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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number: 001-18298
Kemper Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
DE95-4255452
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
200 E. Randolph Street
Suite 3300
ChicagoIL60601
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)

(312) 661-4600
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.10 par value per shareKMPRNYSE
5.875% Fixed-Rate Reset Junior Subordinated Debentures due 2062KMPBNYSE

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes  ☒    No  ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.   Yes  ☐    No  ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes  ☒    No  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes  ☒    No  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer  
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes   No  ☒




As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $2.9 billion based on the closing sale price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange. Solely for purposes of this calculation, all executive officers and directors of the registrant are considered affiliates.

Registrant had 64,323,693 shares of common stock outstanding as of February 5, 2024.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III.




Table of Contents
Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
Part I
Item 1.Business
Item 1A.Risk Factors
Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 1C.Cybersecurity
Item 2.Properties
Item 3.Legal Proceedings
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6.Selected Financial Data
Item 7.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8.Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A.Controls and Procedures
Item 9B.Other Information
Part III
Item 10.Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11.Executive Compensation
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13.Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14.Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15.Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16.Form 10-K Summary
Exhibit Index
Power of Attorney
Signatures
Financial Statement Schedules:
Schedule 1 - Investments Other than Investments in Related Parties
SCH I-1
Schedule 2 - Parent Company Financial Statements
SCH II-2
Schedule 3 - Supplementary Insurance Information
SCH III-1
Schedule 4 - Reinsurance Schedule
SCH IV-1



Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This 2023 Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “2023 Annual Report”), including, but not limited to, the accompanying consolidated financial statements of Kemper Corporation (“Kemper” or the “Registrant”) and its subsidiaries (individually and collectively referred to herein as the “Company”) as well as a variable interest entity (“VIE”) in which the Company is considered the primary beneficiary and the notes thereto appearing in Item 8 herein (the “Consolidated Financial Statements”), the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations appearing in Item 7 herein (the “MD&A”) and the other Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules filed as a part hereof or incorporated by reference herein, may contain or incorporate by reference information that includes or is based on forward-looking statements within the meaning of the safe-harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.
Forward-looking statements give expectations or forecasts of future events. The reader can identify these statements by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. They use words such as “believe(s),” “goal(s),” “target(s),” “estimate(s),” “anticipate(s),” “forecast(s),” “project(s),” “plan(s),” “intend(s),” “expect(s),” “might,” “may,” “could” and other terms of similar meaning. Forward-looking statements, in particular, include statements relating to future actions, prospective services or products, future performance or results of current and anticipated services or products, sales efforts, expenses, the outcome of contingencies such as legal proceedings, trends in operations and financial results.
Any or all forward-looking statements may turn out to be wrong, and, accordingly, Kemper cautions readers not to place undue reliance on such statements. Kemper bases these statements on current expectations and the current economic environment as of the date of this 2023 Annual Report. They involve a number of risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. These statements are not guarantees of future performance, and actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements can be affected by inaccurate assumptions or by known or unknown risks and uncertainties that may be important in determining the Company’s actual future results and financial condition.
In addition to the factors discussed below under Item 1A., “Risk Factors,” in this 2023 Annual Report, the reader should consider the following list of factors that, among others, could cause the Company’s actual results and financial condition to differ materially from estimated results and financial condition.
Factors related to the legal and regulatory environment in which Kemper and its subsidiaries operate
Evolving policies, practices and interpretations by regulators and courts that increase operating costs and potential liabilities, particularly any that involve retroactive application of new requirements, including, but not limited to, initiatives related to unclaimed property laws or claims handling practices with respect to life insurance policies and the proactive use of death verification databases;
Adverse outcomes in litigation or other legal or regulatory proceedings involving Kemper or its subsidiaries or affiliates or related to its business practices or business practices in the insurance industry;
Governmental actions, including, but not limited to, implementation of new laws and regulations, and court decisions interpreting existing and future laws and regulations or policy provisions;
Uncertainties related to regulatory approval of insurance rates, policy forms, insurance products, license applications, business withdrawals, dividends from insurance subsidiaries, acquisitions of businesses or strategic initiatives and other matters within the purview of insurance regulators;
Increased costs and initiatives required to address new legal and regulatory requirements; liabilities, costs and other impacts arising from developments related to cybersecurity, privacy and data governance, including, without limitation, cyber incidents that have occurred or could occur;
Factors relating to insurance claims and related reserves in the Company’s insurance businesses
The incidence, frequency and severity of catastrophes occurring in any particular reporting period or geographic area, including natural disasters, pandemics and terrorist attacks or other man-made events;
The frequency and severity of insurance claims (including those associated with catastrophe losses and pandemics);
The interest rate environment, including proposed rate changes by the U.S. Federal Reserve, which may cause material fluctuations in our life policyholder benefit reserves;
Changes in facts and circumstances affecting assumptions used in determining loss and loss adjustment expenses (“LAE”) reserves, including, but not limited to, the frequency and severity of insurance claims, changes in claims
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handling procedures and closure patterns, development patterns and the impacts of technological and other environmental conditions;
The impact of inflation on insurance claims, including, but not limited to, the effects on material costs, personal injury claims of increasing medical costs and the severity of claims resulting from a catastrophe;
The effects on property claims attributed to supply chain disruption and scarcity of resources available to rebuild damaged structures, including labor and materials and the amount of salvage value recovered for damaged property;
The rising costs of insurance claims from increased and more targeted litigation, higher jury awards, broader definitions of liability, and other effects of legal system abuse and societal trends referred to as social inflation;
Developments related to insurance policy claims and coverage issues, including, but not limited to, interpretations, pronouncements or decisions by courts or regulators that may govern or influence losses incurred in connection with hurricanes and other catastrophes;
Orders, interpretations or other actions by regulators that impact the reporting, adjustment and payment of claims;
Changes in the pricing or availability of reinsurance, or in the financial condition of reinsurers and amounts recoverable therefrom;
Factors related to the Company’s ability to compete
Changes in the ratings of Kemper and/or its insurance company subsidiaries by rating agencies with regard to credit, financial strength, claims paying ability and other areas on which the Company is rated;
The level of success and costs incurred in realizing or maintaining economies of scale, integrating acquired businesses and implementing significant business initiatives and the timing of the occurrence or completion of such events, including, but not limited to, those related to expense and claims savings, the establishment and operation of the Kemper Reciprocal Exchange, consolidations, reorganizations and technology;
Absolute and relative performance of the Company’s products and services, including, but not limited to, the level of success achieved in designing and introducing new insurance products and services;
Difficulties with technology, data and network security (including as a result of cyber attacks that have occurred or could occur), outsourcing relationships or cloud-based technology that could negatively impact the Company’s ability to conduct business, a heightened risk when substantial numbers of employees utilize work from home arrangements;
The ability of the Company and its third-party service providers to maintain the availability and required performance of critical systems and manage technology initiatives cost-effectively to address insurance industry developments and regulatory requirements;
Heightened competition, including, with respect to pricing, consolidations of existing competitors or entry of new competitors and alternate distribution channels, introduction of new technologies, use and enhancements of telematics, refinements of existing products and development of new products by current or future competitors;
Expected benefits and synergies from mergers, acquisitions, divestitures and/or strategic initiatives that may not be realized to the extent anticipated, within expected time frames or at all, due to a number of factors including, but not limited to, the loss of key agents/brokers, customers or employees, increased costs, fees, expenses and related charges and delays caused by unanticipated developments or factors outside of the Company’s control;
The successful formulation and execution of the Company’s plan with regard to corporate strategy and significant operational changes;
Increase in competition as a result of new competitors to the property and casualty insurance industry or existence of competitors that receive substantial infusion of capital or access to third-party capital;
Factors related to the business environment in which Kemper and its subsidiaries operate
Changes in general economic conditions, including those related to, without limitation, performance of financial markets, interest rates, inflation, unemployment rates, significant global catastrophes and/or pandemics, and fluctuating values of particular investments held by the Company;
Absolute and relative performance of investments held by the Company;
Changes in insurance industry trends and significant industry developments;
Changes in consumer trends, including changes in number of miles driven by automobile insurance policyholders, and significant consumer or product developments;
Changes in capital requirements, including the calculations thereof, used by regulators and rating agencies;
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Regulatory, accounting or tax changes that may affect the Company’s earnings, the cost of, or demand for, the Company’s products or services or after-tax returns from the Company’s investments;
The impact of required participation in state windpools and joint underwriting associations, residual market assessments and assessments for insurance industry insolvencies;
Changes in distribution channels, methods or costs resulting from changes in laws or regulations, legal proceedings or market forces;
Increasing competition and higher costs for executive talent and employees with necessary skills and industry experience;
Increased costs and risks related to cybersecurity that could materially affect the Company’s operations including, but not limited to, data breaches, cyber attacks, virus or malware attacks, or other infiltrations or incidents affecting system integrity, availability and performance, and actions taken to minimize and remediate the risks of such events that have occurred or could occur;
Other risks and uncertainties described from time to time in Kemper’s filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
Kemper cannot provide any assurances that the results and outcomes contemplated in any forward-looking statements will be achieved or will be achieved in any particular timetable or that future events or developments will not cause such statements to be inaccurate. Kemper assumes no obligation to correct or update any forward-looking statements publicly for any changes in events or developments or in the Company’s expectations or results subsequent to the date of this 2023 Annual Report. Kemper advises the reader, however, to consult any further disclosures Kemper makes on related subjects in its filings with the SEC.
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PART I
Item 1.    Business.
Kemper is a diversified insurance holding company, with subsidiaries that provide automobile, life, and other insurance products to individuals and businesses. Kemper’s annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10‑Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments thereto are accessible free of charge through Kemper’s website, kemper.com, and as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC, which also maintains an Internet site at sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
Registrant is a holding company incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in 1990, with equity securities traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”). On August 25, 2011, Registrant adopted its current name, Kemper Corporation, and changed its NYSE ticker symbol to KMPR. Prior to the name change, the Registrant was known as Unitrin, Inc. and traded under the NYSE ticker symbol UTR.
The Kemper family of companies is one of the nation’s leading specialized insurers. With nearly $12.7 billion in assets, Kemper is improving the world of insurance by providing affordable and easy-to-use personalized solutions to individuals, families and businesses through its Kemper Auto and Kemper Life brands. Kemper serves over 4.9 million policies, is represented by more than 23,700 agents and brokers, and has approximately 8,100 associates dedicated to meeting the ever-changing needs of its customers.
The Company is engaged, through its subsidiaries, in the property and casualty insurance and life insurance businesses. The Company conducts its operations through two operating segments: Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance and Life Insurance. The Company conducts its operations solely in the United States.
Kemper’s subsidiaries employ approximately 8,100 associates supporting their operations, of which approximately 2,900 are employed in the Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance Segment, approximately 3,000 are employed in the Life Insurance segment and the remainder are employed in various corporate and other functions.
Property and Casualty Insurance Business
General
The Company’s property & casualty insurance business operations are conducted primarily through the Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance segment. The Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance segment distributes these products primarily through independent agents and brokers who are paid commissions for their services. In addition, the Life Insurance segment’s career agents also sell contents coverage for personal property to its customers against loss resulting from fire, lighting and other causes. Collectively, these segments provide specialty automobile, fire/contents, and other types of property and casualty insurance to individuals and commercial automobile insurance, and general liability as an endorsement to commercial automobile, to businesses.
In the third quarter of 2023, the Company announced that it will exit the Preferred Property and Casualty Insurance business and will actively reduce the business beginning in third quarter 2023, with all policies being non-renewed or canceled in accordance with applicable state regulations. As a result, the Company will no longer provide preferred automobile, homeowners insurance or other personal insurance. The results of this business, previously reported as a reportable segment, are now reflected as Non-Core Operations and presented as a reconciling item from Net Loss to Adjusted Consolidated Net Operating Loss. Prior periods have been recast to reflect the change in calculation of Adjusted Consolidated Operating Net Loss.
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Net Written Premiums for the Property and Casualty Business were as follows:
DOLLARS IN MILLIONS202320222021
Business Segments:
Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance Segment:
Specialty Personal Automobile Insurance
$2,677.5 $3,305.1 $3,587.2 
Commercial Automobile Insurance
627.9 629.3 470.1 
Life Insurance Segment:
Fire/Contents Protection
45.3 50.0 61.6 
Total Segment Net Written Premiums3,350.7 3,984.4 4,118.9 
Non-Core Operations435.5 527.1 642.0 
Total Property and Casualty Net Written Premiums$3,786.2 $4,511.5 $4,760.9 
Property insurance indemnifies an insured with an interest in physical property for loss of, or damage to, such property. Casualty insurance primarily covers liability for damage to property of, or injury to, a person or entity other than the insured. In most cases, casualty insurance also obligates the insurance company to provide a defense for the insured in litigation arising out of events covered by the policy.
Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance
The Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance segment, based in Chicago, Illinois, conducts business in 31 states under the Kemper Auto brand. As shown in the following table, three states provided 88% of the segment’s premium revenues in 2023.
StatePercentage of Total Premiums
 California 53 %
 Florida 20 %
 Texas 15 %
The Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance segment provides personal automobile insurance to consumers who have had difficulty obtaining standard or preferred risk insurance, usually because of their driving records, claims experience or premium payment history. The segment also provides commercial automobile coverage to targeted markets and industries, with a focus on contractors, short-haul delivery, and sales/services that is closely aligned to personal automobile insurance from both a footprint and distribution perspective.
The segment also meets the insurance needs of other specialty automobile markets such as urban and Hispanic consumers. The segment’s insurance products accounted for 80%, 78% and 76% of the Company’s consolidated insurance premiums in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The segment’s insurance products are marketed through approximately 16,800 independent agents and brokers.
In the third quarter of 2023 the Company established Kemper Reciprocal (the “Reciprocal Exchange” or “Exchange”), an Illinois-domiciled reciprocal insurance exchange. The Exchange principally writes specialty automobile policies sold to subscribers of the Exchange. Net written premiums and net earned premiums reported through the Exchange were $0.6 million and $0.1 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2023.
The Exchange is operated by a management company owned by Kemper that acts as the attorney-in-fact (“AIF”). The AIF receives a management fee for the services provided to the Reciprocal Exchange. The management fee revenues are based upon all premiums written or assumed by the Exchange. The AIF determines the management fee rate to be paid by the Exchange. This rate cannot exceed 30% of the Exchange’s gross written and assumed premiums.
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Property and Casualty Loss and Loss Adjustment Expense Reserves
The Company’s reserves for losses and LAE for property and casualty insurance (“Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves”) are reported using the Company’s estimate of its ultimate liability for losses and LAE for claims that occurred prior to the end of any given accounting period but have not yet been paid.
Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves at December 31, 2023 and 2022 were:
DOLLARS IN MILLIONS20232022
Business Segments:
Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance:
Personal Automobile Insurance$1,711.9 $1,875.8 
Commercial Automobile Insurance596.8 445.3 
Life Insurance:
Fire/Contents Protection2.9 2.3 
Total Segment Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves2,311.6 2,323.4 
Non-Core Operations356.4 419.1 
Unallocated Reserves12.5 14.4 
Total Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves$2,680.5 $2,756.9 
In estimating the Company’s Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves, the Company’s actuaries exercise professional judgment and must consider, and are influenced by, many variables that are difficult to quantify. Accordingly, the process of estimating and establishing the Company’s Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves is inherently uncertain and the actual ultimate net cost of claims may vary materially from the estimated amounts reserved. See MD&A, “Critical Accounting Estimates,” under the caption “Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses” for a discussion of the Company’s reserving process and the factors considered by the Company’s actuaries in estimating the Company’s Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves.
The Company’s goal is to ensure that its total reserves for property and casualty insurance losses and LAE are adequate to cover all costs, while minimizing variation from the time reserves for losses and LAE are initially estimated until losses and LAE are fully paid. Changes in the Company’s estimates of these losses and LAE, also referred to as “development,” will occur over time and have been and in the future may be material. Favorable development is recognized and reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements when the Company decreases its previous estimate of ultimate losses and LAE and results in an increase in net income in the period recognized, whereas adverse development is recognized and reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements when the Company increases its previous estimate of ultimate losses and LAE and results in a decrease in net income.
See Note 6, “Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information about incurred and paid claims development for the 2019-2022 accident years as of December 31, 2023, net of reinsurance and indemnification, as well as cumulative claim frequency and the total of incurred but not reported (“IBNR”) liabilities, including expected development on reported claims included within the net incurred losses and allocated LAE amounts as of December 31, 2023. See Note 6, “Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a tabular reconciliation of the three most recent annual periods setting forth the Company’s Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves as of the beginning of each year, incurred losses and LAE for insured events of the current year, changes in incurred losses and LAE for insured events of prior years, payments of losses and LAE for insured events of the current year, payments of losses and LAE for insured events of prior years and the Company’s Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves at the end of the year and additional information regarding the nature of adjustments to incurred losses and LAE for insured events of prior years.
Catastrophe Losses
Catastrophes and natural disasters are inherent risks of the property and casualty insurance business. These catastrophic events and natural disasters include, without limitation, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, hailstorms, wildfires, high winds and winter storms. Such events result in insured losses that are, and are expected to be, a material factor in the results of operations and financial position of Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies. Further, because the level of insured losses that could occur in any one year cannot be accurately predicted, these losses contribute to material year-to-year fluctuations in the results of operations and financial position of these companies. Specific types of catastrophic events are more likely to occur at
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certain times within the year than others. This factor adds an element of seasonality to property and casualty insurance claims. The occurrence and severity of catastrophic events cannot be accurately predicted in any year. However, some geographic locations are more susceptible to these events than others. The Company has endeavored to manage its direct insurance exposures in certain regions that are prone to naturally occurring catastrophic events through a combination of geographic diversification, restrictions on the amount and location of new business production in such regions, modifications of, and/or limitations to coverages and deductibles for certain perils in such regions and reinsurance. The Company has adopted the industry-wide catastrophe classifications of storms and other events promulgated by Insurance Services Office, Inc. (“ISO”) to track and report losses related to catastrophes. ISO classifies a disaster as a catastrophe when the event causes $25 million or more in direct insured losses to property and affects a significant number of policyholders and insurers. ISO-classified catastrophes are assigned a unique serial number recognized throughout the insurance industry. The discussions throughout this 2023 Annual Report utilize ISO’s definition of catastrophes.
The process of estimating and establishing reserves for catastrophe losses is inherently uncertain and the actual ultimate cost of a claim, net of reinsurance recoveries, may vary materially from the estimated amount reserved. See Item 1A., “Risk Factors,” under the caption “Catastrophe losses could materially and adversely affect the Company’s results of operations, liquidity and/or financial condition” for a discussion of catastrophe risk. See Note 25, “Catastrophe Reinsurance,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of the factors that influence the process of estimating and establishing reserves for catastrophes.
Reinsurance
The Company manages its exposure to catastrophes and other natural disasters through a combination of geographical diversification, restrictions on the amount and location of new business production in such regions, modifications of, and/or limitations to coverages and deductibles for certain perils in such regions and reinsurance. To limit its exposure to catastrophic events, the Company maintains a catastrophe reinsurance program for its property and casualty insurance companies. Coverage for the catastrophe reinsurance program is provided in various layers through multiple excess of loss reinsurance contracts. The Company’s insurance subsidiaries also purchase reinsurance from the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund (the “FHCF”) for hurricane losses in Florida at retentions lower than those described below for the Company’s catastrophe reinsurance program.
The 2024 catastrophe reinsurance program covering the property and casualty insurance companies is provided by a combination of the annual and multi-year excess of loss reinsurance contracts.
Multi-year Excess of Loss Reinsurance Contract
The multi-year excess of loss reinsurance contract provides coverage over the three-year period of January 1, 2022 through December 31, 2024 (the “2022 Reinsurance Contract”). The 2022 Reinsurance Contract provides coverage in two layers, which together provide coverage for losses on individual catastrophes of $200 million in excess of $50 million. Under the 2022 Reinsurance Contract, the percentage of coverage is 31.66% for each year in the three-year period, and participation of each reinsurer remains the same over the entire three-year period. Accordingly, the 2022 Reinsurance Contract provides coverage for 31.67% of losses on individual catastrophes of $200 million in excess of $50 million in 2024.
Annual Excess of Loss Reinsurance Contract
The 2024 Annual Excess of Loss Contracts provide coverage for the annual period of January 1, 2024 through December 31, 2024. The 2024 Annual Excess of Loss Contracts provide coverage in two layers for losses on individual catastrophes of $190 million in excess of $50 million. The 2024 Annual Excess of Loss Contract provides 53.33% coverage on the first layer of losses on individual catastrophes of $100 million in excess of $50 million. The second layer provides 63.33% coverage on the losses on individual catastrophes of $90 million in excess of $150 million.
Reinstatement of Excess of Loss Reinsurance Contracts
In the event that the Company’s incurred catastrophe losses and LAE covered by its catastrophe reinsurance program exceed the retention for a particular layer, the program allows for one reinstatement of such coverage. In such an instance, the Company must pay a reinstatement premium to the reinsurers to reinstate the full amount of the limit available under such layer. For each amount reinstated the Company shall pay additional premiums equal to the percentage of the reinsurer's loss limit for the excess layer exhausted for the loss occurrence multiplied by 100% of the reinsurance premium paid or payable for the excess layer for the term of the contract (50% of the reinsurance premium paid for $100 million excess of $150 million of the 2022 Reinsurance Contract).
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Other
In addition to the catastrophe loss exposures caused by natural events described above, Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies are exposed to losses from catastrophic events that are not the result of acts of nature, such as acts of terrorism, the nature, occurrence and severity of which in any period cannot be accurately predicted. The companies have reinsurance coverage to address certain exposures to potential future terrorist attacks. The reinsurance coverage for certified events, as designated by the federal government, is from the Terrorist Risk Insurance Act. The coverage for non-certified events is available in the catastrophe reinsurance program for property and casualty insurance companies. However, certain perils, such as biological, chemical, nuclear pollution or contamination, are excluded from the reinsurance coverage for non-certified events.
Under the various reinsurance arrangements, Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies are indemnified by reinsurers for certain losses incurred under insurance policies issued by the reinsurers. As indemnity reinsurance does not discharge an insurer from its direct obligations to policyholders on risks insured, Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies remain directly liable. However, provided that the reinsurers meet their obligations, the net liability for Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies is limited to the amount of risk that they retain. Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies purchase their reinsurance only from reinsurers rated “A-” or better by A. M. Best Co., Inc. (“A.M. Best”), at the time of purchase. A.M. Best is an organization that specializes in rating insurance and reinsurance companies.
For further discussion of the reinsurance programs, see Note 25, “Catastrophe Reinsurance,” and Note 26, “Other Reinsurance,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Pricing
Pricing levels for property and casualty insurance products are influenced by many factors, including the frequency and severity of claims, state regulation and legislation, competition, general business and economic conditions, including market rates of interest, inflation, expense levels, and judicial decisions. In addition, many state regulators require consideration of investment income when approving or setting rates, which could reduce underwriting margins. Further, some states have regulations that limit the after-tax return on underwriting profit allowed for an insurer and may impact the price charged for premiums or result in premium refunds. The Company derives a significant portion of its earned premiums in two such states, California and Florida. See MD&A under the caption “Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance”.
Competition
Based on the most recent annual data published by A.M. Best, as of the end of 2022, there were 1,110 property and casualty insurance groups in the United States. Kemper’s property and casualty group was among the top 6% of property and casualty insurance groups in the United States as measured by net written premiums, policyholders’ surplus and net admitted assets in 2022. Among all personal lines automobile insurance writers, Kemper’s property and casualty group was the 12th largest writer as measured by net written premiums in 2022.
Rankings by net admitted assets, net premiums written and capital and surplus were:
OrdinalPercentile
MeasurementRankRank
Net Admitted Assets4996 %
Net Written Premiums3297 
Capital and Surplus6994 
In 2022, the U.S. property and casualty insurance industry’s estimated net premiums written were $782.3 billion, of which nearly 81% were accounted for by the top 50 groups of property and casualty insurance companies. Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies wrote less than 1% of the industry’s 2022 premium volume.
The property and casualty insurance industry is highly competitive, particularly with respect to personal automobile insurance. Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies compete on the basis of, among other measures, (i) using suitable pricing segmentation, (ii) maintaining underwriting discipline, (iii) settling claims timely and efficiently, (iv) offering products in selected markets or geographies, (v) utilizing technological innovations for the marketing and sale of insurance, (vi) controlling expenses, (vii) maintaining adequate ratings from A.M. Best and other ratings agencies and (viii) providing quality services to independent agents and policyholders. See Item 1A., “Risk Factors,” under the caption “The insurance industry is highly competitive, making it difficult to grow profitability and within expectations of investors.
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Life Insurance Business
General
The Company’s life & health insurance business operations are conducted primarily through the Life Insurance segment. The Life Insurance segment distributes its products through a network of employee, or “career” agents. These career agents are paid commissions for their services. Earned premiums from the life insurance segment accounted for 7%, of the Company’s consolidated insurance premiums earned in 2023 and 2022, respectively, and 6% of the Company’s insurance premium earned in 2021.
The Life Insurance segment, primarily based in St. Louis, Missouri, focuses on providing individual life and supplemental accident and health insurance products to customers of modest incomes who desire basic protection for themselves and their families. Their leading product is individual life insurance, including permanent insurance that can be offered on a limited or recurring pay basis, term insurance and guaranteed issue insurance. Individual life insurance is offered primarily on a non-participating, guaranteed-cost basis. Face amounts of these policies are lower than those of policies typically sold to higher income customers by other companies in the life insurance industry. Premiums average approximately $28 per policy per month with an average face value of $6,308.
As of January 1, 2023, the Company adopted ASU 2018-12 using the modified retrospective method applied as of the transition date of January 1, 2021. Prior period amounts have been recast to reflect application of the new guidance. See Note 2, “Summary of Accounting Policies and Accounting Changes” to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
DOLLARS IN MILLIONS202320222021
Life Insurance Segment:
Life Insurance
$319.2 $352.8 $327.2 
Accident and Health Insurance1
23.1 168.2 189.9 
Total Earned Premiums$342.3 $521.0 $517.1 
1 The Company sold Reserve National on December 1, 2022. Reserve National was based in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and was licensed in 49 states and the District of Columbia. The Company specialized in the sale of supplemental accident & health insurance products such as: Medicare Supplement, fixed hospital indemnity, home health care, specified disease, and accident-only plans. For further discussion of the Reserve National Disposition, see Note 4, “Dispositions,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Life Insurance segment employs nearly 2,300 career agents, operating in 26 states and the District of Columbia. These career agents are full-time employees who call on customers in their homes to sell insurance products, provide services related to policies in force and collect premiums, typically monthly. These career agents also distribute and/or service contents coverage for personal property providing coverage against loss resulting from fire, lightning, and other causes.
As shown in the following table, five states provided 69% of the premium revenues in this segment in 2023.
StatePercentage of Total Premiums
Texas 30 %
Louisiana 15 
Alabama11 
Florida
Georgia
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Life Insurance Reserves
The Company’s Life Insurance Reserves are reported using the Company’s estimate of its liability for future policyholder benefits. Life Insurance Reserves by business segment at December 31, 2023 and 2022 were:
DOLLARS IN MILLIONS20232022
Business Segments:
Life Insurance:
Life Insurance$3,417.7 $3,271.9 
Accident & Health Insurance
4.7 4.3 
Total Life Insurance Reserves$3,422.4 $3,276.2 
Significant assumption inputs to the calculation of the liability for future policyholder benefits include mortality, lapses, and discount rates (both accretion and current). Kemper groups together policies with similar types of business for its cohorts, which typically vary by issue year. The Company’s actuaries use a variety of generally accepted actuarial methodologies, in accordance with Actuarial Standards of Practice, in determining the mortality and lapse assumptions. These assumptions are based on judgments that consider the Company’s historical experience, industry data, and other relevant factors. The Company reviews and updates its estimate of cash flows expected over the lifetime of a group of contracts using actual historical experience quarterly and current future cash flow assumptions at least annually to calculate its revised net premium ratio. The revised net premium ratios are then used to calculate an updated liability for future policyholder benefits for the current reporting period, discounted at the original contract issuance discount rate. The Company has elected to use expense assumptions that are locked in at contract inception and are not subsequently reviewed or updated. Resulting changes in the liability due to differences in actual versus expected experience, changes in current cash flow assumptions, and prefunding and payout of benefits compared to the carrying amount of the liability as of that same date are recorded as a separate component of benefit expense in the Consolidated Statements of Loss. The current discount rate assumption is an equivalent spot rate curve of annually compounded rates at monthly increments that is derived based on A-credit rated fixed-income instruments reflecting the duration characteristics of the liability. The discount rate assumption is updated quarterly and used to remeasure the liability at the reporting date, with the resulting change reflected in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
In estimating the Company’s Life Insurance Reserves, the Company’s actuaries exercise professional judgment and must consider, and are influenced by, many variables that are difficult to quantify. Accordingly, the process of estimating and establishing the Company’s Life Insurance Reserves is inherently uncertain. See MD&A, “Critical Accounting Estimates,” under the caption “Life Insurance Reserves” for more details on the Company’s reserving process and the factors considered by the Company’s actuaries in estimating the Company’s Life Insurance Reserves.
Reinsurance
Consistent with insurance industry practice, the Company’s Life insurance segment utilizes reinsurance arrangements to limit its maximum loss, provide greater diversification of risk and minimize exposures on larger risks. As the face amounts of the Company’s issued policies are relatively small, the ceded risks and corresponding premiums are also relatively small, particularly when compared to other companies in the industry. The segment is also exposed to losses from catastrophes arising from insurance policies for contents coverage for personal property. The Life Insurance segment is a party to the FHCF and the Property & Casualty catastrophe excess of loss reinsurance contracts.
Lapse Ratio
The lapse ratio is a measure of a life insurer’s loss of in-force policies. For a given year, this ratio is commonly computed as the total face amount of individual life insurance policies lapsed, surrendered, expired and decreased during such year, less policies increased and revived during such year, divided by the total face amount of policies at the beginning of the year plus the face amount of policies issued and reinsurance assumed in the prior year. The Life Insurance segment’s lapse ratio for individual life insurance was 5%, 6%, and 3% in 2023, 2022 and 2021 respectively.
The customer base served by the Life Insurance segment tends to have a higher incidence of lapse than other demographic segments of the population. Thus, to maintain or increase the level of its business, the Life Insurance segment must write a higher volume of new policies than competitors serving other demographic segments of the population.
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Pricing
Premiums for life insurance products are based on assumptions with respect to mortality, morbidity, investment yields, expenses, and lapses and are also affected by state laws and regulations, as well as competition. Pricing assumptions are based on the experience of the Life Insurance segment, as well as the industry in general, depending on the factor being considered. The actual profit or loss produced by a product will vary from the anticipated profit if the actual experience differs from the assumptions used in pricing the product.
Premiums for policies sold by the Life Insurance segment are set at levels designed to cover the relatively high cost of “in-home” servicing of such policies. As a result, the Life Insurance segment premiums have a higher expense load than the life insurance industry average.
Competition
Based on the most recent data published by A.M. Best, as of the end of 2022, there were 389 life and health insurance company groups in the United States. The Company’s Life Insurance segment ranked in the top 29% of life and health insurance company groups, as measured by net admitted assets, net premiums written and capital and surplus. Rankings by net admitted assets, net premiums written and capital and surplus were:
OrdinalPercentile
MeasurementRankRank
Net Admitted Assets9675 %
Net Written Premiums10772 
Capital and Surplus11271 
Kemper’s life and health insurance subsidiaries generally compete by using appropriate pricing, offering products to selected markets or geographies, controlling expenses, maintaining adequate ratings from A.M. Best and providing competitive services to agents and policyholders.
Investments
The quality, nature and amount of the various types of investments that can be made by insurance companies are regulated by state laws. Depending on the state, these laws permit investments in qualified assets, including, but not limited to, municipal, state and federal government obligations, corporate bonds, real estate, preferred and common stocks, investment partnerships, limited liability investment companies and limited partnerships. In addition, the quality, nature, amount and concentration of the various types of investments held by Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries affect the amount of asset risk calculated by regulators and rating agencies in determining required capital. See “Regulation” immediately following this subsection and Item 1A., “Risk Factors,” under the caption “The Company’s investment portfolio is exposed to a variety of risks that may negatively impact net investment income, the change in fair value of equity and convertible securities and cause realized and unrealized losses.
The Company employs a total return investment strategy, with an emphasis on yield, while maintaining liquidity to meet both its short- and medium-term insurance obligations. See the discussions of the Company’s investments under the headings “Investment Results,” “Investment Quality and Concentrations,” “Investments in Limited Liability Companies and Limited Partnerships,” “Liquidity and Capital Resources” and “Critical Accounting Estimates,” in the MD&A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk,” in Item 7A and Note 10, “Investments,” Note 11, “Income from Investments,” Note 12, “Derivatives,” and Note 13, “Fair Value Measurements,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Regulation
Overview of State Regulation
Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries are subject to extensive regulation, primarily, but not exclusively, at the state level. Such regulation pertains to a variety of matters, including, but not limited to, policy forms, rate setting, licensing to transact business, market conduct, trade practices, underwriting standards, claims handling practices, transactions with affiliates, payment of dividends, nature and amount of investments, solvency, reserve adequacy, statutory accounting methods, risk management and corporate governance. In addition, insurance regulatory authorities perform periodic examinations of an insurer’s financial condition, market conduct activities and other affairs. Some of these matters are discussed in more detail below.
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Approval of Policy Rates and Forms
The majority of Kemper’s insurance operations are in states requiring prior approval by regulators before proposed policy or coverage forms and rates for insurance policies may be implemented and used. The Company’s ability to take actions to address market developments or increased costs can be adversely impacted by lengthy delays in the approval process or the failure to receive the required approval of state regulators.
Restrictions on Withdrawal, Cancellation and Nonrenewal
Many states have laws restricting an insurer’s ability to withdraw from particular markets. Laws that limit an insurer’s ability to cancel or non-renew a block of policies by line of business, or that subject its withdrawal to prior approval requirements, may restrict the ability of our insurance subsidiaries to exit unprofitable markets.
Financial Reports and Standards
Insurance companies are required to report their financial condition and results of operations in accordance with statutory accounting practices prescribed or permitted by state insurance regulators in conjunction with the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”). State insurance regulators also prescribe the form and content of statutory financial statements, set minimum reserve and loss ratio requirements and establish standards for the types and amounts of investments. In addition, state laws and regulations require minimum capital and surplus levels and incorporate risk-based capital (“RBC”) standards developed by the NAIC. Similar reporting obligations and requirements are imposed under Bermuda law on Kemper Bermuda Ltd., Kemper’s offshore subsidiary. RBC standards are intended to enable regulators to assess the level of risk inherent in an insurance company’s business based on asset risk, credit risk, underwriting risk and other business risks relevant to its operations. A company’s requirements are calculated based on an RBC formula and compared to its total adjusted capital to determine whether regulatory intervention is warranted. At December 31, 2023, the total amount of capital held by each of Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries exceeded the minimum levels required under applicable RBC requirements.
Guaranty Funds and Risk Pools
Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries are required to pay assessments up to prescribed levels to fund policyholder losses or liabilities of insolvent insurance companies under the guaranty fund laws of most states in which they transact business. Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries are also required to participate in various involuntary pools or assigned risk pools, principally involving windstorms and high risk drivers. In most states, the involuntary pool participation of Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries is determined in proportion to their voluntary writings of related lines of business in such states.
Privacy and Cybersecurity Regulation and Oversight
The Company is subject to numerous federal and state laws and state insurance regulations that impose significant requirements and standards for protecting personally identifiable information of insurance company policyholders, employees, and other individuals.
Federal Regulation
The federal Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act requires financial institutions, including insurers, to protect the privacy of non-public information, to restrict use of such information and disclosure to non-affiliated third parties, and to provide notices to customers regarding use of their non-public personal information and an opportunity to “opt out” of certain disclosures. State departments of insurance and certain federal agencies adopted implementing regulations as required by federal law. In addition, SEC rules require disclosure regarding cybersecurity oversight and incidents.
State Laws and Regulations
In recent years, state insurance regulators have focused increasing attention on cybersecurity. For example, insurance companies are required to maintain a cybersecurity program, incident response plan and information technology system safeguards that protect customer information under extensive cybersecurity regulations implemented by the New York Department of Financial Services and statutes adopted by a number of states based on a model data security law adopted by the NAIC. In addition, state insurance regulators focus significant attention on data security during financial exams, and the NAIC has strengthened and enhanced the cybersecurity guidance included in its handbook for state insurance examiners. Additional state laws outside of the insurance industry impose notification requirements in the event of cybersecurity breaches affecting their residents. On the privacy front, the California Consumer Privacy Act, as amended, by the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), which went into effect in January 2023, among other things, requires companies to provide privacy notices and
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respond to any request made to the company by a California resident regarding his or her personal information used or maintained by the company outside the scope of the GLBA privacy laws. The Company anticipates a continuing focus on new regulatory and legislative proposals at the state and federal levels that further regulate practices regarding privacy and security of personal information.
Holding Company Regulation, Including Enterprise Risk Management and Governance
The Company is regulated as an insurance holding company system and is subject to the insurance holding company acts of the states in which its insurance subsidiaries are domiciled and, in some cases, additional states in which the insurance subsidiary is deemed commercially domiciled. These laws and related regulations contain certain reporting requirements as well as restrictions on transactions between an insurer and its affiliates. They also generally require insurance companies within an insurance holding company system to register with the insurance department of each state where they are domiciled and to file certain reports with those insurance departments describing capital structure, ownership, financial condition, certain intercompany transactions, an enterprise risk report and general business operations. In addition, various notice and reporting requirements generally apply to transactions between insurance companies and their affiliates within the insurance holding company system, depending on the size and nature of the transactions. Some insurance holding company laws and regulations require prior regulatory approval or, in certain circumstances, prior notice of certain material intercompany transfers of assets as well as certain transactions between insurance companies, their parent holding companies and affiliates.
Dividends
As a holding company with no significant business operations of its own, Kemper relies on dividends from its insurance subsidiaries to meet its obligations. Certain dividends and distributions by an insurance subsidiary are subject to prior approval by the insurance regulator in which it is domiciled or commercially domiciled. See Item 1A., “Risk Factors,” under the caption, “The ability of Kemper to service its debt, to pay dividends to its shareholders and/or make repurchases of its stock may be materially impacted by lack of timely and/or sufficient dividends received from its subsidiaries.
Change in Control Requirements
State insurance laws also impose requirements that must be met prior to a change of control of an insurance company or insurance holding company based on the insurer’s state of domicile and, in some cases, additional states in which the insurance subsidiary is deemed commercially domiciled. These requirements may include the advance filing of specific information with the state insurance regulators, a public hearing on the matter, and the review and approval of the change of control by such regulators. The Company has insurance subsidiaries domiciled or deemed commercially domiciled in Alabama, California, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Texas and Wisconsin. In these states, except Alabama, “control” generally is presumed to exist through the direct or indirect ownership of 10% or more of the voting securities of an insurance company. Control is presumed to exist in Alabama with a 5% or more ownership interest in such securities. Any purchase of Kemper’s shares that would result in the purchaser owning Kemper’s voting securities in the foregoing percentages for the states indicated would be presumed to result in the acquisition of control of the Company’s insurance subsidiaries in those states. Therefore, acquisitions subject to the 10% threshold generally would require the prior approval of insurance regulators in each state in which the Company’s insurance subsidiaries are domiciled or deemed commercially domiciled, including those in Alabama, while acquisitions subject to the 5% threshold generally would require the prior approval of only Alabama regulators. Similarly, consistent with the Model Holding Company Act, several of the states in which the Company’s insurance subsidiaries are domiciled have enacted legislation that requires either the divesting and/or acquiring company to notify regulators of, and in some cases to receive regulatory approval for, a change in control.
Many state statutes also require pre-acquisition notification to state insurance regulators of a change of control of an insurance company licensed in the state if specific market concentration thresholds would be triggered by the acquisition. Such statutes authorize the issuance of a cease and desist order with respect to the insurance company if certain conditions, such as undue market concentration, would result from the acquisition. These regulatory requirements may deter, delay or prevent transactions effecting control of Kemper or its insurance subsidiaries, or the ownership of Kemper’s voting securities, including transactions that could be advantageous to Kemper’s shareholders.
Many states have made, or are in the process of making, modifications to their holding company laws. These modifications impose new reporting requirements and substantially expand the oversight and examination powers of state insurance regulators to assess enterprise risks within the entire holding company system that may arise from both insurance and non-insurance subsidiaries. They also impose new reporting requirements on affiliated transactions and divestiture of a controlling interest in an insurance subsidiary.
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Other Federal Government Regulation
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and Other Financial Reform Efforts
As part of an effort to strengthen the regulation of the financial services market, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”) was enacted in 2010. The Dodd-Frank Act also created the Federal Insurance Office (“FIO”) within the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“Treasury”). The FIO monitors the insurance industry, provides advice to the Financial Stability Oversight Council (“FSOC”), represents the U.S. on international insurance matters, and studies the current regulatory system. The Dodd-Frank Act includes a number of financial reforms and regulations that may affect our business and financial reporting. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the future of the Dodd-Frank Act and how it may impact our business.
Additional regulations or new requirements may emerge from activities of various regulatory entities, including the Federal Reserve Board, FIO, FSOC, NAIC and the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (“IAIS”), that are evaluating solvency and capital standards for insurance company groups. The outcome of these actions is uncertain; however, these actions may result in an increase in the level of capital and liquidity required by insurance holding companies.
Human Capital Management
Company Culture
Kemper proudly serves growing niche and underserved markets through appropriate and affordable insurance and financial solutions. Kemper’s strategic intent is focused on empowering each employee on our team to Act Like an Owner to deliver on our promises to our stakeholders. This concept describes one of the most important parts of executing on our purpose—our employees—and infuses our ownership culture in everything we do.
Our culture enables everyone, at every level, to take authority and accountability for their respective roles and responsibilities and strive towards high performance. We promote this through dynamic, diverse, and innovative team members who act like owners and are continually driven by intellectual curiosity, analytic superiority, and being world class operators.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
Diversity, equity and inclusion (“DE&I”) are fundamental to the Company’s success. Kemper is committed to driving our DE&I efforts within our workforce, workplace, and marketplace, as outlined below:
Workplace: Maintain an inclusive “Act Like an Owner” workplace culture where all employees can own their career while contributing to the success of the company
Workforce: Our workforce reaches its fullest potential by attracting, developing, and retaining diverse talent
Marketplace: Sustain a competitive advantage in the underserved markets we serve via strategic partnerships and community engagement.
Compliance and Ethics
A culture that includes compliance and ethical behaviors is key to protecting the Company from actions that could negatively impact our reputation and business results. These values are also critical to the sound operation of our business and contribute to a positive work experience for our employees. Kemper provides a variety of tools and resources to ensure that these values ultimately result in an environment that’s welcoming for every member of the Kemper community.
Kemper maintains an open communication environment to all employees that features multiple channels for reporting instances of fraud, theft, violence, and misconduct. Our compliance reporting protocol enhances our efforts to foster a culture of integrity and ethical behavior while facilitating corrective actions necessary to address identified problems. In addition, Kemper encourages employees to reach out to their direct manager, another manager, the Kemper Corporate Responsibility Hotline, or Human Resources with any compliance or ethical misconduct questions or concerns.
Employee Development
Kemper’s long-term success is inextricably linked to our employees’ development and engagement. Kemper provides valuable opportunities for personal development and professional challenge at all career stages, from early career programs including internships and rotational development programs to leadership development. Individual growth and development are promoted through various programs and outlets, including the Own Your Career initiative. This program provides employees with the resources and tools necessary to continue to build momentum toward career success and development. Kemper’s commitment
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to Own Your Career is closely tied to our Act Like an Owner culture, and offers individuals the opportunity for skill building, talent development, and opportunities to connect with peers and managers to support employees on their path forward.
Engagement with Company Culture
Employee engagement is a critical element in driving the Company’s culture and success. Kemper encourages elevated engagement through various initiatives and programs, and reinforces behaviors through recognition to employees who consistently go above and beyond in their contributions to the Company’s success.
We measure engagement through an employee survey which offers all team members the opportunity to provide feedback on key drivers of overall work satisfaction, including career growth and development, company leadership, pay and benefits, recognition, collaboration, communication, resources, culture, DE&I, and ethics. The feedback is evaluated by our business, functional and Human Resources leadership teams to understand employees’ emotional commitment to the most critical areas of employee engagement, further define and improve our culture, and address areas of opportunity to enhance the work experience.
Total Rewards
Total rewards represent investments Kemper makes to recognize and reward employees for their contributions. Total rewards includes both benefits and compensation (base salary, short- and long-term incentives). Kemper is committed to providing a robust and market competitive total rewards package that enables us to attract and retain the talent we need to grow our company, and achieve our results. Our total rewards are a vital part of the employee experience at Kemper, and are designed to add value to our business and promote the health and well-being of all employees.
Kemper is focused on investing in the physical, emotional, financial and social well-being of our people by providing a wide range of benefits. These include, but are not limited to:
Health insurance including medical, dental, vision and prescription drug coverage
Life and disability insurance
Tax-advantaged Flexible Spending Accounts for health care and dependent care
Health Savings Accounts for the High-Deductible Health Plan, including a company match
401(k) retirement savings program, including a company match and 100% vesting upon hire
Employee Stock Purchase Program (ESPP)
Employee Assistance & Work/Life Program (EAP)
Tuition reimbursement
Adoption assistance
Employee discount programs
Voluntary benefit programs
Leave and time off programs
Flexible work arrangements based on function and role
Wellness resources, including diabetes, hypertension, weight management and pregnancy support
Commuter benefits
Benefits navigation
Future of Work
Kemper’s top priority in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic was to ensure the health, safety, and well-being of our employees, agents, and customers. As the business landscape has shifted following the pandemic, Kemper has proactively responded by evolving our working models to stay competitive. Kemper’s Future of Work initiative was deployed in 2022 to focus on creating a framework for a multifaceted approach to work location. The approach is supported by three key work models: Office-based, Hybrid, and Remote-based. This is designed to continue to attract and retain a high performing workforce, cultivate a culture that supports teamwork and collaboration, remain highly adaptive to environmental changes, and continue to deliver on our promises to customers.
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Item 1A.    Risk Factors.
Kemper is exposed to numerous risk factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from recent results or anticipated future results. The following discussion details the significant risk factors that are specific to the Company. In addition to those described below, the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially affected by other factors not presently known or considered material by the Company. Readers are advised to consider all of these factors along with the other information included in this 2023 Annual Report, including the factors set forth under the caption “Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements”, and to consult any further disclosures Kemper makes on related subjects in its filings with the SEC.
Risks Relating to Estimating Property and Casualty Insurance Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses and Catastrophes
Estimating losses and LAE for determining property and casualty insurance reserves is inherently uncertain, and the Company’s results of operations may be materially impacted if the Company’s insurance reserves are insufficient.
The Company establishes loss and LAE reserves to cover estimated liabilities, which remain unpaid as of the end of each accounting period, and to investigate and settle all claims incurred under the property and casualty insurance policies that it has issued. Loss and LAE reserves are established for claims that have been reported to the Company as of the end of the accounting period, as well as for estimated claims that have occurred but have not yet been reported to the Company. The estimates of loss and LAE reserves are based on the Company’s assessment of the facts and circumstances known to it at the time, as well as estimates of the impact of future trends in the severity of claims, the frequency of claims and other factors.
These estimates can be inaccurate or may change over time due to many variables, including changes driven by the evolving legal and regulatory landscape and economic, technological, and other environmental conditions in which the Company operates and the rising costs of insurance claims from increased litigation (in part as a result of proliferation of class-action suits and growth in third party litigation funding), increase in so-called "nuclear verdicts" leading to higher jury awards, broader definitions of liability, other effects of legal system abuse and societal trends referred to as social inflation. In recent periods, these estimates have been impacted by reserve developments related to Florida personal injury protection (“PIP”) coverage. See the risk factor below titled “Kemper has a significant concentration of personal automobile insurance business in California and Florida, and negative developments in the regulatory, legal or economic conditions in these states may adversely affect the Company’s profitability.
The process of estimating property and casualty insurance reserves is complex and imprecise. The reserves established by the Company are inherently uncertain estimates and could prove to be inadequate to cover its ultimate losses and expenses. The estimate of the ultimate cost of claims for insured events that have occurred must take into consideration many factors that are dependent on the outcome of future events associated with the reporting, investigation and settlement of claims. The impacts on the Company’s estimates of property and casualty insurance reserves from these factors are difficult to assess accurately. A change in any one or more of the factors, such as that relating to Florida PIP coverage, will likely result in a projected ultimate loss that is different than the previous projected ultimate loss and may have a material impact on the Company’s estimates. For example, increases in the estimates of ultimate losses and LAE will decrease earnings, while decreases in these estimates will increase earnings, as reported by the Company in the results of its operations for the periods in which the changes to the estimates are made. See MD&A, “Critical Accounting Estimates,” under the caption “Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses” for a discussion of the Company’s reserving process and the factors considered by the Company’s actuaries in estimating the Company’s Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves.
If the Company is unable to charge competitive yet profitable rates to its customers, the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
The Company considers trends in the severity and frequency of claims and other factors when determining the premium rates to charge for its property and casualty insurance products. An unanticipated change in any one or more of these factors or trends, as well as a change in competitive conditions, may result in inadequate premium rates charged for insurance policies issued by Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries in the future. Typically there is a time lag between when changes in frequency and severity are identified and when rate changes are approved, implemented and earned in. Material changes in frequency and severity and the time lag between when rates are approved, implemented and earned into the Company’s results of operations may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s operations. Because of restrictions placed on the Company’s ability to increase premium rates in certain states, including California, a pricing inadequacy may continue for a prolonged period. These pricing inadequacies have had a material impact on the Company’s operating results in recent periods and may impact operating results in future periods. If the Company overestimates the severity or frequency of claims and other
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factors in determining the rates to charge for insurance products, the rates for the Company’s products could be noncompetitive and result in loss of revenue and market share.
Catastrophe losses could materially and adversely affect the Company’s results of operations, liquidity and/or financial condition.
Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries are subject to claims arising out of catastrophes that may have a significant effect on their results of operations, liquidity and financial condition. Catastrophes can be caused by various events, including, but not limited to, hurricanes, tornadoes, windstorms, earthquakes, hailstorms, explosions, severe winter weather, wildfires and pandemics, and may also include man-made events, such as cyber events, terrorist attacks, and hazardous material spills. The incidence, frequency and severity of catastrophes are inherently unpredictable and may be impacted by the uncertain effects of climate change, which could cause increases in hurricanes, floods, wildfires, and other risks that could produce losses affecting our business. The extent of the Company’s losses from a catastrophe is a function of both the total amount of its insured exposure in the geographic area affected by the event and the severity of the event. In recent periods, the Company has experienced significant catastrophe losses relating to tropical storm activity as well as rain and hail events. The effects of inflation could increase the severity of claims resulting from a catastrophe. For example, in recent periods, the effects of inflation, including as a result of post-event damage surge, have increased catastrophe losses, and this could continue in the future. Furthermore, the Company could experience more than one severe catastrophic event in any given period.
The property and casualty insurance subsidiaries use catastrophe modeling tools developed by third parties to project their potential exposure to property damage resulting from certain types of catastrophic events under various scenarios. These models are based on various assumptions and judgments which may turn out to be wrong or materially different than our actual results. The actual impact of one or more catastrophic events could adversely and materially differ from these projections.
Kemper’s life insurance subsidiaries are particularly exposed to risks of catastrophic mortality, such as pandemics or other events that result in large numbers of deaths. For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company experienced increased mortality that had an adverse impact on our Life business. In addition, the occurrence of a pandemic or other catastrophes in a concentrated geographic area could have a severe disruptive effect on the Company’s workforce and business operations. The likelihood and severity of such events cannot be predicted and are difficult to estimate.
Changes in the availability and cost of catastrophe reinsurance and in the ability of reinsurers to meet their obligations could result in Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries retaining more risk and could adversely and materially affect the Company’s results of operations, financial condition and/or liquidity.
Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries seek to reduce their exposure to catastrophe losses through the purchase of catastrophe reinsurance. Catastrophe reinsurance does not relieve these subsidiaries of their direct liability to their policyholders. As long as the reinsurers meet their obligations, the net liability for each subsidiary is limited to the amount of risk it retains. While Kemper’s subsidiaries’ principal reinsurers are each rated “A-” or better by A.M. Best at the time reinsurance is purchased, the Company cannot be certain that reinsurers will pay the amounts due from them either now, in the future, or on a timely basis. A reinsurer’s insolvency or inability to make payments under the terms of its reinsurance agreement could materially and adversely affect the Company’s financial position, results of operations and liquidity.
In addition, market conditions beyond the Company’s control determine the availability and cost of the reinsurance protection that Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries may purchase. A decrease in the amount of reinsurance coverage that these subsidiaries purchase generally should increase their risk of a more severe loss. If the amount of available reinsurance is reduced, the cost to obtain reinsurance may increase or Kemper’s subsidiaries may be unable to obtain sufficient reinsurance on acceptable terms, which could adversely affect their ability to write future insurance policies or result in their retaining more risk with respect to those policies.
The extent to which Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries can manage their catastrophe exposure through underwriting strategies may be limited by law or regulatory action and could adversely and materially affect the Company’s results of operations, financial condition and/or liquidity.
Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries also manage their exposure to catastrophe losses through underwriting strategies such as reducing exposures in, or withdrawing from, catastrophe-prone areas, establishing underwriting guidelines, and setting appropriate rates, deductibles, exclusions and policy limits. The extent to which Kemper’s subsidiaries can manage their exposure through these strategies may be limited by law or regulatory action. For example, laws and regulations may limit the rate or timing at which insurers may not renew insurance policies in catastrophe-prone areas or require insurers to participate in wind pools and joint underwriting associations. Generally, participation in these pools and associations is based
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on an insurer’s market share determined on a state-wide basis. Accordingly, even though Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries may not incur a direct insured loss as a result of managing direct catastrophe exposures, they may incur indirect losses from required participation in pools and associations. In addition, laws and regulations requiring prior approval of policy forms and premium rates may limit the ability of Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries to increase rates or deductibles on a timely basis, which may result in additional losses or lower returns than otherwise would have occurred in an unregulated market.
Risks Relating to Estimating Life Insurance Reserves
Estimating future policyholder benefits for determining life insurance reserves is inherently uncertain, and the Company’s results of operations may be materially impacted if the Company’s Life Insurance Reserves are insufficient.
The estimates of future policyholder benefits are based on the Company’s assessment of the facts and circumstances known to it at the time and are estimating losses many years into the future. Significant assumption inputs to the calculation of the liability for future policyholder benefits include mortality, lapses, and discount rates (both accretion and current).
These estimates can be inaccurate or may change over time due to many variables, including changes driven by the evolving legal and regulatory landscape and economic, technological, and other environmental conditions in which the Company operates. In recent periods, these estimates have been impacted by the effect the COVID-19 pandemic and the related governmental responses have had on certain of these variables. See the risk factor below titled “The impact of COVID-19 and related economic conditions could materially affect Kemper’s results of operations, financial position and/or liquidity.”
The process of estimating life insurance reserves is complex and imprecise. The reserves established by the Company are inherently uncertain estimates and could prove to be inadequate. The estimates underlying future policyholder benefits must take into consideration many factors that are dependent on the outcome of future events including, but not limited to, the reporting and settlement of claims and policyholder behavior. Certain events may not occur until many years in the future so the impacts on the Company’s estimates of life insurance reserves from these factors are difficult to assess accurately. A change in any one or more of the factors is likely to result in projected future policyholder benefits that are different than the previous projections and may have a material impact on the Company’s estimates. Increases in the estimates of future policyholder benefits will decrease earnings, while decreases in these estimates will increase earnings, as reported by the Company in the results of its operations for the periods in which the changes to the estimates are made. See MD&A, “Critical Accounting Estimates,” under the caption “Life Insurance Reserves” for a discussion of the Company’s reserving process and the factors considered by the Company’s actuaries in estimating the Company’s Life Insurance Reserves.
Risks Relating to Competition
A downgrade in the ratings of Kemper or its insurance subsidiaries below A- could materially and adversely affect the Company.
Third-party rating agencies assess the financial strength and rate the claims-paying ability of insurance companies based on criteria established by the rating agencies. Third-party ratings are important competitive factors in the insurance industry. Financial strength ratings are used to assess the financial strength and quality of insurers. Ratings agencies may downgrade the ratings of Kemper and/or its insurance subsidiaries or require Kemper to retain more capital in its insurance businesses to maintain existing ratings following developments that they deem negative. This can include factors directly related to the Company, such as an increase in the catastrophic risk retained by Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries, or developments in industry or general economic conditions. A downgrade by A.M. Best in the ratings of Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries below A- could result in a substantial loss of business if independent agents and brokers or policyholders move to other companies with higher claims-paying and financial strength ratings. Any substantial loss of business could materially and adversely affect the financial condition and results of operations of such subsidiaries. A downgrade in Kemper’s credit rating by Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”), Moody’s Investors Services (“Moody’s”) or Fitch Ratings (“Fitch”) may reduce Kemper’s ability to cost-effectively access the capital markets or may increase the cost to refinance existing debt.
The insurance industry is highly competitive, making it difficult to grow profitability and within expectations of investors.
The Company’s insurance businesses face significant competition, and their ability to compete is affected by a variety of issues relative to others in the industry, such as management effectiveness, product pricing, service quality, ease of doing business, innovation, financial strength and name recognition. Additionally, in recent years, various types of investors have increasingly sought to participate in the insurance industry. Well-capitalized new entrants to the property and casualty insurance industry, or existing competitors that receive substantial infusions of capital or access to third-party capital, provide increasing competition,
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which may adversely impact our business and profitability. Competitive success is based on many factors, including, but not limited to, the following:
Competitiveness of prices charged for insurance policies;
Sophistication of pricing segmentation;
Design and introduction of insurance products to meet emerging consumer trends;
Ability to attract and retain experienced industry talent;
Selection and retention of agents and other business partners;
Compensation paid to agents;
Underwriting discipline;
Selectiveness of sales markets;
Effectiveness of marketing materials and name recognition;
Product and technological innovation;
Effectiveness of online servicing platforms;
Ability to settle claims timely, efficiently, and without incurring extra-contractual liability;
Ability to detect and prevent fraudulent insurance claims;
Effectiveness of deployment and use of information technology across all aspects of operations;
Ability to control operating expenses;
Financial strength ratings; and
Quality of services provided to, and ease of doing business with, independent agents, brokers, or policyholders.
The inability to compete effectively in any of the Company’s insurance businesses could materially reduce the Company’s customer base and revenues and could materially and adversely affect the future results and financial condition of the Company.
See “Competition” in Item 1 of Part I for more information on the competitive rankings in the property and casualty insurance markets and the life insurance markets, respectively, in the United States.
Risks Relating to Legal and Regulatory Environment
Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries are subject to significant regulation, and the evolving legal and regulatory landscape in which they operate could result in increased operating costs, reduced profitability and limited growth.
Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries operate under an extensive insurance regulatory system. Current laws and regulations affect a wide variety of matters, including policy forms, premium rates, licensing, market conduct, trade practices, claims handling practices, reserve and loss ratio requirements, investment standards, statutory capital and surplus requirements, restrictions on the payment of dividends, approvals of transactions involving a change in control of one or more insurance companies, restrictions on transactions among affiliates, climate change, and consumer privacy and data security. Pre-approval requirements often restrict or delay actions to implement premium rate changes for insurance policies, or to introduce new, or make changes to existing, policy forms and many other actions. These delays can adversely impact Kemper’s business, especially where external factors, such as inflation, may result in a pricing imbalance for the Company’s insurance products.
Insurance regulators conduct periodic examinations of Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries and can suspend or delay operations or licenses, require corrective actions, and impose penalties or other remedies available for compliance failures. For a more detailed discussion of the regulations applicable to Kemper’s subsidiaries and related emerging developments, see “Regulation” in Item 1.
These laws and regulations, and their application by regulators and courts, are subject to continuous interpretation and revision. The legal and regulatory landscape within which Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries conduct their businesses is often unpredictable. As industry practices and regulatory, judicial, political, social and other conditions change, new issues may emerge. These changes and emerging issues could adversely affect Kemper’s business in a variety of ways, including, for example, by expanding coverages beyond the underwriting intent, increasing the number or size of claims increasing the likelihood of class-action suits and other legislative and judicial actions, accelerating the payment of claims, repealing or weakening tort reforms or otherwise adding to operational costs or adversely affecting the Company’s competitive advantages. Practices in the industry or within the Company that were once considered approved, compliant and reasonable may suddenly be deemed unacceptable by virtue of a court or regulatory ruling or changes in regulatory enforcement policies and practices. It is not possible for the Company to predict such shifts in legal or regulatory enforcement or to accurately estimate the impact they may have on the Company and its operations.
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One area where the legal and regulatory landscape experienced significant change is in connection with the mandated use of death verification databases by life insurance companies. A majority of states now have laws requiring insurers to proactively use such databases, including the Social Security Administration’s Death Master File (the “DMF”), in order to ascertain if an insured may be deceased. Kemper cannot predict whether additional states will enact similar legislation. These laws require the insurer to initiate the claims process even though the insureds’ beneficiaries have not submitted a claim and the insurer was otherwise unaware of the insured’s death. In a related development, many states expanded their unclaimed property laws, particularly as they relate to life insurance proceeds, and have examined life insurance companies with respect to the reporting and remittance of such proceeds under these laws. The push to alter practices previously considered lawful and appropriate relative to both claims handling and remittance of life insurance proceeds has led to the Company’s involvement in compliance audits, market conduct examinations and litigation. The Company has a comprehensive process in place to compare life insurance records against the DMF and other databases to determine if any of its insureds may be deceased. See Note 2, “Summary of Accounting Policies and Accounting Changes” to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.
In addition, there is increased legislative and regulatory focus on cybersecurity and on amendments to state holding company laws that expand the oversight and examination powers of insurance regulators beyond licensed insurance companies to include non-insurance affiliates and their organizations as a whole, particularly with respect to enterprise risk. See the discussion of these matters under “Regulation” in Item 1.
These developments and significant changes in, or new interpretations of, existing laws and regulations could make it more expensive for Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries to conduct and grow their businesses which could materially impact the Company’s operating results.
Kemper has a significant concentration of personal automobile insurance business in California and Florida, and negative developments in the regulatory, legal or economic conditions in these states may adversely affect the Company’s profitability.
California and Florida represented 71% of the Company’s total personal automobile insurance gross written premiums in 2023. Consequently, the dynamic nature of regulatory, legal, competitive and economic conditions in these states affects Kemper’s revenues and profitability. For example, in Florida, recent court decisions were unfavorable to the insurance industry relating to Florida PIP coverage and have resulted in increased severity in PIP coverage and significant adverse loss and LAE reserve development in 2023. Significant legislative changes relating to Florida PIP coverage have recently become effective, but it is too early to determine the ultimate impact of these changes. Further, both California and Florida have regulations that limit the after-tax return on underwriting profit allowed for an insurer. Changes in any of these conditions could negatively impact the Company's results of operations.
Legal and regulatory proceedings are unpredictable and could produce one or more unexpected outcomes that could materially and adversely affect the Company’s financial results for any given period.
Kemper and its subsidiaries are from time to time involved in lawsuits, regulatory inquiries and other legal proceedings arising out of the ordinary course of their businesses. Some of these proceedings may involve matters particular to Kemper or one or more of its subsidiaries, while others may pertain to industry business practices. Some lawsuits may seek class action status that, if granted, could expose the Company to potentially significant liability by virtue of the size of the punitive classes. In addition, the Company’s insurance subsidiaries are subject to litigation relating to claims handling practices in connection with otherwise routine claims, including actions that make allegations of bad faith and seek extra-contractual damages. These matters often raise difficult factual and legal issues and are subject to uncertainties and complexities. The outcomes of these matters are difficult to predict, and the amounts or ranges of potential loss at particular stages in the proceedings are in most cases difficult or impossible to ascertain. Even where the possibility of an adverse outcome is remote under traditional legal analysis, juries sometimes substitute their subjective views in place of facts and established legal principles. Given the unpredictability of the legal and regulatory landscape in which the Company operates, there can be no assurance that one or more of these matters will not produce a result that could materially and adversely affect the Company’s financial results for any given period.
For information about the Company’s pending legal proceedings, see Note 28, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Changes in the availability of insurance coverage or in the ability of insurers to meet their obligations could result in the Company being exposed to significant losses.
Kemper maintains insurance coverage to limit its risk exposure to certain perils, including cybersecurity, errors and omissions, directors and officers liability insurance, fiduciary, insurance company professional liability and other financial indemnity coverages. The market for certain of these coverages has tightened over recent periods and the availability of these coverages could be significantly reduced in the future. There is no guarantee that if coverage is available it will be in an amount sufficient to cover the losses of one or more covered incidents or on terms that Kemper finds acceptable. An insurer’s insolvency or inability to make payments under the insurance coverage it provides to Kemper could also result in Kemper being exposed to significant losses.
The Company could be adversely affected by future changes in U.S. Federal or Bermuda income tax laws.
Changes to tax laws or interpretation of such laws could increase Kemper’s corporate tax and reduce earnings. It is possible that tax law could be changed through a technical corrections bill or with entirely new legislation or be interpreted by regulatory authorities in a manner different than the Company’s interpretation. It is difficult to predict whether there will be any tax law changes, guidance issued by tax authorities or other interpretations which would have a material adverse effect on our business or financial condition, as the impact of proposals on our business can vary substantially depending upon the specific changes or further guidance made and how the changes or guidance are implemented by the taxing authorities.
If our controls designed to ensure compliance with guidelines, policies and legal and regulatory standards are not effective, the Company could be adversely affected.
Kemper’s business is highly dependent on its ability to engage on a real-time basis in a large number of insurance underwriting, claim processing and investment activities, and these are highly sophisticated, complicated and constantly evolving. These activities are frequently subject to internal guidelines and policies, as well as legal and regulatory standards. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. If the Company’s controls are not effective (including with respect to the prevention or identification of misconduct by employees or others with whom we do business), it could lead to financial loss, unanticipated risk exposure (including underwriting, credit and investment risk), errors in financial reporting, litigation (including actions seeking extra-contractual damages), regulatory proceedings or damage to our reputation.
Risks Relating to Security of Personal Data, Availability of Critical Systems, and Technology Initiatives
Failure to protect against cyber attacks or other exposures that compromise data, including personal data, held by the Company could result in business interruption, legal and consulting fees, regulatory penalties, litigation, lost business, reputational harm, and other liabilities and expenses.
Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries obtain, process and store large amounts of data, including personal data, for various business purposes, including marketing, policy origination, claims and payment processing, and competitive differentiation. The data has significant value and Kemper is regularly targeted by cyber attacks seeking to misappropriate the information. Cyber attacks feature increasing sophistication and frequency and include the use of viruses, ransomware, spyware and other malware and infiltration methods. In addition, the Company has exposure through equipment and system failure and as a result of the conduct of our employees and contractors (through inadvertent error, negligence or intentional misconduct). These exposures can create or increase the Company’s vulnerability to the loss or misuse of its data. The Company uses an array of security measures, with policies and procedures designed to secure this information and the Company’s data systems. Notwithstanding these efforts, the Company’s data systems, have been breached or otherwise exposed in the past and remain vulnerable to future security breaches or other exposures. Successful breaches or other exposures could result in data loss, business interruption, reputational damage, ransom demands, investigations and litigation. The Company has been and will continue to be exposed to damages, regulatory penalties and other liabilities, reputational risk and significant increases in compliance and litigation costs as a result of these occurrences, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Kemper’s business operations rely on third parties, which are inherently prone to technology and cybersecurity risks outside of our direct control.
Kemper relies on third parties to provide services that are essential to business operations, such as policy origination, claims processing, procurement, payments, back-office functions, and IT hosting. The software, systems and services provided by our third-party providers may not meet our expectations, contain errors or weaknesses, become compromised or experience breaches or outages. The Company’s ability to prevent or remediate such an occurrence is limited. A failure of such third-party
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systems to perform effectively, maintain information security, or provide uninterrupted service and access to those systems, could materially adversely affect Kemper’s business. For example, the Company could be prevented from conducting business functions, including the timely payment and/or processing of claims, or the information of customers could be compromised. Any such failures could adversely impact the ability to serve existing customers and attract new business, and could create regulatory and litigation exposure.
We are subject to extensive cybersecurity and privacy regulation through policies and requirements imposed by state and federal authorities. These policies and regulations are complex, difficult to implement and sometimes contradictory. A finding that the Company has breached these regulations could result in litigation, fines, and expenses that materially adversely impact financial condition or results of operations.
Kemper operates under multiple cybersecurity and privacy regulations, imposed at both the state and federal level. While Kemper seeks to comply with each of those mandates, frequent and recent changes in the legal and regulatory environment create a difficulty in implementation, a lack of clarity and some requirements that may be overlapping or inconsistent. These difficulties increase the risk that the Company will be subject to regulatory proceedings, litigation, fines, and other adverse consequences that may have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
Cybersecurity events, business interruptions or other exposures may cause potential deterioration in Kemper’s reputation with an adverse impact financial condition or results of operations.
Kemper’s business depends on its reputation with agents and customers. The Company or its third party services providers may experience cybersecurity or business disruption events beyond our control that could affect our reputation or our corporate or brand image. It may be difficult to control or effectively manage negative publicity or regulatory consequences. Negative events and publicity or regulatory action could quickly and materially damage perceptions of Kemper and its business, which, in turn, could negatively impact the Company through loss of customers or agents, loss of business opportunities, employee retention or other difficulties.
Failure to maintain the availability of critical systems could result in business interruption, lost business, reputational harm, penalties and other costs.
The Company’s business operations rely on the continuous availability of its own computer systems, systems and software hosted by vendors, and computer systems used by third party administrators and contractors working on behalf of the Company. Certain technology-based service providers provide a sizable portion of our IT infrastructure, platforms software and related IT services. From time to time these systems have been, and may again be, adversely affected or disrupted by cyber attacks, other data breaches, natural and man-made catastrophes, human action or error or other significant events. The failure of the Company, or its third party administrators or other business partners, to maintain business continuity in the wake of such events may prevent the timely performance of critical processes across its operations, including, for example, insurance policy administration, claims processing, billing, payment processing, treasury and investment operations and payroll and other employer-related functions. These failures could result in significant loss of business, increased costs, fines and other adverse consequences.
If Kemper is unable to send or accept electronic payments, our business and financial results could be adversely affected.
The Company relies increasingly on electronic payments from policyholders, including, but not limited to, payment by credit and debit cards. Kemper’s ability to use electronic payments depends on its ability to comply with applicable laws and regulations and with the rules of the various payment networks. Failure to maintain compliance with laws and industry rules and regulations governing such transactions could result in additional costs and damages. For example, in the event of non-compliance with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, an information security framework for organizations that handle cardholder information for the major debit, credit, prepaid, and other payment card methods, Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries could be prohibited from collecting premium payments from customers by way of such methods and be subject to significant fines.
Technology initiatives could present significant economic and competitive challenges to the Company. Failure to complete and implement such initiatives in a timely manner could result in the loss of business and incurrence of internal use software development costs that may not be recoverable.
Data and analytics play an increasingly important role in the insurance industry. The Company may periodically initiate multi-year technology projects to enhance operations or replace systems. While technology developments can facilitate the use and enhance the value of data and analytics, streamline business processes and ultimately reduce the cost of operations, technology
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initiatives can present significant economic and organizational challenges to the Company and potential short-term cost and implementation risks. In addition, projections of expenses and implementation schedules could change materially and costs could escalate over time, while the ultimate utility of a technology initiative could deteriorate over time or system development projects may not deliver the benefits or perform as expected. If the Company does not effectively and efficiently manage and upgrade our technology portfolio, or if the costs of doing so are higher than expected, the Company’s ability to provide competitive services to, and conduct business with, new and existing customers in a cost effective manner and the Company’s ability to implement our strategic initiatives could be adversely impacted.
Due to the highly-regulated nature of the financial services industry, the Company also faces rising costs and competing time constraints in adapting technology to meet compliance requirements of new and proposed regulations. The costs to develop and implement systems to replace the Company’s existing systems and to comply with new regulatory requirements as needed are expected to be material. Due to the complexities involved, there can be no assurances that new system development and implementation projects will be successful, that the costs for such projects will not exceed estimates and that the incurred costs will be recoverable. Furthermore, failure to implement replacement systems in a timely manner could result in loss of business from the Company’s delay or inability to design and introduce new insurance products that meet emerging consumer needs and competitive trends.
Risks Relating to Investments
The Company’s investment portfolio is exposed to a variety of risks that may negatively impact net investment income, the change in fair value of equity and convertible securities and cause realized and unrealized losses.
The Company maintains a diversified investment portfolio that is exposed to significant financial and capital market risks, including interest rate (risk-free and spread), equity price, and liquidity, as well as risks from changes in tax laws and regulations and other risks from changes in general economic conditions.
The interest rate environment has a significant impact on the Company’s financial results and position. An increase in interest rates or credit spreads generally reduces the carrying value of the Company’s investment portfolio, particularly fixed income securities, and limited liability investment companies and limited partnerships accounted for under the equity method of accounting (“Equity Method Limited Liability Investments”) that invest in distressed and mezzanine debt of other companies that exhibit debt-like characteristics. A decline in interest rates would adversely affect the Company’s investment income as it invests cash in new investments that may yield less than the portfolio’s average rate. In a declining interest rate environment, borrowers may seek to refinance their borrowings at lower rates and, accordingly, prepay or redeem securities the Company holds as investments more quickly than the Company initially expected. Such prepayment or redemption action may cause the Company to reinvest the redeemed proceeds in lower yielding investments.
Kemper’s Life business writes long duration insurance contracts which are priced in consideration of the interest rate environment. If the Company is not able to purchase investments that match that duration of the liabilities and there is a decline in interest rates, the Company could experience a significant deterioration in results.
The Company invests a portion of its investment portfolio in equity securities, which generally have more volatile returns than fixed income securities and may experience sustained periods of depressed values. There are multiple factors that could negatively impact the performance of the Company’s equity portfolio, including general economic conditions, industry or sector deterioration and issuer-specific concerns. A decline in equity values will result in losses being recognized by the Company in the period such change in fair value occurs, which may be significant. In addition, a decline in equity values may result in a decrease in dividend income.
The nature and cash flow needs of the Company present certain liquidity risks that may impact the return of the investment portfolio. For example, if the Company were to experience several significant catastrophic events over a relatively short period of time, investments may have to be sold in advance of their maturity dates to fund payments to claimants, which could result in realized losses. Additionally, increases in illiquidity in the financial markets may increase uncertainty in the valuations of the Company’s investments. This increases the risk that the fair values reported in the Company’s consolidated financial statements may differ from the actual price that may be obtained in an orderly sales transaction.
The Company has also benefited from certain tax laws related to its investment portfolio, including dividends received deductions and tax-exempt investment income. Changes in tax laws may have a detrimental effect on the after-tax return of the Company’s investment portfolio. A reduction in income tax rates could also reduce the demand for tax-preferenced securities and result in a decline in the value of the Company’s investment portfolio of such securities.
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The Company’s entire investment portfolio is subject to broad risks inherent in the financial markets, including, but not limited to, inflation, regulatory changes, inactive capital markets, governmental and social stability, economic outlooks, unemployment, and recession. Changes to these risks and how the market perceives them may impact the financial performance of the Company’s investments, and in such cases, more securities may require additional subjectivity and management judgment.
Kemper and its insurance subsidiaries are subject to various capital adequacy measurements that are significantly impacted by various characteristics of their invested assets, including, but not limited to, asset type, class, duration and credit rating. The Company’s insurance subsidiaries are also subject to various limitations on the amounts at which they can invest in individual assets or certain asset classes in the aggregate. Asset risk is one factor used by insurance regulators and rating agencies to determine required capital for Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries. Accordingly, a deterioration in the quality of the investments held by Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries or an increase in the investment risk inherent in their investment portfolios could increase capital requirements. See the risk factor below titled “The ability of Kemper to service its debt, pay dividends to its shareholders and/or fund targeted transactions may be materially impacted by lack of timely and/or sufficient dividends received from its subsidiaries.” These factors may inhibit the Company from shifting its investment mix to produce higher returns. The Company is also subject to concentration of investment risk to the extent that the portfolio is heavily invested, at any particular time, in specific asset types, classes, industries, sectors or collateral types, among other defining features. Developments in and the market’s perception of any of these concentrations may exacerbate the negative effects on the Company’s investment portfolio compared to other companies.
The determination of the fair values of the Company’s investments and whether a decline in the fair value of an investment is other-than-temporary are based on management’s judgment and may prove to be materially different than the actual economic outcome.
The Company holds a significant amount of assets without readily available, active, quoted market prices or for which fair value cannot be measured from actively quoted prices. These assets are generally deemed to require a higher degree of judgment in measuring fair value. The assumptions used by management to measure fair values could turn out to be different than the actual amounts that may be realized in an orderly transaction with a willing market participant could be either lower or higher than the Company’s estimates of fair value.
The Company reviews its investment portfolio for factors that may indicate that a decline in the fair value of an investment is other-than-temporary. This evaluation is based on subjective factors, assumptions and estimates and may be materially different than the actual economic outcome, which may result in the Company recognizing additional losses in the future as new information emerges or recognizing losses currently that may never materialize in the future in an orderly transaction with a willing market participant.
Risks Relating to Servicing Debt, Paying Dividends and/or Funding Targeted Transactions
The ability of Kemper to service its debt, pay dividends to its shareholders and/or fund targeted transactions may be materially impacted by lack of timely and/or sufficient dividends received from its subsidiaries.
As a holding company, Kemper depends on the dividend income that it receives from its subsidiaries as a primary source of funds to meet its payment obligations. Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries are subject to regulatory restrictions under insurance laws and regulations that limit their ability to declare and pay dividends. These laws and regulations impose minimum solvency and liquidity requirements on dividends between affiliated companies and require prior notice to, and may require approval from, state insurance regulators before dividends can be paid. In addition, third-party rating agencies monitor statutory capital and surplus levels for capital adequacy. Even though a dividend may be payable without regulatory approval, an insurance subsidiary may forgo paying a dividend to Kemper and retain the capital to maintain or improve ratings or to offset increases in required capital from increases in premium volume or investment risk. The inability of one or more of Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries to pay sufficient dividends to Kemper may materially affect Kemper’s ability to pay its debt obligations on time, pay dividends to its shareholders or undertake funding for targeted transactions.
General Risks Relating to Mergers, Acquisitions, Divestitures, and/or other Strategic Initiatives
The expected benefits and synergies from mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and/or other strategic initiatives may not be realized to the extent anticipated or within the anticipated time frames.
The Company routinely evaluates opportunities for transactions such as mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and/or other strategic initiatives that would enhance its business and align with the Company’s strategic plans. Kemper’s ability to achieve
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the anticipated financial benefits from transactions may not be realized due to any number of factors, including, but not limited to, integration or execution difficulties or failures that may result in substantial disruptions, costs, or delays and adversely affect the Company’s ability to compete, the loss of key agents/brokers, customers or employees, unexpected or underestimated liabilities, increased costs, fees, expenses and charges related to transactions, or may be delayed by factors outside of the Company’s control. These adverse events could result in a decrease in the estimated fair value of goodwill or other intangible assets established as a result of such transactions, triggering an impairment. In addition, the Company’s strategic initiatives, such as the establishment of Kemper Reciprocal, may not perform as expected or deliver the expected benefits to the Company. Failure to successfully and timely realize the anticipated benefits of these transactions or initiatives could have a negative impact on Kemper’s financial condition, profitability, and results from operations.
Risks Relating to General Economic and Market Factors
Changes in the global economy and capital markets could adversely impact the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.
Significant changes in the economic and capital market environment could adversely affect consumer demands for the Company’s products, results of operations, investment returns and financial condition. The following are examples of economic market conditions that could adversely affect the Company’s financial condition, liquidity, and results of operations:
Volatility in debt and equity markets
Changes in interest rates
Increases in inflation
Reduced availability of credit
Economic downturns
Increased unemployment and reduced consumer spending
Stressed conditions, volatility and disruptions in global capital markets or financial asset classes could adversely affect our investment portfolio and the Company’s ability to access the capital markets.
The Company’s deferred tax assets could become impaired which would adversely impact the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.
The realization of deferred tax assets depends on the recognition of sufficient taxable income and character. If future events differ from our current forecasts, it is possible we could determine that some or all of our gross deferred tax assets cannot be realized and a deferred tax valuation allowance would be recorded as an adverse charge.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments.
The Company has no unresolved staff comments issued more than 180 days before December 31, 2023, the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 1C.    Cybersecurity.
The Company has developed an information security program to assess, identify, and monitor cybersecurity risks. Each year, the Company assesses cybersecurity risks arising from the operating environment. In developing the assessment process, the Company reviews guidance from national standards organizations such as the NIST and the Center for Internet Security. In evaluating the risks identified as a part of this assessment, the Company’s information security team considers the likelihood and severity of the risk and the possible impact of the risk on the Company, its customers, and its employees. These risks are then monitored by the Company’s information security team.
The Company conducts periodic testing of software, hardware, defensive capabilities, and other information security systems. Tests are conducted by both internal security teams and third-party consultants. In developing the testing procedures, the Company considers its individual risks and industry standards. Testing procedures are supplemented by executive cyber threat exercises and employee training. Executive exercises such as “tabletops” are used to develop and refine the Company’s incident response plans. Employees undergo security awareness training annually and upon hire.
As a part of its information security program, the Company addresses cyber risks posed by its relationships with third-party service and application providers. The Company assesses third parties as a part of the procurement process, including through pre-acquisition diligence. Contractual provisions based on regulatory requirements and industry standards are used in the
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contracting process, and the Company conducts on-going performance monitoring of key vendors. Security audits are also performed on certain vendors to review compliance with contractual requirements and industry standards.
The Company maintains an incident response plan that includes procedures for evaluating and addressing a cybersecurity event. The initial impact of each cybersecurity event is evaluated by a designated team using pre-established risk criteria. If an event meets certain parameters, it is escalated to a cross-functional core team of executives, including the Company’s Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”) and designated internal legal counsel. The Company has a cyber incident disclosure committee that evaluates and considers whether public disclosure of an event is required. The incident response plan identifies certain third-party advisors, consultants and legal counsel who have been designated to assist if necessary. The plan contains procedures for escalating cybersecurity incidents to the Board of Directors.
The Company’s CISO is primarily responsible for management of the Company’s information security program. The Company’s current CISO has significant experience in information security, as do members of the information security team. The Company participates in certain industry cybersecurity intelligence and risk sharing organizations, such as FS-ISAC and the Domestic Security Alliance Council.
Kemper’s information security program is an element of the Company’s broader Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) framework. This framework employs a management committee structure to review technology, compliance, and operational risks. The Company’s Enterprise Risk Committee (“ERC”), composed of the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Risk Officer, all executive vice presidents and the head of internal audit, meets at least quarterly to oversee the Company’s ERM framework. This committee monitors the implementation of the ERM framework and makes modifications to the program from time to time as it believes appropriate. The ERC has several subcommittees that oversee particular risks, including cyber and information security.
Through its role in providing oversight for the Company’s ERM framework, the Risk Committee of the Kemper Board of Directors (the “Risk Committee”) provides oversight of the Company’s information security program. On a quarterly basis, management discusses Kemper’s information security program, cybersecurity risks, and related developments with the Risk Committee. The Risk Committee periodically reviews and evaluates information security and cybersecurity risks and provides oversight of events that have been escalated as a part of the incident response plan.
Item 2.    Properties.
Owned Properties
Kemper’s subsidiaries together own and occupy eleven buildings located in seven states consisting of approximately 337,000 square feet in the aggregate. Kemper’s subsidiaries hold, solely for investment purposes, additional properties that are not occupied by Kemper or its subsidiaries. Included in Kemper’s owned and occupied properties is a corporate data processing facility with aggregate square footage of approximately 110,000 square feet.
Leased Facilities
The Company leases four floors, or approximately 92,000 square feet, in an 83-story office building in Chicago, Illinois, for its corporate headquarters. The lease expires on December 31, 2033. Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries lease facilities with an aggregate square footage of approximately 624,000 at 92 locations in eleven states. The latest expiration date of the existing leases is in June 2031. Kemper’s life insurance subsidiaries lease facilities with aggregate square footage of approximately 379,000 at 96 locations in 23 states. The latest expiration date of the existing leases is in September 2029.
The properties described above are in good condition. The properties utilized in the Company’s operations consist of facilities suitable for general office space, call centers and data processing operations. Leased properties with aggregate square footage of 335,000 are not currently utilized in the Company's operations and are not expected to be utilized by the Company throughout the remainder of their respective lease terms.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings.
Proceedings
Information concerning pending legal proceedings is incorporated herein by reference to Note 28, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Market Information
Kemper’s common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol of “KMPR.”
Holders
As of January 31, 2024, the number of record holders of Kemper’s common stock was 2,575.
Dividends
Quarterly information pertaining to payment of dividends on Kemper’s common stock is presented below.
DOLLARS PER SHAREThree Months EndedYear Ended
Mar 31, 2023Jun 30, 2023Sep 30, 2023Dec 31, 2023Dec 31, 2023
Cash Dividends Paid to Shareholders (per share)$0.31 $0.31 $0.31 $0.31 $1.24 
Three Months EndedYear Ended
DOLLARS PER SHAREMar 31, 2022Jun 30, 2022Sep 30, 2022Dec 31, 2022Dec 31, 2022
Cash Dividends Paid to Shareholders (per share)$0.31 $0.31 $0.31 $0.31 $1.24 
Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries are subject to various state insurance laws that may restrict the ability of these insurance subsidiaries to pay dividends without prior regulatory approval. See MD&A, “Liquidity and Capital Resources” and Note 17, “Shareholders’ Equity,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information on Kemper’s ability and intent to pay dividends.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On May 6, 2020, Kemper’s Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to an additional $200.0 million of Kemper common stock, in addition to the $133.3 million remaining under the August 6, 2014 authorization, bringing the remaining share repurchase authorization to approximately $333.3 million. As of December 31, 2023, the remaining share repurchase authorization was $171.6 million under the repurchase program.
During the years ended 2023 and 2022, Kemper did not repurchase any of its common stock. During 2021, Kemper repurchased and retired approximately 2,085,000 shares of its common stock under its share repurchase authorization for an aggregate cost of $161.7 million and an average cost per share of $77.58.
These purchases were made in the open market in accordance with applicable federal securities laws, including Rule 10b-18 and Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
27


Kemper Common Stock Performance Graph
The following graph assumes $100 invested on December 31, 2018 in (i) Kemper common stock, (ii) the S&P MidCap 400 Index and (iii) the S&P Supercomposite Insurance Index, in each case with dividends reinvested. Kemper is a constituent of each of these two indices.
The comparisons in the graph below are based on historical data and are not intended to forecast the possible future performance of Kemper common stock.
2118
Company / Index201820192020202120222023
Kemper Corporation$100.00 $118.29 $119.29 $92.92 $79.73 $80.96 
S&P MidCap 400 Index100.00 126.20 143.44 178.95 155.58 181.15 
S&P Supercomposite Insurance Index100.00 128.53 126.87 164.76 180.12 198.03 
28


Item 6.     Selected Financial Data.
[Reserved]
29


MDA Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Index to
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Summary of Results
Catastrophes
Loss and LAE Reserve Development
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance
Life Insurance
Investment Results
Investment Quality and Concentrations
Investments in Limited Liability Companies and Limited Partnerships
Insurance, Interest and Other Expenses
Income Taxes
Supplemental Financial Information
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Contractual Obligations
Critical Accounting Estimates
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

30

Kemper Corporation and Subsidiaries
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
SUMMARY OF RESULTS
As discussed in Note 2, “Summary of Accounting Policies and Accounting Changes”, to the Consolidated Financial Statements effective January 1, 2023, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update No. 2018-12, “Targeted Improvements to the Accounting for Long-Duration Contracts and related amendments” (“LDTI”) under the modified retrospective method. Prior period amounts in the financial statements have been adjusted to reflect application of the new guidance. Related financial data shown in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations also have been adjusted.
In the third quarter of 2023, the Company announced that it will exit the Preferred Property and Casualty Insurance business and will actively reduce the business beginning in third quarter 2023, with all policies being non-renewed or canceled in accordance with applicable state regulations. In connection with the exit, the Company changed its calculation of Adjusted Consolidated Net Loss to exclude the results of the Preferred Property and Casualty Insurance business effective July 1, 2023, since the results are irrelevant to ongoing operations of the Company and do not qualify for discontinued operations under U.S. GAAP. The results of this business, previously reported as a reportable segment, are now reflected as Non-Core Operations and presented as a reconciling item between Segment Adjusted Operating Net Loss and Net Loss. Prior period amounts have been recast to reflect the change in reportable segments and the segment measure of performance.
Net Loss Attributable to Kemper Corporation was $272.1 million ($(4.25) per unrestricted common share) for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to Net Loss Attributable to Kemper Corporation of $286.6 million ($(4.50) per unrestricted common share) for the year ended December 31, 2022.
A reconciliation of Net Loss Attributable to Kemper Corporation to Adjusted Consolidated Net Operating Loss (a non-GAAP financial measure) for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 is presented below.
DOLLARS IN MILLIONS20232022
Change
from 2022
to 2023
2021
Change from 2021
to 2022
Net Loss Attributable to Kemper Corporation
$(272.1)$(286.6)$14.5 $(123.7)$(162.9)
Less:
Income (Loss) from Change in Fair Value of Equity and Convertible Securities$3.7 $(63.1)$66.8 $90.5 $(153.6)
Net Realized Investment (Losses) Gains(14.7)3.4 (18.1)51.2 (47.8)
Impairment Losses(0.9)(20.4)19.5 (8.7)(11.7)
Acquisition and Disposition Related Transaction, Integration, Restructuring and Other Costs(95.0)(61.3)(33.7)(34.7)(26.6)
Debt Extinguishment, Pension Settlement and Other Charges(55.5)(2.9)(52.6)— (2.9)
Goodwill Impairment Charge(45.5)— (45.5)— — 
Non-Core Operations(17.0)(25.9)8.9 (12.5)(13.4)
Adjusted Consolidated Net Operating Loss$(47.2)$(116.4)$69.2 $(209.5)$93.1 
Components of Adjusted Consolidated Net Operating Loss:
Segment Adjusted Net Operating (Loss) Income:
Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance
$(57.1)$(147.4)$90.3 $(196.1)$48.7 
Life Insurance51.8 68.8 (17.0)25.0 43.8 
Total Segment Adjusted Net Operating Loss(5.3)(78.6)73.3 (171.1)92.5 
Corporate and Other Adjusted Net Operating Loss(42.1)(37.8)(4.3)(38.4)0.6 
Less: Net Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest(0.2)— (0.2)— — 
Adjusted Consolidated Net Operating Loss$(47.2)$(116.4)$69.2 $(209.5)$93.1 
31

Kemper Corporation and Subsidiaries
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—(Continued)
SUMMARY OF RESULTS (Continued)
Net Loss attributable to Kemper Corporation
2023 Compared with 2022
Net Loss attributable to Kemper Corporation decreased by $14.5 million in 2023, compared to 2022, due primarily to lower Adjusted Consolidated Net Operating Losses and favorable changes in the Change in Fair Value of Equity and Convertible Securities. These improvements were partially offset by a $55.5 million after-tax noncash charge related to the settlement of the Company’s pension obligations, a $45.5 million after-tax charge from the impairment of the goodwill asset related to the exit of the Preferred Property & Casualty Insurance business and increased Acquisition and Disposition Related Transaction, Integration, Restructuring and Other Costs incurred in connection with the multi-year cost structure optimization initiatives.

Adjusted Consolidated Net Operating Loss decreased by $69.2 million in 2023, compared to 2022, due primarily to an improvement in the Specialty Property & Casualty Segment mostly due to personal automobile insurance driven by higher average earned premiums per exposure resulting from rate increases and lower underlying claim frequency that was partially offset by unfavorable prior year loss and LAE development. The Life Insurance Segment also contributed to the decrease in Adjusted Consolidated Net Operating Loss due primarily to a decrease in net investment income driven by lower returns from equity method limited liability investments.

See MD&A, “Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance” and “Life Insurance,” for discussion of each respective segment’s results. Corporate and Other Adjusted Net Operating Loss increased in 2023, compared to 2022, due primarily to a decrease in Net Investment Income. The loss from Non-Core Operations decreased by $8.9 million in 2023, compared to 2022, mostly due to improvements from Homeowners Insurance that were impacted by higher average earned premium per exposure resulting from rate increases and lower underlying claim frequency.
2022 Compared with 2021
Net Loss attributable to Kemper Corporation increased by $162.9 million in 2022, compared to 2021, due primarily to increased losses from Change in Fair Value of Equity and Convertible Securities, decreased Net Realized Investment Gains, and increased Acquisition and Disposition Related Transaction, Integration, Restructuring and Other Costs, partially offset by lower Adjusted Consolidated Net Operating Losses.
Adjusted Consolidated Net Operating Loss decreased by $93.1 million in 2022, compared to 2021, due primarily to lower Specialty Property & Casualty Segment Insurance Net Operating Loss and higher Life Insurance Segment Net Operating Income, partially offset by higher Non-Core Operations Net Operating Losses.
See MD&A, “Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance” and “Life Insurance,” for discussion of each respective segment’s results. Corporate and Other Net Operating Loss decreased due primarily to increased Net Investment Income. The loss from Non-Core Operations increased by $13.4 million due primarily to higher underlying losses and LAE as a percentage of earned premiums and lower net investment income, partially offset by lower catastrophe losses and lower levels of adverse prior year reserve development.
Revenues
2023 Compared with 2022
Earned Premiums were $4,529.4 million in 2023, compared to $5,213.4 million in 2022, a decrease of $684.0 million. Earned Premiums in the Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance segment decreased by $413.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. Earned Premiums in the Life segment decreased by $183.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. Earned Premiums from Non-Core operations decreased by $86.2 million due primarily to lower volumes resulting from the decision to exit and run-off the business in third quarter 2023 as well as ongoing profit improvement actions. See MD&A, “Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance” and “Life Insurance” for discussion of the changes in each segment’s earned premiums.
Net Investment Income decreased by $2.9 million in 2023 due primarily to lower returns on Equity Method Limited Liability Investments and Equity Securities offset by higher rate earned on Fixed Income Securities.
Income related to Changes in Value of Alternative Energy Partnership Investments was $2.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to a net loss of $19.9 million for the same period in 2022. Tax expense related to the Alternative
32

Kemper Corporation and Subsidiaries
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—(Continued)
SUMMARY OF RESULTS (Continued)
Energy Partnership Investments were $0.5 million, compared to tax benefit of $8.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. This resulted in a net income of $2.4 million and a net loss of $11.9 million attributable to Alternative Energy Partnership Investments for the year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Revenues for 2023 included $3.7 million of Income from Change in Fair Value of Equity and Convertible Securities compared to a loss of $63.1 million from Change in Fair Value of Equity and Convertible Securities in 2022. The improvement was due primarily to the absence of unrealized losses from equity securities.
Net Realized Investment Losses were $18.6 million in 2023, compared to Net Realized Investment Gains of $4.3 million for the same period in 2022 primarily due to fair value changes on derivative transactions.
Impairment Losses were $1.1 million in 2023, compared to Impairment Losses of $25.8 million for the same period in 2022.