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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D. C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended: December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number: 001-14733
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Lithia Motors, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Oregon93-0572810
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
150 N. Bartlett Street,Medford,Oregon97501
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(541) 776-6401
(Registrant’s telephone number including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock without par valueLADThe New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerNon-accelerated filerAccelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
 ☒ ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. 
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicated by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was approximately $8,371,919,000 computed by reference to the last sales price ($304.11) as reported by the New York Stock Exchange for the Registrant’s common stock, as of the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter (June 30, 2023). As of February 23, 2024, there were 27,530,936 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The Registrant has incorporated into Part III of Form 10-K, by reference, portions of its Proxy Statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders.



LITHIA MOTORS, INC.
2023 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item NumberItemPage
None
Item 1C.
Cybersecurity
Not applicable
Results of operations
Liquidity and capital resources
Critical accounting estimates
None
None
Not applicable
Item 16.Form 10-K SummaryNone
SIGNATURES

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PART I

Item 1. Business
As used in this Annual Report, the terms “Lithia,” “Lithia and Driveway,” “LAD,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer collectively to Lithia Motors, Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless otherwise required by the context. Our store operations are conducted by our subsidiaries.

Forward-Looking Statements
Certain statements in this Annual Report, including in the sections entitled “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business” constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the “Safe Harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Generally, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “project,” “outlook,” “target,” “may,” “will,” “would,” “should,” “seek,” “expect,” “plan,” “intend,” “forecast,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “likely,” “goal,” “strategy,” “future,” “maintain,” and “continue” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terms. Examples of forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K include, among others, statements regarding:

Future market conditions, including anticipated car and other sales levels and the supply of inventory
Our business strategy and plans, including our achieving our 2025 Plan and related targets
The growth, expansion, make-up, and success of our network, including our finding accretive acquisitions and acquiring additional stores
Annualized revenues from acquired stores
The growth and performance of our Driveway e-commerce home solution and Driveway Finance Corporation (DFC), their synergies and other impacts on our business and our ability to meet Driveway and DFC-related targets
The impact of sustainable vehicles and other market and regulatory changes on our business
Our capital allocations and uses and levels of capital expenditures in the future
Expected operating results, such as improved store performance, continued improvement of selling, general and administrative expenses (SG&A) as a percentage of gross profit and any projections
Our anticipated financial condition and liquidity, including from our cash and the future availability of our credit facilities, unfinanced real estate, and other financing sources
Our continuing to purchase shares under our share repurchase program
Our compliance with financial and restrictive covenants in our credit facilities and other debt agreements
Our programs and initiatives for employee recruitment, training, and retention
Our strategies and targets for customer retention, growth, market position, operations, financial results, and risk management

Because forward-looking statements relate to the future, they are subject to inherent uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict and many of which are outside of our control. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance, and our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity and development of the industry in which we operate may differ materially from those made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements in this Annual Report. Therefore, you should not rely on any of these forward-looking statements. The risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from estimated or projected results include, without limitation, the factors as discussed in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors, and in Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and, from time to time, in our other filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

Any forward-looking statement made by us in this Annual Report is based only on information currently available to us and speaks only as of the date on which it is made. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.

Business Overview
Lithia Motors, Inc. is one of the largest global automotive retailers providing an array of products and services throughout the vehicle ownership lifecycle. Convenient and hassle-free experiences are offered through our comprehensive network of physical locations, e-commerce platforms, captive finance solutions and other synergistic adjacencies. We have delivered consistent profitable growth in a massive and unconsolidated industry. Our highly
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1


diversified and competitively differentiated design provides us the flexibility and scale to pursue our vision to modernize personal transportation solutions wherever, whenever and however consumers desire. As of December 31, 2023, we operated 344 locations representing 47 brands across the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada.
Year Ended December 31,
2023
Total Revenue
Total Gross Profit
United States
90 %92 %
United Kingdom
%%
Canada
%%

Lithia and Driveway (LAD) offers a wide array of products and services fulfilling the entire vehicle ownership lifecycle including new and used vehicles, finance and insurance products and automotive repair and maintenance. We strive for diversification in our products, services, brands and geographic locations to reduce dependence on any one manufacturer, reduce susceptibility to changing consumer preferences, manage market risk and maintain profitability. Our diversification, along with our operating structure, provides a resilient and nimble business model.

Founded in 1946 and incorporated in Oregon in 1968, we completed our initial public offering in 1996.

Business Strategy
We seek to provide customers choice with a seamless, blended online and physical retail experience, broad selection and access to specialized expertise and knowledge. Our comprehensive network enables us to provide convenient touch points for customers and provide services throughout the vehicle life cycle. We seek to increase market share and optimize profitability by focusing on the consumer experience and applying proprietary performance measurement systems to drive high performance. Our Driveway and GreenCars brands compliment our in-store experiences and provide convenient, simple, and transparent platforms that serve as our e-commerce home solutions. Diversifying our business with Driveway Finance Corporation (DFC), our captive auto finance division, allows us to provide financing solutions for customers and diversify our business model with an adjacent product.

Our long-term strategy to create value for our customers, employees and shareholders includes the following elements:

Driving operational excellence, innovation and diversification
LAD builds magnetic brand loyalty in our 344 stores and with Driveway, our e-commerce home delivery experience, and GreenCars, our electric vehicle learning resource and marketplace. Operational excellence is achieved by focusing the business on convenient and transparent consumer experiences supported by proprietary data science to improve market share, consumer loyalty, and profitability. By promoting an entrepreneurial model with our in-store experiences, we build strong businesses responsive to each of our local markets. Utilizing performance-based action plans, we develop high-performing teams and foster manufacturer relationships.

In response to evolving consumer preferences, we invest in modernization that supports and expands our core business. These digital strategies combine our experienced, knowledgeable workforce with our owned inventory and physical network of stores, enabling us to be agile and adapt to consumer preferences and market specific conditions. Additionally, we systematically explore transformative adjacencies, which are identified to be synergistic and complementary to our existing business such as DFC, our captive auto loan portfolio.

Our investments in modernization are well under way and are taking hold with our teams as they provide digital shopping experiences including finance, contactless test drives and home delivery or curbside pickup for vehicle purchases. Our people and these solutions power our national brands, overlaying our physical footprint in a way that we believe attracts a larger population of digital consumers seeking transparent, empowered, flexible and simple buying and servicing experiences.

Our performance-based culture is geared toward an incentive-based compensation structure for a majority of our personnel. We develop pay plans that are measured based upon various factors such as customer satisfaction, profitability and individual performance metrics. These plans serve to reward team members for creating customer
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loyalty, achieving store potential, developing high-performing talent, meeting and exceeding manufacturer requirements and living our core values.

We have centralized many administrative functions to drive efficiencies and streamline store-level operations. The reduction of administrative functions at our stores allows our local managers to focus on customer-facing opportunities to increase revenues and gross profit. Our operations are supported by regional and corporate management, as well as dedicated training and personnel development programs which allow us to share best practices across our network and develop management talent.

Growth through acquisition and network optimization
Our acquisition growth strategy has been successful both financially and culturally. Our disciplined approach focuses on acquiring new vehicle franchises, which operate in markets ranging from mid-sized regional markets to metropolitan markets. Acquisition of these businesses increases our proximity to consumers throughout North America and the United Kingdom. While we target annual after tax return of more than 15% for our acquisitions, we have averaged over a 25% return by the third year of ownership due to a disciplined approach focusing on accretive, cash flow positive targets at reasonable valuations. In addition to being financially accretive, acquisitions aim to drive network growth that improves our ability to serve customers through vast selection, greater density and access to customers and ability to leverage national branding and advertising.

As we focus on expanding our physical network of stores, one of the criteria we evaluate is a valuation multiple between 3x to 7x of investment in intangibles to estimated annualized adjusted EBITDA, with various factors including location, ability to expand our network and talent considered in determining value. We also target an investment in intangibles as a percentage of annualized revenues in the range of 15% to 30%.

During 2023, we acquired 56 stores and divested eight stores. We invested $1.1 billion, net of floor plan debt, to acquire these stores and we anticipate these acquisitions to add nearly $3.8 billion in annualized revenues.

We regularly optimize and balance our network through strategic divestitures to ensure continued high performance. We believe our disciplined approach provides us with attractive acquisition opportunities and expanded coast-to-coast coverage.

Thoughtful capital allocation
We manage our liquidity and available cash to support our long-term plan focused on growth through acquisitions and investments in our existing business, technology and adjacencies that expand and diversify our business model. Our free cash flow deployment strategy targets an allocation of 65% investment in acquisitions, 25% investment in capital expenditures, innovation, and diversification and 10% in shareholder return in the form of dividends and share repurchases. During 2023, we utilized $230.2 million for capital expenditures investing in our existing business and paid $52.8 million in dividends. As of December 31, 2023, we had available liquidity of $1.7 billion, which was comprised of $825.0 million in cash and $870.4 million availability on our credit facilities. In addition, our unfinanced real estate could provide additional liquidity of approximately $0.4 billion.

Marketing
Lithia & Driveway’s core value, “Earn Customers for Life”, drives our marketing strategy to empower consumers throughout the vehicle ownership lifecycle. To place ease and value at our customers’ fingertips, we are constantly evolving the retail experience where customers can choose transparent, convenient ways to buy, sell, or service their vehicles wherever, whenever, and however they desire.

Our national, regional, and local brands connect with consumers through advertising tailored to the individual brand and market. Utilizing data and omnichannel communications, we strive to create deeper and richer offerings to build lifelong loyalty throughout the vehicle ownership life cycle.

With a vast selection represented by the largest U.S. new and preowned vehicle inventory for sale online, we employ search engine optimization, search engine marketing, online display, retargeting, social advertising, traditional media, and direct marketing to reach consumers.

Most consumers begin their shopping, buying, or selling activity on our store websites, Driveway, and GreenCars. With the importance of keeping consumer communications relevant, based on where they are in the shopping process or lifecycle of ownership, we have built a proprietary customer lifecycle communication platform. In an
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industry where the competition often relies on third parties to manage their customer data, we manage our data internally. This goes beyond automotive needs, allowing us to leverage our customer insights across many revenue streams.

These online channels provide customers with simple, transparent ways to manage their vehicle ownership including search new-and-used inventories, view current pricing, apply incentives and offers, calculate payments for purchase or lease, apply for financing, buy online, sell their vehicle, offering the consumer to schedule service appointments both in store or at home, schedule vehicle pick-up and delivery, and provide us feedback about their experience. In 2023, our unique visitors increased over 30% on a same store basis from 2022.

Driveway, our online experience, puts customers in control of every aspect of their car ownership. They can browse a vast nationwide inventory of new, used, and certified pre-owned vehicles (CPO), then get a vehicle shipped straight to their driveway or pick it up from one of Lithia’s 300+ stores. In 2023, approximately 31.5 million unique users visited Driveway.com, a 46% increase from 2022. We believe no-haggle pricing transparency and a 7-day money-back guarantee make Driveway the better way to buy, sell, finance, or trade in a car online.

With the industry transitioning to more sustainable practices and alternative-fuel vehicles, we are excited that GreenCars, our online education resource for sustainable mobility, had approximately 5.9 million unique visitors in 2023 at GreenCars.com, a 58% increase from 2022. GreenCars is a leading source of knowledge designed to promote the acceleration of electric vehicle (EV) adoption by educating the consumer on such topics as (1) fuel-efficient offerings from model comparisons, (2) personalized incentives, and (3) local rebates to charging network. GreenCars even connects consumers with the largest new-and-preowned inventory for when they are ready to purchase their sustainable vehicle.

Total advertising expense, net of manufacturer credits, was $248.2 million in 2023, $253.6 million in 2022 and $162.2 million in 2021. Over 82% of our advertising spent in 2023 was on digital, social, listings, and one-to-one owner communications. In all of our communications, we seek to convey the promise of a positive customer experience, competitive pricing, and wide selection. Our manufacturer partners influence a significant portion of our advertising expense. Certain advertising and marketing expenditures are offset by manufacturer cooperative programs, which require us to submit requests for reimbursement to manufacturers for qualifying advertising expenditures. These advertising credits are not tied to specific vehicles and are earned as qualifying expenses are incurred. These reimbursements are recognized as a reduction of advertising expense. Manufacturer cooperative advertising credits were $54.2 million in 2023, $46.3 million in 2022 and $35.6 million in 2021.

Franchise Agreements
Each of our stores operates under a separate franchise agreement with the manufacturer of the new vehicle brand it sells.

Typical vehicle franchise agreements specify the locations within a designated market area at which the store may sell vehicles and related products and perform approved services. The designation of the market areas and the allocation of new vehicles among stores are at the discretion of the manufacturer. Franchise agreements do not, however, guarantee exclusivity within a specified territory.

A franchise agreement may impose requirements on the store with respect to:
facilities and equipment;
inventories of vehicles and parts;
minimum working capital;
training of personnel; and
performance standards for market share and customer satisfaction.

Each manufacturer closely monitors compliance with these requirements and requires each store to submit monthly financial statements. Franchise agreements also grant a store the right to use and display manufacturers’ trademarks, service marks and designs in the manner approved by each manufacturer.

We have determined the useful life of a franchise agreement is indefinite, even though certain franchise agreements are renewed after one to six years. In our experience, agreements are routinely renewed without substantial cost and there are legal remedies to help prevent termination. Certain franchise agreements have no termination date. In addition, state franchise laws protect franchised automotive retailers. Under certain laws, a manufacturer may not
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terminate or fail to renew a franchise without good cause or prevent any reasonable changes in the capital structure or financing of a store.

Our typical franchise agreement provides for early termination or non-renewal by the manufacturer upon:
a change of management or ownership without manufacturer consent;
insolvency or bankruptcy of the dealer;
death or incapacity of the dealer/manager;
conviction of a dealer/manager or owner of certain crimes;
misrepresentation of certain sales or inventory information to the manufacturer;
failure to adequately operate the store;
failure to maintain any license, permit or authorization required for the conduct of business;
poor market share; or
low customer satisfaction index scores.

Franchise agreements generally provide for prior written notice before a franchise may be terminated under most circumstances. We also sign master framework agreements with most manufacturers that impose additional requirements. See Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Competition
The retail automotive business is highly competitive. Currently, there are more than 16,500 new vehicle franchise dealers in the United States, 4,500 in the UK, and 3,400 in Canada. Many of these franchised dealers are independent stores managed by individuals, families or small retail groups. We compete primarily with other automotive retailers, both publicly- and privately-held and other used-only automotive retailers such as CarMax, Carvana, and Cazoo.

Vehicle manufacturers have designated specific marketing and sales areas within which only one dealer of a vehicle brand may operate. In addition, our franchise agreements typically limit our ability to acquire multiple dealerships of a given brand within a particular market area. Certain state franchise laws also restrict us from relocating our dealerships, or establishing new dealerships of a particular brand, within any area that is served by another dealer with the same brand. To the extent that a market has multiple dealers of a particular brand, as certain markets we operate in do, we are subject to significant intra-brand competition.

We are larger and have more financial resources than most private automotive retailers with which we currently compete in the majority of our regional markets. We compete directly with retailers with similar or greater resources in our existing metro and non-metro markets. We also compete based on dealer reputation in the various markets. If we enter other new markets, we may face competitors that have access to greater financial resources or have strong brands. We do not have any cost advantage in purchasing new vehicles from manufacturers. We rely on advertising and merchandising, pricing, our customer guarantees and sales model, our sales expertise, service reputation and the location of our stores to sell new vehicles.

Regulation

Automotive and Other Laws and Regulations
We operate in a highly regulated industry. A number of state and federal laws and regulations affect our business. In every state in which we operate, we must obtain various licenses to operate our businesses, including dealer, sales and finance and insurance licenses issued by state regulatory authorities. Numerous laws and regulations govern our business, including those relating to our sales, operations, financing, insurance, advertising and employment practices. These laws and regulations include state franchise laws and regulations, consumer protection laws, privacy laws, escheatment laws, anti-money laundering laws and federal and state wage-hour, anti-discrimination and other employment practices laws.

Our financing activities with customers are subject to numerous federal, state and local laws and regulations. In recent years, there has been an increase in activity related to oversight of consumer lending by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), which has broad regulatory powers. The CFPB has supervisory authority over large non-bank auto finance companies, including DFC. The CFPB can use this authority to conduct supervisory examinations to ensure compliance with various federal consumer protection laws. The CFPB does not have direct authority over automotive dealers; however, its regulation of larger automotive finance companies and other financial institutions could affect our financing activities. Claims arising out of actual or alleged violations of law may
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be asserted against us or our stores by individuals, a class of individuals, or governmental entities. These claims may expose us to significant damages or other penalties, including revocation or suspension of our licenses to conduct store operations and fines.

The vehicles we sell are also subject to rules and regulations of various federal and state regulatory agencies.

Environmental, Health, and Safety Laws and Regulations
Our operations involve the use, handling, storage and contracting for recycling and/or disposal of materials such as motor oil and filters, transmission fluids, antifreeze, refrigerants, paints, thinners, batteries, cleaning products, lubricants, degreasing agents, tires and fuel. Consequently, our business is subject to a complex variety of federal, state and local requirements that regulate the environment and public health and safety.

Most of our stores use above ground storage tanks, and, to a lesser extent, underground storage tanks, primarily for petroleum-based products. Storage tanks are subject to periodic testing, containment, upgrading and removal under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and its state law counterparts. Clean-up or other remedial action may be necessary in the event of leaks or other discharges from storage tanks or other sources. In addition, water quality protection programs under the federal Water Pollution Control Act (commonly known as the Clean Water Act), the Safe Drinking Water Act and comparable state and local programs govern certain discharges from our operations. Similarly, certain air emissions from operations, such as auto body painting, may be subject to the federal Clean Air Act and related state and local laws. Health and safety standards promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the United States Department of Labor and related state agencies also apply.

Certain stores may become a party to proceedings under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, or CERCLA, typically in connection with materials that were sent to former recycling, treatment and/or disposal facilities owned and operated by independent businesses. The remediation or clean-up of facilities where the release of a regulated hazardous substance occurred is required under CERCLA and other laws.

We incur certain costs to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations in the ordinary course of our business. We do not anticipate, however, that the costs of compliance will have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition, although such outcome is possible given the nature of our operations and the extensive environmental, public health and safety regulatory framework. We may become aware of minor contamination at certain of our facilities, and we conduct investigations and remediation at properties as needed. In certain cases, the current or prior property owner may conduct the investigation and/or remediation or we have been indemnified by either the current or prior property owner for such contamination. We do not currently expect to incur significant costs for remediation. However, we cannot provide assurance that material environmental commitments or contingencies will not arise in the future, or that they do not already exist but are unknown to us.

Human Capital
Inspired by our mission statement, “Growth Powered by People,” we prioritize the importance of every Lithia & Driveway associate’s professional success, well-being, and safety. Our approach to attracting, retaining, rewarding, and developing the best talent includes defining clear expectations, providing exceptional training, and recognizing employee milestones and metrics. These efforts are integral to building dynamic teams who will “Earn Customers for Life” and drive operational excellence. We foster an entrepreneurial, high-performance, customer-centric culture designed to encourage internal promotions, develop leadership skills, and offer professional growth opportunities.

As of December 31, 2023, our subsidiaries employed approximately 27,446 persons on a full-time equivalent basis in our global network of 344 retail locations. Our total workforce was comprised of approximately 21% female employees and approximately 45% of minorities. Our management consisted of approximately 21% females and approximately 36% minorities in leadership positions. In both 2023 and 2022, approximately 97% of our workforce earned above minimum wage.

Some examples of our key employee-focused programs and initiatives include:

In 2023, we launched a company-wide Culture Poll to amplify the employee voice. With an 80% participation rate, the survey revealed engagement scores surpassing benchmarks, indicating positive
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progress in creating a positive workplace experience. The survey also offered valuable insights, leading to the development of action plans by managers to address opportunities to “Improve Constantly.”
The DART (Develop, Analyze, Research, and Transform) Program started in 2020 to build high-performing leaders who aid in achieving our goal to redefine the automotive industry by providing transportation solutions wherever, whenever, and however consumers desire. The DART Program is designed to give on-the-job exposure to various areas of the organization through rotations while providing supplemental training necessary to grow internal talent into leadership roles. The program identifies data-centric, customer-focused, proactive people who will push stores to be their best for our customers. DART participants learn the ins and outs of performance standards and build relationships cross-functionally to achieve milestones and accelerate their careers.
Launched in 2016, the AMP (Accelerate My Potential) Program initially targeted general manager readiness. Since 2021, it has evolved to focus on preparing high performers for various leadership roles beyond general manager.
Introduced in 2015, the Women LEAD (Learn, Explore, Achieve, and Develop) Program offers a platform for women within the organization to connect, learn, and grow together. Featuring events throughout the year, the program facilitates networking, role modeling, and learning opportunities aimed to foster professional development.
Our learning and development initiatives are dedicated to promoting employee growth through curated content paths, specialized curriculums, and tuition reimbursement programs covering up to 75% of undergraduate or graduate tuition costs. Additional programs provide Master Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) training and certification, along with Original Equipment Manufacturer training for technicians.

As one of the largest global automotive retailers, we are committed to ongoing investments in expanding the roles and skills of our workforce to drive customer excellence and operational performance. As our business continues to evolve, our unwavering focus remains on ensuring that our human capital capabilities, systems, and processes are well-aligned with and in support of our strategic objectives and growth plans.

Seasonality and Quarterly Fluctuations
In a stable environment, the automotive industry has generally experienced higher volumes of vehicle unit sales in the second and third quarters of each year due to consumer buying trends and the introduction of new vehicle models and, accordingly, we expect our revenues and operating results to generally be higher during these periods. In addition, we generally experience higher volume of luxury vehicles, which have higher average selling prices and gross profit per vehicle, during the fourth quarter. The timing of our acquisition activity, which varies, and ability to integrate stores into our existing cost structure has moderated this seasonality. However, if conditions occur that weaken automotive sales, such as severe weather in the geographic areas in which our dealerships operate, war, high fuel costs, depressed economic conditions including unemployment or weakened consumer confidence or similar adverse conditions, or if our ability to acquire stores changes, our revenues for the year may be disproportionately adversely affected.

Available Information
We make available free of charge, on our website at www.lithiainvestorrelations.com, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed electronically with the SEC. The information found on our website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. You may also obtain copies of these reports by contacting Investor Relations at 877-331-3084.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. The risks described below are not the only ones facing our company. Additional risks not presently known to us, or that we currently deem immaterial, may also impair our business operations.

Risks Related to Our Business

The automotive retail industry is sensitive to changing economic conditions and various other factors. Our business and results of operations are substantially dependent on new vehicle sales levels in the United
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States and in our particular geographic markets and the level of gross profit margins that we can achieve on our sales of new vehicles, all of which are very difficult to predict.

Our business is heavily dependent on consumer demand and preferences. A downturn in overall levels of consumer spending may materially and adversely affect our revenues and gross profit margins. Retail vehicle sales are cyclical and historically have experienced periodic downturns characterized by weak demand. These cycles are often dependent on general economic conditions and consumer confidence, as well as the level of discretionary personal income and credit availability. Additionally, other economic factors, such as rising and sustained periods of high crude oil and fuel prices, may impact consumer demand and preferences. As we operate internationally, including across the U.S., Canada, and the U.K., changes in and the severity of economic conditions may vary by market. Economic conditions may be anemic for an extended period of time, or deteriorate in the future. This would have a material adverse effect on our retail business, particularly sales of new and used vehicles.

The economies of the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom have recently experienced heightened inflationary pressures, impacting the costs of labor, fuel and other costs. Additionally, recent increases in interest rates have impacted new and used vehicle sales and vehicle affordability due to the direct relationship between interest rates and monthly loan payments, a critical factor for many vehicle buyers, and the impact interest rates have on customers’ borrowing capacity and disposable income. Consumer demand may be further adversely impacted if interest rates continue to increase or are sustained at current levels. In an inflationary environment, depending on automotive industry and other economic conditions, we may be unable to raise prices to keep up with the rate of inflation, which would reduce our profit margins. A period of sustained inflationary and interest rate pressures could impact our profitability.

Approximately 15.6 million, 13.9 million, and 15.1 million new vehicles were sold in the United States in 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively. Certain industry analysts have predicted that new vehicle sales will be approximately 15.7 million for 2024. If new vehicle production exceeds the rate at which new vehicles are sold, our gross profit per vehicle could be adversely affected by this excess and any resulting changes in manufacturer incentive and marketing programs. See the risk factor “If manufacturers or distributors discontinue or change sales incentives, warranties and other promotional programs, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows may be materially adversely affected” below. Economic conditions and the other factors described above may also materially adversely impact our sales of used vehicles, parts and repair and maintenance services, and automotive finance and insurance products.

Natural disasters, adverse weather conditions, and public health emergencies can disrupt our business.

Our dealerships are in states and regions in the United States, Canada, and the U.K. in which actual or threatened natural disasters and severe weather events (such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, floods, landslides, wind and/or hail storms) or other extraordinary events have in the past, and may in the future, disrupt our dealership operations and impair the value of our dealership property. A disruption in our operations may adversely impact our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition to business interruption, the automotive retailing business is subject to substantial risk of property loss due to the significant concentration of property at dealership locations. The exposure on any single claim under our property and casualty insurance, medical insurance and workers’ compensation insurance varies based upon type of coverage. Our maximum exposure on any single claim is $5.5 million, subject to certain aggregate limit thresholds. Under our self-insurance programs, we retain various levels of aggregate loss limits, per claim deductibles and claims-handling expenses. Costs in excess of these retained risks may be insured under various contracts with third-party insurance carriers. As of December 31, 2023, we had total reserve amounts associated with these programs of $77.1 million.

The occurrence of regional epidemics or a global pandemic such as COVID-19 may adversely impact our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. The extent to which global pandemics impact our business going forward will depend on factors such as the duration and scope of the pandemic; governmental, business, and individuals' actions in response to the pandemic; and the impact on economic activity, including the possibility of recession or financial market instability.

The automotive manufacturing supply chain spans the globe. As such, supply chain disruptions resulting from natural disasters, adverse weather events, or public health emergencies may affect the flow of inventory or parts to us or our manufacturing partners. Such disruptions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
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Increasing competition among automotive retailers reduces our profit margins on vehicle sales and related businesses. Further, the use of the Internet in the car purchasing process could materially adversely affect us.

Vehicle retailing is a highly competitive business. Our competitors include publicly and privately-owned dealerships. Many of our competitors sell the same or similar makes of new and used vehicles that we offer in our markets at competitive prices. We do not have any cost advantage in purchasing new vehicles from manufacturers due to the volume of purchases or otherwise.

Our finance and insurance business and other related businesses, which have higher margins than sales of new and used vehicles, are subject to strong competition from various financial institutions and others.

The Internet has become a significant part of the sales process in our industry. Customers are using the Internet to compare pricing for vehicles and related finance and insurance services, which may further reduce margins for new and used vehicles and profits for related finance and insurance services. If Internet new vehicle sales are allowed to be conducted without the involvement of franchised dealers, our business could be materially adversely affected. In addition, other franchise groups have aligned themselves with services offered on the Internet or are investing heavily in the development of their own Internet capabilities, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Our franchise agreements do not grant us the exclusive right to sell a manufacturer’s product within a given geographic area. Our revenues or profitability could be materially adversely affected if any of our manufacturers award franchises to others in the same markets where we operate or if existing franchised dealers increase their market share in our markets.

In addition, we may face increasingly significant competition as we strive to gain market share through acquisitions or otherwise. Our operating margins may decline over time as we expand into markets where we do not have a leading position.

Changes to the automotive industry and consumer views on car ownership could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

The automotive industry is predicted to experience rapid change in the years to come, including advances in electric vehicle production, driverless technology, co-ownership and subscription business models. Certain manufacturers and governments have declared commitments to various electric vehicle and zero emissions goals, such as the state of California’s executive order to require all new cars and passenger trucks sold in the state to be zero-emission vehicles by 2035. In addition, the U.K. government has proposed a ban on the sale of gasoline engines in new cars and new vans that would take effect as early as 2030 and a ban on the sale of gasoline hybrid engines in new cars and new vans as early as 2035. The overall impact of these options on the automotive industry is uncertain, and may include costly compliance challenges and lower levels of new vehicle sales or sales through channels that do not include us.

Manufacturers continue to invest in increasing production and quality of electric vehicles, including Battery-Electric Vehicles (BEVs), Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. BEVs generally require less maintenance than traditional cars and trucks. The effects of BEVs on the automotive industry are uncertain and may include reduced parts and service revenues, as well as changes in the level of sales of certain Finance and Insurance (F&I) products such as extended warranty and lifetime lube, oil and filter contracts.

Technological advances are also facilitating the development of driverless vehicles. The eventual timing of availability of driverless vehicles is uncertain due to regulatory requirements, technological hurdles, and uncertain consumer acceptance of these technologies. The effect of driverless vehicles on the automotive industry is uncertain and could include changes in the level of new and used vehicle sales, the price of new vehicles, and the role of franchised dealers, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business.

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We compete in a dynamic industry, and we may invest significant resources to pursue strategies and develop new offerings that do not prove effective.

The vehicle retailing industry is experiencing significant changes as the expectations and behaviors of customers are shifting, and e-commerce and digital technology have become a more significant part of the sales process. We have made and may continue to make significant investments to drive the development of and support of e-commerce and digital technology capabilities, including the launch of Driveway, our e-commerce home solution, and DFC, our in-house consumer financing business. Changes or additions to our offerings may not attract or engage our customers or prove sufficiently profitable, and may reduce confidence in our brands, expose us to increased market or legal risks, subject us to new laws and regulations, or otherwise harm our business.

Customers may prefer other channels for vehicle sales and related finance and insurance services, because they may offer different or superior platforms, or because customers find those platforms easier to use, faster, or more cost effective than our services. We may not successfully anticipate or keep pace with industry changes, and we have and may continue to invest considerable financial resources, personnel, or other resources to pursue strategies that do not ultimately prove effective. A failure to capture the anticipated benefits of such investments could harm our results of operations and financial condition.

A decline of affordable and available vehicle financing may adversely affect our vehicle sales.

A significant portion of buyers finance their vehicle purchases. The primary finance sources our customers use in connection with the purchase of a new or used vehicle are manufacturer captive finance companies, DFC, and sub-prime lenders. These consumer vehicle financing sources rely to a certain extent on financing markets and sources to provide the capital necessary to support their financing programs. In addition, these financing sources, including DFC, will occasionally change their loan underwriting criteria to alter the risk profile of their loan portfolio. In the event that the cost to customers to finance vehicles becomes more expensive, due to increases in interest rates by the financing sources or their sources of capital, lenders tighten their credit standards, or available vehicle financing declines, consumers may be unable or less willing to purchase vehicles, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Adverse conditions affecting one or more key manufacturers may negatively affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

We depend on our manufacturers to provide a supply of vehicles which supports expected sales levels. Any event that adversely affects a manufacturer’s ability to timely deliver new vehicles may adversely affect us by reducing our supply of popular new vehicles, leading to lower sales in our stores during those periods than would otherwise occur. For example, the shortage of chip supply and labor disruptions in 2021 and 2022 caused a significant constraint in the supply of new cars resulting in reduced volumes and increased gross profit margins on retail vehicle sales. As new vehicle availability continues to improve, volumes may improve; however, gross profit margins may be impacted. We depend on our manufacturers to deliver high-quality, defect-free vehicles. If a manufacturer experiences quality issues, our sales and financial performance may be adversely impacted. In addition, the discontinuance of a particular brand that is profitable to us could negatively impact our revenues and profitability.
Vehicle manufacturers would be adversely affected by economic downturns or recessions, adverse fluctuations in currency exchange rates, significant declines in the sales of their new vehicles, increases in interest rates, declines in their credit ratings, port closures, labor strikes or similar disruptions (including within their major suppliers), supply shortages or rising raw material costs, rising employee benefit costs, adverse publicity that may reduce consumer demand for their products, product defects, vehicle recall campaigns, litigation, poor product mix or unappealing vehicle design, or other adverse events. These and other risks could materially adversely affect any manufacturer and limit its ability to profitably design, market, produce or distribute new vehicles, which, in turn, could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

We are subject to a concentration of risk in the event of financial distress, including potential reorganization or bankruptcy, of a major vehicle manufacturer. We purchase substantially all of our new vehicles from various manufacturers or distributors at the prevailing prices available to all franchised dealers. Our sales volume could be materially adversely impacted by a manufacturer’s or distributor’s inability to supply our stores with an adequate supply of vehicles.

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In the event of a manufacturer or distributor bankruptcy, we could be held liable for damages related to product liability claims, intellectual property suits or other legal actions. These legal actions are typically directed towards the vehicle manufacturer and it is customary for manufacturers to indemnify us from exposure related to any judgments associated with the claims. However, if damages could not be collected from the manufacturer or distributor, we could be named in lawsuits and judgments could be levied against us.

Many new manufacturers are entering the automotive industry. New companies have raised capital to produce fully electric vehicles or to license battery technology to existing manufacturers. Tesla and Rivian have demonstrated the ability to successfully introduce electric vehicles to the marketplace. Foreign manufacturers from China and India are producing significant volumes of new vehicles and are entering the United States and selecting partners to distribute their products. Because the automotive market in the United States is mature and the overall level of new vehicle sales may not increase in the coming years, the success of new competitors will likely be at the expense of other, established brands. This could have a material adverse impact on our success in the future.

Federal regulations around fuel economy standards and “greenhouse gas” emissions have continued to increase. New requirements may adversely affect any manufacturer’s ability to profitably design, market, produce and distribute vehicles that comply with such regulations. We could be adversely impacted in our ability to market and sell these vehicles at affordable prices and in our ability to finance these inventories. These regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

If manufacturers or distributors discontinue or change sales incentives, warranties and other promotional programs, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.

We depend upon the manufacturers and distributors for sales incentives, warranties and other programs that are intended to promote new vehicle sales or supplement dealer income. Manufacturers and distributors routinely make changes to their incentive programs. Key incentive programs include:

customer rebates;
dealer incentives on new vehicles;
special financing rates on certified, pre-owned cars; and
below-market financing on new vehicles and special leasing terms.

Our financial condition could be materially adversely impacted by a discontinuation or change in our manufacturers’ or distributors’ incentive programs. In addition, certain manufacturers use criteria such as a dealership’s manufacturer-determined customer satisfaction index (CSI score), facility image compliance, employee training, digital marketing and parts purchase programs as factors governing participation in incentive programs. To the extent we do not meet minimum score requirements, we may be precluded from receiving certain incentives, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Franchised automotive retailers perform factory authorized service work and sell original replacement parts on vehicles covered by warranties issued by the automotive manufacturer. For the year ended December 31, 2023, approximately 21% of our service, body and parts revenue was for work covered by manufacturer warranties or manufacturer-sponsored maintenance services. To the extent a manufacturer reduces the labor rates or markup of replacement parts for such warranty work, our service, body and parts sales volume could be adversely affected.

The ability of our stores to make new vehicle sales depends in large part upon the franchise agreements with manufacturers and, therefore, any disruption or change in our relationships could impact our business.

We depend on the manufacturers to provide us with a desirable mix of new vehicles. The most popular vehicles usually produce the highest profit margins and are frequently in short supply. If we cannot obtain sufficient quantities of the most popular models, our profitability may be adversely affected. Sales of less desirable models may reduce our profit margins.

Each of our stores operates pursuant to a franchise agreement with each of the respective manufacturers for which it serves as franchisee. Each of our stores may obtain new vehicles from manufacturers, service vehicles, sell new vehicles, and display vehicle manufacturers’ brand only to the extent permitted under these agreements. As a result
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of the terms of our franchise agreements, manufacturers exert significant control over the day-to-day operations at our stores. Such agreements contain provisions for termination or non-renewal for a variety of causes, including service retention, facility compliance, customer satisfaction and sales and financial performance. From time to time, certain of our stores have failed to comply with certain provisions of their franchise agreements, and we cannot ensure that our stores will be able to comply with these provisions in the future.

Our franchise agreements expire at various times, and there can be no assurances that we will be able to renew these agreements on a timely basis or on acceptable terms or at all. Actions taken by a manufacturer to exploit its bargaining position in negotiating the terms of renewals of franchise agreements or otherwise could also have a material adverse effect on our revenues and profitability. If a manufacturer terminates or fails to renew one or more of our significant franchise agreements or a large number of our franchise agreements, such action could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Our franchise agreements also specify that, except in certain situations, we cannot operate a franchise by another manufacturer in the same building as the manufacturer’s franchised store. This may require us to build new facilities at a significant cost. Moreover, our manufacturers generally require that the store meet defined image standards. These commitments could require us to make significant capital expenditures.

Our franchise agreements do not give us the exclusive right to a given geographic area. Manufacturers may be able to establish new franchises or relocate existing franchises, subject to applicable state franchise laws. The establishment of or relocation of franchises in our markets could have a material adverse effect on the business, financial condition and results of operations of our stores in the market in which the action is taken.

Our indebtedness and lease obligations could materially adversely affect our financial health, limit our ability to finance future acquisitions and capital expenditures and prevent us from fulfilling our financial obligations. Much of our debt is secured by a substantial portion of our assets. Much of our debt has a variable interest rate component that may significantly increase our interest costs in a rising rate environment.

Our indebtedness and lease obligations could have important consequences to us, including the following:

limitations on our ability to make acquisitions;
impaired ability to obtain additional financing for acquisitions, capital expenditures, working capital or general corporate purposes;
reduced funds available for our operations and other purposes, as a larger portion of our cash flow from operations would be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness; and
exposure to the risk of increasing interest rates as certain borrowings are, and will continue to be, at variable rates of interest.

In addition, our loan agreements and our senior note indentures contain covenants that limit our discretion with respect to business matters, including incurring additional debt, granting additional security interests in our assets, acquisition activity, disposing of assets and other business matters. Other covenants are financial in nature, including current ratio, fixed charge coverage and leverage ratio calculations. A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default under the applicable agreement. In addition, a default under one agreement could result in a default and acceleration of our repayment obligations under the other agreements under the cross-default provisions in such other agreements.

We have granted a security interest in a substantial portion of our assets to certain of our lenders and other secured parties, including those under our $4.6 billion syndicated credit facility and $1.1 billion CAD Canadian syndicated credit facility. If we default on our obligations under those agreements, the secured parties may be able to foreclose upon their security interests and otherwise be entitled to obtain or control those assets.

Certain debt agreements contain subjective acceleration clauses based on a lender deeming itself insecure or if a “material adverse change” in our business has occurred. If these clauses are implicated, and the lender declares that an event of default has occurred, the outstanding indebtedness would likely be immediately due and owing.

If these events were to occur, we may not be able to pay our debts or borrow sufficient funds to refinance them. Even if new financing were available, it may not be on terms acceptable to us. As a result of this risk, we could be
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forced to take actions that we otherwise would not take, or not take actions that we otherwise might take, in order to comply with these agreements.

In addition, the lenders’ obligations to make loans or other credit accommodations under certain credit agreements is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions precedent including, for example, the satisfaction of financial covenants and conditions and that our representations and warranties in the agreement are true and correct in all material respects as of the date of the proposed credit extension. If any of the conditions precedent are not satisfied, we may not be able to request new loans or other credit accommodations under those credit facilities, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Additionally, at various times in the future, we will need to refinance portions of our debt. At the time we must refinance, the market for new debt, or our financial condition or asset valuations, might not be favorable. It is possible that financing to replace or renew our debt may be unfavorable, which would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In certain cases, we may turn to equity or other alternative financing.

Our floor plan notes payable, credit facilities and a portion of our real estate debt are subject to variable interest rates. As of December 31, 2023, 63% of our total debt was variable rate. In the event interest rates increase, our borrowing costs may increase substantially. Additionally, fixed rate debt that matures may be renewed at interest rates significantly higher than current levels. As a result, this could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. We may use interest rate derivatives to hedge a portion of our variable rate debt, when appropriate, based upon market conditions. See Note 11 – Derivative Financial Instruments, related to current hedge activity.

We may not be able to satisfy our debt obligations upon the occurrence of a change in control under our debt instruments.

Upon the occurrence of a change in control as defined in our credit agreement, the agent under the credit agreement will have the right to declare all outstanding obligations immediately due and payable and to terminate the availability of future advances to us. Upon the occurrence of a change in control, as defined in the indentures governing our senior notes, the holders of our senior notes will have the right to require us to purchase all or any part of such holders’ notes at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. There can be no assurance that we would have sufficient resources available to satisfy all of our obligations under the credit agreement in the event of a change in control or fundamental change. In the event we were unable to satisfy these obligations, it could have a material adverse impact on our business and our common stock holders. A “change in control” as defined in our credit agreement includes, among other events, the acquisition by any person, or two or more persons acting in concert, in either case other than Lithia Holdings Company, L.L.C., Sid DeBoer or Bryan DeBoer, of beneficial ownership (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 of the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) of 35% or more of the outstanding shares of our voting stock on a fully diluted basis.

We may experience greater credit losses in DFC’s portfolio of auto loan and lease receivables than anticipated.

Customers who finance a vehicle purchase or lease a vehicle through a DFC auto loan or lease may be unable to repay the loans based on the original terms and that the fair value of the vehicles used as collateral against the loans may not be sufficient to ensure full repayment. Credit and residual value losses are an inherent risk of our auto loan and lease portfolio and could result in a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

We estimate an allowance for loan losses based on a variety of assumptions about DFC’s portfolio of auto loan receivables and lease receivables. Although management prepares an estimate it believes appropriate based on available information, this allowance may not be a sufficient reserve for loan and lease losses. For example, sudden economic changes such as an economic downturn or a change in consumer spending may result in additional losses incurred that we did not estimate in our original allowance. Losses in excess of our allowance for losses could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

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The growth and success of our DFC business is dependent upon obtaining sufficient capital to grow our auto loan portfolio.

Changes in the availability or cost of financing to support our auto loan portfolio under DFC could adversely affect our results of operations. Our auto loan portfolio is funded through a combination of free cash flows from operations and securitized funding, including asset-backed securitization. Changes in the condition of the asset backed securitization market may result in increased costs to access funds in the market or require us to explore new financing options to fund new auto loans. In the event that there is no alternative financing available, we may be forced to pause our auto loan financing business for a period of time. The impact of reducing or pausing our auto loan financing business could result in a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Risks associated with our international operations may negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We operate dealerships in the United States, Canada, and the U.K. While our operations outside of the United States currently represent a small portion of our revenue, we anticipate that our international operations will expand. We face regulatory, operational, political and economic risks and uncertainties with respect to our international operations that may be different from those in the United States. These risks may include, but are not limited to, the following:

fluctuations in foreign currency translations within our financial statements driven by exchange rate volatility;
inability to obtain or preserve franchise rights in the foreign countries in which we operate;
changes in distribution models in the foreign countries in which we operate;
compliance with changing laws and regulations;
compliance with United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws;
wage inflation;
treatment of revenue from international sources and changes to tax rules, including being subject to foreign tax laws;
difficulties in managing foreign operations and dealing with different customs, practices and local regulations with which we are less familiar;
large uncertainties, timing delays and expenses associated with tariffs, labor matters, import or export licenses and other trade barriers; and
changes in a country’s economic or political conditions, including inflation, recession and interest rate fluctuations, and exposure to regional or global public health issues, pandemics, or epidemics, such as the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Technology and Cybersecurity Risks

Changes to the retail delivery model and increased e-commerce and omni-channel competition could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

The automotive industry is beginning to experience change and disruption in the retail delivery model, including growing competition in the used vehicle market from companies with a primarily online e-commerce business model. Competition in this market includes companies such as CarMax, Carvana, and Cazoo. In addition, larger traditional automotive retailers are transforming their models to support omni-channel retail experiences, providing consumers with vehicle purchasing experiences outside of the traditional brick and mortar automotive dealership model.

We continue to develop our own internal technology solutions to further expand the reach of the networks of service and delivery points in our geographic markets. We may face increased competition for market share with these other delivery models and omni-channel retailers over time which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. There can be no assurance that our initiatives will be successful or that the amount we invest in these initiatives will result in our maintaining market share and continued or improved financial performance.

Breaches in our data security systems or in systems used by our vendor partners, including cyber-attacks or unauthorized data distribution by employees or affiliated vendors, or disruptions to access and connectivity of our information systems could impact our operations or result in the loss or misuse of customers’ proprietary information.
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Our information technology systems are important to operating our business efficiently. We employ information technology systems, including websites, that allow for the secure handling and processing of customers’ proprietary information. The failure of our information technology systems, and those of our partner software and technology vendors, to perform as we anticipate could disrupt our business and could expose us to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, litigation and potential liability.

Aspects of our operations are subject to privacy, data use and data security regulations, which impact the way we use and handle data. We collect, process, share, disclose, transfer, and otherwise use personal information about identifiable individuals including, but not limited to, our customers, employees, partners, and vendors, and so are subject to US and international laws and regulations, regarding data privacy and security such as the California Consumer Privacy Act and the UK General Data Protection Regulation. These laws impose comprehensive data privacy compliance obligations in relation to our processing of personal data, including providing privacy rights to the individuals whose data we process and introducing requirements to maintain policies, processes, and procedures regarding our data handing practices. Additionally, our expansion into Canada and the United Kingdom subjects us to additional privacy and security regulations which also impact the way we handle and secure data across borders.

We collect, process, and retain personally identifiable information regarding customers, associates and vendors in the normal course of our business. Our internal and third-party systems have been and may in the future be subject to cyber-attacks, viruses, malicious software, ransomware, break-ins, theft, computer hacking, phishing, exploitation of system vulnerabilities or misconfigurations, employee error, or malfeasance or other security breaches or loss of service. We invest in commercially reasonable security technology to protect our data and business processes against many of these risks. We also purchase insurance to mitigate the potential financial impact of many of these risks. Despite the security measures we have in place, our facilities and systems, and those of our third-party service providers, could be vulnerable to security breaches, computer viruses, lost or misplaced data, programming errors, human errors, acts of vandalism, or other events. Any security breach or event resulting in the misappropriation, loss, or other unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, or degradation of services provided by critical business systems, whether by us directly or our third-party service providers, could adversely affect our business operations, sales, reputation with current and potential customers, associates or vendors, as well as other operational and financial impacts derived from investigations, litigation, imposition of penalties or other means.

Regulatory Risks

Our dealerships and our new vehicle sales model may not be protected if state dealer laws are repealed or weakened, a manufacturer becomes bankrupt or there is a shift to other sales models.

State and provincial dealer laws generally provide that a manufacturer may not terminate or refuse to renew a franchise agreement unless it has first provided the dealer with written notice setting forth good cause and stating the grounds for termination or non-renewal. Certain United States state dealer laws allow dealers to file protests or petitions or attempt to comply with the manufacturer’s criteria within the notice period to avoid the termination or non-renewal. If dealer laws are repealed in the states where we operate, manufacturers may be able to terminate our franchises without providing advance notice, an opportunity to cure or a showing of good cause. In Canada, although laws differ by province, provincial law generally provides that both a manufacturer and dealer each has a common law and statutory duty of good faith and fair dealing in performance and enforcement of any franchise agreement. Disputes are generally handled through the National Automobile Dealer Arbitration Program (NADAP). If a manufacturer wished to terminate a franchise, there is no guaranty that we would win such a dispute. Without the protection of state and provincial dealer laws, it may also be more difficult to renew our franchise agreements upon expiration or on terms acceptable to us.

As evidenced by the bankruptcy proceedings of both Chrysler and GM in 2009, state dealer laws do not afford continued protection from manufacturer terminations or non-renewal of franchise agreements. No assurances can be given that a manufacturer will not seek protection under bankruptcy laws, or that, in this event, they will not seek to terminate franchise rights held by us.

In addition, state dealer laws restrict the ability of vehicle manufacturers to directly enter the retail market. Manufacturer lobbying efforts and lawsuits may lead to the repeal or revision of these laws. For example, Tesla has
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received a favorable ruling in certain states allowing direct to consumer sales and service. In addition, many states have recently passed or are introducing legislation to permit direct to consumer auto sales in certain circumstances, allowing additional electric vehicle manufacturers such as Rivian to enter the market. If manufacturers obtain the ability to directly retail vehicles in our markets, such competition could negatively impact our sales and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Further, changes by manufacturers to their distribution models may impact our operations in the U.K. Certain manufacturers are moving to an agency model in other countries, whereby the consumer places an order directly with the manufacturer and names a preferred delivery dealer. The agency model is being used by manufacturers such as Volkswagen in Germany for all EVs and Mercedes-Benz in the U.K. and other European regions. Under an agency model, our dealerships receive a fee for facilitating the sale by the manufacturer of a new vehicle but do not hold the vehicle in inventory. The agency model will reduce reported revenues (as only the fee we receive, and not the price of the vehicle, will be reported as revenue), reduce SG&A expenses, and reduce floorplan interest expense, although the other impacts to our results of operations remain uncertain. If the agency model or another new model is implemented in the U.K. or other countries and regions in which we operate for the sale of electric or other vehicles, it could negatively affect our revenues, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Our U.K. dealerships are subject to different regulatory frameworks than our U.S. and Canada operations, and changes to these regulatory frameworks could negatively affect our results of operations.

The majority of our dealerships in the U.K. operate under franchise agreements with vehicle manufacturers, however, unlike in the United States, the U.K. generally does not have automotive dealership franchise laws and, as a result, our U.K. dealerships operate without these types of specific protections that exist in the United States. In addition, our U.K. dealerships are also subject to U.K. antitrust regulations prohibiting certain restrictions on the sale of new vehicles and spare parts and on the provision of repairs and maintenance. For instance, authorized dealers are generally able to, subject to manufacturer facility requirements, relocate or add additional facilities throughout the European Union, offer multiple brands in the same facility, allow the operation of service facilities independent of new car sales facilities and ease restrictions on cross supplies (including on transfers of dealerships) between existing authorized dealers within the European Union. However, under the EU Motor Vehicle Block Exemption Regulation, which was retained in U.K. law following U.K.’s exit from the European Union on January 31, 2020, certain restrictions on dealerships are permissible in franchise agreements provided certain conditions are met. In October 2022, the Competition and Markets Authority of the U.K. published recommendations to introduce an updated U.K. equivalent broadly similar to the EU Motor Vehicle Block Exemption Regulations, however, changes to these protections or rules could negatively affect our revenues, results of operations and financial condition.

Import product restrictions, currency valuations, and foreign trade risks may impair our ability to sell foreign vehicles or parts profitably.

A significant portion of the vehicles we sell are manufactured outside of the geographic regions in which we operate, and all of the vehicles we sell include parts manufactured outside of the geographic regions in which we operate. As a result, our operations are subject to customary risks of importing merchandise, including currency fluctuation, import duties, exchange rates, trade restrictions, work stoppages, transportation costs, natural or man-made disasters, and general political and socioeconomic conditions in other countries. The United States or the countries from which our products are imported, may, from time to time, impose new quotas, duties, tariffs or other restrictions, or adjust presently prevailing quotas, duties or tariffs, which may affect our operations and our ability to purchase imported vehicles and/or parts at reasonable prices. Changes in United States trade policies, including the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement or policies intended to penalize foreign manufacturing or imports, and policies of foreign countries in reaction to those changes, could increase the prices we pay for some of the new vehicles and parts we sell. Any changes that increase the costs of vehicles and parts generally, to the extent passed on to customers, could negatively affect customer demand and our revenues and profitability. If not passed on to our customers, any cost increases will adversely affect our profitability. Any cost increase that disproportionately applies to manufacturers that sell to us could adversely affect our business compared to other vehicle retailers.

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Our operations are subject to extensive governmental laws and regulations. If we are found to be in violation of or subject to liabilities under any of these laws, or if new laws or regulations are enacted that adversely affect our operations, our business, operating results, and prospects could suffer.

We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations in the geographic regions in which we operate, such as those relating to franchising, motor vehicle sales, retail installment sales, leasing, finance and insurance, marketing, licensing, consumer protection, consumer privacy, escheatment, anti-money laundering, environmental, vehicle emissions and fuel economy, and health and safety. In addition, with respect to employment practices, we are subject to various laws and regulations, including complex federal, state and local wage and hour and anti-discrimination laws. New laws and regulations are enacted on an ongoing basis. With the number of stores we operate, the number of personnel we employ and the large volume of transactions we handle, it is possible that technical mistakes will be made. These regulations affect our profitability and require ongoing training. Current practices in stores may become prohibited. We are responsible for ensuring that continued compliance with laws is maintained. If there are unauthorized activities, the state and federal authorities have the power to impose civil penalties and sanctions, suspend or withdraw dealer licenses or take other actions. These actions could materially impair our activities or our ability to acquire new stores in those states where violations occurred. Further, private causes of action on behalf of individuals or a class of individuals could result in significant damages or injunctive relief.

We may be involved in legal proceedings arising from the conduct of our business, including litigation with customers, employee-related lawsuits, class actions, purported class actions and actions brought by or on behalf of governmental authorities. Claims arising out of actual or alleged violations of law may be asserted against us or any of our dealers by individuals, either individually or through class actions, or by governmental entities in civil or criminal investigations and proceedings. Such actions may expose us to substantial monetary damages and legal defense costs, injunctive relief, criminal and civil fines and penalties and damage our reputation and sales.

Our financing activities are subject to federal truth-in-lending, consumer leasing and equal credit opportunity laws and regulations, as well as state and local motor vehicle finance laws, installment finance laws, insurance laws, usury laws and other installment sales laws and regulations. Some states regulate finance, documentation and administrative fees that may be charged in connection with vehicle sales. In recent years, private plaintiffs and state attorneys general in the United States have increased their scrutiny of advertising, sales, and finance and insurance activities in the sale and leasing of motor vehicles. These activities have led many lenders to limit the amounts that may be charged to customers as fee income for these activities. If these or similar activities were to significantly restrict our ability to generate revenue from arranging financing for our customers, we could be adversely affected.

If we or any of our employees at any individual dealership violate or are alleged to violate laws and regulations applicable to them or protecting consumers generally, we could be subject to individual claims or consumer class actions, administrative, civil or criminal investigations or actions and adverse publicity. Such actions could expose us to substantial monetary damages and legal defense costs, injunctive relief and criminal and civil fines and penalties, including suspension or revocation of our licenses and franchises to conduct dealership operations.

Environmental laws and regulations govern, among other things, discharges into the air and water, storage of petroleum substances and chemicals, the handling and disposal of wastes and remediation of contamination arising from spills and releases. In addition, we may also have liability in connection with materials that were sent to third-party recycling, treatment and/or disposal facilities under federal and state statutes. These federal and state statutes impose liability for investigation and remediation of contamination without regard to fault or the legality of the conduct that contributed to the contamination. Similar to many of our competitors, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur capital and operating expenditures and other costs in complying with such federal and state statutes. In addition, we may be subject to broad liabilities arising out of contamination at our currently and formerly owned or operated facilities, at locations to which hazardous substances were transported from such facilities, and at such locations related to entities formerly affiliated with us. Although for some such potential liabilities we believe we are entitled to indemnification from other entities, we cannot assure you that such entities will view their obligations as we do or will be able or willing to satisfy them. Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or significant additional expenditures required to maintain compliance therewith, may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and prospects.

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Structural and Organizational Risks

Our ability to increase revenues and profitability through acquisitions depends on our ability to acquire and successfully integrate new vehicle franchises.

The vehicle industry in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom is considered a mature industry in which minimal growth is expected in unit sales of new vehicles. Accordingly, a principal component of our growth strategy is to make dealership acquisitions in our existing markets and in new geographic markets. Restrictions by our manufacturers and limitations on our access to capital resources may directly or indirectly limit our ability to acquire additional dealerships. In addition, increased competition for acquisitions, including from other national, regional and local dealership groups, and other strategic and financial buyers, some of which may have greater financial resources than us, could result in fewer acquisition opportunities for us and higher acquisition prices in the future.

We are required to obtain consent from the applicable manufacturer prior to the acquisition of a franchised store, which typically takes 60 to 90 days. In determining whether to approve an acquisition, a manufacturer considers factors including the number of such manufacturers’ stores currently owned, ownership of stores in contiguous markets, performance of existing stores, frequency of acquisitions, and our financial condition. In the past, manufacturers have not consented to our purchase of franchised stores and we cannot assure you that manufacturers will approve future acquisitions timely, if at all, which could significantly impair the execution of our acquisition strategy.

We make a substantial capital investment when we acquire dealerships. We finance acquisitions activity with cash flows from our operations, borrowings under our credit arrangements, proceeds from our offering of senior notes, proceeds from mortgage financing and the issuance of shares of common stock. The size of our acquisition activity in recent years magnifies risks associated with debt service obligations. These risks include potential lower earnings per share, our inability to pay dividends and potential negative impacts to the debt covenants we negotiated under our credit agreement. In addition, issuances of equity securities could result in dilution to existing shareholders.

We face other risks commonly encountered with growth through acquisitions. These risks include, without limitation:

failing to identify suitable acquisition candidates and negotiate acceptable terms;
failing to assimilate the operations and personnel of acquired dealerships;
straining our existing systems, procedures, structures and personnel, including by disrupting our ongoing business and diverting our management resources;
failing to achieve expected performance levels;
incurring significantly higher capital expenditures and operating expenses, including incurring additional facility renovation costs or other expenses required by the manufacturer;
entering new, unfamiliar markets;
encountering undiscovered liabilities and operational difficulties at acquired dealerships;
failing to maintain uniform standards, controls and policies;
impairing relationships with employees, manufacturers and customers; and
overvaluing entities to be acquired.

Our failure to address these risks or other problems encountered in connection with our acquisitions could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions, cause us to incur unanticipated liabilities and otherwise harm our business. Any of these risks, if realized, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The loss of key personnel or the failure to attract additional qualified management personnel could adversely affect our operations and growth.

Our success depends to a significant degree on the efforts and abilities of our senior management. Further, we have identified Bryan B. DeBoer in most of our store franchise agreements as the individual who controls the franchises and upon whose financial resources and management expertise the manufacturers may rely when awarding or approving the transfer of any franchise. If we lose these key personnel, our business may suffer.

In addition, as we expand into new markets and develop our digital e-commerce solutions, we will need to hire additional managers, engineers, data scientists and other employees. The market for qualified employees in the
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automotive and technology-related industries is highly competitive and may subject us to increased labor costs during periods of low unemployment. The loss of the services of key employees or the inability to attract additional qualified personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, the lack of qualified managers or other employees employed by potential acquisition candidates may limit our ability to consummate future acquisitions.

Risks Related to Investing in Our Common Stock

Oregon law and our Restated Articles of Incorporation may impede or discourage a takeover, which could impair the market price of our common stock.

We are an Oregon corporation, and certain provisions of Oregon law and our Restated Articles of Incorporation may have anti-takeover effects. These provisions could delay, defer or prevent a tender offer or takeover attempt that a shareholder might consider to be in his or her best interest. These provisions may also affect attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares held by shareholders and may make removal of the incumbent management and directors more difficult, which, under certain circumstances, could reduce the market price of our common stock.

Our issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect holders of common stock.

Our Board of Directors is authorized to issue a series of preferred stock without any action on the part of our holders of common stock. Our Board of Directors also has the power, without shareholder approval, to set the terms of any such series of preferred stock that may be issued, including voting powers, preferences over our common stock with respect to dividends or if we voluntarily or involuntarily dissolve or distribute our assets, and other terms. If we issue preferred stock in the future that has preference over our common stock with respect to the payment of dividends or upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, or if we issue preferred stock with voting rights that dilute the voting power of our common stock, the rights of holders of our common stock or the price of our common stock could be adversely affected.

Item 1C. Cybersecurity

Assessing, identifying, and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats
We are committed to maintaining robust cybersecurity practices to safeguard our information assets and ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our operations. We employ a comprehensive approach to assess, identify, and manage material risks arising from cybersecurity threats. The identification and oversight of material cybersecurity risks is included in continuous Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Committee and Board of Directors meetings and reporting.

We complete regular cybersecurity assessments to identify potential vulnerabilities and threats, analyzing our infrastructure, systems, and data. Assessments are conducted both internally and by third parties and consider internal and external factors, technological changes, regulatory requirements, and emerging cyber threats. Our cybersecurity program adheres to widely recognized standards for managing cybersecurity risk, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework, Center for Internet Security Controls and UK Cyber Essentials.

We use advanced threat detection tools and technologies to identify potential cybersecurity risks. This includes continuous monitoring, intrusion detection systems, and anomaly detection mechanisms, to promptly identify any unusual activities or security breaches. Threat intelligence sharing with industry partners helps ensure we stay informed about the latest cybersecurity threats.

We assess cybersecurity risks for their potential impact on our operations, data, and reputation. Risks are prioritized based on their severity and likelihood of occurrence before implementing appropriate controls, safeguards, and mitigation measures to address and manage these risks effectively.

We have developed a well-defined and frequently updated information security incident response plan that outlines procedures to be followed in the event of a cybersecurity incident. The plan is periodically drilled with incident response team members and includes robust processes for identification, categorization, escalation and reporting of incidents. Employees are regularly trained on key cybersecurity subjects to ensure awareness.
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While no company can or will be completely immune from cybersecurity threats, especially as they relate to vendors and government agencies that we rely on, we know of no cybersecurity incident that has or is likely to materially affect us, our business strategy, or our results of operations, or financial condition.

Board of Directors Cybersecurity Oversight
Our Board of Directors oversees our cybersecurity and data protection strategy and appoints a director to lead the Board’s efforts. Our Board is briefed on our cybersecurity posture, current and future risks and potential incidents or vulnerabilities on a quarterly basis. Board members and executives participate in engagements on cybersecurity, such as simulated cyber incident response and crisis management exercises. Our Board also regularly receives and reviews third-party cybersecurity assessments, which include assessments of our cyber maturity and cyber risk.

Management’s Assessment and Response to Material Risks from Cybersecurity Threats
Our information security team and its leadership have primary responsibility for assessing and managing cybersecurity risks, within the scope of the overall ERM Committee. Such individuals collectively have over 80 years of prior work experience in various roles involving managing information security, developing cybersecurity strategy, and implementing effective information and cybersecurity programs. Cybersecurity threats are reported to management through robust and documented incident reporting processes. Our ERM Committee is comprised of Information Security, Legal, Treasury and other key executive stakeholders. The committee meets on a quarterly basis or as necessary to assess and respond to enterprise risks, including cybersecurity. The ERM Committee reports updates to the Board of Directors when appropriate and at least on an annual basis.

Item 2. Properties

Our stores and other facilities consist primarily of vehicle showrooms, display lots, service facilities, collision repair and paint shops, supply facilities, vehicle storage lots, parking lots and offices across the U.S., Canada, and the U.K. in the locations shown in the maps under the Overview section of Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. We believe our facilities are currently adequate for our needs and are in good repair. Some of our facilities do not currently meet manufacturer image or size requirements and we are actively working to find a mutually acceptable outcome in terms of timing and overall cost. We own our corporate headquarters in Medford, Oregon, and numerous other properties used in our operations. Certain of our owned properties are mortgaged or secured as part of commitments on our various real estate credit facilities. As of December 31, 2023, we had outstanding mortgage debt of $624.4 million, and $295.8 million outstanding on our real estate credit facilities. We also lease certain properties, providing future flexibility to relocate our retail stores as demographics, economics, traffic patterns or sales methods change. Most leases provide us the option to renew the lease for one or more lease extension periods. We also hold certain vacant facilities and undeveloped land for future expansion.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

We are party to numerous legal proceedings arising in the normal course of our business. Although we do not anticipate that the resolution of legal proceedings arising in the normal course of business will have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows, we cannot predict this with certainty.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol LAD. The number of shareholders of record and approximate number of beneficial holders of common stock as of February 23, 2024 was 428 and 90,497, respectively.

Repurchases of Equity Securities
We made the following repurchases of our common stock during the fourth quarter of 2023:
For the full calendar month of
Total number of shares purchased (1)
Average price paid per share
Total number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plan (2)
Maximum dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under publicly announced plan (in thousands)
October142,729 $240.81 142,729 $466,996 
November66 242.21 — 466,996 
December— — — 466,996 
Total142,795 240.81 142,729 
(1)66 shares repurchased in the fourth quarter of 2023 were related to tax withholding on the vesting of RSUs.
(2)On November 1, 2022, our Board of Directors approved an additional $450 million repurchase authorization of our common stock. This authorization was in addition to the amount previously authorized by the Board for repurchase. There is no expiration date for this share repurchase authorization.

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Stock Performance Graph
The stock performance graph and table that follow compare the cumulative total stockholder return on Lithia Motors, Inc.’s common stock with the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index (S&P 500 Index), and an auto peer group index composed of Penske Automotive Group, AutoNation, Sonic Automotive, Group 1 Automotive, Asbury Automotive Group, and CarMax for the five years ended December 31, 2023. The peer group indexes utilize the same methods of presentation and assumptions for the total return calculation as does Lithia Motors and the S&P 500 Index. All companies in the peer group indexes are weighted in accordance with their market capitalizations.(1)

1557
Base PeriodIndexed Returns for the Year Ended
Company/Index201820192020202120222023
Lithia Motors, Inc.$100.00 $194.56 $390.67 $397.87 $275.97 $447.15 
S&P 500 Index - Total Return100.00131.49 155.68 200.37 164.08 207.21 
Auto Peer Group100.00144.28 172.07 255.85 194.26 263.40 
(1)The graph and table assume that $100 was invested on the last day of trading for the calendar year ended December 31, 2018 in Lithia Motors, Inc’s common stock, the S&P 500 Index, and peer group indexes, and that all dividends were reinvested.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion in conjunction with Item 1. Business, Item 1A. Risk Factors, and our Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto.

Overview
We are a global automotive retailer ranked #145 on the Fortune 500 in 2023. As of February 23, 2024, we offered 47 brands of new vehicles and all brands of used vehicles in 344 stores in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom and online at nearly 360 websites. We offer a wide range of products and services including new and used vehicles, finance and insurance products and vehicle repair and maintenance.
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Financial Performance

272830
We experienced growth of revenue and gross profit in all major business lines in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily driven by increases in volume related to acquisitions, complimented by organic growth in new vehicles, and service, body and parts sales. On a same store basis, new and used vehicle retail gross profits experienced declines primarily driven by decreases in gross profit per unit as margins normalize to pre-pandemic levels. Net income decline was primarily driven by this margin normalization, increased interest expense, and increased SG&A as a percentage of gross profit.
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474475
Liquidity
As of December 31, 2023, we had available liquidity of $1.7 billion, which was comprised of $0.8 billion in cash and $0.9 billion availability on our credit facilities and unfloored new vehicle inventory. In addition, our unfinanced real estate could provide additional liquidity of approximately $0.4 billion. For further discussion of our liquidity, please refer to “Liquidity and Capital Resources” below.

Segments
We operate in two reportable segments: Vehicle Operations and Financing Operations. Our Vehicle Operations segment consists of all aspects of our auto merchandising and service operations, excluding financing provided by our Financing Operations segment. Our Financing Operations segment provides financing to customers buying and leasing retail vehicles from our Vehicle Operations segment.

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Vehicle Operations
Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
($ in millions, except per vehicle data)20232022Change%2021Change%
Revenues
New vehicle retail$15,154.2 $12,894.5 $2,259.7 17.5 %$11,197.7 $1,696.8 15.2 %
Used vehicle retail9,570.2 9,425.0 145.2 1.5 7,255.3 2,169.7 29.9 
Finance and insurance1,337.0 1,285.4 51.6 4.0 1,051.3 234.1 22.3 
Service, body and parts3,197.1 2,738.8 458.3 16.7 2,110.9 627.9 29.7 
Total revenues31,042.3 28,187.8 2,854.5 10.1 22,831.7 5,356.1 23.5 
Gross profit
New vehicle retail$1,394.1 $1,579.7 $(185.6)(11.7)%$1,218.5 $361.2 29.6 %
Used vehicle retail721.4 825.4 (104.0)(12.6)826.7 (1.3)(0.2)
Finance and insurance1,337.0 1,285.4 51.6 4.0 1,051.3 234.1 22.3 
Service, body and parts1,751.4 1,463.1 288.3 19.7 1,110.5 352.6 31.8 
Total gross profit5,228.9 5,152.4 76.5 1.5 4,259.0 893.4 21.0 
Gross profit margins
New vehicle retail9.2 %12.3 %-310 bp10.9 %140 bp
Used vehicle retail7.5 8.8 -130 bp11.4 -260 bp
Finance and insurance100.0 100.0 — bp100.0 — bp
Service, body and parts54.8 53.4 140 bp52.6 80 bp
Total gross profit margin16.8 18.3 -150 bp18.7 -40 bp
Retail units sold
New vehicle retail314,116 271,596 42,520 15.7 %260,738 10,858 4.2 %
Used vehicle retail325,764 311,764 14,000 4.5 275,495 36,269 13.2 
Average selling price per retail unit
New vehicle retail$48,244 $47,477 $767 1.6 %$42,946 $4,531 10.6 %
Used vehicle retail29,378 30,231 (853)(2.8)26,336 3,895 14.8 
Average gross profit per retail unit
New vehicle retail$4,438 $5,816 $(1,378)(23.7)%$4,673 $1,143 24.5 %
Used vehicle retail2,215 2,648 (433)(16.4)3,001 (353)(11.8)
Finance and insurance2,090 2,203 (113)(5.1)1,960 243 12.4 
Total vehicle (1)
5,367 6,300 (933)(14.8)5,855 445 7.6 
(1)Includes the sales and gross profit related to new, used retail, used wholesale and finance and insurance and unit sales for new and used retail

Same Store Operating Data
We believe that same store comparisons are an important indicator of our financial performance. Same store measures demonstrate our ability to grow operations in our existing locations. Therefore, we have integrated same store measures into the discussion below.

Same store measures reflect results for stores that were operating in each comparison period, and only include the months when operations occurred in both periods. For example, a store acquired in November 2022 would be included in same store operating data beginning in December 2023, after its first complete comparable month of operations. The fourth quarter operating results for the same store comparisons would include results for that store in only the period of December for both comparable periods.
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Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
($ in millions, except per vehicle data)20232022Change%20222021Change%
Revenues
New vehicle retail$13,197.3 $12,562.0 $635.3 5.1 %$10,009.9 $10,607.9 $(598.0)(5.6)%
Used vehicle retail8,173.4 9,182.3 (1,008.9)(11.0)7,779.6 6,896.3 883.3 12.8 
Finance and insurance1,205.0 1,253.9 (48.9)(3.9)1,016.5 999.1 17.4 1.7 
Service, body and parts2,803.1 2,657.4 145.7 5.5 2,207.8 2,009.0 198.8 9.9 
Total revenues26,708.4 27,454.4 (746.0)(2.7)22,378.3 21,673.0 705.3 3.3 
Gross profit
New vehicle retail$1,205.3 $1,541.9 $(336.6)(21.8)%$1,221.7 $1,163.6 $58.1 5.0 %
Used vehicle retail614.1 801.1 (187.0)(23.3)663.7 784.2 (120.5)(15.4)
Finance and insurance1,205.0 1,253.9 (48.9)(3.9)1,016.5 999.1 17.4 1.7 
Service, body and parts1,533.5 1,424.0 109.5 7.7 1,193.4 1,058.0 135.4 12.8 
Total gross profit4,554.2 5,018.8 (464.6)(9.3)4,082.0 4,055.6 26.4 0.7 
Gross profit margins
New vehicle retail9.1 %12.3 %-320 bp12.2 %11.0 %120 bp
Used vehicle retail7.5 8.7 -120 bp8.5 11.4 -290 bp
Finance and insurance100.0 100.0 — bp100.0 100.0 — bp
Service, body and parts54.7 53.6 110 bp54.1 52.7 140 bp
Total gross profit margin17.1 18.3 -120 bp18.2 18.7 -50 bp
Retail units sold
New vehicle retail272,780 264,510 8,270 3.1 %208,185 246,186 (38,001)(15.4)%
Used vehicle retail285,708 303,037 (17,329)(5.7)257,968 259,978 (2,010)(0.8)
Average selling price per retail unit
New vehicle retail$48,381 $47,492 $889 1.9 %$48,082 $43,089 $4,993 11.6 %
Used vehicle retail28,607 30,301 (1,694)(5.6)30,157 26,527 3,630 13.7 
Average gross profit per retail unit
New vehicle retail$4,419 $5,829 $(1,410)(24.2)%$5,868 $4,726 $1,142 24.2 %
Used vehicle retail2,149 2,643 (494)(18.7)2,573 3,017 (444)(14.7)
Finance and insurance2,158 2,209 (51)(2.3)2,181 1,974 207 10.5 
Total vehicle (1)
5,383 6,312 (929)(14.7)6,175 5,907 268 4.5 
(1)Includes the sales and gross profit related to new, used retail, used wholesale and finance and insurance and unit sales for new and used retail
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New Vehicles
Under our business strategy, we believe that our new vehicle sales create incremental profit opportunities through certain manufacturer incentive programs, providing used vehicle inventory through trade-ins, arranging of third-party financing, vehicle service and insurance contracts, future resale of used vehicles acquired through trade-in and parts and service work.
387388389
2023 vs. 2022
New vehicle revenue grew 17.5%, resulting from a 15.7% increase in unit sales due to our accelerated growth through strategic acquisitions, complemented by a 1.6% increase in average selling prices. Same store new vehicle revenue was primarily impacted by a 3.1% increase in unit sales, supplemented by an increase in average selling prices of 1.9%. Market demand continued to increase in 2023 off a depressed base last year.

New vehicle gross profit declined 11.7%, primarily due to a 23.7% decrease in average gross profit per unit, partially offset by a 15.7% increase in unit sales driven by acquisitions. On a same store basis, gross profit per new vehicle decreased 24.2%, continuing to normalize to pre-pandemic levels.

2022 vs. 2021
New vehicle revenues and gross profit grew 15.2% and 29.6%, respectively. These improvements resulted from our accelerated growth through acquisitions.

The decrease in same store new vehicle revenues was driven by a decrease in unit volume of 15.4%, partially offset by an increase in average selling prices of 11.6%. Same store gross profit per new vehicle increased 24.2%, driven by demand from prior year shortages of available new vehicles for sale, resulting from certain component shortages in the manufacturers’ supply chains.

Used Vehicles
Our used vehicle operations provide an opportunity to generate sales to customers unable or unwilling to purchase a new vehicle, sell brands other than the store’s new vehicle franchise(s), access additional used vehicle inventory through trade-ins and increase sales from finance and insurance products and parts and service.

Used vehicle retail sales are a strategic focus for organic growth. We offer three categories of used vehicles: manufacturer certified pre-owned (CPO) vehicles; core vehicles, which are late-model vehicles with lower mileage; and value autos, which are vehicles with over 80,000 miles. We have established a company-wide target of achieving a per store average of 100 used retail units per month. Strategies to achieve this target include reducing wholesale sales and selling the full spectrum of used units, from late model CPO vehicles to vehicles over ten years old. During 2023, our stores sold an average of 82 used vehicles per store per month. This compares to 91 used vehicles per store per month in 2022 and 92 in 2021. Used vehicle operations are generally an opportunity area for recently acquired and opened locations. As we acquired 56 and 32 locations in 2023 and 2022, respectively, this decrease in 2023 was due to the volume of stores recently acquired still being integrated into our existing operational strategies as well as the result of supply constraints of new vehicles during the pandemic period impacting late model availability today.

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35673568 3570
2023 vs. 2022
Used vehicle revenues increased 1.5%, due to increased volume from acquisitions, offset by decreased volume at our seasoned stores. On a same store basis, used vehicle revenues decreased 11.0%, due to a 5.7% decrease in unit volume and a 5.6% decrease in average selling price per retail unit. The same store revenue decrease in 2023 was driven by a decrease in our core vehicles of 14.9% and decreases in value auto and CPO vehicle categories of 12.4% and 0.7%, respectively. The decrease in our core vehicle category includes a 10.3% decrease in volume and a 5.1% decrease in average selling price per vehicle.

Used vehicle gross profits decreased 12.6%, due to a 16.4% decrease in average gross profit per unit. On a same store basis, used vehicle gross profit decreased 23.3%, led by a decrease in our CPO vehicles of 35.0% with additional declines in our core and value auto vehicle categories of 20.4% and 11.6%, respectively. The decrease in our CPO vehicle category was driven by a decrease in gross profit per unit of 38.2% to $2,321, offset by an increase in unit volume of 5.2%. Gross profit per unit in our core vehicle category, which accounted for 58.2% of our used vehicle unit sales, decreased 11.3% to $1,992. The decrease in same store gross profit in our value auto category was driven by a 8.9% decrease in gross profit per unit to $2,433.

2022 vs. 2021
Used vehicle revenues increased 29.9%, due to a combination of increased volume from acquisitions and organic growth in all categories of used vehicle sales at our seasoned stores. Excluding the impact of acquisitions, on a same store basis, used vehicle revenues increased 12.8%, due to a 13.7% increase in average selling price per retail unit, partially offset by a 0.8% decrease in unit volume.

Used vehicle gross profits decreased 0.2%, due to an 11.8% decrease in average gross profit per unit, mostly offset by a 13.2% increase in units sold. On a same store basis, used vehicle gross profit decreased 15.4%, led by a decrease in average gross profit per unit of 14.7%.

Third-Party Finance and Insurance
We believe that arranging timely vehicle financing is an important part of providing personal transportation solutions, and we attempt to arrange financing for every vehicle we sell. We also offer related products such as extended warranties, insurance contracts and vehicle and theft protection. Third-party extended warranty and insurance contracts yield higher profit margins than vehicle sales and contribute significantly to our profitability.

2023 vs. 2022
Finance and insurance revenue increased 4.0%, primarily due to increased volume related to acquisitions. On a same store basis, finance and insurance revenue decreased 3.9%, to $2,158 per unit. This decrease was driven by lower finance reserve paid per unit from third-party lenders as a result of the higher interest rate environment. We also experienced a partial decrease in the volume of third-party financing as a result of increased penetration rates associated with our Financing Operations and the growth of our captive auto loan and lease portfolio businesses.

2022 vs. 2021
Finance and insurance revenue increased 22.3%, primarily due to increased volume related to acquisitions, combined with expanded product offerings and increasing penetration rates. On a same store basis, finance and insurance revenue increased 1.7%, to $2,181 per unit.

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Service, Body and Parts
We provide service, body and parts for the new vehicle brands sold by our stores, as well as service and repairs for most other makes and models. Our parts and service operations are an integral part of our customer retention and the largest contributor to our overall profitability. Earnings from service, body and parts have historically been more resilient during economic downturns, when owners have tended to repair their existing vehicles rather than buy new vehicles. With more late-model units in operation, continued increase of vehicles in operation, and a plateauing new vehicle market, we believe the increased number of units in operation will continue to benefit our service, body and parts revenue in the coming years as more late-model vehicles age, necessitating repairs and maintenance. We focus on retaining customers by offering competitively-priced routine maintenance and through our marketing efforts.

2023 vs. 2022
Our service, body and parts revenue grew in all areas, primarily due to our strategic acquisition growth. On a same store basis, service, body and parts revenue increased 5.5%, primarily driven by an increase in customer pay of 5.2%. Performance in body shop also saw an increase of 8.0%. Same store service, body and parts gross profit increased 7.7%. Our gross margins continue to increase as our mix has shifted towards customer pay, which has higher margins than other service work.

2022 vs. 2021
Service, body and parts revenue grew in all areas, primarily due to acquisition growth. On a same store basis, service, body and parts revenue and gross profit increased 9.9% and 12.8%, respectively.

Financing Operations

In the United States, Financing Operations is a captive lender, originating loans only from stores and Driveway. In Canada, Financing Operations originates loans and leases from both our Canadian stores and third-party dealerships. Our stores do not exclusively finance vehicles through Financing Operations, rather originations are earned on a competitive basis with other lenders.

Financing Operations provides an opportunity to capture additional profits, cash flows, and sales while managing our reliance on third-party finance sources. Management regularly analyzes Financing Operations’ results by assessing profitability, the performance of the finance receivables, including trends in credit losses and delinquencies, and expenses directly related to Financing Operations. This information is used to assess Financing Operations performance and make operating decisions, including resource allocation.

Our proprietary credit model performs a return on investment (ROI) calculation for each application, ensuring that the return obtained is appropriately balanced with the consumer’s credit risk. On a fully discounted basis, we target earnings at least three times the net finance income earned from third party lenders (finance reserve less commissions paid) over the life of the loan. Actual return of the loans may differ based on the changing risk profile of originations, economic conditions, and rates of recovery for charged off vehicles. Actions taken during 2022 to adjust ROI targets in the context of the uncertain macroeconomic environment, along with the acquisition of dealerships whose brands attract relatively more credit-worthy consumers, resulted in loans and leases originated subsequently having higher weighted average credit scores and lower weighted average contract rate and front-end loan-to-values (FE LTV) than prior periods.

We typically use securitizations, warehouse facilities, and internal capital to fund loans and leases originated by our Financing Operations. Financing Operations income reflects the interest, fee, and lease income generated by the portfolio of auto loan and lease receivables less the interest expense associated with the debt utilized to fund the lending, including internal capital, a provision for estimated loan and lease losses, depreciation on vehicles leased via operating leases and directly-related expenses.

Total interest margin reflects the spread between interest, fee, and lease charges to consumers and our funding costs. Changes in the interest margin on new originations affect Financing Operations income over time. Increases or decreases in interest rates, which affect Financing Operations’ funding costs, or other competitive pressures on consumer rates, could result in compression or expansion in the interest margin on new originations. Changes in the provision for loan and lease losses as a percentage of ending managed receivables reflect the effect of changes in loss experience, economic factors, and asset-specific risks on our outlook for net losses expected to occur over the remaining contractual life of the loans and leases receivable.
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Financing Operations income does not include any allocation of corporate overhead costs. Although Financing Operations benefits from certain overhead expenditures, we have not allocated corporate overhead costs to Financing Operations to avoid making subjective allocation decisions. Examples of corporate overhead costs not allocated to Financing Operations include general corporate and data processing expenses.

See Note 18 – Segments for additional information on Financing Operations income and Note 5 – Finance Receivables for information on auto loans receivable, including credit quality.

Selected Financing Operations Financial Information
Year Ended December 31,
($ in millions)2023
% (1)
2022
% (1)
2021
% (1)
Interest margin:
Interest, fee, and lease income$268.5 9.6 $134.1 8.7 $45.9 9.2 
Interest expense(170.5)(6.1)(52.2)(3.4)(4.8)(1.0)
Total interest margin$98.0 3.5 $81.9 5.3 $41.1 8.2 
Provision for loan and lease losses$(98.8)(3.5)$(44.4)(2.9)$(9.4)(1.9)
Financing operations (loss) income$(45.9)(1.6)$(4.0)(0.3)$11.0 2.2 
Total average managed finance receivables$2,802.8 $1,542.6 $501.5 
(1)Percent of total average managed finance receivables.

Portfolio Information(1)
Year Ended December 31,
($ in millions)202320222021
Loan origination information
Net loans originated$2,118.5 $1,933.9 $703.7 
Vehicle units financed70,154 59,604 21,357 
Total penetration rate (2)
11.0 %10.2 %4.0 %
Weighted average contract rate9.6 %7.7 %8.4 %
Weighted average credit score (3)
732 718 674 
Weighted average FE LTV (4)
95.5 %99.4 %104.9 %
Weighted average term (in months)
73 73 73 
Loan performance information
Total ending managed receivables$3,177.6 $2,109.4 $724.9 
Total average managed receivables$2,643.5 $1,417.2 $449.8 
Allowance for loan losses$102.2 $65.1 $22.5 
Allowance for loan losses as a percentage of ending managed receivables3.2 %3.1 %3.1 %
Net credit losses on managed receivables62.0 42.9 7.8 
Net credit losses as a percentage of total average managed receivables2.3 %3.0 %1.7 %
Past due accounts as a percentage of ending managed receivables (5)
4.6 %5.4 %4.9 %
Average recovery rate (6)
49.8 %59.3 %74.9 %
(1)Excludes Canadian portfolio
(2)Units financed as a percentage of total new and used vehicle retail units sold.
(3)The credit scores represent FICO scores and reflect only receivables with obligors that have a FICO score at the time of application. For receivables with co-borrowers, the FICO score is the primary borrower’s. FICO scores are not a significant factor in our proprietary credit model, which relies on information from credit bureaus and other application information as discussed in Note 5 – Finance Receivables.
(4)Front-end loan-to-value represents the ratio of the amount financed to the total collateral value, which is measured as the vehicle selling price plus applicable taxes, title and fees.
(5)Past due is defined as loans that have been on the books greater than or equal to 3 months and are 30 or more days delinquent
(6)The average recovery rate represents the average percentage of the outstanding principal balance we receive when a vehicle is repossessed and liquidated, generally at wholesale auctions.

Financing operations loss increased from 2022 to 2023 primarily due to spread compression, decreasing net interest margin from 5.3% in 2022 to 3.5% in 2023. In response to the rapid increase in funding costs in the first half of the year, we have focused on improving net interest margin by passing along higher contract rates to consumers
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while maintaining credit quality, resulting in a stabilization and improvement in the metric in recent quarters. The growth in the portfolio also negatively impacted results due to the upfront recognition of loan and lease loss provisions on new loans outpacing the release of such provisions on more seasoned loans and leases.

The increase in net credit losses was driven by the growth in the portfolio, as net credit losses as a percentage of total averaged managed receivables, along with delinquencies, decreased compared to the prior year, driven by increased credit quality.

The decline in the average recovery rate was driven by used vehicle price depreciation outpacing the amortization of the principal balance on loan principal balances, due to the relatively limited seasoning of the portfolio.

Operating Expenses

Selling, General, and Administrative (SG&A)
SG&A includes salaries and related personnel expenses, advertising (net of manufacturer cooperative advertising credits), rent, facility costs, and other general corporate expenses.
Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
($ in millions)20232022Change%2021Change%
Personnel$2,163.1 $2,086.3 $76.8 3.7 %$1,737.9 $348.4 20.0 %
Advertising248.2 253.6 (5.4)(2.1)162.2 91.4 56.4 
Rent89.3 72.6 16.7 23.0 54.0 18.6 34.4 
Facility costs183.9 150.3 33.6 22.4 116.8 33.5 28.7 
Gain on sale of assets(34.1)(66.0)31.9 NM(2.3)(63.7)NM
Other644.4 547.3 97.1 17.7 412.2 135.1 32.8 
Total SG&A$3,294.8 $3,044.1 $250.7 8.2 %$2,480.8 $563.3 22.7 %
NM - Not meaningful
Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
As a % of gross profit20232022Change2021Change
Personnel41.4 %40.5 %90  bps40.8 %(30) bps
Advertising4.7 4.9 (20)3.8 110 
Rent1.7 1.4 30 1.3 10 
Facility costs3.5 2.9 60 2.7 20 
Gain on sale of assets(0.7)(1.3)60 (0.1)(120)
Other12.4 10.7 170 9.7 100 
Total SG&A63.0 %59.1 %390  bps58.1 %100  bps

2023 vs. 2022
SG&A increased 8.2%, or $250.7 million, primarily due to increased personnel and other costs resulting from our growth through acquisitions. Other expenses in 2023 included acquisition expenses of $27.2 million and $5.4 million of storm related insurance charges. We also recognized a gain on the sale of stores of $31.2 million.

On a same store basis and excluding non-core charges, adjusted SG&A as a percentage of gross profit increased across all categories to 62.3% from 59.8% in the prior year.

2022 vs. 2021
SG&A increased 22.7%, or $563.3 million, primarily due to increased personnel costs which resulted from our growth through acquisitions. Other expenses in 2022 included acquisition expenses of $15.0 million and $4.9 million of storm related insurance charges.

On a same store basis and excluding non-core charges, adjusted SG&A as a percentage of gross profit increased across all categories to 61.5% from 57.5% in the prior year.

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SG&A adjusted for non-core charges was as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
($ in millions)20232022Change%2021Change%
Personnel$2,163.1 $2,086.3 $76.8 3.7 %$1,737.9 $348.4 20.0 %
Advertising248.2 253.6 (5.4)(2.1)162.2 91.4 56.4 
Rent89.3 72.6 16.7 23.0 54.0 18.6 34.4 
Facility costs183.9 150.3 33.6 22.4 116.8 33.5 28.7 
Adjusted gain on sale of assets (1)
(2.9)0.0 (2.9)NM(2.3)2.3 NM
Adjusted other (1)
597.5 527.4 70.1 13.3 386.2 141.2 36.6 
Total adjusted SG&A (1)
$3,279.1 $3,090.2 $188.9 6.1 %$2,454.8 $635.4 25.9 %
NM - Not meaningful
Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
As a % of gross profit20232022Change2021Change
Personnel41.4 %40.5 %90  bps40.8 %(30) bps
Advertising4.7 4.9 (20)3.8 110 
Rent1.7 1.4 30 1.3 10 
Facility costs3.5 2.9 60 2.7 20 
Adjusted gain on sale of assets (1)
(0.1)— (10)(0.1)10 
Adjusted other (1)
11.5 10.3 120 9.0 130 
Total adjusted SG&A (1)
62.7 %60.0 %270  bps57.5 %250  bps
(1)See “Non-GAAP Reconciliations” for more details.

Floor Plan Interest Expense and Floor Plan Assistance
We have floor plan agreements with both manufacturer-affiliated finance companies and as part of our syndicated credit facilities for certain new vehicles and vehicles that are designated for use as service loaners. The interest rates on these floor plan notes payable commitments vary by lender and are variable rates.

2023 vs. 2022
Floor plan interest expense increased $112.1 million, primarily due to higher interest rates, increases in new vehicle inventory levels from acquisitions as well as existing locations recovering from prior year inventory shortages. Floor plan interest expense increased 51.3% related to acquisition volume and 49.2% for existing locations.

2022 vs. 2021
Floor plan interest expense increased $16.5 million, primarily due to increases in new vehicle inventory levels at existing locations and growth through acquisitions.

Floor plan assistance is provided by manufacturers to support store financing of new vehicle inventory. Under accounting standards, floor plan assistance is recorded as a component of new vehicle gross profit when the specific vehicle is sold. However, because manufacturers provide this assistance to offset inventory carrying costs, we believe a comparison of floor plan interest expense to floor plan assistance is a useful measure of the efficiency of our new vehicle sales relative to stocking levels.

The following tables detail the carrying costs for new vehicles and include new vehicle floor plan interest net of floor plan assistance earned:
Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
($ in millions)20232022Change%2021Change%
Floor plan interest expense (new vehicles)$150.9 $38.8 $112.1 288.9 %$22.3 $16.5 74.0 %
Floor plan assistance (included as an offset to cost of sales)(159.2)(130.6)(28.6)21.9 (120.1)(10.5)8.7 
Net new vehicle carrying costs (benefit)$(8.3)$(91.8)$83.5 (91.0)%$(97.8)$6.0 (6.1)

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Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization is comprised of depreciation expense related to buildings, significant remodels or improvements, furniture, tools, equipment and signage and amortization related to non-compete agreements.
Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
($ in millions)20232022Change%2021Change%
Depreciation and amortization$195.8 $163.2 $32.6 20.0 %$124.8 $38.4 30.8 %

Acquisition activity contributed to the increases in depreciation and amortization in 2023 compared to 2022 and in 2022 compared to 2021. We acquired approximately $260.5 million and $236.9 million of depreciable property as part of our 2023 and 2022 acquisitions, respectively. Capital expenditures totaled $230.2 million and $303.1 million, respectively, in 2023 and 2022. These investments increase the amount of depreciable assets. See the discussion under “Liquidity and Capital Resources” for additional information.

Operating Income
Operating income as a percentage of revenue, or operating margin, was as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Operating margin5.5 %6.9 %7.3 %
Operating margin adjusted for non-core charges (1)
5.5 6.7 7.4 
(1)See “Non-GAAP Reconciliations” for additional information

2023 vs. 2022
Our operating margin decreased 140 basis points compared to the prior year, driven by a decline in gross profit per new and used unit sold. Adjusting for non-core charges, including acquisition expenses, one-time contract buyouts, and storm related insurance charges, offset by a net disposal gain on sale of stores, our operating margin decreased 120 basis points.

2022 vs. 2021
Our operating margin decreased 40 basis points compared to the prior year, driven by an increase in SG&A as a percentage of gross profit. Adjusting for non-core charges, including storm insurance charges and acquisition expenses, offset by a net disposal gain on sale of stores, our operating margin decreased 70 basis points.

Non-Operating Expenses

Asset Impairments
Asset impairments recorded as a component of operations consist of the following:
Year Ended December 31,
($ in millions)202320222021
Franchise value$— $— $1.9 
Goodwill— — — 
Total asset impairments$— $— $1.9 

Goodwill and franchise value are tested for impairment annually as of October 1 or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that impairment may have occurred. We elected to perform qualitative franchise value and goodwill impairment tests as of October 1 each year. These non-cash impairment charges are included in the “Corporate and Other” category of our segment information.

No impairment charges were recorded in 2023 or 2022.

During the third quarter of 2021, there was an indication of a triggering event at a certain reporting unit. We tested the goodwill and franchise value for this location. As a result, we identified it was more likely than not the fair values were less than the carrying amounts, and we recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $1.9 million, which was equal to the difference between the fair value and the carrying value for franchise value. This location was subsequently sold in the fourth quarter of 2021.

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See Note 1 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, Note 4 – Property and Equipment, Note 6 – Goodwill and Franchise Value, and Note 14 – Fair Value Measurements of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Financial Data of this Annual Report.

Other Interest Expense
Other interest expense includes interest on debt incurred related to acquisitions, real estate mortgages, our used and service loaner vehicle inventory financing commitments, our revolving lines of credit, and issued senior notes.
Year Ended December 31,
2023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
($ in millions)20232022Change%2021Change%
Mortgage interest$35.8 $25.9 $9.9 38.2 %$24.9 $1.0 4.0 %
Other interest168.0 105.8 62.2 58.8 80.5 $25.3 31.4 
Capitalized interest(2.6)(2.6)— — (2.0)(0.6)30.0 
Total other interest expense$201.2 $129.1 $72.1 55.8 %$103.4 $25.7 24.9 %

2023 vs. 2022
The increase in other interest expense was due to higher interest rates and increased borrowings on our credit facilities. See also Note 9 – Credit Facilities and Long-Term Debt of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

2022 vs. 2021
The increase in other interest expense was due to higher interest rates on our credit facilities and the full year impact of our $800 million in aggregate principal amount of 3.875% senior notes due 2029 issued in May 2021.

Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net primarily includes other income associated with investment income and other non-recurring transactions.

Year Ended December 31,
2022 vs. 20212021 vs. 2020
($ in millions)20232022Change%2021Change%
Other income (expense), net
$22.0 $(43.2)$65.2 NM$(52.0)$8.8 NM

2023 vs. 2022
The improvement in other income (expense), net was primarily due to a $1.7 million investment loss related to equity investments compared to a $39.2 million loss in the prior year. Other notable items included a $5.1 million unrealized gain on foreign currency translations, $4.7 million of interest income from foreign currency deposit accounts, and $2.6 million net pension benefit recognized in 2023.

2022 vs. 2021
The improvement in other income (expense), net was primarily due to a $39.2 million investment loss related to equity investments compared to a $66.4 million loss in the prior year. We also recognized a $16.8 million unrealized loss on foreign currency translations in 2022.

Income Tax Provision
Our effective income tax rate was as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Effective income tax rate25.7 %27.1 %28.4 %
Effective income tax rate excluding non-core items (1)
25.6 26.4 26.8 
(1)See “Non-GAAP Reconciliations” for more details

Our effective income tax rate was 25.7% for 2023 compared to 27.1% for 2022. Our effective income tax rate was positively affected by a reduction in the current and deferred state tax rate, due to changing state mix, as well as a reduction in valuation allowance. Our 2023 effective income tax rate was negatively affected by non-deductible acquisition costs recorded during the period.

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Adjusting for non-deductible acquisition costs and valuation allowance activity recorded during 2023, our effective income tax rate excluding non-core items is 25.6%, a decrease of 90 basis points compared to the effective income tax rate excluding non-core items for 2022.

Our effective income tax rate in 2022 was negatively affected by a valuation allowance established for certain deferred tax assets not expected to be realized. The increase in tax rate was offset by share-based awards vesting in the current period and a reduction in the current and deferred state tax rate due to legislative updates and changing state mix.

Global Implementation of Pillar Two
We are subject to corporation tax on profits in the United States, Canada, and the UK. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the G20 Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting has developed the Pillar Two global minimum tax regime. The Pillar Two rules provide a coordinated system to ensure that multinational enterprises with revenues above €750 million pay a minimum effective tax rate of 15% on the income arising in each of the jurisdictions in which they operate.

On June 20, 2023, the UK’s Finance (No. 2) Bill 2023 was enacted, which represents the UK’s introduction of a Pillar Two regime, effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after December 31, 2023. On August 4, 2023, Canada released draft legislation to implement the primary taxing rule in Pillar Two for fiscal periods beginning on or after December 31, 2023.

We analyzed the expected tax impact of the Pillar Two regime based on available guidance and expect these rules to have an immaterial impact on our overall effective tax rate.

Non-GAAP Reconciliations
Non-GAAP measures do not have definitions under GAAP and may be defined differently by and not comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies. As a result, we review any non-GAAP financial measures in connection with a review of the most directly comparable measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. We caution you not to place undue reliance on such non-GAAP measures, but also to consider them with the most directly comparable GAAP measures. We believe each of the non-GAAP financial measures below improves the transparency of our disclosures, provides a meaningful presentation of our results from the core business operations because they exclude items not related to our ongoing core business operations and other non-cash items, and improves the period-to-period comparability of our results from the core business operations. We use these measures in conjunction with GAAP financial measures to assess our business, including our compliance with covenants in our credit facilities and in communications with our Board of Directors concerning financial performance. These measures should not be considered an alternative to GAAP measures.

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The following tables reconcile certain reported non-GAAP measures to the most comparable GAAP measure from our Consolidated Statements of Operations:
Year Ended December 31, 2023
($ in millions, except per share amounts)As reportedNet disposal gain on sale of storesInvestment lossInsurance reservesAcquisition expensesContract buyoutsAdjusted
Selling, general and administrative$3,294.8 $31.2 $— $(5.4)$(27.2)$(14.3)$3,279.1 
Operating income (loss)1,692.4 (31.2)— 5.4 27.2 14.3 1,708.1 
Other income, net
22.0 — 1.7 — — — 23.7 
Income (loss) before income taxes$1,362.3 $