. This includes developing talent and leadership capabilities in the emerging markets in which certain of our businesses operate, where the depth of skilled employees may be limited. Changes in demographics, training requirements and/or the unavailability of qualified personnel could negatively impact the ability of each of our businesses to meet these demands. If any of our businesses fail to train and retain qualified personnel, or if they experience excessive turnover, we may experience declining sales, production/manufacturing delays or other inefficiencies, increased recruiting, training or relocation costs and other difficulties, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
 
Significant raw material shortages, supplier capacity constraints, production disruptions, supplier quality and sourcing issues or price increases could increase our operating costs and adversely impact the competitive positions of the products and/or services of our businesses.
 
The reliance of certain of our businesses on certain third-party suppliers, contract manufacturers and service providers, or commodity markets to secure raw materials (e.g., natural gas for OPC and bunker and containers for ZIM), parts, components and sub-systems used in their products or services exposes us to volatility in the prices and availability of these materials, parts, components, systems and services. Some of these suppliers or their sub-suppliers are limited- or sole-source suppliers. For more information on the risks relating to supplier concentration in relation to OPC, see “—Risks Related to OPC— Supplier concentration may expose OPC to significant financial credit or performance risk, particularly with respect to those agreements which may expire during the life of its power plants.
 
A disruption in deliveries from these and other third-party suppliers, contract manufacturers or service providers, capacity constraints, production disruptions, price increases, or decreased availability of raw materials or commodities, including as a result of catastrophic events, could have an adverse effect on the ability of our businesses to meet their commitments to customers or could increase their operating costs. Our businesses could encounter supply problems and may be unable to replace a supplier that is not able to meet their demand in either the short- or the long-term; these risks are exacerbated in the case of raw materials or component parts that are sourced from a single-source supplier. Furthermore, quality and sourcing issues experienced by third-party providers can also adversely affect the quality and effectiveness of our businesses’ products and/or services and result in liability and reputational harm that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
 
Some of our businesses must keep pace with technological changes and develop new products and services to remain competitive.
 
The markets in which some of our businesses operate experience rapid and significant changes as a result of the introduction of both innovative technologies and services. To meet customer needs in these areas, these businesses must continuously design new, and update existing, products and services, as well as invest in, and develop new technologies. Introducing new products and technologies requires a significant commitment to research and development that, in return, requires the expenditure of considerable financial resources that may not always result in success.
 
Our sales and profitability may suffer if our businesses invest in technologies that do not operate, or may not be integrated, as expected or that are not accepted into the marketplace as anticipated, or if their services, products or systems are not introduced to the market in a timely manner, in particular, compared to its competitors, or become obsolete. Furthermore, in some of these markets, the need to develop and introduce new products rapidly in order to capture available opportunities may lead to quality problems. Our operating results depend on our ability, and the ability of these businesses, to anticipate and adapt to changes in markets and to reduce the costs of producing high-quality, new and existing products and services. If we, or any of these businesses, are unsuccessful in our efforts, such a failure could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
 
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Our businesses may be adversely affected by work stoppages, union negotiations, labor disputes and other matters associated with our labor force.
 
As of December 31, 2018, OPC employed 92 employees, Qoros employed approximately 3,400 employees and ZIM employed approximately 3,700 employees. Our businesses could experience strikes, industrial unrest, or work stoppages. Any disruptions in the operations of any of our businesses as a result of labor stoppages or strikes could materially and adversely affect our or the relevant businesses’ reputation and could adversely affect operations. Additionally, a work stoppage at any one of the suppliers of any of our businesses could materially and adversely affect our operations if an alternative source of supply were not readily available.
 
A disruption in our and each of our business’ information technology systems, including incidents related to cyber security, could adversely affect our business operations
 
        Our business operations, and the operations of our businesses, rely upon the accuracy, availability and security of information technology systems for data processing, storage and reporting. As a result, we, and our businesses, maintain information security policies and procedures for managing such information technology systems. However, such security measures may be ineffective and our information technology systems, or those of our businesses, may be subject to cyber-attacks. A number of companies around the world have been the subject of cybersecurity attacks in recent years, including in Israel where we have a large part of our businesses. For example, a large shipping company experienced a major cyberattack on its IT systems in 2017, which impacted that company’s operations in transport and logistics businesses and resulted in financial loss. These attacks are increasing and becoming more sophisticated, and may be perpetrated by computer hackers, cyber terrorists or other corporate espionage.
 
        Cyber security attacks could include malicious software (malware), attempts to gain unauthorized access to data, and other electronic security breaches of our and our business’ information technology systems as well as the information technology systems of our customers and other service providers that could lead to disruptions in critical systems, unauthorized release, misappropriation, corruption or loss of data or confidential information. In addition, any system failure, accident or security breach could result in business disruption, unauthorized access to, or disclosure of, customer or personnel information, corruption of our data or of our systems, reputational damage or litigation. We or our operating companies may also be required to incur significant costs to protect against or repair the damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future, including, for example, rebuilding internal systems, implementing additional threat protection measures, providing modifications to our services, defending against litigation, responding to regulatory inquiries or actions, paying damages, providing customers with incentives to maintain the business relationship, or taking other remedial steps with respect to third parties. These cyber security threats are constantly evolving. We, therefore, remain potentially vulnerable to additional known or yet unknown threats, as in some instances, we, our businesses and our customers may be unaware of an incident or its magnitude and effects Should we or any of our operating businesses experience a cyber-attack, this could have a material adverse effect on our, or any of our operating companies’, business, financial condition or results of operations.
 
Risks Related to Legal, Regulatory and Compliance Matters
 
We, and each of our businesses, are subject to legal proceedings and legal compliance risks.
 
We are subject to a variety of legal proceedings and legal compliance risks in every part of the world in which our businesses operate. We, our businesses, and the industries in which we operate, are periodically reviewed or investigated by regulators and other governmental authorities, which could lead to enforcement actions, fines and penalties or the assertion of private litigation claims and damages. Changes in laws or regulations could require us, or any of our businesses, to change manners of operation or to utilize resources to maintain compliance with such regulations, which could increase costs or otherwise disrupt operations. Protectionist trade policies and changes in the political and regulatory environment in the markets in which we operate, such as foreign exchange import and export controls, tariffs and other trade barriers and price or exchange controls, could affect our businesses in several national markets, impact our profitability and make the repatriation of profits difficult, and may expose us or any of our businesses to penalties, sanctions and reputational damage. In addition, the uncertainty of the legal environment in some regions could limit our ability to enforce our rights.
 
The global and diverse nature of our operations means that legal and compliance risks will continue to exist and additional legal proceedings and other contingencies, the outcome of which cannot be predicted with certainty, will arise from time to time. No assurances can be made that we will be found to be operating in compliance with, or be able to detect violations of, any existing or future laws or regulations. In addition, as we hold minority interests in ZIM and Qoros, we do not control them and therefore cannot ensure that they will comply with all applicable laws and regulations. A failure to comply with or properly anticipate applicable laws or regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
 
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We may be subject to further government regulation, which may adversely affect our strategy.
 
The U.S. Investment Company Act of 1940 regulates “investment companies,” which includes entities that are, or that hold themselves out as being, primarily engaged in the business of investing, reinvesting and trading in securities or that are engaged, or propose to engage, in the business of investing, reinvesting, owning, holding or trading in securities and own, or propose to acquire, investment securities having a value exceeding 40% of the value of the issuer’s total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis (or 45% of the issuer’s net income or assets, excluding interest in primarily controlled companies). Accordingly, we do not believe that we are subject to regulation under the U.S. Investment Company Act of 1940. We are organized as a holding company that conducts its businesses primarily through majority owned and primarily controlled subsidiaries. Maintaining such status may impose limits on our operations and on the assets that we and our subsidiaries may acquire or dispose of. If, at any time, we meet the definition of investment company, we could, among other things, be required either (a) to substantially change the manner in which we conduct our operations to avoid being required to register as an investment company or (b) to register as an investment company under the U.S. Investment Company Act of 1940, either of which could have an adverse effect on us and the market price of our securities. The U.S. Investment Company Act of 1940 generally only allows U.S. entities to register. If we were required to register as an investment company but failed to do so, we could be prohibited from engaging in our business in the United States or offering and selling securities in the United States or to U.S. persons, unable to comply with our reporting obligations in the United States as a foreign private issuer, subject to the delisting of the Kenon shares from the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE, and subject to criminal and civil actions that could be brought against us, any of which would have a material adverse effect on the liquidity and value of the Kenon shares and on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
 
We could be adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-bribery laws outside of the United States
 
The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or the FCPA, and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials or other persons for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Recent years have seen substantial anti-bribery law enforcement activity, with aggressive investigations and enforcement proceedings by both the U.S. Department of Justice and the SEC, increased enforcement activity by non-U.S. regulators, and increases in criminal and civil proceedings brought against companies and individuals. Our policies mandate compliance with the FCPA and other applicable anti-bribery laws. We operate, through our businesses, in some parts of the world that are recognized as having governmental and commercial corruption. Additionally, because many of our customers and end users are involved in construction and energy production, they are often subject to increased scrutiny by regulators. Our internal control policies and procedures may not protect us from reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees, the employees of any of our businesses, or third party intermediaries. In the event that we believe or have reason to believe that our employees or agents have or may have violated applicable anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA, we would investigate or have outside counsel investigate the relevant facts and circumstances, which can be expensive and require significant time and attention from senior management. Violations of these laws may result in criminal or civil sanctions, inability to do business with existing or future business partners (either as a result of express prohibitions or to avoid the appearance of impropriety), injunctions against future conduct, profit disgorgements, disqualifications from directly or indirectly engaging in certain types of businesses, the loss of business permits, reputational harm or other restrictions which could disrupt our business and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. We face risks with respect to compliance with the FCPA and similar anti-bribery laws through our acquisition of new companies and the due diligence we perform in connection with an acquisition may not be sufficient to enable us fully to assess an acquired company’s historic compliance with applicable regulations. Furthermore, our post-acquisition integration efforts may not be adequate to ensure our system of internal controls and procedures are fully adopted and adhered to by acquired entities, resulting in increased risks of non-compliance with applicable anti-bribery laws.
 
We could be adversely affected by international sanctions and trade restrictions.
 
We have geographically diverse businesses, which may expose our business and financial affairs to political and economic risks, including operations in areas subject to international restrictions and sanctions. Legislation and rules governing sanctions and trade restrictions are complex and constantly evolving. Moreover, changes in these laws and regulations can be unpredictable and happen swiftly. Part of our global operations necessitate the importation and exportation of goods and technology across international borders on a regular basis. From time to time, we, or our businesses, obtain or receive information alleging improper activity in connection with such imports or exports. Our policies mandate strict compliance with applicable sanctions laws and trade restrictions. Nonetheless, our policies and procedures may not always protect us from actions that would violate U.S. and/or foreign laws. Such improper actions could subject us to civil or criminal penalties, including material monetary fines, denial of import or export privileges, or other adverse actions. The occurrence of any of the aforementioned factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
 
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Risks Related to OPC
 
OPC faces risks in connection with the expansion of its business.
 
OPC is in the process of the construction and development of power generation facilities and is contemplating further such development. Existing regulation, such as antitrust laws, regulation by virtue of the Israeli Concentration Law, or the EA rules with respect to holdings of control in generation licenses, may restrict the expansion of OPC’s activity in Israel.
 
For example, OPC's subsidiary Tzomet is developing a natural gas-fired open-cycle power station in Israel with capacity of approximately 396 MW. In April 2019, the EA published its decision to grant Tzomet a conditional license for a 66-month term (which can be extended, subject to conditions) for the construction of a 396MW conventional open-cycle power plant. However, such conditional license remains subject to the Israeli Minister of Energy's approval and the issuance of a guarantee by Tzomet. The grant of a permanent generation license to Tzomet, upon expiration of the conditional license, is subject to Tzomet's compliance with the conditions set by law. Development of the Tzomet plant is also subject to a positive interconnection study and to financial closing. If these conditions are not met by January 1, 2020, it could lead to cancellation of the project.
 
According to the Israeli Concentration Law, when allocating and determining the terms of certain rights, including the right to an electricity generation license, the regulator must take into account the promotion of competition in the relevant industry and the Israeli economy generally. If the right is on the list of rights that may have a material impact on competition, the regulator must consult with the Israel Antitrust Commissioner. Kenon, OPC, and OPC’s subsidiaries are considered concentration entities under the Israel Corporation Group, which may affect OPC’s or its subsidiaries’ ability to receive a generation license if it involves the construction and operation of power plants exceeding 175 MW. The list of concentration entities also includes Mr. Idan Ofer, who is the beneficiary of entities that indirectly hold a majority of the shares in Kenon, and includes a list of other entities which may be affiliated with Mr. Idan Ofer, including ZIM, in which Kenon holds a 32% interest. OPC's expansion activities and future projects could, therefore, be limited by the Israeli Concentration Law.
 
Pursuant to the Israeli Government’s electricity sector reform, as part of the required IEC tender process of five of its sites, entities will not be permitted to hold more than 20% of the total planned installed capacity on the date of sale of all the sites being sold. This reform is, therefore expected to increase competition and would impose limitations on OPC’s ability to expand its business.
 
OPC is leveraged and may be unable to comply with its financial covenants or meet its debt service or other obligations.
 
As of December 31, 2018, OPC had $587 million of outstanding indebtedness. The debt instruments to which OPC and its operating companies are party to require compliance with certain covenants and limitations, including
 
·
Minimum liquidity, loan life coverage ratios and debt service coverage ratios covenants; and
 
·
Other non-financial covenants and limitations such as restrictions on dividend distributions, repayments of shareholder loans, asset sales, pledges investments and incurrence of debt, as well as reporting obligations.
 
Breach of the various covenants could result, among other things, in acceleration of the debt, restrictions in the declaration or payment of dividends or cross-defaults across the debt instruments.
 
Furthermore, OPC may have a limited ability to receive financing from Israeli banks due to Israeli regulatory restrictions on the amount of loans that Israeli banks are permitted to grant to single borrowers or groups of borrowers, which may result in limitations to the amount of loans that they are permitted to grant to OPC.
 
OPC’s facilities may be affected by disruptions, including planned maintenance, technical failures and natural disasters.
 
OPC’s ongoing activities may be affected by technical disruptions and faults to critical equipment. For instance, various natural disasters, such as earthquakes or fires, may harm OPC’s facilities and thereby affecting its operations and supply of electricity. Due to the nature of OPC’s activities, which, for example, include the use and storage of flammable materials and working with high temperatures and pressures, OPC’s facilities are exposed to the risk of fire hazards. Should natural or disasters damage OPC’s facilities, restoration may involve the investment of significant resources and time, which would likely lead to full or partial shutdown of the generation facilities that were damaged. Losses that are not fully covered by OPC’s insurance policies may have an adverse effect on OPC.
 
In addition, OPC’s long-term service agreement for the maintenance of OPC-Rotem includes timetables for performance of the maintenance work, and in particular the first “major overhaul” maintenance, which is to be performed every six years. Regular maintenance work is completed approximately every 18 months, with the next regular maintenance work scheduled to occur prior to the summer of 2020. Maintenance work may result in operational shutdowns and impact results. As planned, major overhaul maintenance work was completed between September and November 2018, which halted the OPC-Rotem plant’s operations along with the related energy generation activities, which impacted results for this period.
 
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The political and security situation in Israel may affect OPC.
 
A deterioration of the political and security situation in Israel may adversely affect OPC’s activities and harm its assets. Security and political events such as a war or acts of terrorism may harm the facilities serving OPC (including the power station facilities owned by the Company), the construction of the OPC’s current construction projects and future projects, computer systems, facilities for transmission of natural gas to the power stations and the electricity transmission grid. In addition, such acts may have an adverse effect on OPC’s material suppliers, thereby limiting OPC’s ability to supply electricity to its customers reliably. Likewise, a deterioration in the political and security situation in Israel may have a negative effect on OPC’s ability to construct new projects, to raise capital for new projects and to initiate new projects in areas exposed to a security risk. Negative developments in the political and security situation in Israel and various security events may cause additional restrictions on OPC, including boycotts by various parties. In addition, in such cases, parties with whom OPC has contracted may claim to terminate their obligations pursuant to the agreements with the OPC due to the occurrence of force majeure events. In addition, some of OPC’s employees may be called for reserve military duty and their absence may have an adverse effect on OPC’s operations.
 
Changes in the EA’s electricity rates may reduce OPC’s profitability.
 
The price of electricity for OPC’s customers is directly affected by the electricity generation tariff, and this is the basis of linking the price of natural gas pursuant to gas purchase agreements. Therefore, changes in the electricity rates published by the EA, including the rate of the electricity generation component, may have a substantial adverse effect on OPC’s profits.
 
If the generation component tariffs published by the EA change as a result of, among other things, fluctuations in currency exchange rates or IEC fuel costs, OPC’s revenues from sales to private customers and cost of sales will be affected. According to public reports of the Tamar Group partners, in February 2019 an amendment to the agreement of the Tamar Group with the IEC was approved regarding the price of natural gas under the agreement. If the amendment is executed, the IEC will pay lower prices for the natural gas supplied under the agreement, commencing from January 2019 up to the first price adjustment date (currently set for July 1, 2021). This could impact the tariffs under PPAs and could potentially affect the price that OPC pays for gas. For further information on the effect of EA tariffs on OPC’s revenues and margins, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Material Factors Affecting Results of Operations—OPC— Sales—EA Tariffs.”
 
Furthermore, the gas price formula determined in the agreement with the Tamar Group (which includes Noble Energy Mediterranean Ltd., Isramco Negev 2 Limited Partnership, Delek Drilling Limited Partnership, Dor Gas Exploration Limited Partnership, Everest Infrastructure Limited Partnership and Tamar Petroleum Ltd.) is subject to a minimum price. Therefore, when the price of gas is equal to or lower than the minimum price, reductions in the generation tariff will not lead to a reduction in the cost of natural gas consumed by OPC-Rotem, but rather to a reduction in profit margins. For example, in connection with reductions in the EA generation component tariff in 2015, OPC-Rotem paid the minimum price starting in November 2015 as well as during 2016 to 2018 (excluding one month in 2018).
 
Therefore, declines in the EA generation component tariff may not have a corresponding decline in OPC-Rotem’s natural gas expenses, due to the floor price mechanism. and may lead to a decline in OPC-Rotem’s margins, which may have a material adverse effect on OPC’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Changes in the Consumer Price Index in Israel or the U.S. Dollar to NIS exchange rate could adversely affect OPC.
 
If Israel experiences inflation it may affect OPC. A significant portion of the liabilities of OPC and its subsidiaries is linked to the CPI, including a substantial part of the OPC-Rotem and OPC-Hadera loans. Therefore, changes to the CPI could impact OPC’s financing expenses and results of operations. In addition, to the extent that OPC is above the floor price in its gas supply agreement, the price it pays for gas is linked in part to the U.S. Dollar to NIS exchange rate, and accordingly variations in such rate can impact OPC’s results. The IEC’s electricity tariff is also set, in part, in accordance with the IEC’s fuel costs that are denominated in U.S. Dollars and is therefore also affected by variations in the U.S. Dollar to NIS exchange rate.
 
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OPC could face barriers to exit in connection with the disposals or transfers of its businesses, development project or other assets.
 
OPC may face exit barriers, including high exit costs or objections from various parties (whose approval OPC requires), in connection with dispositions of its operating companies, development projects or their assets. For example, pursuant to Israel’s Electricity Sector Law 5756-1996, or Electricity Sector Law, the transfer of control over an entity that holds a generation license in Israel must be approved by the Electricity Authority, or the EA. Additionally, there are restrictions on a transfer of control of OPC, OPC-Rotem and OPC-Hadera, pursuant to, among others, OPC-Rotem’s PPA with the Israel Electric Corporation, or IEC, the trust deed relating to OPC’s bonds, and OPC-Rotem’s and OPC-Hadera’s credit agreements. Such restrictions may prohibit or make it difficult for OPC to dispose of its interests in its businesses.
 
OPC is also defined as a “significant real corporation.” As a result, OPC is subject to various restrictions, which mainly include restrictions on significant financial entities holding an interest (above a certain percentage) in such companies and restrictions on OPC’s holdings (above a certain percentage) of financial entities. Such restrictions may also limit Kenon’s ability to transfer its interests in OPC.
 
OPC requires qualified personnel to manage and operate its various businesses and projects.
 
OPC requires professional and skilled personnel in order to manage its current activities and the performance of its projects, to service and respond to customers and suppliers. Therefore, OPC must be able to retain employees and professionals with the necessary skills. Furthermore, OPC employs foreign employees. Any unavailability of qualified personnel could negatively impact OPC’s activity and results of operations.
 
In addition, most of OPC-Rotem’s and Hadera Energy Center’s operations employees are employed through a collective agreement. The OPC-Rotem collective employment agreement expires on April 1, 2019, and upon such expiration OPC is expected to commence negotiations to renew this collective employment agreement on terms to be agreed among the negotiating parties. Collective agreements may reduce managerial flexibility and impose additional costs on OPC. For further information on these collective agreements, see “Item 4.B Business Overview—Our Businesses—OPC—Employees.
 
The interruption or failure of OPC’s information technology, communication and processing systems or external attacks and invasions of these systems could have an adverse effect on OPC.
 
OPC uses information technology systems, telecommunications and data processing systems to operate its businesses. Damage to such systems may result in service delays or interruptions to OPC’s ability to provide electricity to its customers. It may also result in damage to or theft of OPC’s or its customer’s information.
 
In recent years, cybersecurity attacks of security systems have increased globally and OPC could be exposed to such attacks, which may harm its business and operations or result in reputational damage. There is no certainty that OPC will be able to prevent a cyber-attack. Furthermore, if a cyber-attack occurs, there is no certainty that OPC will be able to prevent the harm on its information systems and it could have a significant effect on OPC’s operations. OPC may be subject to significant costs in order to protect itself against harm caused to its information systems and to repair any damages caused. It may also face litigation, compensation and remediation costs relating to cybersecurity incident, which could have an adverse effect on its reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
OPC is exposed to litigation and/or administrative proceedings.
 
OPC is involved in various litigation proceedings, and may be subject to future litigation proceedings, which could have adverse consequences on its business.
 
For example, in connection with the indexation of their natural gas price formula for OPC-Rotem’s gas supply agreement with the Tamar Group, OPC-Rotem and the Tamar Group disagreed as to which of Israel’s Public Utilities Authority (Electricity) July 2013 tariffs applied to OPC-Rotem’s supply agreement and have a similar disagreement with respect to the tariffs published in January 2015. In February 2017, OPC-Rotem received a letter from the Tamar Group with respect to the dispute. The Tamar Group requested payment by OPC-Rotem of approximately $25 million (including accrued interest) in connection with the dispute, or the deposit of such amount in escrow pursuant to the gas supply agreement. In May 2017, OPC-Rotem deposited approximately $22 million in a trust account in respect of the dispute. In June 2017, the Tamar Group submitted a motion to initiate arbitration proceedings at the London Court of International Arbitration, requesting payment of approximately $33 million, along with alternative requests based on lower tariffs should its primary request fail. In its response in July 2017, OPC-Rotem disputed the Tamar Group’s claims, requesting release of the amount deposited in the trust account. In February 2018, the Tamar Group filed a statement of claim, repeating its initial claims and requesting a different tariff determination. OPC-Rotem filed its defense in June 2018, disputing all of the Tamar Group’s claims, and the Tamar Group responded in October 2018. A hearing was held in February 2019 and the arbitrator has yet to issue its ruling, which is expected to be issued during 2019. There is no certainty that OPC-Rotem’s claims will be accepted in whole or in part.
 
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Litigation and/or regulatory proceedings are inherently unpredictable, and excessive verdicts may occur. Adverse outcomes in lawsuits and investigations could result in significant monetary damages, including indemnification payments, or injunctive relief that could adversely affect OPC’s ability to conduct its business and may have a material adverse effect on OPC’s financial condition and results of operations. In addition, such investigations, claims and lawsuits could involve significant expense and diversion of OPC’s management’s attention and resources from other matters, each of which could also have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
 
OPC’s insurance policies may not fully cover damage, and OPC may not be able to obtain insurance against certain risks.
 
OPC and its subsidiaries maintain insurance policies intended to reduce various risks, as is customary in the industry. However, the existing insurance policies maintained by OPC and its subsidiaries may not cover certain types of damages or may not cover the entire scope of damage caused. In addition, OPC may not be able to obtain insurance on comparable terms in the future. OPC and its subsidiaries may be adversely affected if they incur losses that are not fully covered by their insurance policies. For further information on OPC’s insurance policies, see “Item 4.B Business Overview—Our Businesses—OPC—Insurance.
 
OPC’s operations are significantly influenced by regulations.
 
OPC is subject to significant government regulation. It is therefore exposed to changes in these regulations as well as changes to regulations applicable to sectors that are associated with the company’s activities. Regulatory changes may have an adverse effect on OPC’s activity and results or on its terms of engagement with third parties, such as its customers and suppliers, such as the Tamar Group. In the coming years, OPC expects frequent regulatory changes in the industry, including in relation to the private electricity market in Israel, which is a new and developing market. Regulatory changes may impact the power stations owned by OPC or the power stations that it intends to develop, including the economic feasibility of establishing new power stations.
 
Furthermore, OPC is subject to environmental laws and regulations, including those that seek to regulate noise pollution and emission of contaminants to treat hazardous materials. If stricter regulatory requirements are imposed on private electricity producers or if OPC does not comply with such requirements, laws and regulations, this could have an adverse effect on OPC’s results and activity. Furthermore, stricter regulatory requirements could require material expenditures or investments by OPC.
 
Additionally, OPC requires certain licenses to produce and sell electricity in Israel, and may need further licenses in the future. For example, in November 2017, for propriety purposes, OPC-Rotem submitted an application to the EA to obtain a supply license which would permit OPC-Rotem to trade electricity with other electricity suppliers in Israel. In February 2018, the EA responded that OPC-Rotem is required to receive a supply license to continue its sale of electricity to consumers, that the license will not change the terms of the agreement between OPC-Rotem and the EA and will not detract from OPC-Rotem’s rights according to it. The EA also stated that it will consider OPC-Rotem’s supply license once the issue of electricity trade in the Israeli economy has been comprehensively dealt with, but there is no assurance regarding the receipt of the license or the terms of the license should it be issued. If the EA refuses to grant OPC-Rotem a supply license as requested, this may harm OPC-Rotem’s ability to trade surplus electricity with other power stations, including related companies.
 
Furthermore, as discussed under “—OPC faces risks in connection with the expansion of its business,” OPC’s conditional license for the construction of the Tzomet plant remains subject to the Israeli Minister of Energy's approval and the issuance of a guarantee by Tzomet. The grant of a permanent generation license to Tzomet, upon expiration of the conditional license, is subject to Tzomet's compliance with the conditions set by law. An inability to obtain approval for the conditional license or the permanent generation license in time or at all may result in the project not being completed in time or at all and, therefore, have a material adverse effect on OPC's business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Construction or development projects may not be completed or, if completed, may not be completed on time or perform as expected.
 
OPC faces risks in connection with its development projects, including future projects and the development of the Hadera Power station, in particular because it owns this project at a development stage. Developing a power station project entails certain risks, such as:
 
·
risks associated with the construction contractor,
 
·
supply of key equipment,
 
·
performance of works at the required specifications and within the required time,
 
·
receipt of services required from the IEC to establish the station and connect it to the grid (which may be affected by sanctions and IEC strikes),
 
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·
impact on PPAs of any delays in completing new projects;
 
·
applicable regulation, and
 
·
obtaining the required approvals and permits for the development and operation of the station, including obtaining permits required in connection with the environment, including emission permits, and compliance with their terms.
 
OPC faces these risks in the development of its OPC-Hadera and Tzomet projects.
 
OPC-Hadera
 
OPC-Hadera is party to the Hadera Power station EPC agreement with SerIDOM Servicios Integrados IDOM S.A.U., or IDOM and a maintenance agreement with General Electric International, Inc. and its affiliates, or GE. Breaches by IDOM or General Electric International, Inc. and its affiliates, or GE, including failure to meet certain fixed schedules and supply the primary equipment on time, or in the required quality, are likely to delay or hinder the establishment of the Hadera Power station, and may also hamper the performance of the Hadera Power station once it is built, and as a result cause material harm to OPC. IDOM has agreed to compensate OPC-Hadera in case of a delay or non-compliance with the terms determined in the agreement in connection with the operation of the station. However, the agreed compensation for the underperformance of the Hadera Power station is limited.
 
Additionally, the establishment of part of the infrastructure to connect the Hadera Power station and the Hadera Paper mill is under Hadera Paper’s responsibility. If Hadera Paper, which we do not control, does not meet its obligations to establish the infrastructure by the agreed date, this may lead to delays and obstructions in the development and operation of the Hadera Power station, thus adversely affecting OPC’s business and results of operations.
 
OPC-Hadera has entered into financing agreement to finance the construction of OPC-Hadera’s power plant, and funding under this agreement is subject to conditions, see “Item 5.B Liquidity and Capital Resources—OPC’s Liquidity and Capital Resources—OPC’s Material Indebtedness—OPC-Hadera Financing.” If OPC-Hadera is unable to comply with any of the conditions could impact the financing for the construction of the power plant and result in delays or an inability to complete the project.
 
Pursuant to OPC-Hadera's contingent license, the license is valid until September 2019. Expiration of the conditional license prior to the COD date and the receipt of a permanent license would constitute grounds for an event of default under OPC-Hadera's financing agreement.
 
Furthermore, in the event of significant delays past the agreed COD date, the majority of customers have the right to cancel PPAs, subject to certain conditions.
 
Tzomet
 
As discussed under “—OPC faces risks in connection with the expansion of its business,” the conditional license for the construction of the Tzomet plant  remains subject to the Israeli Minister of Energy's approval and the issuance of a guarantee by Tzomet. The grant of a permanent generation license to Tzomet, upon expiration of the conditional license, is subject to Tzomet's compliance with the conditions set by law. Development of the Tzomet plant is also subject to a positive interconnection survey and to financial closing.
 
In September 2018, Tzomet entered into an EPC agreement with PW Power Systems LLC, or PW, for construction of the Tzomet project. For more information on this agreement, see “Item 4.B Business Overview—OPC—OPC’s Description of Operations—Tzomet.” If OPC is unable to meet its commitments or achieve the milestones under the agreement, including in the case that OPC is unable to obtain relevant approvals, this could result in increased costs for or delays in the project, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
In addition, OPC requires financing in connection with the development of the Tzomet project. If OPC is unable to obtain or utilize financing for the Tzomet project, this may hinder OPC’s ability to complete the Tzomet project.
 
If these conditions described above for the Tzomet project are not met by January 1, 2020, Tzomet could lose relevant permits to develop the project.
 
OPC faces competition from other IPPs.
 
In recent years, the Israeli government’s policy has been to open the electricity market to competition and to encourage the entry of private electricity producers. This policy has increased the number of private electricity producers, increasing the level of competition in the private generation market, which may have an adverse effect on OPC’s business. In 2018, 32% of the total electricity generation in Israel was generated by private producers.
 
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Pursuant to the Electricity Sector Law (Amendment No. 16 and Temporary Order) (2018) that was published in July 2018, the IEC will be required to sell five of its power stations through a tender process over the next 8 years, which is expected to reduce the IEC’s market share to below 40%. Furthermore, the IEC will be required to build and operate two new gas-powered stations, but will not be authorized to construct any new stations or recombine existing stations. This new law is expected to further increase competition from private producers, which may have an adverse effect on OPC’s business. For more information regarding this law, see “—OPC’s Description of Operations—Regulatory, Environmental and Compliance Matters.”
 
Increased competition could make it more difficult for OPC to enter into new long-term PPAs, renew the existing PPAs at the time they expire. OPC-Rotem has a PPA with the IEC, the government-owned electricity generation, transmission and distribution company in Israel, or the IEC PPA. The term of the IEC PPA lasts until 20 years after the power station’s COD. According to the agreement, OPC-Rotem is entitled to operate in one of the following two ways (or a combination of both with certain restrictions set in the agreement): (1) provide the entire net available capacity of its power station to IEC or (2) carve out energy and capacity for direct sales to private consumers, and OPC-Rotem has accordingly allocated the entire capacity of the plant to private consumers since COD. Under the IEC PPA, OPC-Rotem can also elect to revert back to supplying to IEC instead of private customers, subject to twelve months’ advance notice. If OPC is required to rely on the IEC PPA because it is unable to enter into sufficient PPAs as a result of increased competition, it will be faced with lower margins, which may have an adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
OPC is dependent on certain significant customers.
 
OPC has a small number of customers that purchase a significant portion of OPC’s output under PPAs that account for a substantial percentage of the anticipated revenue of its generation companies. OPC's top five customers represented approximately 75% of its revenues in 2018; therefore, OPC’s revenues from the generation of electricity are highly sensitive to the consumption by significant customers. Therefore, should there be no demand for electricity from OPC’s significant customers or should such customers not fulfill their obligations, including by failing to make payments to OPC, OPC’s revenues could be significantly affected.
 
The ORL Group, which is a major OPC customer and is considered a related party, represented approximately 20% of OPC's revenues in 2018. Loss of the ORL Group as a customer could have a material adverse effect on OPC's business and results of operations. In January 2018, a shareholder of the ORL Group filed a claim against, among others, OPC, regarding certain gas purchase transactions. If this suit or related considerations impacts OPC's ability to do business with the ORL Group or other related parties, or if OPC were to otherwise lose this significant customer, this could impact OPC's business and results of operations.
 
Furthermore, OPC-Hadera is dependent on Hadera Paper’s consumption of steam. If such consumption ceases, it could have a material effect on OPC’s operations and OPC-Hadera’s classification as a cogeneration electricity producer (which entails certain benefits). For further information on the regulations relating to cogeneration electricity producers, see “Item 4.B Business Overview—OPC—Regulatory, Environmental and Compliance Matters—Regulatory Framework for Cogeneration IPPs.
 
Supplier concentration may expose OPC to significant financial credit or performance risk.
 
The Tamar Group is OPC's sole supplier of gas. If the Tamar Group is unable to supply OPC with its gas requirements, it could have a material adverse effect on OPC’s profitability. OPC has also entered into an agreement with Energean for the supply of gas in the future, but there is no guarantee that such alternative gas supply will be available by such date or at all. Construction of natural gas reservoirs by Energean has not yet been completed.
 
OPC-Rotem has a single maintenance agreement with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., or Mitsubishi, for the maintenance of its power station. If Mitsubishi is unable to perform its obligations under its contract with OPC-Rotem, this could result in the technical malfunctioning of the power station. This could lead to delays in the supply of electricity, loss of revenues for OPC and a reduction in its profits. It could also have similar adverse effects on other projects once they are completed.
 
OPC relies on transmission facilities for the transmission of power and gas.
 
OPC’s businesses depend upon transmission facilities owned and operated by the IEC to deliver the wholesale power it sells from its power generation plants. If transmission is disrupted, or if the transmission capacity infrastructure is inadequate, OPC’s ability to sell and deliver wholesale power may be adversely impacted. OPC’s businesses may also be affected by IEC strikes and sanctions.
 
Furthermore, there is currently a single company supplying natural gas to OPC and one company providing it with gas transmission services. Failure to comply with the requirements of these companies or limitations in the supply or transmission of gas by such companies could affect OPC’s ability to generate electricity using natural gas, which could have a material adverse effect on OPC’s business and results of operations. Finally, OPC’s plants require water for their operation. A continued disruption in the water supply could disrupt the operation of such plants.
 
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Risks Related to the Sale of the Inkia Business
 
We have indemnification obligations under the share purchase agreement for the sale of the Inkia Business
 
In December 2017, our wholly-owned subsidiary Inkia sold its Latin America and Caribbean businesses, or the Inkia Business, to an entity controlled by I Squared Capital, an infrastructure private equity firm. For further information on the sale and share purchase agreement see “Item 4.B Business Overview—Discontinued Operations—Inkia Business — Sale of the Inkia Business— Share Purchase Agreement.
 
Under the share purchase agreement, our subsidiary Inkia has agreed to indemnify the buyer and its successors, permitted assigns, and affiliates against certain losses arising from a breach of Inkia’s representations and warranties and certain tax matters, subject to certain time and monetary limits depending on the particular indemnity obligation. These indemnification obligations are supported by (a) a three-year pledge of shares of OPC which represent 25% of OPC’s outstanding shares, (b) a deferral of $175 million of the purchase price in the form of a four-year $175 million deferred payment agreement, or the Deferred Payment Agreement, accruing interest at 8% per year and payable in-kind, and (c) a three-year corporate guarantee from Kenon for all of the Inkia’s indemnification obligations. All of the foregoing time periods run from December 31, 2017. To the extent that Inkia is required to make indemnification payments under the share purchase agreement (and such payment obligations are agreed between buyer and seller or determined by a court in a non-appealable judgment), the buyer is entitled to seek recourse to the foregoing support arrangements in the following order: first, by exhausting rights under the OPC share pledge, second, by set off against amounts owing by the buyer under the Deferred Payment Agreement and third against the Kenon guarantee.
 
If Inkia is required to make indemnification payments under the share purchase agreement this could require us to sell OPC shares or result in enforcement of the OPC share pledge, set off against amounts owing to us under the Deferred Payment Agreement and enforcement of the Kenon guarantee, which could impact our liquidity and financial position. Furthermore, any enforcement of the OPC share pledge could result in the buyer acquiring a significant interest in OPC or could result in a sale of a significant amount of OPC shares which could adversely affect the market price of OPC’s shares.
 
If Kenon is required to make payments under the guarantee it may need to use funds from its businesses, or sell assets, including OPC shares. Furthermore, any sales of assets may not be at attractive prices, particularly if such sales must be made quickly to meet the sellers’ obligations.
 
We are subject to risk in relations to the Deferred Payment Agreement
 
As part of the consideration for the sale of the Inkia Business, $175 million of the purchase price payable to us was deferred in the form of a four-year $175 million Deferred Payment Agreement, accruing interest at 8% per year and payable in-kind. The obligor under the Deferred Payment Agreement is Nautilus Energy TopCo LLC, or Nautilus Energy, which is the parent company of the buyer of the Inkia Business. The obligations of Nautilus Energy under this agreement are secured by a pledge over its shares by its direct parent company and a pledge over the shares of the direct subsidiary of Nautilus Energy. The obligations of Nautilus Energy are structurally subordinated to all of the debt and other obligations of the buyer of the Inkia Business and the Inkia Business itself. Accordingly, to the extent that the buyer of the Inkia Business or the Inkia Business itself are required to make payments to their creditors, there could be insufficient funds remaining for Nautilus Energy to meet its obligations under the Deferred Payment Agreement. In addition, debt or other agreements may limit amounts which can be distributed or otherwise transferred to Nautilus Energy to make payments on the Deferred Payment Agreement. Finally, Nautilus Energy will depend on cash held or generated by the Inkia Business to be made available to it to meet its obligations under this agreement. ISQ Global Infrastructure Fund II, L.P., an indirect parent of Nautilus Energy, has provided a guarantee of Nautilus Energy’s obligations under the deferred payment agreement. However, this guarantee falls away upon a cross-acceleration of Nautilus Energy’s obligations under the deferred payment agreement. For further information see “Item 4.B Business Overview—Discontinued Operations— Inkia Business—Nautilus Energy TopCo LLC Deferred Payment Agreement.
 
We are subject to credit risk relating to this loan, as Nautilus Energy may be unable to make principal and interest payments as they become due and there is no guarantee that any collateral securing such loan will be sufficient to protect us in the event of non-payment by Nautilus Energy.
 
In addition, we face risks under this loan relating to our indemnification obligations under the share purchase agreement for the sale of the Inkia Business, as to the extent that there are indemnification obligations owing to the buyer (and such payment obligations are agreed between buyer and seller or determined by a court in a non-appealable judgment) which are unpaid and after the buyer has exhausted its rights under the OPC share pledge, the buyer can offset amounts owing under this loan against unpaid indemnification obligations.
 
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The transition services to be provided by the buyer may not be sufficient and be difficult for us to replace upon expiration of the agreement
 
In connection with the sale of the Inkia Business, we entered into a transition services agreement with the buyer. This agreement outlines the provision of transition services by the Inkia Business throughout a transition period. The transition services covered by this agreement include the preparation of financial statements, assistance with reporting requirements and consulting services with respect to the construction of OPC-Rotem. Any failure by the Inkia Business to perform such services during the transition period, or any failure by us to successfully transition such services away from the Inkia Business upon expiration of the transition services agreement and integrate the new services into our business, could have an adverse effect on our business.
 
Risks Related to Our Interest in Qoros
 
Qoros depends on funding to further its development and, until it achieves significant sales levels, to meet its operating expenses, financing expenses, and capital expenditures.
 
Qoros has incurred losses since its inception and is continuing to experience losses and negative operating cash flow and expects that this will continue until it achieves significantly higher levels of sales. Qoros’ operating expenses, debt service requirements, capital expenditures and other liquidity requirements are significant. Until Qoros experiences a significant increase in sales, it will continue to require additional financing, including the renewal or refinancing of its working capital facilities, to meet these expenses and requirements, and there is no assurance that Qoros will experience an increase in sales in the near-term, if at all, or obtain additional financing.
 
Qoros has significant obligations. Qoros has historically relied upon capital contributions, loans, guarantees and pledges from its shareholders, and third-party loans supported by its shareholders, to fund its development and operations. Qoros has long-term, short-term and working capital credit facilities, but amounts available under such facilities are limited. Qoros actively manages its trade payables, accrued expenses and other operating expenses in connection with the management of its liquidity requirements and resources.
 
The 2018 investment by the Majority Shareholder in Qoros has improved Qoros’ liquidity, but Qoros may need to continue to secure additional financing from shareholders or third party financing institutions to meet its operating expenses, including accounts payable, and debt service requirements until it increases its sales levels. To the extent that the Majority Shareholder in Qoros provides additional financing to Qoros in the form of equity, Kenon’s interest in Qoros would be diluted.
 
Qoros’ success is dependent upon an increase in sales volumes.
 
Qoros sales increased in 2018 compared to prior years, but it still needs to increase sales to reach breakeven. In addition, a substantial portion of 2018 sales were made to an entity introduced by the Majority Shareholder in Qoros. Qoros’ success will depend upon Qoros increasing its sales volumes, which will depend on, among other things:
 
·
the continued development of the Qoros brand;
 
·
successful development and launch of new vehicle models;
 
·
expansion and enhanced sales performance of its dealer network;
 
·
build-up of its aftersales and services infrastructure;
 
·
managing its procurement, manufacturing and supply processes;
 
·
the volume of vehicles acquired by a new customer introduced by the Majority Shareholder in Qoros;
 
·
establishing effective, and continuing to improve, customer service processes; and
 
·
securing additional financing to support its operating and capital expenses and further its growth and development.
 
Qoros will need to increase sales to a broad base of customers to establish its brand and create a sustainable customer base.
 
Qoros sells a majority of its vehicles to a single purchaser
 
A significant portion of car sales in 2018 were made to a leasing company, which was introduced by the Majority Shareholder in Qoros. If this entity reduces or ceases its purchases from Qoros, it could have a material impact on sales which could have a material adverse effect on Qoros’ business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, Qoros faces credit risk with respect to its sales to a significant customer.
 
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Qoros is significantly leveraged.
 
As of December 31, 2018, Qoros had total loans and borrowings of RMB5.1 billion (approximately $742 million). Qoros will require additional financing for its continued development.
 
Highly leveraged businesses are inherently more sensitive to declines in revenues, increases in expenses and interest rates, and adverse market conditions. This is particularly true for Qoros, as Qoros has yet to generate positive cash flows from its operations. Qoros uses a portion of its liquidity to make debt service payments, thereby reducing its ability to use its cash flows to fund its operations, capital expenditures, or future business opportunities. Qoros has been required to make amortizing principal payments on its RMB3 billion, RMB1.2 billion and RMB700 million facilities since 2018 and the repayment requirements will increase significantly in 2019 and in future years.
 
Qoros’ RMB3 billion syndicated credit facility, RMB1.2 billion syndicated credit facility, and RMB700 million syndicated credit facility contain affirmative and negative covenants. Those facilities, as well as its other short-term credit facilities, also contain events of default and mandatory prepayments for breaches, including certain changes of control, and for material mergers and divestments, among other provisions. A significant portion of Qoros’ assets secures its RMB3 billion syndicated credit facility and, as a result, the amount of collateral that Qoros has available for future secured debt or credit support and its flexibility in dealing with its secured assets is therefore relatively limited.
 
Currently, Qoros’ debt-to-asset ratio is higher, and its current ratio is lower, than the allowable ratios set forth in the terms of Qoros’ RMB3 billion syndicated credit facility. In 2016, the lenders under Qoros’ syndicated credit facility waived Qoros’ compliance with the financial covenants under this facility through the first half of 2020. Should Qoros’ debt-to-asset ratio continue to exceed, or its current ratio continue to be less than, the permitted ratios in any period after the waiver period, and Qoros’ syndicated lenders do not waive such non-compliance or revise such covenants, Qoros’ lenders could accelerate the repayment of borrowings due under Qoros’ RMB3 billion syndicated credit facility. If Qoros does not maintain a good relationship with its lenders this could impact requests for lender consents, including the consents being sought by Majority Shareholder in Qoros, Chery and Kenon as pledgors of Qoros shares under the RMB1.2 billion facility in connection with the investment by the Majority Shareholder in Qoros.
 
If Qoros is unable meet its debt service obligations or otherwise comply with other covenants in its credit facilities, this would lead to an event of default. Each of Qoros’ significant debt facilities above contains a “cross-default” provision which provides for an event of default if any other debt of Qoros in excess of RMB50 million becomes payable prior to maturity, so a default under such other debt facilities would result in a default under the facilities referenced above and a default that leads to acceleration under either facility above will result in an event of default under the other facility.
 
In the event that any of Qoros’ lenders accelerate the payment of Qoros’ borrowings, Qoros would not have sufficient liquidity to repay such debt. Additionally, as a substantial portion of Qoros' assets, including its manufacturing facility and significant portion of its intellectual property, secure its syndicated credit facility and other indebtedness, if Qoros were unable to comply with the terms of its debt agreements, this could result in the foreclosure upon and loss of certain of Qoros’ assets.
 
Kenon has outstanding “back-to-back” guarantee obligations to Chery in respect of guarantees that Chery has given in respect of Qoros’ bank debt and has pledged a substantial portion of its interests in Qoros to secure Qoros’ bank debt, as well as Chery’s guarantees of Qoros’ debt. Accordingly, if Qoros’ debt facilities become payable due to a default under these facilities or otherwise, Kenon may be required to make payments under its guarantees and could lose the shares in Qoros it has pledged. In addition, Kenon may be required to increase the amount of Qoros shares pledged (or Kenon may provide other credit support).
 
We have a minority interest in Qoros.
 
Kenon owns 24% of Qoros. Kenon has agreed to sell half of its remaining interest in Qoros (i.e. 12%) to the Majority Shareholder in Qoros. The sale is subject to obtaining customary relevant third-party consents and other closing conditions, including approvals by relevant government authorities. Following completion of the sale, Kenon will hold a 12% interest in Qoros, the Majority Shareholder in Qoros will hold 63% and Chery will own 25%.
 
Under the investment agreement, the Majority Shareholder in Qoros also has the right to increase its stake in Qoros to up to 67%, subject to conditions. For further information on this option, see “Item 4.B Business Overview—Our Businesses—Qoros —Qoros’ Investment Agreement—Kenon’s Put Option; the Majority Shareholder in Qoros’ Right to make Further Investments in Qoros.” If this right is exercised, Kenon’s indirect interest in Qoros will be further diluted, resulting in less control over the Qoros business.
 
Prior to the Majority Shareholder in Qoros’ investments, Kenon had a 50% interest in Qoros, and the right to appoint three of the six directors on the Qoros board, among various other management rights. As a result of this investment, Kenon’s interest in Qoros has been diluted, and it is now entitled to only appoint two of the nine Qoros directors.
 
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Accordingly, while Kenon maintains an active role as one of the three joint venture partners in Qoros, it holds a minority interest in Qoros. Qoros’ other joint venture partners may have goals, strategies, priorities, or resources that conflict with our goals, strategies, priorities or resources, which may adversely impact our ability to effectively own Qoros, undermine the commitment to Qoros’ long-term growth, or adversely impact Qoros’ business. In addition, the Joint Venture Agreement contains provisions relating to the transfer and pledge of Qoros’ shares, the appointment of executive officers and directors, and the approval of certain matters which may prevent us from causing Qoros to take actions that we deem desirable. For further information on the terms of our Joint Venture Agreement, see “Item 4.B Business Overview—Our Businesses—Qoros—Qoros’ Joint Venture Agreement.
 
Qoros has entered into certain arrangements and agreements with its shareholders.
 
Qoros sources its engines and certain spare parts from Chery, and has entered into various commercial agreements with respect to the provision of such supplies from Chery.
 
Qoros has also entered into a platform sharing agreement with Chery, pursuant to which Qoros provided Chery with the right to use Qoros’ platform in exchange for a fee. In 2018, Qoros entered into a new platform sharing agreement with Chery, pursuant to which Chery provides Qoros with a modified version of the Qoros platform which was been further developed by Chery in exchange for a fee.
 
Qoros has total amounts payable to Chery in the amount of RMB652 million (approximately $95 million) as of December 31, 2018.
 
Qoros may enter into additional commercial arrangements and agreements with shareholders or their affiliates in the future. Kenon’s ability to control the terms of such transactions may be limited. Such transactions could create potential conflicts of interest, which could impact the terms of such transactions.
 
Qoros faces certain risks relating to its business.
 
Qoros faces the following risks relating to its business, which could have a material adverse effect on Qoros’ business, financial condition and results of operations:
 
·
Risks relating to the evolution of its vehicle models and brand and the achievement of broad customer acceptance – as Qoros’ brand and business are relatively new Qoros has not achieved significant sales levels and its future business and profitability depend, in large part, on Qoros’ ability to sell vehicle models to its targeted customers in its targeted price range;
 
·
Risks relating to Qoros’ dependence upon a network of independent dealers to sell its automobiles – Qoros’ success is dependent, in large part, upon a network of dealers, whose salespersons Qoros does not directly employ and therefore cannot control, and as a result Qoros’ dealer network may not achieve the required standards of quality of service producers within Qoros’ expected timeframe, if at all. Qoros’ development of its dealer network will likely be affected by conditions in the Chinese passenger vehicle market and the Chinese economy (which may impact Qoros, as a relatively new company, more than other established companies), the financial resources available to existing and potential dealers, the decisions dealers make as a result of the current and future sales prospects of Qoros’ vehicle models, and the availability and cost of the capital necessary to acquire and hold inventories of Qoros’ vehicles for resale. Qoros may have difficulty in expanding its dealer network if existing dealers are not performing well in terms of sales, and if Qoros is unable to expand its dealer network, this could make it difficult for Qoros to significantly increase sales levels;
 
·
Risks relating to the competitive industry in which Qoros operates – Qoros competes in the highly competitive Chinese passenger vehicle market with established automobile manufacturers that may be able to devote greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, pricing sale and support of their products, which could impair Qoros’ ability to operate within this market or adversely impact Qoros’ sales volumes or margins. Furthermore, additional competitors, both international and domestic, may seek to enter the Chinese market. Increased competition may reduce Qoros' margins and may also make it difficult for Qoros to increase sales.
 
·
Risks relating to recent trends in the Chinese market. The growth rate in the Chinese vehicle market declined in recent years and sales declined in China in 2018, after many years of growth. This trend has resulted in increased competition in China’s automotive market through price reductions, which has resulted in reduced margins.
 
·
Credit risk. Qoros has accounts receivable for sales of cars on a wholesale basis of RMB1,521 million (approximately US$221 million) as of December 31, 2018 and, accordingly, is subject to credit risk.
 
If Qoros is unable to keep up with advances in the electric vehicle industry, its competitive position may be adversely affected.
 
Qoros has recently entered into the electric vehicle market, and in December 2018 Qoros introduced an NEV model of the Qoros Sedan, the Qoros 3 EV500. Qoros expects to experience significant competition in the NEV market, as OEMs are required to satisfy certain recently issued regulations, under which the automakers must obtain a certain NEV score by 2019, which score is related to the number of NEVs the automaker produces. There is also no assurance that the NEV models that Qoros plans to offer will be accepted in this market.
 
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Furthermore, if Qoros fails to introduce an NEV model that is accepted by the market, or fails to keep up with advances in electric vehicle technology, this would result in a decline in Qoros’ competitive position in the NEV market, which could have a material adverse effect on Qoros’ business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Following the launch of its NEV models, Qoros will become subject to the laws, licensing requirements, regulations and policies applicable to NEVs in China. In recent years, the Chinese government has offered large subsidies for purchases of electric vehicles. However, these subsidies are expected to be gradually phased out over the next few years, which is expected to increase the costs to consumers and may affect the demand for NEVs in China. This could affect the profitability of the NEV market and have a material adverse effect on Qoros’ business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Qoros has recently experienced significant growth in its operations, which may place significant demands on its administrative, operational and financial resources.
 
Qoros has recently experienced significant growth in its operations. In 2018, Qoros sold approximately 62,000 vehicles, as compared to 15,000 vehicles in 2017, and more than doubled its workforce as compared to the previous year. This rapid growth has placed and may continue to place significant demands on Qoros’ business infrastructure. Moreover, this growth has required, and will continue to require, Qoros to incur significant additional expenses and to commit additional senior management and operational resources. The increased turnover in senior management that Qoros has faced in recent years, including new senior management announced in early 2019, has also increased the pressure on Qoros’ operational resources. These increased demands (and any future increase in such demands) on Qoros’ administrative, operational and financial resources could have a material adverse effect on Qoros’ business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Qoros is subject to Chinese regulation and its business or profitability may be affected by changes in China’s regulatory environment.
 
Local and national Chinese authorities have exercised, and will continue to, exercise substantial control over the Chinese economy through regulation and state ownership, including rules and regulations that regulate or affect the Chinese automobile manufacturing process and concern vehicle safety and environmental matters such as emission levels, fuel economy, noise and pollution. Additionally, China has recently permitted provincial and local economic autonomy and private economic activities, and, as a result, Qoros is dependent upon its relationship with the local governments in the Jiangsu province and Shanghai city, among others. As a result, certain of Qoros’ ongoing corporate activities are subject to the approval and regulation of the relevant authorities in China including, among other things, capital increases and investments in Qoros, changes in the structure of Qoros’ ownership, increases in the production capacity, construction of Qoros’ production facilities, ownership of trademarks, the formation of subsidiaries, and the inclusion of Qoros’ products in the national catalogue for purposes of selling them throughout China. Qoros’ operations are also sensitive to changes in the Chinese government’s policies relating to all aspects of the automobile industry. In addition, Qoros’ production facility and products are required to comply with Chinese environmental regulations.
 
Qoros has incurred, and expects to incur in the future, significant costs in complying with these, and other applicable, regulations and believes that its operations in China are in material compliance with all applicable legal and regulatory requirements. The central or local Chinese governments may continue to impose new, conflicting or stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations that would require additional expenditures and efforts by Qoros to ensure its compliance with such regulations or interpretations or maintain its competitiveness and margins. Qoros’ ability to operate profitably in China may be harmed by any such changes in the laws and regulations, including those relating to taxation, environmental regulations, land use rights, property, or the aforementioned corporate matters, of China, Jiangsu, Shanghai or any other jurisdiction in which Qoros may do business. Qoros’ failure to comply with such laws and regulations may also result in fines, penalties or lawsuits, which could have a material adverse effect on Qoros’ business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
 
China has recently published a set of fuel consumption credit and NEV credit rules to promote the growth of the NEV market and reduce reliance on internal combustion vehicles. Under the regulations, automakers must obtain a certain NEV score by 2019, which score is related to the number of NEVs the automaker produces. If the automaker is unable to obtain the score, it is required to purchase credits from other automakers or will be unable to sell its conventional vehicles. Although Qoros did not purchase a material amount of credits in 2018, the amount could be material in the future. For more information on the risks relating to the NEV industry see “—If Qoros is unable to keep up with advances in the electric vehicle industry, its competitive position may be adversely affected.”
 
Qoros requires qualified personnel to manage its operations.
 
Qoros’ senior executives and personnel are important to Qoros’ success, the establishment of Qoros’ strategic direction, and the design and implementation of Qoros’ business plan. Qoros also requires qualified, competent and skilled employees to independently direct its day-to-day business operations, execute its business plans, and service Qoros’ customers, dealers, suppliers and other stakeholders. Qoros’ products and services are highly technical in nature. Therefore, Qoros must be able to attract, recruit, hire, train and retain skilled employees, including employees with the capacity to operate Qoros’ production line as well as employees possessing core competencies in vehicle design and engineering, particularly in light of the resent increase in employee numbers. If Qoros fails to hire, train and retain the required number of qualified personnel to operate its business, or if it experiences excessive turnover, Qoros may experience production/manufacturing delays or other inefficiencies, increased recruiting, training or relocation costs, or other difficulties, any of which could have a material adverse effect on Qoros’ business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. In recent years, Qoros has made a number of personnel changes at the executive management level and in the senior management structure, including after the investment in Qoros in 2018. In early 2019, Qoros made a number of further changes at the executive management level. Such management changes have affected and any future changes may affect, Qoros’ ability to execute its business plan.
 
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Qoros is dependent upon its suppliers.
 
Qoros sources the component parts necessary for its vehicle models from over 100 suppliers. A number of Qoros’ component parts are currently obtained from a single source. Additionally, Qoros sources its engines and certain spare parts from Chery.
 
Qoros is dependent upon the continued ability of its suppliers to deliver the materials, systems, components and parts needed to conduct its manufacturing operations in sufficient quantities and at such times that will allow Qoros to meet its production schedules. As Qoros’ suppliers may also supply a significant portion of the components and parts of Qoros’ competitors, such concentration may expose Qoros and its competitors to increased pricing pressure. Qoros may also be unable to procure the components necessary for its vehicle models if the established manufacturers with which it competes have the capacity to influence Qoros’ suppliers. In addition, qualifying alternate suppliers or developing replacements for certain highly customized components of its vehicles may be time consuming and costly or may force Qoros to make modifications to its vehicle models’ designs or schedules. An unexpected shortage of materials, systems, components or parts, if even for a relatively short period of time, could prevent Qoros from manufacturing its vehicles, cause Qoros to alter its production designs, or prevent Qoros from timely supplying its dealers with the aftersales parts necessary for the servicing of Qoros’ vehicles.
 
Increases in the prices of raw materials that are included within the component parts Qoros purchases from its suppliers, may increase Qoros’ costs and could reduce Qoros’ profitability if Qoros cannot recoup the increased costs through increased vehicle prices.
 
If Qoros is unable to pay its suppliers on a timely basis, it may be unable to procure on favorable terms the parts, components and services it requires to continue operating and Qoros has been, and may continue to be, subject to suits or other claims in respect of outstanding payables.
 
Qoros may experience delays and/or cost overruns with respect to the design, manufacture, launch and financing of new or enhanced models.
 
Qoros’ business plan contemplates the introduction of new vehicle models, including NEV models, as well as enhanced versions of existing vehicle models, over the short- and long-term. In light of technological developments, Qoros will need to continually upgrade and adapt its vehicle models, vehicle platform and manufacturing facility in Changshu, as automobile customers generally expect new or enhanced vehicle models to be introduced frequently. Upgrading and adapting Qoros’ vehicle models and manufacturing facility and developing and launching NEVs will require significant investments. Further, there can be no assurance that Qoros will be able to secure the necessary financing to fund the continued introduction and manufacturing of new and enhanced vehicle models, design future vehicle models that will maintain the high quality standards required for Qoros’ branding image, meet the expectations of its customers, and become commercially viable. In addition, automobile manufacturers often experience delays and cost overruns in the design, manufacture and commercial release of new and enhanced vehicle models. Qoros has experienced and may in the future experience such delays and cost overruns.
 
Qoros faces risks relating to its auditor.
 
Our independent registered public accounting firm currently relies on an independent registered public accounting firm located in the People’s Republic of China for assistance in completing the audit work associated with our investment in Qoros. Auditors of companies that are publicly traded in the United States and firms registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, are required to undergo regular PCAOB inspections. However, because Qoros has substantial operations within China, a jurisdiction in which the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese government authorities, the audit work conducted in China with respect to Qoros has not been inspected by the PCAOB. The lack of PCAOB inspections of audit work undertaken in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating audits and quality control procedures conducted in China. As a result, our shareholders may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections, and may lose confidence in Kenon’s or Qoros’ financial statements and the procedures and the quality underlying such financial statements.
 
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Furthermore, in late 2012, the SEC commenced administrative proceedings under Rule 102(e) of its Rules of Practice and also under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 against the mainland Chinese affiliates of the “Big Four” accounting firms, including the auditor of Qoros. The Rule 102(e) proceedings initiated by the SEC related to the failure of these firms to produce documents, including audit work papers, in response to the request of the SEC pursuant to Section 106 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. In February 2015, the Chinese member firms of “Big Four” accounting firms reached a settlement with the SEC, agreeing, among others, to settlement terms that include a censure; undertakings to make a payment to the SEC; procedures and undertakings as to future requests for documents by the SEC; and possible additional proceedings and remedies should those undertakings not be adhered to.
 
Our independent registered public accounting firm currently relies on a Chinese member firm of the “Big Four” network for assistance in completing the audit work associated with our investment in Qoros. If the settlement terms are not adhered to, the Chinese member firms of “Big Four” accounting firms may be suspended from practicing before the SEC which could in turn delay the timely filing of our financial statements with the SEC in the future. In addition, it could be difficult for Qoros to timely identify and engage another qualified independent auditor.
 
Any such occurrences may ultimately affect the continued listing of our ordinary shares on the NYSE, or our registration with the SEC, or both. Moreover, any further negative news about the proceedings, any violations of the settlement agreement relating to the proceedings or any future proceedings against these audit firms may adversely affect investor confidence in companies with substantial mainland China based operations listed in, or affiliated with listings in, the U.S., such as Qoros, which could have a material adverse effect on the price of our ordinary shares and substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ordinary shares in the United States.
 
Risks Related to Our Other Businesses
 
Risks Related to Our Interest in ZIM
 
ZIM is highly leveraged and may be unable to comply with its financial covenants or meet its debt service or other obligations.
 
As of December 31, 2018, ZIM had approximately $1.5 billion of outstanding debt to be repaid between 2019 through 2030, of which $292 million of principal is scheduled to be repaid during 2019. Many of the financing agreements relating to ZIM’s debt facilities contain covenants and limitations, including:
 
·
Minimum liquidity, fixed charge coverage ratio and total leverage covenants; and
 
·
Other non-financial covenants and limitations such as restrictions on dividend distributions, asset sales, investments and incurrence of debt, as well as reporting obligations.
 
In 2014, ZIM completed a comprehensive restructuring of its outstanding debt, which resulted in a significant reduction in debt and reduced our former parent company's interest in ZIM from approximately 99% to 32%.
 
In 2016, ZIM agreed with its creditors a rescheduling of principal payments of $116 million originally scheduled for payment in by September 30, 2017, as well as to waive and revise certain covenants to which ZIM was subject. The covenants which had been waived for 2017, were further waived in July 2018 until reinstated in March 2020, except for the minimum liquidity requirement, which continues to apply.
 
If ZIM is unable to meet its obligations or refinance its indebtedness as it becomes due given that ZIM has limited assets available for sale or refinancing, or if ZIM is unable to comply with its covenants, ZIM may have to take disadvantageous actions, such as (i) reducing financing in the future for investments, acquisitions or general corporate purposes or (ii) dedicating a high level of ZIM’s cash flow from operations to the payment of principal and interest on indebtedness. As a result, the ability of ZIM’s business to withstand competitive pressures and to react to changes in the container shipping industry could be impaired. If ZIM is unable to comply with its covenants or meet debt service obligations and is unable to obtain waivers from the relevant creditors, a breach of any of its debt instruments and/or covenants could result in a default under the relevant debt instruments. Upon the occurrence of such an event of default, the lenders could elect to declare all amounts outstanding thereunder to be immediately due and payable and, in the case of credit facility lenders, terminate all commitments to extend further credit. If the lenders accelerate the repayment of the relevant borrowings, ZIM may not have sufficient assets to repay any outstanding indebtedness. Furthermore, a default or the acceleration of any obligation under a particular debt instrument may cause a default under other material debt or permit the holders of such debt to accelerate repayment of their obligations pursuant to “cross default” or “cross acceleration” provisions, which could have a material adverse effect on ZIM’s business, financial condition and liquidity and the value of Kenon's interest in ZIM. For additional information, see “Item 5.B Liquidity and Capital Resources—ZIM’s Liquidity and Capital Resources.
 
Furthermore, ZIM may be unable to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy its debt service and other obligations. ZIM’s ability to generate cash flow from operations to make interest and principal payments on ZIM’s debt obligations depends on its performance, which is affected by a range of economic, competitive and business factors. ZIM cannot control many of these factors, including general economic conditions and the health of the shipping industry. If ZIM’s operations do not generate sufficient cash flow from operations to satisfy its debt service and other obligations, ZIM may need to sell assets, borrow additional funds or undertake alternative financing plans, such as refinancing or restructuring its debt, or reducing or delaying capital investments and other expenses. ZIM's debt instruments limit the incurrence of debt, so ZIM may not be permitted to incur additional debt. Even if ZIM is permitted to so incur additional debt under its debt agreements, it may be difficult for ZIM to do so on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Substantially all of ZIM's vessels are leased by ZIM and accordingly, ZIM has limited assets that it owns and is able to pledge to secure financing, which can make it difficult for ZIM to incur additional debt financing.
 
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The container shipping industry is dynamic and volatile.
 
The container shipping industry is dynamic and volatile and has been marked in recent years by instability as a result of global economic conditions and the many conditions and factors that affect supply and demand in the shipping industry, which include:
 
·
global and regional economic and geopolitical trends, including armed conflicts, terrorist activities, embargoes and strikes;
 
·
the supply of and demand for commodities and industrial products globally and in certain key markets, such as China;
 
·
developments in international trade, including the imposition of tariffs, the modification of trade agreements between states and other trade protectionism (mainly in the U.S. - China trades);
 
·
the relocation of manufacturing capabilities to importers’ nearby locations/inland locations;
 
·
currency exchange rates;
 
·
prices of energy resources;
 
·
environmental and other regulatory developments;
 
·
changes in seaborne and other transportation patterns;
 
·
changes in the shipping industry, including mergers and acquisitions, bankruptcies, restructurings and alliances;
 
·
changes in the infrastructure and capabilities of ports and terminals;
 
·
weather conditions; and
 
·
development of digital platforms to manage operations and customer relations, including billing and services.
 
These factors also significantly affect ZIM’s freight rates. Furthermore, rates within the charter market, through which ZIM sources a substantial portion of its capacity, may also fluctuate significantly based upon changes in demand for shipping services. As global trends continue to change, it remains difficult to predict their impact on the container shipping industry and on ZIM’s business. If ZIM is unable to adequately respond to market changes, they could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Excess supply of global container ship capacity may limit ZIM’s ability to operate vessels profitably, and lead to overload and/or overcapacity and congestion in certain ports.
 
Global container ship capacity has increased over the years and continues to exceed demand. As of December 31, 2018, global container ship capacity was approximately 22.3 million 20-foot equivalent units, or TEUs, spread across approximately 5,284 vessels. According to Alphaliner, as a result of the large global orders for vessels with carrying capacities of 18,000 TEUs and above, capacity is projected to continue to impact the industry and the capacity growth rate in 2019 is projected to be similar to the growth rate of the demand for shipping services. Additionally, responses to changes in market conditions may be slow as a result of the time required to build new vessels and adapt to market needs. As shipping companies purchase vessels years in advance to address expected demand, vessels may be delivered during times of decreased demand or unavailable during times of increased demand, leading to a supply/demand mismatch. The container shipping industry may continue to face oversupply in the coming years and numerous other factors beyond ZIM’s control may also contribute to an increase in capacity, including deliveries of refurbished or converted vessels, port and canal congestion, decreased scrapping of older vessels, any decline in the practice of slow steaming, a reduction in the number of void voyages and a decrease in the number of vessels that are out of service (e.g., vessels that are laid-up, dry-docked, awaiting repairs or are otherwise not available for hire). Excess capacity depresses freight rates and can lead to lower utilization rates, which may adversely affect ZIM’s revenues, profitability and asset values. Until such capacity is fully absorbed by the container shipping market and, in particular, the shipping lines on which ZIM’s operations are focused, the industry will continue to experience downward pressure on freight rates and such prolonged pressure could have a material adverse effect on ZIM’s financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
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Furthermore, in recent years, container ship capacities have increased globally at a faster rate than the rate at which some container ports have increased their capacities, leading to considerable delays in processing container shipments in affected ports. As a result of longer load and unload times, increases in container ship capacities could increase port congestion, which could have a material adverse effect on affected shipping lines. In addition, the continued growth in industry capacity has resulted in difficulty in securing sufficient terminal slots to expand operations due to the limited availability of port facilities.
 
ZIM’s ability to enter into strategic alliances and participate in operational partnerships in the shipping industry remains limited, which may adversely affect ZIM’s business, and ZIM faces risks related to its strategic cooperation agreement with the 2M Alliance.
 
The container shipping industry has experienced a reduction in the number of major carriers, as well as a continuation of the trends of strategic alliances and partnerships among container carriers, which can result in more efficient and better coverage for shipping companies participating in such arrangements. For example, in 2018, OOCL was acquired by COSCO and three large Japanese carriers (ONE) merged. In 2017, the merger of United Arab Shipping Company and Hapag-Lloyd, and the acquisition of Hamburg Sud by Maersk took place. In 2016, COSCO and China Shipping Container Lines merged (into COSCO Shipping), APL Shipping was acquired by CMA CGM Shipping and Hanjin Shipping filed for bankruptcy.
 
The recent consolidation in the industry has affected the existing strategic alliances between shipping companies. For example, the Ocean Three alliance, which consisted of CMA CGM Shipping, United Arab Shipping Company and China Shipping Container Lines, was terminated and replaced by the Ocean Alliance, consisting of COSCO Shipping, CMA CGM Shipping, Evergreen Marine and Orient Overseas Container Line.
 
ZIM is not party to any strategic alliances and therefore has not been able to achieve the benefits associated with being a member of such an alliance. If ZIM is unable to enter into strategic alliances in the future, it may be unable to achieve the cost and other synergies that can result from such alliances which can impact ZIM's business and results of operations.
 
In September 2018, ZIM and the 2M Alliance entered into a strategic operational cooperation agreement in the Asia-USEC trade zone. In January 2019, ZIM entered into a second strategic cooperation agreement with the 2M Alliance to cover the (i) Asia - East Mediterranean and (ii) Asia - American Pacific Northwest trade zones. The second agreement remains subject to regulatory approvals. For additional information on the 2M Alliance, see “Item 4.B Business Overview—Our Businesses—ZIM—ZIM’s Description of Operations.” ZIM is party to operational partnerships with other carriers in some of the other trade zones in which it operates, and may seek to enter into additional operational partnerships or similar arrangements with other shipping companies or local operators, partners or agents. These strategic cooperation agreements and other arrangements reduce ZIM’s flexibility in decision making in the covered trade zones and ZIM is subject to the risk that the expected benefits of the agreements may not materialize. Furthermore, in the rest of the trade zones in which the 2M Alliance operates as well as in other trade zones in which other alliances operate, ZIM is still unable to benefit from the economies of scale that many of its competitors are able to achieve through participation in strategic arrangements. If ZIM is not successful in expanding or entering into additional operational partnerships, this could adversely affect its business. In addition, ZIM’s status as an Israeli company has limited, and may continue to limit, its ability to call on certain ports and has therefore limited, and may continue to limit, ZIM’s ability to enter into alliances or operational partnerships with certain shipping companies.
 
Declines in freight rates or other market conditions and other factors, could negatively affect ZIM’s business, financial condition, or results of operations and could thereby result in ZIM or Kenon incurring impairment charges.
 
At each of its reporting periods, ZIM examines whether there have been any events or changes in circumstances, such as a decline in freight rates or other market conditions, which would indicate an impairment. Additionally, when there are indications of an impairment, an examination is made as to whether the carrying amount of the operating assets or cash generating units, or CGUs, exceeds the recoverable amount and, if necessary, an impairment loss is recognized in its financial statements. The projection of future cash flows related to ZIM’s CGU, which is one CGU, is complex and requires ZIM to make various estimates including future freight or charter rates, bunker prices, earnings from the vessels and discount rates, all of which have been volatile historically. Should freight rates decline significantly or ZIM or the shipping industry experience adverse conditions, this may have a material adverse effect on ZIM’s business, results of operations and financial condition, which may result in ZIM or Kenon recording an impairment charge.
 
An increase in bunker prices may have an adverse effect on ZIM’s results of operations.
 
Bunker expenses represent a significant portion of ZIM’s operating expenses, accounting for 17% and 13% of the income from voyages and related services for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Bunker prices move in close interdependence with crude oil prices, which have historically exhibited significant volatility. In the past year bunker prices have risen significantly, which has impacted our results of operations. Crude oil prices are influenced by a host of economic and geopolitical factors that are beyond ZIM’s control, particularly economic developments in emerging markets such as China and India, global terrorism, political instability and tensions in North Africa and the Middle East, environmental regulations, fracking, and the long-term increase in global demand for oil.
 
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Increases in bunker prices could have a material adverse effect on ZIM’s business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. Historically, and in line with industry practice, from time to time ZIM has imposed surcharges over the base freight rate ZIM charges to its customers in part to minimize its exposure to certain market-related risks, including bunker price adjustments. The new regulations introduced by the International Maritime Organization, or IMO, expected to come into effect in 2020 are expected to result in an increase in bunker costs. For more information on such regulations see “—ZIM is subject to the IMO’s environmental regulations and failure to comply with such regulations could have a material adverse effect on ZIM’s business.” However, there can be no assurance that ZIM will be successful in passing on future price increases, as a result of the 2020 regulations or otherwise, to customers in a timely manner, either for the full amount or at all.
 
ZIM’s bunker consumption is affected by various factors, including the number of vessels being employed, vessel size and capacity (and therefore bunker consumption increases with vessel size), speed (with consumption increasing dramatically as speed increases), vessel efficiency, the weight of the cargo being transported, port efficiency and sea conditions. ZIM has implemented various optimization strategies designed to reduce bunker consumption, including operating vessels in “super slow steaming” mode and “turbocharger cut-out” mode, trim optimization, hull and propeller polishing and sailing rout optimization. Additionally, ZIM manages part of its exposure to bunker price fluctuations by entering into hedging arrangements. ZIM’s optimization strategies and hedging program may not be successful in mitigating higher bunker costs, and any price protection provided by hedging may be limited due to market conditions, such as choice of hedging instruments, and the fact that only a portion of ZIM’s exposure is hedged. There can be no assurance that ZIM’s hedging arrangements will be cost-effective, will provide sufficient protection, if any, against rises in bunker prices or that the counterparties will be able to perform under ZIM’s hedging arrangements.
 
Greater restrictions on global trade, especially imposed on or by China, could have a material adverse effect on ZIM’s business.
 
ZIM’s operations are exposed to the risk of increased trade protectionism, particularly with regards to China as a significant portion of ZIM’s business originates from China. China’s import and export of goods may be affected by trade protectionism, specifically the ongoing “Trade War” characterized by escalating trade barriers between the U.S. and China as well as trade relations among other countries, including as a result of the current "Brexit" situation. These risks may have a direct impact on the container shipping industry.
 
The U.S. administration has advocated greater restrictions on trade generally and significant increases on tariffs on certain goods imported into the United States, particularly from China and has taken steps toward restricting trade in certain goods. The U.S. has imposed around $500 billion worth of tariffs on Chinese imports in 2018.
 
China and other countries have retaliated in response to new trade policies, treaties and tariffs implemented by the United States. China imposed more than US$100 billion on U.S. imports in 2018.
 
Such trade escalations have had, and may continue to have, an adverse effect on manufacturing levels, trade levels and specifically, may cause an increase in the cost of goods exported from Asia Pacific, the length of time required to deliver goods from the region and the risks associated with exporting goods from the region. Such increases may also affect the quantity of goods to be shipped, shipping time schedules, voyage costs and other associated costs. They could also result in an increased number of vessels returning from China with less than their full capacity being met. These restrictions may encourage local production over foreign trade which may, in turn, affect the demand for maritime shipping. Such restrictions, if they continue to be implemented in the same manner, may affect the global demand for ZIM’s services and could have a material adverse effect on ZIM’s business, financial condition and results of operations. The current "Brexit" situation could also have an impact on trading relationships and therefore the container shipping industry.
 
A decrease in the level of China’s import or export of goods could have a material adverse effect on ZIM’s business.
 
A significant portion of ZIM’s business originates from China, and ZIM therefore depends on the level of imports and exports to and from China. As China exports considerably more goods than it imports, any reduction in or hindrance to China-based exports, whether due to decreased demand from the rest of the world, an economic slowdown in China, increased tariffs or other factors, could have a material adverse effect on ZIM’s business. For instance, the Chinese government has recently implemented economic policies aimed at increasing domestic consumption of Chinese-made goods. This may have the effect of reducing the supply of goods available for export and may, in turn, result in decreased demand for cargo shipping. In recent years, China has experienced an increasing level of economic autonomy and a gradual shift toward a “market economy” and enterprise reform. However, many of the reforms implemented, particularly some limited price reforms, are unprecedented or experimental and may be subject to revision, change or abolition. The level of imports to and exports from China could be adversely affected by changes to these economic reforms by the Chinese government, as well as by changes in political, economic and social conditions or other relevant policies of the Chinese or other governments. In recent years, China has experienced slower GDP growth rates than in previous years, which affected levels of imports to and exports from China. In response to the recent slowdown in China’s economic growth, China may implement additional trade barriers to protect their domestic industries against foreign imports, which may depress the global demand for shipping services.
 
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Furthermore, China’s import and export of goods may also be affected by trade protectionism and local production over foreign trade, which may affect the demand for maritime shipping, particularly between the United States and China. See “—Greater restrictions on global trade, especially imposed on or by China, could have a material adverse effect on ZIM’s business.”
 
Changes in laws and regulations, including with regard to tax matters, and their implementation by local authorities could also affect ZIM’s vessels calling on Chinese ports and could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Israel holds a Special State Share in ZIM, which imposes certain restrictions on ZIM’s operations and our equity interest in ZIM.
 
The State of Israel holds a special share in ZIM, or Special State Share, which imposes certain limitations on the activities of ZIM that may negatively affect ZIM’s business and results of its operations. The Special State Share, and the permit which accompanies it, also imposes transferability restrictions on our equity interest in ZIM. Furthermore, although there are no contractual restrictions on any sales of our shares by our controlling shareholders, if Idan Ofer’s ownership interest in Kenon is less than 36%, or Idan Ofer ceases to be the controlling shareholder, or sole controlling shareholder of Kenon, then Kenon’s rights with respect to its shares in ZIM (e.g., Kenon’s right to vote and receive dividends in respect of its ZIM shares) will be limited to the rights applicable to an ownership of 24% of ZIM, until or unless the State of Israel provides its consent, or does not object to, this decrease in Idan Ofer’s ownership or “control” (as defined in the State of Israel consent received by IC in connection with the spin-off). The State of Israel may also revoke Kenon’s permit if there is a material change in the facts upon which the State of Israel’s consent was based, upon a breach of the provisions of the Special State Share by Kenon, Mr. Ofer, or ZIM, or if the cancellation of the provisions of the Special State Share with respect to a person holding shares in ZIM contrary to the Special State Share’s provisions apply (without limitation). For further information on the Special State Share, see “Item 4.B Business Overview—Our Businesses—ZIM—ZIM’s Special State Share.
 
ZIM faces risks as a result of its status as an Israeli corporation.
 
ZIM is incorporated and its headquarters is located in Israel, and the majority of its key employees, officers and directors are residents of Israel. Accordingly, political, economic and military conditions in Israel may directly affect ZIM’s business and existing relationships with certain foreign corporations, as well as affect the willingness of potential partners to enter into business arrangements with ZIM. Numerous countries, corporations and organizations limit their business activities in Israel and their business ties with Israeli-based companies. ZIM’s status as an Israeli company has limited, and may continue to limit, its ability to call on certain ports and therefore has limited, and may continue to limit, its ability to enter into alliances or operational partnerships with certain shipping companies, which has historically adversely affected its operations and its ability to compete effectively within certain trades. In addition, ZIM’s status as an Israeli company has limited, and may continue to limit, its ability to enter into alliances that include certain carriers who are not willing to cooperate with Israeli companies.
 
Since the establishment of the State of Israel, a number of armed conflicts have taken place between Israel and its neighboring countries. In recent years, these have included hostilities between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon and Hamas in the Gaza Strip, both of which resulted in rockets being fired into Israel, causing casualties and disrupting economic activities. Recent political uprisings, social unrest and violence in the Middle East and North Africa, including Israel’s neighbors Egypt and Syria, are affecting the political stability of those countries. This instability has raised concerns regarding security in the region and the potential for armed conflict. Armed conflicts or hostilities in Israel or neighboring countries could cause disruptions in ZIM’s operations, including significant employee absences, failure of its information technology systems and cyber-attacks, which may lead to the shutdown of its headquarters in Israel. ZIM’s commercial insurance does not cover losses that may occur as a result of an event associated with the security situation in the Middle East. Although the Israeli government is currently committed to covering the reinstatement value of direct damages caused by terrorist attacks or acts of war, ZIM cannot assure that this government coverage will be maintained, or if maintained, will be sufficient to fully compensate us for damages incurred. Any losses or damages incurred by us could have a material adverse effect on its business. Any armed conflict involving Israel could adversely affect ZIM’s business and results and operations.
 
Although ZIM maintains an emergency plan, wars and military conflicts can have a material adverse effect on its operational activities. Any future deterioration in the security or geopolitical conditions in Israel or the Middle East could adversely impact ZIM’s business relationships and thereby have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. As an Israeli company, ZIM has relatively high exposure, compared to many of its competitors, to acts of terror, hostile activities including cyber-attacks, security limitations imposed upon Israeli organizations overseas, possible isolation by various organizations and institutions for political reasons and other limitations (such as restrictions against entering certain ports). If ZIM’s facilities, including its headquarters, become temporarily or permanently disabled by an act of terrorism or war, it may be necessary for us to develop alternative infrastructure and ZIM may not be able to avoid service interruptions. Additionally, ZIM’s owned and chartered vessels, including those vessels that do not sail under the Israeli flag, may be subject to control by the authorities of the State of Israel in order to protect the security of, or bring essential supplies and services to, the State of Israel. Israeli legislation also allows the State of Israel to use ZIM’s vessels in times of emergency. Any of the aforementioned factors may negatively affect ZIM and its results of operations. For further information on the risks related to entry into operational partnerships within the shipping industry, see “—ZIM’s ability to enter into strategic alliances and participate in operational partnerships in the shipping industry remains limited, which may adversely affect ZIM’s business, and ZIM faces risks related to its strategic cooperation agreement with the 2M Alliance.
 
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ZIM charters substantially all of its fleet and the cost associated with chartering such vessels is unpredictable.
 
ZIM charters substantially all of the vessels in its fleet. As of December 31, 2018, of the 73 vessels through which ZIM provides transport services globally, 70 are chartered (including 5 vessels accounted under financial leases and 4 vessels accounted under sale and leaseback refinancing agreements), which represents a percentage of chartered vessels that is significantly higher than the industry average. A rise in charter hire rates may adversely affect ZIM’s results of operations. ZIM is party to a number of long-term charter agreements. As of December 31, 2018, approximately 81% of ZIM’s chartered vessels (in terms of capacity) are chartered under operational leases for terms exceeding one year. As a result, ZIM may be unable to take full advantage of short-term reductions in charter hire rates. In addition, some of ZIM’s long-term charter agreements contain rate adjustment mechanisms pursuant to which charter hire rates will increase if the market rate increases, so ZIM may not benefit from such long-term charter agreements in the event of an increase in market charter hire rates. Furthermore, if ZIM is unable in the future to charter vessels of the type and size needed to serve its customers efficiently on terms that are favorable to ZIM, if at all, this may have a material adverse effect of on its business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Due to ZIM's lack of diversification, adverse developments in the container shipping industry could reduce ZIM's ability to service its debt obligations
 
ZIM relies mainly on the cash flow generated from its results of operation, and accordingly its financial condition, are significantly dependent on conditions in the container shipping market, which are for the most part beyond ZIM's control. For example, ZIM's results in any given period are substantially impacted by supply and demand in container shipping market, which impacts freight rates, bunker prices, and the prices it pays under the charters for its vessels. ZIM does not own any ports or similar ancillary assets.
 
Due to ZIM's lack of diversification, an adverse development in the container shipping industry would have a significantly greater impact on its financial condition and results of operations than if we maintained more diverse assets or lines of business. An adverse development could also impair ZIM's ability to service debt.
 
In addition, ZIM charters substantially all of its vessels, and a significant number of its charters will expire within the next 5 years. ZIM will be subject to market conditions for charter rates prevailing at the time new charters are entered into. If ZIM is unable to enter into new charters for vessels as existing charters expire on favorable terms this will impact its business and results of operations.
 
The trend towards increasing vessel sizes has and may continue to adversely affect ZIM.
 
Container shipping companies have been incorporating, and are expected to continue to incorporate, larger, more economical vessels into their operating fleets. The cost per TEU transported on large vessels is less than the cost per TEU for smaller vessels (assuming the vessels are operating at full capacity), as, among other reasons, larger vessels provide increased capacity and fuel efficiency. As a result, cargo shippers are encouraged to deploy large vessels, particularly within the more competitive trades. According to Alphaliner, vessels of 18,000 TEUs and above represented approximately 36% of the current global order book based on TEU capacity as of February 2019. Furthermore, a significant introduction of large vessels, including very large vessels in excess of 18,000 TEUs, into any trade zone will enable the transfer of existing, large vessels to other shipping lines on which smaller vessels typically operate. Such transfers, which are referred to as “fleet cascading,” may in turn generate similar effects in the other, smaller trade zones in which ZIM operates. The continued deployment of larger vessels by ZIM’s competitors will adversely impact ZIM’s competitiveness if ZIM is not able to acquire, charter or obtain financing for large container vessels on attractive terms or at all. This risk can be further exacerbated due to ZIM’s inability to participate in certain alliances and thereby access larger vessels for deployment as well as the limitations on vessel size and ability to own vessels imposed on ZIM by the covenants in its debt facilities. Even if ZIM is able to acquire or charter larger vessels, ZIM may be unable to achieve utilization rates necessary to operate such vessels profitably.
 
As a result of the expansion of the Panama Canal, the canal can accommodate container vessels with capacities of 13,000-14,000 TEUs, which can then access via the Panama Canal the Pacific trade zone, which is one of ZIM’s strategic trade zones.
 
In order to maintain and/or increase their competitiveness ZIM’s competitors are gradually updating their fleet to capacities of 13,000-14,000 TEUs in the trans-Pacific trade zone. The introduction of such vessels within this trade