|TEV||1,009||TEV/EBIT||6||TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios|
|Item 1. Business|
|Item 1A. Risk Factors|
|Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments|
|Item 2. Properties|
|Item 3. Legal Proceedings|
|Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures|
|Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities|
|Item 6. Selected Financial Data|
|Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations|
|Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk|
|Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data|
|Note 1 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Note 2 - Securities|
|Note 3 - Loans|
|Note 4 - Allowance for Loan Losses and Credit Quality|
|Note 5 - Fair Value|
|Note 6 - Land, Premises and Equipment, Net|
|Note 7 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets|
|Note 8 - Deposits|
|Note 9 - Borrowings|
|Note 10 - Subordinated Debentures|
|Note 11 - Pension and Other Postretirement Plans|
|Note 12 - Other Benefit Plans|
|Note 13 - Income Taxes|
|Note 14 - Related Party Transactions|
|Note 15 - Stock Based Compensation|
|Note 16 - Capital Requirements and Restrictions on Retained Earnings|
|Note 17 - Offsetting Assets and Liabilities|
|Note 18 - Commitments, Off - Balance Sheet Risks and Contingencies|
|Note 19 - Parent Company Statements|
|Note 20 - Earnings per Share|
|Note 21 - Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)|
|Note 22 - Selected Quarterly Data (Unaudited) (In Thousands Except per Share Data)|
|Note 23 - Warrant|
|Note 24 - Revenue Recognition|
|Note 25 - Leases|
|Note 26 - Covid - 19 and Current Economic Conditions|
|Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure|
|Item 9A. Controls and Procedures|
|Item 9B. Other Information|
|Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance|
|Item 11. Executive Compensation|
|Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Sharelholder Matters|
|Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence|
|Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services|
|Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules|
|Item 16. Form 10 - K Summary|
|Balance Sheet||Income Statement||Cash Flow|
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
Ops, Inv, Fin
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) of the
Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended
Commission file number
(State of incorporation)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
(Address of principal executive offices)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
(Title of class)
(Name of each exchange on which registered)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes __
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding twelve months (or for such other period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Accelerated filer [ ]
Non-accelerated filer [ ]
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. [X]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act) Yes
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the last sales price quoted on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $
Number of shares of common stock outstanding at February 17, 2021:
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III - Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on April 13, 2021 are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.
LAKELAND FINANCIAL CORPORATION
Annual Report on Form 10-K
Table of Contents
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Lakeland Financial Corporation (“Lakeland Financial”), an Indiana corporation incorporated in 1983, is a bank holding company headquartered in Warsaw, Indiana that provides, through its wholly owned subsidiary Lake City Bank (the “Bank” and together with Lakeland Financial, the “Company”), a broad array of financial products and services throughout its Northern and Central Indiana markets. The Company offers commercial and consumer banking services, as well as trust and wealth management, brokerage, and treasury management commercial services. The Company serves a wide variety of industries including, among others, commercial real estate, manufacturing, agriculture, construction, retail, wholesale, finance and insurance, accommodation and food services and health care. The Company’s customer base is similarly diverse. The Company is not dependent upon any single industry or customer. At December 31, 2020, Lakeland Financial had consolidated total assets of $5.8 billion and was the sixth largest independent bank holding company headquartered in the State of Indiana.
Company’s Business. Lakeland Financial is a bank holding company as defined in the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended. Lakeland Financial owns all of the outstanding stock of the Bank, a full-service commercial bank organized under Indiana law. Lakeland Financial conducts no business except that which is incident to its ownership of the outstanding stock of the Bank and the operation of the Bank. Although Lakeland Financial is a corporate entity, legally separate and distinct from its affiliates, bank holding companies such as Lakeland Financial are required to act as a source of financial strength for their subsidiary banks. The principal source of Lakeland Financial’s income is dividends from the Bank. There are certain regulatory restrictions on the extent to which subsidiary banks can pay dividends or otherwise supply funds to their holding companies. See “Supervision and Regulation of the Company” below for further discussion of these matters. Lakeland Financial’s executive offices are located at 202 East Center Street, Warsaw, Indiana 46580, and its telephone number is (574) 267-6144.
Bank’s Business. The Bank was originally organized in 1872 and has continuously operated under the laws of the State of Indiana since its organization. As of December 31, 2020, the Bank had 50 offices in fifteen counties, including 44 offices in northern Indiana and six offices in central Indiana, in the Indianapolis market. The Bank’s deposits are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) to the maximum extent provided under federal law and FDIC regulations. The Bank’s activities cover all traditional facets of commercial banking, including deposit products, commercial and consumer lending, retail and merchant credit card services, corporate treasury management services, and wealth advisory, trust and brokerage services.
The Bank’s business strategy is focused on building long-term relationships with its customers based on top quality service, high ethical standards and safe and sound lending. The Bank operates as a community-based financial services organization augmented by experienced, centralized support in select critical areas. The Bank’s local market orientation is reflected in its regional management, which divides the Bank’s market area into five distinct geographic regions, each headed by a retail and commercial regional manager. This arrangement allows decision making to be as close to the customer as possible and enhances responsiveness to local banking needs. Despite this local-market, community-based focus, the Bank offers many of the products and services available at much larger regional and national competitors. While our strategy encompasses all phases of traditional community banking, including consumer lending and wealth advisory and trust services, we focus on building expansive commercial relationships and developing retail and commercial deposit gathering strategies through relationship-based client services. Substantially all of the Bank’s assets and income are located in and derived from the United States.
The Company is not a party to any collective bargaining agreements, and employee relations are considered good.
Operating Segment. While the Company has assigned certain management responsibilities by region and business-line, the Company’s chief decision-makers monitor and evaluate financial performance on a Company-wide basis. The majority of the Company’s revenue is from the business of banking and the Company’s assigned regions have similar economic characteristics, products, services and customers. Accordingly, all of the Company’s operations are considered by management to be aggregated in one reportable operating segment.
Expansion Strategy. Since 1990, the Company has expanded from 17 offices in four Indiana counties to 50 offices in fifteen Indiana counties primarily through de novo branching. During this period, the Company has grown its assets from $286 million to
$5.8 billion, a compound annual growth rate of 11%. Mergers and acquisitions have not played a role in this growth as the Company’s expansion strategy has been driven by organic growth. The Company has opened six de novo branches in the past six years and plans to continue expansion in the Indianapolis and Elkhart markets.
Over the past twenty years, the Company has primarily targeted growth in the larger cities located in Northern Indiana and the Indianapolis market in Central Indiana. The Company believes these areas offer above average growth potential with attractive demographics and potential for commercial lending and deposit gathering opportunities. The Company considers expanding into a market when the Company believes that market would be receptive to its strategic plan to deliver broad-based financial services to businesses with a commitment to local communities. When entering new markets, the Company believes it is critical to attract experienced local management and staff with a similar philosophy in order to provide a basis for success.
Competition. The financial services industry is highly competitive. Competition is based on a number of factors including, among others, customer service, quality and range of products and services offered, price, reputation, interest rates on loans and deposits, lending limits and customer convenience. Our competitors include national, regional and community banks, e-commerce and other Fintech or nonbanking companies offering financial services, as well as thrifts, credit unions, farm credit services, finance companies, personal loan companies, brokerage firms, investment companies, insurance companies, mortgage banking companies, credit card issuers and mutual fund companies. Many of these competitors enjoy fewer regulatory constraints and some may have lower cost structures.
Human Capital. Lake City Bank is committed to being the acknowledged and recognized leader in Indiana Community Banking. We achieve this mission only through the hard work and dedication of our employees. The Lake City Bank team is 629 people strong, including 573 full-time, 42 part-time, and 14 seasonal/temporary employees as of December 31, 2020.
Lake City Bank is committed to social and governance responsibility, and in 2020, the management team added “inclusivity” as the eighth core value defining our organizational culture. The Bank’s employee Code of Conduct supports diversity and inclusion efforts in our workplace, and we established a Diversity and Inclusion Task Force to develop and promote initiatives throughout the corporation. Seventy-five percent of our employees identify as women or people of color. At present, women comprise 58% of the Bank’s officers, 33% (9 of 27 members) of Senior Leadership Council (which includes those with the title of “Senior Vice President” and above) and 44% (4 of 9 members) of the executive Management Committee. Additionally, two of our 13 board members identify as women or people of color.
A positive workplace culture is vital to Lake City Bank's success. By supporting, respecting, engaging, and appreciating employees, Lake City Bank has built a team well-equipped to show the same commitment to its customers. Building and strengthening this positive workplace culture starts with Lake City University. Founded in 1999, Lake City University is dedicated to helping employees thrive professionally and personally. In 2020, Lake City Bank employees averaged 19.64 hours per employee of instruction through the University. From courses to improve technical skills, product knowledge, and customer service to classes focused on an employee's wellbeing, like personal financial planning and benefits education, Lake City University supports and promotes the personal and professional growth of all Lake City Bank employees.
In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic required that most of Lake City University's training transition to a virtual environment. That transition proved successful, and while we all look forward to working together in person soon, employee and customer safety has been and must continue to be a top priority. Lake City Bank has been intentional about ensuring compliance with all federal, state, and local recommendations related to COVID-19 throughout the pandemic. The bank's efforts ranged from providing multiple high-quality masks to employees, to implementing limited lobby policies, expanding paid leave options, installing hand sanitizers at entrances and many other initiatives. While the pandemic has proved challenging, Lake City Bank's strong culture persists and ensures we do not waiver from our mission.
In addition to the substantial investment in employee professional development, Lake City Bank's benefit and compensation programs are designed to ensure we recruit and retain top talent. With less than 12% turnover during 2020, we believe those efforts have proven effective. Lake City Bank offers employees a comprehensive health benefits package, provides a 401(k) match of up to 6% of an employee's salary to encourage retirement savings, and structures its bonus program for officers to create meaningful performance-based incentives. These programs, combined with an intentional focus to create a positive, values-based culture ensures the Lake City Bank team will continue as the acknowledged and recognized leader in Indiana Community Banking.
This document (including information incorporated by reference) contains, and future oral and written statements of the Company and its management may contain, forward-looking statements, within the meaning of such term in the federal securities law. Forward-looking statements are not historical facts and are generally identifiable by the use of words such as “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “project,” “possible,” “continue,” “plan,” “intend,” “estimate,” “may,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should” or other similar expressions. Additionally, all statements in this document, including forward-looking statements, speak only as of the date they are made, and the Company undertakes no obligation to update any statement in light of new information or future events.
The Company’s ability to predict results or the actual effect of future plans or strategies is inherently uncertain and, accordingly, the reader is cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement made by the Company. Actual results could differ materially from those addressed in the forward-looking statements as a result of numerous factors, including, without limitation:
|●||the effects of future economic, business and market conditions and changes, both domestic and foreign;|
|●||the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including its effects on our customers, local economic conditions, our operations and vendors, and the responses of federal, state and local governmental authorities;|
|●||the risks of changes in interest rates on the levels, composition and costs of deposits, loan demand, and the values and liquidity of loan collateral, securities and other interest sensitive assets and liabilities;|
|●||changes in borrowers’ credit risks and payment behaviors;|
|●||the failure of assumptions and estimates used in our reviews of our loan portfolio, underlying the establishment of reserves for possible loan losses, our analysis of our capital position and other estimates;|
|●||changes in the prices, values and sales volumes of residential and commercial real estate;|
|●||changes in the scope and cost of FDIC insurance, the state of Indiana’s Public Deposit Insurance Fund and other coverages;|
|●||the effects of disruption and volatility in capital markets on the value of our investment portfolio;|
|●||changes in the availability and cost of credit and capital in the financial markets;|
|●||the anticipated phase out of most LIBOR tenors by mid-2023 and establishing a new reference rate;|
|●||the effects of competition from a wide variety of local, regional, national and other providers of financial, investment and insurance services;|
|●||the risks of mergers, acquisitions and divestitures, including, without limitation, the related time and costs of implementing such transactions, integrating operations as part of these transactions and possible failures to achieve expected gains, revenue growth and/or expense savings from such transactions;|
|●||the timing and scope of any legislative and regulatory changes, including changes in banking, securities and tax laws and regulations and their application by our regulators;|
|●||governmental monetary and fiscal policies and the impact the most recent election will have on these;|
|●||changes in accounting policies, rules and practices, including as a result of adopting CECL on January 1, 2021;|
|●||changes in technology or products that may be more difficult or costly, or less effective than anticipated;|
|●||cyber-security risks and or cyber-security damage that could result from attacks on the Company’s or third-party service providers networks or data of the Company;|
|●||the effects of any employee or customer fraud;|
|●||the risk of trade policy and tariffs could impact loan demand from the manufacturing sector;|
|●||the effects of war or other conflicts, acts of terrorism or other catastrophic events, including storms, droughts, tornados and flooding, that may affect general economic conditions, including agricultural production and demand and prices for agricultural goods and land used for agricultural purposes, generally and in our markets; and|
|●||the risks noted in the Risk Factors discussed under Item 1A of Part 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as other risks and uncertainties set forth from time to time in the Company’s other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).|
These risks and uncertainties should be considered in evaluating forward-looking statements and undue reliance should not be placed on such statements.
The Company maintains an internet site at www.lakecitybank.com. The Company makes available free of charge in the Investor Relations section on this site, its Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and other statements and reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after it electronically files such material with, or furnishes it to, the SEC. All such documents filed with the SEC are also available for free on the SEC’s website (www.sec.gov). The Company’s Articles of Incorporation, Bylaws, Code of Conduct and the charters of the various committees of the Company’s board of directors are also available on the Investor Relations section of the website.
SUPERVISION AND REGULATION
FDIC-insured institutions, like the Bank, their holding companies and their affiliates are extensively regulated under federal and state law. As a result, our growth and earnings performance may be affected not only by management decisions and general economic conditions, but also by the requirements of federal and state statutes and by the regulations and policies of various bank regulatory agencies, including the Indiana Department of Financial Institutions (the “DFI”), the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”), the FDIC and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”). Furthermore, taxation laws administered by the Internal Revenue Service and state taxing authorities, accounting rules developed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, securities laws administered by the SEC and state securities authorities, and anti-money laundering laws enforced by the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“Treasury”) have an impact on our business. The effect of these statutes, regulations, regulatory policies and accounting rules are significant to our operations and results.
Federal and state banking laws impose a comprehensive system of supervision, regulation and enforcement on the operations of FDIC-insured institutions, their holding companies and affiliates that is intended primarily for the protection of the FDIC-insured deposits and depositors of banks, rather than shareholders. These laws, and the regulations of the bank regulatory agencies issued under them, affect, among other things, the scope of our business, the kinds and amounts of investments we may make, required capital levels relative to our assets, the nature and amount of collateral for loans, the establishment of branches, our ability to merge, consolidate and acquire, dealings with our insiders and affiliates and our payment of dividends. In reaction to the global financial crisis and particularly following passage of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), we experienced heightened regulatory requirements and scrutiny. Although the reforms primarily targeted systemically important financial service providers, their influence filtered down in varying degrees to community banks over time and caused our
compliance and risk management processes, and the costs thereof, to increase. Then, in May 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act (“Regulatory Relief Act”) was enacted by Congress in part to provide regulatory relief for community banks and their holding companies. To that end, the law eliminated questions about the applicability of certain Dodd-Frank Act reforms to community bank systems, including relieving us of any requirement to engage in mandatory stress tests, maintain a risk committee or comply with the Volcker Rule’s complicated prohibitions on proprietary trading and ownership of private funds. We believe these reforms are favorable to our operations.
The supervisory framework for U.S. banking organizations subjects banks and bank holding companies to regular examination by their respective regulatory agencies, which results in examination reports and ratings that are not publicly available and that can impact the conduct and growth of their business. These examinations consider not only compliance with applicable laws and regulations, but also capital levels, asset quality and risk, management ability and performance, earnings, liquidity, and various other factors. The regulatory agencies generally have broad discretion to impose restrictions and limitations on the operations of a regulated entity where the agencies determine, among other things, that such operations are unsafe or unsound, fail to comply with applicable law or are otherwise inconsistent with laws and regulations or with the supervisory policies of these agencies.
The following is a summary of the material elements of the supervisory and regulatory framework applicable to the Company and the Bank, beginning with a discussion of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the banking industry. It does not describe all of the statutes, regulations and regulatory policies that apply, nor does it restate all of the requirements of those that are described. The descriptions are qualified in their entirety by reference to the particular statutory and regulatory provision.
The federal bank regulatory agencies, along with their state counterparts, have issued a steady stream of guidance responding to the COVID-19 pandemic and have taken a number of unprecedented steps to help banks navigate the pandemic and mitigate its impact. These include, without limitation: requiring banks to focus on business continuity and pandemic planning; adding pandemic scenarios to stress testing; encouraging bank use of capital buffers and reserves in lending programs; permitting certain regulatory reporting extensions; reducing margin requirements on swaps; permitting certain otherwise prohibited investments in investment funds; issuing guidance to encourage banks to work with customers affected by the pandemic and encourage loan workouts; and providing credit under the Community Reinvestment Act ("CRA") for certain pandemic-related loans, investments and public service. Because of the need for social distancing measures, the agencies revamped the manner in which they conducted periodic examinations of their regulated institutions, including making greater use of off-site reviews.
Moreover, the Federal Reserve issued guidance encouraging banking institutions to utilize its discount window for loans and intraday credit extended by its Reserve Banks to help households and businesses impacted by the pandemic and announced numerous funding facilities. The FDIC also has acted to mitigate the deposit insurance assessment effects of participating in the Paycheck Protection Program ("PPP") and the Federal Reserve's PPP Liquidity Facility and Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility.
Reference is made to the discussion of Risks Relating to General Economic Conditions in the Risk Factors section below for information on the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”), PPP program and the Federal Reserve’s lending facilities and for discussions of the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, information as to selected topics, such as the impact on capital requirements, dividend payments, reserves and CRA, is contained in the relevant sections of this Supervision and Regulation discussion.
The Role of Capital
Regulatory capital represents the net assets of a banking organization available to absorb losses. Because of the risks attendant to their business, FDIC-insured institutions are generally required to hold more capital than other businesses, which directly affects our earnings capabilities. While capital has historically been one of the key measures of the financial health of both bank holding companies and banks, its role became fundamentally more important in the wake of the global financial crisis, as the banking regulators recognized that the amount and quality of capital held by banks prior to the crisis was insufficient to absorb losses during periods of severe stress. Certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and Basel III, discussed below, establish capital standards for banks and bank holding companies that are meaningfully more stringent than those in place previously.
Capital Levels. Banks have been required to hold minimum levels of capital based on guidelines established by the bank regulatory agencies since 1983. The minimums have been expressed in terms of ratios of "capital" divided by "total assets". The capital guidelines for U.S. banks beginning in 1989 have been based upon international capital accords (known as “Basel " rules) adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, a committee of central banks and bank supervisors that acts as the primary global standard-setter for prudential regulation, as implemented by the U.S. bank regulatory agencies on an interagency basis. The accords recognized that bank assets for the purpose of the capital ratio calculations needed to be risk weighted (the theory being that riskier assets should require more capital) and that off-balance sheet exposures needed to be factored in the calculations.
Following the global financial crisis, the Group of Governors and Heads of Supervision, the oversight body of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, announced agreement on a strengthened set of capital requirements for banking organizations around the world, known as Basel III, to address deficiencies recognized in connection with the global financial crisis.
The Basel III Rule. In July 2013, the U.S. federal banking agencies approved the implementation of the Basel III regulatory capital reforms in pertinent part, and, at the same time, promulgated rules effecting certain changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act (the “Basel III Rule”). In contrast to capital requirements historically, which were in the form of guidelines, Basel III was released in the form of binding regulations by each of the regulatory agencies. The Basel III Rule increased the required quantity and quality of capital and required more detailed categories of risk weighting of riskier, more opaque assets. For nearly every class of assets, the Basel III Rule requires a more complex, detailed and calibrated assessment of risk in the calculation of risk weightings. The Basel III Rule is applicable to all banking organizations that are subject to minimum capital requirements, including federal and state banks and savings and loan associations, as well as to bank and savings and loan holding companies, other than “small bank holding companies” (generally holding companies with consolidated assets of less than $3 billion) and certain qualifying banking organizations that may elect a simplified framework (which we have not done). Thus, the Company and the Bank are each currently subject to the Basel III Rule as described below.
Not only did the Basel III Rule increase most of the required minimum capital ratios in effect prior to January 1, 2015, but, in requiring that forms of capital be of higher quality to absorb loss, it introduced the concept of Common Equity Tier 1 Capital, which consists primarily of common stock, related surplus (net of Treasury stock), retained earnings, and Common Equity Tier 1 minority interests subject to certain regulatory adjustments. The Basel III Rule also changed the definition of capital by establishing more stringent criteria that instruments must meet to be considered Additional Tier 1 Capital (primarily non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock that meets certain requirements) and Tier 2 Capital (primarily other types of preferred stock and subordinated debt, subject to limitations). The Basel III Rule also constrained the inclusion of minority interests, mortgage-servicing assets, and deferred tax assets in capital and required deductions from Common Equity Tier 1 Capital in the event that such assets exceeded a percentage of a banking institution’s Common Equity Tier 1 Capital.
The Basel III Rule requires minimum capital ratios as follows:
|●||A ratio of minimum Common Equity Tier 1 Capital equal to 4.5% of risk-weighted assets;|
|●||A ratio of minimum Tier 1 Capital equal to 6% of risk-weighted assets;|
|●||A continuation of the minimum required amount of Total Capital (Tier 1 plus Tier 2) at 8% of risk-weighted assets; and|
|●||A minimum leverage ratio of Tier 1 Capital to total quarterly average assets equal to 4% in all circumstances.|
In addition, institutions that seek the freedom to make capital distributions (including for dividends and repurchases of stock) and pay discretionary bonuses to executive officers without restriction must also maintain 2.5% in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital attributable to a capital conservation buffer. The purpose of the conservation buffer is to ensure that banking institutions maintain a buffer of capital that can be used to absorb losses during periods of financial and economic stress. Factoring in the conservation buffer increases the minimum ratios depicted above to 7% for Common Equity Tier 1 Capital, 8.5% for Tier 1 Capital and 10.5% for Total Capital. The federal bank regulators released a joint statement in response to the COVID-19 pandemic reminding the industry that capital and liquidity buffers were meant to give banks the means to support the economy in adverse situations, and that the agencies would support banks that use the buffers for that purpose if undertaken in a safe and sound manner.
Well-Capitalized Requirements. The ratios described above are minimum standards in order for banking organizations to be considered “adequately capitalized.” Bank regulatory agencies uniformly encourage banks to hold more capital and be “well-capitalized” and, to that end, federal law and regulations provide various incentives for banking organizations to maintain regulatory capital at levels in excess of minimum regulatory requirements. For example, a banking organization that is well-capitalized may: (i) qualify for exemptions from prior notice or application requirements otherwise applicable to certain types of activities; (ii) qualify for expedited processing of other required notices or applications; and (iii) accept, roll-over or renew brokered deposits. Higher capital levels could also be required if warranted by the particular circumstances or risk profiles of individual banking organizations. For example, the Federal Reserve’s capital guidelines contemplate that additional capital may be required to take adequate account of, among other things, interest rate risk, or the risks posed by concentrations of credit, nontraditional activities or securities trading activities. Further, any banking organization experiencing or anticipating significant growth would be expected to maintain capital ratios, including tangible capital positions (i.e., Tier 1 Capital less all intangible assets), well above the minimum levels.
Under the capital regulations of the Federal Reserve, in order to be well-capitalized, a banking organization must maintain:
|●||A Common Equity Tier 1 Capital ratio to risk-weighted assets of 6.5% or more;|
|●||A ratio of Tier 1 Capital to total risk-weighted assets of 8% or more;|
|●||A ratio of Total Capital to total risk-weighted assets of 10% or more; and|
|●||A leverage ratio of Tier 1 Capital to total adjusted average quarterly assets of 5% or greater.|
It is possible under the Basel III Rule to be well-capitalized while remaining out of compliance with the capital conservation buffer discussed above.
As of December 31, 2020: (i) the Bank was not subject to a directive from the Federal Reserve to increase its capital and (ii) the Bank was well-capitalized, as defined by Federal Reserve regulations. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had regulatory capital in excess of the Federal Reserve’s requirements and met the Basel III Rule requirements to be well-capitalized. We are also in compliance with the capital conservation buffer.
Prompt Corrective Action. The concept of an institution being “well-capitalized” is part of a regulatory enfo