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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
xANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
oTRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                  to              .
Commission file number: 001-37497
1..jpg
LIVE OAK BANCSHARES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
North Carolina26-4596286
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1741 Tiburon Drive, Wilmington, NC
28403
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (910) 790-5867
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Voting Common Stock, no par value per shareLOBNew York Stock Exchange LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes x   No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.   Yes o   No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes x   No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes x   No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerxAccelerated Filero
Non-accelerated FileroSmaller Reporting Companyo
Emerging growth companyo
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.   x
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.   o
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). o
Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes o   No x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023, was approximately $876,352,160. Shares of common stock held by each officer and director have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. There is no public market for the registrant's non-voting common stock. For purposes of this calculation, the registrant has assumed that the market value of each share of non-voting common stock is equal to a share of voting common stock.
APPLICABLE ONLY TO CORPORATE REGISTRANTS:
As of February 21, 2024, there were 44,769,239 shares of the registrant’s voting common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, which the registrant plans to file subsequent to the date hereof, are incorporated by reference into Part III. Portions of the registrant's annual report to shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2023, which will be posted on the registrant's website and furnished to the SEC subsequent to the date hereof, are incorporated by reference into Part II.


Live Oak Bancshares, Inc.
Annual Report on Form 10-K
December 31, 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page


Important Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Report”) contains statements that management believes are forward-looking statements, within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements generally relate to the financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance or business of Live Oak Bancshares, Inc. (the “Company”). They usually can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, such as “believes,” “expects,” or “are expected to,” “plans,” “projects,” “goals,” “estimates,” “will,” “may,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “continues,” “intends to,” “outlook” or “anticipates,” or variations of these and similar words, or by discussions of strategies that involve risks and uncertainties. You should not place undue reliance on these statements, as they are subject to risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to, those described in this Report. When considering these forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind these risks and uncertainties, as well as any cautionary statements management may make. Moreover, you should treat these statements as speaking only as of the date they are made and based only on information actually known to the Company at the time. Management undertakes no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Forward-looking statements contained in this Report are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about the Company’s business, management’s beliefs and assumptions made by management. These statements are not guarantees of the Company’s future performance and involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions, which are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual outcomes and results may differ materially from what is expressed or forecasted in the forward-looking statements. These risks, uncertainties and assumptions include, without limitation:
deterioration in the financial condition of borrowers resulting in significant increases in the Company’s provision for credit losses and other adverse impacts to results of operations and financial condition;
changes in Small Business Administration (“SBA”) rules, regulations and loan products, including specifically the Section 7(a) program, changes in SBA standard operating procedures or changes to the status of Live Oak Banking Company (the “Bank” or “Live Oak Bank”) as an SBA Preferred Lender;
changes in rules, regulations or procedures for other government loan programs, including those of the United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”);
changes in interest rates that affect the level and composition of deposits, loan demand and the values of loan collateral, securities, and interest-sensitive assets and liabilities;
the failure of assumptions underlying the establishment of reserves for possible credit losses;
changes in loan underwriting, credit review or loss reserve policies associated with economic conditions, examination conclusions, or regulatory developments;
adverse developments in the banking industry highlighted by high-profile bank failures and the potential impact of such developments on customer confidence, liquidity, and regulatory responses to these developments;
the impacts of global health crises and pandemics, such as the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (“COVID-19”) pandemic, on trade (including supply chains and export levels), travel, employee productivity and other economic activities that may have a destabilizing and negative effect on financial markets, economic activity and customer behavior;
a reduction in or the termination of the Company’s ability to use the technology-based platform that is critical to the success of the Company’s business model or to develop a next-generation banking platform, including a failure in or a breach of the Company’s operational or security systems or those of its third-party service providers;
technological risks and developments, including cyber threats, attacks, or events;
changes in financial market conditions, either internationally, nationally or locally in areas in which the Company conducts operations, including reductions in rates of business formation and growth, demand for the Company’s products and services, commercial and residential real estate development and prices, premiums paid in the secondary market for the sale of loans, and valuation of servicing rights;


changes in accounting principles, policies, and guidelines applicable to bank holding companies and banking;
fluctuations in markets for equity, fixed-income, commercial paper and other securities, which could affect availability, market liquidity levels, and pricing;
the effects of competition from other commercial banks, non-bank lenders, consumer finance companies, credit unions, securities brokerage firms, insurance companies, money market and mutual funds, and other financial institutions operating in the Company’s market area and elsewhere, including institutions operating regionally, nationally and internationally, together with such competitors offering banking products and services by mail, telephone and the Internet;
the Company's ability to attract and retain key personnel;
changes in governmental monetary and fiscal policies as well as other legislative and regulatory changes, including with respect to SBA or USDA lending programs and investment tax credits;
a deterioration of the credit rating for U.S. long-term sovereign debt, actions that the U.S. government may take to avoid exceeding the debt ceiling, and uncertainties surrounding the debt ceiling and the federal budget;
changes in political and economic conditions, including any prolonged U.S. government shutdown;
the impact of heightened regulatory scrutiny of financial products and services, primarily led by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and various state agencies;
the Company's ability to comply with any requirements imposed on it by regulators, and the potential negative consequences that may result;
operational, compliance and other factors, including conditions in local areas in which the Company conducts business such as inclement weather or a reduction in the availability of services or products for which loan proceeds will be used, that could prevent or delay closing and funding loans before they can be sold in the secondary market;
the effect of any mergers, acquisitions or other transactions, to which the Company or the Bank may from time to time be a party, including management’s ability to successfully integrate any businesses acquired;
adverse results, including related fees and expenses, from pending or future lawsuits, government investigations or private actions;
other risk factors listed from time to time in reports that the Company files with the SEC, including those described under “Risk Factors” in this Report; and
the Company’s success at managing the risks involved in the foregoing.
Except as otherwise disclosed, forward-looking statements do not reflect: (i) the effect of any acquisitions, divestitures or similar transactions that have not been previously disclosed; (ii) any changes in laws, regulations or regulatory interpretations; or (iii) any change in current dividend or repurchase strategies, in each case after the date as of which such statements are made. All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which such statements are made, and the Company undertakes no obligation to update any statement, to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which such statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.


PART I
Item 1.BUSINESS
General
Live Oak Bancshares, Inc. (individually, “Bancshares” and collectively with its subsidiaries including Live Oak Banking Company, the “Company,” also referred to as “our” and “we”), headquartered in Wilmington, North Carolina, is the bank holding company for Live Oak Banking Company (the “Bank” or “Live Oak Bank”). The Bank was incorporated in February 2008 as a North Carolina-chartered commercial bank and operates an established national online platform for small business lending and deposit gathering. Bancshares was incorporated under the laws of the state of North Carolina on December 18, 2008, for the purpose of serving as the bank holding company of Live Oak Bank. Bancshares completed its initial public offering (“IPO”) in July 2015.
The Company
The Company predominantly originates loans partially guaranteed by the U.S. Small Business Administration (the “SBA”) and to a lesser extent by the United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”) Rural Energy for America Program (“REAP”), Water and Environmental Program (“WEP”), Business & Industry (“B&I”) and Community Facilities loan programs. These loans are to small businesses and professionals with what the Company believes are lower risk characteristics. Industries, or “verticals,” on which the Company focuses its lending efforts are carefully selected. The Company also lends more broadly to select borrowers outside of those verticals.
In addition to focusing on industry verticals, the Company emphasizes developing detailed knowledge of its customers’ businesses. This knowledge is developed, in part, through virtual and/or regular visits with customers, wherever they are located. These regular visits are designed to foster, both for the Company and for the customer, a deep and personalized experience throughout the lending relationship. The Company has developed, and continues to refine, a technology-based platform to facilitate providing financial services to the small business community on a national scale and has leveraged this technology to optimize the Company's loan origination process, customer experience, reporting metrics, and servicing activity. The Company services customers efficiently throughout the loan process and monitors their performance by means of the technology-based platform without maintaining traditional branch locations.
For additional information on the Company's business, financial performance and results of operations, see “Overview” and “Executive Summary” in Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this Report. For a discussion of the Company’s reportable segments see Note 15. Segments in Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this report.
The Company's voting common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange LLC (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “LOB.” As of January 31, 2024, there were 210 holders of record of the Company's voting common stock. The Company's principal executive office is located at 1741 Tiburon Drive, Wilmington, North Carolina 28403, telephone number (910) 790-5867. The Company maintains a website at www.liveoakbank.com. Documents available on the website include: (i) the Company's Code of Ethics and Conflict of Interest Policy; (ii) charters for the Audit, Risk, Compensation, and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees of the Board of Directors, and (iii) the Company’s Corporate Governance Guidelines. These documents also are available in print to any shareholder who requests a copy.
In addition, available free of charge through the Company's website is the Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing or furnishing such material to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These filings are also accessible on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
The Company also will provide without charge a copy of this Report, as well as any documents available on the Company's website, to any shareholder by mail. Requests should be sent to Live Oak Bancshares, Inc., Attention: Corporate Secretary, 1741 Tiburon Drive, Wilmington, NC 28403.
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Employees and Human Capital Resource Management
The Company operates on the fundamental philosophy that people are our most valuable asset, because every person who works for us has the potential to impact our success as well as the success of our customers. The Company’s employees are the source of our deep industry and product expertise and the embodiment of our culture. It is this industry vertical expertise, product knowledge and our culture that differentiate the Company and allow us to provide an unprecedented customer experience and live our mission to fuel the growth of small business across the country and be America’s Small Business Bank.
As a financial institution, our ability to attract, develop and retain highly qualified employees is critical to our success. The Company’s core values of innovation, dedication, ownership, respect and teamwork are pillars of our culture and represent the expectations we have of each and every one of our employees. We believe our people provide significant value to our Company and its shareholders.
Demographics
As of December 31, 2023, the Company had 943 full-time employees, 18 part-time employees and 37 independent contractors. None of the Company’s employees are covered by a collective bargaining agreement, and management considers relations with employees to be good.
Diversity and Inclusion
The Company strives to foster a welcoming, supportive, and equitable environment for diverse employees. To accomplish this, the Company focuses on engagement, awareness, training, accountability, education, and communication. During 2023, the Company supported programming through its six Employee Resource Groups (“ERG”) and saw the number of interest groups grow from nine to eleven. These employee-led networks provide community and connection through shared interests and experiences. In addition, hiring managers across the Company participated in interview and bias trainings. The Company’s diversity, equity and inclusion initiatives are both internally and externally focused. The Company and ERG leadership, membership, and allies remain committed to celebrating and supporting local, diversity-owned small business through on-campus events that showcase diverse entrepreneurs in the surrounding communities. Its commitment to providing and enhancing a support infrastructure for people with underrepresented backgrounds remains a strategic initiative. The Company intends to continue to identify, monitor and measure meaningful diversity and inclusion goals, to foster a welcoming environment through education, communication and recruiting efforts, and to provide support so that diverse employees have the resources and relationships they need to be successful and thrive.
Compensation
We believe that creating an unprecedented banking experience for small business owners nationwide through service and technology will build long-term shareholder value. To accomplish this, we endeavor to identify, recruit, retain and incentivize exceptional employees. Our compensation program is based on the premise that employees should receive fair and equitable treatment based on their individual contributions to the Company’s profitability and success. We use a combination of fixed and incentive pay, including base salary, cash bonus, and equity compensation. We also offer a 401(k) savings plan to qualifying employees.
Our compensation program is intended to motivate employees to successfully execute our mission. The Company believes that the most effective incentive compensation programs strive to achieve the following objectives:
align compensation with responsibilities and performance;
align employees’ interests with those of our shareholders;
motivate performance toward the achievement of business objectives;
clearly communicate compensation policies and structures to employees;
motivate behaviors to increase long-term profitability while maintaining the Company’s primary commitment to safety and soundness; and
attract and retain talent and build leadership succession within business units.
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Benefits and Wellness
As the success of our business is fundamentally connected to the well-being of our people, we offer benefits that support their physical, financial, and emotional well-being. We provide our employees with access to flexible and convenient insurance programs intended to meet their needs and the needs of their families. In addition to robust medical, dental and vision coverage, we offer eligible employees dependent care flexible spending accounts, paid time off, employee assistance programs, short-term and long-term disability insurance, and term life insurance.
Our focus on employee wellness extends beyond just insurance benefits. The Company provides access to an intranet site focused on physical, mental, emotional, and financial wellness, and at its Wilmington headquarters facility, provides an on-site health clinic for employees, on-site physical therapy appointments, and an on-site wellness facility staffed with certified physical trainers and regularly scheduled live and virtual wellness classes. The Company’s main campus in Wilmington also offers two on-site dining locations that provide healthy options and which can cater to specific dietary needs.
Flexibility is an important contributor to employee engagement and job satisfaction. While 2023 brought a return-to-campus initiative for our Wilmington headquarters, our 100% cloud-based operations allow our people to transition nimbly between remote working and in-person as personal circumstances require with no material effect on our operations or customer experience.
Commitment to Values and Ethics
Along with our core values, we have adopted a Code of Ethics and Conflict of Interest Policy, which sets forth expectations and guidance for employees to make appropriate decisions. Our Code of Ethics and Conflict of Interest Policy covers topics such as conflicts of interest, compliance with laws, appropriate use of company assets, protecting confidential information, and reporting of violations. Our Code of Ethics and Conflict of Interest Policy reflects our commitment to operating in a fair, honest, responsible, and ethical manner and also provides direction for reporting complaints in the event of alleged violations of our policies.
Professional Development and Training
We believe training and professional development for our employees has a positive impact on employee retention, customer experience and, ultimately, shareholder value. The Company has certain training programs and resources in place to meet the needs of various roles, skill sets and departments across the Company, including:
Internally and externally led manager training and professional development;
Internally led “lunch and learn” meetings for role-specific skills;
Web-based learning modules and training for personal and professional development, skill-based learning, leadership development and management functions;
Formal cross-department teams tasked with technology, initiative roll-outs and change management; and
Tuition reimbursement for job-specific certifications and required continuing education.
Communication and Engagement
We believe that the Company’s success and the ultimate creation of long-term value for shareholders begins with employees understanding how their work contributes to the Company’s overall strategy. To this end, we communicate with our workforce through a variety of channels and encourage open and direct communication, including:
A biennial company-wide “all hands” meeting;
Regularly scheduled town hall-style meetings that are led by our key executives and held quarterly, or more often as needed, with a focus on our people, culture, strategy, and performance;
Periodic posts from Company leadership via our internal enterprise social media network and intranet; and
An open-door environment that encourages communication, collaboration and the free-flow of information and ideas.
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Collaboration, both within and between business units, is a hallmark of our approach to service delivery and value creation for our customers and stakeholders.
Competition
Commercial banking in the United States is extremely competitive. The Company competes with national banking organizations, including the largest commercial banks headquartered in the country, all of which have small business lending divisions. The Company also competes with other federally and state-chartered financial institutions such as community banks and credit unions, finance and business development companies, peer-to-peer and marketplace lenders and other non-bank lenders. Many of the Company's competitors have higher legal lending limits and are also able to provide a wider array of services and make greater use of media advertising given their size and resources.
Despite the intense level of competition among small business lenders, the Company believes that it occupies a lending category distinct from its competitors. One of the Company's principal advantages is the technology-based platform it uses, which management believes has accelerated the Company's ability to issue proposals, complete credit due diligence, finalize commitments and improve the overall customer experience. The Company believes that its personnel also provide a competitive advantage because they include industry participants with relevant experience in the Company's identified verticals.
Subsidiaries
In addition to the Bank, Bancshares directly or indirectly held the following wholly owned material subsidiaries as of December 31, 2023:
Canapi Advisors, LLC (“Canapi Advisors”), formed in September 2018 for the purpose of providing investment advisory services to a series of funds focused on investing venture capital in new and emerging financial technology companies;
Live Oak Ventures, Inc., formed in August 2016 for the purpose of investing in businesses that align with the Company's strategic initiative to be a leader in financial technology;
Live Oak Grove, LLC, formed in February 2015 for the purpose of providing Company employees and business visitors with on-site dining at the Company’s Wilmington, North Carolina headquarters; and
Government Loan Solutions, Inc. (“GLS”), a management and technology consulting firm that specializes in the settlement, accounting, and securitization processes for government guaranteed loans, including loans originated under the SBA 7(a) loan program and USDA-guaranteed loans.
In 2010, the Bank formed Live Oak Number One, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary, to hold properties foreclosed on by the Bank.
In 2018, the Bank formed Live Oak Private Wealth, LLC (“LOPW”), a registered investment advisor that provides high-net-worth individuals and families with strategic wealth and investment management services.
In 2019, Live Oak Clean Energy Financing LLC (“LOCEF”) became a subsidiary of the Bank. LOCEF was formed in November 2016 as a subsidiary of Bancshares for the purpose of providing financing to entities for renewable energy applications.
Tiburon Land Holdings, LLC was formed in the third quarter of 2022 as a subsidiary of the Bank to hold land adjacent to the Bank’s headquarters consisting of wetlands and other protected property for the use and enjoyment of the Bank’s employees and customers.
Operating Segments
The Company’s operations are managed along two reportable operating segments consisting of Banking and Fintech. See the sections captioned “Results of Segment Operations” in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 15. Segments in the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data elsewhere in this report.
4

SUPERVISION AND REGULATION
General
The Company is subject to extensive regulation in connection with its respective activities and operations. The framework under which the Company is supervised and examined is complex. This framework includes federal and state laws, regulations, policy statements, guidance, and other interpretative materials that define the obligations and requirements for financial institutions.
Regulations of banks and their holding companies is subject to continual revision, through legislative changes, regulatory revisions, and the evolving supervisory objectives of federal and state banking agency examiners and supervisory staff. It is not possible to predict the content or timing of changes to the laws and regulations that may impact the business of the Company. Any changes to the regulatory framework applicable to the Company could have a material adverse impact on its operations.
In addition to the regulation and supervision summarized below, Bancshares is a reporting company under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) and is required to file reports with the SEC and otherwise comply with federal securities laws. Bancshares’ voting common stock is listed on the NYSE. Consequently, in addition to the rules promulgated by the SEC, Bancshares must also comply with the listing standards applicable to NYSE-listed companies. The NYSE listing standards applicable to Bancshares include corporate governance standards related to director independence; requirements for audit, nominating and compensation committee charters, membership qualifications and procedures; incentive compensation recovery policy requirements; and shareholder approval of equity compensation arrangements, among others.
The following discussion is not intended to be a complete description of all the activities regulated by U.S. banking laws and regulations or of the impact of such laws and regulations on the Company. Rather, it is intended to briefly summarize the legal and regulatory framework in which the Company operates and describes certain legal requirements that impact its businesses and operations. The information set forth below is subject to change.
Federal Bank Holding Company Regulation and Structure
As a registered bank holding company, Bancshares is subject to regulation under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (“BHCA”), and to the supervision, examination and reporting requirements of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”). The Bank is a North Carolina-chartered commercial bank and is subject to regulation, supervision and examination by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) and the North Carolina Commissioner of Banks (“NCCOB”).
The BHCA requires every bank holding company to obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before:
it may acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank if, after the acquisition, the bank holding company will directly or indirectly own or control more than 5% of the voting shares of the bank;
it or any of its subsidiaries, other than a bank, may acquire all or substantially all of the assets of any bank; or
it may merge or consolidate with any other bank holding company.
The BHCA further provides that the Federal Reserve may not approve any transaction that would result in a monopoly or that would substantially lessen competition in the banking business, unless the public interest in meeting the needs of the communities to be served outweighs the anti-competitive effects. The Federal Reserve is also required to consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the bank holding companies and banks involved and the convenience and needs of the communities to be served. Consideration of financial resources generally focuses on capital adequacy, and consideration of convenience and needs issues focuses, in part, on the performance under the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, both of which are discussed elsewhere in more detail.
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Subject to various exceptions, the BHCA and the Change in Bank Control Act, together with related regulations, require Federal Reserve approval prior to any person or company acquiring “control” of a bank holding company. Control is conclusively presumed to exist if a person or company acquires 25% or more of any class of voting securities of a bank holding company. Control is also presumed to exist, although rebuttable, if a person or company acquires 10% or more, but less than 25%, of any class of voting securities and either:
the bank holding company has securities registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act; or
no other person owns a greater percentage of that class of voting securities immediately after the transaction.
Bancshares’ voting common stock is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act. The regulations provide a procedure for challenging rebuttable presumptions of control.
The BHCA generally prohibits a bank holding company from retaining direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any company which is not a bank or bank holding company or engaging in activities other than banking, managing or controlling banks or other permissible subsidiaries and acquiring or retaining direct or indirect control of any company engaged in any activities other than activities closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks. In determining whether a particular activity is permissible, the Federal Reserve considers whether performing the activity can be expected to produce benefits to the public that outweigh possible adverse effects, such as undue concentration of resources, decreased or unfair competition, conflicts of interest or unsound banking practices. The Federal Reserve has the power to order a bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity or control of any subsidiary when the continuation of the activity or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness or stability of any bank subsidiary of that bank holding company.
Under the BHCA, a bank holding company may file an election with the Federal Reserve to be treated as a financial holding company and engage in an expanded list of financial activities. The election must be accompanied by a certification that all of the company’s insured depository institution subsidiaries are “well capitalized” and “well managed.” Additionally, the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 rating of each subsidiary bank must be satisfactory or better. If, after becoming a financial holding company and undertaking activities not permissible for a bank holding company, the company fails to continue to meet any of the prerequisites for financial holding company status, the company must enter into an agreement with the Federal Reserve to comply with all applicable capital and management requirements. If the company does not return to compliance within 180 days, the Federal Reserve may order the company to divest its subsidiary banks or the company may discontinue or divest investments in companies engaged in activities permissible only for a bank holding company that has elected to be treated as a financial holding company. Bancshares filed an election and became a financial holding company in 2016.
Under Federal Reserve policy and as codified by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), Bancshares is expected to act as a source of financial strength for Live Oak Bank and to commit resources to support Live Oak Bank. This support may be required at times when Bancshares might not be inclined to provide it or it might not be in Bancshares’ best interests or the best interests of its shareholders. In addition, any capital loans made by Bancshares to Live Oak Bank will be repaid only after Live Oak Bank’s deposits and various other obligations are repaid in full.
Live Oak Bank is also subject to numerous state and federal statutes and regulations that affect its business, activities and operations and it is supervised and examined by state and federal bank regulatory agencies. The FDIC and the NCCOB regularly examine the operations of Live Oak Bank and are given the authority to approve or disapprove mergers, consolidations, the establishment of branches and similar corporate actions. These agencies also have the power to prevent the continuance or development of unsafe or unsound banking practices or other violations of law.
Bank Merger Act
Section 18(c) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, popularly known as the “Bank Merger Act,” requires the prior written approval of appropriate federal bank regulatory agencies before any bank may (i) merge or consolidate with, (ii) purchase or otherwise acquire the assets of, or (iii) assume the deposit liabilities of, another bank if the resulting institution is to be a state nonmember bank.
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The Bank Merger Act prohibits the applicable federal bank regulatory agency from approving any proposed merger transaction that would result in a monopoly, or would further a combination or conspiracy to monopolize or to attempt to monopolize the business of banking in any part of the United States. Similarly, the Bank Merger Act prohibits the applicable federal bank regulatory agency from approving a proposed merger transaction whose effect in any section of the country may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tend to create a monopoly, or which in any other manner would be in restraint of trade. An exception may be made in the case of a merger transaction whose effect would be to substantially lessen competition, tend to create a monopoly, or otherwise restrain trade, if the applicable federal bank regulatory agency finds that the anticompetitive effects of the proposed transaction are clearly outweighed in the public interest by the probable effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served.
In every proposed merger transaction, the applicable federal bank regulatory agency must also consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the existing and proposed institutions, the convenience and needs of the community to be served, and the effectiveness of each insured depository institution involved in the proposed merger transaction in combating money-laundering activities, including in overseas branches.
State Law
Live Oak Bank is subject to extensive supervision and regulation by the NCCOB. The NCCOB oversees state laws that set specific requirements for bank capital and that regulate deposits in, and loans and investments by, banks, including the amounts, types, and in some cases, rates. The NCCOB supervises and performs periodic examinations of North Carolina-chartered banks to assure compliance with state banking statutes and regulations, and banks are required to make regular reports to the NCCOB describing in detail their resources, assets, liabilities, and financial condition. Among other things, the NCCOB regulates mergers and consolidations of North Carolina state-chartered banks, capital requirements for banks, loans to officers and directors, payment of dividends, record keeping, types and amounts of loans and investments, and the establishment, relocation, and closing of branches.
The NCCOB has extensive enforcement authority over North Carolina banks. Such authority includes the ability to issue cease-and-desist orders and to seek civil money penalties. The NCCOB may also take possession of a North Carolina bank in various circumstances, including for a violation of its charter or of applicable laws, operating in an unsafe and unsound manner, or as a result of an impairment of its capital, and may appoint a receiver.
Bancshares is also required to maintain registration as a bank holding company with the NCCOB. Subject to certain exceptions, Bancshares may not acquire control over another bank or bank holding company or consummate a merger or other combination transaction with another company without the prior approval of the NCCOB. The NCCOB also has authority to assert civil money penalties against a holding company if the NCCOB determines such holding company to be in violation of any banking laws and the holding company fails to comply with an NCCOB order to cease and desist from such violations of law.
The primary state banking laws to which Bancshares and the Bank are subject are set forth in Chapters 53 and 53C of the North Carolina General Statutes. The North Carolina Business Corporation Act is also applicable to Bancshares as a North Carolina business corporation and to the Bank as a North Carolina banking corporation.
Payment of Dividends and Other Restrictions
Bancshares is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank. While there are various legal and regulatory limitations under federal and state law on the extent to which banks can pay dividends or otherwise supply funds to holding companies, a principal source of cash revenues for Bancshares is dividends from the Bank. The relevant federal and state regulatory agencies have authority to prohibit a state bank or bank holding company, which would include the Bank and Bancshares, from engaging in what, in the opinion of such regulatory body, constitutes an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting its business. The payment of dividends could, depending upon the financial condition of a bank, be deemed to constitute an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting its business.
North Carolina commercial banks, such as Live Oak Bank, are subject to legal limitations on the amounts of dividends they are permitted to pay. Specifically, an insured depository institution, such as Live Oak Bank, is prohibited from making capital distributions, including the payment of dividends, if, after making such distribution, the institution would become “undercapitalized” (as such term is defined in the applicable law and regulations).
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The Federal Reserve has issued a policy statement on the payment of cash dividends by bank holding companies, which expresses the Federal Reserve’s view that a bank holding company should pay cash dividends only to the extent that the holding company’s net income for the past four quarters is sufficient to cover both the cash dividends and a rate of earnings retention that is consistent with the holding company’s capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. The Federal Reserve has also indicated that it would be inappropriate for a holding company experiencing serious financial problems to borrow funds to pay dividends. Furthermore, under the prompt corrective action regulations adopted by the Federal Reserve, the Federal Reserve may prohibit a bank holding company from paying any dividends if any of the holding company’s bank subsidiaries are classified as undercapitalized.
A bank holding company is required to give the Federal Reserve prior written notice of any purchase or redemption of its outstanding equity securities if the gross consideration for the purchase or redemption, when combined with the net consideration paid for all such purchases or redemptions during the preceding 12 months, is equal to 10% or more of its consolidated net worth. The Federal Reserve may disapprove such a purchase or redemption if it determines that the proposal would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice or would violate any law, regulation, Federal Reserve order or any condition imposed by, or written agreement with, the Federal Reserve.
Under the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, there is a 1% excise tax on the fair market value of stock repurchased after December 31, 2022, by publicly traded U.S. corporations. With certain exceptions, the value of stock repurchased is determined net of stock issued in the year, including shares issued pursuant to compensatory arrangements.
Capital Adequacy
General. Bancshares must comply with the Federal Reserve’s established capital adequacy standards, and Live Oak Bank is required to comply with the capital adequacy standards established by the FDIC. The Federal Reserve has promulgated two basic measures of capital adequacy for bank holding companies: a risk-based measure and a leverage measure. A bank holding company must satisfy all applicable capital standards to be considered in compliance.
The risk-based capital standards are designed to make regulatory capital requirements sensitive to differences in risk profiles among banks and bank holding companies, account for off-balance-sheet exposure and minimize disincentives for holding liquid assets.
Assets and off-balance-sheet items are assigned to broad risk categories, each with appropriate weights. The resulting capital ratios represent capital as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets and off-balance-sheet items. Under applicable capital standards, the minimum risk-based capital ratios are a common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 4.5%, a Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 6%, and a total capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 8%. In addition, to avoid restrictions on capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments, Bancshares and the Bank are required to meet a capital conservation buffer of common equity Tier 1 capital in addition to the minimum common equity Tier 1 capital ratio. The capital conservation buffer is set at a ratio of 2.5% common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets, which sits “on top” of the 4.5% minimum common equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets ratio. Common equity Tier 1 capital is predominantly composed of retained earnings and common stock instruments (that meet strict delineated criteria), net of treasury stock, and after making necessary capital deductions and adjustments. Tier 1 capital is composed of common equity Tier 1 capital plus Additional Tier 1 capital, which consists of noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and similar instruments meeting specified eligibility criteria. Total capital is composed of Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital, which consists of subordinated debt with a minimum original maturity of at least five years and a limited amount of loan loss reserves.
At December 31, 2023, the Company's risk-based capital ratios, as calculated under applicable capital standards were 11.73% common equity Tier 1 capital to risk weighted assets, 11.73% Tier 1 capital to risk weighted assets, and 12.98% total capital to risk weighted assets.
In addition, the Federal Reserve has established minimum leverage ratio guidelines for bank holding companies. These guidelines provide for a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to average total on-balance sheet assets, less goodwill and certain other intangible assets, of 4% for bank holding companies. Bancshares’ ratio at December 31, 2023 was 8.58% compared to 9.26% at December 31, 2022. The guidelines also provide that bank holding companies experiencing internal growth or making acquisitions will be expected to maintain strong capital positions substantially above the minimum supervisory levels without significant reliance on intangible assets. Furthermore, the Federal Reserve has indicated that it will consider a “tangible Tier 1 Capital leverage ratio” and other indications of capital strength in evaluating proposals for expansion or new activities.
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Failure to meet capital guidelines could subject a bank to a variety of enforcement remedies, including issuance of a capital directive, the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC, a prohibition on taking brokered deposits and certain other restrictions on its business. As described below, the FDIC can impose substantial additional restrictions upon FDIC-insured depository institutions that fail to meet applicable capital requirements.
Prompt Corrective Action. The Federal Deposit Insurance Act (the “FDI Act”) requires the federal bank regulatory agencies to take “prompt corrective action” if a depository institution does not meet minimum capital requirements. The FDI Act establishes five capital tiers: “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized” and “critically undercapitalized.” A depository institution’s capital tier will depend upon how its capital levels compare to various relevant capital measures and certain other factors, as established by regulation.
An institution may be downgraded to, or deemed to be in, a capital category that is lower than is indicated by its capital ratios if it is determined to be in an unsafe or unsound condition or if it receives an unsatisfactory examination rating with respect to certain matters. As of December 31, 2023, Live Oak Bank had capital levels that qualify as “well capitalized” under the applicable regulations.
The FDI Act generally prohibits an FDIC-insured bank from making a capital distribution (including payment of a dividend) or paying any management fee to its holding company if the bank is or would thereafter be “undercapitalized.” “Undercapitalized” banks are subject to growth limitations and are required to submit a capital restoration plan. The federal regulators may not accept a capital restoration plan without determining, among other things, that the plan is based on realistic assumptions and is likely to succeed in restoring the bank’s capital. In addition, for a capital restoration plan to be acceptable, the bank’s parent holding company must guarantee that the institution will comply with such capital restoration plan until the institution has been adequately capitalized on average during each of four consecutive calendar quarters. The aggregate liability of the parent holding company under such guaranty is limited to the lesser of: (i) an amount equal to 5% of the bank’s total assets at the time it became “undercapitalized”; and (ii) the amount which is necessary (or would have been necessary) to bring the institution into compliance with all capital standards applicable with respect to such institution as of the time it fails to comply with the plan. If a bank fails to submit an acceptable plan, it is treated as if it is “significantly undercapitalized.”
“Significantly undercapitalized” insured banks may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become “adequately capitalized,” requirements to reduce total assets, cease receipt of deposits from correspondent banks, or dismiss directors or officers, and restrictions on interest rates paid on deposits, compensation of executive officers, and capital distributions by the parent holding company. “Critically undercapitalized” institutions are subject to the appointment of a receiver or conservator, may not make any payment of principal or interest on certain subordinated debt, extend credit for a highly leveraged transaction, or enter into any material transaction outside the ordinary course of business.
A bank that is not “well capitalized” is also subject to certain limitations relating to brokered deposits. If a bank is not well-capitalized, it cannot accept brokered deposits without prior FDIC approval. Even if approved, rate restrictions will govern the rate the institution may pay on the brokered deposits. At December 31, 2023, Live Oak Bank was “well capitalized” and therefore not subject to any limitations with respect to its brokered deposits.
Basel III. The regulatory capital framework under which Bancshares and Live Oak Bank operate changed in significant respects as a result of the Dodd-Frank Act and other regulations, including the separate regulatory capital requirements put forth by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, commonly known “Basel III.”
The Federal Reserve, FDIC and Office of the Comptroller of the Currency approved final rules that established an integrated regulatory capital framework that implements the Basel III regulatory capital requirements and certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. Compliance by Bancshares and the Bank with these capital requirements affects their respective operations by increasing the amount of capital required to conduct operations.
The FDIC has set the minimum required Community Bank Leverage Ratio (“CBLR”) at 9 percent. A qualifying community banking organization may elect to use the CBLR framework if its CBLR is greater than 9 percent. A qualifying community banking organization that has chosen the proposed framework is not required to calculate the existing risk-based and leverage capital requirements. A bank is also considered to have met the capital ratio requirements to be well capitalized for the agencies’ prompt corrective action rules provided it has a CBLR greater than 9 percent. The Company has not elected to implement the CBLR framework at this time.
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Acquisitions
The Company must comply with numerous laws related to any potential acquisition activity. Under the BHCA, a bank holding company may not directly or indirectly acquire ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares or substantially all of the assets of any bank or merge or consolidate with another bank holding company without the prior approval of the Federal Reserve. The acquisition of non-banking companies is also regulated by the Federal Reserve. Current federal law authorizes interstate acquisitions of banks and bank holding companies without geographic limitation. Furthermore, a bank headquartered in one state is authorized to merge with a bank headquartered in another state, as long as neither of the states has opted out of such interstate merger authority prior to such date, and subject to any state requirement that the target bank shall have been in existence and operating for a minimum period of time, not to exceed five years, and to certain deposit market-share limitations. After a bank has established branches in a state through an interstate merger transaction, the bank may establish and acquire additional branches at any location in the state where a bank headquartered in that state could have established or acquired branches under applicable federal or state law. Additionally, under the Dodd-Frank Act, banks are permitted to open a de novo branch in any state if that state would permit a bank organized in that state to open a branch.
Restrictions on Affiliate Transactions
Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act establish parameters for a bank to conduct “covered transactions” with its affiliates, with the objective of limiting risk to the insured bank. Generally, Sections 23A and 23B (i) limit the extent to which the bank or its subsidiaries may engage in “covered transactions” with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10% of such bank’s capital stock and surplus, and limit the aggregate of all such transactions with all affiliates to an amount equal to 20% of such capital stock and surplus and (ii) require that all such transactions be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable, to the bank or subsidiary as those that would be provided to a non-affiliate. The term “covered transaction” includes the making of loans to the affiliate, purchase of assets from the affiliate, issuance of a guaranty on behalf of the affiliate and several other types of transactions.
Under the Dodd-Frank Act, restrictions on transactions with affiliates are enhanced by (i) including among “covered transactions” transactions between bank and affiliate-advised investment funds; (ii) including among “covered transactions” transactions between a bank and an affiliate with respect to securities repurchase agreements and derivatives transactions; (iii) adopting stricter collateral rules; and (iv) imposing tighter restrictions on transactions between banks and their financial subsidiaries.
FDIC Insurance Assessments
The Bank’s deposits are insured by the FDIC. The standard FDIC insurance coverage amount is $250,000 per depositor, per institution. The FDIC maintains its Deposit Insurance Fund (the “DIF”) for the purposes of (1) insuring the deposits and protecting the depositors of insured banks and (2) resolving failed banks. The DIF is funded mainly through quarterly assessments on insured banks, but also receives interest income on securities. The DIF is reduced by loss provisions associated with failed banks and by FDIC operating expenses.
The FDIC imposes a risk-based deposit insurance premium assessment on member institutions in order to maintain the DIF. Assessments are based on the average consolidated total assets less tangible equity of a financial institution. The assessment rates for an insured depository institution vary according to the level of risk incurred in its activities. The assessment rate schedule can change from time to time, at the discretion of the FDIC, subject to certain limits.
Live Oak Bank’s insurance assessments during 2023 and 2022 were $16.7 million and $9.8 million, respectively. In conjunction with the Amended Restoration Plan, the FDIC Board increased deposit insurance assessment rates by two basis points for all insured depository institutions, effective in 2023. The FDIC may terminate insurance of deposits upon a finding that an institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC.
The law also gives the FDIC enhanced discretion to set assessment rate levels. A significant increase in insurance premiums would likely have an adverse effect on the operating expenses and results of operations of the Company and the Bank. Management cannot predict what insurance assessment rates will be in the future.
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Privacy and Data Security
We are subject to complex and evolving laws and regulations governing the privacy and security of personal information associated with consumers, prospective, current and former customers, employees and contractors, and other individuals. For example, financial institutions are required by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 (the “GLBA”) to disclose their policies for collecting and protecting consumer information. The Bank has established a privacy policy that it believes promotes compliance with these federal requirements. The GLBA also imposes restrictions on when and to which entities financial institutions may disclose personal information and how personal information can be used, as well as data security requirements.
In addition, we are subject to federal requirements related to unauthorized access to and/or acquisition of personal information, cybersecurity incidents, and similar matters. When unauthorized access to and/or acquisition of personal information occurs, the Interagency Guidance on Response Programs for Unauthorized Access to Customer Information and Customer Notice may require us to notify affected individuals and regulator
The U.S. federal bank regulatory agencies have established computer-security incident notification requirements for banking organizations and bank service providers. A bank holding company, such a Bancshares, and an FDIC-supervised depository institution, such as the Bank, are required to notify the Federal Reserve or FDIC, respectively, as soon as possible and no later than 36 hours after a determination that a computer-security incident that rises to the level of a notification incident has occurred. A computer-security incident is an occurrence that results in actual harm to the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of an information system or the information that the system processes, stores, or transmits. A notification incident is defined as a computer-security incident that has materially disrupted or degraded, or is reasonably likely to materially disrupt or degrade, a banking organization’s: (i) ability to carry out banking operations, activities, or processes, or deliver banking products and services to a material portion of its customer base, in the ordinary course of business; (ii) business line(s), including associated operations, services, functions, and support, that upon failure would result in a material loss of revenue, profit, or franchise value; or (iii) operations, including associated services, functions and support, as applicable, the failure or discontinuance of which would pose a threat to the financial stability of the United States. For example, a notification incident may include a major computer-system failure; a cyber-related interruption, such as a distributed denial of service or ransomware attack; or another type of significant operational interruption.
SEC rules also require disclosure of material cybersecurity incidents, as well as cybersecurity risk management, strategy, and governance. See Item 1C. Cybersecurity.

In addition to federal privacy laws and regulations, numerous state laws and regulations govern the collection, retention, use, and disclosure of personal information, and state legislatures have been actively considering and enacting new laws addressing data security, data breach notification, and privacy. For example, some states have enacted financial privacy laws and regulations that are similar to the GLBA’s privacy requirements. All fifty states have enacted data breach notification laws, and many states have enacted or are considering comprehensive privacy laws. To the extent applicable, many of these laws and regulations impose additional and/or different requirements than federal law, may present implementation challenges, could be an enforcement priority for the state regulators, and could generate increased lawsuits by consumers and other individuals.
The application, interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations are often uncertain, particularly in light of new and rapidly evolving data-driven technologies and significant increases in computing power. These laws and regulations are constantly evolving, remain a focus of regulators, and will continue to have a significant impact on our businesses and operations. Violations of these laws and regulations can give rise to enforcement actions by governmental agencies and to private lawsuits for damages and other forms of relief.
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Federal Home Loan Bank System
The Federal Home Loan Bank (the “FHLB”) System consists of 12 district FHLBs subject to supervision and regulation by the Federal Housing Finance Agency (the “FHFA”). The FHLBs provide a central credit facility primarily for member institutions. As a member of the FHLB of Atlanta, the Bank is required to acquire and hold shares of capital stock in the FHLB of Atlanta. The Bank was in compliance with this requirement with investment in FHLB of Atlanta stock of $6.8 million at December 31, 2023. The FHLB of Atlanta serves as a reserve or central bank for its member institutions within its assigned district. It is funded primarily from proceeds derived from the sale of consolidated obligations of the FHLB System. It offers advances to members in accordance with policies and procedures established by the FHFA and the Board of Directors of the FHLB of Atlanta. Long-term advances may only be made for the purpose of providing funds for residential housing finance, small businesses, small farms and small agribusinesses.
Community Reinvestment Act
The Community Reinvestment Act requires federal bank regulatory agencies to encourage financial institutions to meet the credit needs of low and moderate-income borrowers in their local communities. An institution’s size and business strategy determines the type of examination that it will receive. Large, retail-oriented institutions are examined using a performance-based lending, investment and service test. Small institutions are examined using a streamlined approach. All institutions may opt to be evaluated under a strategic plan formulated with community input and pre-approved by the bank regulatory agency.
The Community Reinvestment Act regulations provide for certain disclosure obligations. Each institution must post a notice advising the public of its right to comment to the institution and its regulator on the institution’s Community Reinvestment Act performance and to review the institution’s Community Reinvestment Act public file. Each lending institution must maintain for public inspection a file that includes a listing of branch locations and services, a summary of lending activity, a map of its communities and any written comments from the public on its performance in meeting community credit needs. The Community Reinvestment Act requires public disclosure of the regulators’ written Community Reinvestment Act evaluations of financial institutions. This promotes enforcement of Community Reinvestment Act requirements by providing the public with the status of a particular institution’s community reinvestment record.
The Community Reinvestment Act agreements with private parties must be disclosed and annual Community Reinvestment Act reports relating to such agreements must be made available to a bank’s primary federal regulator. A bank holding company will not be permitted to become a financial holding company and no new activities authorized under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act may be commenced by a holding company or by a bank financial subsidiary if any of its bank subsidiaries received less than a satisfactory Community Reinvestment Act rating in its latest Community Reinvestment Act examination. The Bank received an “Outstanding” rating in its last Community Reinvestment Act examination, which was conducted as of June 1, 2022.
The Volcker Rule
Under provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act referred to as the “Volcker Rule,” certain limitations are placed on the ability of insured depository institutions and their affiliates to engage in sponsoring, investing in and transacting with certain investment funds, including hedge funds and private equity funds. The Volcker Rule also places restrictions on proprietary trading, which could impact certain hedging activities.
USA PATRIOT Act
The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the “USA PATRIOT Act”) required each financial institution: (i) to establish an anti-money laundering program; (ii) to establish due diligence policies, procedures and controls with respect to its private banking accounts involving foreign individuals and certain foreign banks; and (iii) to avoid establishing, maintaining, administering or managing correspondent accounts in the United States for, or on behalf of, foreign banks that do not have a physical presence in any country. The USA PATRIOT Act also required the Secretary of the Treasury to prescribe by regulation minimum standards that financial institutions must follow to verify the identity of customers, both foreign and domestic, when a customer opens an account. In addition, the USA PATRIOT Act encouraged cooperation among financial institutions, regulatory authorities and law enforcement authorities with respect to individuals, entities and organizations engaged in, or reasonably suspected of engaging in, terrorist acts or money laundering activities.
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Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Sarbanes-Oxley”) mandated for public companies, such as Bancshares, a variety of reforms intended to address corporate and accounting fraud and provided for the establishment of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), which enforces auditing, quality control and independence standards for firms that audit SEC-reporting companies. Sarbanes-Oxley imposed higher standards for auditor independence and restricted the provision of consulting services by auditing firms to companies they audit and requires that certain audit partners be rotated periodically. It also requires chief executive officers and chief financial officers, or their equivalents, to certify the accuracy of periodic reports filed with the SEC, subject to civil and criminal penalties if they knowingly or willfully violate this certification requirement, and increases the oversight and authority of audit committees of publicly traded companies.
Fiscal and Monetary Policy
Banking is a business which depends on interest rate differentials for success. In general, the difference between the interest paid by a bank on its deposits and its other borrowings, and the interest received by a bank on its loans and securities holdings, constitutes a significant portion of a bank’s earnings. Thus, the Company's earnings and growth will be subject to the influence of economic conditions generally, both domestic and foreign, and also to the monetary and fiscal policies of the United States and its agencies, particularly the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve regulates the supply of money through various means, including open market dealings in United States government securities, the discount rate at which banks may borrow from the Federal Reserve and the reserve requirements on deposits. The nature and timing of any changes in such policies and their effect on the Company's business and results of operations cannot be predicted.
Current and future legislation and the policies established by federal and state regulatory authorities will affect the Company's future operations. Banking legislation and regulations may limit the Company's growth and the return to its investors by restricting certain of its activities.
In addition, capital requirements could be changed and have the effect of restricting the activities of the Company or requiring additional capital to be maintained. The Company cannot predict with certainty what changes, if any, will be made to existing federal and state legislation and regulations or the effect that such changes may have on the Company's business and results of operations.
Real Estate Lending Evaluations
The federal regulators have adopted uniform standards for evaluations of loans secured by real estate or made to finance improvements to real estate. Banks are required to establish and maintain written internal real estate lending policies consistent with safe and sound banking practices and appropriate to the size of the institution and the nature and scope of its operations. The regulations establish loan-to-value ratio limitations on real estate loans. Live Oak Bank’s respective loan policies establish limits on loan to value ratios that are equal to or less than those established in such regulations.
Commercial Real Estate Concentrations
Lending operations of commercial banks may be subject to enhanced scrutiny by federal banking regulators based on a bank’s concentration of commercial real estate (“CRE”) loans. The federal banking regulators have issued guidance to remind financial institutions of the risk posed by CRE lending concentrations. CRE loans generally include land development, construction loans, and loans secured by multifamily property, and nonfarm, nonresidential real property where the primary source of repayment is derived from rental income associated with the property. The guidance prescribes the following guidelines for bank examiners to help identify institutions that are potentially exposed to significant CRE risk and may warrant greater supervisory scrutiny:
total reported loans for construction, land development and other land (“C&D”) represent 100% or more of the institution’s total capital; or
total CRE loans represent 300% or more of the institution’s total capital, and the outstanding balance of the institution’s CRE loan portfolio has increased over 50% or more during the prior 36 months.
As of December 31, 2023, the Bank's C&D concentration as a percentage of bank capital totaled 61.5% and the Bank's CRE concentration, excluding owner-occupied loans, as a percentage of capital totaled 164.0%.
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Limitations on Incentive Compensation
The Federal Reserve reviews incentive compensation arrangements of bank holding companies such as Bancshares as part of its regular, risk-focused supervisory process.
The federal banking agencies have also issued guidance designed to help ensure that incentive compensation policies at banking organizations do not encourage excessive risk-taking or undermine the safety and soundness of the banking organization. The guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an organization, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a banking organization’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide employees incentives that appropriately balance risk and reward and, thus, do not encourage risk-taking beyond the organization’s ability to effectively identify and manage risks, (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management, and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors. Any deficiencies in compensation practices that are identified may be incorporated into the organization’s supervisory ratings, which can affect its ability to make acquisitions or perform other actions. The guidance provides that enforcement actions may be taken against a banking organization if its incentive compensation arrangements or related risk-management control or governance processes pose a risk to the organization’s safety and soundness and the organization is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies.
Pursuant to SEC rules, the national securities exchanges and associations, including the NYSE, have implemented listing standards that require listed companies to adopt policies mandating the recovery or “clawback” of excess incentive-based compensation earned by a current or former executive officer during the three fiscal years preceding the date the listed company is required to prepare an accounting restatement, including to correct an error that would result in a material restatement if the error were corrected in the current period of left uncorrected in the current period. The Company has adopted a clawback policy, a copy of which is included as an exhibit to this Report.
Registered Investment Adviser Regulation
LOPW is a registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and the SEC’s regulations promulgated thereunder. The Investment Advisers Act imposes numerous obligations on registered investment advisers, including fiduciary, recordkeeping, operational, and disclosure obligations. Supervisory agencies have the power to limit or restrict LOPW from conducting its business in the event it fails to comply with such laws and regulations. Possible sanctions that may be imposed in the event of such noncompliance include the suspension of individual employees, limitations on business activities for specified periods of time, revocation of registration as an investment adviser and/or other registrations, and other censures and fines. Changes in these laws or regulations could have a material adverse impact on the profitability and mode of operations of LOPW.
Economic Environment
The policies of regulatory authorities, including the monetary policy of the Federal Reserve, have a significant effect on the operating results of bank holding companies and their subsidiaries. Among the means available to the Federal Reserve to affect the money supply are open market operations in U.S. government securities, changes in the discount rate on member bank borrowings and changes in reserve requirements against member bank deposits. These means are used in varying combinations to influence overall growth and distribution of bank loans, investments and deposits, and their use may affect interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits. The Federal Reserve’s monetary policies have materially affected the operating results of commercial banks in the past and are expected to continue to do so in the future. The nature of future monetary policies and the effect of these policies on the Company's business and earnings cannot be predicted.
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Dodd-Frank Act
The Dodd-Frank Act was signed into law in 2010 and implemented many changes in the way financial and banking operations are regulated in the United States, including through the creation of a new resolution authority, mandating higher capital and liquidity requirements, requiring banks to pay increased fees to regulatory agencies and numerous other provisions intended to strengthen the financial services sector. Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the Financial Stability Oversight Council (the “FSOC”) was created and is charged with overseeing and coordinating the efforts of the primary U.S. financial regulatory agencies (including the Federal Reserve, the FDIC and the SEC) in establishing regulations to address systemic financial stability concerns. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”) was also created as a new consumer financial services regulator. The CFPB is authorized to prevent unfair, deceptive and abusive practices and ensure that consumers have access to markets for consumer financial products and services and that such markets are fair, transparent and competitive.
The Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations impose various additional requirements on bank holding companies and banks with $10 billion or more in total consolidated assets. As of December 31, 2023, the Company and the Bank each had total assets of $11.27 billion and $11.21 billion, respectively. See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Regulatory Impact of Asset Growth.
Federal and State Taxation
Bancshares and its subsidiaries file a consolidated federal income tax return and separate state income tax returns in North Carolina. All the returns are filed on a calendar year basis. Consolidated income tax returns have the effect of eliminating intercompany income and expense, including dividends, from the computation of consolidated taxable income for the taxable year in which the items occur. In accordance with an income tax sharing agreement, income tax charges or credits are allocated among Bancshares and its subsidiaries on the basis of their respective taxable income or taxable loss that is included in the consolidated income tax return.
Banks and bank holding companies are subject to federal and state income taxes in essentially the same manner as other corporations. Taxable income is generally calculated under applicable sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), with some modifications required by state law and the 2017 tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act"). Although the Company’s federal income tax liability is determined under provisions of the Code, which is applicable to all taxpayers, Sections 581 through 597 of the Code apply specifically to financial institutions.
Among other things, the Tax Act (i) established a new, flat corporate federal statutory income tax rate of 21%, (ii) eliminates the corporate alternative minimum tax and allowed the use of any such carryforwards to offset regular tax liability for any taxable year, (iii) limited the deduction for net interest expense incurred by U.S. corporations, (iv) allowed businesses to immediately expense, for tax purposes, the cost of new investments in certain qualified depreciable assets, (v) eliminated or reduced certain deductions related to meals and entertainment expenses, (vi) modified the limitation on excessive employee remuneration to eliminate the exception for performance-based compensation and clarified the definition of a covered employee and (vii) limited the deductibility of deposit insurance premiums. The Tax Act also significantly changed U.S. tax law related to foreign operations, however, such changes do not currently impact the Company. Management continues to explore investments which generate investment tax credits and as a result there can be no assurance as to the actual effective rate because it will be dependent upon the nature and amount of future income and expenses as well as actual investments generating investment tax credits and transactions with discrete tax effects.
The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) was signed into law in March 2020, to provide national emergency economic relief measures. Many of the CARES Act’s programs were dependent upon the direct involvement of U.S. financial institutions, such as the Company and the Bank, and were implemented through rules and guidance adopted by federal departments and agencies, including the U.S. Department of Treasury, the Federal Reserve and other federal banking agencies, including those with direct supervisory jurisdiction over the Company and the Bank.
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Paycheck Protection Program. The CARES Act amended the SBA’s loan program, in which the Bank participates, to create a guaranteed, unsecured loan program, the Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”), to fund operational costs of eligible businesses, organizations and self-employed persons during the COVID-19 pandemic. As a participating lender in the PPP, the Bank continues to monitor legislative, regulatory, and supervisory developments related thereto.
Troubled Debt Restructuring and Loan Modifications for Affected Borrowers. The CARES Act, as amended, permits banks to suspend requirements under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for loan modifications to borrowers affected by COVID-19 that would otherwise be characterized as troubled debt restructurings and suspend any determination related thereto if certain conditions are met. In order to be eligible for this treatment, the applicable loan must have been no more than 30 days past due as of December 31, 2019 and the loan modification must be made between March 1, 2020 and the earlier of (i) 60 days after the date of termination of the national emergency related to COVID-19 declared by the president of the United States, or (ii) January 11, 2022. The federal banking agencies also issued guidance to encourage banks to make loan modifications for borrowers affected by COVID-19 and to assure banks that they will not be criticized by examiners for doing so.
Evolving Legislation and Regulatory Action
New laws or regulations or changes to existing laws and regulations, including changes in interpretation or enforcement, could materially adversely affect the Company's financial condition or results of operations.
Item 1A.RISK FACTORS
An investment in Live Oak Bancshares, Inc.’s common stock involves certain risks. The following discussion highlights the risks that management believes are material for the Company, but do not necessarily include all the risks that we may face. Additional risks and uncertainties that are not currently known or that management does not currently deem material could also have a material adverse impact on our business, results of our operations and financial condition. You should carefully consider the risk factors and uncertainties described below and elsewhere in this Report in evaluating an investment in Live Oak Bancshares, Inc.’s common stock.
Summary of Risk Factors
The following is a summary of the most significant risks and uncertainties that we believe could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition to the following summary, you should consider the other information set forth in this “Risk Factors” section and the other information contained in this Report before investing in our securities.
Risks Related to Our Business
Increased delinquencies and credit losses could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Changes to the SBA or other government-guaranteed lending programs by the federal government, or the loss of our status as an SBA Preferred Lender, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
A prolonged U.S. government shutdown or default by the U.S. on government obligations would harm our results of operations.
Pandemics, natural disasters, global climate change, acts of terrorism and global conflicts may have a negative impact on our business operations.
We face risks, including credit risk and litigation risk, in connection with our participation in government programs enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Changes in our ability to use, or the terms of our use of, intellectual property owned by other third parties could have a material adverse effect on our business.
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We must effectively manage risks in connection with our information systems and those of our third-party service providers, which may experience disruption, failure, or security breaches, including those caused by cyber-attacks.
The valuation of our investment securities, loans, and servicing rights is subject to change based on market conditions and various factors that are beyond our control.
We must maintain an appropriate allowance for credit losses.
Errors in the assumptions used to compute gains on sale of loans could result in material revenue misstatements.
We must effectively manage our liquidity risk.
We must effectively manage our interest rate risks.
Increases in the amount of other real estate owned could result in additional losses, costs and expenses.
We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with our lending activities.
Real property appraisals may not accurately reflect the net value of the collateral that we can realize.
We must effectively manage our counterparty risk.
Our expansion strategy, including new lines of business, new products, acquisitions, and investments, exposes us to risks.
Our investments in tax-advantaged projects may not generate returns as anticipated and may have an adverse effect on our financial results.
Our investments in other companies may be illiquid and may subject us to material financial, reputational and strategic risks.
We are less able to diversify our lending risks than larger financial institutions.
Our directors and executive officers own a significant amount of our outstanding common stock, which could limit other shareholders’ ability to influence corporate matters and may hinder a third party from acquiring control of the Company.
Risks Related to Our Regulatory Environment
We are subject to extensive government regulation and supervision.
We must maintain adequate regulatory capital to support our business.
We are subject to heightened regulatory requirements because our total assets exceed $10 billion.
Negative developments affecting the banking industry may result in additional regulations that could increase our expenses and affect our operations.
We may incur increased costs to comply with privacy and data security laws.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
The trading volume in our common stock is less than that of larger financial institutions.
There can be no assurance that we will continue to pay cash dividends.
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Federal laws and regulations impose restrictions on the ownership of our common stock.
Anti-takeover provisions in our governing documents could adversely affect our shareholders.
An investment in our common stock is not an insured deposit.
General Risk Factors
We compete with larger financial institutions and other financial service providers.
We must attract, retain, and develop key personnel.
Our risk management framework may not effectively mitigate risks or losses to us.
Hurricanes or other adverse weather events could disrupt our operations.
Our failure to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting could harm our business.
Damage to our business reputation could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Business
We may experience increased delinquencies and credit losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our capital, financial condition, and results of operations.
Like other lenders, we face the risk that our customers will not repay their loans. A customer’s failure to repay us is usually preceded by missed monthly payments. In some instances, however, a customer may declare bankruptcy prior to missing payments, and, following a borrower filing bankruptcy, a lender’s recovery of the credit extended is often limited. Since many of our loans are secured by collateral, we may attempt to seize the collateral if and when a customer defaults on a loan. However, the value of the collateral might not equal the amount of the unpaid loan, and we may be unsuccessful in recovering the remaining balance from our customer. Any deterioration or downturn in real estate values in the markets we serve could have a material adverse effect on the value of the real property securing those loans. Our ability to recover on defaulted loans would then be diminished, and we would be more likely to suffer losses on defaulted loans. The resolution of nonperforming assets, including the initiation of foreclosure proceedings, requires significant commitments of time from management, which can be detrimental to the performance of their other responsibilities, and which expose us to additional legal costs. Elevated levels of loan delinquencies and bankruptcies in our market areas, generally, and among our customers specifically, can be precursors of future charge-offs and may require us to increase our allowance for credit losses (“ACL”) on loans and leases. Higher charge-off rates, delays in the foreclosure process or in obtaining judgments against defaulting borrowers or an increase in our ACL may negatively impact our overall financial performance, may increase our cost of funds, and could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
SBA lending and other government guaranteed lending is an important part of our business. These lending programs are dependent upon the federal government, and we face specific risks associated with originating SBA and other government guaranteed loans.
Our SBA lending program is dependent upon the federal government. As an SBA Preferred Lender, we enable our clients to obtain SBA loans without being subject to the potentially lengthy SBA approval process necessary for lenders that are not SBA Preferred Lenders. The SBA periodically reviews the lending operations of participating lenders to assess, among other things, whether the lender exhibits prudent risk management. When weaknesses are identified, the SBA may request corrective actions or impose enforcement actions, including revocation of the lender’s Preferred Lender status. If we lose our status as a Preferred Lender, we may lose some or all of our customers to lenders who are SBA Preferred Lenders, and as a result we could experience a material adverse effect on our financial results. Any changes to the SBA program, including changes to the level of guarantee provided by the federal government on SBA loans, may also have a material adverse effect on our business.
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We anticipate that gains on the sale of loans will comprise a meaningful component of our revenue in 2024. We sell the guaranteed portion of some of our SBA 7(a) loans in the secondary market. These sales have resulted in premium income for us at the time of sale and created a stream of future servicing income. We may not be able to continue originating these loans or selling them in the secondary market. Furthermore, even if we are able to continue originating and selling SBA 7(a) loans in the secondary market, we might not continue to realize premiums upon the sale of the guaranteed portion of these loans. When we sell the guaranteed portion of our SBA 7(a) loans, we incur credit risk on the non-guaranteed portion of the loans, and if a customer defaults on a loan, we recognize a loss and/or recovery related to the non-guaranteed portion. However, if the SBA establishes that a loss on an SBA guaranteed loan is attributable to significant technical deficiencies in the manner in which the loan was originated, funded or serviced by us, the SBA may seek recovery of the principal loss related to the deficiency from us, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, we make loans through various programs of the United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”). A typical SBA 7(a) loan carries a 75% guarantee while USDA guarantees range from 60% to 80% depending on loan size and type. We expect to continue to sell a large proportion of the USDA loans that we originate in the secondary market as they become eligible for sale. The origination and sale of these loans are subject to similar risks associated with the origination and sale of SBA 7(a) loans as described above. The laws, regulations and standard operating procedures that are applicable to SBA and USDA loan products may change at any time. Because government regulation greatly affects the business and financial results of our organization, changes in the laws, regulations and procedures applicable to SBA and USDA loans could adversely affect our ability to operate profitably.
A prolonged U.S. government shutdown or default by the U.S. on government obligations would harm our results of operations.
Our results of operations, including revenue, non-interest income, expenses and net interest income, would be adversely affected in the event of widespread financial and business disruption on account of a default by the United States on U.S. government obligations or a prolonged failure to maintain significant U.S. government operations, particularly those pertaining to the SBA, the USDA or the FDIC. Any such failure to maintain such U.S. government operations would impede our ability to originate SBA loans and our ability to sell such loans in the secondary market, which would materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Pandemics, natural disasters, global climate change, acts of terrorism and global conflicts may have a negative impact on our business and operations.

Pandemics, natural disasters, global climate change, acts of terrorism, global conflicts or other similar events have in the past, and may in the future have, a negative impact on our business and operations. These events impact us negatively to the extent that they result in reduced capital markets activity, lower asset price levels, or disruptions in general economic activity in the United States or abroad, or in financial market settlement functions. In addition, these or similar events may impact economic growth negatively, which could have an adverse effect on our business and operations and may have other adverse effects on us in ways that we are unable to predict.

Our business operations could be disrupted if significant portions of our workforce were unable to work effectively, including because of illness, quarantines, government actions, or other restrictions in connection with a pandemic or similar event. Further, work-from-home and other modified business practices may introduce additional operational risks, including cybersecurity and execution risks, which may result in inefficiencies or delays, and may affect our ability to, or the manner in which we, conduct our business activities. Disruptions to our customers could result in increased risk of delinquencies, defaults, foreclosures and losses on our loans.

We face risks in connection with our participation in government programs in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Federal, state and local governmental authorities enacted legislation, regulations, and protocols in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our participation in and execution of any such programs may cause operational, compliance, reputational, and credit risks, which could result in litigation, governmental action or other forms of loss.

The CARES Act temporarily added a new program titled the Paycheck Protection Program (the “PPP”) to the SBA’s 7(a) loan program. We were an active participant in the program originating a substantial number and principal amount of PPP loans.

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In addition, the CARES Act provided regulatory relief on deferrals offered to certain borrowers and provided six months of payment relief through the first quarter of 2021 from the SBA for certain loans guaranteed by that agency. We face the risk that payment deferrals and those subsidy payments made by the SBA for borrowers under its programs may skew actual indications of ability to repay.

Banks participating in the PPP have been subject to litigation regarding the process and procedures that such banks used in processing applications for the PPP and regarding claims for fees to be paid to purported agents and other third parties, and we are exposed to the risk of litigation regarding the PPP. If any such litigation is not resolved in a manner favorable to us, it may result in significant financial liability or adversely affect our reputation. In addition, litigation can be costly, regardless of outcome. We also face credit risk on PPP loans if a determination is made by the SBA that there is a deficiency in the manner in which the loan was originated, funded, or serviced by the Bank. In the event of a loss resulting from a default on a PPP loan and a determination by the SBA that there was a deficiency in the manner in which the PPP loan was originated, funded, or serviced by the Bank, the SBA may deny its liability under the guaranty, reduce the amount of the guaranty, or, if it has already paid under the guaranty, seek recovery of any loss related to the deficiency from the Bank.

We are dependent upon the use of intellectual property owned by third parties, and any change in our ability to use, or the terms upon which we may use, this intellectual property could have a material adverse effect on our business.
The technology-based lending platform that is pivotal to our success is dependent on the use of the nCino Bank Operating System and Salesforce.com, Inc.’s Force.com cloud computing infrastructure platform. We rely on a non-exclusive license to use nCino’s platform. Because our license is non-exclusive, the nCino Bank Operating System is available to other lenders and nothing would prevent our competitors from developing, licensing or using similar technology. Our license currently expires on November 14, 2024. Notwithstanding the term of our agreement, our license may be terminated if we are in material breach of the license and do not cure the breach within 30 days. In addition, nCino relies on a license to use the Salesforce.com platform, and if nCino were unable to maintain its rights under that license, our ability to rely on the nCino license could be adversely affected. We can offer no assurance that we will be able to renew or maintain our license to use the nCino Bank Operating System on terms that are acceptable. Termination of either of these licenses or the reduction or elimination of our licensed rights may result in our having to negotiate new licenses with less favorable terms, or the inability to obtain access to such licensed technology at all.
Similarly, Apiture, Inc. (“Apiture”) has provided the Bank significant engineering, development, professional and other services under an agreement to deliver the products and services that comprise our next-generation banking platform that we believe will be important for our future strategy and success. This banking platform enables us to offer checking and other transactional accounts to our customers. Offering these types of banking products to our customers presents greater and more complex operational, compliance and other risks than the risks associated with the deposit products we have offered in the past. There can be no assurance that Apiture will be able to develop and support the implementation of our banking platform in a timely and cost-effective manner or that Apiture will continue to provide any services on which we rely at appropriate service levels or at prices that would be market competitive. We also rely on numerous other vendors and third parties to provide software and solutions comprising our banking platform. If this technology is not successfully developed and implemented at our Bank, if we were to lose access to any of this technology, or if we were only able to access the technology on less favorable terms, we would not be able to offer our customers the next-generation banking platform services that we intend to offer, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
A failure in or breach of our operational or security systems, or those of our third-party service providers, including as a result of cyber-attacks, could disrupt our business, result in unintentional disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage our reputation, increase our costs and cause losses.
As a financial institution, our operations rely heavily on the secure data processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other information on our computer systems and networks, as well as those of third-party service providers. This may include sensitive business and personal information about our customers. Maintaining the confidentiality of this information is critical to our business. We also maintain important internal company data such as personal information about our employees and information regarding our operations. Our collection of such customer and company data is subject to extensive regulation and oversight.
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Cloud technologies, including third-party cloud infrastructure, are also critical to the operation of our systems, and our reliance on cloud technologies continues to grow. Any failure, interruption or breach in security or operational integrity of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in our online banking system, customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit and loan servicing and other systems. The security and integrity of our systems and the technology we use, including services and solutions provided by third-party vendors, could be threatened by a variety of interruptions or information security breaches, including those caused by computer hacking, cyber-attacks, electronic fraudulent activity or attempted theft of financial assets or information. The increased use of mobile and cloud technologies, as well as the increase in remote work, can heighten these and other operational risks. We may fail to promptly identify or adequately address any such failures, interruptions or security breaches when they occur. While we have certain protective policies and procedures in place, the nature and sophistication of the threats continue to evolve. The increasing sophistication of cyber criminals and their evolving attempts to breach networks present increasing risk of a security breach and other data incidents. We may be required to expend significant additional resources in the future to modify and enhance our protective measures.
The nature of our business may make it an attractive target and potentially vulnerable to cyber-attacks, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins or similar disruptions. The technology-based platform we use processes sensitive data from our borrowers, depositors and other customers. While we have taken steps to protect confidential and proprietary information that we have access to, our security measures and the security measures employed by the owners of the technology in the platforms and services that we use can be compromised. Data incidents including those involving phishing, hacking, misdirected communications and other inadvertent disclosures, and other incidents results in unauthorized access to and/or acquisition of confidential and proprietary information, including personal information, can and do occur. Accidental or willful security breaches or other unauthorized access to our systems can cause confidential customer, borrower, employee, vendor, partner or investor information to be stolen and used for criminal purposes. Security breaches or unauthorized access to confidential information can also expose us to liability related to the loss of the information, time-consuming and expensive litigation, and negative publicity. When security measures are breached because of third-party action, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise, or if design flaws in the technology-based platform that we use are exposed and exploited, our relationships with customers, borrowers, employees, vendors, partners and investors could be severely damaged, and we could incur significant liability.
Because techniques used to sabotage or obtain unauthorized access to systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until they are launched against a target, we and our partners and collaborators may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. In addition, federal regulators and many federal and state laws and regulations require companies to notify individuals of data security breaches involving their personal information. Certain security breaches and other data incidents also require notice to regulators, the media, and/or other parties. These mandatory disclosures regarding a security breach and other data incidents are costly to implement and often lead to widespread negative publicity, which may cause customers, borrowers, employees, vendors, partners or investors to lose confidence in the effectiveness of our data security measures. Any security breach or other data incident, whether actual or perceived, would harm our reputation and could cause us to lose customers, borrowers, employees, vendors, partners, or investors, and could adversely affect our business and operations.
Additionally, we face the risk of operational disruption, failure, termination or capacity constraints of any of the third parties that facilitate our business activities, including exchanges, clearing agents, clearing houses or other financial intermediaries. Such parties could also be the source of an attack on, or breach of, our operational systems. Any failures, interruptions or security breaches, including with respect to our information systems or our vendors’ information systems, or any perception that our security measures are inadequate, could negatively impact our operations, damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, result in a violation of privacy or other laws, and expose us to civil litigation, enforcement actions by governmental agencies, regulatory fines or other damages or losses, including those not covered by insurance.
Our business is dependent on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party providers. The failure of these systems, or the termination of a third-party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based, could interrupt our operations. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third-party systems fail or experience interruptions. If significant, sustained or repeated, a system failure or service denial could compromise our ability to operate effectively, damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, and/or subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and possible financial liability, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the value of our common stock.
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The fair value of our investment securities can fluctuate due to factors outside of our control.
As of December 31, 2023, the fair value of our available for sale securities portfolio was approximately $1.13 billion. Factors beyond our control can significantly influence the fair value of securities in our portfolio and can cause potential adverse changes to the fair value of these securities. These factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency actions in respect of the securities, defaults by the issuer or with respect to the underlying securities, monetary tapering actions by the Federal Reserve, and changes in market interest rates and potential instability in the capital markets. Any of these factors, among others, could cause impairments and realized or unrealized losses in future periods and declines in other comprehensive income, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects, as well as the value of our common stock. The process for determining whether a security is reported at the proper carrying amount usually requires complex, subjective judgments about the future financial performance and liquidity of the issuer and any collateral underlying the security in order to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security. Our inability to accurately predict the future performance of an issuer or to efficiently respond to changing market conditions could result in a decline in the value of our investment securities portfolio, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, adjustments to the ACL on available-for-sale investment securities would negatively affect the Company’s earnings and regulatory capital ratios.
Our ACL may prove to be insufficient to absorb lifetime losses on loans, leases and off-balance sheet credit exposures.
We maintain allowances for credit losses on loans, leases, and off-balance sheet credit exposures. The ACL on loans and leases are contra-asset valuation accounts that are deducted from the amortized cost basis of these assets to present the net amount expected to be collected. In the case of off-balance-sheet credit exposures, such as committed, but as of yet unfunded loans, the ACL is a liability account reported as an other liability in our consolidated balance sheets. The amount of each allowance account represents management's best estimate of current expected credit losses on these financial instruments considering available information, from internal and external sources, relevant to assessing exposure to credit loss over the contractual term of the instrument. Relevant available information includes historical credit loss experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. As a result, the determination of the appropriate level of ACL inherently involves a high degree of subjectivity and requires us to make significant estimates related to current and expected future credit risks and trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Continuing deterioration in economic conditions affecting borrowers; new information regarding existing loans and loan commitments; and identification of additional problem loans, ratings down-grades and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may require an increase in the allowances for credit losses on loans and off-balance sheet credit exposures. In addition, bank regulatory agencies periodically review our ACL and may require an increase in credit loss expense or the recognition of further loan charge-offs, based on judgments different than those of management. Furthermore, if any charge-offs related to loans or off-balance sheet credit exposures in future periods exceed our allowances for credit losses on loans or off-balance sheet credit exposures, we will need to recognize additional credit loss expense to increase the applicable allowance. Any increase in the ACL on loans and/or off-balance sheet credit exposures will result in a decrease in net income and, possibly, capital, and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. See Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to the consolidated financial statements for further discussion related to our process for determining the appropriate level of the ACL.
The valuation of our loans measured at fair value is based on estimates and subject to fluctuation based on market conditions and other factors that are beyond our control.
We have a large portfolio of loans measured at fair value. We determine fair value based on applicable accounting guidance which requires an entity to base fair value on exit price and to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs to the extent possible. The fair value of these loans includes adjustments for historical credit losses, market liquidity, and economic conditions at the measurement date. This is an inherently uncertain process, and the fair value of our loans may be adversely impacted by factors that are beyond our control, which may in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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The valuation of our servicing rights is based on estimates and subject to fluctuation based on market conditions and other factors that are beyond our control.
The fair value of our servicing rights is estimated based upon projections of expected future cash flows generated by the loans we service, historical prepayment rates, future prepayment estimates, portfolio characteristics, interest rates based on interest rate yield curves, volatility, market demand for servicing rights and other factors. While this evaluation process uses historical and other objective information, the valuation of our servicing rights is ultimately an estimate based on our experience, judgment and expectations regarding our servicing portfolio and the broader market. This is an inherently uncertain process and the value of our servicing rights may be adversely impacted by factors that are beyond our control, which may in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The recognition of gains on the sale of loans reflects certain assumptions.
We anticipate that gains on the sale of loans will continue to comprise a meaningful component of our revenue in 2024. The determination of noncash gains is based on assumptions regarding the value of unguaranteed loans retained, servicing rights retained and deferred fees and costs. The value of retained unguaranteed loans and servicing rights is determined as described above. Deferred fees and costs are determined using internal analysis of the cost to originate loans. Significant errors in the assumptions used to compute gains on sale of loans could result in material revenue misstatements, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and profitability.
Our rental equipment is subject to residual value risk upon disposition, and may not sell at the prices or in the quantities we expect.
The market value of any given piece of rental equipment could be less than its depreciated value at the time it is sold. The market value of used rental equipment depends on several factors, including:
the market price for new equipment of a like kind;
the age of the equipment at the time it is sold, as well as wear and tear on the equipment relative to its age;
the supply of used equipment on the market;
technological advances relating to the equipment;
demand for the used equipment; and
general economic conditions.
We include in income from operations the difference between the sales price and the depreciated value of an item of equipment sold. Changes in our assumptions regarding depreciation could change our depreciation expense, as well as the gain or loss realized upon disposal of equipment. Sales of our used rental equipment at prices that fall significantly below our projections or in lesser quantities than we anticipate will have a negative impact on our results of operations and cash flows.
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We are subject to liquidity risk in our operations.
Liquidity risk refers to the risks arising from the inability to pay obligations when they come due without incurring unacceptable losses to earnings and/or capital, to capitalize on growth opportunities as they arise, or to pay regular dividends because of an inability to liquidate assets or obtain adequate funding on a timely basis. Liquidity is required to fund various obligations, including credit obligations to borrowers, loan originations, withdrawals by depositors, repayment of debt, dividends to shareholders, operating expenses, and capital expenditures. Our liquidity is derived primarily from retail deposit growth and retention, the sale of loans in the secondary market, principal and interest payments on loans and investment securities, net cash provided from operations, and access to other funding sources. A significant portion of our deposit base is gathered through our nationwide direct deposit platform, and we have historically also relied on brokered deposits. If our Bank were to become less than well capitalized, we would be subject to regulatory restrictions that could limit the effective yield we offer on deposits or disrupt our ability to accept brokered deposits. We also could not accept brokered deposits without FDIC approval. See “Capital Adequacy” under the heading “Supervision and Regulation” above for more details on these restrictions. If we became subject to these restrictions, they could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, results of operations and financial condition.
Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities or at a reasonable cost could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically or the financial services industry in general. Factors that could adversely affect our access to liquidity sources include a decrease in the level of our business activity due to a market downturn, failures of or interruptions to our next-generation banking platform, our lack of access to a traditional branch banking network designed to generate core deposits, and adverse regulatory action against us. Our ability to borrow could also be impaired by factors that are not specific to us, such as a severe disruption in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry as a whole. Our access to borrowed funds could become limited in the future, and we may be required to pay above market rates for additional borrowed funds, if we are able to obtain them at all, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Changes in the interest rate environment could reduce our net interest income, which could reduce our profitability.
As a financial institution, our earnings depend in part on our net interest income, which is the difference between the interest income that we earn on interest-earning assets, such as loans and investment securities, and the interest expense that we pay on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. Additionally, changes in interest rates affect the premiums we may receive in connection with the sale of SBA 7(a) and USDA loans in the secondary market, pre-payment speeds of loans for which we own servicing rights, our ability to fund our operations with customer deposits, and the fair value of securities in our investment portfolio. Therefore, any change in general market interest rates, including changes in federal fiscal and monetary policies, affects us more than non-financial companies and can have a significant effect on our net interest income and results of operations. Our assets and liabilities may react differently to changes in overall market rates or conditions because there may be mismatches between the repricing or maturity characteristics of the assets and liabilities. As a result, an increase or decrease in market interest rates could have material adverse effects on our net interest margin, noninterest income and results of operations. In a rising interest rate environment, potential borrowers could seek to defer loans as they wait for interest rates to settle, and borrowers of variable rate loans may be subject to increased interest rates, which could result in a greater rate of prepayment or default. Changes in interest rates may also present additional challenges to our business that we have not anticipated. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions, inflationary trends, changes in government spending and debt issuance and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies and, in particular, the Federal Open Market Committee.
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The amount of other real estate owned, or OREO, may increase significantly, resulting in additional losses, and costs and expenses that will negatively affect our operations.
In connection with our banking business, we take title to real estate collateral from time to time through foreclosure or otherwise in connection with efforts to collect debts previously contracted. Such real estate is referred to as other real estate owned (“OREO”). As the amount of OREO increases, our losses, and the costs and expenses to maintain the real estate, likewise increase. The amount of OREO we hold may increase due to various economic conditions or other factors. Any additional increase in losses and maintenance costs and other expenses due to OREO may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Such effects may be particularly pronounced in a market of reduced real estate values and excess inventory, which may make the disposition of OREO properties more difficult, increase maintenance costs and other expenses, and reduce our ultimate realization from any OREO sales. In addition, at the time of acquisition of the OREO we are required to reflect its fair market value in our financial statements. If the OREO declines in value subsequent to its acquisition, we are required to recognize a loss. As a result, declines in the value of our OREO will have a negative effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. As of December 31, 2023, we had three OREO properties with an aggregate carrying value of $6.5 million.
We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with our lending activities.
A significant portion of our loan portfolio is secured by real property. During the ordinary course of business, we may foreclose on and take title to properties securing certain loans. In doing so, there is a risk that hazardous or toxic substances could be found on these properties. If hazardous or toxic substances are found, we may be liable for remediation costs, as well as for personal injury and property damage. Environmental laws may require us to incur substantial expenses and may materially reduce the affected property’s value or limit our ability to use or sell the affected property. In addition, future laws or more stringent interpretations or enforcement policies with respect to existing laws may increase our exposure to environmental liability. The remediation costs and any other financial liabilities associated with an environmental hazard could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our use of appraisals in deciding whether to make a loan secured by real property or how to value the loan in the future may not accurately reflect the net value of the collateral that we can realize.
In considering whether to make a loan secured by real property, we generally require an appraisal of the property. However, an appraisal is only an estimate of the value of the property at the time the appraisal is made, and, as real estate values may experience changes in value in relatively short periods of time, especially during periods of heightened economic uncertainty, this estimate might not accurately describe the net value of the real property collateral after the loan has been closed. If the appraisal does not reflect the amount that may be obtained upon any sale or foreclosure of the property, we may not realize an amount equal to the indebtedness secured by the property. In addition, we rely on appraisals and other valuation techniques to establish the value of our OREO and to determine certain loan impairments. If any of these valuations are inaccurate, our consolidated financial statements may not reflect the correct value of OREO, and our ACL on loans and leases may not reflect accurate loan impairments. The valuation of the properties securing the loans in our portfolio may negatively impact the continuing value of those loans and could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We could be subject to losses, regulatory action or reputational harm due to fraudulent and negligent acts on the part of loan applicants, our borrowers, our employees and vendors.
In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions with customers and counterparties, we may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of customers and other third parties, including financial statements, property appraisals, title information, employment and income documentation, account information and other financial information which may include information furnished by sellers to our borrowers in connection with business acquisitions that we finance. We may also rely on representations of clients and other third parties as to the accuracy and completeness of such information and, with respect to financial statements, on reports of independent auditors. Any such misrepresentation or incorrect or incomplete information may not be detected prior to funding a loan or during our ongoing monitoring of outstanding loans. In addition, one or more of our employees or vendors could cause a significant operational breakdown or failure, either as a result of human error or where an individual purposefully sabotages or fraudulently manipulates our loan documentation, operations or systems. Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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New lines of business or new products and services may subject us to additional risks.
We are focused on our long-term growth and have undertaken various new business initiatives, many of which involve activities that are new to us, or in some cases, are in the early stages of development. From time to time, we may develop, grow and/or acquire new lines of business or offer new products and services within existing lines of business. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets for these products and services are not fully developed. Given our evolving business and product diversification, these and other new initiatives may subject us to, among other risks, increased business, reputational and operational risk, as well as more complex legal, third-party, regulatory and compliance costs and risks.
In developing and marketing new lines of business and/or new products and services, we may invest significant time and resources. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business and/or new products or services may not be achieved, and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives and shifting market preferences, may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business or a new product or service. Furthermore, any new line of business and/or new product or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. All service offerings, including current offerings and those which may be provided in the future, may become more risky due to changes in economic, competitive and market conditions beyond our control.
We are subject to risk in connection with our strategic activities, including acquisitions, joint ventures, partnerships, and investments.
We are engaged, and may in the future engage, in strategic activities, including acquisitions, joint ventures, partnerships, investments or other business growth initiatives or undertakings. There can be no assurance that we will successfully identify appropriate opportunities, that we will be able to negotiate or finance such activities or that such activities, if undertaken, will be successful.
Our ability to execute strategic activities and new business initiatives successfully will depend on a variety of factors. These factors likely will vary based on the nature of the activity but may include our success in integrating an acquired company or a new internally developed growth initiative into our business, operations, services, products, personnel and systems, operating effectively with any partner with whom we elect to do business, meeting applicable regulatory requirements and obtaining applicable regulatory licenses or other approvals, hiring or retaining key employees, achieving anticipated synergies, meeting management's expectations, actually realizing the anticipated benefits of the activities, and overall general market conditions. Our ability to address these matters successfully cannot be assured. In addition, our strategic efforts may divert resources or management's attention from ongoing business operations and may subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and potential liability. If we do not successfully execute a strategic undertaking, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, reputation or growth prospects. In addition, if we were to conclude that the value of an acquired business had decreased and that the related goodwill had been impaired, that conclusion would result in an impairment of goodwill charge to us, which would adversely affect our results of operations.
In addition, in order to finance future strategic undertakings, we might require additional financing, which might not be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. If obtained, equity financing could be dilutive and the incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
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Our investments in financial technology companies and initiatives, including our investment in Apiture and the activities of our subsidiary Canapi Advisors, subject us to material financial, reputational and strategic risks.
Our investments in various financial technology companies have had a significant impact on our results of operations, and we anticipate they will continue to have a significant impact on our results of operations in the future. Investments where we have the ability to exercise significant influence but not control over the operating and financial policies of the investee are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. For investments accounted for under the equity method, we increase or decrease our investment by our proportionate share of the investee’s net income or loss. Those investments where we are not able to exercise significant influence over the investee are accounted for under the equity security accounting method, where changes in fair value resulting from observable price changes arising from orderly transactions are recognized in net income. We also periodically evaluate our investments for impairment. The results of this testing of our investments for potential impairment may be adversely affected by a variety of factors, including market conditions, general economic conditions and unfavorable changes in the businesses underlying the investments. Impairments or write-downs of these assets may result in charges that adversely affect our results of operations. See Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies under the subheading entitled “Investments” for more information.
Any earnings from our financial technology investments can be volatile and difficult to predict. Furthermore, we invest in many of these financial technology companies for strategic purposes. Where we are a minority shareholder, we may be unable to influence the activities of these organizations which could have an adverse impact on our ability to execute our strategic initiatives and successfully develop and implement the banking platform we are developing with these and other partners.
As of December 31, 2023, the carrying amount of our investment in Apiture was $60.7 million. Apiture's future success will depend on its ability to develop, sell and deliver new or enhanced solutions to financial institution clients; however, these solutions and related services may not be attractive to existing or prospective clients. In addition, promoting, selling and delivering these new and enhanced solutions may require increasingly costly sales, marketing and implementation efforts. We also anticipate that Apiture will face challenges from its current competitors, which in many cases are more established and enjoy greater resources than it does, as well as by new entrants into the industry. If Apiture is not able to successfully execute its business plan, then the value of our investment in Apiture could decrease, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Apiture’s digital banking solution requires sophisticated software and computing systems that may encounter development delays or software defects. Defects in Apiture’s software offerings or delays in the development of such software could result in unforeseen costs, diversion of technical and other resources, loss of credibility with existing and potential clients or reputational harm, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our subsidiary Canapi Advisors is an investment advisor to Canapi Ventures, a series of funds focused on providing venture capital to new and emerging financial technology companies. Canapi Ventures invests in early to growth-stage companies that may include companies that utilize advanced science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics to innovate in the financial technology market. Investments in these companies involve a high degree of business and financial risk that can result in substantial losses. These companies may be unseasoned, unprofitable or have no established operating histories or earnings and may lack technical, marketing, financial and other resources. These companies often have the need for substantial additional capital to support expansion or to achieve or maintain a competitive position. Less established companies tend to have lower capitalization and fewer resources and, therefore, are often more vulnerable to financial failure. These companies may be dependent upon the success of one product or service, a unique distribution channel, or the effectiveness of a manager or management team. The failure of this one product, service or distribution channel, or the loss or ineffectiveness of a key executive or executives within the management team may have a materially adverse impact on such companies. Such companies may face intense competition, including competition from companies with greater financial resources, more extensive development, manufacturing, marketing and service capabilities and a larger number of qualified managerial and technical personnel. If Canapi Advisors is unable to successfully identify investment opportunities, it will likely lose the capital that it invests on behalf of the fund’s investors, including the capital that we invest, which would have a materially adverse effect on our results of operations, our reputation and our ability to raise successive funds for similar purposes.
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Many of the financial technology companies in which we invest directly present risks similar to those in which Canapi Ventures invests. The possibility that the companies in which we and Canapi Ventures invest will not be able to commercialize their technology or product concept presents significant risk to our business operations and financial results. These companies tend to lack management depth, to have limited or no history of operations and to not have attained profitability. Additionally, although some of these companies may already have a commercially successful product or product line at the time of investment, technology products and services often have a more limited market or life span than products in other industries. Thus, the ultimate success of these companies may depend on their ability to continually innovate in increasingly competitive markets. Most of the companies in which we and Canapi Ventures invest will require substantial additional equity financing to satisfy their continuing growth and working capital requirements. Each round of venture financing is typically intended to provide a company with enough capital to reach the next stage of development. The circumstances or market conditions under which such companies will seek additional capital is unpredictable. It is possible that one or more of such companies will not be able to raise additional financing or may be able to do so only at a price or on terms which are unfavorable.
Our investments in other companies may be illiquid.
The equity securities of the companies in which we and Canapi Ventures invest are at the time of acquisition unmarketable and illiquid, and there can be no assurance that a ready market for these securities will ever exist. Such securities generally cannot be sold publicly without prior agreement with the issuer to register the securities under the Securities Act or by selling such securities under Rule 144 or other provisions of the Securities Act which permit only limited sales under specified conditions. We generally will realize the value of such securities only if the issuer is able to make an initial public offering of its shares or enters into a business combination with another company which purchases our equity securities for cash or exchanges them for publicly traded securities of the acquirer. The feasibility of such transactions depends upon the company's financial results as well as general economic and equity market conditions. Furthermore, even if the equity securities owned become publicly traded, our ability to sell such securities may be limited by the lack of, or limited nature of, a trading market for such securities. There can be no assurance that the value at which we carry these assets will necessarily reflect the amount which could be realized upon a sale or other liquidity event.
Our investments and/or financings in certain tax-advantaged projects may not generate returns as anticipated and may have an adverse impact on our financial results.
We invest in and/or finance certain tax-advantaged projects promoting renewable energy sources. Our investments in these projects are designed to generate a return primarily through the realization of federal and state income tax credits, and other tax benefits, over specified time periods. We utilize an investment tax credit for the installation of certain solar power facilities. We are subject to the risk that previously recorded tax credits, which remain subject to recapture by taxing authorities based on compliance features required to be met at the project level, will fail to meet certain government compliance requirements and will not be able to be fully realized. The possible inability to realize these tax credits and other tax benefits can have a negative impact on our financial results. The risk of not being able to realize the tax credits and other tax benefits depends on many factors outside of our control, including changes in the applicable provisions of the tax code and the ability of the projects to be completed and properly managed. In addition, we make loans through the REAP of the USDA, which provides guaranteed loan financing and grant funding to agricultural producers and rural small businesses for renewable energy systems or to make energy-efficient improvements. Any changes to applicable provisions of the tax code or other developments could adversely impact demand for these loans even where we are not utilizing an investment tax credit.
Our loan portfolio may be affected by deterioration in real estate markets, including declines in the performance of loans.
Deterioration in real estate markets could result in declining prices and excess inventories. As a result, developers may experience financial deterioration and banking institutions may experience declines in the performance of construction, development and commercial loans. We make credit and reserve decisions based on the current conditions of borrowers or projects combined with our expectations for the future. If conditions are worse than forecast, we could experience higher charge-offs and delinquencies than is provided in the ACL on loans and leases, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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Deterioration in the commercial soundness of our counterparties could adversely affect us.
Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships, and we routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial industry. As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial services institutions, or the financial services industry generally, could create a market-wide liquidity crisis and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. The deterioration or failure of our counterparties would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We have different lending risks than larger, more diversified banks.
Our ability to diversify our economic risks is limited. We lend primarily to small businesses in selected industries, which may expose us to greater lending risks than those of banks lending to larger, better-capitalized businesses with longer operating histories. Small businesses generally have fewer financial resources in terms of capital or borrowing capacity than larger entities and may have limited operating histories. If economic conditions negatively impact the verticals in which we operate, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.
We attempt to manage our credit exposure through careful monitoring of loan applicants and through loan approval and review procedures. We have established an evaluation process designed to determine the adequacy of our ACL on loans and leases. While this evaluation process uses historical and other objective information, the classification of loans and the establishment of loan losses is an estimate based on experience, judgment and expectations regarding our borrowers, and the markets in which we and our borrowers operate, as well as the judgment of our regulators. This is an inherently uncertain process, and our allowance for credit losses may not be sufficient to absorb future loan losses or prevent a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Insiders have substantial control over us, and this control may limit our shareholders’ ability to influence corporate matters and may delay or prevent a third party from acquiring control over us.
As of January 31, 2024, our directors and executive officers and their related entities own, in the aggregate, approximately 24.3% of our outstanding common stock. The significant concentration of stock ownership may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock due to investors’ perception that conflicts of interest may exist or arise. In addition, these shareholders will be able to exercise influence over all matters requiring shareholder approval, including the election of directors and approval of corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of the Company or its assets. This concentration of ownership could limit the ability of other shareholders to influence corporate matters and may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control, including a merger, consolidation or other business combination involving us, or discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control, even if that change in control would benefit our other shareholders. For information regarding the ownership of our outstanding stock by our executive officers and directors and related entities, see “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters” in this Report.
Risks Related to Our Regulatory Environment
We are subject to extensive regulation that could limit or restrict our activities.
We operate in a highly regulated industry and are subject to examination, supervision, and comprehensive regulation by various federal and state regulatory agencies. Our compliance with these regulations is costly and restricts certain of our activities, including the declaration and payment of cash dividends to shareholders, mergers and acquisitions, investments, loans and interest rates charged, interest rates paid on deposits, and locations of offices. We are also subject to capitalization guidelines established by our regulators, which require us to maintain adequate capital to support our growth and operations. See “Supervision and Regulation” above for more information on the federal and state laws, rules and regulations that apply to our business activities. Should we fail to comply with these regulatory requirements, federal and state regulators could impose additional restrictions on the activities of the Company and the Bank, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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The laws and regulations applicable to the banking industry change frequently and may continue to change, and we cannot predict the effects of these changes on our business and profitability. Because government regulation greatly affects the business and financial results of all commercial banks and bank holding companies, our cost of compliance could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our financial condition and results of operations are affected by credit policies of monetary authorities, particularly the Federal Reserve. Actions by monetary and fiscal authorities, including the Federal Reserve, could have an adverse effect on our deposit levels, loan demand, or business and earnings, as well as the value of our common stock.
We are required to maintain capital to meet regulatory requirements, and, if we fail to maintain sufficient capital, whether due to growth opportunities, losses or an inability to raise additional capital or otherwise, our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations, as well as our compliance with regulatory requirements, would be adversely affected.
Both we and the Bank are required to meet regulatory capital requirements and otherwise need to maintain sufficient liquidity to support recent and future growth. We have continued to experience considerable growth recently. Asset growth, diversification of our business, expansion of our financial product offerings and other changes in our asset mix continue to require higher levels of capital. Our ability to raise additional capital, when and if needed in the future, to meet such regulatory capital requirements and liquidity needs will depend on conditions in the capital markets, general economic conditions, the performance and prospects of our business and a number of other factors, many of which are outside of our control. We cannot assure you that we will be able to raise additional capital if needed or raise additional capital on terms acceptable to us. If we fail to meet these capital and other regulatory requirements, our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Although we comply with all current applicable capital requirements, we may be subject to more stringent regulatory capital requirements in the future, and we may need additional capital in order to meet those requirements. If we or the Bank fail to meet applicable minimum capital requirements or cease to be well capitalized, such failure would cause us and the Bank to be subject to regulatory restrictions and could adversely affect customer confidence, our ability to grow, our costs of funds and FDIC insurance costs, our ability to pay dividends on common stock and/or repurchase shares, our ability to make acquisitions, and our business, results of operations and financial condition, generally.
Because our total assets exceed $10 billion, we are subject to heightened regulatory requirements, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
Various federal banking laws and regulations, including rules adopted by the Federal Reserve pursuant to the requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act, impose additional requirements on bank holding companies with total assets of at least $10 billion. In addition, banks with total assets of at least $10 billion are primarily examined by the CFPB with respect to federal consumer protection laws and regulations. In the first quarter of 2023, the Company and the Bank each first exceeded $10 billion in total assets. As of December 31, 2023, the Company and the Bank had total assets of $11.27 billion and $11.21 billion, respectively, ending their first four consecutive quarters of reported assets in excess of $10 billion. As a result, we are subject to additional requirements including, but not limited to, establishing a dedicated risk committee of our Board, calculating our FDIC deposit insurance assessment using the large bank pricing rule and more frequent regulatory examinations. In preparation for these additional compliance obligations, we have incurred significant expenses and expect to continue to incur expenses to address heightened regulatory requirements. These additional regulatory requirements and increased compliance expenses could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Our deposit operations are subject to extensive regulation, and we expect additional regulatory requirements to be implemented in the future.
We are subject to significant anti-money laundering, “know your customer” and other regulations under applicable law, including the Bank Secrecy Act and the USA PATRIOT Act, and we could become subject in the future to additional regulatory requirements beyond those that are currently adopted, proposed or contemplated. We expect that federal and state bank regulators will continue to increase their oversight, inspection and investigatory role over our deposit operations and the financial services industry generally. Furthermore, we intend to further increase our deposit product offerings and grow our customer deposit portfolio in the future and, as a result, we are, and will continue to be, subject to heightened compliance and operating costs that could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, legal and regulatory proceedings and other contingencies will arise from time to time that may have an adverse effect on our business practices and results of operations.
Our FDIC deposit insurance premiums and assessments may increase.
The deposits of our Bank are insured by the FDIC up to legal limits and, accordingly, subject our Bank to the payment of FDIC deposit insurance assessments. The Bank’s regular assessments are based on its ability to withstand asset- and funding-related stress, its regulatory ratings, and potential losses to the FDIC in the event of the Bank’s failure, subject to discretionary adjustments by the FDIC. In order to maintain a strong funding position and restore the reserve ratios of the DIF, the FDIC has, in the past, increased deposit insurance assessment rates and charged a special assessment to all FDIC-insured financial institutions. Further increases in assessment rates or special assessments may occur in the future, especially if there are significant financial institution failures. Any future special assessments, increases in assessment rates or required prepayments in FDIC insurance premiums could reduce our profitability or limit our ability to pursue certain business opportunities, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Negative developments affecting the banking industry have eroded customer confidence in the banking system and may result in additional regulations that could increase the Company’s expenses and affect its operations.
High-profile bank failures in 2023 generated significant market volatility among publicly traded bank holding companies, such as the Company. These market developments negatively impacted customer confidence in the banking system. As a result, customers may choose to maintain deposits with larger financial institutions or invest in higher yielding short-term fixed income securities, all of which could materially adversely impact the Company’s liquidity, loan funding capacity, net interest margin, capital and results of operations. In connection with these high-profile bank failures, uncertainty and concern has been, and may be in the future, compounded by advances in technology that increase the speed at which deposits can be moved, as well as the speed and reach of media attention, including social media, and its ability to disseminate concerns or rumors, in each case potentially exacerbating liquidity concerns. While the Department of the Treasury, the Federal Reserve, and the FDIC have made statements ensuring that depositors of these failed banks would have access to their deposits, including uninsured deposit accounts, there is no guarantee that such actions will be successful in restoring customer confidence.
As a result of these events, the Company anticipates increased regulatory scrutiny—in the course of routine examinations and otherwise—and new regulations, all of which may increase the Company’s costs of doing business and reduce its profitability. Among other things, there may be an increased focus by both regulators and investors on deposit composition and the level of uninsured deposits.
We may incur increased costs to comply with privacy and data security laws and regulations and, to the extent we fail to comply, we could be subject to government enforcement actions, private claims and litigation, adverse publicity, loss of customers, and other negative outcomes.
We are subject to complex and evolving laws and regulations governing the privacy and security of personal information associated with consumers, prospective, current, and former customers, employees and contractors, and other individuals. For example, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 and state financial services laws and regulations impose restrictions on our collection, use, and disclosure of personal information, as well as requirements for protecting personal information. There are federal and state laws and regulations governing our obligations in the event of data security breaches, computer-security incidents, and similar occurrences. States legislatures have also been actively debating and passing new comprehensive privacy laws. We expect that the body of privacy and data security laws and regulations that may apply to us will continue to grow.
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These laws and regulations are continually evolving and are subject to potentially differing interpretations, including as to their scope and applicability to our business. The interpretation of these laws and regulations can be uncertain, and they may be applied inconsistently from one jurisdiction to another or may conflict with other laws and regulations or our practices. As a result, our practices may not have complied or may not comply in the future with all such laws and regulations. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with these laws or regulations could have a materially adverse impact to our reputation and brand, and may result in government investigations and enforcement actions, as well as claims for damages and other forms of relief by affected individuals, business partners, and other parties. Any such investigations, enforcement actions, or claims could require us to change our operations, incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply, force us to incur significant expenses in defense of such proceedings, distract our management, increase our costs of doing business, result in a loss of customers and vendors, result in the imposition of monetary penalties, and otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Efforts intended to ensure that our collection, use, disclosure, maintenance, and protection of personal information complies with all applicable laws and regulations in all relevant jurisdictions, including where the laws of different jurisdictions are in conflict, may pose a variety of challenges, including the following:
Our compliance and operating costs may increase.
The development of new products or services may be hindered, our ability to offer existing products or services may be curtailed, and the manner in which we offer products and services to customers may be impacted.
Our efforts may require significant time, attention, and oversite of management, which may result in reduced focus on other operations.
We may be required to structure our business, operations, and systems in less efficient ways.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
The low trading volume in our common stock may adversely affect your ability to resell shares at prices that you find attractive or at all.
Our common stock is listed for quotation on the NYSE under the ticker symbol “LOB”. The average daily trading volume for our common stock is less than that of larger financial institutions. Due to its relatively low trading volume, sales of our common stock may place significant downward pressure on the market price of our common stock. Furthermore, it may be difficult for holders to resell their shares at prices they find attractive, or at all.
Future sales of shares of our common stock by existing shareholders could depress the market price of our common stock.
Live Oak Bancshares, Inc. had 44,648,626 shares of common stock outstanding at January 31, 2024. In addition, as of January 31, 2024, there were outstanding options to purchase 646,161 shares of our common stock that, if exercised, will result in these additional shares becoming available for sale. Also, as of January 31, 2024, there were 2,214,346 outstanding restricted stock units that vest over time that, when vested, will result in additional shares becoming available for sale. A large portion of these shares, options and restricted stock units are held by a relatively small number of persons. Sales by these holders of a substantial number of shares could significantly reduce the market price of our common stock.
There can be no assurance that we will continue to pay cash dividends.
Although we have historically paid cash dividends, there is no assurance that we will continue to pay cash dividends. Future payment of cash dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will be dependent upon our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, economic conditions, and such other factors as the board may deem relevant.
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Live Oak Bancshares, Inc. is subject to extensive regulation, and ownership of our common stock may have regulatory implications for its holders.
The Company is subject to extensive federal and state banking laws, including the BHCA and federal and state banking regulations, that impact the rights and obligations of owners of our common stock, including, for example, its ability to declare and pay dividends on its common stock.
Shares of Live Oak Bancshares, Inc.’s common stock are voting securities for purposes of the BHCA. The BHCA generally requires regulatory approval before any individual or company may acquire 25% or more of any class of Live Oak Bancshares Inc.’s common stock, and such regulatory approval may be required under certain circumstances if a person, company or group acting in concert acquires 10% or more, but less than 25% of Live Oak Bancshares Inc.’s common stock. Holders of our common stock should consult their own counsel with regard to regulatory implications.
Anti-takeover provisions could adversely affect Live Oak Bancshares, Inc. shareholders.
In some cases, shareholders would receive a premium for their shares if Live Oak Bancshares Inc. were acquired by another company. However, state and federal law and Live Oak Bancshares Inc.’s articles of incorporation and bylaws make it difficult for anyone to acquire the Company without approval of the Live Oak Bancshares Inc.’s board of directors. For example, Live Oak Bancshares Inc.’s articles of incorporation require a supermajority vote of two-thirds of our outstanding common stock in order to effect a sale or merger of the Company in certain circumstances. Consequently, a takeover attempt may prove difficult, and shareholders may not realize the highest possible price for their securities.
Shares of Live Oak Bancshares, Inc.’s common stock are not insured deposits and may lose value.
Shares of Live Oak Bancshares, Inc.’s common stock are not savings accounts, deposits or other obligations of any depository institution and are not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other governmental agency or instrumentality, any other deposit insurance fund or by any other public or private entity. An investment in our common stock is inherently risky for the reasons described in this “Risk Factors” section. As a result, if you acquire shares of our common stock, you may lose some or all of your investment.
General Risk Factors
We face strong competition from a diverse group of competitors.
The banking business is highly competitive, and we experience strong competition from many other financial institutions, including some of the largest commercial banks headquartered in the country, as well as other federally and state chartered financial institutions such as community banks and credit unions, finance and business development companies, commercial and consumer finance companies, peer-to-peer and marketplace lenders, securities brokerage firms, insurance companies, money market and mutual funds and other non-bank lenders.
We compete with these institutions both in attracting deposits and in making loans, primarily on the basis of the interest rates we pay and yield on these products. We also compete with these institutions in our other business lines, including wealth management. Many of our competitors are well-established, much larger financial institutions. While we believe we can successfully compete with these other lenders in our industry verticals, we may face a competitive disadvantage as a result of our smaller size. Furthermore, nothing would prevent our competitors from developing or licensing a technology-based platform similar to the technology-based platform we currently use in our business. In addition, many of our non-bank competitors have fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. We expect competition to continue to intensify due to financial institution consolidation, legislative, regulatory and technological changes, and the emergence of alternative banking sources.
Our ability to compete successfully will depend on a number of factors, including, among other things:
our ability to build and maintain long-term customer relationships while ensuring high ethical standards and safe and sound banking practices;
the scope, relevance and pricing of products and services that we offer;
customer satisfaction with our products and services;
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industry and general economic trends; and
our ability to keep pace with technological advances and to invest in new technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as create additional efficiencies in our operations.

Our competitors may have greater resources to invest in technological improvements. We may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers. In addition, our implementation of certain new technologies, such as those related to artificial intelligence, automation and algorithms, in our business processes may have unintended consequences due to their limitations or our failure to use them effectively.
Increased competition could require us to increase the rates we pay on deposits or lower the rates we offer on loans, which could reduce our profitability. Our failure to compete effectively in our primary markets could cause us to lose market share and could have a material adverse effect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We rely heavily on our management team and depend on our ability to attract and retain key personnel, and the unexpected loss of any of those personnel could adversely affect our operations.
We are a customer-focused and relationship-driven organization. We expect our future growth to be driven in a large part by the relationships maintained with our customers and partners by our chief executive officer, president, and other senior officers. The unexpected loss of any of our key employees could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. The implementation of our business strategy will also require us to continue to attract, hire, motivate and retain skilled personnel to develop new customer relationships as well as new financial products and services. We are not party to non-compete or non-solicitation agreements with any of our officers or employees. The market for qualified employees in the businesses in which we operate is competitive, and we may not be successful in attracting, hiring or retaining key personnel. Our inability to attract, hire or retain key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our risk management framework may not be effective in mitigating risks and/or losses to us.
We have implemented a risk management framework to manage our risk exposure. This framework is comprised of various processes, systems and strategies, and is designed to manage the types of risk to which we are subject, including, among others, credit, market, liquidity, interest rate and compliance risks. Our framework also includes financial and other modeling methodologies which involve management assumptions and judgment. Our risk management framework may not be effective under all circumstances and it may fail to adequately identify or mitigate risk or loss to us. If our framework is not effective, we could suffer unexpected losses and be subject to potentially adverse regulatory consequences, and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
Hurricanes or other adverse weather events could disrupt our operations, which could have an adverse effect on our business or results of operations.
North Carolina’s coastal region is affected, from time to time, by adverse weather events, particularly hurricanes, the nature and severity of which may be impacted by climate change. We cannot predict whether, or to what extent, damage caused by future hurricanes or other weather events will affect our operations. Weather events could cause a disruption in our day-to-day business activities and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results. As a result, current and potential shareholders could lose confidence in our financial reporting which would harm our business and the trading price of our securities.
If we identify material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting or are otherwise required to restate our financial statements, we could be required to implement expensive and time-consuming remedial measures and could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports. We may also face regulatory enforcement or other actions, including the potential delisting of our securities from the NYSE. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and could subject us to litigation.
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Changes in accounting standards and management’s selection of accounting methods, including assumptions and estimates, could materially impact our financial statements.
From time to time, the SEC and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) update accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) that govern the preparation of our financial statements. In addition, the FASB, SEC, bank regulators and the outside independent auditors may revise their previous interpretations regarding existing accounting regulations and the application of these accounting standards. These changes can be hard to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in changes to previously reported financial results, or a cumulative charge to retained earnings. In addition, management is required to use certain assumptions and estimates in preparing our financial statements, including determining the fair value of certain assets and liabilities, among other items. If the assumptions or estimates are incorrect, we may experience unexpected material adverse consequences that could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our business reputation is important and any damage to it could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our reputation is very important to sustain our business, as we rely on our relationships with our current, former and potential customers, our technology and other strategic partners, our shareholders, and the industries that we serve. Any damage to our reputation, whether arising from legal, regulatory, supervisory or enforcement actions, matters affecting our financial reporting or compliance with SEC and exchange listing requirements, negative publicity, the conduct of our business or otherwise could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Item 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
There were no unresolved comments received from the SEC regarding the Company’s periodic or current reports.
Item 1C.CYBERSECURITY

Risk Management and Strategy
The Company maintains a cybersecurity risk management program that is designed to enable us to assess, identify, and manage risk associated with cybersecurity threats (the “Cybersecurity Program”). Our Cybersecurity Program is based on the Cybersecurity Framework promulgated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and other applicable industry standards. It includes the following elements:
Identification and assessment of cybersecurity threats based on periodic internal and external assessments and monitoring, information from internal stakeholders, and external publications and resources.
Technical and organizational safeguards designed to protect against identified threats, including documented policies and procedures, employee training and awareness, and technical controls.
Processes to detect the occurrence of cybersecurity events and incidents, maintenance, and periodic testing of incident response and recovery and business continuity plans and processes.
A third-party risk management program to manage cybersecurity risks associated with our service providers, suppliers, and vendors using a risk-based approach that focuses on cybersecurity risks associated with critical service providers, suppliers, and vendors.
Further, the Company’s internal controls, various threat landscapes, internal events and incidents, and emerging risks are periodically reviewed to make adjustments to the Cybersecurity Program as needed. Additionally, annual risk assessments and penetration tests are performed.

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Management of Material Risks & Integrated Overall Risk Management
Assessing, identifying, and managing cybersecurity risks is integrated into our overall risk management framework. The Cybersecurity Program is integrated into the Company’s Enterprise Risk Management (“ERM”) program and framework. Together, these programs are designed to foster a company-wide culture of cybersecurity risk management. Our Information Security team works closely with stakeholders across technology, legal, risk, and business units to implement and monitor controls. See “Governance” below for additional information on processes used by management to monitor cybersecurity incidents.

Engagement of Third Parties in Connection With Risk Management
The Company leverages various third parties to conduct evaluations of our Cybersecurity Program, including security controls. The Company engages a third party to audit its information technology function, which includes an assessment of the Company’s cybersecurity efforts. The Company also maintains cybersecurity insurance; however, the costs related to cybersecurity threats or disruptions may not be fully insured. Additionally, the Company engages third parties to perform penetration tests on an annual basis. The Company also periodically engages third parties for assessments of specific products, services, or applications. The Company leverages various software and service providers as part of its Cybersecurity Program, including a managed security service provider and a service provider that helps monitor third-party suppliers. The Company also receives periodic threat intelligence reports from vendors, peers, and industry information sharing and analysis centers. The Company maintains a relationship with a leading incident response firm to assist the Company in responding to cybersecurity incidents, if appropriate.

Oversight of Third-party Risks
Our third-party service providers, suppliers, vendors, and partners face cybersecurity risks that could impact us. Therefore, the Company has developed and implemented processes to oversee and manage these risks. These processes include performing third-party onboarding due diligence such as risk assessments and information security reviews for critical service providers, suppliers, and vendors, seeking to have third-parties agree to contractual requirements designed to ensure cybersecurity and related matters are addressed, and conducting ongoing monitoring and due diligence in accordance with our vendor management and information security policies and standards. As noted above, we use a third-party to aid us in monitoring third-parties’ cybersecurity risk.

Risks from Cybersecurity Threats
As of the date of this report, we have not encountered any risks from cybersecurity threats that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect the Company, including its business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition.

Governance
Managing cybersecurity risk is a key focus for the Board of Directors. The Company seeks to ensure effective governance in managing risks associated with cybersecurity threats, as more thoroughly described below.
Board of Directors Oversight
The Risk Committee of the Board of Directors is responsible for the oversight of risks from cybersecurity threats. As described below, where appropriate, strategic risk management decisions are escalated to the Risk Committee, and the Risk Committee receives periodic reports on cybersecurity matters from management.
Management’s Role in Cybersecurity Risk Management
The Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”) of the Bank and a standing management Information Security Committee monitor, measure, and report key indicators, risk assessments, and security measures to the management Corporate Risk Committee. The CISO, in conjunction with the Corporate Risk Committee, makes quarterly reports to, the Risk Committee of the Board of Directors. Such quarterly reporting may include, but is not limited to, key metrics and risk indicators, penetration test results, risk assessment results, status of ongoing initiatives, incident and notable event reports, compliance with regulatory standards, and operational issues.
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In addition to quarterly reporting to the Board’s Risk Committee, the Company’s incident response processes include escalation to management when an incident is suspected.
Risk Management Personnel
Primary responsibility for assessing, monitoring, and managing our Cybersecurity Program rests with the CISO, Mr. Richard Friedberg. With over 25 years of experience in the field of cybersecurity, his background includes extensive experience across the financial sector, technology sector, and U.S. government. Mr. Friedberg is also an adjunct faculty member at Carnegie Mellon University, teaching risk and cyber practices. Mr. Friedberg holds a Bachelor of Science from Carnegie Mellon University, a Master of Business Administration from George Washington University, and maintains certification as a Certified Information Systems Security Professional and Certified Information Security Manager.
Monitoring Cybersecurity Incidents
The CISO is continually informed of and monitors cybersecurity risks and incidents through real-time updates, including a partnership with a managed security service provider. Periodic Information Security Committee meetings cover key metrics and risk indicators, penetration test results, risk assessment results, status of ongoing initiatives, incident and notable event reports, compliance with regulatory standards, and operational issues. In the event of a cybersecurity incident, we have an established incident response plan that requires prompt notification of the CISO or the CISO’s designee, who in turn engages with the corporate Incident Response Team (IRT) to respond to the incident. The CISO is also responsible for informing the Information Security Committee of cybersecurity incidents, which in turn reviews the impact of incidents and monitors the Company’s mitigation and remediation efforts. Depending on the nature of the incident, this process also provides for escalating notice to the Risk Committee of the Board of Directors. These processes assist management and the Risk Committee in staying informed of and monitoring the prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents.
Reporting to Board of Directors
The CISO, in his capacity, periodically informs the Information Security Committee, Corporate Risk Committee and Board’s Risk Committee of cybersecurity risks and incidents. This enables the highest levels of management to be kept abreast of the Company’s cybersecurity posture and potential risks facing the Company. Furthermore, significant cybersecurity matters and strategic risk management decisions are escalated to the Risk Committee of the Board of Directors, where appropriate.
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Item 2.PROPERTIES
The following table sets forth the location of the Company’s main offices, as well as additional administrative offices and certain information relating to the facilities.
OfficeAddressYear OpenedApproximate Square FootageOwned or LeasedOperating Segment
Wilmington, NC
Main Offices
1741 Tiburon Dr201336,000OwnedBanking
Fintech
1757 Tiburon Dr201555,000
1805 Tiburon Dr201980,972
1811 Tiburon Dr201924,329
Santa Rosa, CA Office100 B St
Ste. 100
20152,386LeasedBanking
Roseville, CA Office1223 Pleasant Grove Blvd
Ste. 120
20161,416LeasedBanking
Wilmington Flight
Operations
1890 Trask Dr201725,500OwnedBanking
Fintech
Raleigh, NC Office1017 Main Campus Dr,
Ste. 3200
20193,889LeasedBanking
Rocky Mount, NC Office210 Bryant St,
Ste. A
20201,698LeasedBanking
Wilmington, NC Office106 Market Street,
Ste. 200
20215,110LeasedBanking
Dallas, TX
Office
14675 N. Dallas Parkway,
Ste. 525
20225,241LeasedBanking
Charlotte, NC
Office
1018 Jay Street,
Ste. 300
20237,645LeasedBanking
The Company believes that its properties are maintained in good operating condition and are suitable and adequate for its operational needs.
Item 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
In the ordinary course of operations, the Company is at times involved in legal proceedings. In the opinion of management, as of December 31, 2023, there are no material pending legal proceedings to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or of which any of their property is the subject. In addition, the Company is not aware of any threatened litigation, unasserted claims or assessments that could have a material adverse effect on its business, operating results or financial condition.
Item 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Bancshares’ voting common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “LOB.” Quotations of the sales volume and the closing sales prices of the voting common stock of Bancshares are listed daily in the NYSE listings. Bancshares’ non-voting common stock is not listed for trading on any exchange.
Holders
As of January 31, 2024, there were 44,648,626 voting shares outstanding and 210 holders of record for Bancshares’ common stock.
Dividend Policy
The timing and amount of cash dividends paid depends on Bancshares’ earnings, capital requirements, financial condition and other relevant factors. Although Bancshares has historically paid quarterly cash dividends to its shareholders in the past, and currently expects to pay comparable quarterly cash dividends in the future, shareholders are not entitled to receive dividends. Downturns in domestic and global economies and other factors could cause the Bancshares board of directors to consider, among other things, the elimination of or reduction in the amount and/or frequency of cash dividends paid on Bancshares’ common stock. See “Supervision and Regulation” under Item 1 of this Report for more information on restrictions on Bancshares’ ability to declare and pay dividends. Bancshares can offer no assurance that the board of directors will continue to declare or pay cash dividends in any future period.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
See Item 12 of this Report for disclosure regarding securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans required by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
On May 17, 2022, the Board of Directors of the Company authorized the repurchase of up to $50,000,000 in shares of the Company’s voting common stock from time to time through December 31, 2023 (the “Repurchase Program”). The Repurchase Program enabled the Company to acquire shares through open market purchases or privately negotiated transactions, including through a Rule 10b5-1 plan, at the discretion of management and on terms (including quantity, timing, and price) that management determined to be advisable. Actions in connection with the repurchase program were subject to various factors, including the Company’s capital and liquidity positions, regulatory and accounting considerations, the Company’s financial and operational performance, alternative uses of capital, the trading price of the Company’s common stock, and market conditions. The repurchase program did not obligate the Company to acquire a specific dollar amount or number of shares and was subject to extension, modification, or discontinuance at any time. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had not made any purchases of shares under the Repurchase Program.
Stock Performance Graph
The stock performance graph required by Item 201(e) of Regulation S-K is incorporated into this Report by reference from Bancshares annual report to shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2023, which will be posted on the Company’s website and furnished to the SEC subsequent to the date of this Report. The stock performance graph shall not be deemed to be “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, nor shall it be deemed to be “soliciting material” subject to Regulation 14A or incorporated by reference in any filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.
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Item 6.[RESERVED]
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Item 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview
The following presents management’s discussion and analysis (“MD&A”) of the more significant factors that affected the Company's financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to December 31, 2022. For a comparison of 2022 results to 2021 and other 2021 information not included herein, refer to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under Part II, Item 7 of the 2022 Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 23, 2023. This discussion should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Report on Form 10-K. Results of operations for the periods included in this review are not necessarily indicative of results to be obtained during any future period.
Dollar amounts in tables are stated in thousands, except for per share amounts.
Nature of Operations
Live Oak Bancshares, Inc. (collectively with its subsidiaries including Live Oak Banking Company, the “Company”) is a financial holding company and a bank holding company headquartered in Wilmington, North Carolina, incorporated under the laws of North Carolina in December 2008. The Company conducts business operations primarily through its commercial bank subsidiary, Live Oak Banking Company (the “Bank”). The Bank was incorporated in February 2008 as a North Carolina-chartered commercial bank. The Bank specializes in providing lending and deposit related services to small businesses nationwide. A significant portion of the loans originated by the Bank are partially guaranteed by the U.S. Small Business Administration (“SBA”) under the 7(a) Loan program and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (“USDA”) Rural Energy for America Program (“REAP”), Water and Environmental Program (“WEP”), Business & Industry (“B&I”) and Community Facilities loan programs. These loans are to small businesses and professionals with what the Bank believes are lower risk characteristics. Industries, or “verticals,” on which the Bank focuses its lending efforts are carefully selected. The Bank also lends more broadly to select borrowers outside of those verticals.
As of December 31, 2023, the Company’s wholly owned material subsidiaries were the Bank, Government Loan Solutions (“GLS”), Live Oak Grove, LLC (“Grove”), Live Oak Ventures, Inc. (“Live Oak Ventures”) and Canapi Advisors, LLC (“Canapi Advisors”). GLS is a management and technology consulting firm that advises and offers solutions and services to participants in the government guaranteed lending sector. GLS primarily provides services in connection with the settlement, accounting, and securitization processes for government guaranteed loans, including loans originated under the SBA 7(a) loan programs and USDA guaranteed loans. The Grove provides Company employees and business visitors with on-site dining. Live Oak Ventures’ purpose is investing in businesses that align with the Company's strategic initiative to be a leader in financial technology. Canapi Advisors provides investment advisory services to a series of funds (the “Canapi Funds”) focused on providing venture capital to new and emerging financial technology companies.
As of December 31, 2023, the Bank’s wholly owned subsidiaries were Live Oak Number One, Inc., Live Oak Clean Energy Financing LLC (“LOCEF”), Live Oak Private Wealth, LLC (“Live Oak Private Wealth”) and Tiburon Land Holdings, LLC (“TLH”). Live Oak Number One, Inc. holds properties foreclosed on by the Bank. LOCEF provides financing to entities for renewable energy applications. Live Oak Private Wealth provides high-net-worth individuals and families with strategic wealth and investment management services. During the first quarter of 2022, Jolley Asset Management, LLC (“JAM”) was merged into Live Oak Private Wealth. JAM was previously a wholly owned subsidiary of Live Oak Private Wealth. TLH holds land adjacent to the Bank's headquarters consisting of wetlands and other protected property for the use and enjoyment of the Bank's employees and customers.
The Company generates revenue primarily from net interest income and secondarily through the origination and sale of government guaranteed loans. Income from the retention of loans is comprised principally of interest income. Income from the sale of loans is comprised of loan servicing revenue and revaluation of related servicing assets along with net gains on sales of loans. Offsetting these revenues are the cost of funding sources, provision for loan and lease credit losses, any costs related to foreclosed assets and other operating costs such as salaries and employee benefits, travel, professional services, advertising and marketing and tax expense. The Company also has less routinely generated gains and losses arising from its financial technology investments predominantly in its fintech segment, as discussed more fully later in this section under the caption “Results of Segment Operations.”
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Executive Summary
The table below sets forth selected consolidated financial data as of the dates or for the periods indicated.