Company Quick10K Filing
Live Oak Bancshares
Price18.15 EPS0
Shares41 P/E67
MCap746 P/FCF-2
Net Debt0 EBIT104
TEV746 TEV/EBIT7
TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2020-12-31 Filed 2021-02-25
10-Q 2020-09-30 Filed 2020-11-04
10-Q 2020-06-30 Filed 2020-08-05
10-Q 2020-03-31 Filed 2020-05-06
10-K 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-02-27
10-Q 2019-09-30 Filed 2019-11-07
10-Q 2019-06-30 Filed 2019-08-06
10-Q 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-05-07
10-K 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-02-27
10-Q 2018-09-30 Filed 2018-11-07
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-08-07
10-Q 2018-03-31 Filed 2018-05-07
10-K 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-03-08
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-11-06
10-Q 2017-06-30 Filed 2017-08-07
10-Q 2017-03-31 Filed 2017-05-08
10-K 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-03-09
10-Q 2016-09-30 Filed 2016-11-08
10-Q 2016-06-30 Filed 2016-08-08
10-Q 2016-03-31 Filed 2016-05-12
10-K 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-03-14
10-Q 2015-09-30 Filed 2015-11-13
10-Q 2015-06-30 Filed 2015-09-03
8-K 2020-11-17
8-K 2020-10-21
8-K 2020-09-16
8-K 2020-08-25
8-K 2020-07-22
8-K 2020-06-08
8-K 2020-05-12
8-K 2020-05-12
8-K 2020-04-22
8-K 2020-03-15
8-K 2020-02-11
8-K 2020-02-10
8-K 2020-01-22
8-K 2019-11-19
8-K 2019-10-23
8-K 2019-10-03
8-K 2019-08-27
8-K 2019-07-24
8-K 2019-05-14
8-K 2019-05-14
8-K 2019-04-24
8-K 2019-02-15
8-K 2019-02-12
8-K 2019-02-11
8-K 2019-01-23
8-K 2018-12-04
8-K 2018-11-19
8-K 2018-11-19
8-K 2018-10-24
8-K 2018-09-24
8-K 2018-09-18
8-K 2018-08-28
8-K 2018-08-10
8-K 2018-07-25
8-K 2018-05-15
8-K 2018-05-15
8-K 2018-04-25
8-K 2018-04-22
8-K 2018-03-29
8-K 2018-03-21
8-K 2018-02-12
8-K 2018-02-12
8-K 2018-02-02
8-K 2018-01-24

LOB 10K Annual Report

Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2. Securities
Note 3. Loans and Leases Held for Investment and Credit Quality
Note 4. Leases
Note 5. Servicing Assets
Note 6. Premises and Equipment
Note 7. Deposits
Note 8. Borrowings
Note 9. Income Taxes
Note 10. Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Note 11. Commitments and Contingencies
Note 12. Benefit Plans
Note 13. Regulatory Matters
Note 14. Transactions with Related Parties
Note 15. Significant Equity Method Investments
Note 16. Segments
Note 17. Parent Company Only Financial Statements
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10 - K Summary
EX-10.5.3 lob-ex1053_164.htm
EX-10.5.4 lob-ex1054_163.htm
EX-10.5.9 lob-ex1059_162.htm
EX-10.5.10 lob-ex10510_161.htm
EX-10.5.11 lob-ex10511_160.htm
EX-10.5.12 lob-ex10512_159.htm
EX-10.5.13 lob-ex10513_158.htm
EX-10.5.14 lob-ex10514_1027.htm
EX-10.6.8 lob-ex1068_1026.htm
EX-10.6.11 lob-ex10611_1025.htm
EX-21.1 lob-ex211_7.htm
EX-23.1 lob-ex231_6.htm
EX-31.1 lob-ex311_8.htm
EX-31.2 lob-ex312_10.htm
EX-32 lob-ex32_9.htm

Live Oak Bancshares Earnings 2020-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

lob-10k_20201231.htm
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

 

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from              to            .

Commission file number: 001-37497

LIVE OAK BANCSHARES, INC.

 

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

North Carolina

 

26-4596286

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

 

1741 Tiburon Drive, Wilmington, NC

 

28403

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (910) 790-5867

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Voting Common Stock, no par value per share

LOB

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large Accelerated Filer

 

 

Accelerated Filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated Filer

 

☐ 

 

Smaller Reporting Company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2020, was approximately $442,026,821.  Shares of common stock held by each officer and director have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates.  There is no public market for the registrant's non-voting common stock.  For purposes of this calculation, the registrant has assumed that the market value of each share of non-voting common stock is equal to a share of voting common stock.

APPLICABLE ONLY TO CORPORATE REGISTRANTS:

As of February 24, 2021, there were 41,845,430 shares of the registrant’s voting common stock outstanding and 881,875 shares of the registrant’s non-voting common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, which the registrant plans to file subsequent to the date hereof, are incorporated by reference into Part III.  Portions of the registrant's annual report to shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2020, which will be posted on the registrant's website subsequent to the date hereof, are incorporated by reference into Part II.

 

 


 

 

Live Oak Bancshares, Inc.

Annual Report on Form 10-K

December 31, 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I

Item 1.

 

Business

 

1

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

17

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

38

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

38

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

38

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

38

PART II

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

39

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

40

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

42

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

76

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

78

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

79

 

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2020 and 2019

 

85

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Income for the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018

 

86

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018

 

87

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018

 

88

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018

 

89

 

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

91

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

147

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

147

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

147

PART III

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

148

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

148

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

148

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

148

Item 14.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

148

PART IV

Item 15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

149

Item 16

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

151

 

 

Signatures

 

152

 

 

 


 

 

Important Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Report”) contains statements that management believes are forward-looking statements, within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements generally relate to the financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance or business of Live Oak Bancshares, Inc. (the "Company"). They usually can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, such as “believes,” “expects,” or “are expected to,” “plans,” “projects,” “goals,” “estimates,” “will,” “may,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “continues,” “intends to,” “outlook” or “anticipates,” or variations of these and similar words, or by discussions of strategies that involve risks and uncertainties. You should not place undue reliance on these statements, as they are subject to risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to, those described in this Report. When considering these forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind these risks and uncertainties, as well as any cautionary statements management may make. Moreover, you should treat these statements as speaking only as of the date they are made and based only on information actually known to the Company at the time. Management undertakes no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Forward-looking statements contained in this Report are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about the Company’s business, management’s beliefs and assumptions made by management. These statements are not guarantees of the Company’s future performance and involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions, which are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual outcomes and results may differ materially from what is expressed or forecasted in the forward-looking statements. These risks, uncertainties and assumptions include, without limitation:

 

deterioration in the financial condition of borrowers resulting in significant increases in the Company’s loan and lease losses and provisions for those losses and other adverse impacts to results of operations and financial condition;

 

changes in Small Business Administration ("SBA") rules, regulations and loan products, including specifically the Section 7(a) program, changes in SBA standard operating procedures or changes to the status of Live Oak Banking Company (the "Bank") as an SBA Preferred Lender;

 

changes in rules, regulations or procedures for other government loan programs, including those of the United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”);

 

changes in interest rates that affect the level and composition of deposits, loan demand and the values of loan collateral, securities, and interest sensitive assets and liabilities;

 

the failure of assumptions underlying the establishment of reserves for possible loan and lease losses;

 

changes in loan underwriting, credit review or loss reserve policies associated with economic conditions, examination conclusions, or regulatory developments;

 

the potential impacts of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (“COVID-19”) pandemic on trade (including supply chains and export levels), travel, employee productivity and other economic activities that may have a destabilizing and negative effect on financial markets, economic activity and customer behavior;

 

a reduction in or the termination of the Company’s ability to use the technology-based platform that is critical to the success of the Company’s business model or to develop a next-generation banking platform, including a failure in or a breach of the Company’s operational or security systems or those of its third party service providers;

 

changes in financial market conditions, either internationally, nationally or locally in areas in which the Company conducts operations, including reductions in rates of business formation and growth, demand for the Company’s products and services, commercial and residential real estate development and prices, premiums paid in the secondary market for the sale of loans, and valuation of servicing rights;

 

changes in accounting principles, policies, and guidelines applicable to bank holding companies and banking;

 

fluctuations in markets for equity, fixed-income, commercial paper and other securities, which could affect availability, market liquidity levels, and pricing;

 


 

 

the effects of competition from other commercial banks, non-bank lenders, consumer finance companies, credit unions, securities brokerage firms, insurance companies, money market and mutual funds, and other financial institutions operating in the Company’s market area and elsewhere, including institutions operating regionally, nationally and internationally, together with such competitors offering banking products and services by mail, telephone and the Internet;

 

the Company's ability to attract and retain key personnel;

 

changes in governmental monetary and fiscal policies as well as other legislative and regulatory changes, including with respect to SBA or USDA lending programs and investment tax credits;

 

changes in political and economic conditions, including as a result of the 2020 federal elections;

 

the impact of heightened regulatory scrutiny of financial products and services, primarily led by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and various state agencies;

 

the Company's ability to comply with any requirements imposed on it by regulators, and the potential negative consequences that may result;

 

operational, compliance and other factors, including conditions in local areas in which the Company conducts business such as inclement weather or a reduction in the availability of services or products for which loan proceeds will be used, that could prevent or delay closing and funding loans before they can be sold in the secondary market;

 

the effect of any mergers, acquisitions or other transactions, to which the Company or the Bank may from time to time be a party, including management’s ability to successfully integrate any businesses acquired;

 

other risk factors listed from time to time in reports that the Company files with the SEC, including those described under “Risk Factors” in this Report; and

 

the Company’s success at managing the risks involved in the foregoing.

Except as otherwise disclosed, forward-looking statements do not reflect: (i) the effect of any acquisitions, divestitures or similar transactions that have not been previously disclosed; (ii) any changes in laws, regulations or regulatory interpretations; or (iii) any change in current dividend or repurchase strategies, in each case after the date as of which such statements are made. All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which such statements are made, and the Company undertakes no obligation to update any statement, to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which such statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

PART I

Item 1.

BUSINESS

General

Live Oak Bancshares, Inc. (collectively with its subsidiaries including Live Oak Banking Company, the “Company,” also referred to as "our" and "we"), headquartered in Wilmington, North Carolina, is the bank holding company for Live Oak Banking Company (the “Bank” or "Live Oak Bank").  The Bank was incorporated in February 2008 as a North Carolina-chartered commercial bank and operates an established national online platform for small business lending and deposit gathering.  Live Oak Bancshares, Inc. was incorporated under the laws of the state of North Carolina on December 18, 2008, for the purpose of serving as the bank holding company of Live Oak Bank.  Live Oak Bancshares, Inc. completed its initial public offering (“IPO”) in July 2015.

The Company

The Company predominantly originates loans partially guaranteed by the U.S. Small Business Administration (the "SBA") and to a lesser extent by the USDA Rural Energy for America Program ("REAP"), Water and Environmental Program (“WEP”), Business & Industry ("B&I") and Community Facilities loan programs.  These loans are to small businesses and professionals with what the Company believes are lower risk characteristics. Industries, or “verticals,” on which the Company focuses its lending efforts are carefully selected. Within these verticals the Company typically retains individuals who possess extensive industry-specific experience. The Company also lends more broadly to select borrowers outside of those verticals.

In addition to focusing on industry verticals, the Company emphasizes developing detailed knowledge of its customers’ businesses. This knowledge is developed, in part, through virtual and/or regular visits with customers, wherever they are located. These regular visits are designed to foster, both for the Company and for the customer, a deep and personalized experience throughout the lending relationship.  The Company has developed and continues to refine a technology-based platform to facilitate providing financial services to the small business community on a national scale, and has leveraged this technology to optimize the Company's loan origination process, customer experience, reporting metrics, and servicing activity. The Company services customers efficiently throughout the loan process and monitors their performance by means of the technology-based platform without maintaining traditional branch locations.

For additional information on the Company's business, financial performance and results of operations, see “Overview” and “Executive Summary” in Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this Report. For information on the Company’s financial information about geographic areas, see Part II, Item 8 of this Report.

The Company's voting common stock trades on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (“NASDAQ”) under the symbol “LOB.”  As of January 31, 2021, there were 276 holders of record of the Company's voting common stock. The Company's principal executive office is located at 1741 Tiburon Drive, Wilmington, North Carolina 28403, telephone number (910) 790-5867. The Company maintains a website at www.liveoakbank.com. Documents available on the website include: (i) the Company's Code of Ethics and Conflict of Interest Policy; and (ii) charters for the Audit and Risk, Compensation, and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees of the Board of Directors. These documents also are available in print to any shareholder who requests a copy.

In addition, available free of charge through the Company's website is the Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing or furnishing such material to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).  These filings are also accessible on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

The Company also will provide without charge a copy of this Report, as well as any documents available on the Company's website, to any shareholder by mail. Requests should be sent to Live Oak Bancshares, Inc., Attention: Corporate Secretary, 1741 Tiburon Drive, Wilmington, NC 28403.

 


1


 

 

Employees and Human Capital Resource Management

 

The Company operates on the fundamental philosophy that people are our most valuable asset, because every person who works for us has the potential to impact our success as well as the success of our customers.  The Company’s employees are the source of our deep industry and product expertise and the embodiment of our culture.  It is this industry vertical expertise, product knowledge and our culture that differentiate the Company and allow us to provide an unprecedented customer experience and live our mission to fuel the growth of small business across the country and be America’s Small Business Bank.   

 

As a financial institution, our ability to attract, develop and retain highly qualified employees is critical to our success. The Company’s core values of innovation, dedication, ownership, respect and teamwork are pillars of our culture and represent the expectations we have of each and every one of our employees. We believe our people provide significant value to our Company and its shareholders.

 

Demographics

 

As of December 31, 2020, the Company had 621 full-time employees, 18 part-time employees and 8 independent contractors.  None of the Company’s employees are covered by a collective bargaining agreement, and management considers relations with employees to be good.

 

Diversity and Inclusion

 

The Company strives to foster a welcoming, supportive, and equitable environment for diverse employees.  To accomplish this, the Company focuses on engagement, awareness, training, accountability, education, and communication.  During 2020, the Company offered implicit bias training, conducted a Juneteenth town hall event, facilitated and participated in quarterly roundtable discussions on topics of diversity, equity and inclusion, and saw the formation of an internal affinity group called R.I.S.E. (Responsibility to Identify Solutions & Empower).  The Company’s diversity, equity and inclusion initiatives are both internally and externally focused.  Its commitment to providing and enhancing a support infrastructure for people with underrepresented backgrounds remains a strategic initiative in 2021 and beyond.  The Company intends to continue to identify, monitor and measure meaningful diversity and inclusion goals, to continue to foster a welcoming environment through education, communication and recruiting efforts, and to provide support so that diverse employees have the resources and relationships they need to be successful and thrive.

 

Compensation

 

We believe that creating an unprecedented banking experience for small business owners nationwide through service and technology will build long-term shareholder value.  To accomplish this, we endeavor to identify, recruit, retain and incentivize exceptional employees.  Our compensation policy is based on the premise that employees should receive fair and equitable treatment based on their individual contributions to the Company’s profitability and success. We use a combination of fixed and incentive pay, including base salary, cash bonus and equity compensation.  We also offer a 401(k) savings plan to qualifying employees.

 

Our compensation program is intended to motivate employees to successfully execute our mission.  The Company believes that the most effective incentive compensation programs strive to achieve the following objectives:

 

 

align compensation with responsibilities and performance;

 

align employees’ interests with those of our shareholders;

 

motivate performance toward the achievement of business objectives;

 

clearly communicate compensation policies and structures to employees;

 

motivate behaviors to increase long-term profitability while maintaining the Company’s primary commitment to safety and soundness;

 

attract and retain talent and build leadership succession within business units.

 

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Benefits and Wellness

 

As the success of our business is fundamentally connected to the well-being of our people, we offer benefits that support their physical, financial and emotional well-being. We provide our employees with access to flexible and convenient insurance programs intended to meet their needs and the needs of their families. In addition to robust medical, dental and vision coverage, we offer eligible employees dependent care flexible spending accounts, paid time off, employee assistance programs, short-term and long-term disability insurance and term life insurance.

 

Our focus on employee wellness extends beyond just insurance benefits.  The Company provides access to an intranet site focused on physical, mental, emotional and financial wellness, and at its Wilmington headquarters facility, an on-site health clinic for employees, on-site physical therapy appointments, and an on-site wellness facility staffed with certified physical trainers and regularly scheduled live and virtual wellness classes.  The Company’s main campus in Wilmington also offers two on-site restaurants that provide heart-healthy options and which can cater to specific dietary needs.

 

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented changes that we determined were in the best interest of our employees, as well as the communities in which we operate. These measures included capacity limits in our buildings, temperature check stations at building entryways, mask mandates, and one-way stairways.  In addition, our 100% cloud-based operations allowed our employees to transition to a remote working environment with no material effect on our operations or customer experience.  We continue to embrace a flexible working arrangement for a majority of our employees.

 

Commitment to Values and Ethics

 

Along with our core values, we have adopted a Code of Ethics and Conflict of Interest Policy, which set forth expectations and guidance for employees to make appropriate decisions. Our Code of Ethics and Conflict of Interest Policy cover topics such as conflicts of interest, compliance with laws, appropriate use of company assets, protecting confidential information, and reporting of violations. Our Code of Ethics and Conflict of Interest Policy reflect our commitment to operating in a fair, honest, responsible and ethical manner and also provide direction for reporting complaints in the event of alleged violations of our policies. Our executive officers and supervisors maintain “open door” policies, and any form of retaliation is strictly prohibited.

 

Professional Development and Training

 

We believe training and professional development for our employees has a positive impact on employee retention, customer experience and, ultimately, shareholder value.  The Company has certain training programs and resources in place to meet the needs of various roles, skill sets and departments across the Company, including:

 

 

Internally and externally led manager training and professional development;

 

Internally led “lunch and learn” meetings for role-specific skills;

 

Web-based learning modules and training for personal and professional development, skill-based learning, leadership development and management functions;

 

Formal cross-department teams tasked with technology, initiative roll-outs and change management; and

 

Tuition reimbursement for job-specific certifications and required continuing education.

 

Communication and Engagement

 

We believe that the Company’s success and the ultimate creation of long-term value for shareholders begin with employees understanding how their work contributes to the Company’s overall strategy.  To this end, we communicate with our workforce through a variety of channels and encourage open and direct communication, including:

 

 

An annual company-wide “all hands” meeting;

 

Regularly scheduled town hall meetings that are led by our key executives and held quarterly or more often as needed;

 

Periodic posts from the Bank’s president via our internal enterprise social media network; and

 

An open-door environment that encourages communication, collaboration and the free-flow of information.

 

Collaboration, both within and between business units, is a hallmark of our approach to service delivery and value creation for our customers and stakeholders.  

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Competition

Commercial banking in the United States is extremely competitive. The Company competes with national banking organizations, including the largest commercial banks headquartered in the country, all of which have small business lending divisions. The Company also competes with other federally and state-chartered financial institutions such as community banks and credit unions, finance and business development companies, peer-to-peer and marketplace lenders and other non-bank lenders. Many of the Company's competitors have higher legal lending limits and are also able to provide a wider array of services and make greater use of media advertising given their size and resources.

Despite the intense level of competition among small business lenders, the Company believes that it occupies a lending category distinct from its competitors. One of the Company's principal advantages is the technology-based platform it uses, which management believes has accelerated the Company's ability to issue proposals, complete credit due diligence, finalize commitments and improve the overall customer experience. The Company believes that its personnel also provide a competitive advantage because they include industry participants with relevant experience in the Company's identified verticals.

Subsidiaries

In addition to the Bank, the Company directly or indirectly held the following wholly owned subsidiaries as of December 31, 2020:

 

Canapi Advisors, LLC, formed in September 2018 for the purpose of providing investment advisory services to a series of funds focused on providing venture capital to new and emerging financial technology companies.

 

Live Oak Ventures, Inc., formed in August 2016 for the purpose of investing in businesses that align with the Company's strategic initiative to be a leader in financial technology;

 

Live Oak Grove, LLC, formed in February 2015 for the purpose of providing Company employees and business visitors an on-site restaurant location at the Company’s Wilmington, North Carolina headquarters; and

 

Government Loan Solutions, Inc. (“GLS”), a management and technology consulting firm that specializes in the settlement, accounting, and securitization processes for government guaranteed loans, including loans originated under the SBA 7(a) loan program and USDA-guaranteed loans.

In 2010, the Bank formed Live Oak Number One, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary, to hold properties foreclosed on by the Bank.

In 2018, the Bank formed Live Oak Private Wealth, LLC (“LOPW”), a registered investment advisor that provides high-net-worth individuals and families with strategic wealth and investment management services, and on April 1, 2020, it acquired Jolley Asset Management, LLC (“JAM”) to broaden service offerings for existing high-net-worth individuals and families, attract new clients from an expanded footprint and benefit from economies of scale.  

In 2019, Live Oak Clean Energy Financing LLC (“LOCEF”) became a subsidiary of the Bank.  LOCEF was formed in November 2016 as a subsidiary of the Company for the purpose of providing financing to entities for renewable energy applications.  

504 Fund Advisors, LLC (“504FA”), was formed in June 2013 to serve as the investment advisor to The 504 Fund, a closed-end mutual fund organized to invest in SBA section 504 loans. During 2019, 504FA completed the transfer of its advisory agreement and was dissolved in December 2019.  

Operating Segments

The Company’s operations are managed along two reportable operating segments consisting of Banking and Fintech.  See the sections captioned “Results of Segment Operations” in Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 16 - Segments in the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data elsewhere in this report.

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SUPERVISION AND REGULATION

General

The Company is subject to extensive regulation in connection with its respective activities and operations. The framework under which the Company is supervised and examined is complex. This framework includes federal and state laws, regulations, policy statements, guidance, and other interpretative materials that define the obligations and requirements for financial institutions.

Regulations of banks and their holding companies is subject to continual revision, through legislative changes, regulatory revisions, and the evolving supervisory objectives of federal and state banking agency examiners and supervisory staff. It is not possible to predict the content or timing of changes to the laws and regulations that may impact the business of the Company. Any changes to the regulatory framework applicable to the Company could have a material adverse impact on the conditions and operations of each entity.

In addition to the regulation and supervision summarized below, the Company is a reporting company under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) and is required to file reports with the SEC and otherwise comply with federal securities laws.

The following discussion is not intended to be a complete description of all the activities regulated by U.S. banking laws and regulations or of the impact of such laws and regulations on the Company. Rather, it is intended to briefly summarize the legal and regulatory framework in which the Company operates and describes legal requirements that impact its businesses and operations. The information set forth below is subject to change.

Federal Bank Holding Company Regulation and Structure

As a registered bank holding company, the Company is subject to regulation under the Bank Holding Company Act, or BHCA, and to the supervision, examination and reporting requirements of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”). The Bank is a North Carolina-chartered commercial bank and is subject to regulation, supervision and examination by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or the FDIC, and the North Carolina Commissioner of Banks, or NCCOB.

The BHCA requires every bank holding company to obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before:

 

it may acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank if, after the acquisition, the bank holding company will directly or indirectly own or control more than 5% of the voting shares of the bank;

 

it or any of its subsidiaries, other than a bank, may acquire all or substantially all of the assets of any bank; or

 

it may merge or consolidate with any other bank holding company.

The BHCA further provides that the Federal Reserve may not approve any transaction that would result in a monopoly or that would substantially lessen competition in the banking business, unless the public interest in meeting the needs of the communities to be served outweighs the anti-competitive effects. The Federal Reserve is also required to consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the bank holding companies and banks involved and the convenience and needs of the communities to be served. Consideration of financial resources generally focuses on capital adequacy, and consideration of convenience and needs issues focuses, in part, on the performance under the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, both of which are discussed elsewhere in more detail.

Subject to various exceptions, the BHCA and the Change in Bank Control Act, together with related regulations, require Federal Reserve approval prior to any person or company acquiring “control” of a bank holding company. Control is conclusively presumed to exist if a person or company acquires 25% or more of any class of voting securities of a bank holding company. Control is also presumed to exist, although rebuttable, if a person or company acquires 10% or more, but less than 25%, of any class of voting securities and either:

 

the bank holding company has securities registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act; or

 

no other person owns a greater percentage of that class of voting securities immediately after the transaction.

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Live Oak Bancshares, Inc.’s voting common stock is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act. The regulations provide a procedure for challenging rebuttable presumptions of control.

On April 1, 2020, the Federal Reserve’s final rule revising the “controlling influence” prong of its “control” rules promulgated under the BHCA became effective. The final rule largely reaffirms the Federal Reserve’s existing framework for analyzing “controlling influence” but with some new rules for presumptions of control for investments in and by banking organizations that represent more than 4.9% and less than 24.9% of control over any class of voting securities. By codifying the Federal Reserve’s presumptions used in making control determinations, the final rule provides greater transparency on the types on relationships that the Federal Reserve generally views as supporting a facts-and-circumstances determination that one entity controls another. The final rule applies to questions of control under the BHCA, but does not extend to the Change in Bank Control Act.

The BHCA generally prohibits a bank holding company from retaining direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any company which is not a bank or bank holding company or engaging in activities other than banking, managing or controlling banks or other permissible subsidiaries and acquiring or retaining direct or indirect control of any company engaged in any activities other than activities closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks. In determining whether a particular activity is permissible, the Federal Reserve considers whether performing the activity can be expected to produce benefits to the public that outweigh possible adverse effects, such as undue concentration of resources, decreased or unfair competition, conflicts of interest or unsound banking practices. The Federal Reserve has the power to order a bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity or control of any subsidiary when the continuation of the activity or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness or stability of any bank subsidiary of that bank holding company.

Under the BHCA, a bank holding company may file an election with the Federal Reserve to be treated as a financial holding company and engage in an expanded list of financial activities. The election must be accompanied by a certification that all of the company’s insured depository institution subsidiaries are “well capitalized” and “well managed.” Additionally, the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 rating of each subsidiary bank must be satisfactory or better. If, after becoming a financial holding company and undertaking activities not permissible for a bank holding company, the company fails to continue to meet any of the prerequisites for financial holding company status, the company must enter into an agreement with the Federal Reserve to comply with all applicable capital and management requirements. If the company does not return to compliance within 180 days, the Federal Reserve may order the company to divest its subsidiary banks or the company may discontinue or divest investments in companies engaged in activities permissible only for a bank holding company that has elected to be treated as a financial holding company. Live Oak Bancshares, Inc. filed an election and became a financial holding company in 2016.

Under Federal Reserve policy and as codified by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, or the Dodd-Frank Act, the Company is expected to act as a source of financial strength for Live Oak Bank and to commit resources to support Live Oak Bank. This support may be required at times when the Company might not be inclined to provide it or it might not be in the Company's best interests or the best interests of its shareholders. In addition, any capital loans made by the Company to Live Oak Bank will be repaid only after Live Oak Bank’s deposits and various other obligations are repaid in full.

Live Oak Bank is also subject to numerous state and federal statutes and regulations that affect its business, activities and operations and it is supervised and examined by state and federal bank regulatory agencies. The FDIC and the NCCOB regularly examine the operations of Live Oak Bank and are given the authority to approve or disapprove mergers, consolidations, the establishment of branches and similar corporate actions. These agencies also have the power to prevent the continuance or development of unsafe or unsound banking practices or other violations of law.

Bank Merger Act

Section 18(c) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, popularly known as the “Bank Merger Act,” requires the prior written approval of appropriate federal bank regulatory agencies before any bank may (i) merge or consolidate with, (ii) purchase or otherwise acquire the assets of, or (iii) assume the deposit liabilities of, another bank if the resulting institution is to be a state nonmember bank.

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The Bank Merger Act prohibits the applicable federal bank regulatory agency from approving any proposed merger transaction that would result in a monopoly, or would further a combination or conspiracy to monopolize or to attempt to monopolize the business of banking in any part of the United States. Similarly, the Bank Merger Act prohibits the applicable federal bank regulatory agency from approving a proposed merger transaction whose effect in any section of the country may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tend to create a monopoly, or which in any other manner would be in restraint of trade. An exception may be made in the case of a merger transaction whose effect would be to substantially lessen competition, tend to create a monopoly, or otherwise restrain trade, if the applicable federal bank regulatory agency finds that the anticompetitive effects of the proposed transaction are clearly outweighed in the public interest by the probable effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served.

In every proposed merger transaction, the applicable federal bank regulatory agency must also consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the existing and proposed institutions, the convenience and needs of the community to be served, and the effectiveness of each insured depository institution involved in the proposed merger transaction in combating money-laundering activities, including in overseas branches.

State Law

Live Oak Bank is subject to extensive supervision and regulation by the NCCOB. The NCCOB oversees state laws that set specific requirements for bank capital and that regulate deposits in, and loans and investments by, banks, including the amounts, types, and in some cases, rates. The NCCOB supervises and performs periodic examinations of North Carolina-chartered banks to assure compliance with state banking statutes and regulations, and banks are required to make regular reports to the NCCOB describing in detail their resources, assets, liabilities, and financial condition. Among other things, the NCCOB regulates mergers and consolidations of North Carolina state-chartered banks, capital requirements for banks, loans to officers and directors, payment of dividends, record keeping, types and amounts of loans and investments, and the establishment, relocation, and closing of branches.

The NCCOB has extensive enforcement authority over North Carolina banks. Such authority includes the ability to issue cease-and-desist orders and to seek civil money penalties. The NCCOB may also take possession of a North Carolina bank in various circumstances, including for a violation of its charter or of applicable laws, operating in an unsafe and unsound manner, or as a result of an impairment of its capital, and may appoint a receiver.

The Company is also required to maintain registration as a bank holding company with the NCCOB. Subject to certain exceptions, the Company may not acquire control over another bank or bank holding company or consummate a merger or other combination transaction with another company without the prior approval of the NCCOB. The NCCOB also has authority to assert civil money penalties against a holding company if the NCCOB determines such holding company to be in violation of any banking laws and the holding company fails to comply with an NCCOB order to cease and desist from such violations of law.

The primary state banking laws to which the Company and the Bank are subject are set forth in Chapters 53C and 53 of the North Carolina General Statutes.  The North Carolina Business Corporation Act is also applicable to the Company as a North Carolina business corporation and to the Bank as a North Carolina banking corporation.

Payment of Dividends and Other Restrictions

The Company is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank. While there are various legal and regulatory limitations under federal and state law on the extent to which banks can pay dividends or otherwise supply funds to holding companies, a principal source of cash revenues for the Company is dividends from the Bank. The relevant federal and state regulatory agencies have authority to prohibit a state bank or bank holding company, which would include the Bank and the Company, from engaging in what, in the opinion of such regulatory body, constitutes an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting its business. The payment of dividends could, depending upon the financial condition of a bank, be deemed to constitute an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting its business.

North Carolina commercial banks, such as Live Oak Bank, are subject to legal limitations on the amounts of dividends they are permitted to pay. Specifically, an insured depository institution, such as Live Oak Bank, is prohibited from making capital distributions, including the payment of dividends, if, after making such distribution, the institution would become “undercapitalized” (as such term is defined in the applicable law and regulations).

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The Federal Reserve has issued a policy statement on the payment of cash dividends by bank holding companies, which expresses the Federal Reserve’s view that a bank holding company should pay cash dividends only to the extent that the holding company’s net income for the past four quarters is sufficient to cover both the cash dividends and a rate of earnings retention that is consistent with the holding company’s capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. The Federal Reserve has also indicated that it would be inappropriate for a holding company experiencing serious financial problems to borrow funds to pay dividends. Furthermore, under the prompt corrective action regulations adopted by the Federal Reserve, the Federal Reserve may prohibit a bank holding company from paying any dividends if any of the holding company’s bank subsidiaries are classified as undercapitalized.

A bank holding company is required to give the Federal Reserve prior written notice of any purchase or redemption of its outstanding equity securities if the gross consideration for the purchase or redemption, when combined with the net consideration paid for all such purchases or redemptions during the preceding 12 months, is equal to 10% or more of its consolidated net worth. The Federal Reserve may disapprove such a purchase or redemption if it determines that the proposal would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice or would violate any law, regulation, Federal Reserve order or any condition imposed by, or written agreement with, the Federal Reserve.

Capital Adequacy

General. The Company must comply with the Federal Reserve’s established capital adequacy standards, and Live Oak Bank is required to comply with the capital adequacy standards established by the FDIC. The Federal Reserve has promulgated two basic measures of capital adequacy for bank holding companies: a risk-based measure and a leverage measure. A bank holding company must satisfy all applicable capital standards to be considered in compliance.

The risk-based capital standards are designed to make regulatory capital requirements sensitive to differences in risk profiles among banks and bank holding companies, account for off-balance-sheet exposure and minimize disincentives for holding liquid assets.

Assets and off-balance-sheet items are assigned to broad risk categories, each with appropriate weights. The resulting capital ratios represent capital as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets and off-balance-sheet items. Under applicable capital standards, the minimum risk-based capital ratios are a common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 4.5%, a Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 6%, and a total capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 8%. In addition, to avoid restrictions on capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments, the Company and the Bank are required to meet a capital conservation buffer of common equity Tier 1 capital in addition to the minimum common equity Tier 1 capital ratio. The capital conservation buffer is set at a ratio of 2.5% common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets, which sits “on top” of the 4.5% minimum common equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets ratio. Common equity Tier 1 capital is predominantly composed of retained earnings and common stock instruments (that meet strict delineated criteria), net of treasury stock, and after making necessary capital deductions and adjustments. Tier 1 capital is composed of common equity Tier 1 capital plus Additional Tier 1 capital, which consists of noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and similar instruments meeting specified eligibility criteria and “TARP” preferred stock and other instruments issued under the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008. Total capital is composed of Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital, which consists of subordinated debt with a minimum original maturity of at least five years and a limited amount of loan loss reserves.

At December 31, 2020, the Company's risk-based capital ratios, as calculated under applicable capital standards were 12.15%  common equity Tier 1 capital to risk weighted assets, 12.15% Tier 1 capital to risk weighted assets, and 13.39% total capital to risk weighted assets.

In addition, the Federal Reserve has established minimum leverage ratio guidelines for bank holding companies. These guidelines provide for a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to average total on-balance sheet assets, less goodwill and certain other intangible assets, of 4% for bank holding companies. The Company’s ratio at December 31, 2020 was 8.40% compared to 10.65% at December 31, 2019. The guidelines also provide that bank holding companies experiencing internal growth or making acquisitions will be expected to maintain strong capital positions substantially above the minimum supervisory levels without significant reliance on intangible assets. Furthermore, the Federal Reserve has indicated that it will consider a “tangible Tier 1 Capital leverage ratio” and other indications of capital strength in evaluating proposals for expansion or new activities.

Failure to meet capital guidelines could subject a bank to a variety of enforcement remedies, including issuance of a capital directive, the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC, a prohibition on taking brokered deposits and certain other restrictions on its business. As described below, the FDIC can impose substantial additional restrictions upon FDIC-insured depository institutions that fail to meet applicable capital requirements.

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Prompt Corrective Action.  The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, or FDI Act, requires the federal bank regulatory agencies to take “prompt corrective action” if a depository institution does not meet minimum capital requirements. The FDI Act establishes five capital tiers: “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized” and “critically undercapitalized.” A depository institution’s capital tier will depend upon how its capital levels compare to various relevant capital measures and certain other factors, as established by regulation.

An institution may be downgraded to, or deemed to be in, a capital category that is lower than is indicated by its capital ratios if it is determined to be in an unsafe or unsound condition or if it receives an unsatisfactory examination rating with respect to certain matters. As of December 31, 2020, Live Oak Bank had capital levels that qualify as “well capitalized” under the applicable regulations.

The FDI Act generally prohibits an FDIC-insured bank from making a capital distribution (including payment of a dividend) or paying any management fee to its holding company if the bank is or would thereafter be “undercapitalized.” “Undercapitalized” banks are subject to growth limitations and are required to submit a capital restoration plan. The federal regulators may not accept a capital restoration plan without determining, among other things, that the plan is based on realistic assumptions and is likely to succeed in restoring the bank’s capital. In addition, for a capital restoration plan to be acceptable, the bank’s parent holding company must guarantee that the institution will comply with such capital restoration plan until the institution has been adequately capitalized on average during each of four consecutive calendar quarters. The aggregate liability of the parent holding company under such guaranty is limited to the lesser of: (i) an amount equal to 5% of the bank’s total assets at the time it became “undercapitalized”; and (ii) the amount which is necessary (or would have been necessary) to bring the institution into compliance with all capital standards applicable with respect to such institution as of the time it fails to comply with the plan. If a bank fails to submit an acceptable plan, it is treated as if it is “significantly undercapitalized.”

“Significantly undercapitalized” insured banks may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become “adequately capitalized,” requirements to reduce total assets, cease receipt of deposits from correspondent banks, or dismiss directors or officers, and restrictions on interest rates paid on deposits, compensation of executive officers, and capital distributions by the parent holding company. “Critically undercapitalized” institutions are subject to the appointment of a receiver or conservator, may not make any payment of principal or interest on certain subordinated debt, extend credit for a highly leveraged transaction, or enter into any material transaction outside the ordinary course of business.

A bank that is not “well capitalized” is also subject to certain limitations relating to brokered deposits. If a bank is not well-capitalized, it cannot accept brokered deposits without prior FDIC approval. Even if approved, rate restrictions will govern the rate the institution may pay on the brokered deposits. In addition, a bank that is less than well-capitalized generally cannot offer an effective yield in excess of 75 basis points over the “national rate” (as defined below) paid on deposits (including brokered deposits, if approval is granted for the bank to accept them) of comparable size and maturity. The “national rate” is defined as a simple average of rates paid by insured depository institutions and branches for which data are available and is published weekly by the FDIC. Institutions subject to the restrictions that believe they are operating in an area where the rates paid on deposits are higher than the “national rate” can use the local market to determine the prevailing rate if they seek and receive a determination from the FDIC that it is operating in a high rate area. Regardless of the determination, institutions must use the national rate to determine conformance for all deposits outside their market area.

Basel III.  The regulatory capital framework under which the Company and Live Oak Bank operate changed in significant respects as a result of the Dodd-Frank Act and other regulations, including the separate regulatory capital requirements put forth by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, commonly known “Basel III.”

In July 2013, the Federal Reserve, FDIC and Office of the Comptroller of the Currency approved final rules that established an integrated regulatory capital framework that addressed shortcomings in certain capital requirements. The rules implemented in the United States the Basel III regulatory capital reforms from the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and certain changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act. These rules have applied to the Company since 2015.  Compliance by the Company and the Bank with these capital requirements affects their respective operations by increasing the amount of capital required to conduct operations.

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Community Bank Leverage Ratio.  As discussed below, in 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (“EGRRCPA”) became law, which directed the federal banking agencies to develop a community bank leverage ratio (“CBLR”) of not less than 8 percent and not more than 10 percent for qualifying community banking organizations.  EGRRCPA defines a qualifying community banking organization as a depository institution or depository institution holding company with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion, which would include the Company and the Bank.  A qualifying community banking organization that exceeds the CBLR level established by the agencies is considered to have met: (i) the generally applicable leverage and risk-based capital requirements under the agencies’ capital rule; (ii) the capital ratio requirements in order to be considered well capitalized under the agencies’ prompt corrective action framework (in the case of insured depository institutions); and (iii) any other applicable capital or leverage requirements.  Section 201 of EGRRCPA defines the CBLR as the ratio of a banking organization’s CBLR tangible equity to its average total consolidated assets, both as reported on the banking organization’s applicable regulatory filing.  

In 2019, the FDIC passed a final rule on the CBLR, setting the minimum required CBLR at 9 percent.  The rule went into effect in 2020.  Under the final rule, a qualifying community banking organization may elect to use the CBLR framework if its CBLR is greater than 9 percent.  A qualifying community banking organization that has chosen the proposed framework is not required to calculate the existing risk-based and leverage capital requirements.  A bank is also considered to have met the capital ratio requirements to be well capitalized for the agencies’ prompt corrective action rules provided it has a CBLR greater than 9 percent.  The Company has not elected to implement the CBLR framework at this time.

Acquisitions

The Company must comply with numerous laws related to any potential acquisition activity. Under the BHCA, a bank holding company may not directly or indirectly acquire ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares or substantially all of the assets of any bank or merge or consolidate with another bank holding company without the prior approval of the Federal Reserve. The acquisition of non-banking companies is also regulated by the Federal Reserve. Current federal law authorizes interstate acquisitions of banks and bank holding companies without geographic limitation. Furthermore, a bank headquartered in one state is authorized to merge with a bank headquartered in another state, as long as neither of the states has opted out of such interstate merger authority prior to such date, and subject to any state requirement that the target bank shall have been in existence and operating for a minimum period of time, not to exceed five years, and to certain deposit market-share limitations. After a bank has established branches in a state through an interstate merger transaction, the bank may establish and acquire additional branches at any location in the state where a bank headquartered in that state could have established or acquired branches under applicable federal or state law. Additionally, under the Dodd-Frank Act, banks are permitted to open a de novo branch in any state if that state would permit a bank organized in that state to open a branch.

Restrictions on Affiliate Transactions

Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act establish parameters for a bank to conduct “covered transactions” with its affiliates, with the objective of limiting risk to the insured bank. Generally, Sections 23A and 23B (i) limit the extent to which the bank or its subsidiaries may engage in “covered transactions” with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10% of such bank’s capital stock and surplus, and limit the aggregate of all such transactions with all affiliates to an amount equal to 20% of such capital stock and surplus and (ii) require that all such transactions be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable, to the bank or subsidiary as those that would be provided to a non-affiliate. The term “covered transaction” includes the making of loans to the affiliate, purchase of assets from the affiliate, issuance of a guaranty on behalf of the affiliate and several other types of transactions.

The Dodd-Frank Act imposed additional restrictions on transactions between affiliates by amending these two sections of the Federal Reserve Act. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, restrictions on transactions with affiliates are enhanced by (i) including among “covered transactions” transactions between bank and affiliate-advised investment funds; (ii) including among “covered transactions” transactions between a bank and an affiliate with respect to securities repurchase agreements and derivatives transactions; (iii) adopting stricter collateral rules; and (iv) imposing tighter restrictions on transactions between banks and their financial subsidiaries.

FDIC Insurance Assessments

The Bank’s deposits are insured by the FDIC.  The standard FDIC insurance coverage amount is $250,000 per depositor.  The FDIC maintains its Deposit Insurance Fund, or DIF, for the purposes of (1) insuring the deposits and protecting the depositors of insured banks and (2) resolving failed banks.  The DIF is funded mainly through quarterly assessments on insured banks, but also receives interest income on securities.  The DIF is reduced by loss provisions associated with failed banks and by FDIC operating expenses.  

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The FDIC imposes a risk-based deposit insurance premium assessment on member institutions in order to maintain the DIF.  The assessment rates for an insured depository institution vary according to the level of risk incurred in its activities, which for established small institutions like the Bank (i.e., those institutions with less than $10 billion in assets and insured for five years or more), is generally determined by reference to the institution’s supervisory ratings.  The assessment rate schedule can change from time to time, at the discretion of the FDIC, subject to certain limits. Live Oak Bank’s insurance assessments during 2020 and 2019 were $7.5 million and $3.4 million, respectively. The FDIC may terminate insurance of deposits upon a finding that an institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC.

The Dodd-Frank Act expanded the base for FDIC insurance assessments, requiring that assessments be based on the average consolidated total assets less tangible equity capital of a financial institution. In 2011, the FDIC approved a final rule to implement the foregoing provision of the Dodd-Frank Act. Among other things, the final rule revised the assessment rate schedule to provide initial base assessment rates ranging from 5 to 35 basis points, subject to adjustments which could increase or decrease the total base assessment rates. The FDIC has three possible adjustments to an institution’s initial base assessment rate: (1) a decrease of up to five basis points (or 50% of the initial base assessment rate) for long-term unsecured debt, including senior unsecured debt (other than debt guaranteed under the Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program) and subordinated debt; (2) an increase for holding long-term unsecured or subordinated debt issued by other insured depository institutions known as the Depository Institution Debt Adjustment; and (3) for institutions not well rated and well capitalized, an increase not to exceed 10 basis points for brokered deposits in excess of 10 percent of domestic deposits.

The law also gives the FDIC enhanced discretion to set assessment rate levels.  A significant increase in insurance premiums would likely have an adverse effect on the operating expenses and results of operations of the Company and the Bank.  Management cannot predict what insurance assessment rates will be in the future.  

Privacy

Financial institutions are required by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 to disclose their policies for collecting and protecting confidential customer information. Customers generally may prevent financial institutions from sharing personal financial information with nonaffiliated third parties except for third parties that market the institutions’ own products and services. Additionally, financial institutions generally may not disclose consumer account numbers to any nonaffiliated third party for use in telemarketing, direct mail marketing or other marketing through electronic mail to consumers. The Bank has established a privacy policy that it believes promotes compliance with these federal requirements. In addition, certain state laws could potentially impact the Bank’s operations, including those related to applicable notification requirements when unauthorized access to customers’ nonpublic personal information has occurred.

Federal Home Loan Bank System

The Federal Home Loan Bank, or FHLB, System consists of 12 district FHLBs subject to supervision and regulation by the Federal Housing Finance Agency, or FHFA.  The FHLBs provide a central credit facility primarily for member institutions.  As a member of the FHLB of Atlanta, the Bank is required to acquire and hold shares of capital stock in the FHLB of Atlanta. The Bank was in compliance with this requirement with investment in FHLB of Atlanta stock of $4.3 million at December 31, 2020. The FHLB of Atlanta serves as a reserve or central bank for its member institutions within its assigned district. It is funded primarily from proceeds derived from the sale of consolidated obligations of the FHLB System. It offers advances to members in accordance with policies and procedures established by the FHFA and the Board of Directors of the FHLB of Atlanta.  Long-term advances may only be made for the purpose of providing funds for residential housing finance, small businesses, small farms and small agribusinesses.

Community Reinvestment Act

The Community Reinvestment Act requires federal bank regulatory agencies to encourage financial institutions to meet the credit needs of low and moderate-income borrowers in their local communities. An institution’s size and business strategy determines the type of examination that it will receive. Large, retail-oriented institutions are examined using a performance-based lending, investment and service test. Small institutions are examined using a streamlined approach. All institutions may opt to be evaluated under a strategic plan formulated with community input and pre-approved by the bank regulatory agency.

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The Community Reinvestment Act regulations provide for certain disclosure obligations. Each institution must post a notice advising the public of its right to comment to the institution and its regulator on the institution’s Community Reinvestment Act performance and to review the institution’s Community Reinvestment Act public file. Each lending institution must maintain for public inspection a file that includes a listing of branch locations and services, a summary of lending activity, a map of its communities and any written comments from the public on its performance in meeting community credit needs. The Community Reinvestment Act requires public disclosure of the regulators’ written Community Reinvestment Act evaluations of financial institutions. This promotes enforcement of Community Reinvestment Act requirements by providing the public with the status of a particular institution’s community reinvestment record.

The Community Reinvestment Act agreements with private parties must be disclosed and annual Community Reinvestment Act reports relating to such agreements must be made available to a bank’s primary federal regulator. A bank holding company will not be permitted to become a financial holding company and no new activities authorized under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act may be commenced by a holding company or by a bank financial subsidiary if any of its bank subsidiaries received less than a satisfactory Community Reinvestment Act rating in its latest Community Reinvestment Act examination.

The Volcker Rule

Under provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act referred to as the “Volcker Rule,” certain limitations are placed on the ability of insured depository institutions and their affiliates to engage in sponsoring, investing in and transacting with certain investment funds, including hedge funds and private equity funds. The Volcker Rule also places restrictions on proprietary trading, which could impact certain hedging activities. The Volcker Rule became fully effective in 2015, and banking entities had until 2017, to divest certain legacy investments in covered funds.  The Federal Reserve, Office of the Comptroller of Currency, FDIC, SEC, and Commodity Futures Trading Commission finalized amendments to the Volcker Rule in 2019, which relate primarily to the Volcker Rule’s proprietary trading and compliance program requirements.  These amendments to the Volcker Rule became effective in 2020, with compliance required by January 1, 2021. The amendments do not change the Volcker Rule’s general prohibitions, but they offer certain clarifications and a simplified approach to compliance. In June 2020, the agencies finalized further amendments to the Volcker Rule's funds provisions, which clarify key definitions and add new, and modify certain existing, exclusions from the definition of covered fund. Further, pursuant to EGRRCPA enacted in 2018 and discussed below, community banks are excluded from the restrictions of the Volcker Rule if (i) the community bank, and every entity that controls it, has total consolidated assets equal to or less than $10 billion and (ii) trading assets and liabilities of the community bank, and every entity that controls it, are equal to or less than five percent of its total consolidated assets.  The Company and Live Oak Bank are currently below these thresholds and thus exempt from the Volcker Rule.

USA PATRIOT Act

The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, or the USA PATRIOT Act, required each financial institution: (i) to establish an anti-money laundering program; (ii) to establish due diligence policies, procedures and controls with respect to its private banking accounts involving foreign individuals and certain foreign banks; and (iii) to avoid establishing, maintaining, administering or managing correspondent accounts in the United States for, or on behalf of, foreign banks that do not have a physical presence in any country. The USA PATRIOT Act also required the Secretary of the Treasury to prescribe by regulation minimum standards that financial institutions must follow to verify the identity of customers, both foreign and domestic, when a customer opens an account. In addition, the USA PATRIOT Act encouraged cooperation among financial institutions, regulatory authorities and law enforcement authorities with respect to individuals, entities and organizations engaged in, or reasonably suspected of engaging in, terrorist acts or money laundering activities.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Sarbanes-Oxley, mandated for public companies, such as the Company, a variety of reforms intended to address corporate and accounting fraud and provided for the establishment of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, which enforces auditing, quality control and independence standards for firms that audit SEC-reporting companies. Sarbanes-Oxley imposed higher standards for auditor independence and restricted the provision of consulting services by auditing firms to companies they audit and requires that certain audit partners be rotated periodically. It also requires chief executive officers and chief financial officers, or their equivalents, to certify the accuracy of periodic reports filed with the SEC, subject to civil and criminal penalties if they knowingly or willfully violate this certification requirement, and increases the oversight and authority of audit committees of publicly traded companies.

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Fiscal and Monetary Policy

Banking is a business which depends on interest rate differentials for success. In general, the difference between the interest paid by a bank on its deposits and its other borrowings, and the interest received by a bank on its loans and securities holdings, constitutes a significant portion of a bank’s earnings. Thus, the Company's earnings and growth will be subject to the influence of economic conditions generally, both domestic and foreign, and also to the monetary and fiscal policies of the United States and its agencies, particularly the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve regulates the supply of money through various means, including open market dealings in United States government securities, the discount rate at which banks may borrow from the Federal Reserve and the reserve requirements on deposits. The nature and timing of any changes in such policies and their effect on the Company's business and results of operations cannot be predicted.

Current and future legislation and the policies established by federal and state regulatory authorities will affect the Company's future operations. Banking legislation and regulations may limit the Company's growth and the return to its investors by restricting certain of its activities.

In addition, capital requirements could be changed and have the effect of restricting the activities of the Company or requiring additional capital to be maintained. The Company cannot predict with certainty what changes, if any, will be made to existing federal and state legislation and regulations or the effect that such changes may have on the Company's business and results of operations.

Real Estate Lending Evaluations

The federal regulators have adopted uniform standards for evaluations of loans secured by real estate or made to finance improvements to real estate. Banks are required to establish and maintain written internal real estate lending policies consistent with safe and sound banking practices and appropriate to the size of the institution and the nature and scope of its operations. The regulations establish loan-to-value ratio limitations on real estate loans. Live Oak Bank’s respective loan policies establish limits on loan to value ratios that are equal to or less than those established in such regulations.

Commercial Real Estate Concentrations

Lending operations of commercial banks may be subject to enhanced scrutiny by federal banking regulators based on a bank’s concentration of commercial real estate, or CRE, loans. The federal banking regulators have issued guidance to remind financial institutions of the risk posed by commercial real estate, or CRE, lending concentrations. CRE loans generally include land development, construction loans, and loans secured by multifamily property, and nonfarm, nonresidential real property where the primary source of repayment is derived from rental income associated with the property. The guidance prescribes the following guidelines for bank examiners to help identify institutions that are potentially exposed to significant CRE risk and may warrant greater supervisory scrutiny:

 

total reported loans for construction, land development and other land, or C&D, represent 100% or more of the institution’s total capital; or

 

total CRE loans represent 300% or more of the institution’s total capital, and the outstanding balance of the institution’s CRE loan portfolio has increased over 50% or more during the prior 36 months.

As of December 31, 2020, the Bank's C&D concentration as a percentage of bank capital totaled 88.7% and the Bank's CRE concentration, net of owner-occupied loans, as a percentage of capital totaled 96.7%.

Limitations on Incentive Compensation

In 2009, the Federal Reserve issued proposed guidance designed to help ensure that incentive compensation policies at banking organizations do not encourage excessive risk-taking or undermine the safety and soundness of the organization. In connection with the proposed guidance, the Federal Reserve announced that it would review incentive compensation arrangements of bank holding companies such as the Company as part of the regular, risk-focused supervisory process.

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In 2010, the Federal Reserve issued the incentive compensation guidance in final form and was joined by the FDIC, and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. The final guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an organization, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a banking organization’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide employees incentives that appropriately balance risk and reward and, thus, do not encourage risk-taking beyond the organization’s ability to effectively identify and manage risks, (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management, and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors. Any deficiencies in compensation practices that are identified may be incorporated into the organization’s supervisory ratings, which can affect its ability to make acquisitions or perform other actions. The guidance provides that enforcement actions may be taken against a banking organization if its incentive compensation arrangements or related risk-management control or governance processes pose a risk to the organization’s safety and soundness and the organization is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies.

While the Dodd-Frank Act contemplated additional regulatory action to be taken related to incentive compensation, the administrative agencies have not yet adopted the contemplated regulations.

Registered Investment Adviser Regulation

LOPW and JAM are registered investment advisers under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and the SEC’s regulations promulgated thereunder. The Investment Advisers Act imposes numerous obligations on registered investment advisers, including fiduciary, recordkeeping, operational, and disclosure obligations. Supervisory agencies have the power to limit or restrict LOPW and JAM from conducting their business in the event they fail to comply with such laws and regulations. Possible sanctions that may be imposed in the event of such noncompliance include the suspension of individual employees, limitations on business activities for specified periods of time, revocation of registration as an investment adviser and/or other registrations, and other censures and fines. Changes in these laws or regulations could have a material adverse impact on the profitability and mode of operations of LOPW and JAM.

Economic Environment

The policies of regulatory authorities, including the monetary policy of the Federal Reserve, have a significant effect on the operating results of bank holding companies and their subsidiaries. Among the means available to the Federal Reserve to affect the money supply are open market operations in U.S. government securities, changes in the discount rate on member bank borrowings and changes in reserve requirements against member bank deposits. These means are used in varying combinations to influence overall growth and distribution of bank loans, investments and deposits, and their use may affect interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits. The Federal Reserve’s monetary policies have materially affected the operating results of commercial banks in the past and are expected to continue to do so in the future. The nature of future monetary policies and the effect of these policies on the Company's business and earnings cannot be predicted.

Dodd-Frank Act

The Dodd-Frank Act was signed into law in 2010 and implemented many changes in the way financial and banking operations are regulated in the United States, including through the creation of a new resolution authority, mandating higher capital and liquidity requirements, requiring banks to pay increased fees to regulatory agencies and numerous other provisions intended to strengthen the financial services sector. Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the Financial Stability Oversight Council, or the FSOC, was created and is charged with overseeing and coordinating the efforts of the primary U.S. financial regulatory agencies (including the Federal Reserve, the FDIC and the SEC) in establishing regulations to address systemic financial stability concerns. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, or the CFPB, was also created as a new consumer financial services regulator. The CFPB is authorized to prevent unfair, deceptive and abusive practices and ensure that consumers have access to markets for consumer financial products and services and that such markets are fair, transparent and competitive.

Federal and State Taxation

The Company and its subsidiaries file a consolidated federal income tax return and separate state income tax returns in North Carolina. All the returns are filed on a calendar year basis. Consolidated income tax returns have the effect of eliminating intercompany income and expense, including dividends, from the computation of consolidated taxable income for the taxable year in which the items occur. In accordance with an income tax sharing agreement, income tax charges or credits are allocated among Live Oak and its subsidiaries on the basis of their respective taxable income or taxable loss that is included in the consolidated income tax return.

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Banks and bank holding companies are subject to federal and state income taxes in essentially the same manner as other corporations. Taxable income is generally calculated under applicable sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), with some modifications required by state law and the 2017 tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act").  Although Live Oak’s federal income tax liability is determined under provisions of the Code, which is applicable to all taxpayers, Sections 581 through 597 of the Code apply specifically to financial institutions.

Among other things, the new Tax Act (i) established a new, flat corporate federal statutory income tax rate of 21%, (ii) eliminates the corporate alternative minimum tax and allowed the use of any such carryforwards to offset regular tax liability for any taxable year, (iii) limited the deduction for net interest expense incurred by U.S. corporations, (iv) allowed businesses to immediately expense, for tax purposes, the cost of new investments in certain qualified depreciable assets, (v) eliminated or reduced certain deductions related to meals and entertainment expenses, (vi) modified the limitation on excessive employee remuneration to eliminate the exception for performance-based compensation and clarified the definition of a covered employee and (vii) limited the deductibility of deposit insurance premiums. The Tax Act also significantly changed U.S. tax law related to foreign operations, however, such changes do not currently impact the Company. Management continues to explore investments which generate investment tax credits and as a result there can be no assurance as to the actual effective rate because it will be dependent upon the nature and amount of future income and expenses as well as actual investments generating investment tax credits and transactions with discrete tax effects.

Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act  

In 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (“EGRRCPA”) was signed into law, which amended provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and was intended to ease, and better tailor, regulation, particularly with respect to smaller-sized institutions such as the Company.  EGRRCPA’s highlights included, among other things: (i) exempting banks with less than $10 billion in assets from the ability-to-repay requirements for certain qualified residential mortgage loans held in portfolio; (ii) not requiring appraisals for certain transactions valued at less than $400,000 in rural areas; (iii) clarifying that, subject to various conditions, reciprocal deposits of another depository institution obtained using a deposit broker through a deposit placement network for purposes of obtaining maximum deposit insurance would not be considered brokered deposits subject to the FDIC’s brokered-deposit regulations; (iv) raising eligibility for the 18-month exam cycle from $1 billion to banks with $3 billion in assets; and (v) simplifying capital calculations by requiring regulators to establish for institutions under $10 billion in assets a community bank leverage ratio (tangible equity to average consolidated assets) at a percentage not less than 8% and not greater than 10% that such institutions may elect to replace the general applicable risk-based capital requirements for determining well capitalized status. In 2019, the FDIC passed a final rule on the community bank leverage ratio, setting the minimum required community bank leverage ratio at 9 percent.  The rule went into effect in 2020.  In addition, the Federal Reserve was required to raise the asset threshold under its Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement from $1 billion to $3 billion for bank or savings and loan holding companies that are exempt from consolidated capital requirements, provided that such companies meet certain other conditions such as not engaging in significant nonbanking activities and not having a material amount of debt or equity securities outstanding (other than trust preferred securities) that are registered with the SEC.  Consistent with EGRRCPA, the Federal Reserve passed an interim final rule that became effective in 2018 to increase the asset threshold to $3 billion for qualifying for such policy statement.

 

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act