10-K 1 laur-20231231.htm 10-K laur-20231231
false2023FY0000912766http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#LongTermDebtAndCapitalLeaseObligationsCurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#LongTermDebtAndCapitalLeaseObligationsCurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#LongTermDebtAndCapitalLeaseObligationshttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#LongTermDebtAndCapitalLeaseObligationsP2YP2Yhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#BuildingsAndImprovementsGross http://www.laureate.net/20231231#FurnitureEquipmentAndSoftwareAndFinanceLeaseRightOfUseAssetsGrosshttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#BuildingsAndImprovementsGross http://www.laureate.net/20231231#FurnitureEquipmentAndSoftwareAndFinanceLeaseRightOfUseAssetsGrosshttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#LongTermDebtAndCapitalLeaseObligationsCurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#LongTermDebtAndCapitalLeaseObligationsCurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#LongTermDebtAndCapitalLeaseObligationshttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#LongTermDebtAndCapitalLeaseObligationsP3YP3YP3YP5Y00009127662023-01-012023-12-3100009127662023-06-30iso4217:USD00009127662024-01-31xbrli:shares00009127662022-01-012022-12-3100009127662021-01-012021-12-31iso4217:USDxbrli:shares00009127662023-12-3100009127662022-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2020-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassBMember2020-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310000912766us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-12-310000912766us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-12-310000912766us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2020-12-310000912766us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2020-12-3100009127662020-12-310000912766us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassBMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassBMember2021-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310000912766us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-12-310000912766us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-12-310000912766us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2021-12-310000912766us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2021-12-3100009127662021-12-310000912766us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2021-12-310000912766us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2020-12-310000912766us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2023-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:BuildingMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:BuildingMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberlaur:FurnitureEquipmentAndSoftwareMember2023-12-310000912766laur:FurnitureEquipmentAndSoftwareMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000912766srt:MaximumMember2023-12-310000912766laur:CommissionAndBonusesMember2023-12-310000912766laur:CommissionAndBonusesMember2022-12-310000912766laur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:TuitionAndEducationalServicesMemberlaur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:TuitionAndEducationalServicesMemberlaur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMemberlaur:TuitionAndEducationalServicesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:TuitionAndEducationalServicesMember2023-01-012023-12-31xbrli:pure0000912766laur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberlaur:OtherServicesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberlaur:OtherServicesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMemberlaur:OtherServicesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:OtherServicesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:SalesRevenueGrossMemberlaur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:SalesRevenueGrossMemberlaur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:SalesRevenueGrossMemberus-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:SalesRevenueGrossMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:SalesDiscountsWaiversAndScholarshipsMemberlaur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:SalesDiscountsWaiversAndScholarshipsMemberlaur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:SalesDiscountsWaiversAndScholarshipsMemberus-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:SalesDiscountsWaiversAndScholarshipsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:TuitionAndEducationalServicesMemberlaur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:TuitionAndEducationalServicesMemberlaur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMemberlaur:TuitionAndEducationalServicesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:TuitionAndEducationalServicesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberlaur:OtherServicesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberlaur:OtherServicesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMemberlaur:OtherServicesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:OtherServicesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:SalesRevenueGrossMemberlaur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:SalesRevenueGrossMemberlaur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:SalesRevenueGrossMemberus-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:SalesRevenueGrossMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:SalesDiscountsWaiversAndScholarshipsMemberlaur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:SalesDiscountsWaiversAndScholarshipsMemberlaur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:SalesDiscountsWaiversAndScholarshipsMemberus-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:SalesDiscountsWaiversAndScholarshipsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:TuitionAndEducationalServicesMemberlaur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:TuitionAndEducationalServicesMemberlaur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMemberlaur:TuitionAndEducationalServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:TuitionAndEducationalServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberlaur:OtherServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberlaur:OtherServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMemberlaur:OtherServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:OtherServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:SalesRevenueGrossMemberlaur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:SalesRevenueGrossMemberlaur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:SalesRevenueGrossMemberus-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:SalesRevenueGrossMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:SalesDiscountsWaiversAndScholarshipsMemberlaur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:SalesDiscountsWaiversAndScholarshipsMemberlaur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:SalesDiscountsWaiversAndScholarshipsMemberus-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:SalesDiscountsWaiversAndScholarshipsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-3100009127662024-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:CommissionAndBonusesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:IncrementalCostOfObtainingAContractWithStudentsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMemberlaur:RedeInternacionalDeUniversidadesLaureateLtdaMemberlaur:AnimaMembercountry:BR2021-01-012021-03-310000912766country:MX2023-04-012023-06-30laur:subsidiary0000912766us-gaap:DisposalGroupHeldforsaleNotDiscontinuedOperationsMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:DisposalGroupHeldforsaleNotDiscontinuedOperationsMember2022-12-310000912766laur:FundacionNasserMemberus-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMembercountry:HN2021-03-080000912766laur:FundacionNasserMemberus-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMembercountry:HN2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:FundacionNasserMemberus-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMembercountry:HN2022-07-012022-09-300000912766laur:FundacionNasserMemberus-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMembercountry:HN2023-01-012023-03-310000912766us-gaap:DisposalGroupDisposedOfBySaleNotDiscontinuedOperationsMemberlaur:LEILieYingLimitedMember2021-04-012021-04-30iso4217:HKD0000912766us-gaap:DisposalGroupDisposedOfBySaleNotDiscontinuedOperationsMemberlaur:LEILieYingLimitedMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMemberlaur:AnimaMember2021-05-282021-05-280000912766us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMemberlaur:AnimaMember2021-05-280000912766us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMemberlaur:AnimaMember2021-01-012021-12-3100009127662021-10-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMemberlaur:WaldenELearningLLCMember2021-08-122021-08-120000912766us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMemberus-gaap:AssetPledgedAsCollateralMemberlaur:WaldenELearningLLCMember2021-09-150000912766us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMemberlaur:WaldenELearningLLCMember2022-08-232022-08-230000912766us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMemberlaur:WaldenELearningLLCMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2024-01-012024-01-310000912766laur:FundacionNasserMembercountry:CLus-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMember2021-09-102021-09-10laur:segment0000912766country:MX2023-01-012023-12-31laur:campus0000912766country:PE2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2023-12-310000912766laur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2023-12-310000912766laur:MexicoSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2022-12-310000912766laur:PeruSegmentMemberus-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2022-12-310000912766laur:CorporateAndReconcilingItemsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:CorporateAndReconcilingItemsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:CorporateAndReconcilingItemsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766country:MX2022-01-012022-12-310000912766country:MX2021-01-012021-12-310000912766country:PE2022-01-012022-12-310000912766country:PE2021-01-012021-12-310000912766country:US2023-01-012023-12-310000912766country:US2022-01-012022-12-310000912766country:US2021-01-012021-12-310000912766country:MX2023-12-310000912766country:MX2022-12-310000912766country:PE2023-12-310000912766country:PE2022-12-310000912766country:US2023-12-310000912766country:US2022-12-310000912766laur:MexicoSegmentMember2021-12-310000912766laur:AndeanSegmentMember2021-12-310000912766laur:MexicoSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:AndeanSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:MexicoSegmentMember2022-12-310000912766laur:AndeanSegmentMember2022-12-310000912766laur:MexicoSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:AndeanSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:MexicoSegmentMember2023-12-310000912766laur:AndeanSegmentMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:TradeNamesMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:TradeNamesMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:TradeNamesMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:TradeNamesMember2023-12-310000912766laur:StudentRostersMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:TradeNamesMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:TradeNamesMember2022-12-310000912766laur:StudentRostersMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:SegmentContinuingOperationsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:SegmentContinuingOperationsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:SegmentContinuingOperationsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:TradeNamesMember2021-01-012021-03-310000912766us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberlaur:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberlaur:SeniorSecuredCreditFacilityMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMember2022-12-310000912766laur:SeniorAndOtherDebtMember2023-12-310000912766laur:SeniorAndOtherDebtMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberlaur:ThirdAmendment2024TrancheMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-09-180000912766us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberlaur:ThirdAmendment2028TrancheMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-09-180000912766laur:ThirdAmendmentMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-09-180000912766us-gaap:LetterOfCreditMemberlaur:ThirdAmendmentMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-09-180000912766laur:ThirdAmendmentMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-09-182023-09-180000912766us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberlaur:ThirdAmendment2024TrancheMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberlaur:EuroInterbankOfferedRateEURIBORMember2023-09-182023-09-180000912766us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberus-gaap:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSofrOvernightIndexSwapRateMemberlaur:ThirdAmendment2024TrancheMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-09-182023-09-180000912766laur:ThirdAmendment2028TrancheMemberlaur:ThirdAmendmentMemberus-gaap:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSofrOvernightIndexSwapRateMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-09-182023-09-180000912766laur:ThirdAmendment2028TrancheMemberlaur:ThirdAmendmentMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberlaur:EuroInterbankOfferedRateEURIBORMember2023-09-182023-09-180000912766laur:ThirdAmendmentMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberlaur:EuroInterbankOfferedRateEURIBORMember2023-09-182023-09-180000912766laur:ThirdAmendmentMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberus-gaap:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSofrOvernightIndexSwapRateMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-09-182023-09-180000912766us-gaap:LetterOfCreditMemberlaur:ThirdAmendmentMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberlaur:EuroInterbankOfferedRateEURIBORMember2023-09-182023-09-180000912766us-gaap:LetterOfCreditMemberlaur:ThirdAmendmentMemberus-gaap:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSofrOvernightIndexSwapRateMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-09-182023-09-180000912766us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberlaur:ThirdAmendment2024TrancheMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberus-gaap:BaseRateMember2023-09-182023-09-180000912766us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberlaur:ThirdAmendment2028TrancheMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberus-gaap:BaseRateMember2023-09-182023-09-180000912766laur:ThirdAmendmentMemberus-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberus-gaap:BaseRateMember2023-09-182023-09-180000912766us-gaap:LetterOfCreditMemberlaur:ThirdAmendmentMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberus-gaap:BaseRateMember2023-09-182023-09-180000912766us-gaap:SecuredDebtMemberlaur:UnitedStatesGuarantorsMemberus-gaap:AssetPledgedAsCollateralMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-12-310000912766laur:DebtInstrumentCovenantPeriodThreeMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberlaur:SecondAmendedAndRestatedCreditAgreementMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:SecondAmendedAndRestatedCreditAgreementMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberlaur:SecondAmendedAndRestatedCreditAgreementMember2023-01-012023-12-3100009127662020-01-012020-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:LineOfCreditMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:LineOfCreditMembersrt:MaximumMember2022-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:SecuredNotesPayableMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:SecuredNotesPayableMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:SecuredNotesPayableMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:SecuredNotesPayableMembersrt:MaximumMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:UVMMexicoLoanOriginatedIn2017Member2017-12-31iso4217:MXN0000912766laur:MexicanInterbankingOfferRateTIIEMemberus-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:UVMMexicoLoanOriginatedIn2017Member2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:MexicanInterbankingOfferRateTIIEMemberus-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:UVMMexicoLoanOriginatedIn2017Member2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMembersrt:MaximumMemberlaur:UVMMexicoLoanOriginatedIn2017Member2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:UVMMexicoLoanOriginatedIn2017Member2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:UVMMexicoLoanOriginatedIn2015Member2022-12-310000912766country:PEus-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:FinancingOfConstructionOfCampusesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766country:PEus-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:FinancingOfConstructionOfCampusesMember2023-12-310000912766country:PEus-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:FinancingOfConstructionOfCampusesMember2022-12-310000912766country:PEus-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:SubsidiaryOfTheCompanyBorrowingAgreementMember2017-12-22iso4217:PEN0000912766country:PEus-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:SubsidiaryOfTheCompanyBorrowingAgreementMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766country:PEus-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:SubsidiaryOfTheCompanyBorrowingAgreementMember2023-12-310000912766country:PEus-gaap:NotesPayableOtherPayablesMemberlaur:SubsidiaryOfTheCompanyBorrowingAgreementMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:EquipmentMember2023-12-3100009127662022-06-3000009127662021-03-310000912766laur:ChicagoMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:IncomeTaxContingenciesMember2023-12-310000912766laur:IncomeTaxContingenciesMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:PendingLitigationMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:PendingLitigationMember2022-12-310000912766country:PElaur:NationalSuperintendencyOfTaxAdministrationSUNATPeruMemberus-gaap:ForeignCountryMemberlaur:TaxYears2014And2015Member2023-12-310000912766country:PElaur:NationalSuperintendencyOfTaxAdministrationSUNATPeruMemberus-gaap:ForeignCountryMemberlaur:TaxYears2014And2015Member2022-12-310000912766country:PElaur:NationalSuperintendencyOfTaxAdministrationSUNATPeruMemberus-gaap:TaxYear2009Memberus-gaap:ForeignCountryMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberus-gaap:SegmentContinuingOperationsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberus-gaap:SegmentContinuingOperationsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberus-gaap:SegmentContinuingOperationsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:RestrictedStockMemberus-gaap:SegmentContinuingOperationsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:RestrictedStockMemberus-gaap:SegmentContinuingOperationsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:RestrictedStockMemberus-gaap:SegmentContinuingOperationsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:SegmentDiscontinuedOperationsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:SegmentDiscontinuedOperationsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:SegmentDiscontinuedOperationsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMember2013-06-130000912766laur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMember2015-09-012015-09-300000912766laur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMember2016-12-012016-12-310000912766laur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMemberlaur:StockOptionsStockAppreciationRightsAndRestrictedStockUnitsMember2013-06-132013-06-130000912766laur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMemberlaur:WengenMemberlaur:StockOptionsStockAppreciationRightsAndRestrictedStockUnitsMember2013-06-132013-06-130000912766us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMemberlaur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheOneMember2013-06-132013-06-130000912766us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMemberlaur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheTwoMember2013-06-132013-06-130000912766us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMemberlaur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheThreeMember2013-06-132013-06-130000912766us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberlaur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMember2013-06-132013-06-130000912766us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberlaur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMembersrt:MaximumMember2013-06-132013-06-130000912766srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberlaur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMember2013-06-132013-06-130000912766us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheOneMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheTwoMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:AmendedAndRestatedThe2013PlanMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2017-06-190000912766srt:MinimumMemberlaur:ExercisePriceRangeOneMember2023-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeOneMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeOneMember2023-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeOneMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberlaur:ExercisePriceRangeOneMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeOneMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberlaur:ExercisePriceRangeTwoMember2022-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeTwoMembersrt:MaximumMember2022-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeTwoMember2022-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeTwoMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberlaur:ExercisePriceRangeTwoMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeTwoMembersrt:MaximumMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeOneMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberlaur:ExercisePriceRangeThreeMember2021-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeThreeMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeThreeMember2021-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeThreeMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberlaur:ExercisePriceRangeThreeMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeThreeMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberlaur:ExercisePriceRangeFourMember2021-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeFourMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeFourMember2021-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeFourMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberlaur:ExercisePriceRangeFourMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeFourMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberlaur:ExercisePriceRangeFiveMember2021-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeFiveMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeFiveMember2021-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeFiveMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberlaur:ExercisePriceRangeFiveMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:ExercisePriceRangeFiveMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2021-12-310000912766us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2020-12-310000912766us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-12-310000912766srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMemberlaur:A2013LongTermIncentivePlanMember2013-06-132013-06-130000912766laur:TimeBasedRestrictedStockUnitsMember2023-12-310000912766laur:PerformanceBasedRestrictedStockUnitsMember2023-12-3100009127662021-10-290000912766laur:KKRMember2022-11-222022-11-220000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-11-220000912766laur:KKRMember2022-11-2200009127662023-05-242023-05-2400009127662020-11-0500009127662021-04-300000912766us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-12-140000912766us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2022-03-140000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-10-300000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-11-302023-11-3000009127662023-10-302023-10-3000009127662023-10-300000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-09-1400009127662022-09-140000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-10-122022-10-1200009127662022-09-142022-09-140000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-10-240000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-11-172022-11-1700009127662022-10-242022-10-2400009127662022-10-240000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-09-1500009127662021-10-060000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-0300009127662021-12-282021-12-280000912766us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766currency:BRLlaur:CurrencySwapDealContingentMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2020-11-30laur:swapAgreementlaur:educationalInstitution0000912766currency:BRLlaur:CrossCurrencyInterestRateContractInstrumentThreeAndFourMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2020-11-30iso4217:BRL0000912766laur:CrossCurrencyInterestRateContractInstrumentFourMembercurrency:BRLus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2020-11-300000912766currency:BRLlaur:CrossCurrencyInterestRateContractInstrumentThreeMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2020-11-300000912766us-gaap:CurrencySwapMembercurrency:BRLus-gaap:NondesignatedMemberlaur:PutCallOptionsMember2020-11-300000912766us-gaap:CurrencySwapMembercurrency:BRLus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2020-11-30iso4217:BRLiso4217:USD0000912766us-gaap:CurrencySwapMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2020-11-300000912766us-gaap:CurrencySwapMembercurrency:BRLus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2020-01-012020-12-310000912766us-gaap:CurrencySwapMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2021-06-022021-06-020000912766us-gaap:EquityContractMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:EquityContractMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:EquityContractMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:CrossCurrencyInterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:CrossCurrencyInterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:CrossCurrencyInterestRateContractMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:NondesignatedMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:NondesignatedMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:NondesignatedMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:DomesticCountryMemberus-gaap:InternalRevenueServiceIRSMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:ForeignCountryMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:ValuationAllowanceOfDeferredTaxAssetsMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:ValuationAllowanceOfDeferredTaxAssetsMember2021-12-310000912766us-gaap:ValuationAllowanceOfDeferredTaxAssetsMember2020-12-310000912766us-gaap:ValuationAllowanceOfDeferredTaxAssetsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:ValuationAllowanceOfDeferredTaxAssetsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:ValuationAllowanceOfDeferredTaxAssetsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:ValuationAllowanceOfDeferredTaxAssetsMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:FormerControllingStockholderMember2023-12-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:ForeignCountryMember2021-10-012021-12-310000912766srt:AffiliatedEntityMemberus-gaap:ForeignCountryMember2021-10-012021-12-310000912766us-gaap:DeferredCompensationArrangementWithIndividualByTypeOfCompensationPensionAndOtherPostretirementBenefitsMemberus-gaap:DeferredProfitSharingMembersrt:ExecutiveOfficerMember2007-11-012007-11-30laur:participant0000912766us-gaap:DeferredCompensationArrangementWithIndividualByTypeOfCompensationPensionAndOtherPostretirementBenefitsMemberus-gaap:DeferredProfitSharingMembersrt:ExecutiveOfficerMember2007-11-012018-12-310000912766laur:SpouseOfExecutiveMember2019-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:DeferredCompensationArrangementWithIndividualByTypeOfCompensationPensionAndOtherPostretirementBenefitsMemberus-gaap:DeferredProfitSharingMembersrt:ExecutiveOfficerMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:DeferredCompensationArrangementWithIndividualByTypeOfCompensationPensionAndOtherPostretirementBenefitsMemberus-gaap:DeferredProfitSharingMembersrt:ExecutiveOfficerMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedForeignCurrencyAdjustmentAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedForeignCurrencyAdjustmentIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedForeignCurrencyAdjustmentAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedForeignCurrencyAdjustmentIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeNoncontrollingInterestMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossCashFlowHedgeIncludingNoncontrollingInterestMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeNoncontrollingInterestMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossCashFlowHedgeIncludingNoncontrollingInterestMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AociAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AociIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AociAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AociIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedForeignCurrencyAdjustmentIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2023-01-012023-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedForeignCurrencyAdjustmentIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2022-01-012022-12-310000912766us-gaap:AccumulatedForeignCurrencyAdjustmentIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMember2021-01-012021-12-310000912766laur:TwentyTwentyFourStockRepurchaseProgramMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2024-02-1500009127662023-10-012023-12-31

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
Annual Report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
Transition Report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from __________ to __________.
Commission File Number: 001-38002
laureatea11.jpg
Laureate Education, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware52-1492296
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
PMB 1158, 1000 Brickell Avenue, Suite 715,Miami,Florida33131
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (786) 209-3368
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.004 per share LAUR
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☒ Accelerated filer ☐ Non-accelerated filer ☐ Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No ☒
As of June 30, 2023 (the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter), the aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $1.602 billion (based on the closing price of the registrant's common stock on that date as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market).
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
ClassOutstanding at January 31, 2024
Common stock, par value $0.004 per share157,589,706 shares
Documents Incorporated by Reference
The registrant incorporates by reference its definitive proxy statement with respect to its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days following the end of its fiscal year, into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.



Index
Page No.
Part I
Item 1.Business
Item 1A.Risk Factors
Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 1C.Cybersecurity
Item 2.Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. [Reserved]
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A.Controls and Procedures
Item 9B.Other Information
Item 9C.Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections
Part III
Item 10.Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11.Executive Compensation
Item 12.Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related
Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15.Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16.Form 10-K Summary
Signatures

As used in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K (this “Form 10‑K”), unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company,” “Laureate” and similar references refer collectively to Laureate Education, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

1


Trademarks and Tradenames

LAUREATE, LAUREATE INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITIES and the leaf symbol are trademarks of Laureate Education, Inc. in the United States and other countries. This Form 10‑K also includes other trademarks of Laureate and trademarks of other persons, which are properties of their respective owners.

Industry and Market Data

We obtained the industry, market and competitive position data used throughout this Form 10‑K from our own internal estimates and research, as well as from industry publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third‑party sources.

Industry publications, studies and surveys generally state that they have been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. We have not independently verified industry, market and competitive position data from third‑party sources. While we believe that our internal business estimates and research are reliable and the market definitions are appropriate, neither such estimates or research nor these definitions have been verified by any independent source.

Forward‑Looking Statements

This Form 10‑K contains “forward‑looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws, which involve risks and uncertainties. You can identify forward‑looking statements because they contain words such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates” or “anticipates” or similar expressions that concern our strategy, plans or intentions. All statements we make relating to estimated and projected earnings, costs, expenditures, cash flows, growth rates and financial results, and all statements we make relating to our current growth strategy and other future plans, strategies or transactions that may be identified, explored or implemented and any litigation or dispute resulting from any completed transaction are forward-looking statements. In addition, we, through our senior management, from time to time make forward‑looking public statements concerning our expected future operations and performance and other developments. All of these forward‑looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that may change at any time, including with respect to our current growth strategy and the impact of any completed divestiture or separation transaction on our remaining businesses. Accordingly, our actual results may differ materially from those we expected. We derive most of our forward‑looking statements from our operating budgets and forecasts, which are based upon many detailed assumptions. While we believe that our assumptions are reasonable, we caution that it is very difficult to predict the impact of known factors, and, of course, it is impossible for us to anticipate all factors that could affect our actual results. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations, including, without limitation, in conjunction with the forward‑looking statements and risk factors included in this Form 10‑K, are disclosed under various sections throughout this Form 10‑K, including, but not limited to, Item 1—Business, Item 1A—Risk Factors, and Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. All subsequent written and oral forward‑looking statements attributable to us, or persons acting on our behalf, are expressly qualified in their entirety by the factors discussed in this Form 10‑K. Some of the factors that we believe could affect our results include:

the risks associated with operating our portfolio of degree-granting higher education institutions in Mexico and Peru, including complex business, political, legal, regulatory, tax and economic risks;

our ability to maintain and, subsequently, increase tuition rates and student enrollments in our institutions;

our ability to effectively manage the growth of our business and increase our operating leverage;
the risks associated with maintaining the value of our brands and our reputation;
the effect of existing international and U.S. laws and regulations governing our business or changes to those laws and regulations or in their application to our business;
changes in the political, economic and business climate in the markets in which we operate;
risks of downturns in general economic conditions and in the educational services and education technology industries that could, among other things, impair our goodwill and intangible assets;
possible increased competition from other educational service providers;
2


market acceptance of new service offerings by us or our competitors and our ability to predict and respond to changes in the markets for our educational services;
the effect of greater than anticipated tax liabilities;

the effect on our business and results of operations from fluctuations in the value of foreign currencies;
the fluctuations in revenues due to seasonality;
the risks associated with disruptions to our computer networks and other cybersecurity incidents, including misappropriation of personal or proprietary information;

the risks and uncertainties associated with an epidemic, pandemic or other public health emergency, such as the global coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, including, but not limited to, effects on student enrollment, tuition pricing, and collections in future periods;

the risks associated with protests, strikes or natural or other disasters;

our ability to attract and retain key personnel;
our ability to maintain proper and effective internal controls necessary to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis;
the risks associated with indebtedness and disruptions to credit and equity markets;

our focus on a specific public benefit purpose and producing a positive effect for society may negatively influence our financial performance; and
the future trading prices of our common stock and the impact of any securities analysts’ reports on these prices.
We caution you that the foregoing list of important factors may not contain all of the material factors that are important to you. In addition, in light of these risks and uncertainties, the matters referred to in the forward‑looking statements contained in this Form 10‑K may not in fact occur. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward‑looking statement as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as otherwise required by law.
3


Part I

Item 1. Business

Our continuing operations include Mexico and Peru. Unless otherwise indicated, the information in or incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K, including our segment information, relates only to our continuing operations.

General

We operate a portfolio of degree-granting higher education institutions in Mexico and Peru. These institutions, which we collectively refer to as the Laureate International Universities network, are leading brands in their respective markets and offer a broad range of undergraduate and graduate degrees through campus-based, online and hybrid programs. Collectively, we have approximately 448,900 students enrolled at five institutions with over 50 campuses as of December 31, 2023. Our institutions in Mexico and Peru operate within scaled country networks, which provide advantages in terms of shared infrastructure, technology, curricula and operational best practices. Our students are enrolled at traditional, campus-based institutions offering multi-year degrees, with an average program length of four years, similar to leading private and public higher education institutions in developed markets such as the United States and Europe.

Our programs are designed with a distinct emphasis on applied, professional-oriented content for growing career fields and are focused on academic disciplines that we believe offer strong employment opportunities and high earnings potential for our students. We continually and proactively adapt our curriculum to the needs of the market. In particular, we emphasize science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) and business disciplines, areas in which we believe that there is large and growing demand, especially in developing countries. Students pursuing degrees in Medicine & Health Sciences, Engineering & Information Technology and Business & Management, our three largest disciplines, constitute approximately 70% of our total post-secondary enrollments. We believe that the work of our graduates in these disciplines creates a positive impact on the communities we serve and strengthens our institutions’ reputations within their respective markets. Our focus on private-pay and our track record for delivering high-quality outcomes to our students, while stressing affordability and accessibility, has been a key reason for our long record of success.
We believe that the higher education markets in Mexico and Peru present an attractive long-term opportunity, primarily because of the large and growing imbalance between the supply and demand for affordable, quality higher education in those markets. We believe that the combination of the projected growth in the middle class, limited government resources dedicated to higher education, and a clear value proposition demonstrated by the higher earnings potential afforded by higher education creates substantial opportunities for high-quality private institutions to meet this growing and unmet demand. By offering high-quality, outcome-focused education, we believe that we enable students to prosper and thrive in the dynamic and evolving knowledge economy.
In many developing markets, traditional higher education students (defined as 18-24 year olds) have historically been served by public universities, which have limited capacity and are often underfunded, resulting in an inability to meet growing student demands and employer requirements. In addition, in many of these same markets, non-traditional students, such as working adults and distance learners, have limited options for pursuing higher education. With strong brands and highly reputed institutions in Mexico and Peru, we believe that we are uniquely positioned to address these market opportunities.
4


CountryInstitution
Enrollment at December 31, 2023
Market SegmentQS Stars™ Overall University RatingRatings/Rankings
Mexico
Universidad del Valle de México (UVM)
113,200Premium/ Traditional««««
Ranked Top 10 university in Mexico
5-Star rated by QS Stars™ in categories of Employability, Inclusiveness, Online Learning & Social Responsibility
Mexico
Universidad Tecnológica de México (UNITEC)
128,800Value/Teaching«««
Largest private university in Mexico
5-Star rated by QS Stars™ in categories of Employability, Inclusiveness, Online Learning & Social Responsibility
Peru
Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)
69,700Premium/Traditional««««
Ranked Top 5 university in Peru
5-Star rated by QS Stars™ in categories of Employability, Inclusiveness, Online Learning & Social Responsibility
PeruUniversidad Privada del Norte (UPN)117,200Value/Teaching««««
3rd largest private university in Peru
5-Star rated by QS Stars™ in categories of Employability, Inclusiveness, Online Learning & Social Responsibility
Peru
CIBERTEC
20,000Tech/VocN/A
3rd largest private tech/voc institute in Peru
Sources: QS Stars™, Guía Universitaria (UVM), AmericaEconomia (UPC)

5


Our institutions in Mexico and Peru offer traditional higher education students a private education alternative, with multiple brands and price points in each market and innovative programs and strong career-driven outcomes. Additionally, through targeted programs and multiple teaching modalities, we are able to serve the differentiated needs of non-traditional students in these markets.

Our program and level of study mix for 2023 was as follows:

Total Enrollments by Degree graph.jpg

Our Segments

We have two reportable segments, which are summarized in the charts below. The following information for our segments is presented as of December 31, 2023.

Enrollment and Revenue by Segment.jpg


Our Industry

We operate higher education institutions in Mexico and Peru. These markets are characterized by what we believe is a significant imbalance between supply and demand. The demand for higher education is large and growing and is fueled by
6


several demographic and economic factors, including a growing middle class, global growth in services and technology-related industries and recognition of the significant personal and economic benefits gained by graduates of higher education institutions. At the same time, the respective Mexican and Peruvian governments often have limited resources to devote to higher education, resulting in a diminished ability by the public sector to meet growing demand, and creating opportunities for private education providers to enter these markets and deliver high-quality education. As a result, the private sector plays a large and growing role in higher education.

Favorable industry dynamics in Mexico and Peru driving growth in the higher education sector include the following:

Large, Growing and Underpenetrated Population of Qualified Higher Education Students. In many countries, including throughout Latin America and other developing regions, there is growing demand for higher education based on favorable demographics, increasing secondary completion rates and increasing higher education participation rates, resulting in continued growth in higher education enrollments. While global participation rates have increased for traditional higher education students (defined as 18-24 year olds), the market for higher education in Mexico and Peru is still significantly underpenetrated, at approximately 34% and 52%, respectively, as compared to approximately 60% in the United States.

Strong Economic Incentives for Higher Education. According to data from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”), in countries that are members of the OECD, the earnings from employment for younger adults (25-34 years) completing higher education was approximately 66% higher, and the earnings advantage was more than twice as much among older adults (45-54 years), than those of younger and older adults with only an upper secondary education. We believe that the cumulative impact of favorable demographic and socio-economic trends, coupled with the superior earnings potential of higher education graduates, will continue to expand the market for private higher education.

Increasing Role of the Private Sector in Higher Education. In both Mexico and Peru, the private sector plays a meaningful role in higher education, bridging supply and demand imbalances created by a lack of capacity at public universities. In Mexico, private education providers constitute 37% of the total higher-education market (43% in states in which we have operations). In Peru, private education providers constitute 74% of the total higher-education market. In addition to capacity limitations, we believe that limited public resources, and the corresponding policy reforms to make higher education systems less dependent on the financial and operational support of local governments, have resulted in increased enrollments in private institutions relative to public institutions.

Increasing Demand for Online Offerings. We believe that increasing student demand, new instruction methodologies designed for the online medium, and growing employer and regulatory acceptance of degrees obtained through online and hybrid modalities will continue to drive online learning in Mexico and Peru. Moreover, increasing the percentage of courses taught online in a hybrid educational model has significant cost and capital efficiency benefits, as a greater number of students can be accommodated in existing physical campus space.
Our Strengths and Competitive Advantages
We believe that our key competitive strengths that will enable us to execute our strategy include the following:
Scaled Platform Institutions Across Country Networks. Our scale within the countries in which we operate facilitates distinct advantages for our students and allows us to leverage our operating model across multiple brands in Mexico and Peru.
Our in-country networks facilitate competitive advantages related to:
Curricula and Programs. We are able to leverage our curricula and resources, allowing for the rapid deployment of new programs. Increasing amounts of our curricula are being standardized, allowing us to lower the cost of program development by reusing and sharing content, while improving the quality of our programs.
Best Practices. Through collaboration across our institutions, best practices for key operational processes, such as digital marketing, data science/AI, scheduling, retention management, market research, campus design, faculty training, student services and recruitment, are identified and then rolled out to all of our institutions.

Unified Systems. Our scale also permits increased investment in unified technology systems and an opportunity to leverage standardization of processes, centralization of common services (such as information technology, finance and procurement) and intellectual property, and implementing a common operating model and platform for content development, digital campus experiences, student services, recruitment and administrative services within each country. These systems provide data and insights on a scale that we believe will allow us to improve student
7


experience, retention rates and outcomes, while also enabling a more efficient and lower cost educational delivery model.

Leading Online Technology. Our commitment to digital teaching and learning has been manifested through significant investments in core technologies, as well as in human resources, training and development activities. These investments have been instrumental in establishing a deep level of expertise in online education, facilitating the design and delivery of high quality, effective and differentiated online courses in the markets in which we operate.

Long-Standing and Respected University Brands. We believe that we have established a reputation for providing high-quality higher education, and our institutions are among the most respected higher education brands in their local markets. Our institutions have long-established histories and are ranked among the best in their respective countries.

In addition, many of our institutions and programs have earned the highest accreditation available, which provides us with a strong competitive advantage in local markets. For example, medical school licenses are often the most difficult to obtain and are only granted to institutions that meet rigorous standards. Throughout Mexico and Peru we operate 17 medical and seven dental schools. We believe that the establishment of our medical and dental schools further validates the quality of our institutions and programs and increases brand awareness.

Commitment to Academic Quality. We offer high-quality undergraduate, graduate and specialized programs in a wide range of disciplines that generate strong interest from students and provide attractive employment prospects. We focus on programs that prepare our students to become employed in high demand professions. Our curriculum development process includes employer surveys and ongoing research into business trends to determine the skills and knowledge base that will be required by those employers in the future. This information results in timely curriculum upgrades, which helps ensure that our graduates acquire the skills that will make them marketable to employers. We also are committed to continually evaluating our institutions to ensure we are providing the highest quality education to our students. External assessment methodologies, such as QS Stars™, allows us to identify key areas for improvement in order to drive a culture of quality and continual innovation at our institutions.

Attractive Financial Model.

Private Pay Model. Essentially all of our revenues for 2023 were generated from private pay sources, as there are no material government-sponsored student loan programs in Mexico or Peru. We believe that students’ and families’ willingness to allocate personal resources to fund higher education at our institutions validates our strong value proposition.

Revenue Visibility Enhanced by Program Length and Strong Retention. The length of our programs provides us with a high degree of revenue visibility. The majority of the academic programs offered by our institutions last between four and five years. Additionally, we actively monitor and manage student retention because of the impact it has on student outcomes and our financial results. Our historical annual student retention rate, which we define as the proportion of prior year students returning in the current year (excluding graduating students), was 79% on average over the last five years. Given our high degree of revenue visibility, we are able to make attractive capital investments and execute other strategic initiatives to help drive sustainable growth in our business.

Attractive Margin Profile with Significant Operating Leverage. Our scale within each country provides significant advantages, enabling us to operate efficiently with attractive margin levels. We focus on optimizing our operations at the country level through our in-county networks.

Our Strategy

Our mission is to deliver affordable, high-quality education to prepare students for successful careers and lifelong achievement, while building pride, trust, and respect in our communities. To achieve our mission, we execute a strategy enabled by the following initiatives:

Integration of Campus-Based Operations in Mexico and Peru. Our institutions in Mexico and Peru serve approximately 448,900 students in a relatively homogenous operating environment, creating a unique opportunity to harvest the benefits of scale. We believe that by implementing best practices within each country we will enable closer collaboration and facilitate innovation and improved student experiences. We believe that this unification will enable us to be more nimble in our day-to-day operations and will allow us to extract valuable insights from more data across our network. Further, we believe that
8


integration will enable further innovation and efficiency in our academic model and operations, and allow us to expand our market share.

Leverage and Expand Existing Portfolio. We will continue to focus on opportunities to expand our programs and the type of students that we serve, as well as our capacity in our markets to meet local demand, leveraging our existing platform to execute on attractive organic growth opportunities. In particular, we intend to add new programs and course offerings, expand target student demographics and, where appropriate, increase capacity at existing campuses and through hybrid online opportunities, open new campuses and enter new cities in existing markets. We believe that these initiatives will drive growth and provide an attractive return on capital.
Add New Programs and Course Offerings. We will continue to develop new programs and course offerings to address the changing needs in the markets. New programs and course offerings enable us to provide a high-quality education that we believe is desired by students and prospective employers. In addition, we have a comprehensive suite of current program offerings, all of which are not currently offered in each campus in which we operate. We intend to lift and shift many of those current programs to the campuses where they are not currently being offered, with a particular focus on our health sciences vertical.

Expand Target Student Demographics. We use sophisticated analytical techniques to identify opportunities to provide quality education to new or underserved student populations where market demand is not being met, such as non-traditional students (e.g., working adults, life-long learners) who may value flexible scheduling options, as well as traditional students. Our ability to provide quality education to these underserved markets has provided additional growth opportunities to our network and we intend to leverage our management capabilities and local knowledge to further capitalize on these opportunities in new and existing markets.
Increase Capacity at Existing and New Campus Locations. We will continue to make demand-driven investments in additional capacity throughout our network by expanding existing campuses and opening new campuses, including in new cities. We employ a highly analytical process based on economic and demographic trends, and demand data for the local market to determine when and where to expand capacity. When opening a new campus or expanding existing facilities, we use best practices that we have developed over more than the past decade to cost-effectively expedite the opening and development of that location.
Expand Online and Hybrid Education Programs. We intend to increase the number of our students that receive their education through fully online or hybrid programs to meet the growing demands of students. Our online initiative is designed to not only provide students with access to innovative programs and modern digital experiences, but also to diversify our offerings, increase our enrollments and expand our digital solutions in a capital efficient manner, leveraging current infrastructure and improving classroom utilization.
The percentage of student credit hours taken online in our campus-based institutions was approximately 27% for 2019. During most of 2020 and 2021, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all of our students were effectively transitioned to an online learning environment, at scale. In 2022, our students, faculty and staff were able to safely return to campus and fully transitioned to blended learning modalities.

Our new operating model is now targeting to have 40% to 60% percent of our student credit hours taken online going forward. Currently, we operate within this range with adaptability and flexibility. With a common learning management system implemented across our universities, we believe that we have the expertise to continue to expand online and hybrid offerings to meet the growing demand for this market opportunity, allowing us to differentiate ourselves further from our competitors.

We continue to accelerate the advancement of online education programs and technology-enabled solutions that deliver high-quality differentiated student experiences for our institutions at scale.
Our strategy for the online opportunity includes the following components:
Hybrid Online Programs. Traditional 18-24 year old students attending campus-based institutions are increasingly seeking digital learning experiences that are blended with in-person learning. We provide those students with a hybrid learning experience, mixing face-to-face classroom experience with technology through our online platform, which we believe improves the student experience by providing them with a wide range of online courses, interactive discussions, virtual experiences, digital resources, and simulations that enhance their learning experiences both within and outside the classroom.
9


Fully Online Programs. Many students require flexible learning modules to accommodate work and personal responsibilities. Often, these students are working adults who are looking to either complete an undergraduate or post-graduate degree, or who want to gain a credential to accelerate or change careers. Our fully online programs provide students with a high-quality curriculum experience to achieve their goals.

Our Segments and Institutions

Laureate offers its educational services through two reportable segments: Mexico and Peru.

We determine our segments based on information utilized by our chief operating decision maker to allocate resources and assess performance. See Note 6, Business and Geographic Segment Information, in our consolidated financial statements for financial information regarding our operating segments and financial information about geographic areas; see also “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Results of Operations—Segment Results” and “—Overview—Factors Affecting Comparability—Seasonality” in this Form 10-K.

The following table presents information about the institutions as of December 31, 2023:
Reportable Segment
(Enrollment)
Higher Education Institution
Year
Joined Laureate Network
Year Founded
Mexico
Universidad del Valle de México (UVM)20001960
(242,000)Universidad Tecnológica de México (UNITEC)20081966
Peru
Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)20041994
(206,900)CIBERTEC20041983
Universidad Privada del Norte (UPN)20071994
Competition
We face competition in both of our reportable segments. We believe that competition focuses on price, educational quality, reputation, brand positioning, location and facilities.
The market for higher education in Mexico and Peru is highly fragmented and marked by large numbers of local competitors. The target demographics are primarily 18- to 24-year-olds in the countries in which we compete. Public institutions tend to be less expensive, if not free, but limited in capacity. The top public universities in these market are selective, and many of the other public universities are less focused on practical programs aligned around career opportunities. This creates market demand for private educational providers. We compete with other private higher education institutions on the basis of price, educational quality, reputation and location. We believe that we compare favorably with competitors because of our focus on quality, professional-oriented curriculum and the competitive advantages provided by our network. There are a number of private and public institutions in both of the countries in which we operate, and it is difficult to predict how the markets will evolve and how many competitors there will be in the future. We expect competition to increase as the Mexican and Peruvian markets continue to develop.

See “Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—The higher education market is very competitive, and we may not be able to compete effectively.”

Intellectual Property

We currently own, or have filed applications for, trademark registrations for the word “Laureate,” for “Laureate International Universities” and for the Laureate leaf logo in the trademark offices of all jurisdictions in which we operate institutions of higher learning. We have also registered or filed applications in the applicable jurisdictions in which we operate for the trademarks “Laureate Online International” and “Laureate Online Education.” In addition, we have the rights to trade names, logos and other intellectual property specific to most of our higher education institutions, in the countries in which those institutions operate.

10


Human Capital

Expanding access to quality higher education and enriching communities through delivering market-leading outcomes for students requires the highest levels of engagement, commitment, and performance from our workforce.

We currently enroll approximately 448,900 students across our five institutions in Mexico and Peru, in campus-based, fully online, and hybrid learning programs. These students are supported by a workforce of more than 28,900 employees, including 16,000 academic staff.

More than 99% of our employees are based in Mexico or Peru, and our corporate team extends across the United States, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Brazil, Chile, and Honduras. The combination of dedicated in-country teams supported by a diverse, international corporate workforce continues to serve the company well.

Throughout 2023, we continued to strengthen our culture through a range of strategies, including a focus on accelerating our progress in support of gender equality. Below are examples of the pillars that underpin our Human Capital strategy, including our focus on diversity and inclusion.

Leadership and Governance
Our Board of Directors receives regular reports on talent development, succession planning, and company-wide culture-building efforts.
There are two established committees of our Board of Directors with responsibility for reviewing and considering a range of Human Capital related topics throughout the year. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee oversees our social impact strategy, including diversity and inclusion efforts, and our Compensation Committee reviews compensation practices and establishes annual performance targets and related compensation-based incentives.
Our Chief People Officer is responsible for leading the development and execution of company-wide culture-building and talent development initiatives.
Our executive team is committed to developing strategies to increase the number of women in positions of leadership, accelerate company-wide culture-building activities, and build a more diverse and inclusive workforce.

Diversity and Inclusion
Throughout 2023, we took a range of actions to advance our commitment to diversity and inclusion. These efforts built upon our long-standing Discrimination and Harassment policy (available at https://www.laureate.net/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Laureate-Discrimination-and-Harassment-Policy.pdf), which includes a stated commitment to equal employment opportunities.
Promoting gender equality was a significant area of focus throughout 2023, as reflected by specific programs to support and promote women in positions of leadership. Significant milestones achieved during 2023 included:
Co-designing a Women in Leadership program, building upon on an established program known as Compass. In 2024, we intend to expand the program to include more women across Laureate, whom will have the opportunity to participate in a version of the program adapted specifically for us. Program participants are expected to be selected from a range of geographies and functions, as well as from multiple levels of the organization.
At the end of 2023, 29% of Laureate’s senior leaders were women, an increase of 6% compared to the prior year.
Strategies to eliminate gender bias in all recruitment practices were introduced across Peru, and we will seek to expand these practices across Mexico in 2024.

Ongoing Training and Access to Education Assistance
Scholarships and discounts are made available at each of our five institutions for employees (an average of 81% of tuition is paid for employees). Significant discounts are also provided for immediate family members of employees in Mexico and Peru.
In the United States, education assistance is offered to all corporate employees to pursue additional education opportunities or certifications.
Regular workshops and training are offered to all employees, including courses focused on Ethics and Compliance and IT security.

11


Employee Engagement
Comprehensive company-wide engagement surveys are conducted every two years, with the next scheduled to occur in 2024. Throughout 2023 shorter pulse surveys were conducted across Peru. In addition, multiple metrics are consistently tracked to monitor engagement and employee satisfaction. These metrics include voluntary attrition, changes in individual and team performance and outcomes, and reports to the Ethics and Compliance hotline.

Performance Management and Ongoing Development
Laureate has a company-wide approach to performance management, goal setting, feedback, and performance-based compensation, which, at a minimum, includes two formal review checkpoints per year.
In 2023, all members of Laureate’s executive team participated in a comprehensive executive coaching and development program and contributed to a range of culture-building and workforce development initiatives.

Compensation and Employee Benefits
Employee compensation is reviewed and benchmarked annually against independent market data to ensure our compensation remains competitive and fair.
Senior leaders across the United States, Peru, and Mexico participate in our long-term equity incentive program as part of Laureate’s competitive compensation and talent retention initiatives.
We continue to audit all employee benefits to ensure there is no unintentional discrimination embedded in any of the benefits offered.

Safety and Security
We remain committed to the safety and well-being of all employees, students, and other stakeholders. In both Mexico and Peru, we employ dedicated security teams to develop and execute strategies to promote the safety of all students, employees, and campuses. Incidents and risks are reported, reviewed, and addressed through established cross-functional incident response teams.
Cybersecurity is a major area of focus across the Company. For more information regarding the Company’s Cybersecurity risk management, strategy and governance, see “Item 1C.—Cybersecurity.”
Our employees are expected to complete mandatory cybersecurity training multiple times per year, covering a wide range of topics aimed at keeping employees and the business protected from increasing cyber risks.
Strict data management controls are enforced across the company to ensure our workforce and human capital data is appropriately and securely captured and stored.

Workplace Flexibility
We value flexibility for employees and, as much as possible, provide opportunities for hybrid work for those not required to teach (or support students) in-person on campus. Our workforce continues to be highly productive in a hybrid modality.
In the United States, corporate employees, most of whom work remotely, are offered access to co-working locations in their city of residence, along with access to our headquarters in Miami.

Recognizing the Impact of Our People
Through the expertise, passion, and commitment of our people, we are making a positive impact within and beyond communities across Mexico and Peru. In 2023 we published our 2022 Impact Report which recognizes and celebrates the impact our people are creating, aligned to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Our Impact Reports are available at https://www.laureate.net/impact. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference herein and is not a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
These Impact Reports feature data and case studies tracked by our Impact Committee–comprised of Impact leaders from Mexico and Peru and from multiple functional areas including Finance, Communications, Academic, Operations and Ethics and Compliance.

Our History

Since making our first investment in global higher education in 1999, we have focused on expanding access to differentiated higher education and learning opportunities to traditionally underserved areas of the world. In August 2007, we were acquired in a leveraged buyout by a consortium of investment funds and other investors. On February 6, 2017, we consummated our initial public offering and shares of our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq under the symbol “LAUR”.

12


Public Benefit Corporation Status

In October 2015, we redomiciled in Delaware as a public benefit corporation as a demonstration of our long-term commitment to our mission to benefit our students and society. Public benefit corporations are intended to produce a public benefit and to operate in a responsible and sustainable manner. Under Delaware law, public benefit corporations are required to identify in their certificate of incorporation the public benefit or benefits they will promote, and their directors have a duty to manage the affairs of the corporation in a manner that balances the pecuniary interests of the stockholders, the best interests of those materially affected by the corporation’s conduct, and the specific public benefit or public benefits identified in the public benefit corporation’s certificate of incorporation. Public benefit corporations organized in Delaware also are required to assess their benefit performance internally and to disclose publicly at least biennially a report detailing their success in meeting their benefit objectives.

Our public benefit, as provided in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, is to produce a positive effect (or a reduction of negative effects) for society and persons by offering diverse education programs delivered online and on premises operated in the communities that we serve. By doing so, we believe that we provide greater access to cost-effective, high-quality higher education that enables more students to achieve their academic and career aspirations. Our operations are outside the United States, where there is a large and growing imbalance between the supply and demand for quality higher education. Our stated public benefit is firmly rooted in our company mission and our belief that when our students succeed, countries prosper and societies benefit. Becoming a public benefit corporation underscores our commitment to our purpose and our stakeholders, including students, regulators, employers, local communities and stockholders.

Available Information

Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports are available free of charge through the “Financials” portion of our investor relations website at http://investors.laureate.net and on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov as soon as reasonably practical after they are filed with the SEC. Various corporate governance documents, including our Audit and Risk Committee Charter, Compensation Committee Charter, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee Charter, Corporate Governance Guidelines and Code of Conduct and Ethics are available without charge through the “Leadership and Governance” portion of our investor relations website, listed above. In addition, we may use our website as a distribution channel of material company information, and we also webcast our earnings calls via our investor relations website.

Industry Regulation

Mexican Regulation

Mexican law provides that private entities are entitled to render education services in accordance with applicable legal provisions. These provisions regulate the education services rendered by the federal government, the states and private entities and contain guidelines for the allocation of the higher education role among the federal government, the states and the municipalities, including their respective economic contributions, in order to jointly participate in the development and coordination of higher education.

There are three levels of regulation in Mexico: federal, state and municipal. The federal authority is the Federal Ministry of Public Education (Secretaría de Educación Pública). Each of the 31 states and Mexico City has the right to establish a local Ministry of Education, and each municipality of each state may establish a municipal education authority that only has authority to advertise and promote educational services and/or activities.

Some functions are exclusive to the Federal Ministry of Education, such as the establishment of study plans and programs for Basic and Mid-Superior education services. There are also concurrent functions, such as the granting and withdrawal of governmental recognition of validity of studies (Reconocimiento de Validez Oficial de Estudios) (“REVOEs”).

The General Law on Education (Ley General de Educación) in Mexico classifies studies in the following three categories: (i) Basic Education, which includes pre-school (kindergarten), elementary school and junior high school (secundaria); (ii) Mid-Superior Education, which includes high school (preparatoria) and equivalent studies, as well as professional education that does not consider preparatoria as a prerequisite; and (iii) Superior Education, which includes the studies taught after preparatoria, including undergraduate school (licenciatura), specialties (especialidades), master’s studies, doctorate studies and studies for teachers (educación normal).

13


The REVOEs are issued either by the Federal Ministry of Education under the General Law on Education or by any of the state Ministries of Education under the applicable state law. REVOEs are granted for each program taught at each campus. If there is a change in the program or in the campus at which it is taught, the entity will need to get a new REVOE.

The Federal Ministry of Education has issued a set of general resolutions (Acuerdos) that regulate the general requirements for obtaining REVOEs. The main Acuerdos are (i) Acuerdo 243, issued on May 27, 1998, which sets the general guidelines for obtaining an Authorization or REVOE; (ii) Acuerdo 17/11/17, issued on November 10, 2017, which sets the procedures related to REVOEs for Superior Education studies; and (iii) Acuerdo 18/11/18, issued on November 27, 2018, which defines the different levels, models and educational options at Superior Education. The Federal Ministry of Education recommends to the local Ministries of Education the adoption and inclusion of the provisions contained in Acuerdo 243 and Acuerdo 17/11/17 in the local Law on Education and other applicable local laws and regulations.

Depending on each state, other requirements may apply; for example, in certain states, private institutions that provide educational services with REVOEs need to be registered with the corresponding local authorities.

Acuerdo 17/11/17 regulates in detail the provisions contained under the General Law on Education to grant REVOEs for Superior Education studies, regarding faculty, plans and programs of studies, inspection visits, procedures, etc. Acuerdo 17/11/17 also provides that private institutions that provide Superior Education services in accordance with presidential decrees or secretarial resolutions (acuerdos secretariales) issued specifically to them may maintain the obligations provided to them thereunder and may function under the simplified provisions of Acuerdo 17/11/17. Currently, Universidad Tecnológica de México, S.C. and Universidad del Valle de México, S.C. have secretarial resolutions that were issued in their favor before the issuance of Acuerdo 17/11/17. The obligations contained in these secretarial resolutions generally conform to the obligations provided under Acuerdo 17/11/17.

The regulatory authorities are entitled to conduct inspection visits to the facilities of educational institutions to verify compliance with applicable legal provisions. Failure to comply with applicable legal provisions may result in the imposition of fines, the cancellation of the applicable REVOE and the closure of the education facilities.

Private institutions with REVOEs are required to grant a minimum percentage of scholarships to students. Acuerdo 17/11/17 requires private institutions to grant scholarships to at least five percent of the total students registered during each academic term. Scholarships consist, in whole or in part, of payment of the registration and tuition fees established by the educational institution.

Private entities may also obtain the recognition of validity of their programs from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México or “UNAM”). The General Regulations of Incorporation and Validation of Studies issued by UNAM provide that programs followed in private entities may be “incorporated” to UNAM in order for UNAM to recognize their validity.

The UNAM regulations also require private entities incorporated to UNAM to grant scholarships to at least five percent of the total students registered at such entity. The students entitled to have this benefit will be selected by UNAM. Some of our high school programs and one of our medical programs are incorporated to UNAM.

A new higher education bill was enacted in April 2021. No foreseeable material changes are expected to impact the business as a result of this bill and expected secondary provisions.

Peruvian Regulation

We operate three post-secondary education institutions in Peru, two of which are universities and one of which is a technical-vocational institute. Peruvian law provides that universities and technical-vocational institutes can be operated as public or private entities and that the private entities may be organized for profit. The Ministry of Education (“MINEDU”) has overall responsibility for the national education system.

In 2014, the Peruvian Congress enacted a new law (the “University Law”) to regulate the establishment, operation, monitoring and closure of universities and to promote continuous improvement of quality at Peruvian universities. The University Law created a new agency, the Superintendencia Nacional de Educación Superior Universitaria (“SUNEDU”), which is responsible for carrying out the governmental role in university regulation, including ensuring quality. While institutional autonomy is still recognized, and universities are permitted to create their own internal governance rules and determine their own academic, management and economic systems, including curriculum design and entrance and graduation requirements, all of these matters are now subject to review and evaluation by SUNEDU through its periodic review of universities as part of a license renewal
14


process. As of July 2022, Law 31520 modified the composition of the SUNEDU Board of Directors and eliminated its powers for the approval of new careers, schools and faculties.

Under the University Law, university licenses are granted for specific time periods but are renewable, and are granted by SUNEDU. Universities have to demonstrate to SUNEDU that they comply with, at a minimum, certain Basic Quality Conditions (“BQCs”) (i.e., that they have specified academic goals and that the degrees granted and plans of study are aligned with those goals; that their academic offerings are compatible with their planning goals (e.g., there is sufficient labor demand for careers offered); that there are only two regular semesters of studies per year; that they have appropriate infrastructure and equipment; that they engage in research; that they have a sufficient supply of qualified teachers, at least 25% of whom will need to be full-time; that they supply adequate basic complementary educational services (e.g., medical and psychological services and sports activities); that they provide appropriate placement office services; and that they have transparency of institutional information). Both UPC and UPN had their licenses renewed in 2017, in each case for a period of six years, extended one additional year due to COVID-19. Accordingly, both UPC and UPN will undergo the renewal process in 2025.

SUNEDU allows for the educational services to be provided by three modalities: (i) face-to-face learning (with a maximum of 20% virtual credits), (ii) hybrid learning (with up to 60% of the total credits of the academic program allowed to be taken virtually) and (iii) virtual learning (credits taken virtually cannot exceed 80% of the total credits of undergraduate and working adult academic programs). In November 2023, SUNEDU stipulated that health sciences undergraduate programs can only be carried out in face-to-face mode. This requirement, however, does not apply to previously approved programs and will only apply at the time of an institution's relicensing, which for UPC and UPN will be in 2025.

Technical-vocational institutes are regulated by the MINEDU, which grants operating licenses for six years, after which the Ministry conducts a revalidation process. Since 2016, a new law regarding technical-vocational institutes (the “Institutes and Colleges Law”) was enacted. The Institutes and Colleges Law created two types of institutions: Higher Education Institutes (“Institutes”) which are dedicated to technical careers and Higher Education Colleges (“Colleges”) which are devoted to technical careers related to education, as well as science and information technology. Institutes grant Technical Bachelor Degrees and Professional Technical Degrees. Institutes and Colleges are subject to a mandatory license granted by the MINEDU, based on an evaluation to determine compliance with BQCs. BQCs include: an appropriate institutional management guaranteeing a proper relation with the educational model of the institution; appropriate academic management and proper program studies aligned with the MINEDU norms; appropriate infrastructure and equipment to develop educational activities; adequate teachers and staff which, at a minimum, should consist of 20% full-time staff; and appropriate financial and economic provisions. Unlike licenses, quality accreditation is voluntary, except for certain careers for which it might be mandatory as determined by law. Such accreditation will be taken into consideration for access to public grants for scholarships and research, among other things. Private Institutes and Colleges may be organized as for-profit or not-for-profit entities under Peruvian law. In May 2023, Cibertec was granted an Institutes license renewal for a six-year period. Also during 2023, Cibertec was granted a Colleges license for a six-year period, which will now allow Cibertec to offer four-year programs for professional bachelor degrees.

15


Item 1A. Risk Factors

Risk Factors

In addition to the information set forth in this Form 10-K and our other filings with the SEC, you should carefully consider the following risks and uncertainties, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The risks identified below are not all encompassing but should be considered in establishing an opinion of our future operations. The situation continues to evolve, and additional impacts may arise of which we are not currently aware.

Risks Relating to Our Business

We operate a portfolio of degree-granting higher education institutions in Mexico and Peru and are subject to complex business, economic, legal, political, tax and foreign currency risks, which risks may be difficult to adequately address.

Our portfolio, which is composed of five institutions, operates in Mexico and Peru, each of which is subject to complex business, economic, legal, political, tax and foreign currency risks. We may have difficulty managing and administering our operations in multiple countries, and we may need to expend additional funds to, among other things, staff key management positions, obtain additional information technology infrastructure and successfully implement relevant course and program offerings for each market, which may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Additional challenges associated with the conduct of our business overseas that may materially adversely affect our operating results include:

our presence solely in Latin America presents risks relating to regional economic pressures;

each of our institutions is subject to unique business risks and challenges, including competitive pressures and diverse pricing environments at the local level;

difficulty maintaining quality standards consistent with our brands and with local accreditation requirements;

potential economic and political instability in the countries in which we operate, including student unrest;

fluctuations in exchange rates, possible currency devaluations, inflation and hyperinflation;

compliance with a wide variety of foreign laws and regulations;

expropriation of assets by governments;

lower levels of availability or use of the Internet, through which our online programs are delivered;

limitations on the repatriation and investment of funds and foreign currency exchange restrictions; and

acts of terrorism, public health risks, crime and natural disasters, particularly in areas in which we have significant operations.

Our success in operating our business will depend, in part, on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these and other risks related to operating in multiple countries. Any failure by us to effectively manage the challenges associated with our operations could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

16


If we cannot maintain student enrollments in our institutions and maintain tuition levels, our results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

Our strategy for growth and profitability depends, in part, upon maintaining and, subsequently, increasing student enrollments in our institutions and maintaining tuition levels. Attrition rates are often due to factors outside our control. Students sometimes face financial, personal or family constraints that require them to drop out of school. They also are affected by economic and social factors prevalent in their countries. In some markets in which we operate, transfers between universities are not common and, as a result, we are less likely to fill spaces of students who drop out. In addition, our ability to attract and retain students may require us to discount tuition from published levels and may prevent us from increasing tuition levels at a rate consistent with inflation and increases in our costs. If we are unable to control the rate of student attrition, our overall enrollment levels are likely to decline, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we are unable to charge tuition rates that are both competitive and cover our rising expenses, our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations may be materially adversely affected. In addition, student enrollment may be negatively affected by our reputation and any negative publicity related to us.

Our success depends substantially on the value of the local brands of each of our institutions, each of which may be materially adversely affected by changes in current and prospective students’ perception of our reputation and the use of social media.

Each of our institutions has worked hard to establish the value of its individual brand. Brand value may be severely damaged, even by isolated incidents, particularly if the incidents receive considerable negative publicity. There has been a marked increase in use of social media platforms and other forms of Internet-based communications that allow individuals access to a broad audience of interested persons. We believe that students and prospective employers value readily available information about our institutions and often act on such information without further investigation or authentication, and without regard to its accuracy. In addition, some of our institutions use the Laureate name in promoting their institutions. Social media platforms and devices immediately publish the content their subscribers and participants post, often without filters or checks on the accuracy of the content posted. Information concerning our Company and our institutions may be posted on such platforms and devices at any time. Information posted may be materially adverse to our interests, it may be inaccurate, and it may harm our performance, prospects and business.

Our reputation may be negatively influenced by the actions of other for-profit and private institutions.

Allegations against the post-secondary for-profit and private education sectors may affect general public perceptions of for-profit and private educational institutions, including our institutions and us, in a negative manner. Adverse media coverage regarding other for-profit or private educational institutions or regarding us directly or indirectly could damage our reputation, reduce student demand for our programs, materially adversely affect our revenues and operating profit or result in increased regulatory scrutiny.

Growing our online academic programs could be difficult for us.

The expansion of our existing online programs and the creation of new online academic programs may not be accepted by students or employers, or by government regulators or accreditation agencies. In addition, our efforts may be materially adversely affected by increased competition in the online education market or because of problems with the performance or reliability of our online program infrastructure.

Our success depends, in part, on the effectiveness of our marketing and advertising programs in recruiting new students.

In order to maintain and increase our revenues and margins, we must continue to develop our admissions programs and attract new students in a cost-effective manner. The level of marketing and advertising and types of strategies used are affected by the specific geographic markets, regulatory compliance requirements and the specific individual nature of each institution and its students. The complexity of these marketing efforts contributes to their cost. If we are unable to advertise and market our institutions and programs successfully, our ability to attract and enroll new students could be materially adversely affected and, consequently, our financial performance could suffer. We use marketing tools such as the Internet, radio, television and print media advertising to promote our institutions and programs. Our representatives also make presentations at upper secondary schools. In order to maintain our growth, we will need to attract a larger percentage of students in existing markets and increase our addressable market by adding locations in new markets and rolling out new academic programs. Any failure to accomplish this may have a material adverse effect on our future growth.

17


If we do not effectively manage our growth and business, our results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

There is no assurance that we will be able to maintain or accelerate the current growth rate, effectively manage expanding operations, build expansion capacity, or achieve planned growth on a timely or profitable basis. If our revenue growth is less than projected, the costs incurred for these additions and upgrades could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our institutions are subject to uncertain and varying laws and regulations, and any changes to these laws or regulations or their application to us may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Higher education is regulated to varying degrees and in different ways in each of the countries in which we operate an institution. In general, our institutions must have licenses, approvals, authorizations, or accreditations from various governmental authorities and accrediting bodies. These licenses, approvals, authorizations, and accreditations must be renewed periodically, usually after an evaluation of the institution by the relevant governmental authorities or accrediting bodies. These periodic evaluations could result in limitations, restrictions, conditions, or withdrawal of such licenses, approvals, authorizations or accreditations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Once licensed, approved, authorized or accredited, some of our institutions may need approvals for new campuses or to add new degree programs.

Additionally, our institutions are subject to requirements and limitations imposed by the governmental regulatory bodies of the various countries in which they are located. All of these regulations and their applicable interpretations are subject to change. Moreover, regulatory agencies may scrutinize our institutions because they are owned or controlled by a U.S.-based for-profit corporation. Changes in applicable regulations may cause a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The higher education market is very competitive, and we may not be able to compete effectively.

Our institutions compete with traditional public and private colleges and universities and other proprietary institutions, including those that offer online professional-oriented programs. In each of the countries in which we operate a private institution, our primary competitors are public and other private universities, some of which are larger, more widely known and have more established reputations than our institutions. Some of our competitors in both the public and private sectors may have greater financial and other resources than we have and have operated in their markets for many years. Other competitors may include large, well-capitalized companies that may pursue a strategy similar to ours of acquiring or establishing for-profit institutions. Public institutions receive substantial government subsidies, and public and private not-for-profit institutions have access to government and foundation grants, tax-deductible contributions and other financial resources generally not available to for-profit institutions. Accordingly, public and private not-for-profit institutions may have instructional and support resources superior to those in the for-profit sector, and public institutions can offer substantially lower tuition prices or other advantages that we cannot match.

If our graduates are unable to obtain professional licenses or certifications required for employment in their chosen fields of study, our reputation may suffer and we may face declining enrollments and revenues or be subject to student litigation.

Certain of our students require or desire professional licenses or certifications after graduation to obtain employment in their chosen fields. Their success in obtaining such licensure depends on several factors, including the individual merits of the student, whether the institution and the program were approved by the relevant government or by a professional association, whether the program from which the student graduated meets all governmental requirements and whether the institution is accredited. If one or more governmental authorities refuses to recognize our graduates for professional licensure in the future based on factors relating to us or our programs, the potential growth of our programs would be negatively affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we could be exposed to litigation that would force us to incur legal and other expenses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business may be materially adversely affected if we are not able to maintain or improve the content of our existing academic programs or to develop new programs on a timely basis and in a cost-effective manner.

We continually seek to maintain and improve the content of our existing academic programs and develop new programs in order to meet changing market needs. Revisions to our existing academic programs and the development of new programs may not be accepted by existing or prospective students or employers in all instances. If we cannot respond effectively to market changes, our business may be materially adversely affected. Even if we are able to develop acceptable new programs, we may
18


not be able to introduce these new programs as quickly as students or employers require or as quickly as our competitors are able to introduce competing programs. Our efforts to introduce a new academic program may be conditioned or delayed by requirements to obtain foreign, federal, state and accrediting agency approvals. The development of new programs and courses, both conventional and online, is subject to requirements and limitations imposed by the governmental regulatory bodies of the various countries in which our institutions are located. The imposition of restrictions on the initiation of new educational programs by regulatory agencies may delay such expansion plans. If we do not respond adequately to changes in market requirements, our ability to attract and retain students could be impaired and our financial results could suffer.

Establishing new academic programs or modifying existing academic programs also may require us to make investments in specialized personnel and capital expenditures, increase marketing efforts and reallocate resources away from other uses. We may have limited experience with the subject matter of new programs and may need to modify our systems and strategy. If we are unable to increase the number of students, offer new programs in a cost-effective manner or otherwise effectively manage the operations of newly established academic programs, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Failure to keep pace with changing market needs and technology could harm our ability to attract students.

The success of our institutions depends to a significant extent on the willingness of prospective employers to hire our students upon graduation. Increasingly, employers demand that their employees possess appropriate technological and other appropriate skills, such as communication, critical thinking and teamwork. These skills can evolve rapidly in a changing economic and technological environment. Accordingly, it is important that our educational programs evolve in response to those economic and technological changes. The expansion of existing academic programs and the development of new programs may not be accepted by current or prospective students or by the employers of our graduates. Students and faculty increasingly rely on personal communication devices and expect that we will be able to adapt our information technology platforms and our educational delivery methods to support these devices and any new technologies that may develop. Even if our institutions are able to develop acceptable new programs and adapt to new technologies, our institutions may not be able to begin offering those new programs and technologies as quickly as required by prospective students and employers or as quickly as our competitors begin offering similar programs. If we are unable to adequately respond to changes in market requirements due to regulatory or financial constraints, unusually rapid technological changes or other factors, our ability to attract and retain students could be impaired, the rates at which our graduates obtain jobs involving their fields of study could suffer and our results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

We may have exposure to greater-than-anticipated tax liabilities.

As a multinational corporation, we are subject to income taxes as well as non-income based taxes in the United States and various foreign jurisdictions. The determination of our provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities requires significant judgment, and there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. In addition, changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws, regulations and accounting principles, could have a material adverse effect on our future income taxes. We have not recorded deferred tax liabilities for undistributed foreign earnings because our strategy is to reinvest these earnings outside the United States. As circumstances change and if some or all of these undistributed foreign earnings are remitted to the United States, we may be required to recognize deferred tax liabilities on any amounts that we are unable to repatriate in a tax-free manner.

We are subject to regular review and audit by both domestic and foreign tax authorities of entities related to both our current operations and operations related to divested entities. Any adverse outcome of such a review or audit could have a negative effect on our operating results and financial condition. We are also subject to non-income based taxes, such as payroll, sales, use, value-added, net worth, property and goods and services taxes, in both the United States and various foreign jurisdictions. We are under regular audit by tax authorities with respect to these non-income based taxes and may have exposure to additional non-income based tax liabilities.

We have also identified certain tax-related contingencies that we have assessed as being reasonably possible of loss, but not probable of loss, and could have an adverse effect on our results of operations if the outcomes are unfavorable.

Although we believe that our estimates are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and may materially adversely affect our financial results in the period or periods for which such determination is made.

19


Our reported revenues and earnings may be negatively affected by the strengthening of the U.S. dollar and currency exchange rates.

We report revenues, costs and earnings in U.S. dollars, while our institutions generally collect tuition in the local currency. Exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and the local currency in the countries where we operate institutions are likely to fluctuate from period to period. In 2023, essentially all of our revenues originated outside the United States. We translate revenues and other results denominated in foreign currencies into U.S. dollars for our consolidated financial statements. This translation is based on average exchange rates during a reporting period. While the Mexican peso and the Peruvian nuevo sol strengthened against the U.S. dollar in 2023, in recent years, the U.S. dollar has strengthened against many international currencies, including the Mexican peso and Peruvian nuevo sol. As the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar strengthens, our reported international revenues and earnings are reduced because foreign currencies translate into fewer U.S. dollars. For the year ended December 31, 2023, a hypothetical 10% adverse change in average annual foreign currency exchange rates would have decreased our operating income and our Adjusted EBITDA by approximately $40.6 million and $47.7 million, respectively. For more information, see “Item 7A—Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk—Foreign Currency Exchange Risk.”

To the extent that foreign revenues and expense transactions are not denominated in the local currency and/or to the extent foreign earnings are reinvested in a currency other than their functional currency, we are also subject to the risk of transaction losses. We occasionally enter into foreign exchange forward contracts or other hedging arrangements to reduce the earnings impact of non-functional currency denominated non-trade receivables and debt and to protect the U.S. dollar value of our assets and future cash flows with respect to exchange rate fluctuations. Given the volatility of exchange rates, there is no assurance that we will be able to effectively manage currency transaction and/or translation risks. Therefore, volatility in currency exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Currency exchange rates and our reported revenues and earnings may also be negatively affected by inflation or hyperinflation. If a country in which we operate is designated as a highly inflationary economy in the future under GAAP, the U.S. dollar would become the functional currency for our operations in that country. As a result, all gains and losses resulting from the remeasurement of the financial results of operations in such country and other transactional foreign exchange gains and losses would be reflected in our earnings, which could result in volatility within our earnings, rather than as a component of our comprehensive income within stockholders’ equity. Hyperinflation in any of the countries in which we operate may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles make up a significant portion of our total assets, and if we determine that goodwill or indefinite-lived intangibles become impaired in the future, net income and operating income in such years may be materially and adversely affected.

As of December 31, 2023, the net carrying value of our goodwill and other intangible assets totaled approximately $831 million. Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair market value of net assets acquired in business combinations. Due to the revaluation of our assets at the time of the leveraged buyout transaction (LBO) and acquisitions we have completed historically, goodwill makes up a significant portion of our total assets. In accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, we periodically review goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles for impairment and any excess in carrying value over the estimated fair value is charged to the results of operations. Future reviews of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles could result in reductions. Any reduction in net income and operating income resulting from the write down or impairment of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles could adversely affect our financial results. If economic or industry conditions deteriorate or if market valuations decline, including with respect to our common stock, we may be required to impair goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles in future periods.

We experience seasonal fluctuations in our results of operations.

The institutions in our portfolio have a summer break, during which classes are generally not in session and minimal revenues are recognized. In addition to the timing of summer breaks, holidays such as Easter also have an impact on our academic calendar. Operating expenses, however, do not fully correlate to the enrollment and revenue cycles, as the institutions continue to incur expenses during summer breaks. Accordingly, our second and fourth quarters are stronger revenue quarters, as our institutions are in session for most of these respective quarters. Our first and third fiscal quarters are weaker revenue quarters because our institutions have summer breaks for some portion of one of these two quarters. Because a significant portion of our expenses do not vary proportionately with the fluctuations in our revenues, our results in a particular fiscal quarter may not indicate accurately the results we will achieve in a subsequent quarter or for the full fiscal year.

20


Connectivity constraints or technology system breaches and/or disruptions to our computer networks could have a material adverse effect on our ability to attract and retain students and subject us to liability, reputational damage or interrupt the operation of our business.

We rely upon our information technology systems and infrastructure to operate our business. We run the online operations of our institutions on different platforms, which are in various stages of development. The performance and reliability of these online operations are critical to the reputation of our institutions and our ability to attract and retain students. Any computer system error or failure, or a sudden and significant increase in traffic on our institutions’ computer networks or those of our third-party providers, may result in the unavailability of these computer networks. In addition, any significant failure of our computer networks could disrupt our on-campus operations. Individual, sustained or repeated occurrences could significantly damage the reputation of our institutions’ operations and result in a loss of potential or existing students. Additionally, our computer systems (and those of our third-party providers) and operations of our institutions are vulnerable to interruption or malfunction due to events beyond our control, including cyber-attacks, natural disasters and other catastrophic events and network and telecommunications failures. Like other global companies, our computer systems are regularly subject to and will continue to be the target of computer viruses, malware or other malicious codes (including ransomware), unauthorized access, cyber-attacks or other computer-related penetrations. While we have experienced threats to our data and systems, to date, we are not aware that we have experienced a material cyber-security breach. However, over time, the sophistication of these threats continues to increase. The preventative actions we take to reduce the risk of cyber incidents and protect our information and systems may be insufficient. A user who circumvents security measures could misappropriate proprietary information or cause interruptions to or malfunctions in operations. As a result, we may be required to expend significant resources to protect against the threat of these security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by these incidents. Further, the disaster recovery plans and backup systems that we have in place may not be effective in addressing a natural disaster or catastrophic event that results in the destruction or disruption of any of our critical business or information technology and infrastructure systems. As a result of any of these events, we may not be able to conduct normal business operations and may be required to incur significant expenses in order to resume normal business operations. As a result, our revenues and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

Any breach, theft or loss of personal information that we collect or any violations of the privacy and information security laws and regulations to which we are subject could materially adversely affect our reputation and operations.

Possession and use of personal information in our operations subjects us to risks and costs that could harm our business. Our institutions collect, use and retain large amounts of personal information regarding our students and their families, including tax identification numbers, tax return information, personal and family financial data and credit card numbers. We also collect and maintain personal information of our employees in the ordinary course of our business. In addition, we collect and maintain other types of information, such as leads, that may include personal information of our business contacts in the ordinary course of our business. Our computer networks and the networks of certain of our vendors that hold and manage confidential information on our behalf may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer hackers, computer viruses, cyber-attacks and other security threats. Confidential information also may become available to third parties inadvertently when we integrate or convert computer networks into our network following an acquisition of an institution or in connection with upgrades from time to time.

Due to the sensitive nature of the information contained on our networks, such as students’ grades, our networks may be targeted by hackers. A user who circumvents security measures could misappropriate proprietary information or cause interruptions or malfunctions in our operations. Although we use security and business controls to limit access and use of personal information, a third party may be able to circumvent those security and business controls, which could result in a breach of student or employee privacy. See above risk factor regarding threats experienced by us and other global companies as continued targets of cyber security attacks and that, despite having experienced threats, we are not aware that we have experienced a material cyber-security breach. The preventative actions we take to reduce the risk of cyber incidents and protect our information may be insufficient. A user who circumvents security measures could misappropriate personal or proprietary information. In addition, errors in the storage, use or transmission of personal information could result in a breach of student or employee privacy. As a result, we may be required to expend significant resources to protect against the threat of these security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by these breaches.

Furthermore, we are subject to a variety of laws and regulations globally regarding privacy, data protection, and data security, including those related to the collection, storage, handling, use, disclosure, transfer, and security of personal data. Mexico and Peru have passed or are considering enhanced privacy and data security regulations, resulting in additional compliance burdens and uncertainty as to how some of these laws will be interpreted. We have invested, and expect to continue to invest, significant resources to comply with privacy laws and regulations.

21


A breach, theft or loss of personal information regarding our students and their families, our employees, or other persons that is held by us or our vendors, or a violation of the laws and regulations governing privacy in one or more of the countries in which we operate, could result in significant penalties or legal liability, reputational damage, and/or remediation and compliance costs, which could be substantial and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

An epidemic, pandemic or other public health emergency, such as the global coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

An epidemic, pandemic or other public health emergency, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and the efficacy and use of COVID-19 vaccines, in the locations in which our students, faculty, and staff live, work and attend classes could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. An epidemic, pandemic or other public health emergency could adversely affect, and, in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, has adversely affected, global economies, market conditions and business operations across industries worldwide, including our industry. Any general economic slowdown or recession that disproportionately impacts the countries in which our institutions operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. In the event of a sustained market deterioration, we may need additional liquidity, which would require us to evaluate available alternatives and take appropriate actions.

Protests and strikes may disrupt our ability to hold classes as well as our ability to attract and retain students, which could materially adversely affect our operations.

Political, social and economic developments in the countries in which we operate may cause protests and disturbances against conditions in those countries, including policies relating to the operation and funding of higher education institutions. These disturbances may involve protests in areas where our campuses are located or on our university campuses, including the occupation of university buildings and the disruption of classes. We are unable to predict whether students at our institutions will engage in various forms of protest in the future. Should we sustain student strikes, protests or occupations in the future, it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and on our overall financial condition. Further, we may need to make additional investments in security infrastructure and personnel on our campuses in order to prevent future protests from disrupting the ability of our institutions to hold classes. If we are required to make substantial additional investments in security, or if we are unable to identify security enhancements that would prevent future disruptions of classes, that could cause an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, we may need to pay overtime compensation to certain of our faculty and staff, which may increase our overall costs.

We may be unable to operate one or more of our institutions or suffer liability or loss due to a natural or other disaster, including as a result of the effects of climate change.

A number of our institutions in Mexico and Peru are located in areas that are prone to damage from natural or other disasters and major weather events, which may be substantial and may occur with higher frequency or severity or be less predictable in the future due to the effects of climate change. For example, in 2023, the weather phenomenon known as El Niño returned. Peru and its economy are particularly vulnerable to El Niño, which generally results in an increase in storms, flooding and mudslides. Depending upon the severity of El Niño and its resulting impact on Peru and its economy, we may experience a range of disruptions, including campus closures, reductions in enrollment and flood-related damage, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, a number of our institutions in Mexico and Peru are located in areas that are prone to earthquake damage. For example, in 2017, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake struck Mexico, causing a temporary suspension of activities at several UVM and UNITEC campuses that lasted 12 days on average, and we incurred significant direct costs for repairs due to the earthquake. It is possible that one or more of our institutions would be unable to operate for an extended period of time in the event of a hurricane, earthquake or other disaster that causes substantial damage to the area in which an institution is located. The failure of one or more of our institutions to operate for a substantial period of time could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. In the event of a major natural or other disaster, we could also experience loss of life of students, faculty members and administrative staff, or liability for damages or injuries.

If we are unable to upgrade our campuses, they may become less attractive to parents and students and we may fail to grow our business.

All of our institutions require periodic upgrades to remain attractive to parents and students. Upgrading the facilities at our institutions could be difficult for a number of reasons, including the following:

22


our properties may not have the capacity or configuration to accommodate proposed renovations;

construction and other costs may be prohibitive;

we may fail to obtain regulatory approvals;

it may be difficult and expensive to comply with local building and fire codes;

we may be unable to finance construction and other costs; and

we may not be able to negotiate reasonable terms with our landlords or developers or complete the work within acceptable timeframes.

Our failure to upgrade the facilities of our institutions could lead to lower enrollment and could cause a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to attract and retain the key talent needed for us to timely achieve our business objectives, our business and results of operations could be harmed.

Our success and ability to grow depend on the ability to hire and retain large numbers of talented people. The process of hiring employees with the combination of skills and attributes required to implement our business strategy can be difficult and time-consuming.

The marketplace for senior executive management candidates is very competitive. Unplanned or repeated turnover within the senior management ranks in the corporate team or in the regions in which we operate can lead to instability or weakness in oversight that creates the conditions for gaps in performance and non-compliance with our control environment or public company reporting requirements. Any one of these occurrences could adversely affect our stock price, results of operations, ability to timely report financial results, or business relationships and can make recruiting for future management positions more difficult. Competition for senior leadership may increase our overall compensation expenses, whether resulting from new hires or retention, which may negatively affect our profitability.

Our faculty members in particular are key to the success of our institutions. We face competition in attracting and retaining faculty members who possess the necessary experience and accreditation to teach at our institutions. It may be difficult to maintain consistency in the quality of our faculty and administrative staff. If we are unable to, or are perceived to be unable to, attract and retain experienced and qualified faculty, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

Litigation and divestiture-related indemnification obligations may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is subject to the risk of litigation by employees, students, suppliers, competitors, minority partners, counterparties in transactions in which we purchase or sell assets or leased property, stockholders, government agencies or others through private actions, class actions, administrative proceedings, regulatory actions or other litigation, some of which may take place in jurisdictions in which local parties may have certain advantages over foreign parties. The outcome of litigation, particularly class action lawsuits, regulatory actions and intellectual property claims, is difficult to assess or quantify. Plaintiffs in these types of lawsuits may seek recovery of very large or indeterminate amounts, or may assert criminal charges, and the magnitude of the potential loss relating to these lawsuits may remain unknown for substantial periods of time. In addition, certain of these lawsuits, if decided adversely to us or settled by us, may result in liability material to our financial statements as a whole or may negatively affect our operating results if changes to our business operation are required. The cost to defend future litigation may be significant. There also may be adverse publicity associated with litigation that could negatively affect customer perception of our business, regardless of whether the allegations are valid or whether we are ultimately found liable. As a result, litigation may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. See “Item 3—Legal Proceedings.”

In the past, we have divested a number of businesses. As customary, we have contractually agreed to indemnify the buyers against certain liabilities and obligations related to the divestiture. If we incur costs associated with indemnification claims related to our divestitures, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

23


We are subject to anti-corruption laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”), as well as trade compliance and economic sanctions laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could subject us to civil and criminal penalties, harm our reputation and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Doing business on a worldwide basis requires us to comply with the laws and regulations of numerous jurisdictions. These laws and regulations place restrictions on our operations and business practices. In particular, we are subject to the FCPA, which generally prohibits companies and their intermediaries from providing anything of value to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or securing any improper business advantage, along with various other anti-corruption laws. As a result of doing business in foreign countries and with foreign partners, we are exposed to a heightened risk of violating anti-corruption laws. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure that we, our employees and other intermediaries comply with the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws to which we are subject, there is no assurance that such policies or procedures will work effectively all of the time or protect us against liability under the FCPA or other laws for actions taken by our employees and other intermediaries with respect to our business or any businesses that we may acquire. We cannot assure you that all of our local partners will comply with these laws, in which case we could be held liable for actions taken inside or outside of the United States, even though our partners may not be subject to these laws. Any development of new partnerships and joint venture relationships worldwide would increase the risk of FCPA violations in the future.

Violations of anti-corruption laws, export control laws and regulations, and economic sanctions laws and regulations are punishable by civil penalties, including fines, as well as criminal fines and imprisonment. If we fail to comply with the FCPA or other laws governing the conduct of international operations, we may be subject to criminal and civil penalties and other remedial measures, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. Any investigation of any potential violations of the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws, export control laws and regulations, and economic sanctions laws and regulations by the United States or foreign authorities could also materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity, regardless of the outcome of the investigation.

We have in the past had material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting.

We have identified and remediated material weaknesses in the past and may in the future discover areas of our internal financial and accounting controls and procedures that need improvement. Our internal control over financial reporting will not prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, regardless of how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.

If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner, or if we are unable to maintain proper and effective internal controls, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements, and we or our independent registered public accounting firm may conclude that our internal controls over financial reporting are not effective or our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to provide us with an unqualified opinion as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If that were to happen, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could lead to a decline in the market price of our common stock and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the stock exchange on which our common stock is listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities.

Additionally, the existence of any material weakness could require management to devote significant time and incur significant expense to remediate any such material weakness and management may not be able to remediate any such material weakness in a timely manner. The existence of any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting also could result in errors in our financial statements that could require us to restate our financial statements, cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and cause the holders of our common stock to lose confidence in our reported financial information, all of which could materially adversely affect our business and share price.

Risks Relating to Our Indebtedness

Our debt agreements contain, and future debt agreements may contain, restrictions that may limit our flexibility in operating our business.

Our Third Amended and Restated Credit Agreement dated as of October 7, 2019, as amended in September 2023 (and as may be further amended from time to time, the “Credit Agreement”), which governs our multi-currency revolving credit facility (the
24


“Revolving Credit Facility”), contains various covenants that may limit our ability to engage in specified types of transactions. These covenants limit our and our restricted subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things:

pay dividends and make certain distributions, investments and other restricted payments;

incur additional indebtedness, issue disqualified stock or issue certain preferred shares;

sell assets;

enter into transactions with affiliates;

create certain liens or encumbrances;

preserve our corporate existence;

merge, consolidate, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets; and

designate our subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries.

While the Credit Agreement provides for quarterly compliance with the Consolidated Senior Secured Debt to Consolidated EBITDA Ratio, as defined in the Credit Agreement, as of December 31, 2023, we were not required to comply with this covenant.

We rely on funds from our operating subsidiaries to meet our debt service and other obligations.

We conduct all of our operations through certain of our subsidiaries, and we have no significant assets other than cash of approximately $8 million as of December 31, 2023 held at corporate entities and the capital stock or other control rights of our subsidiaries. Also as of December 31, 2023, we had $59 million of U.S. dollar denominated debt obligations outstanding under our Senior Secured Credit Facility, As a result, we rely on our operating subsidiaries to pay dividends or to make distributions or other payments to their parent companies. In addition, we rely on intercompany loan repayments and other payments from our operating subsidiaries to meet any existing or future debt service and other obligations, a substantial portion of which are denominated in U.S. dollars. The ability of our operating subsidiaries to pay dividends or to make distributions or other payments to their parent companies or directly to us will depend on their respective operating results and may be restricted by, among other things, the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization, regulatory requirements, agreements entered into by those operating subsidiaries and the covenants of any existing or future outstanding indebtedness that we or our subsidiaries may incur. Further, because most of our income is generated by our operating subsidiaries in non-U.S. dollar denominated currencies, our ability to service our U.S. dollar denominated debt obligations may be affected by any strengthening of the U.S. dollar compared to the functional currencies of our operating subsidiaries.

Disruptions of the credit and equity markets worldwide may impede or prevent our access to the capital markets for additional funding to conduct our business and may affect the availability or cost of borrowing under our existing credit facility.

The credit and equity markets of both mature and developing economies have historically experienced extraordinary volatility, asset erosion and uncertainty, leading to governmental intervention in the banking sector in the United States and abroad. If these market disruptions occur in the future, we may not be able to access the capital markets to obtain funding needed to refinance our existing indebtedness or conduct our business. In addition, changes in the capital or other legal requirements applicable to commercial lenders may affect the availability or increase the cost of borrowing under our Senior Secured Credit Facility. If we are unable to obtain needed capital on terms acceptable to us, we may need to limit our growth initiatives or take other actions that materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Risks Relating to Investing in Our Common Stock

As a public benefit corporation, our focus on a specific public benefit purpose and producing a positive effect for society may negatively influence our financial performance.

As a public benefit corporation, we may take actions that we believe will benefit our students and the surrounding communities, even if those actions do not maximize our short- or medium-term financial results. While we believe that this designation and
25


obligation will benefit the Company given the importance to our long-term success of our commitment to education, it could cause our board of directors to make decisions and take actions not in keeping with the short-term or more narrow interests of our stockholders. Any longer-term benefits may not materialize within the timeframe we expect or at all and may have an immediate negative effect. For example:

we may choose to revise our policies in ways that we believe will be beneficial to our students and their communities in the long term, even though the changes may be costly in the short- or medium-term;

we may take actions, such as modernizing campuses to provide students with the latest technology, even though these actions may be more costly than other alternatives;

in exiting a market that is not meeting our goals, we may choose to “teach out” the existing student body over several years rather than lose an institution; even though this could be substantially more expensive;

we may be influenced to pursue programs and services to demonstrate our commitment to our students and communities even though there is no immediate return to our stockholders; or

in responding to a possible proposal to acquire the Company and/or any business unit, our board of directors may be influenced by the interests of our employees, students, teachers and others whose interests may be different from the interests of our stockholders.

We may be unable or slow to realize the long-term benefits we expect from actions taken to benefit our students and communities in which we operate, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, which in turn could cause our stock price to decline.

If we or our existing investors sell or announce an intention to sell additional shares of our common stock, the market price of our common stock could decline.

The market price of our common stock could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of common stock in the market, or the perception that such sales could occur. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to raise capital through future sales of equity securities at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate, or at all.

The trading price of our common stock is subject to volatility. Additionally, if we do not maintain adequate or favorable coverage of our common stock by securities analysts, the trading price of our common stock could decline.

The trading price of our common stock has fluctuated in the past and may continue to fluctuate and is dependent upon a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control and may not be related to our operating performance. These fluctuations could cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our common stock. Additionally, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade their evaluations of our stock or publish unfavorable commentary about us or our industry, the price of our common stock could decline. We may be unable to maintain adequate research coverage, and if one or more analysts cease coverage of us, we could lose visibility in the market for our common stock, which in turn could cause our stock price to decline.

The provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation requiring exclusive venue in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware for certain types of lawsuits may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation requires, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us governed by the internal affairs doctrine will have to be brought only in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware unless we otherwise consent in writing to an alternative form. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock is deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation described above. We believe that this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies. This choice of forum provision, however, may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders, which may
26


discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The choice of forum provision in the Company’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation will not preclude or contract the scope of exclusive federal or concurrent jurisdiction for actions brought under the federal securities laws, including the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the respective rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Risks Relating to Peruvian Nonresident Capital Gains Tax

Sale of our common stock may trigger taxes payable in Peru.

Stockholders who sell, exchange, or otherwise dispose of Company shares may be subject to Peruvian tax at a rate of 30% on their gain realized in such transaction determined under certain Peruvian valuation rules regardless of whether the transaction is taxable for non-Peruvian purposes. In determining the amount of such gain subject to such tax, the gain is first multiplied by the percentage of the Company’s value that is represented by its Peruvian business determined under certain Peruvian valuation rules (the “Peru Ratio”). This tax applies if the value of stock determined under certain Peruvian valuation rules (calculated in PEN) transferred multiplied by the Peru Ratio exceeds approximately $53 million applying the PEN/USD exchange rate of December 31, 2023 (the “Threshold”). The Threshold is calculated in PEN and changes with currency exchange rates. For purposes of determining whether the Threshold has been exceeded by any holder, all transfers made by such holder over any 12-month period are aggregated. For purposes of determining whether any tax is owed, the holder must have their basis “certified” by the Peruvian tax authorities in advance of such transaction. If the holder exceeds the Threshold and does not obtain a tax basis certificate before the transaction, the holder’s tax basis in the shares will be considered zero for Peruvian tax purposes. We advise current and future holders, who currently have or intend to own or trade in significant volumes of our common stock, to seek the advice of their own advisors with knowledge of the matters described above.

Direct or indirect transfer of company common shares may result in Peruvian tax liability to the Company.

In the event that a direct or indirect sale, exchange, or other disposition of Company shares occurs and any resulting Peruvian tax is not paid, the Company’s Peruvian subsidiaries may be jointly and severally liable for such tax. Joint and several liability may be imposed if during any of the 12 months preceding the transaction, inter alia, the transferor of Company shares held an indirect or direct interest of more than 10% of the Company’s outstanding shares. If such a transaction were to occur and the Peruvian tax authorities sought to collect the Peruvian capital gains taxes from the Company’s Peruvian subsidiaries that were not paid by such transferor, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 1C. Cybersecurity

Risk Management and Strategy

We have implemented processes for overseeing, identifying and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats and have integrated cybersecurity risk management into our broader risk management framework to promote a company-wide culture of cybersecurity risk management. This integration ensures that cybersecurity considerations are an integral part of our decision-making processes at every level and that cybersecurity risk remains a key component of management activities, including continuously assessing, identifying, and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats.

Our management, with input from our Board of Directors, performs an annual enterprise-wide risk management (“ERM”) assessment to identify and manage key existing and emerging risks for our company. Our ERM process assesses the characteristics and circumstances of the evolving business environment at the time and seeks to identify the potential impact, likelihood and velocity of a particular risk. Our senior executive management team has the overall responsibility for, and oversight of, our ERM process, and senior executives are assigned to monitor and manage top identified risks. Cybersecurity is among the top risks identified for oversight as a result of our last annual ERM assessment.

Systems and process monitoring are essential components of our cybersecurity risk management and information security programs. Management utilizes industry standard tools and procedures to monitor the information security of systems, networks
27


and information assets, regardless of geographic location, and has implemented key policies and procedures, including but not limited to cybersecurity threat detection and analysis, a framework for materiality determination and a reporting-up process to assist in a disclosure of a material event, if required. In addition, management has defined key roles and responsibilities within our organization to handle material cybersecurity incidents. A comprehensive incident response plan is utilized for any threat activities identified, including timely containment, analysis, remediation, and communication, and is also applicable to third parties with access to our information systems or assets. We have implemented security programs, such as mandatory cybersecurity awareness training for all our employees, simulated phishing emails and tabletop exercises, that are strategically designed and continuously updated to address evolving cybersecurity threats and latest industry trends. These programs, which are held multiple times a year, allow our employees to both identify and address material cybersecurity incidents, utilizing our comprehensive incident response plan.

Recognizing the complexity and evolving nature of cybersecurity threats, we engage with a range of external experts, including cybersecurity assessors, consultants and auditors in evaluating and monitoring our cybersecurity programs and assets. This enables us to leverage specialized knowledge and insights, ensuring our cybersecurity risk management, strategies and processes remain at the forefront of industry best practices.

Because we are aware of the risks associated with third-party service providers, we have implemented processes to oversee and manage these risks, including security assessments of all third-party providers before engagement. In addition, cybersecurity program maturity of such third parties, including incident response and disclosure, is also evaluated.

To date, our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition have not been materially affected by risks from cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents, but we cannot provide assurance that they will not be materially affected in the future by such risks or any future material incidents. The sophistication of cyber threats continues to increase, and the preventative actions we take to reduce the risk of cyber incidents and protect our systems and information may be insufficient. For more information on our cybersecurity related risks, see “Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Governance

Our Board of Directors has established oversight mechanisms to ensure effective governance in managing risks associated with cybersecurity threats because we recognize the significance of these threats to our operational integrity and stakeholder confidence.

The Audit and Risk Committee assists the Board of Directors in its responsibilities of overseeing cybersecurity risk. Our Chief Operating Officer (“COO”) and Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”) play a pivotal role in informing the Audit and Risk Committee on cybersecurity risks. They report to the Audit and Risk Committee on a quarterly basis on a broad range of topics, including assessments and scoring of our information security program; incident management, the incident response plan and the status of security tools; the current cybersecurity landscape and emerging threats; and the status of ongoing cybersecurity awareness and training and projects to strengthen our information security systems. Additionally, our Executive Director, Internal Audit presents a quarterly report on our enterprise risk management activities, including cybersecurity risks, to the Audit and Risk Committee. The chair of the Audit and Risk Committee, in turn, periodically reports on its review with the Board of Directors, and our COO and CISO report annually to the Board of Directors regarding our cybersecurity program and risk management.

Our CISO (who also serves as our Chief Information Officer) leads our information security organization and has primary responsibility for information security strategy, policy and managing our cybersecurity threat detection and response plan. With over 25 years of experience in information security, IT infrastructure and cybersecurity and with several industry certifications such as the Certified Chief Information Security Officer certification, our CISO brings a wealth of expertise to the role. Our CISO oversees our cybersecurity governance programs, monitors and assesses cybersecurity threats, monitor compliance with industry best practices and standards, and leads our ongoing employee cybersecurity training and awareness program.

28


Item 2. Properties

Laureate is headquartered in Miami, Florida. The following table summarizes the Company's properties by segment as of December 31, 2023:
SegmentSquare feet leased spaceSquare feet owned spaceTotal square feet
Mexico25,105,361 8,498,457 33,603,818 
Peru717,490 5,341,244 6,058,734 
Corporate (including headquarters)
6,589 — 6,589 
Other— 109,104 109,104 
Total25,829,440 13,948,805 39,778,245 

Our Mexico and Peru segments lease or own various sites that may include a local headquarters and all or some of the facilities of a campus or location. Some of our owned facilities are subject to mortgages.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

Our former Spanish holding company, Laureate Netherlands Holding B.V. (f/k/a Iniciativas Culturales de España, S.L.), has been subject to ongoing tax audits by the Spanish Taxing Authority (“STA”), resulting in the issuance of final assessments based on the STA’s rejection of the tax deductibility of financial expenses related to certain intercompany acquisitions. Accordingly, we have paid assessments totaling approximately $40.8 million for tax years during the period from 2006 to 2015. We filed various appeals of the assessments, which were rejected, and in June 2023, the Spanish Supreme Court ruled in favor of the STA on its appeal regarding these issues. As a result, the Company has no further recourse with respect to the related final assessments for tax years 2006 to 2010. This ruling does not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In May 2023, we were notified by the STA that an audit of our former Spanish holding company was being initiated in relation to corporate income tax for the period from January 2018 to May 2020 and withholding on account of non-resident income tax for the period from May 2019 to May 2020. The Company will continue to work with the STA on this matter and believes that it is in compliance with Spanish tax law.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

29


Part II

Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq under the symbol “LAUR.”

Effective October 29, 2021, each share of the Company's Class A common stock and each share of the Company's Class B common stock automatically converted into one share of common stock of the Company. Following the conversion, the Company has only one class of common stock outstanding.

Holders of Record

There were 58 holders of record of our common stock as of January 31, 2024. The number of beneficial owners of our common stock is substantially greater than the number of record holders because substantially all of our common stock is held in “street name” by banks and brokers.

Dividend Policy

We currently do not anticipate paying any ordinary cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future; however, the Company may consider extraordinary dividend(s) as part of an overall strategy to return capital to shareholders. Notwithstanding any such actions, we expect to retain our future earnings, if any, for use in the operation of our business. The terms of our Credit Agreement limit our ability to pay cash dividends in certain circumstances. Furthermore, if we are in default under our Credit Agreement, our ability to pay cash dividends will be limited in the absence of a waiver of that default or an amendment to such agreement. In addition, our ability to pay cash dividends on shares of our common stock may be limited by restrictions on our ability to obtain sufficient funds through dividends from our subsidiaries. For more information on our Credit Agreement, see “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Note 8, Debt, in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Subject to the foregoing, the payment of cash dividends in the future, if any, will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon such factors as earnings levels, capital requirements, our overall financial condition and any other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors.

30


Stock Performance Graph

The following graph compares the cumulative total return of our common stock, an industry peer group index, and the Nasdaq Composite Index from December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2023. We believe that our industry peer group represents the majority of the market value of publicly traded companies whose primary business is post-secondary education. The returns set forth on the following graph are based on historical results and are not intended to suggest future performance. The performance graph assumes $100 investment on December 31, 2018 in either our common stock, the companies in our industry peer group, or the Nasdaq Composite Index. Data for the Nasdaq Composite Index and our peer group assume reinvestment of dividends.

Comp of Cumulative Total Return.jpg

The peer group included in the performance graph above consists of Strategic Education, Inc. (STRA), Adtalem Global Education, Inc. (ATGE), Grand Canyon Education, Inc. (LOPE), Cogna Educação S.A. (COGN3), YDUQS Participacoes S.A. (YDUQ3) and Anima Holdings S.A. (ANIM3).

In connection with the adoption of a plan of partial liquidation providing for the distribution of the net proceeds from the sale of Walden e-Learning LLC, in October 2021, the Company paid a special cash distribution of $7.01 per share of the Company’s common stock. Also in connection with the distribution of the net proceeds from the sale of Walden e-Learning LLC, in December 2021, the Company paid a special cash distribution of $0.58 per share of the Company’s common stock to each holder of record on December 14, 2021, and in October 2022, the Company paid a special cash distribution of $0.83 per share of the Company’s common stock to each holder of record on September 28, 2022. Furthermore, in November 2022, the Company paid a special cash dividend of $0.68 per share of the Company’s common stock to each holder of record on November 4, 2022. In addition, in November 2023, the Company paid a special cash dividend of $0.70 per share of the Company’s common stock to each holder of record on November 15, 2023. Accordingly, the performance graph below adjusts for these distributions.

31


Comp of Cumulative Total Return (LAUR Dividend Adj).jpg

The information contained in the performance graphs shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC, nor shall such information be deemed incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

None.

Item 6. [Reserved]

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion of our results of operations and financial condition with the audited historical consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (Form 10-K). This discussion contains forward-looking statements and involves numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those described in the “Item 1A. Risk Factors” section of this Form 10-K. Actual results may differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements” on page 2 of this Form 10-K.

Introduction

This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is provided to assist readers of the financial statements in understanding the results of operations, financial condition and cash flows of Laureate Education, Inc. This MD&A should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K are presented in U.S. dollars (USD) rounded to the nearest thousand, with the amounts in the MD&A rounded to the nearest tenth of a million. Therefore, discrepancies in the tables between totals and the sums of the amounts listed may occur due to such rounding. Our MD&A is presented in the following sections:

Overview;
Results of Operations;
Liquidity and Capital Resources;
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates; and
32


Recently Issued Accounting Standards.

Overview

Our Business

We operate a portfolio of degree-granting higher education institutions in Mexico and Peru. Collectively, we have approximately 448,900 students enrolled at five institutions in these two countries. We believe that the higher education markets in Mexico and Peru present an attractive long-term opportunity, primarily because of the large and growing imbalance between the supply and demand for affordable, quality higher education in those markets. We believe that the combination of the projected growth in the middle class, limited government resources dedicated to higher education, and a clear value proposition demonstrated by the higher earnings potential afforded by higher education, creates substantial opportunities for high-quality private institutions to meet this growing and unmet demand. By offering high-quality, outcome-focused education, we believe that we enable students to prosper and thrive in the dynamic and evolving knowledge economy. We have two reportable segments as described below. We group our institutions by geography in Mexico and Peru for reporting purposes.

Discontinued Operations

As a result of the strategic review first announced in January 2020, during the third quarter of 2020, the Company completed a sale of its operations in Chile and signed agreements to sell its operations in Brazil, Australia and New Zealand, as well as Walden University in the United States. These sales were completed during 2020 and 2021. Additionally, prior to 2020, the Company had announced the divestiture of certain other subsidiaries in Europe, Asia and Central America, which has been completed. These announcements represented strategic shifts that had a major effect on the Company’s operations and financial results. Accordingly, all of the divestitures that were part of these strategic shifts were accounted for as Discontinued Operations for all periods presented in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 205-20, “Discontinued Operations” (ASC 205).

All planned divestitures have now been completed, and the Company has concluded its strategic review process. The Company’s continuing operations are Mexico and Peru. All other markets have been divested (the Discontinued Operations).

The Discontinued Operations are excluded from the segment information for all periods presented, as they do not meet the criteria for a reportable segment under ASC 280, “Segment Reporting.” Unless indicated otherwise, the information in the MD&A relates to continuing operations. See also Note 4, Discontinued Operations and Assets Held for Sale, and Note 5, Dispositions, in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.

Our Segments

Our segments generate revenues by providing an education that emphasizes profession-oriented fields of study with undergraduate and graduate degrees in a wide range of disciplines. Our educational offerings utilize campus-based, online and hybrid (a combination of online and in-classroom) courses and programs to deliver their curriculum. The Mexico and Peru markets are characterized by what we believe is a significant imbalance between supply and demand. The demand for higher education is large and growing and is fueled by several demographic and economic factors, including a growing middle class, global growth in services and technology-related industries and recognition of the significant personal and economic benefits gained by graduates of higher education institutions. The target demographics are primarily 18- to 24-year-olds in the countries in which we compete. We compete with other private higher education institutions on the basis of price, educational quality, reputation and location. We believe that we compare favorably with competitors because of our focus on quality, professional-oriented curriculum and the competitive advantages provided by our network. There are a number of private and public institutions in both of the countries in which we operate, and it is difficult to predict how the markets will evolve and how many competitors there will be in the future. We expect competition to increase as the Mexican and Peruvian markets mature. Essentially all of our revenues were generated from private pay sources as there are no material government-sponsored loan programs in Mexico or Peru. Specifics related to both of our reportable segments are discussed below:

Private education providers in Mexico constitute approximately 37% of the total higher-education market. The private sector plays a meaningful role in higher education, bridging supply and demand imbalances created by a lack of capacity at public universities. Laureate owns two nationally licensed institutions and is present throughout the country with a footprint of over 30 campuses. Students in our Mexican institutions typically finance their own education.

In Peru, private universities are increasingly providing the capacity to meet growing demand and constitute approximately 74% of the total higher-education market. Laureate owns three institutions in Peru, with a footprint of 19 campuses.




Corporate is a non-operating business unit whose purpose is to support operations. Its departments are responsible for establishing operational policies and internal control standards, implementing strategic initiatives, and monitoring compliance with policies and controls throughout our operations. Our Corporate segment provides financial, human resource, information technology, insurance, legal and tax compliance services. The Corporate segment also contains the eliminations of inter-segment revenues and expenses.

The following information for our reportable segments is presented as of December 31, 2023:
InstitutionsEnrollment
2023 Revenues (in millions)
% Contribution to 2023 YTD Revenues
Mexico2242,000 $782.6 53 %
Peru3206,900 701.7 47 %
Total (1)
5448,900 $1,484.3 100 %

Challenges

Our operations are outside of the United States and are subject to complex business, economic, legal, regulatory, political, tax and foreign currency risks, which may be difficult to adequately address. As a result, we face risks that are inherent in international operations, including: fluctuations in exchange rates, possible currency devaluations, inflation and hyper-inflation; price controls and foreign currency exchange restrictions; potential economic and political instability in the countries in which we operate; expropriation of assets by local governments; key political elections and changes in government policies; multiple and possibly overlapping and conflicting tax laws; and compliance with a wide variety of foreign laws. See “Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—We operate a portfolio of degree-granting higher education institutions in Mexico and Peru and are subject to complex business, economic, legal, political, tax and foreign currency risks, which risks may be difficult to adequately address.” We plan to grow organically by: 1) adding new programs and course offerings; 2) expanding target student demographics; and 3) increasing capacity at existing and new campus locations. Our success in growing our business will depend on the ability to anticipate and effectively manage these and other risks related to operating in various countries.
Regulatory Environment and Other Matters
Our business is subject to varying laws and regulations based on the requirements of local jurisdictions. These laws and regulations are subject to updates and changes. We cannot predict the form of the rules that ultimately may be adopted in the future or what effects they might have on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We will continue to develop and implement necessary changes that enable us to comply with such laws and regulations. See “Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—Our institutions are subject to uncertain and varying laws and regulations, and any changes to these laws or regulations or their application to us may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations,” and “Item 1—Business—Industry Regulation,” for a detailed discussion of our different regulatory environments and Note 17, Legal and Regulatory Matters, in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.

Key Business Metric

Enrollment

Enrollment is our lead revenue indicator and represents our most important non-financial metric. We define “enrollment” as the number of students registered in a course on the last day of the enrollment reporting period. New enrollments provide an indication of future revenue trends. Total enrollment is a function of continuing student enrollments, new student enrollments and enrollments from acquisitions, offset by graduations, attrition and enrollment decreases due to dispositions. Attrition is defined as a student leaving the institution before completion of the program. To minimize attrition, we have implemented programs that involve assisting students in remedial education, mentoring, counseling and student financing.

Each of our institutions has an enrollment cycle that varies by geographic region and academic program. Each institution has a “Primary Intake” period during each academic year in which the majority of the enrollment occurs. Each institution also has a smaller “Secondary Intake” period. Our Peruvian institutions have their Primary Intake during the first calendar quarter and a Secondary Intake during the third calendar quarter. Institutions in our Mexico segment have their Primary Intake during the third calendar quarter and a Secondary Intake during the first calendar quarter. Our institutions in Peru are generally out of
34


session in January, February and July, while institutions in Mexico are generally out of session in May through July. Revenues are recognized when classes are in session.

Principal Components of Income Statement

Revenues

The majority of our revenue is derived from tuition and educational services. The amount of tuition generated in a given period depends on the price per credit hour and the total credit hours or price per program taken by the enrolled student population. The price per credit hour varies by program, by market and by degree level. Additionally, varying levels of discounts and scholarships are offered depending on market-specific dynamics and individual achievements of our students. Revenues are recognized net of scholarships and other discounts, refunds and waivers. In addition to tuition revenues, we generate other revenues from student fees and other education-related activities. These other revenues are less material to our overall financial results and have a tendency to trend with tuition revenues. The main drivers of changes in revenues between periods are student enrollment and price. We continually monitor market conditions and carefully adjust our tuition rates to meet local demand levels. We proactively seek the best price and content combinations to remain competitive in all the markets in which we operate.

Direct Costs

Our direct costs include labor and operating costs associated with the delivery of services to our students, including the cost of wages, payroll taxes and benefits, depreciation and amortization, rent, utilities, bad debt expenses, and marketing and promotional costs to grow future enrollments. In general, a significant portion of our direct costs tend to be variable in nature and trend with enrollment, and management continues to monitor and improve the efficiency of instructional delivery.

General and Administrative Expenses

Our general and administrative expenses primarily consist of costs associated with corporate departments, including executive management, finance, legal, business development and other departments that do not provide direct operational services.

Factors Affecting Comparability

Foreign Exchange

While the USD is our reporting currency, our institutions are located in Mexico and Peru and operate in other functional currencies, namely the Mexican peso and Peruvian nuevo sol. We monitor the impact of foreign currency movements and the correlation between the local currency and the USD. Our revenues and expenses are generally denominated in local currency. The principal foreign exchange exposure is the risk related to the translation of revenues and expenses incurred in each country from the local currency into USD. See “Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—Our reported revenues and earnings may be negatively affected by the strengthening of the U.S. dollar and currency exchange rates.” In order to provide a framework for assessing how our business performed excluding the effects of foreign currency fluctuations, we present organic constant currency in our segment results, which is calculated using the change from prior-year average foreign exchange rates to current-year average foreign exchange rates, as applied to local-currency operating results for the current year, and then excludes the impact of other items, as described in the segment results.

Seasonality

Our institutions have a summer break during which classes are generally not in session and minimal revenues are recognized. In addition to the timing of summer breaks, holidays such as Easter also have an impact on our academic calendar. Operating expenses, however, do not fully correlate to the enrollment and revenue cycles, as the institutions continue to incur expenses during summer breaks. Given the geographic diversity of our institutions and differences in timing of summer breaks, our second and fourth quarters are stronger revenue quarters as the majority of our institutions are in session for most of these respective quarters. Our first and third fiscal quarters are weaker revenue quarters because our institutions have summer breaks for some portion of one of these two quarters. However, our primary enrollment intakes occur during the first and third quarters. Due to this seasonality, revenues and profits in any one quarter are not necessarily indicative of results in subsequent quarters and may not be correlated to new enrollment in any one quarter. Additionally, seasonality may be affected due to other events that could change the academic calendar at our institutions. See “Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—We experience seasonal fluctuations in our results of operations.”

35


Income Tax Expense

Our consolidated income tax provision is derived based on the combined impact of federal, state and foreign income taxes. Also, discrete items can arise in the course of our operations that can further affect the Company’s effective tax rate for the period. Our tax rate fluctuates from period to period due to changes in the mix of earnings between our tax-paying entities and our loss-making entities for which it is not ‘more likely than not’ that a tax benefit will be realized on the loss. See “Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—We may have exposure to greater-than-anticipated tax liabilities.”

Many countries have enacted legislation and adopted policies to implement the global minimum tax resulting from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Base Erosion and Profit Shifting project. Significant details and guidance around the global minimum tax provisions are still pending. For countries that have enacted the global minimum tax, they are generally effective for the Company beginning in 2024. Income tax expense could be adversely affected as the legislation becomes effective in countries in which we do business. We will continue to monitor pending legislation and implementation by individual countries in which we operate.

On August 16, 2022, the U.S. enacted the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, which implemented a 15% minimum tax on book income of certain large corporations, a 1% excise tax on stock repurchases and tax incentives to promote clean energy, among other provisions. This legislation has not had a material impact on the financial statements and the Company will continue to monitor regulatory developments to assess potential impacts.

Results of the Discontinued Operations

The results of operations of the Discontinued Operations for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 were as follows:
For the year ended December 31,
202320222021
Revenues$— $— $543.0 
Depreciation and amortization expense— — — 
Share-based compensation expense— — (1.3)
Other direct costs— — (433.1)
Loss on impairment of assets— — (1.3)
Other non-operating expense— — (22.3)
(Loss) gain on sale of discontinued operations before taxes, net(9.8)7.8 636.2 
Pretax (loss) income of discontinued operations(9.8)7.8 721.2 
Income tax benefit (expense)— 0.5 (234.3)
(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of tax$(9.8)$8.3 $486.9 

Year Ended December 31, 2023

The $9.8 million loss in the table above primarily resulted from an adjustment to the sale price of Walden University pursuant to an indemnification claim received from the buyer, as described in Note 5, Dispositions, in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The remainder of the loss was mostly attributable to changes in estimates regarding the realizability of certain receivables from previous divestitures.

Year Ended December 31, 2022

The $7.8 million gain in the table above primarily resulted from the transfer of the remaining assets and liabilities that were classified as held for sale as of December 31, 2021, which related to the divestiture of our operations in Chile. This transfer was completed during the second quarter of 2022 and resulted in a gain of approximately $4.3 million.

Year Ended December 31, 2021

On March 8, 2021, we sold our operations in Honduras, which resulted in an after-tax loss of $1.7 million, including a working capital adjustment during the second quarter of 2021.

36


On January 25, 2018, we completed the sale of LEI Lie Ying Limited (LEILY). At the closing of the sale, a portion of the total transaction value was paid into an escrow account, to be distributed to the Company pursuant to the terms and conditions of the escrow agreement. In April 2021, the Company received 168.3 million Hong Kong Dollars (approximately $21.7 million at the date of receipt), which represented payment in full for the remainder of the escrow account and resulted in a pretax gain of approximately $13.6 million.

During the first quarter of 2021, we recorded a loss of approximately $32.4 million in order to adjust the carrying value of our Brazil disposal group to its estimated fair value less costs to sell as of March 31, 2021. This loss is included in Gain on sale of discontinued operations before taxes, net.

On May 28, 2021, we completed the sale of our operations in Brazil, which resulted in a pre-tax gain of $33.0 million, including working capital and purchase price adjustments that were completed during the third and fourth quarters of 2021, and contingent consideration that was recognized during the fourth quarter of 2021.

On August 12, 2021, we completed the sale of Walden University, which resulted in a pre-tax gain of $619.4 million, including a working capital settlement completed during the fourth quarter of 2021. In addition, the Company recognized estimated tax expense of approximately $278.0 million.

Results of Operations

The following discussion of the results of our operations is organized as follows:

Summary Comparison of Consolidated Results;
Non-GAAP Financial Measure; and
Segment Results.

Summary Comparison of Consolidated Results

Discussion of Significant Items Affecting the Consolidated Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2021

In March 2021, the Company decided that, during 2021, it would wind down certain support functions related to the Laureate network and would no longer invest in and support the Laureate tradename beyond 2021. As a result, the Company tested the asset for impairment and estimated the fair value of the tradename asset using the relief-from-royalty method, based on the projected revenues for each business over the estimated remaining useful life of the asset. As a result of the impairment test, the Company concluded that the estimated fair value of the Laureate tradename was less than its carrying value by approximately $51.4 million and recorded an impairment charge for that amount.

During the second quarter of 2021, the Company fully repaid the remaining balance outstanding under its Senior Notes due 2025 using a portion of the proceeds received from the sales of its operations in Australia and New Zealand and Brazil. In connection with the debt repayment, the Company recorded a loss on debt extinguishment of $77.9 million, related to the redemption premium paid and the write off of the unamortized deferred financing costs associated with the repaid debt balances. This loss is included in Other non-operating expense in the table below.

In November 2020, in connection with the signing of the sale agreement for our Brazil operations, the Company entered into six BRL-to-USD swap agreements to mitigate the risk of foreign currency exposure on the expected proceeds from the sale. The sale of our Brazil operations closed on May 28, 2021. On June 2, 2021, the Company settled the swap agreements, which resulted in a realized loss on derivatives of $24.5 million. This loss is included in Other non-operating expense in the table below.

In December 2021, the Company completed a lease termination agreement with the landlord of our Kendall property in Chicago, Illinois. In connection with the lease termination agreement, we recorded a loss of approximately $25.8 million, which is included in Excellence-in-Process (EiP) expenses within Operating (loss) income in the table below.


37


Comparison of Consolidated Results for the Years Ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021
% Change
Better/(Worse)
(in millions)2023202220212023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
Revenues$1,484.3 $1,242.3 $1,086.7 19 %14 %
Direct costs1,089.8 907.4 814.5 (20)%(11)%
General and administrative expenses52.6 64.8 204.4 19 %68 %
Loss on impairment of assets3.1 0.1 72.5 nm100 %
Operating income (loss)338.8 270.0 (4.6)25 %nm
Interest expense, net of interest income(11.9)(8.9)(41.9)(34)%79 %
Other non-operating expense(72.5)(15.3)(91.0)nm83 %
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and equity in net income of affiliates254.5 245.9 (137.5)%nm
Income tax expense
(137.6)(185.4)(145.6)26 %(27)%
Equity in net income of affiliates, net of tax0.2 0.3 — (33)%nm
Income (loss) from continuing operations117.0 60.7 (283.1)93 %121 %
(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of tax
(9.8)8.3 486.9 nm(98)%
Net income
107.3 69.0 203.8 56 %(66)%
Net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interests0.3 0.6 (11.3)50 %(105)%
Net income attributable to Laureate Education, Inc.
$107.6 $69.6 $192.4 55 %(64)%
nm - percentage changes not meaningful

For further details on certain discrete items discussed below, see “Discussion of Significant Items Affecting the Consolidated Results.”

Comparison of Consolidated Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2023 to the Year Ended December 31, 2022

Revenues increased by $242.0 million to $1,484.3 million for 2023 from $1,242.3 million for 2022. The increase was attributable to: (1) the effect of a net change in foreign currency exchange rates, which increased revenues by $108.9 million, mainly driven by the strengthening of the Mexican peso against the USD compared to 2022; (2) higher average total organic enrollment at our institutions, which increased revenues by $79.3 million compared to 2022; and (3) the effect of changes in tuition rates and enrollments in programs at varying price points (“product mix”), pricing and timing, which increased revenues by $57.9 million compared to 2022. These increases in revenues were partially offset by other Corporate and Eliminations changes, which accounted for a decrease in revenues of $4.1 million.

Direct costs and general and administrative expenses combined increased by $170.2 million to $1,142.4 million for 2023 from $972.2 million for 2022. The effect of operational changes, mostly attributable to the effect of higher enrollments at our institutions as well as return-to-campus expenses, increased direct costs by $94.0 million compared to 2022. Additionally, the effect of a net change in foreign currency exchange rates increased costs by $86.3 million. These increases in direct costs were partially offset by a decrease in costs of $10.1 million in 2023 related to other Corporate expenses.

Operating income (loss) increased by $68.8 million to $338.8 million for 2023 from $270.0 million for 2022. This increase in operating income was a result of higher operating income at our Mexico and Peru segments, combined with lower operating costs at Corporate, as compared to 2022.

Interest expense, net of interest income increased by $3.0 million to $11.9 million for 2023 from $8.9 million for 2022. The increase in interest expense was primarily attributable to higher average debt balances compared to 2022.

Other non-operating expense increased by $57.2 million to $72.5 million for 2023 from $15.3 million for 2022. This increase was attributable to a higher loss on foreign currency exchange of $58.3 million compared to 2022, mainly related to intercompany loan arrangements. Additionally, other income was lower by $1.1 million compared to 2022. These increases in non-operating expense were partially offset by a higher gain on disposal of subsidiaries of $2.2 million, primarily attributable to the release of accumulated foreign currency translation gains upon the liquidation of certain subsidiaries.
38



Income tax expense decreased by $47.8 million to $137.6 million for 2023 from $185.4 million for 2022. This decrease was primarily attributable to a discrete tax expense recorded in 2022 of approximately $32.5 million for an income tax reserve related to the application of the high-tax exception to global intangible low-taxed income, with the remaining difference mostly related to a benefit recorded in 2023 of approximately $11.5 million for the release of valuation allowances in Mexico.

(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of tax changed by $18.1 million to a loss of $(9.8) million for 2023 compared to income of $8.3 million for 2022. This change was primarily attributable to a reserve recorded in 2023 related to an indemnification claim received, as well as changes in estimates during 2023 regarding the realizability of certain receivables from previous divestitures, combined with the year-over-year impact of a gain recognized during 2022 upon completion of the transfer of certain leases related to our former operations in Chile. See Overview for further detail on results of the Discontinued Operations.

Comparison of Consolidated Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2022 to the Year Ended December 31, 2021

Revenues increased by $155.6 million to $1,242.3 million for 2022 from $1,086.7 million for 2021. Average total organic enrollment was higher at our institutions, increasing revenues by $111.9 million compared to 2021. The effect of changes in tuition rates and enrollments in programs at varying price points (“product mix”), pricing and timing increased revenues by $30.8 million compared to 2021. In addition, the effect of a net change in foreign currency exchange rates increased revenues by $18.0 million, due to the strengthening of the Peruvian nuevo sol and the Mexican peso against the USD compared to 2021. These increases in revenues were partially offset by other Corporate and Eliminations changes, which accounted for a decrease in revenues of $5.1 million.

Direct costs and general and administrative expenses combined decreased by $46.7 million to $972.2 million for 2022 from $1,018.9 million for 2021. This decrease in direct costs and administrative expenses was primarily related to: (1) lower EiP implementation expense of $74.6 million as a result of the completion of our EiP program in 2021; (2) lower depreciation and amortization expense of $42.6 million, mainly driven by the full amortization of the finite-lived tradename in 2021; (3) lower other Corporate and Eliminations expenses, which accounted for a decrease in costs of $42.0 million in 2022, related to cost-reduction efforts; and (4) changes in acquisition-related contingent liabilities for taxes other-than-income tax, net of changes in indemnification assets, which resulted in a year-over-year decrease in costs of $13.1 million. These decreases in direct costs were partially offset by the effect of operational changes, which increased direct costs by $115.6 million compared to 2021, mainly attributable to the effect of higher enrollments at our institutions, as well as return-to-campus expenses. Additionally, the effect of a net change in foreign currency exchange rates increased costs by $10.0 million compared to 2021.

Operating income (loss) changed by $274.6 million to income of $270.0 million for 2022 from a loss of $(4.6) million for 2021. This increase in operating income was primarily a result of the impairment loss related to the Laureate tradename impairment that was recognized during 2021, combined with higher operating income at our Mexico and Peru segments during 2022. Additionally, cost-reduction efforts resulted in lower operating costs at Corporate in 2022, as compared to 2021.

Interest expense, net of interest income decreased by $33.0 million to $8.9 million for 2022 from $41.9 million for 2021. The decrease in interest expense was primarily attributable to lower average debt balances mainly driven by the full repayment of the Senior Notes due 2025 in 2021.

Other non-operating expense decreased by $75.7 million to $15.3 million for 2022 from $91.0 million for 2021. This decrease was attributable to: (1) a loss on debt extinguishment of $77.9 million during 2021 in connection with the repayment of the Senior Notes due 2025; (2) a loss on derivative instruments during 2021 of $24.5 million, driven by settlement of foreign currency swap agreements in connection with the sale of our Brazilian operations; (3) a gain on disposal of subsidiaries during 2022, compared to a loss during 2021, for a change of $2.0 million; and (4) other non-operating income during 2022, compared to expense during 2021, for a change of $2.5 million. These decreases in other non-operating expense were partially offset by foreign currency exchange loss in 2022, compared to a gain in 2021, for a change of $31.2 million.

Income tax expense increased by $39.8 million to $185.4 million for 2022 from $145.6 million for 2021. This increase was primarily driven by the tax effect of the increase in pretax income in 2022 compared to 2021. Additionally, the Company recognized an income tax reserve related to the application of the high-tax exception to global intangible low-taxed income. The increase was partially offset by a nonrecurring expense attributable to amended returns filed in 2021. Additionally, the increase was partially offset by less tax cost associated with the Netherlands intellectual property restructuring when compared to the prior year.

39


Income from discontinued operations, net of tax decreased by $478.6 million to $8.3 million for 2022 from $486.9 million for 2021. This decrease was primarily attributable to the gain on sale of Walden University during 2021. See Overview for further detail on results of the Discontinued Operations.

Net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interests changed by $11.9 million to a loss of $0.6 million for 2022 from income of $(11.3) million for 2021. This change was primarily related to our previous joint venture in Saudi Arabia and the income effect to noncontrolling interests that resulted in 2021 from the settlement of certain intercompany transactions.

Non-GAAP Financial Measure

We define Adjusted EBITDA as net income, before loss (income) from discontinued operations, net of tax, equity in net (income) loss of affiliates, net of tax, and income tax expense (benefit) adjusted for (gain) loss on disposal of subsidiaries, net, foreign currency exchange (gain) loss, net, other expense (income), net, interest expense, interest income, loss on derivatives and loss on debt extinguishment, plus depreciation and amortization, share-based compensation expense, loss on impairment of assets and expenses related to our Excellence-in-Process (EiP) initiative. Adjusted EBITDA is used in addition to and in conjunction with results presented in accordance with GAAP and should not be relied upon to the exclusion of GAAP financial measures.

Adjusted EBITDA is a key measure used by our management and Board of Directors to understand and evaluate our core operating performance and trends, to prepare and approve our annual budget and to develop short- and long-term operational plans. In particular, the exclusion of certain expenses in calculating Adjusted EBITDA can provide a useful measure for period-to-period comparisons of our core business. Additionally, Adjusted EBITDA is a key financial measure used by the compensation committee of our Board of Directors and our Chief Executive Officer in connection with the payment of incentive compensation to our executive officers and other members of our management team. Accordingly, we believe that Adjusted EBITDA provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results in the same manner as our management and Board of Directors.

40


The following table presents Adjusted EBITDA and reconciles Net income to Adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021:
% Change
 Better/(Worse)
(in millions)2023202220212023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
Net income$107.3 $69.0 $203.8 56 %(66)%
Plus:
Loss (income) from discontinued operations, net of tax9.8 (8.3)(486.9)nm(98)%
Income (loss) from continuing operations117.0 60.7 (283.1)93 %121 %
Plus:
Equity in net income of affiliates, net of tax(0.2)(0.3)— (33)%nm
Income tax expense
137.6 185.4 145.6 26 %(27)%
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and equity in net income of affiliates254.5 245.9 (137.5)%nm
Plus:
(Gain) loss on disposal of subsidiaries, net(3.6)(1.4)0.6 157 %nm
Foreign currency exchange loss (gain), net75.7 17.4 (13.8)nmnm
Other expense (income), net
0.3 (0.8)1.7 (138)%147 %
Interest expense21.0 16.4 46.3 (28)%65 %
Interest income(9.1)(7.6)(4.4)20 %73 %
Loss on derivatives— — 24.5 nm100 %
Loss on debt extinguishment— — 77.9 nm100 %
Operating income (loss)338.8 270.0 (4.6)25 %nm
Plus:
Depreciation and amortization69.6 59.1 101.2 (18)%42 %
EBITDA408.4 329.1 96.6 24 %nm
Plus:
Share-based compensation expense (a)
7.1 8.8 8.9 19 %%
Loss on impairment of assets (b)
3.1 0.1 72.5 nm100 %
EiP implementation expenses (c)
— 0.8 75.4 100 %99 %
Adjusted EBITDA$418.6 $338.9 $253.4 24 %34 %
nm - percentage changes not meaningful

(a) Represents non-cash, share-based compensation expense pursuant to the provisions of ASC 718, “Stock Compensation.”
(b) Represents non-cash charges related to impairments of long-lived assets. For further details on certain impairment items see “Discussion of Significant Items Affecting the Consolidated Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2021.”
(c) EiP implementation expenses are related to our enterprise-wide initiative to optimize and standardize Laureate’s processes, creating vertical integration of procurement, information technology, finance, accounting and human resources. It included the establishment of regional shared services organizations (SSOs), as well as improvements to the Company's system of internal controls over financial reporting. The EiP initiative also included other back- and mid-office areas, as well as certain student-facing activities, expenses associated with streamlining the organizational structure, an enterprise-wide program aimed at revenue growth, and certain non-recurring costs incurred in connection with previous dispositions. The EiP initiative was completed as of December 31, 2021, except for certain EiP expenses related to the run out of programs that began in prior periods.

Comparison of Depreciation and Amortization for the Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

Depreciation and amortization increased by $10.5 million to $69.6 million for 2023 from $59.1 million for 2022. The effects of foreign currency exchange rates increased depreciation and amortization expense by $5.3 million. The remaining increase in depreciation and amortization expense of $5.2 million was primarily attributed to a higher depreciable asset base in Mexico and Peru.
41



Comparison of Depreciation and Amortization and EiP Implementation Expenses for the Years Ended December 31, 2022 and 2021

Depreciation and amortization decreased by $42.1 million to $59.1 million for 2022 from $101.2 million for 2021. This decrease was primarily attributable to the finite-lived Laureate tradename, which was fully amortized in 2021, combined with a lower depreciable asset base at Corporate following the outsourcing of a majority of our information technology activities to a third-party service provider during 2021.

EiP implementation expenses decreased by $74.6 million to $0.8 million for 2022 from $75.4 million for 2021. This decrease resulted from the completion of our EiP program in 2021, with the exception of certain EiP expenses related to the run out of programs that began in prior periods.

Segment Results

We have two reportable segments: Mexico and Peru, as discussed in Overview. For purposes of the following comparison of results discussion, “segment direct costs” represent direct costs incurred by the segment as they are included in Adjusted EBITDA, such that depreciation and amortization expense, loss on impairment of assets, share-based compensation expense and our EiP implementation expenses have been excluded. Organic enrollment is based on average total enrollment for the period. For a further description of our segments, see Overview.

The following tables, derived from our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K, present selected financial information of our reportable segments:
(in millions)% Change
Better/(Worse)
For the year ended December 31,2023202220212023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
Revenues:
Mexico$782.6 $613.9 $540.4 27 %14 %
Peru701.7 624.2 537.1 12 %16 %
Corporate— 4.1 9.2 (100)%(55)%
Consolidated Total Revenues$1,484.3 $1,242.3 $1,086.7 19 %14 %
Adjusted EBITDA:
Mexico$177.0 $123.4 $95.8 43 %29 %
Peru286.9 266.7 245.7 %%
Corporate(45.2)(51.2)(88.1)12 %42 %
Consolidated Total Adjusted EBITDA$418.6 $338.9 $253.4 24 %34 %

42


Mexico

Financial Overview
778 787
Comparison of Mexico Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2023 to the Year Ended December 31, 2022
(in millions)RevenuesDirect CostsAdjusted EBITDA
December 31, 2022$613.9 $490.5 $123.4 
Organic enrollment (1)
52.2 
Product mix, pricing and timing (1)
24.9 
Organic constant currency77.1 44.5 32.6 
Foreign exchange91.6 71.0 20.6 
Other (2)
— (0.4)0.4 
December 31, 2023$782.6 $605.6 $177.0 
(1) Organic enrollment and Product mix, pricing and timing are not separable for the calculation of direct costs and therefore are combined and defined as Organic constant currency for the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA.
(2) Other is composed of acquisition-related contingent liabilities for taxes other-than-income tax, net of changes in recorded indemnification assets.

Revenues increased by $168.7 million, a 27% increase from 2022.
Organic enrollment increased during 2023 by 10%, increasing revenues by $52.2 million.
Revenues from our Mexico segment represented 53% of our consolidated total revenues for 2023 compared to 50% for 2022.

Adjusted EBITDA increased by $53.6 million, a 43% increase from 2022, mainly driven by higher revenues, partially offset by higher costs associated with return-to-campus expenses.

43


Comparison of Mexico Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2022 to the Year Ended December 31, 2021
(in millions)RevenuesDirect CostsAdjusted EBITDA
December 31, 2021$540.4 $444.6 $95.8 
Organic enrollment (1)
41.8 
Product mix, pricing and timing (1)
25.4 
Organic constant currency67.2 54.8 12.4 
Foreign exchange6.3 4.2 2.1 
Other (2)
— (13.1)13.1 
December 31, 2022$613.9 $490.5 $123.4 
(1) Organic enrollment and Product mix, pricing and timing are not separable for the calculation of direct costs and therefore are combined and defined as Organic constant currency for the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA.
(2) Other is composed of acquisition-related contingent liabilities for taxes other-than-income tax, net of changes in recorded indemnification assets.

Revenues increased by $73.5 million, a 14% increase from 2021.
Organic enrollment increased during 2022 by 9%, increasing revenues by $41.8 million.
Revenues from our Mexico segment represented 50% of our consolidated total revenues for 2022 and 2021.

Adjusted EBITDA increased by $27.6 million, a 29% increase from 2021.
The increase in Adjusted EBITDA included a year-over-year benefit from the $13.1 million charge recorded during 2021 related to acquisition-related contingencies.

Peru

Financial Overview
2451 2460
44


Comparison of Peru Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2023 to the Year Ended December 31, 2022
(in millions)RevenuesDirect CostsAdjusted EBITDA
December 31, 2022$624.2 $357.5 $266.7 
Organic enrollment (1)
27.1 
Product mix, pricing and timing (1)
33.1 
Organic constant currency60.2 47.3 12.9 
Foreign exchange17.3 10.0 7.3 
December 31, 2023$701.7 $414.8 $286.9 
(1) Organic enrollment and Product mix, pricing and timing are not separable for the calculation of direct costs and therefore are combined and defined as Organic constant currency for the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA.

Revenues increased by $77.5 million, a 12% increase from 2022.
Organic enrollment increased during 2023 by 6%, increasing revenues by $27.1 million.
Revenues from our Peru segment represented 47% of our consolidated total revenues for 2023 compared to 50% for 2022.

Adjusted EBITDA increased by $20.2 million, an 8% increase from 2022, mainly driven by higher revenues, partially offset by higher costs associated with return-to-campus expenses.

Comparison of Peru Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2022 to the Year Ended December 31, 2021
(in millions)RevenuesDirect CostsAdjusted EBITDA
December 31, 2021$537.1 $291.4 $245.7 
Organic enrollment (1)
70.1 
Product mix, pricing and timing (1)
5.3 
Organic constant currency75.4 60.8 14.6 
Foreign exchange11.7 5.3 6.4 
December 31, 2022$624.2 $357.5 $266.7 
(1) Organic enrollment and Product mix, pricing and timing are not separable for the calculation of direct costs and therefore are combined and defined as Organic constant currency for the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA.

Revenues increased by $87.1 million, an 16% increase from 2021.
Organic enrollment increased during 2022 by 14%, increasing revenues by $70.1 million.
Revenues from our Peru segment represented 50% of our consolidated total revenues for both 2022 and 2021.

Adjusted EBITDA increased by $21.0 million, a 9% increase from 2021.

Corporate

Corporate revenues primarily represent miscellaneous other revenues, net of the elimination of intersegment revenues. In 2022, corporate revenues also included transition services agreements related to previous divestitures.

Operating results for Corporate for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 were as follows:
% Change
Better/(Worse)
(in millions)2023202220212023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
Revenues$— $4.1 $9.2 (100)%(55)%
Expenses45.2 55.3 97.3 18 %43 %
Adjusted EBITDA$(45.2)$(51.2)$(88.1)12 %42 %

45


Comparison of Corporate Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2023 to the Year Ended December 31, 2022

Adjusted EBITDA increased by $6.0 million, a 12% increase from 2022, mainly driven by a decrease in labor expenses and other professional fees, as well as a reduction in IT-related costs.

Comparison of Corporate Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2022 to the Year Ended December 31, 2021

Adjusted EBITDA increased by $36.9 million, a 42% increase from 2021, mainly driven by a decrease in labor costs and other professional fees, related to cost-reduction efforts.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Liquidity Sources

We anticipate that cash flow from operations and available cash will be sufficient to meet our current operating requirements and manage our liquidity needs for at least the next 12 months from the date of issuance of this report.

Our primary source of cash is revenue from tuition charged to students in connection with our various education program offerings. Essentially all of our revenues are generated from private pay sources as there are no material government-sponsored loan programs in Mexico or Peru. We anticipate generating sufficient cash flow from operations in the countries in which we operate to satisfy the working capital and financing needs of our organic growth plans for each country. If our educational institutions within one country were unable to maintain sufficient liquidity, we would consider using internal cash resources or reasonable short-term working capital facilities to accommodate any short- to medium-term shortfalls.

As of December 31, 2023, our secondary source of liquidity was cash and cash equivalents of $89.4 million. Our cash accounts are maintained with high-quality financial institutions. The Company also maintains a revolving credit facility (the Senior Secured Credit Facility) with a syndicate of financial institutions as a source of liquidity. The Senior Secured Credit Facility, pursuant to the Third Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of October 7, 2019 (the “Credit Agreement”, as amended by the First Amendment, dated as of July 20, 2020, the Second Amendment, dated as of December 23, 2022, and, as further amended by the Third Amendment, dated as of September 18, 2023, the “Amended Credit Agreement”), provides for borrowings of $145.0 million of revolving credit loans maturing October 2024 (the Series 2024 Tranche) and $155.0 million of revolving credit loans maturing in September 2028 (the "Series 2028 Tranche") for a $300.0 million aggregate revolving credit facility (the Revolving Credit Facility”). As a subfacility under the Revolving Credit Facility, the Amended Credit Agreement provides for letter of credit commitments in the aggregate amount of $10.0 million. From time to time, we draw down on the Revolving Credit Facility, and, in accordance with the terms of the credit agreement, any proceeds drawn on the Revolving Credit Facility may be used for general corporate purposes. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had borrowed $59.0 million of the $300.0 million of available capacity. In addition to the Revolving Credit Facility, our subsidiaries had approximately $68.8 million of available borrowing capacity under lines of credit and short-term borrowing arrangements as of December 31, 2023.

If certain conditions are satisfied, the Amended Credit Agreement also provides for incremental revolving and term loan facilities, at the request of the Company, not to exceed (i) the greater of (a) $172.5 million and (b) 50% of the Company's Consolidated EBITDA, plus (ii) additional amounts so long as both immediately before and after giving effect to such incremental facilities the Company’s Consolidated Senior Secured Debt to Consolidated EBITDA ratio, as defined in the Amended Credit Agreement, on a pro forma basis, does not exceed 2.25x, plus, (iii) the aggregate amounts of any voluntary repayments of term loans, if any, and aggregate amount of voluntary repayments of revolving credit facilities that are accompanied by a corresponding termination or reduction of revolving credit commitments.

Liquidity Restrictions

Our liquidity is affected by restricted cash balances, which totaled $7.5 million and $8.6 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Restricted cash consists of cash equivalents held as assets for a supplemental employment retention agreement for a former executive.

Indefinite Reinvestment of Foreign Earnings

We earn a significant portion of our income from subsidiaries located in countries outside the United States. As of December 31, 2023, $82.7 million of our total $89.4 million of cash and cash equivalents were held by foreign subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2022, $77.3 million of our total $85.2 million of cash and cash equivalents were held by foreign subsidiaries.
46


As part of our business strategies, we have determined that the undistributed historical earnings of our foreign operations for which we have not already recorded taxes will be deemed indefinitely reinvested outside of the United States.

Our plans to indefinitely reinvest certain earnings are supported by projected working capital and long-term capital requirements in each foreign subsidiary location in which the earnings are generated. We have analyzed our domestic operation's cash repatriation strategies, projected cash flows, projected working capital and liquidity, and the expected availability within the debt or equity markets to provide funds for our domestic needs. Based on our analysis, we believe we have the ability to indefinitely reinvest our historical foreign earnings that would be subject to tax. If our expectations change based on future developments such that some or all of the undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries may be remitted to the United States in the foreseeable future, we will be required to recognize deferred tax expense and liabilities and pay additional taxes on any amounts that we are unable to repatriate in a tax-free manner.

Liquidity Requirements

Our short-term liquidity requirements include: funding for debt service (including finance leases); operating lease obligations; payments of deferred compensation; working capital; operating expenses; capital expenditures; stock repurchases; an indemnification claim; and business development activities.

Long-term liquidity requirements include: payments on long-term debt (including finance leases); operating lease obligations; payments of deferred compensation; stock repurchases; and payments of other third-party obligations.

Debt

As of December 31, 2023, our debt obligations consisted of borrowings under the Senior Secured Credit Facility and other debt instruments at our operations, as well as finance lease obligations and sale-leaseback financings.

Senior Secured Credit Facility

As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, there was a $59.0 million and $100.0 million balance outstanding under our Senior Secured Credit Facility, respectively.

Other Debt

Other debt includes lines of credit and short-term borrowing arrangements of subsidiaries and notes payable, the significant components of which are described below.

As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the aggregate outstanding balances on our lines of credit were $10.9 million and $13.8 million, respectively.

In December 2017, one of our subsidiaries in Mexico entered into an agreement with a bank for a loan of MXN 1,700.0 million (approximately $89.0 million at the time of the loan). The loan matures in June 2024 and carries a variable interest rate, plus an applicable margin, which is established based on the ratio of debt to EBITDA, as defined in the agreement (13.00% as of December 31, 2023). The current quarterly payments on the loan total MXN 76.5 million ($4.5 million at December 31, 2023), with a balloon payment of MXN 425.0 million ($25.0 million at December 31, 2023) due at maturity. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the outstanding balance of this loan was $29.5 million and $41.4 million, respectively.

Covenants

Under the Amended Credit Agreement, we are subject to a Consolidated Senior Secured Debt to Consolidated EBITDA financial maintenance covenant that applies only to the Revolving Credit Facility (a leverage ratio covenant), as defined in the Amended Credit Agreement, unless certain conditions are satisfied. As of December 31, 2023, these conditions were satisfied and, therefore, we were not subject to the leverage ratio. The maximum ratio, as defined, is 3.00x as of the last day of each quarter commencing with the quarter ending December 31, 2019 and thereafter. In addition, indebtedness at some of our locations contain financial maintenance covenants. We were in compliance with these covenants as of December 31, 2023.

47


Leases

We conduct a significant portion of our operations from leased facilities, including many of our higher education facilities and other office locations. As discussed in Note 9, Leases, in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K, we have significant operating lease liabilities recorded related to our leased facilities, which will require future cash payments. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the present value of operating lease liabilities was $417.6 million and $415.9 million, respectively. Based on the operating leases outstanding at December 31, 2023, $95.0 million of minimum lease payments will be required during 2024. In addition, we had finance lease obligations and sale-leaseback financings of $57.6 million and $48.2 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

Capital Expenditures

Capital expenditures primarily consist of purchases of property and equipment. Our capital expenditure program is a component of our liquidity and capital management strategy. This program includes discretionary spending, which we can adjust in response to economic and other changes in our business environment, to grow our network through the following: (1) capacity expansion at institutions to support enrollment growth; (2) new campuses for institutions in our existing markets; and (3) information technology to increase efficiency and controls. Our non-discretionary spending includes the maintenance of existing facilities. We typically fund our capital expenditures through cash flow from operations and external financing. In the event that we are unable to obtain the necessary funding for capital expenditures, our long-term growth strategy could be significantly affected. We believe that our internal sources of cash and our ability to obtain additional third-party financing, subject to market conditions, will be sufficient to fund our investing activities.

Our total capital expenditures for our continuing and discontinued operations, excluding receipts from the sale of subsidiaries and property and equipment, were $56.5 million, $53.1 million and $56.3 million during 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The 6% increase in capital expenditures for 2023 compared to 2022 was primarily due to investment in equipment for health science programs in Peru as well as campus expansion and digital innovation in Mexico. The 6% decrease in capital expenditures for 2022 compared to 2021 was primarily due to the year-over-year effect of divestitures completed in 2021 combined with lower spending in Peru and Corporate, partially offset by higher spending in health science programs in Mexico.

Stock Repurchase Program

On February 15, 2024, Laureate’s Board of Directors approved a new stock repurchase program to acquire up to $100 million of the Company’s common stock. The Company intends to finance the repurchases with free cash flow, excess cash and liquidity on-hand, including available capacity under its Revolving Credit Facility. The Company’s proposed repurchases may be made from time to time on the open market at prevailing market prices, in privately negotiated transactions, in block trades and/or through other legally permissible means, depending on market conditions and in accordance with applicable rules and regulations promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Repurchases may be effected pursuant to a trading plan adopted in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 of the Exchange Act. The Company’s board will review the share repurchase program periodically and may authorize adjustment of its terms and size or suspend or discontinue the program.

Cash Flows

In the consolidated statements of cash flows, the changes in operating assets and liabilities are presented excluding the effects of exchange rate changes and reclassifications, as these effects do not represent operating cash flows. Accordingly, the amounts in the consolidated statements of cash flows do not agree with the changes of the operating assets and liabilities as presented in the consolidated balance sheets. The effects of exchange rate changes on cash are presented separately in the consolidated statements of cash flows.

48


The following table summarizes our cash flows from operating, investing, and financing activities for each of the past three fiscal years:
(in millions)202320222021
Cash provided by (used in):
     Operating activities$250.8 $178.2 $(156.1)
     Investing activities(51.9)30.3 2,044.2 
     Financing activities(201.9)(461.6)(2,683.2)
Effects of exchange rate changes on cash6.6 1.2 (14.7)
Change in cash included in current assets held for sale(0.5)— 288.1 
Net change in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash$3.1 $(251.8)$(521.7)

Comparison of Cash Flows for the Year Ended December 31, 2023 to the Year Ended December 31, 2022

Operating activities
Cash provided by operating activities increased by $72.6 million to $250.8 million for 2023, compared to $178.2 million for 2022. This increase in operating cash flows was attributable to higher operating income, combined with the net effect of changes in operating assets and liabilities, which increased operating cash by $93.6 million compared to 2022. This increase in cash inflows was offset in part by an increase in cash paid for taxes of $17.5 million, from $153.8 million in 2022 to $171.3 million in 2023, which was a result of higher tax prepayments during the 2023 period in Mexico and Peru, partially offset by tax refunds in the United States. Additionally, cash paid for interest increased by $3.5 million, from $16.8 million in 2022 to $20.3 million in 2023, attributable to higher average debt balances in 2023.

Investing activities

Cash from investing activities decreased by $82.2 million to a cash outflow of $(51.9) million for 2023 from a cash inflow of $30.3 million for 2022. This decrease in investing cash flows was attributable to lower cash receipts from the sales of Discontinued Operations and property and equipment of $78.9 million, from $83.4 million, net, during 2022 (primarily related to the receipt of the escrow receivable in connection with the 2021 sale of Walden University and the collection of certain receivables from the 2021 sale of our Brazilian operations) to $4.5 million, net, in 2023 (primarily related to the receipt of an earnout receivable from the sale of our Brazilian operations). Additionally, cash used for capital expenditures increased by $3.4 million compared to 2022, mainly driven by investment in equipment for health science programs in Peru as well as campus expansion and digital innovation in Mexico. Other items accounted for the remaining difference of $0.1 million.

Financing activities

Cash used in financing activities decreased by $259.7 million to $(201.9) million for 2023 from $(461.6) million for 2022. This decrease in financing cash outflows was attributable to the year-over-year effect of $282.2 million of payments made during 2022 for common stock repurchases. In addition, payments of special dividends and distributions were lower by $140.7 million, from $253.2 million in 2022 to $112.5 million in 2023. These decreases in financing cash outflows were partially offset by: (1) higher net payments of long-term debt during 2023 as compared to 2022, for a change of $152.2 million; (2) lower proceeds from the exercise of common stock options of $10.9 million; and (3) payment of debt issuance costs of $1.3 million during 2023 in connection with the amendment of our Senior Secured Credit Facility. Other items accounted for the remaining difference of $1.2 million.

Comparison of Cash Flows for the Year Ended December 31, 2022 to the Year Ended December 31, 2021

Operating activities
Cash flows from operating activities changed by $334.3 million to cash inflow of $178.2 million for 2022, compared to a cash outflow of $(156.1) million for 2021. This increase in operating cash flows was attributable to: (1) increased operating income combined with the net effect of changes in operating assets and liabilities, which increased operating cash by $143.8 million compared to 2021; (2) lower cash paid for taxes of $97.3 million, from $251.1 million in 2021 to $153.8 million in 2022, a decrease primarily driven by the payment of estimated taxes related to the sale of Walden University in 2021 and payment of withholding taxes for intercompany loans that were capitalized during 2021; (3) the year-over-year effect of $46.8 million of
49


payments for lease termination agreements in 2021; and (4) a decrease in cash paid for interest of $46.4 million, from $63.2 million in 2021 to $16.8 million in 2022, attributable to lower average debt balances.

Investing activities

Cash provided by investing activities decreased by $2,013.9 million to $30.3 million for 2022 from $2,044.2 million in 2021. This decrease was primarily attributable to lower cash receipts from the sales of discontinued operations of $2,067.4 million, from $2,150.8 million, net, in 2021 (primarily for the sale of Walden University, our operations in Honduras and Brazil, the receipt of the note receivable related to the 2020 divestiture of our Chilean operations, and the receipt of a portion of the purchase prices that were withheld in connection to the 2018 sale of our China operations and the 2020 sale of our Malaysia operations) to $83.4 million, net, in 2022 (primarily related to the receipt of the escrow receivable related to the 2021 sale of Walden University, and the collection of certain receivables from the sale of our Brazilian operations). This decrease in investing cash flows was partially offset by the year-over-year effect of $50.3 million of payments made in 2021 for derivative instruments related to foreign exchange swap agreements associated with the sale of our Brazil operations. Additionally, cash used for capital expenditures decreased by $3.2 million compared to 2021.

Financing activities

Cash used in financing activities decreased by $2,221.6 million to $(461.6) million for 2022 from $(2,683.2) million for 2021. This decrease in financing cash outflows was attributable to: (1) lower cash distributions to shareholders of $1,121.7 million, from $1,374.9 million in 2021 following the sale of Walden University, to $253.2 million in 2022; (2) net proceeds from issuance of long-term debt in 2022 as compared to net payments of long-term debt in 2021, primarily related to the repayment in full of the balance outstanding under the Senior Notes due 2025, for a change of $958.1 million; (3) lower year-over-year payments to repurchase shares of our common stock of $98.3 million; (4) the year-over-year effect of $33.0 million in payments made in 2021 for call premiums associated with the redemption of the Senior Notes due 2025; and (5) higher proceeds from the exercises of common stock options of $9.8 million during 2022, as compared to 2021. Other items accounted for the remaining difference of $0.7 million.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires our management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and the related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Our significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 2, Significant Accounting Policies, in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Our critical accounting policies require the most significant judgments and estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. As a result, these accounting policies and estimates could materially affect our financial statements and are critical to the understanding of our results of operations and financial condition. Management has discussed the selection of these critical accounting policies and estimates with the audit committee of the Board of Directors.

Goodwill and Indefinite-lived Intangible Assets

We perform annual impairment tests of indefinite-lived intangible assets, including goodwill and tradenames, as of October 1st each year. We also evaluate these assets on an interim basis if events or changes in circumstances between annual tests indicate that the assets may be impaired. We have not made material changes to the methodology used to assess impairment loss on indefinite-lived tradenames during the past three fiscal years. If the estimates and related assumptions used in assessing the recoverability of our goodwill and indefinite-lived tradenames decline, we may be required to record impairment charges for those assets. We base our fair value estimates on assumptions that we believe to be reasonable but that are unpredictable and inherently uncertain. Actual results may differ from those estimates. In addition, we make certain judgments and assumptions in allocating shared assets and liabilities to determine the carrying values for each of our reporting units.

Goodwill

On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Accounting for Goodwill Impairment. This ASU requires entities to calculate goodwill impairment as the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill.

Under the updated guidance, the Company continues to have the option of first performing a qualitative goodwill impairment assessment (i.e., step zero) in order to determine if a quantitative impairment test is necessary. A reporting unit is defined as a
50


component of an operating segment for which discrete financial information is available and regularly reviewed by management of the segment. Based on the qualitative assessment, if we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is greater than its carrying amount, the quantitative impairment test is not required.

If we do not perform the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit or determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, a quantitative fair value-based test is performed. We estimate the fair value of each reporting unit, and, if the carrying amount of the reporting unit is less than the reporting unit’s estimated fair value, then there is no goodwill impairment. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its estimated fair value, then goodwill is impaired and the difference between the reporting unit's carrying amount and its fair value is recognized as a loss on impairment of assets in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. We completed our annual impairment testing, and no impairments of goodwill were identified.

Our valuation approach to estimate the fair value of a reporting unit has historically utilized a weighted combination of a discounted cash flow analysis and a market multiples analysis. The discounted cash flow analysis relies on historical data and internal estimates, which are developed as a part of our long-range plan process, and includes an estimate of terminal value based on these expected cash flows using the generally accepted Gordon Dividend Growth formula, which derives a valuation using an assumed perpetual annuity based on the reporting unit’s residual cash flows. The discount rate is based on the generally accepted Weighted Average Cost of Capital methodology, and is derived using a cost of equity based on the generally accepted Capital Asset Pricing Model and a cost of debt based on the typical rate paid by market participants. The market multiples analysis utilizes multiples of business enterprise value to revenues, operating income and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization of comparable publicly traded companies and multiples based on fair value transactions where public information is available. Significant assumptions used in estimating the fair value of each reporting unit include: (1) the revenue and profitability growth rates and (2) the discount rate.

If we perform a quantitative impairment test, we also evaluate the sensitivity of a change in assumptions related to goodwill impairment, assessing whether a 10% reduction in our estimates of revenue or a 1% increase in our estimated discount rates would result in impairment of goodwill. We have determined that neither of our reporting units with material goodwill were at risk of failing the goodwill impairment test as of December 31, 2023.

We completed our initial public offering (IPO) on February 6, 2017 at an initial public offering price that was below the expected range, and since then our stock price at times has traded below the initial public offering price. While our market capitalization is currently in excess of the carrying value of our stockholders’ equity, a significant decline in our stock price for an extended period of time could be considered an impairment indicator that would cause us to perform an interim impairment test that could result in additional impairments of goodwill or other intangible assets.

Indefinite-lived Intangible Assets

Indefinite-lived intangible assets include acquired indefinite-lived tradenames. Indefinite-lived tradenames are evaluated annually as of October 1st each year for impairment as well as on an interim basis if events or changes in circumstances between annual tests indicate that the asset may be impaired. The Company has the option of first performing a qualitative impairment test to determine if a quantitative impairment test is necessary. Based on the qualitative assessment, if we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible is greater than its carrying amount, the quantitative impairment test is not required. If required, the quantitative impairment test for indefinite-lived tradenames generally requires a new determination of the fair value of the intangible asset using the relief-from-royalty method. This method estimates the amount of royalty expense that we would expect to incur if the assets were licensed from a third party. We use publicly available information in determining certain assumptions to assist us in estimating fair value using market participant assumptions. If the fair value of the intangible asset is less than its carrying value, the intangible asset is adjusted to its new estimated fair value, and an impairment loss is recognized. Significant assumptions used in estimating the fair value of indefinite-lived tradenames include: (1) the revenue growth rates; (2) the discount rates; and (3) the estimated royalty rates.

Long-Lived Assets

We evaluate our long-lived assets, including property and equipment, to determine whether events or changes in circumstances indicate that the remaining estimated useful lives of such assets may warrant revision or that their carrying values may not be fully recoverable.

51


Indicators of impairment include, but are not limited to:
a significant deterioration of operating results;
a change in regulatory environment;
a change in business plans; or
an adverse change in anticipated cash flows.

If an impairment indicator is present, we evaluate recoverability by a comparison of the carrying amount of the assets to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the assets. If the assets are determined to be impaired, the impairment recognized is the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of the assets. Fair value is generally determined by the discounted cash flow method. The discount rate used in any estimate of discounted cash flows is the rate commensurate with a similar investment of similar risk. We use judgment in determining whether a triggering event has occurred and in estimating future cash flows and fair value. Changes in our judgments could result in impairments in future periods. See Note 7, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for further details on impairments.
Income Taxes

We record the amount of income taxes payable or refundable for the current year, as well as deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that we have recognized in our consolidated financial statements or tax returns. We exercise judgment in assessing future profitability and the likely future tax consequences of these events.
Deferred Taxes
Estimates of deferred tax assets and liabilities are based on current tax laws, rates and interpretations, and, in certain cases, business plans and other expectations about future outcomes. We develop estimates of future profitability based upon historical data and experience, industry projections, forecasts of general economic conditions, and our own expectations. Our accounting for deferred tax consequences represents management’s best estimate of future events that can be appropriately reflected in our accounting estimates. Changes in existing tax laws and rates, their related interpretations, as well as the uncertainty generated by the current economic environment, may impact the amounts of deferred tax liabilities or the valuations of deferred tax assets.

Tax Contingencies

We are subject to regular review and audit by both domestic and foreign tax authorities. We apply a more-likely-than-not threshold for tax positions, under which we must conclude that a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained in order for us to continue to recognize the benefit. This assumes that the position will be examined by the appropriate taxing authority and that full knowledge of all relevant information is available. In determining the provision for income taxes, judgment is used, reflecting estimates and assumptions, in applying the more-likely-than-not threshold. A change in the assessment of the outcome of a tax review or audit could materially adversely affect our consolidated financial statements.

See Note 13, Income Taxes, in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for details of our deferred taxes and tax contingencies.

Indefinite Reinvestment of Foreign Earnings

We earn substantially all of our income from subsidiaries located in countries outside the United States. Deferred tax liabilities have not been recognized for undistributed historical foreign earnings that would be subject to tax because management believes that the historical retained earnings will be indefinitely reinvested outside the United States under the Company's planned tax-neutral methods. Our assertion that earnings from our foreign operations will be indefinitely reinvested is supported by projected working capital and long-term capital plans in each foreign subsidiary location in which the earnings are generated. Additionally, we believe that we have the ability to indefinitely reinvest foreign earnings based on our domestic operation's cash repatriation strategies, projected cash flows, projected working capital and liquidity, and the expected availability of capital within the debt or equity markets. If our expectations change based on future developments, such that some or all of the undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries may be remitted to the United States in the foreseeable future, we will be required to recognize deferred tax expense and liabilities on any amounts that we are unable to repatriate in a tax-free manner.
52



Revenue Recognition

Our revenues primarily consist of tuition and educational service revenues. We also generate other revenues from student fees and other education-related activities. These other revenues are less material to our overall financial results and have a tendency to trend with tuition revenues. Revenues are recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. These revenues are recognized net of scholarships and other discounts, refunds and waivers. For further description, see also Note 3, Revenue, in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Receivables are deemed to be uncollectible when they have been outstanding for two years, or earlier when collection efforts have ceased, at which time they are written off. Prior to that, we record an allowance for doubtful accounts to reduce our receivables to their net realizable value. Our allowance estimation methodology is based on the age of the receivables, the status of past-due amounts, historical collection trends, current economic conditions and student enrollment status. In the event that current collection trends differ from historical trends, an adjustment is made to the allowance account and bad debt expense.

Share-Based Compensation

We have granted restricted stock, restricted stock units and performance awards for which the vesting is based on our annual performance metrics. For interim periods, we use our year-to-date actual results, financial forecasts, and other available information to estimate the probability of the award vesting based on the performance metrics. The related compensation expense recognized is affected by our estimates of the vesting probability of these performance awards. See Note 11, Share-based Compensation and Equity, in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for further discussion of these arrangements.

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

Refer to Note 2, Significant Accounting Policies, in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for recently issued accounting standards.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

We are exposed to market risk primarily from fluctuations in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates. We may seek to control a portion of these risks through a risk-management program that includes the use of derivatives to reduce earnings and cash flow volatility associated with changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates. As a policy, we do not engage in speculative or leveraged transactions, nor do we hold or issue derivatives for trading purposes.

Interest Rate Risk

We are subject to risk from fluctuations in interest rates, primarily relating to our Senior Secured Credit Facility and certain local debt, which bear interest at variable rates. Based on our outstanding variable-rate debt as of December 31, 2023, an increase of 100 basis points in our weighted-average interest rate would result in an increase in interest expense of $0.9 million on an annual basis.

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

We use the USD as our reporting currency. We derived substantially all of our revenues outside of the United States for the year ended December 31, 2023. Our business is transacted through a network of international and domestic subsidiaries, generally in the local currency, considered the functional currency for that subsidiary.

Our foreign currency exchange rate risk is related to the following items:

Adjustments relating to the translation of our assets and liabilities from the subsidiaries' functional currencies to USD. These adjustments are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) on our consolidated balance sheets.

Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency exchange rate changes related to intercompany loans that are not deemed to have the characteristics of a long-term investment. These gains and losses are recorded in foreign currency
53


exchange gain (loss) on our consolidated statements of operations.

Gains and losses on foreign currency transactions. These gains and losses are recorded in foreign currency exchange gain (loss) on our consolidated statements of operations.

For the year ended December 31, 2023, a hypothetical 10% adverse change in average annual foreign currency exchange rates would have decreased Operating income and Adjusted EBITDA by approximately $40.6 million and $47.7 million, respectively. We monitor the impact of foreign currency movements related to differences between our subsidiaries' local currencies and the USD.
54


Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

Report of Management on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting for the Company. We conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on the framework in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in 2013. Based on our evaluation, we have concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2023.

The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PCAOB No. 238), an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which appears herein.

Date: February 22, 2024

   /s/ EILIF SERCK-HANSSEN
Eilif Serck-Hanssen
President and Chief Executive Officer
  /s/ RICHARD M. BUSKIRK
Richard M. Buskirk
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

55


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Laureate Education, Inc.

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Laureate Education, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the related consolidated statements of operations, of comprehensive income, of stockholders’ equity and of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

Basis for Opinions

The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Report of Management on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

56


Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Revenue recognition

As described in Notes 2 and 3 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s revenue was $1,484.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. The Company’s revenues primarily consist of tuition and educational services revenues. Other revenues, such as revenues from student fees and other education-related activities, are less material to the overall financial results and have a tendency to trend with tuition revenues. Revenues are recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to the Company’s customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration that management expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. These revenues are recognized net of scholarships and other discounts, refunds and waivers.

The principal consideration for our determination that performing procedures relating to revenue recognition is a critical audit matter is a high degree of auditor effort in performing procedures related to the Company’s revenue recognition.

Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to the revenue recognition process. These procedures also included, among others, (i) testing the completeness, accuracy, and occurrence of revenue recognized for samples of revenue transactions by obtaining and inspecting source documents, such as student contracts and registration, transcripts, the universities’ academic calendar and academic catalogue, and subsequent cash receipts, where applicable; (ii) testing samples of outstanding student balances as of December 31, 2023 by obtaining and inspecting subsequent cash receipts and for balances not paid, obtaining and inspecting source documents, such as student contracts and registration and transcripts, where applicable; and (iii) testing deferred revenue, on a sample basis, by obtaining and inspecting source documents, such as student contracts and registration and the academic calendar, where applicable.



/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

Baltimore, Maryland
February 22, 2024

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2007, which includes periods before the Company became subject to SEC reporting requirements.
57


LAUREATE EDUCATION, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Consolidated Statements of Operations
IN THOUSANDS, except per share amounts
For the years ended December 31,202320222021
Revenues$1,484,288 $1,242,271 $1,086,701 
Costs and expenses:
Direct costs1,089,781 907,365 814,490 
General and administrative expenses52,612 64,750 204,370 
Loss on impairment of assets3,073 144 72,488 
Operating income (loss)338,822 270,012 (4,647)
Interest income9,085 7,567 4,378 
Interest expense(20,986)(16,418)(46,275)
Other (expense) income, net(325)770 (1,695)
Foreign currency exchange (loss) gain, net(75,702)(17,444)13,791 
Gain (loss) on disposals of subsidiaries, net3,567 1,364 (602)
Loss on debt extinguishment  (77,940)
Loss on derivatives, net  (24,517)
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and equity in net income of affiliates254,461 245,851 (137,507)
Income tax expense(137,603)(185,391)(145,573)
Equity in net income of affiliates, net of tax171 258  
Income (loss) from continuing operations117,029 60,718 (283,080)
(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of tax benefit (expense) of $0, $508 and $(234,326), respectively
(9,762)8,260 486,865 
Net income107,267 68,978 203,785 
Net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interests323 595 (11,339)
Net income attributable to Laureate Education, Inc.$107,590 $69,573 $192,446 
Basic earnings per share:
Income (loss) from continuing operations$0.75 $0.37 $(1.56)
(Loss) income from discontinued operations(0.06)0.05 2.57 
Basic earnings per share$0.69 $0.42 $1.01 
Diluted earnings per share:
Income (loss) from continuing operations$0.74 $