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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2024

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Graphic

Commission file number: 001-36437

Dorian LPG Ltd.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Marshall Islands

66-0818228

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

27 Signal Road, Stamford, CT

06902

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (203) 674-9900

SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:

Title of Each Class

    

Trading Symbol

    

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common stock, par value $0.01 per share

LPG

New York Stock Exchange

SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No     

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T

(§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No     

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates, based upon the closing price of common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange as of September 30, 2023, was approximately $1,166,664,737. For this purpose, all outstanding shares of common stock have been considered held by non-affiliates, other than the shares beneficially owned by directors, officers and shareholders of 10% or more of the registrant’s outstanding common shares, without conceding that any of the excluded parties are "affiliates" of the registrant for purposes of the federal securities laws. As of May 23, 2024, there were 40,619,448 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I.

    

ITEM 1.

BUSINESS

1

ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORS

30

ITEM 1B.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

63

ITEM 1C.

CYBERSECURITY

63

ITEM 2.

PROPERTIES

65

ITEM 3.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

65

ITEM 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

65

PART II.

ITEM 5.

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

66

ITEM 6.

RESERVED

68

ITEM 7.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

69

ITEM 7A.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

83

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

84

ITEM 9.

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

84

ITEM 9A.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

84

ITEM 9B.

OTHER INFORMATION

85

ITEM 9C.

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTION

85

PART III.

ITEM 10.

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

86

ITEM 11.

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

86

ITEM 12.

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDERS MATTERS

86

ITEM 13.

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

86

ITEM 14.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

86

PART IV.

ITEM 15.

EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

87

ITEM 16.

FORM 10-K SUMMARY

87

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (the “PSLRA”), including analyses and other information based on forecasts of future results and estimates of amounts not yet determinable and statements relating to our future prospects, developments and business strategies. We intend for these forward-looking statements are intended to be covered by the safe harbor provided for under the sections referenced in the immediately preceding sentence and the PSLRA. Forward-looking statements are identified by their use of terms and phrases such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “might,” “pending,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seeks,” “should,” “targets,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions, terms and phrases, including references to assumptions.

The forward-looking statements in this report are based upon various assumptions, many of which are based, in turn, upon further assumptions. These assumptions include, without limitation, management’s examination of historical operating trends, data contained in our records and other data available from third parties. Although we believe that these assumptions were reasonable when made, because these assumptions are inherently subject to significant uncertainties and contingencies that are difficult or impossible to predict and are beyond our control, we cannot assure you that we will achieve or accomplish these expectations, beliefs or projections.

In addition to important factors and matters discussed elsewhere in this report, and in the documents incorporated by reference herein, important factors that, in our view, could cause our actual results to differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements include:

our future operating or financial results;

our business strategies, including with respect to acquisitions and chartering, and expected capital spending or operating expenses, as well as any difficulty we may have in managing planned growth properly;

the strength of world economies;

shipping trends, including changes in charter rates applicable to alternative propulsion technologies, exhaust gas cleaning system (commonly referred to as “scrubbers”) equipped and non-scrubber equipped vessels, scrapping rates and vessel and other asset values;

changes in trading patterns that impact tonnage requirements, including without limitation, changes resulting from the ongoing conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East, including the recent vessel attacks in the Red Sea, which has resulted in companies re-routing vessels around the Cape of Good Hope rather than transiting through the Suez Canal and/or the Red Sea;

compliance with laws, treaties, rules, regulations and policies (including amendments or other changes thereto) applicable to the liquefied petroleum gas, or LPG, shipping industry, including, without limitation, legislation adopted by international organizations such as the International Maritime Organization and the European Union or by individual countries, as well as the impact and costs of our compliance with, and the potential of liability under, such laws, treaties, rules, regulations and policies;

investors’, banks’, counterparties’ and other stakeholders’ increasing emphasis on environmental and safety concerns and increasing scrutiny and changing expectations with respect to public company Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) policies and costs related to compliance with ESG measures;

general economic conditions and specific economic conditions in the oil and natural gas industry and the countries and regions where LPG is produced and consumed, including the impact of central bank policies, intended to combat inflation and rising interest rates, on the demand for LPG;

completion of infrastructure projects to support marine transportation of LPG, including export terminals and pipelines;

factors affecting supply of and demand for LPG including propane, butane, isobutane, propylene and mixtures of these gases, LPG shipping, and LPG vessels, including, among other things: the production levels, price and worldwide consumption and storage of oil, refined petroleum products and natural gas, including production from United States shale fields; any oversupply of or limited demand for LPG vessels comparable to ours or higher specification vessels; trade conflicts and the imposition of tariffs or otherwise on LPG resulting from domestic and international political and geopolitical conditions or events, including “trade wars”, the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the developments in the Middle East, including the armed conflict in Israel and Gaza and the related Houthi's vessel attacks in the Red Sea; and shifts in consumer demand from LPG towards other energy sources;

any decrease in the value of the charter-free market values of our vessels or reduction in our charter hire rates and profitability associated with such vessels as a result of increase in the supply of or decrease in the demand for LPG, LPG shipping or LPG vessels;

business disruptions, including supply chain issues, due to damage to storage or receiving facilities, or natural disasters;

greater than anticipated levels of LPG vessel newbuilding orders or lower than anticipated rates of LPG vessel scrapping;

the aging of the Company’s fleet which could result in increased operating costs, impairment or loss of hire;

our ability to profitably employ our vessels, including vessels participating in the Helios Pool (defined below);

unavailability of spot charters and the volatility of prevailing spot market charter rates, which may affect our ability to realize the expected benefits from our time chartered-in vessels, including those in the Helios Pool;

failure of our charterers or other counterparties to meet their obligations under our charter agreements;

shareholders’ reliance on us to enforce our rights against contract counterparties;

competition in the LPG shipping industry, including our ability to compete successfully for future chartering opportunities and newbuilding opportunities (if any);

future purchase prices of newbuildings and secondhand vessels and timely deliveries of such vessels (if any) and, relatedly, the risks associated with the purchase of second-hand vessels;

the performance of the Helios Pool, including the failure of its significant customers to perform their obligations and the loss or reduction in business from its significant customers (or if the same were to occur with respect to our significant customers);

the availability of and our ability to obtain such financing and capital to refinance existing indebtedness and to fund capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes, the terms of such financing or capital and our ability to comply with the restrictions and other covenants set forth in our existing and future debt agreements and financing arrangements (and our ability to repay or refinance our existing debt and settling of interest rate swaps, if any);

our costs, including crew wages, insurance, provisions, repairs and maintenance, general and administrative expenses, drydocking, and bunker prices, as applicable;

any inability to retain and recruit qualified key executives, key employees, key consultants or skilled workers and, relatedly, our dependence on key personnel and the availability of skilled workers, and the related labor costs, including as a result of the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine;

the potential difference in interests between or among certain of our directors, officers, key executives and shareholders;

quality and efficiency requirements from customers and applicable laws and regulations and developments regarding the technologies relating to the LPG sector and the effects of and our ability to implement new products and new technology available in our industry, including with respect to equipment propulsion and overall vessel efficiency, including the reduction of traditional emissions;

potential new environmental regulations and restrictions in respect of decarbonization, whether at a global level stipulated by the International Maritime Organization, including the recently adopted strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in international shipping by the Marine Environment Protection Committee at its 80th session in July 2023, or imposed by regional or national authorities, affecting fuel costs, vessel speeds, equipment requirements or other alterations or adjustments, including the installation of Engine Power Limitation (EPL) systems, that could impose additional costs of operations on our business;

operating hazards in the maritime transportation industry, and catastrophic events, including accidents, political events, public health threats (including the outbreak of communicable diseases), international hostilities and instability, armed conflict, piracy, attacks on vessels or other petroleum-related infrastructures and acts by terrorists, which may cause potential disruption of shipping routes;

the length and severity of epidemics and other public health concerns, including any impact on the demand for commercial seaborne transportation of LPG, supply chain disruptions and the condition of financial markets and the potential associated impacts to our global operations;

business disruptions due to natural disasters or adverse weather outside of our control;

the adequacy of our insurance coverage in the event of a catastrophic event;

the failure to protect our information systems against security breaches, or the failure or unavailability of these systems for a significant period;

the arresting or attachment of one or more of our vessels by maritime claimants;

compliance with and changes to governmental, tax, environmental and safety laws and regulations, which may add to our costs or the costs of our customers;

fluctuations in currencies, foreign exchange rates, and interest rates including, but not limited to, the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”);

compliance with the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, the United Kingdom Bribery Act 2010, or other applicable regulations relating to bribery;

the volatility of the price of shares of our common stock (our “common shares”) and future sales of our common shares;

if we will or will be able to pay dividends (irregular or otherwise) in the future.

our incorporation under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the different rights to relief that may be available compared to other countries, including the United States;

congestion at or blockages of ports or canals, including drought conditions at the Panama Canal;

any developments in the existing Panama Canal transportation structure as a result of the study announced by the Panamanian government and Energy Transfer LP to analyze the prospects of building an LPG pipeline, potentially running beside the existing Panama Canal and linking the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean;

if we are required to pay tax on U.S. source income;

if we are treated as a “passive foreign investment company”; and

other factors detailed in this report and from time to time in our periodic reports.

Actual results could differ materially from expectations expressed in the forward-looking statements if one or more of the underlying assumptions or expectations proves to be inaccurate or is not realized. You should thoroughly read this report with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. Other sections of this report include additional factors that could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

We caution readers of this report not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statements contained herein are made only as of the date of this report, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

PART I

ITEM 1.  BUSINESS

Unless otherwise indicated, references to "Dorian," the "Company," "we," "our," "us," or similar terms refer to Dorian LPG Ltd. and its subsidiaries. We use the term "VLGC" to refer to very large gas carriers and “VLGC/AC” to refer to very large gas carriers that are purpose built to transport ammonia in addition to LPG. We use the term "LPG" to refer to liquefied petroleum gas and we use the term "cbm" to refer to cubic meters in describing the carrying capacity of our vessels. Unless otherwise indicated, all references to "U.S. dollars," "USD," and "$" in this report are to the lawful currency of the United States of America and references to "Norwegian Krone" and "NOK" are to the lawful currency of Norway.

Overview

Dorian was incorporated on July 1, 2013 under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, is headquartered in the United States and is engaged in the transportation of LPG. Specifically, Dorian and its subsidiaries are focused on owning and operating VLGCs in the LPG shipping industry. Our founding executives have managed vessels in the LPG shipping market since 2002. Our fleet currently consists of twenty-five VLGCs, including one dual-fuel 84,000 cbm ECO-design VLGC, or our Dual-fuel ECO VLGC; nineteen fuel-efficient 84,000 cbm ECO-design VLGCs, or our ECO VLGCs; one 82,000 cbm modern VLGC; three time chartered dual fuel Panamax size VLGCs; and one time chartered-in ECO VLGC. The twenty-five VLGCs in our fleet, including the four time chartered-in vessels, as of May 23, 2024, have an aggregate carrying capacity of approximately 2.1 million cbm and an average age of 7.9 years. Currently, fifteen of our ECO VLGCs, including one of our time chartered-in ECO-VLGCs, are fitted with scrubbers to reduce sulfur emissions. An additional technically managed VLGC has contractual commitments to be equipped with a scrubber with installation expected to be completed during our fiscal year ending March 31, 2025. Vessels fitted with scrubbers allow us to reduce our emissions and to burn less refined fuel, which is frequently cheaper than more refined, lower sulfur grades. When the cost of more refined fuel exceeds that of less refined fuel, we are typically able to earn a higher TCE for spot voyages and to potentially contract time charters at higher rates compared to vessels without scrubbers. On November 24, 2023, we entered into an agreement for a newbuilding Very Large Gas Carrier / Ammonia Carrier (“VLGC/AC”), with a cargo carrying capacity of 93,000 cbm that can transport LPG or ammonia and is expected to be delivered from Hanwha Ocean Co. Ltd. in the third calendar quarter of 2026. We provide in-house commercial services for all of our vessels, including our vessels deployed in the Helios Pool (defined below), which may also receive commercial management services from MOL Energia (defined below). Excluding our time chartered-in vessels, we provide in-house technical management services for all of our vessels, including our vessels deployed in the Helios Pool.

On April 1, 2015, we and MOL Energia Pte. Ltd. (“MOL Energia”), formerly known as Phoenix Tankers Pte. Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Mitsui OSK Lines Ltd., an unaffiliated third party, began operation of Helios LPG Pool LLC, (the “Helios Pool”), a joint venture owned 50% by us and 50% by MOL Energia. We believe that the operation of certain of our VLGCs in this pool allows us to achieve better market coverage and utilization. Vessels entered into the Helios Pool are commercially managed jointly by Dorian LPG (DK) ApS, our wholly-owned subsidiary, and MOL Energia. The members of the Helios Pool share in the net pool revenues generated by the entire group of vessels participating in the pool, weighted according to certain technical vessel characteristics, and net pool revenues are distributed as variable rate time charter hire to each participant. The vessels entered into the Helios Pool may operate either in the spot market, pursuant to contracts of affreightment, or COAs, or on time charters of two years' duration or less. We and MOL Energia have agreed that the Helios Pool will have a right of first refusal to undertake any time charter with an original duration greater than two years. As of May 23, 2024, the Helios Pool operated thirty VLGCs, including twenty-four vessels from our fleet, five MOL Energia vessels, and one time chartered-in vessel.

1

Our Fleet

The following table sets forth certain information regarding our fleet as of May 23, 2024:

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

 

Scrubber

Time

Capacity

ECO

Equipped

Charter-Out

 

(Cbm)

Shipyard

Year Built

Vessel(1)

or Dual-Fuel

Employment

Expiration(2)

 

Dorian VLGCs

Captain John NP

 

82,000

 

Hyundai

 

2007

 

 

 

Pool(4)

 

Comet

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2014

 

X

 

S

 

Pool(4)

 

Corsair(3)

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2014

 

X

 

S

 

Time Charter(6)

 

Q4 2024

Corvette

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2015

 

X

 

S

 

Pool(4)

 

Cougar(3)

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2015

 

X

 

 

Pool-TCO(5)

 

Q2 2025

Concorde

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2015

 

X

 

S

 

Pool(4)

 

Cobra

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2015

 

X

 

 

Pool(4)

 

Continental

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2015

 

X

 

 

Pool(4)

 

Constitution

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2015

 

X

 

S

 

Pool(4)

 

Commodore

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2015

 

X

 

 

Pool-TCO(5)

 

Q2 2027

Cresques(3)

 

84,000

 

Daewoo

 

2015

 

X

 

S

 

Pool-TCO(5)

 

Q2 2025

Constellation

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2015

 

X

 

S

 

Pool(4)

 

Cheyenne

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2015

 

X

 

S

 

Pool(4)

 

Clermont

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2015

 

X

 

S

 

Pool(4)

 

Cratis(3)

 

84,000

 

Daewoo

 

2015

 

X

 

S

 

Pool(4)

 

Chaparral(3)

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2015

 

X

 

 

Pool-TCO(5)

 

Q2 2025

Copernicus(3)

 

84,000

 

Daewoo

 

2015

 

X

 

S

 

Pool(4)

 

Commander

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2015

 

X

 

S

 

Pool(4)

 

Challenger

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2015

 

X

 

S

 

Pool-TCO(5)

Q3 2026

Caravelle(3)

 

84,000

 

Hyundai

 

2016

 

X

 

S

 

Pool(4)

 

Captain Markos(3)

 

84,000

 

Kawasaki

 

2023

 

X

 

DF

 

Pool(4)

 

Total

 

1,762,000

Time chartered-in VLGCs

Future Diamond(7)

80,876

Hyundai

2020

X

S

Pool(4)

 

HLS Citrine(8)

86,090

Hyundai

2023

X

DF

Pool(4)

 

HLS Diamond(9)

86,090

Hyundai

2023

X

DF

Pool(4)

 

Cristobal(10)

86,980

Hyundai

2023

X

DF

Pool(4)

 

(1)Represents vessels with very low revolutions per minute, long-stroke, electronically controlled engines, larger propellers, advanced hull design, and low friction paint.

(2)Represents calendar year quarters.

(3)Operated pursuant to a bareboat chartering agreement. See Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements.

(4)“Pool” indicates that the vessel operates in the Helios Pool on a voyage charter with a third party and we receive a portion of the pool profits calculated according to a formula based on the vessel’s pro rata performance in the pool.

(5)“Pool-TCO” indicates that the vessel is operated in the Helios Pool on a time charter out to a third party and we receive a portion of the pool profits calculated according to a formula based on the vessel’s pro rata performance in the pool.

(6)Currently on a time charter with an oil major that began in November 2019.

(7)Currently time chartered-in to our fleet with an expiration during the first calendar quarter of 2025.

(8)Vessel has a Panamax beam and is currently time chartered-in to our fleet with an expiration during the first calendar quarter of 2030 and purchase options beginning in year seven.

(9)Vessel has a Panamax beam and is currently time chartered-in to our fleet with an expiration during the first calendar quarter of 2030 and purchase options beginning in year seven.

(10)Vessel has a Panamax beam and shaft generator and is currently time chartered-in to our fleet with an expiration during the third calendar quarter of 2030 and purchase options beginning in year seven.

2

The LPG Shipping Industry

International seaborne LPG transportation services are generally provided by two types of operators: LPG distributors and traders and independent shipowners. Traditionally the main trading route in our industry has been the transport of LPG from the Arabian Gulf to Asia. With the emergence of the United States as a major LPG export hub, the United States Gulf to Asia and United States to Europe have become important trade routes. Vessels are generally operated under time charters, bareboat charters, spot charters, or COAs. LPG distributors and traders use their fleets not only to transport their own LPG, but also to transport LPG for third-party charterers in direct competition with independent owners and operators in the tanker charter market. We operate in markets that are highly competitive and based primarily on supply and demand of available vessels. Generally, we compete for charters based upon charter rate, customer relationships, operating expertise, professional reputation and vessel specifications (size, age and condition). We also believe that our in-house technical and commercial management allows us to provide superior customer service and reliability that enhances our relationships with our charterers. Our industry is subject to strict environmental regulation, including the treatment of ballast water and greenhouse gas emissions regulations, and we believe our modern, ECO-class fleet and our high level of crew training and vessel maintenance make us a preferred provider of VLGC tonnage. For more information with respect to the aforementioned environmental regulations, please see “Item 1. Business—Environmental and Other Regulation in the Shipping Industry.”

Our Customers

Our customers, either directly or through the Helios Pool, include or have included global energy companies such as Exxon Mobil Corp., Chevron Corp., China International United Petroleum & Chemicals Co., Ltd., Royal Dutch Shell plc, Equinor ASA, Total S.A., and Sunoco LP, commodity traders such as Glencore plc, Itochu Corporation, Bayegan Group, Gunvor Group, and the Vitol Group and importers such as E1 Corp., Indian Oil Corporation, SK Gas Co. Ltd., and Astomos Energy Corporation, or subsidiaries of the foregoing. See “Item 7. Management Discussion and Analysis—Overview” for a discussion of our customers that accounted for more than 10% of our total revenues and “Item 1A. Risk Factors—We expect to be dependent on a limited number of customers for a material part of our revenues, and failure of such customers to meet their obligations could cause us to suffer losses or negatively impact our results of operations and cash flows.” For the years ended March 31, 2024, 2023 and 2022 approximately 95%, 94% and 90% of our revenues, respectively, were generated through the Helios Pool as net pool revenues—related party. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—We and the Helios Pool operate exclusively in the VLGC segment of the LPG shipping industry. Due to the general lack of industry diversification, adverse developments in the LPG shipping industry may adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.”

We intend to continue to pursue a balanced chartering strategy by employing our vessels on a mix of multi-year time charters, some of which may include a profit-sharing component, shorter-term time charters, spot market voyages and COAs. One of our vessels is currently on a fixed time charter outside of the Helios Pool with an approximate remaining term of 0.5 years as of May 23, 2024, and five of our VLGCs are on Pool-TCO within the Helios Pool. See “Our Fleet” above for more information.

Further, each of our vessels serves the same type of customer, has similar operations and maintenance requirements, and operates in the same regulatory environment. Based on this, we have determined that we operate in one reportable segment, the international transportation of LPG. Furthermore, when we charter a vessel to a charterer, the charterer is free to trade the vessel worldwide (subject to applicable laws and sanctions regimes) and, as a result, the disclosure of geographic information is impracticable.

Competition

LPG carrier capacity is primarily a function of the size of the existing world fleet, the number of newbuildings being delivered and the scrapping of older vessels. According to industry sources, in the VLGC sector in which we operate as of May 22, 2024, there were 388 vessels with an aggregate carrying capacity of 32.4 million cbm in the world fleet and 85 vessels (including 41 Ammonia carriers) with 7.6 million cbm of capacity on order for delivery by the end of 2028.

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Our largest competitors for VLGC shipping services include BW LPG Ltd., or BWLPG; Avance Gas Holding Ltd., or Avance; and Petredec Pte. Ltd., or Petredec. According to industry sources, there were approximately 106 owners in the worldwide VLGC fleet as of May 22, 2024, with the top ten owners possessing 40% of the total fleet on a vessel count basis. Competition for the transportation of LPG depends on the price, vessel position, size, age, condition and acceptability of the vessel to the charterer. We believe we own and operate one of the youngest and the third largest fleet in the VLGC size segment, which, in our view, enhances our position relative to that of our competitors. Our twenty-one VLGCs (excluding the four-time chartered-in vessels) have an average age of 9.0 years compared to the global VLGC fleet’s average age of 10.3 years. Refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors—We face substantial competition in trying to expand relationships with existing customers and obtain new customers.”

Seasonality

Liquefied gases are primarily used for industrial and domestic heating, as chemical and refinery feedstock, as transportation fuel and in agriculture. The LPG shipping market historically has been stronger in the spring and summer months in anticipation of increased consumption of propane and butane for heating during the winter months. In addition, unpredictable weather patterns in these months tend to disrupt vessel scheduling and the supply of certain commodities. Demand for our vessels therefore may be stronger in our quarters ending June 30 and September 30 and relatively weaker during our quarters ending December 31 and March 31, although 12-month time charter rates tend to smooth out these short-term fluctuations and recent LPG shipping market activity has not yielded the typical seasonal results. The increase in petrochemical industry buying has contributed to less marked seasonality than in the past, but there can no guarantee that this trend will continue. To the extent any of our time charters expire during the typically weaker fiscal quarters ending December 31 and March 31, it may not be possible to re-charter our vessels at similar rates. As a result, we may have to accept lower rates or experience off-hire time for our vessels, which may adversely impact our business, financial condition and operating results.

Human Capital

As of March 31, 2024, we employed 88 shore-based persons in our offices in the United States, Greece, and Denmark, and had approximately 489 seafaring staff serving on our technically managed vessels. Seafarers are sourced from seafarer recruitment and placement service agencies and are employed with short-term employment contracts.

We recognize that the success of our Company is dependent upon the talents and dedication of our staff, and we are committed to investing in their success. We focus on attracting, developing and retaining a team of highly talented and motivated individuals. We conduct periodic assessments of our pay and benefit practices to help ensure that staff members are compensated fairly and competitively. The Company provides competitive compensation and benefits. In addition to salaries for our shore-based employees, our compensation programs typically include annual bonuses, stock-based compensation awards, company-sponsored retirement savings plans with employer matching opportunities, healthcare and insurance benefits, flexible spending accounts, life insurance, paid time off, family leave, and employee assistance programs.

The health and safety of our staff is of paramount importance to us. Following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, we responded by prioritizing the safety and well-being of our staff through the implementation of strict COVID-19 safety checks and medical support to mitigate the related health risks on our vessels. For our shoreside offices and operations, we implemented various health and safety measures intended to address COVID-19 and other public health concerns. In spite of the end of the COVID-19 public health crisis, we continue to maintain be vigilant of the health of our seafarers and have resources in place to respond to pandemics.

We support meaningful learning and development opportunities. We have formal and informal training programs available and offer reimbursement for qualified advanced education programs, workshops, conferences, forums and certifications, and other classes.

In February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine. We employ Ukrainian and Russian seafarers and, as stated above in our discussion about COVID-19, the health and safety of our staff and seafarers is of paramount importance to us. During

4

the conflict we began providing our Ukrainian and Russian seafarers, if they choose, with safe accommodation outside of Ukraine and Russia for both them and their families.

We seek to honor the dignity of each person by fostering a culture of inclusion. We embrace diverse voices and experiences, support programs and resources that build an authentic and respectful workplace, and provide fair and equitable opportunities for each person to contribute meaningfully. We believe our workforce needs to be diverse, which, in turn, enables us to innovate, collaborate and better deliver to our customers. Additionally, we have joined the All Aboard Alliance and, together with other industry leaders, we are committed to have a sustainable, progressive, and innovative maritime industry that we can all be proud of with increased diversity, equity, and inclusion throughout organizations across the sector both at sea and onshore.

Classification, Inspection and Maintenance

Every large commercial seagoing vessel must be “classed” by a classification society. A classification society certifies that a vessel is “in class,” signifying that the vessel has been built and maintained in accordance with the rules of the classification society and the vessel’s country of registry and the international conventions of which that country is a member. In addition, where surveys are required by international conventions and corresponding laws and ordinances of a flag state, the classification society will undertake them on application or by official order, acting on behalf of the authorities concerned.

For maintenance of the class certificate, regular and special surveys of hull, machinery, including the electrical plant and any special equipment classed, are required to be performed by the classification society, to ensure continuing compliance. The classification societies provide guidelines applicable to LPG vessels relating to extended intervals for drydocking. Every vessel is required to be drydocked every 30 to 36 months for inspection of the underwater parts of the vessel. For vessels under 15 years of age, an underwater inspection can be conducted in lieu of drydocking and all required work can be conducted concurrently with the special survey. Certain cargo vessels that meet the system requirements set by classification societies may qualify for extended drydocking, which extends the 5-year period to 7.5 years, by replacing certain dry-dockings with in-water surveys. If any defects are found, the classification surveyor will issue a "recommendation" which must be rectified by the shipowner within prescribed time limits. The classification society also undertakes on request of the flag state other surveys and checks that are required by the regulations and requirements of that flag state. These surveys are subject to agreements made in each individual case and/or to the regulations of the country concerned. If any vessel does not maintain its class and/or fails any annual survey, intermediate survey, drydocking or special survey, the vessel will be unable to carry cargo between ports and will be unemployable and uninsurable which could cause us to be in violation of certain covenants in our loan agreements and financing arrangements. Any such inability to carry cargo or be employed, or any such violation of covenants, could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

Most insurance underwriters and lenders require a vessel to be certified as “in class” by a classification society, which is a member of the International Association of Classification Societies, or the IACS. In December 2013, the IACS adopted harmonized Common Structure Rules, or “the Rules,” that align with International Maritime Organization, the United Nations agency for maritime safety and the prevention of pollution by vessels, or the IMO, goal standards and apply to oil tankers and bulk carriers contracted for construction on or after July 1, 2015. The Rules attempt to create a level of consistency between IACS Societies. Our technically managed VLGCs are currently classed with either Lloyd’s Register, the American Bureau of Shipping, or ABS, or Det Norske Veritas, all members of the IACS. All of the vessels in our fleet have been awarded International Safety Management, or ISM, certification and are currently “in class.”

We also carry out inspections of the ships, including with a view towards compliance under the Ship Inspection Report Programme (“SIRE”) and United States Coast Guard (“USCG”) requirements, as applicable, on a regular basis; both at sea and while the vessels are in port. The results of these inspections are documented in a report containing recommendations for improvements to the overall condition of the vessel, maintenance, safety and crew welfare. Based in part on these evaluations, we create and implement a program of continual maintenance and improvement for our vessels and their systems.

5

Safety, Management of Ship Operations and Administration

Safety is our top operational priority. Our vessels are operated in a manner intended to protect the safety and health of the crew, the general public and the environment. We actively manage the risks inherent in our business and are committed to preventing incidents that threaten safety, such as groundings, fires and collisions. We are also committed to reducing emissions and waste generation. We have established key performance indicators to facilitate regular monitoring of our operational performance. We set targets on an annual basis to drive continuous improvement, and we review performance indicators every three months to determine if remedial action is necessary to reach our targets. Our shore staff performs a full range of technical, commercial and business development services for us. This staff also provides administrative support to our operations in finance, accounting and human resources.

Risk of Loss and Insurance

The operation of ships, including LPG carriers, has inherent risks. These risks span a wide spectrum ranging from loss of the vessel and her crew via collision, grounding, personal illness, injury or death, technical breakdowns, cargo loss or damage, cyber-attacks, and business interruption due to political circumstances in foreign countries, hostilities or piracy. Having said that, we believe that our present insurance coverage is adequate to protect us against the accident-related risks involved in the conduct of our business and that we maintain appropriate levels of environmental damage and pollution insurance coverage consistent with standard industry practice. Additionally, we maintain non-marine insurance policies we believe are customary and with limits we believe to be adequate to protect us against material loss. The policies principally provide coverage for general liability, directors and officers, workers’ compensation, and insurance against the consequences of a cyber-attack. However, not all risks can be insured against, and there can be no guarantee that any specific claim will be paid, or that we will always be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at acceptable rates.

The types of insurances we have purchased can be categorized as follows:

Damage to or loss of the ships themselves;
Liability to cargo owners for damage to or loss of cargo, for injury to or death of crew or third parties, for collision with other ships or objects, for pollution damage, for fines and other liabilities;
Compensation for loss of income in periods when ships undergo repairs due to damage;
Compensation for legal expenses in defending against contract claims or in collecting money due;
Compensation for damage to IT equipment ashore and onboard the ships in the case of a cyber-attack and of loss suffered from resulting business interruption; and
Non-marine coverage, e.g. directors’ and officers’ insurance.

We have procured insurances on all our vessels against marine and war risks, both of which include the risks of damage to our vessels, salvage or towing costs, and actual or constructive total loss. The insured value of the ships is fixed and will adequately compensate for repair to a damaged ship or replacement of a lost ship. However, our insurance policies contain deductible amounts for which we are responsible.  

To supplement these insurances, we have also obtained loss of hire insurance to protect against loss of income in the event one of our vessels cannot be employed due to damage covered under the terms of our hull and machinery policies (marine and war risks). Under our loss of hire policies, our insurers will pay us an agreed daily amount for the time that the vessel is out of service as a result of damage, for a maximum of 180 days following a deductible period of 14 days for marine and 7 days for war risks.

These covers are all placed with reputable insurance providers with high credit ratings.

We have procured protection and indemnity insurance (“P&I”), which covers legal liabilities to crew and third parties in connection with operating our ships, and is provided by mutual protection and indemnity associations, or P&I clubs. This insurance includes third-party liability and other expenses related to the illness, injury or death of crew members, passengers and other third parties, loss or damage to cargo, claims arising from collisions with other vessels or from contact with jetties or wharves and other damage to other third-party property, including pollution arising from oil

6

or other substances, and other related costs, including wreck removal. Except for pollution liability, the P&I cover is unlimited.

Our current P&I coverage for pollution liability is $1.0 billion per vessel per incident. The thirteen P&I clubs that comprise the International Group of Protection and Indemnity Clubs, or the International Group, insure approximately 90% of the world’s commercial tonnage and have entered into a pooling agreement to reinsure each association’s liabilities. We are a member of three P&I clubs: The United Kingdom Mutual Steamship Assurance Association Limited, Assuranceforeningen Gard and The London Steam-Ship Owners' Mutual Insurance Association Limited. All three P&I clubs are members of the International Group of P&I Clubs. As a member of these P&I clubs, we are – in addition to the annual premiums (called “advanced calls”) - subject to potential additional premiums (called “supplemental calls”), based on each club’s over-all claims record, as well as – due to the mutual reinsurance arrangement between the clubs - the claims record of the other members of the P&I clubs comprising the International Group. However, the International Group of P&I Clubs has reinsured part of the risk of additional premium calls to limit additional exposure.

While we believe that our present insurance coverage is in line with industry standard and adequate, not all risks can be insured against, and there is the possibility that any specific claim may not be paid, or that we will not always be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates.

Our Environmental, Social and Governance Efforts

As one of the leaders in the international transportation of LPG, we are committed to delivering cleaner-burning energy in a safe, reliable and environmentally efficient manner. LPG is a clean, efficient and readily available source of energy, with positive benefits to the environment relative to other fuels. While extending the economic and social benefits of delivering LPG to consumers across the globe, we recognize that the shipping industry is heavily dependent on the burning of fossil fuels, contributing to the warming of the world’s climate system. In providing our services, we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and greenhouse gas emissions. We welcome and support efforts to increase transparency and to promote investors’ understanding of how we and our industry peers are addressing the climate change-related risks and opportunities. We have disclosed certain ESG-related information on our website, including our ESG Report, aligned with the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) Marine Transportation standard, additionally taking into account recommendations provided by the Taskforce on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD). The report includes information on how we monitor, manage and perform on material ESG issues in the face of increasing expectations and regulations. Our ESG Report may be found on our website at www.dorianlpg.com. The information included on or accessible through our website is not incorporated by reference into this annual report on Form 10-K (“Annual Report”).

Dorian’s ESG strategies, risks and initiatives are overseen by our board of directors (the “Board of Directors”), which includes independent members and experts in shipping matters. Our Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee monitors progress of ESG efforts and together with management ensures integrity of reporting. The Company’s executive leadership team, led by our Chief Executive Officer, President and Chairman of the Board of Directors, Mr. John C. Hadjipateras, formulates ESG strategies and drives initiatives, while the members of our management set targets, assesses risks, develops policies and procedures and executes the ESG efforts. Some of the ESG initiatives that we have undertaken include:

operating newer, more technologically advanced ECO vessels, with very low revolutions per minute, long-stroke, electronically controlled engines, larger propellers, advanced hull design, and low friction paint, resulting in enhanced energy efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions on a ton-mile basis, including the vessels in our existing fleet, our newbuilding Dual-fuel ECO VLGC delivered from Kawasaki Heavy Industries in March 2023, and our three time chartered-in Dual Fuel VLGCs that entered our fleet in February, March, and July 2023;

fitting vessels with scrubbers to reduce sulfur emissions to, among other things, comply with the IMO’s new fuel regulations which went into effect in January 2020;

joining the Getting to Zero Coalition, a global alliance of more than 140 companies committed to the decarbonization of deep-sea shipping in line with the IMO greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategy;

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creating teams and a formal reporting structure for the evaluation and potential implementation of new energy saving technologies such as batteries, hull friction reducing technologies, and a range of other applications;

implementing and utilizing internal and third-party data collection and analysis software, which allows data to be gathered from our vessels for use in performance optimization, with the aim of reducing our fuel consumption, and carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions;

including a sustainability-linked pricing mechanism in our 2023 A&R Debt Facility (as defined below) and providing relevant carbon emissions data for the vessels in our fleet that are owned or technically managed pursuant to a bareboat charter to our lenders in connection with the Poseidon Principles, which establish a framework for assessing and disclosing the climate alignment of ship finance portfolios with the IMO’s target to peak greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions from international shipping as soon as possible and to reach net-zero GHG emissions by or around, i.e. close to, 2050, as per 2023 IMO GHG Strategy;

successfully complying with the IMO’s Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (“EEXI”) and Carbon Intensity Indicator (“CII”) requirements in 2023, affirming our commitment to maritime environmental standards;

becoming a Mission Ambassador in a strategic partnership with the Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Center for Zero Carbon Shipping, Copenhagen, starting January 2023, and joining forces with the maritime industry's united effort to accelerate the possibility of net-zero target by 2050;

becoming a signatory to the Neptune Declaration on Seafarer Wellbeing and Crew Change, in a worldwide call to action to end the unprecedented crew change crisis caused by COVID-19;

establishing risk management and internal control policies and systems to manage risk and ensure compliance with all applicable international and local laws; and

establishing compliance programs to meet or exceed, when possible and appropriate, all applicable rules and regulations governing the maritime industry, including the items described in the “Environmental and Other Regulation in the Shipping Industry” section below.

We were one of the founding members of The All Aboard Alliance (“AAA”), an initiative of the Global Maritime Forum, which brings together senior leaders from across the maritime industry, united by a collaborative drive towards increasing diversity, equity, and inclusion in all organizations, at sea and onshore. In October 2023, the AAA announced the Diversity@Sea initiative that saw eleven companies pilot a series of test measures to make life at sea more inclusive and attractive to all seafarers. We are participating in track two of the initiative and have committed to meeting a series of minimum requirements onboard one pilot vessel within our fleet. These initiatives include having a minimum number of women onboard, continuously available wi-fi for crew members, and ensuring that all seaborne staff have access to inclusive personal protective equipment.

Environmental and Other Regulation in the Shipping Industry

General

Government regulations and laws significantly affect the ownership and operation of our fleet. We are subject to international conventions and treaties, national, state and local laws and regulations in force in the countries in which our vessels may operate or are registered relating to safety and health and environmental protection including the storage, handling, emission, transportation and discharge of hazardous and non-hazardous materials, and the remediation of contamination and liability for damage to natural resources. Compliance with such laws, regulations and other requirements entails significant expense, including vessel modifications and implementation of certain operating procedures.

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A variety of government and private entities subject our vessels to both scheduled and unscheduled inspections. These entities include the local port authorities (applicable national authorities such as the USCG, harbor master or equivalent), classification societies, flag state administrations (countries of registry) and charterers, particularly terminal operators. Certain of these entities require us to obtain permits, licenses, certificates and other authorizations for the operation of our vessels. Failure to maintain necessary permits or approvals could require us to incur substantial costs or result in the temporary suspension of the operation of one or more of our vessels.

Increasing environmental concerns have created a demand for vessels that conform to stricter environmental standards. We are required to maintain operating standards for all of our vessels that emphasize operational safety, quality maintenance, continuous training of our officers and crews and compliance with United States and international regulations. We believe that the operation of our vessels is in substantial compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations and that our vessels have all material permits, licenses, certificates or other authorizations necessary for the conduct of our operations. However, because such laws and regulations frequently change and may impose increasingly stricter requirements, we cannot predict the ultimate cost of complying with these requirements, or the impact of these requirements on the resale value or useful lives of our vessels. In addition, a future serious marine incident that causes significant adverse environmental impact could result in additional legislation or regulation that could negatively affect our profitability.

International Maritime Organization

The International Maritime Organization, the United Nations agency for maritime safety and the prevention of pollution by vessels (the “IMO”), has adopted the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto, collectively referred to as MARPOL 73/78 and herein as “MARPOL,” the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea of 1974 (“SOLAS Convention”), and the International Convention on Load Lines of 1966 (the “LL Convention”). MARPOL establishes environmental standards relating to oil leakage or spilling, garbage management, sewage, air emissions, handling and disposal of noxious liquids and the handling of harmful substances in packaged forms. MARPOL is applicable to LPG carriers as well as other vessels, and is broken into six Annexes, each of which regulates a different source of pollution. Annex I relates to oil leakage or spilling; Annexes II and III relate to harmful substances carried in bulk in liquid or in packaged form, respectively; Annexes IV and V relate to sewage and garbage management, respectively; and Annex VI, lastly, relates to air emissions. Annex VI was separately adopted by the IMO in September of 1997; new emissions standards, titled IMO-2020, took effect on January 1, 2020.

Vessels that transport gas, including LPG carriers, are also subject to regulation under the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk, or the “IGC Code,” published by the IMO. The IGC Code provides a standard for the safe carriage of LPG and certain other liquid gases by prescribing the design and construction standards of vessels involved in such carriage. The completely revised and updated IGC Code entered into force in 2016, and the amendments were developed following a comprehensive five-year review and are intended to take into account the latest advances in science and technology. Compliance with the IGC Code must be evidenced by a Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk. Non-compliance with the IGC Code or other applicable IMO regulations may subject a shipowner or a bareboat charterer to increased liability, may lead to decreases in available insurance coverage for affected vessels and may result in the denial of access to, or detention in, some ports. We believe that each of our vessels is in compliance with the IGC Code.

Our LPG vessels may also become subject to the 2010 HNS Convention, if it is entered into force. In 1996, the International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damages in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, was adopted and subsequently amended by the 2010 Protocol, or the 2010 HNS Convention. The HNS Convention creates a regime of liability and compensation for damage from hazardous and noxious substances (“HNS”), including liquefied gases. The 2010 HNS Convention establishes that the polluter pays by ensuring that the shipping and HNS industries provide compensation for those who have suffered loss or damage resulting from an HNS incident. The following types of damage will be covered by the 2010 HNS Convention: loss of life or personal injury on board or outside the ship carrying the HNS; loss of or damage to property outside the ship; economic losses resulting from contamination, e.g. in the fishing, mariculture and tourism sectors; costs of preventive measures, e.g. clean-up operations at sea and onshore; and costs of reasonable measures of reinstatement of the environment. Shipowners will be held strictly

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liable up to a maximum limit of liability for the cost of an HNS incident and are required to have insurance that is State certified. The 2010 HNS Convention sets up a two-tier system of compensation composed of compulsory insurance taken out by shipowners and an HNS Fund which comes into play when the insurance is insufficient to satisfy a claim or does not cover the incident. Under the 2010 HNS Convention, if damage is caused by bulk HNS, claims for compensation will first be sought from the shipowner up to a maximum of 100 million Special Drawing Rights (“SDR”). If the damage is caused by packaged HNS or by both bulk and packaged HNS, the maximum liability is 115 million SDR. Once the limit is reached, compensation will be paid from the HNS Fund up to a maximum of 250 million SDR. The 2010 HNS Convention will enter into force 18 months after the date on which it is ratified by at least twelve States, four of which must each have a merchant have a merchant shipping fleet of no less than 2 million units of gross tonnage, and having received during the preceding calendar year a total quantity of at least 40 million tons of cargo that would be contributing to the general account. To date, six states (South Africa, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Norway and Turkey) have ratified and consented to be bound by the 2010 HNS Convention. Although the 2010 HNS Convention has not been ratified by a sufficient number of countries to enter into force, we cannot estimate the costs that may be needed to comply with any such requirements that may be adopted with any certainty at this time.

In June 2015 the IMO formally adopted the International Code of Safety for Ships using Gases or Low flashpoint Fuels, or the “IGF Code,” which is designed to minimize the risks involved with ships using low flashpoint fuels. The IGF Code will be mandatory under SOLAS through the adopted amendments. The IGF Code and the amendments to SOLAS became effective January 1, 2017. In June 2022, the IGF Code was amended to address cofferdams for fire protection, safe fuel distribution outside machinery spaces, fire protection between spaces with fuel with fuel containment systems, and fixed fire-extinguishing systems in LNG fuel preparation spaces. These amendments entered into force on January 1, 2024.

Air Emissions

In September of 1997, the IMO adopted Annex VI to MARPOL to address air pollution from vessels. Effective May 2005, Annex VI sets limits on sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from all commercial vessel exhausts and prohibits “deliberate emissions” of ozone depleting substances (such as halons and chlorofluorocarbons), emissions of volatile compounds from cargo tanks and the shipboard incineration of specific substances. Annex VI also includes a global cap on the sulfur content of fuel oil and allows for special areas to be established with more stringent controls on sulfur emissions, as explained below. Emissions of “volatile organic compounds” from certain vessels, and the shipboard incineration (from incinerators installed after January 1, 2000) of certain substances (such as polychlorinated biphenyls, or “PCBs”) are also prohibited. We believe that all our vessels are currently compliant in all material respects with these regulations.

The Marine Environment Protection Committee, or “MEPC,” adopted amendments to Annex VI regarding emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, particulate matter and ozone depleting substances, which entered into force on July 1, 2010. The amended Annex VI seeks to further reduce air pollution by, among other things, implementing a progressive reduction of the amount of sulfur contained in any fuel oil used on board ships. On October 27, 2016, at its 70th session, the MEPC agreed to implement a global 0.5% m/m sulfur oxide emissions limit (reduced from 3.50%) starting from January 1, 2020 (the “IMO 2020 Cap”). This limitation can be met by using low-sulfur compliant fuel oil, alternative fuels or certain scrubbers. Ships are now required to obtain bunker delivery notes and International Air Pollution Prevention (“IAPP”) Certificates from their flag states that specify sulfur content. Additionally, at MEPC 73, amendments to Annex VI to prohibit the carriage of bunkers above 0.5% sulfur on ships were adopted and took effect March 1, 2020, with the exception of vessels fitted with scrubbers which can carry fuel of higher sulfur content. These regulations subject ocean-going vessels to stringent emissions controls and may cause us to incur substantial costs.

Sulfur content standards are even stricter within certain “Emission Control Areas,” or (“ECAs”). As of January 1, 2015, ships operating within an ECA were not permitted to use fuel with sulfur content in excess of 0.1% m/m. Amended Annex VI establishes procedures for designating new ECAs. Currently, the IMO has designated four ECAs, including specified portions of the Baltic Sea area, North Sea area, North American area and United States Caribbean area. Ocean-going vessels in these areas will be subject to stringent emission controls and may cause us to incur additional costs. Other areas in China are subject to local regulations that impose stricter emission controls. In December 2021, the member states of the Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution agreed to support the designation of a new ECA in the Mediterranean (“Barcelona Convention”). On December 15, 2022, MEPC 79 adopted the Barcelona

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Convention, with an effective date of May 1, 2025. On July 2023, MEPC 80 announced three new ECA proposals, including the Canadian Arctic waters and the North-East Atlantic Ocean. If other ECAs are approved by the IMO, or other new or more stringent requirements relating to emissions from marine diesel engines or port operations by vessels are adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) or the states where we operate, compliance with these regulations could entail significant capital expenditures or otherwise increase the costs of our operations.

Amended Annex VI also establishes new tiers of stringent nitrogen oxide emissions standards for marine diesel engines, depending on their date of installation. At the MEPC meeting held from March to April 2014, amendments to Annex VI were adopted which address the date on which Tier III Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) standards in ECAs will go into effect. Under the amendments, Tier III NOx standards apply to ships that operate in the North American and U.S. Caribbean Sea ECAs designed for the control of NOx produced by vessels with a marine diesel engine installed and constructed on or after January 1, 2016. Tier III requirements could apply to areas that will be designated for Tier III NOx in the future. At MEPC 70 and MEPC 71, the MEPC approved the North Sea and Baltic Sea as ECAs for nitrogen oxide for ships built on or after January 1, 2021. The EPA promulgated equivalent (and in some senses stricter) emissions standards in 2010. As a result of these designations or similar future designations, we may be required to incur additional operating or other costs.

As determined at the MEPC 70, the new Regulation 22A of MARPOL Annex VI became effective as of March 1, 2018 and requires ships above 5,000 gross tonnage to collect and report annual data on fuel oil consumption to an IMO database, with the first year of data collection having commenced on January 1, 2019. The IMO intends to use such data as the first step in its roadmap (through 2023) for developing its strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ships, as discussed further below.

As of January 1, 2013, MARPOL made mandatory certain measures relating to energy efficiency for ships. All ships are now required to develop and implement Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plans (“SEEMP”), and new ships must be designed in compliance with minimum energy efficiency levels per capacity mile as defined by the Energy Efficiency Design Index (“EEDI”). Under these measures, by 2025, all new ships built will be 30% more energy efficient than those built in 2014. MEPC 75 adopted amendments to MARPOL Annex VI which brings forward the effective date of the EEDI’s “phase 3” requirements from January 1, 2025 to April 1, 2022 for several ship types, including gas carriers, general cargo ships, and LNG carriers.

Additionally, MEPC 75 introduced draft amendments to Annex VI which impose new regulations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ships. These amendments introduce requirements to assess and measure the energy efficiency of all ships and set the required attainment values, with the goal of reducing the carbon intensity of international shipping. The requirements include (1) a technical requirement to reduce carbon intensity based on a new EEXI, and (2) operational carbon intensity reduction requirements, based on a new operational carbon intensity indicator (“CII”). The attained EEXI is required to be calculated for ships of 400 gross tonnage and above, in accordance with different values set for ship types and categories. With respect to the CII, the draft amendments would require ships of 5,000 gross tonnage to document and verify their actual annual operational CII achieved against a determined required annual operational CII. Additionally, MEPC 75 proposed draft amendments requiring that, on or before January 1, 2023, all ships above 400 gross tonnage must have an approved SEEMP on board. For ships above 5,000 gross tonnage, the SEEMP would need to include certain mandatory content. The draft amendments introduced at MEPC 75 were adopted at the MEPC 76 session on June 2021 and have entered into force in November 2022, with the requirements for EEXI and CII certification coming into effect from January 1, 2023. MEPC 77 adopted a non-binding resolution which urges Member States and ship operators to voluntarily use distillate or other cleaner alternative fuels or methods of propulsion that are safe for ships and could contribute to the reduction of Black Carbon emissions from ships when operating in or near the Arctic. MEPC 79 adopted amendments to MARPOL Annex VI, Appendix IX to include the attained and required CII values, the CII rating and attained EEXI for existing ships in the required information to be submitted to the IMO Ship Fuel Oil Consumption Database. MEPC 79 also revised the EEDI calculation guidelines to include a CO2 conversion factor for ethane, a reference to the updated ITCC guidelines, and a clarification that in case of a ship with multiple load line certificates, the maximum certified summer draft should be used when determining the deadweight. The amendments will enter into force on May 1, 2024.  In July 2023, MEPC 80 approved the plan for reviewing CII regulations and guidelines, which must be completed

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at the latest by January 1, 2026.  There will be no immediate changes to the CII framework, including correction factors and voyage adjustments, before the review is completed.

We may incur significant costs to comply with these revised standards, including the need to modify our vessels or engines to consume alternative fuels. Additional or new conventions, laws and regulations may be adopted that could require the installation of expensive emission control systems or engine power limitation (EPL) systems to reduce fuel use and carbon emissions, each of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Safety Management System Requirements

The SOLAS Convention was amended to address the safe manning of vessels and emergency training drills. The Convention of Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims (the “LLMC”) sets limitations of liability for a loss of life or personal injury claim or a property claim against ship owners. We believe that our vessels are in substantial compliance with SOLAS and LLMC standards.

Under Chapter IX of the SOLAS Convention, or the International Safety Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention (the “ISM Code”), our operations are also subject to environmental standards and requirements. The ISM Code requires the party with operational control of a vessel to develop an extensive safety management system that includes, among other things, the adoption of a safety and environmental protection policy setting forth instructions and procedures for operating its vessels safely and describing procedures for responding to emergencies. We rely upon the safety management system that we and our technical management team have developed for compliance with the ISM Code. The failure of a vessel owner or bareboat charterer to comply with the ISM Code may subject such party to increased liability, may decrease available insurance coverage for the affected vessels and may result in a denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports.

The ISM Code requires that vessel operators obtain a safety management certificate for each vessel they operate. This certificate evidences compliance by a vessel’s management with the ISM Code requirements for a safety management system. No vessel can obtain a safety management certificate unless its manager has been awarded a document of compliance, issued by each flag state, under the ISM Code. We have obtained applicable documents of compliance for our offices and safety management certificates for all of our vessels for which the certificates are required by the IMO. The documents of compliance and safety management certificates are renewed as required.

Amendments to the SOLAS Convention Chapter VII apply to vessels transporting dangerous goods and require those vessels be in compliance with the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (“IMDG Code”). Effective January 1, 2018, the IMDG Code includes (1) updates to the provisions for radioactive material, reflecting the latest provisions from the International Atomic Energy Agency, (2) new marking, packing and classification requirements for dangerous goods and (3) new mandatory training requirements. Amendments which took effect on January 1, 2020 also reflect the latest material from the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, including (1) new provisions regarding IMO type 9 tank, (2) new abbreviations for segregation groups, and (3) special provisions for carriage of lithium batteries and of vehicles powered by flammable liquid or gas. Additional amendments, which came into force on June 1, 2022, include (1) addition of a definition of dosage rate, (2) additions to the list of high consequence dangerous goods, (3) new provisions for medical/clinical waste, (4) addition of various ISO standards for gas cylinders, (5) a new handling code, and (6) changes to stowage and segregation provisions.

The IMO has also adopted the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (“STCW”). As of February 2017, all seafarers are required to meet the STCW standards and be in possession of a valid STCW certificate. Flag states that have ratified SOLAS and STCW generally employ the classification societies, which have incorporated SOLAS and STCW requirements into their class rules, to undertake surveys to confirm compliance.

Furthermore, recent action by the IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee and United States agencies indicates that cybersecurity regulations for the maritime industry are likely to be further developed in the near future in an attempt to

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combat cybersecurity threats By IMO resolution, administrations are encouraged to ensure that cyber-risk management systems are incorporated by ship-owners and managers by their first annual Document of Compliance audit after January 1, 2021. In February 2021, the U.S. Coast Guard published guidance on addressing cyber risks in a vessel’s safety management system. This might cause companies to create additional procedures for monitoring cybersecurity, which could require additional expenses and/or capital expenditures. The impact of future regulations is hard to predict at this time.

In June 2022, SOLAS also set out new amendments that took effect January 1, 2024, which include new requirements for: (1) the design for safe mooring operations, (2) the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (“GMDSS”), (3) watertight integrity, (4) watertight doors on cargo ships, (5) fault-isolation of fire detection systems, (6) life-saving appliances, and (7) safety of ships using LNG as fuel. These new requirements may impact the cost of our operations.

Pollution Control and Liability Requirements

The IMO has negotiated international conventions that impose liability for pollution in international waters and the territorial waters of the signatories to such conventions. For example, the IMO adopted an International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (the “BWM Convention”) in 2004. The BWM Convention entered into force on September 8, 2017. The BWM Convention requires ships to manage their ballast water to remove, render harmless, or avoid the uptake or discharge of new or invasive aquatic organisms and pathogens within ballast water and sediments. The BWM Convention’s implementing regulations call for a phased introduction of mandatory ballast water exchange requirements, to be replaced in time with mandatory concentration limits, and require all ships to carry a ballast water record book and an international ballast water management certificate.

On December 4, 2013, the IMO Assembly passed a resolution revising the application dates of the BWM Convention so that the dates are triggered by the entry into force date and not the dates originally in the BWM Convention. This, in effect, makes all vessels delivered before the entry into force date “existing vessels” and allows for the installation of ballast water management systems on such vessels at the first International Oil Pollution Prevention (“IOPP”) renewal survey following entry into force of the convention. The MEPC adopted updated guidelines for approval of ballast water management systems (G8) at MEPC 70. At MEPC 71, the schedule regarding the BWM Convention’s implementation dates was also discussed and amendments were introduced to extend the date existing vessels are subject to certain ballast water standards. Those changes were adopted at MEPC 72. Ships over 400 gross tons generally must comply with a “D-1 standard,” requiring the exchange of ballast water only in open seas and away from coastal waters. The “D-2 standard” specifies the maximum amount of viable organisms allowed to be discharged, and compliance dates vary depending on the IOPP renewal dates. Depending on the date of the IOPP renewal survey, existing vessels must comply with the D-2 standard on or after September 8, 2019. For most ships, compliance with the D-2 standard will involve installing on-board systems to treat ballast water and eliminate unwanted organisms. Ballast water management systems, which include systems that make use of chemical, biocides, organisms or biological mechanisms, or which alter the chemical or physical characteristics of the ballast water, must be approved in accordance with IMO Guidelines (Regulation D-3). As of October 13, 2019, MEPC 72’s amendments to the BWM Convention took effect, making the Code for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems, which governs assessment of ballast water management systems, mandatory rather than permissive, and formalized an implementation schedule for the D-2 standard. Under these amendments, all ships must meet the D-2 standard by September 8, 2024. Costs of compliance with these regulations may be substantial. Additionally, in November 2020, MEPC 75 adopted amendments to the BWM Convention which would require a commissioning test of the ballast water management system for the initial survey or when performing an additional survey for retrofits. This analysis will not apply to ships that already have an installed BWM system certified under the BWM Convention. These amendments have entered into force on June 1, 2022. In December 2022, MEPC 79 agreed that it should be permitted to use ballast tanks for temporary storage of treated sewage and grey water. MEPC 79 also established that ships are expected to return to D-2 compliance after experiencing challenging uptake water and bypassing a BWM system should only be used as a last resort. In July 2023, MEPC 80 approved a plan for a comprehensive review of the BWM Convention over the next three years and the corresponding development of a package of amendments to the Convention.   MEPC 80 also adopted further amendments relating to Appendix II of the BWM Convention concerning the form of the Ballast Water Record Book, which are expected to enter into force in February 2025. A protocol for ballast water compliance monitoring devices and unified interpretation of the form of the BWM Convention certificate were also adopted.

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Once mid-ocean exchange ballast water treatment requirements become mandatory under the BWM Convention, the cost of compliance could increase for ocean carriers and may have a material effect on our operations. However, many countries already regulate the discharge of ballast water carried by vessels from country to country to prevent the introduction of invasive and harmful species via such discharges. The U.S., for example, requires vessels entering its waters from another country to conduct mid-ocean ballast exchange, or undertake some alternate measure, and to comply with certain reporting requirements.

The IMO adopted the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage of 1969, as amended by different Protocols in 1976, 1984 and 1992, and amended in 2000 (“the CLC”). Under the CLC and depending on whether the country in which the damage results is a party to the 1992 Protocol to the CLC, a vessel’s registered owner may be strictly liable for pollution damage caused in the territorial waters of a contracting state by discharge of persistent oil, subject to certain exceptions. The 1992 Protocol changed certain limits on liability expressed using the International Monetary Fund currency unit, the Special Drawing Rights. The limits on liability have since been amended so that the compensation limits on liability were raised. The right to limit liability is forfeited under the CLC where the spill is caused by the shipowner’s actual fault and under the 1992 Protocol where the spill is caused by the shipowner’s intentional or reckless act or omission where the shipowner knew pollution damage would probably result. The CLC requires ships over 2,000 tons covered by it to maintain insurance covering the liability of the owner in a sum equivalent to an owner’s liability for a single incident. We have P&I for environmental incidents. P&I Clubs in the International Group issue the required Bunkers Convention “Blue Cards” to enable signatory states to issue certificates. All of our vessels are in possession of a CLC State issued certificate attesting that the required insurance coverage is in force.

The Protocol Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Pollution by Substances other than Oil 1973 (the “Intervention Protocol”) applies if there is a casualty involving a ship carrying LNG or LPG. The Intervention Protocol grants coastal states the right to intervene to prevent, mitigate or eliminate the danger of ‘substances other than oil’, including LNG and LPG, after consulting with other states affected and independent IMO-approved experts. The cost of such measures can usually be recovered by the governmental authority against the shipowner under national law.

Ships are required to maintain a certificate attesting that they maintain adequate insurance to cover an incident. In jurisdictions, such as the United States where the Bunker Convention has not been adopted, various legislative schemes or common law govern, and liability is imposed either on the basis of fault or on a strict-liability basis.

Anti-Fouling Requirements

In 2001, the IMO adopted the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, or the “Anti-fouling Convention.” The Anti-fouling Convention, which entered into force on September 17, 2008, prohibits the use of organotin compound coatings to prevent the attachment of mollusks and other sea life to the hulls of vessels. Vessels of over 400 gross tons engaged in international voyages will also be required to undergo an initial survey before the vessel is put into service or before an International Anti-fouling System Certificate, or the “IAFS Certificate,” is issued for the first time; and subsequent surveys when the anti-fouling systems are altered or replaced. Vessels of 24 meters in length or more but less than 400 gross tonnage engaged in international voyages will have to carry a Declaration on Anti-fouling Systems signed by the owner or authorized agent.

In November 2020, MEPC 75 approved draft amendments to the Anti-fouling Convention to prohibit anti-fouling systems containing cybutryne, which would apply to ships from January 1, 2023, or, for ships already bearing such an anti-fouling system, at the next scheduled renewal of the system after that date, but no later than 60 months following the last application to the ship of such a system. In addition, the IAFS Certificate has been updated to address compliance options for anti-fouling systems to address cybutryne. Ships which are affected by this ban on cybutryne must receive an updated IAFS Certificate no later than two years after the entry into force of these amendments. Ships which are not affected (i.e. with anti-fouling systems which do not contain cybutryne) must receive an updated IAFS Certificate at the next Anti-fouling application to the vessel. These amendments were formally adopted at MEPC 76 in June 2021 and entered into force on January 1, 2023.

We have obtained Anti-fouling System Certificates for all of our VLGCs that are subject to the Anti-fouling Convention.

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Compliance Enforcement

Noncompliance with the ISM Code or other IMO regulations may subject the ship owner or bareboat charterer to increased liability, may lead to decreases in available insurance coverage for affected vessels and may result in the denial of access to, or detention in, some ports. The USCG and European Union authorities have indicated that vessels not in compliance with the ISM Code by applicable deadlines will be prohibited from trading in U.S. and European Union ports, respectively. As of the date of this report, each of our vessels is ISM Code certified. However, there can be no assurance that such certificates will be maintained in the future. The IMO continues to review and introduce new regulations. It is impossible to predict what additional regulations, if any, may be passed by the IMO and what effect, if any, such regulations might have on our operations.

Hazardous Substances

Our LPG vessels may also become subject to the HNS Convention if it is entered into force. The Convention creates a regime of liability and compensation for damage from hazardous and noxious substances, including liquefied gases. The 2010 HNS Convention sets up a two-tier system of compensation composed of compulsory insurance taken out by shipowners and an HNS Fund which comes into play when the insurance is insufficient to satisfy a claim or does not cover the incident. Under the 2010 HNS Convention, if damage is caused by bulk HNS, claims for compensation will first be sought from the shipowner up to a maximum of 100 million SDR. If the damage is caused by packaged HNS or by both bulk and packaged HNS, the maximum liability is 115 million SDR. Once the limit is reached, compensation will be paid from the HNS Fund up to a maximum of 250 million SDR. The 2010 HNS Convention has not been ratified by a sufficient number of countries to enter into force, and we cannot estimate the costs that may be needed to comply with any such requirements that may be adopted with any certainty at this time.

In 2012, MEPC adopted a resolution amending the International Code for the Construction of Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk, or the IBC Code. The provisions of the IBC Code are mandatory under MARPOL and the SOLAS Convention. These amendments, which entered into force in June 2014 and took effect on January 1, 2021, pertain to revised international certificates of fitness for the carriage of dangerous chemicals in bulk and identifying new products that fall under the IBC Code. In May 2014, additional amendments to the IBC Code were adopted that became effective in January 2016. These amendments pertain to the installation of stability instruments and cargo tank purging. Our ECO VLGCs and Dual-fuel ECO VLGC are equipped with stability instruments and cargo tank purging. We may need to make certain minor financial expenditures to comply with these amendments for our modern 82,000 cbm VLGC.

United States Regulations

The U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

The U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (“OPA”) established an extensive regulatory and liability regime for the protection and cleanup of the environment from oil spills. OPA affects all “owners and operators” whose vessels trade or operate within the U.S., its territories and possessions or whose vessels operate in U.S. waters, which includes the U.S.’s territorial sea and its 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone around the U.S. The U.S. has also enacted the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”), which applies to the discharge of hazardous substances other than oil, except in limited circumstances, whether on land or at sea. OPA and CERCLA both define “owner and operator” in the case of a vessel as any person owning, operating or chartering by demise, the vessel. Both OPA and CERCLA impact our operations.

Under OPA, vessel owners and operators are “responsible parties” and are jointly, severally and strictly liable (unless the spill results solely from the act or omission of a third party, an act of God or an act of war) for all containment and clean-up costs and other damages arising from discharges or threatened discharges of oil from their vessels, including bunkers (fuel). OPA defines these other damages broadly to include:

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(i)injury to, destruction or loss of, or loss of use of, natural resources and related assessment costs;

(ii)injury to, or economic losses resulting from, the destruction of real and personal property;

(iii)loss of subsistence use of natural resources that are injured, destroyed or lost;

(iv)net loss of taxes, royalties, rents, fees or net profit revenues resulting from injury, destruction or loss of real or personal property, or natural resources;

(v)lost profits or impairment of earning capacity due to injury, destruction or loss of real or personal property or natural resources; and

(vi)net cost of increased or additional public services necessitated by removal activities following a discharge of oil, such as protection from fire, safety or health hazards, and loss of subsistence use of natural resources.

OPA contains statutory caps on liability and damages; such caps do not apply to direct cleanup costs. On December 23, 2022, the USCG issued a final rule to adjust the limitation of liability under the OPA. Effective March 23, 2023, the new adjusted limits of OPA liability for a tank vessel, other than a single-hull tank vessel, over 3,000 gross tons liability to the greater of $2,500 per gross ton or $21,521,300) (previous limit was $2,400 gross ton or $19,943,400). These limits of liability do not apply if an incident was proximately caused by the violation of an applicable U.S. federal safety, construction or operating regulation by a responsible party (or its agent, employee or a person acting pursuant to a contractual relationship) or a responsible party's gross negligence or willful misconduct. The limitation on liability similarly does not apply if the responsible party fails or refuses to (i) report the incident as required by law where the responsible party knows or has reason to know of the incident; (ii) reasonably cooperate and assist as requested in connection with oil removal activities; or (iii) without sufficient cause, comply with an order issued under the Federal Water Pollution Act (Section 311 (c), (e)) or the Intervention on the High Seas Act.

CERCLA contains a similar liability regime whereby owners and operators of vessels are liable for cleanup, removal and remedial costs, as well as damages for injury to, or destruction or loss of, natural resources, including the reasonable costs associated with assessing the same, and health assessments or health effects studies. There is no liability if the discharge of a hazardous substance results solely from the act or omission of a third party, an act of God or an act of war. Liability under CERCLA is limited to the greater of $300 per gross ton or $5.0 million for vessels carrying a hazardous substance as cargo and the greater of $300 per gross ton or $500,000 for any other vessel. These limits do not apply (rendering the responsible person liable for the total cost of response and damages) if the release or threat of release of a hazardous substance resulted from willful misconduct or negligence, or the primary cause of the release was a violation of applicable safety, construction or operating standards or regulations. The limitation on liability also does not apply if the responsible person fails or refuses to provide all reasonable cooperation and assistance as requested in connection with response activities where the vessel is subject to OPA.

OPA and CERCLA each preserve the right to recover damages under existing law, including maritime tort law. OPA and CERCLA both require owners and operators of vessels to establish and maintain with the USCG evidence of financial responsibility sufficient to meet the maximum amount of liability to which the particular responsible person may be subject. Vessel owners and operators may satisfy their financial responsibility obligations by providing proof of insurance, a surety bond, qualification as a self-insurer or a guarantee. We comply and plan to comply going forward with the USCG’s financial responsibility regulations by providing applicable certificates of financial responsibility.

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in additional regulatory initiatives or statutes, including higher liability caps under OPA, new regulations regarding offshore oil and gas drilling and a pilot inspection program for offshore facilities. However, several of these initiatives and regulations have been or may be revised. For example, the U.S. Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement’s (“BSEE”) revised Production Safety Systems Rule (“PSSR”), effective December 27, 2018, modified and relaxed certain environmental and safety protections under the 2016 PSSR. Additionally, the BSEE amended the Well Control Rule, effective July 15, 2019, which rolled back

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certain reforms regarding the safety of drilling operations, and former U.S. President Trump had proposed leasing new sections of U.S. waters to oil and gas companies for offshore drilling. In January 2021, current U.S. President Biden signed an executive order temporarily blocking new leases for oil and gas drilling in federal waters. However, attorney generals from 13 states filed suit in March 2021 to lift the executive order, and in June 2021, a federal judge in Louisiana granted a preliminary injunction against the Biden administration, stating that the power to pause offshore oil and gas leases “lies solely with Congress.” In August 2022, a federal judge in Louisiana sided with Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton, along with the other 12 plaintiff states, by issuing a permanent injunction against the Biden Administration’s moratorium on oil and gas leasing on federal public lands and offshore waters. After being blocked by the courts, in September 2023, the Biden administration announced a scaled back offshore oil drilling plan, including just three oil lease sales in the Gulf of Mexico. With these rapid changes, compliance with any new requirements of OPA and future legislation or regulations applicable to the operation of our vessels could impact the cost of our operations and adversely affect our business.

OPA specifically permits individual states to impose their own liability regimes with regard to oil pollution incidents occurring within their boundaries, provided they accept, at a minimum, the levels of liability established under OPA and some states have enacted legislation providing for unlimited liability for oil spills. Many U.S. states that border a navigable waterway have enacted environmental pollution laws that impose strict liability on a person for removal costs and damages resulting from a discharge of oil or a release of a hazardous substance. These laws may be more stringent than U.S. federal law. Moreover, some states have enacted legislation providing for unlimited liability for discharge of pollutants within their waters, although in some cases, states which have enacted this type of legislation have not yet issued implementing regulations defining vessel owners’ responsibilities under these laws. We intend to comply with all applicable state regulations in the ports where our vessels call.

We currently maintain pollution liability coverage insurance in the amount of $1.0 billion per incident for each of our vessels. If the damages from a catastrophic spill were to exceed our insurance coverage, it could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operation.

Other United States Environmental Initiatives

The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 (including its amendments of 1977 and 1990) (“CAA”) requires the EPA to promulgate standards applicable to emissions of volatile organic compounds and other air contaminants. Our vessels are subject to vapor control and recovery requirements for certain cargoes when loading, unloading, ballasting, cleaning and conducting other operations in regulated port areas. The CAA also requires states to draft State Implementation Plans, or “SIPs”, designed to attain national health-based air quality standards in each state. Although state-specific, SIPs may include regulations concerning emissions resulting from vessel loading and unloading operations by requiring the installation of vapor control equipment. Our vessels operating in such regulated port areas with restricted cargoes are equipped with vapor recovery systems that satisfy these existing requirements.

The U.S. Clean Water Act (“CWA”) prohibits the discharge of oil, hazardous substances and ballast water in U.S. navigable waters unless authorized by a duly-issued permit or exemption, and imposes strict liability in the form of penalties for any unauthorized discharges. The CWA also imposes substantial liability for the costs of removal, remediation and damages and complements the remedies available under OPA and CERCLA. In 2015, the EPA expanded the definition of “waters of the United States” (“WOTUS”), thereby expanding federal authority under the CWA. Following litigation on the revised WOTUS rule, in December 2018, the EPA and Department of the Army proposed a revised, limited definition of WOTUS. In 2019 and 2020, the agencies repealed the prior WOTUS rule and promulgated the Navigable Waters Protection Rule (“NWPR”), which significantly reduced the scope and oversight of EPA and the Department of the Army in traditionally non-navigable waterways. On August 30, 2021, a federal district court in Arizona vacated the NWPR and directed the agencies to replace the rule with the pre-2015 definition. In January 2023, the revised WOTUS rule was codified in place of the vacated NWPR. On May 25, 2023, the United States Supreme Court ruled in the case Sackett v. EPA that only wetlands and permanent bodies of water with a "continuous surface connection" to "traditional interstate navigable waters" are covered by the CWA, further narrowing the application of the WOTUS rule.  On August 2023, the EPA and Department of the Army issued the final WOTUS rule, effective on September 8, 2023, that largely reinstated the pre-2015 definition and applied the Sackett ruling.

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The EPA and the USCG have also enacted rules relating to ballast water discharge, compliance with which requires the installation of equipment on our vessels to treat ballast water before it is discharged or the implementation of other port facility disposal arrangements or procedures at potentially substantial costs, and/or otherwise restrict our vessels from entering U.S. Waters. The EPA will regulate these ballast water discharges and other discharges incidental to the normal operation of certain vessels within United States waters pursuant to the Vessel Incidental Discharge Act (“VIDA”), which was signed into law on December 4, 2018 and replaced the 2013 Vessel General Permit (“VGP”) program (which authorizes discharges incidental to operations of commercial vessels and contains numeric ballast water discharge limits for most vessels to reduce the risk of invasive species in U.S. waters, stringent requirements for scrubbers, and requirements for the use of environmentally acceptable lubricants) and current Coast Guard ballast water management regulations adopted under the U.S. National Invasive Species Act (“NISA”), such as mid-ocean ballast exchange programs and installation of approved USCG technology for all vessels equipped with ballast water tanks bound for U.S. ports or entering U.S. waters. VIDA establishes a new framework for the regulation of vessel incidental discharges under Clean Water Act (CWA), requires the EPA to develop performance standards for those discharges within two years of enactment, and requires the U.S. Coast Guard to develop implementation, compliance and enforcement regulations within two years of EPA’s promulgation of standards. Under VIDA, all provisions of the 2013 VGP and USCG regulations regarding ballast water treatment remain in force and effect until the EPA and U.S. Coast Guard regulations are finalized. Non-military, non-recreational vessels greater than 79 feet in length must continue to comply with the requirements of the VGP, including submission of a Notice of Intent (“NOI”) or retention of a PARI form and submission of annual reports. We have submitted NOIs for our vessels where required. Compliance with the EPA, U.S. Coast Guard and state regulations could require the installation of ballast water treatment equipment on our vessels or the implementation of other port facility disposal procedures at potentially substantial cost, or may otherwise restrict our vessels from entering U.S. waters.

European Union Regulations

In October 2009, the European Union amended a directive to impose criminal sanctions for illicit ship-source discharges of polluting substances, including minor discharges, if committed with intent, recklessly or with serious negligence and the discharges individually or in the aggregate result in deterioration of the quality of water. Aiding and abetting the discharge of a polluting substance may also lead to criminal penalties. The directive applies to all types of vessels, irrespective of their flag, but certain exceptions apply to warships or where human safety or that of the ship is in danger. Criminal liability for pollution may result in substantial penalties or fines and increased civil liability claims. Regulation (EU) 2015/757 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2015 (amending EU Directive 2009/16/EC) governs the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon dioxide emissions from maritime transport, and, subject to some exclusions, requires companies with ships over 5,000 gross tonnage to monitor and report carbon dioxide emissions annually, which may cause us to incur additional expenses.

The European Union has adopted several regulations and directives requiring, among other things, more frequent inspections of high-risk ships, as determined by type, age, and flag as well as the number of times the ship has been detained. The European Union also adopted and extended a ban on substandard ships and enacted a minimum ban period and a definitive ban for repeated offenses. The regulation also provided the European Union with greater authority and control over classification societies, by imposing more requirements on classification societies and providing for fines or penalty payments for organizations that failed to comply. Furthermore, the EU has implemented regulations requiring vessels to use reduced sulfur content fuel for their main and auxiliary engines. The EU Directive 2005/33/EC (amending Directive 1999/32/EC) introduced requirements parallel to those in Annex VI relating to the sulfur content of marine fuels. In addition, the EU imposed a 0.1% maximum sulfur requirement for fuel used by ships at berth in the Baltic, the North Sea and the English Channel (the so called “SOx-Emission Control Area”). As of January 2020, EU member states must also ensure that ships in all EU waters, except the SOx-Emission Control Area, use fuels with a 0.5% maximum sulfur content.

On September 15, 2020, the European Parliament voted to include greenhouse gas emissions from the maritime sector in the European Union’s carbon market, the EU Emissions Trading System (“EU ETS”) as part of its “Fit-for-55” legislation to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030.  This will require shipowners to buy permits to cover these emissions. On December 18, 2022, the Environmental Council and European Parliament agreed on a gradual introduction of obligations for shipping companies to surrender allowances equivalent to a portion of their carbon

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emissions: 40% for verified emissions from 2024, 70% for 2025 and 100% for 2026. Most large vessels will be included in the scope of the EU ETS from the start. Big offshore vessels of 5,000 gross tonnage and above will be included in the 'MRV' on the monitoring, reporting and verification of CO2 emissions from maritime transport regulation from 2025 and in the EU ETS from 2027. General cargo vessels and off-shore vessels between 400-5,000 gross tonnage will be included in the MRV regulation from 2025 and their inclusion in EU ETS will be reviewed in 2026. Furthermore, starting from January 1, 2026, the ETS regulations will expand to include emissions of two additional greenhouse gases: nitrous oxide and methane.  Compliance with the Maritime EU ETS will result in additional compliance and administration costs to properly incorporate the provisions of the Directive into our business routines. Additional EU regulations which are part of the EU’s "Fit-for-55," could also affect our financial position in terms of compliance and administration costs when they take effect.

International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (the “ILO”) is a specialized agency of the UN that has adopted the Maritime Labor Convention 2006 (“MLC 2006”). A Maritime Labor Certificate and a Declaration of Maritime Labor Compliance is required to ensure compliance with the MLC 2006 for all ships that are 500 gross tonnage or over and are either engaged in international voyages or flying the flag of a member and operating from a port, or between ports, in another country. We believe that all our vessels are in substantial compliance with and are certified to meet MLC 2006.

Greenhouse Gas Regulation

Currently, the emissions of greenhouse gases from international shipping are not subject to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which entered into force in 2005 and pursuant to which adopting countries have been required to implement national programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with targets extended through 2020. International negotiations are continuing with respect to a successor to the Kyoto Protocol, and restrictions on shipping emissions may be included in any new treaty. In December 2009, more than 27 nations, including the U.S. and China, signed the Copenhagen Accord, which includes a non-binding commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris resulted in the Paris Agreement, which entered into force on November 4, 2016 and does not directly limit greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The U.S. initially entered into the agreement, but on June 1, 2017, former U.S. President Trump announced that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, and the withdrawal became effective on November 4, 2020. On January 20, 2021, U.S. President Biden signed an executive order to rejoin the Paris Agreement, which the U.S. officially rejoined on February 19, 2021. On April 22, 2021, U.S. President Biden also announced a new target for the U.S. to achieve a 50-52% reduction from 2005 levels in economy-wide net greenhouse pollution by 2030.

At MEPC 70 and MEPC 71, a draft outline of the structure of the initial strategy for developing a comprehensive IMO strategy on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships was approved. In accordance with this roadmap, in April 2018, nations at the MEPC 72 adopted an initial strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The initial strategy identifies “levels of ambition” to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, including (1) decreasing the carbon intensity from ships through implementation of further phases of the EEDI for new ships; (2) reducing carbon dioxide emissions per transport work, as an average across international shipping, by at least 40% by 2030, pursuing efforts towards 70% by 2050, compared to 2008 emission levels; and (3) reducing the total annual greenhouse emissions by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008 while pursuing efforts towards phasing them out entirely. The initial strategy notes that technological innovation, alternative fuels and/or energy sources for international shipping will be integral to achieve the overall ambition. These regulations could cause us to incur additional substantial expenses. At MEPC 77, the Member States agreed to initiate the revision of the Initial IMO Strategy on Reduction of GHG emissions from ships, recognizing the need to strengthen the ambition during the revision process. In July 2023, MEPC 80 adopted a revised strategy, which includes an enhanced common ambition to reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping around or close to 2050, a commitment to ensure an uptake of alternative zero and near-zero greenhouse gas fuels by 2030, as well as i). reducing the total annual greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping by at least 20%, striving for 30%, by 2030,

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compared to 2008; and ii). reducing the total annual greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping by at least 70%, striving for 80%, by 2040, compared to 2008.

The EU made a unilateral commitment to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions from its member states from 20% of 1990 levels by 2020. The EU also committed to reduce its emissions by 20% under the Kyoto Protocol’s second period from 2013 to 2020. Starting in January 2018, large ships over 5,000 gross tonnage calling at EU ports are required to collect and publish data on carbon dioxide emissions and other information. Under the European Climate Law, the EU committed to reduce its net greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 through its “Fit-for-55” legislation package.  As part of this initiative, regulations relating to the inclusion of greenhouse gas emissions from the maritime sector in the European Union’s carbon market, EU ETS, are also forthcoming.

In the United States, the EPA issued a finding that greenhouse gases endanger the public health and safety, adopted regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions from certain mobile sources and proposed regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions from large stationary sources. However, in March 2017, former U.S. President Trump signed an executive order to review and possibly eliminate the EPA’s plan to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and in August 2019, the Administration announced plans to weaken regulations for methane emissions. On August 13, 2020, the EPA released rules rolling back standards to control methane and volatile organic compound emissions from new oil and gas facilities. However, U.S. President Biden directed the EPA to publish a proposed rule suspending, revising, or rescinding certain of these rules. On November 2, 2021, the EPA issued a proposed rule under the CAA designed to reduce methane emissions from oil and gas sources. The proposed rule would reduce 41 million tons of methane emissions between 2023 and 2035 and cut methane emissions in the oil and gas sector by approximately 74 percent compared to emissions from this sector in 2005. EPA issued a supplemental proposed rule in November 2022 to include additional methane reduction measures. On December 2, 2023, the Biden Administration announced the final rule that includes updated and strengthened standards for methane and other air pollutants from new, modified, and reconstructed sources, as well as Emissions Guidelines to assist states in developing plans to limit methane emissions from existing sources. These new regulations could potentially affect our operations.

Any passage of climate control legislation or other regulatory initiatives by the IMO, the EU, the U.S. or other countries where we operate, or any treaty adopted at the international level to succeed the Kyoto Protocol or Paris Agreement, that restricts emissions of greenhouse gases could require us to make significant financial expenditures which we cannot predict with certainty at this time. As of March 31, 2024, fifteen of our ECO-VLGCs, including one of our chartered-in ECO-VLGCs, are equipped with scrubbers and we have contractual commitments related to a scrubber on an additional VLGC as of March 31, 2024. In addition to the added costs, the concern over climate change and regulatory measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may reduce global demand for oil and oil products, which would have an adverse effect on our business, financial results and cash flows.

Even in the absence of climate control legislation, our business may be indirectly affected to the extent that climate change may result in sea level changes or certain weather events. In addition, there may be significant physical effects of climate change from greenhouse gas emissions that have the potential to negatively impact our customers, personnel, and physical assets any of which could adversely impact the demand for our services or our ability to recruit personnel.

Vessel Security Regulations

Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States, there have been a variety of initiatives intended to enhance vessel security such as the U.S. Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (“MTSA”). To implement certain portions of the MTSA, the USCG issued regulations requiring the implementation of certain security requirements aboard vessels operating in waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and at certain ports and facilities, some of which are regulated by the EPA.

Similarly, Chapter XI-2 of the SOLAS Convention imposes detailed security obligations on vessels and port authorities and mandates compliance with the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (“the ISPS Code”). The ISPS Code is designed to enhance the security of ports and ships against terrorism. To trade internationally, a vessel must

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attain an International Ship Security Certificate (“ISSC”) from a recognized security organization approved by the vessel’s flag state. Ships operating without a valid certificate may be detained, expelled from, or refused entry at port until they obtain an ISSC. The various requirements, some of which are found in the SOLAS Convention, include, for example, on-board installation of automatic identification systems to provide a means for the automatic transmission of safety-related information from among similarly equipped ships and shore stations, including information on a ship’s identity, position, course, speed and navigational status; on-board installation of ship security alert systems, which do not sound on the vessel but only alert the authorities on shore; the development of vessel security plans; ship identification number to be permanently marked on a vessel’s hull; a continuous synopsis record kept onboard showing a vessel's history including the name of the ship, the state whose flag the ship is entitled to fly, the date on which the ship was registered with that state, the ship's identification number, the port at which the ship is registered and the name of the registered owner(s) and their registered address; and compliance with flag state security certification requirements

The USCG regulations, intended to align with international maritime security standards, exempt non-U.S. vessels from MTSA vessel security measures, provided such vessels have on board a valid ISSC that attests to the vessel’s compliance with the SOLAS Convention security requirements and the ISPS Code. Future security measures could have a significant financial impact on us. We intend to comply with the various security measures addressed by MTSA, the SOLAS Convention and the ISPS Code.

The cost of vessel security measures has also been affected by the escalation in the frequency of acts of piracy against ships, notably off the coast of Somalia, including the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea area. In addition, certain state actors in the Arabian Gulf have recently seized ships for alleged violations of law, though the veracity of such claims has been doubted. Substantial loss of revenue and other costs may be incurred as a result of detention of a vessel or additional security measures, and the risk of uninsured losses could significantly affect our business. Costs are incurred in taking additional security measures in accordance with Best Management Practices to Deter Piracy, notably those contained in the BMP5 industry standard.

We seek to manage exposure to losses from the above-described environmental and vessel security laws through our development of appropriate risk management programs, including compliance programs, safety management systems and insurance programs, as applicable.

Taxation

The following is a discussion of the material Marshall Islands and United States federal income tax considerations relevant to a United States Holder and a Non-United States Holder, each as defined below, with respect to the common shares. This discussion does not purport to deal with the tax consequences of owning our common shares to all categories of investors, some of which, such as financial institutions, regulated investment companies, real estate investment trusts, tax exempt organizations, insurance companies, persons holding our common stock as part of a hedging, integrated, conversion or constructive sale transaction or a straddle, traders in securities that have elected the mark to market method of accounting for their securities, persons liable for alternative minimum tax, persons subject to the “base erosion and anti-avoidance” tax, persons who are investors in partnerships or other pass through entities for United States federal income tax purposes or hold our common shares through an applicable partnership interest, dealers in securities or currencies, United States Holders whose functional currency is not the United States dollar, investor that are required to recognize income for U.S. federal income tax purposes no later than when such income is included on an “applicable financial statement” and investors that own, actually or under applicable constructive ownership rules, 10% or more of our shares of common stock, may be subject to special rules. This discussion deals only with holders who purchase and hold the common shares as a capital asset. You are encouraged to consult your own tax advisors concerning the overall tax consequences arising in your own particular situation under United States federal, state, local or non-United States law of the ownership of common shares.

Marshall Islands Tax Considerations

In the opinion of Seward & Kissel LLP, the following are the material Marshall Islands tax consequences of our activities to us and of our common shares to our shareholders. We are incorporated in the Marshall Islands. Under current

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Marshall Islands law, we are not subject to tax on income or capital gains, and no Marshall Islands withholding tax will be imposed upon payments of dividends by us to our shareholders.

United States Federal Income Tax Considerations

In the opinion of Seward & Kissel LLP, the following are the material United States federal income tax consequences to us of our activities and to United States Holders and Non-United States Holders, each as defined below, of the common shares. The following discussion of United States federal income tax matters is based on the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986 as in effect as of the date hereof, or the Code, judicial decisions, administrative pronouncements, and existing and proposed regulations issued by the United States Department of the Treasury, or the Treasury Regulations, all of which are subject to change, possibly with retroactive effect. The discussion below is based, in part, on the description of our business as described in this report and assumes that we conduct our business as described herein.

United States Federal Income Taxation of Operating Income: In General

Unless we qualify for an exemption from United States federal income taxation under the rules of Section 883 of the Code, or Section 883, as discussed below, a foreign corporation such as the Company will be subject to United States federal income taxation on its “shipping income” that is treated as derived from sources within the United States, to which we refer as “United States source shipping income.” For United States federal income tax purposes, "United States source shipping income" includes 50% of shipping income that is attributable to transportation that begins or ends, but that does not both begin and end, in the United States.

Shipping income attributable to transportation exclusively between non-United States ports will be considered to be 100% derived from sources entirely outside the United States. Shipping income derived from sources outside the United States will not be subject to any United States federal income tax.

Shipping income attributable to transportation exclusively between United States ports is considered to be 100% derived from United States sources. However, we are not permitted by United States law to engage in the transportation of cargoes that produces 100% United States source shipping income.

Unless we qualify for the exemption from tax under Section 883, our gross United States source shipping income would be subject to a 4% tax imposed without allowance for deductions as described below.

Exemption of Operating Income from United States Federal Income Taxation

Under Section 883 and the Treasury Regulations thereunder, a foreign corporation will be exempt from United States federal income taxation of its United States source shipping income if:

1)it is organized in a “qualified foreign country” which is one that grants an "equivalent exemption" from tax to corporations organized in the United States in respect of each category of shipping income for which exemption is being claimed under Section 883; and

2)one of the following tests is met:

A)more than 50% of the value of its shares is beneficially owned, directly or indirectly, by “qualified shareholders,” which as defined includes individuals who are “residents” of a qualified foreign country, to which we refer as the “50% Ownership Test”; or

B)its shares are “primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market” in a qualified foreign country or in the United States, to which we refer as the “Publicly-Traded Test.”

The Republic of the Marshall Islands, the jurisdiction where we and our ship-owning subsidiaries are incorporated, has been officially recognized by the United States Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, as a qualified

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foreign country that grants the requisite “equivalent exemption” from tax in respect of each category of shipping income we earn and currently expect to earn in the future. Therefore, we will be exempt from United States federal income taxation with respect to our United States source shipping income if we satisfy either the 50% Ownership Test or the Publicly-Traded Test.

We believe that we satisfy the Publicly-Traded Test, a factual determination made on an annual basis, with respect to our taxable year ended March 31, 2024, and we expect to continue to do so for our subsequent taxable years, and we intend to take this position for United States federal income tax reporting purposes. We do not currently anticipate circumstances under which we would be able to satisfy the 50% Ownership Test.

Publicly-Traded Test

The Treasury Regulations under Section 883 provide, in pertinent part, that shares of a foreign corporation will be considered to be “primarily traded” on an established securities market in a country if the number of shares of each class of stock that are traded during any taxable year on all established securities markets in that country exceeds the number of shares in each such class that are traded during that year on established securities markets in any other single country. The Company’s common shares, which constitute its sole class of issued and outstanding stock is “primarily traded” on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE, an established securities market for these purposes.

Under the Treasury Regulations, our common shares will be considered to be “regularly traded” on an established securities market if one or more classes of our shares representing more than 50% of our outstanding stock, by both total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote and total value, are listed on such market, to which we refer as the “listing threshold.” Since all of our common shares are listed on the NYSE, we expect to satisfy the listing threshold.

The Treasury Regulations also require that with respect to each class of stock relied upon to meet the listing threshold, (i) such class of stock traded on the market, other than in minimal quantities, on at least 60 days during the taxable year or one-sixth of the days in a short taxable year, which we refer to as the “trading frequency test”; and (ii) the aggregate number of shares of such class of stock traded on such market during the taxable year must be at least 10% of the average number of shares of such class of stock outstanding during such year or as appropriately adjusted in the case of a short taxable year, which we refer to as the “trading volume” test. We anticipate that we will satisfy the trading frequency and trading volume tests. Even if this were not the case, the Treasury Regulations provide that the trading frequency and trading volume tests will be deemed satisfied if, as is expected to be the case with our common shares, such class of stock is traded on an established securities market in the United States and such shares are regularly quoted by dealers making a market in such shares.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Treasury Regulations provide, in pertinent part, that a class of shares will not be considered to be “regularly traded” on an established securities market for any taxable year in which 50% or more of the vote and value of the outstanding shares of such class are owned on more than half the days during the taxable year by persons who each own 5% or more of the vote and value of such class of outstanding stock, to which we refer as the "5% Override Rule."

For purposes of being able to determine the persons who actually or constructively own 5% or more of the vote and value of our common shares, or “5% Shareholders,” the Treasury Regulations permit us to rely on those persons that are identified on Schedule 13G and Schedule 13D filings with the Commission, as owning 5% or more of our common shares. The Treasury Regulations further provide that an investment company which is registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, will not be treated as a 5% Shareholder for such purposes.

In the event the 5% Override Rule is triggered, the Treasury Regulations provide that the 5% Override Rule will nevertheless not apply if we can establish that within the group of 5% Shareholders, qualified shareholders (as defined for purposes of Section 883) own sufficient number of shares to preclude non-qualified shareholders in such group from owning 50% or more of our common shares for more than half the number of days during the taxable year.

We believe that we satisfy the Publicly-Traded Test and will not be subject to the 5% Override Rule for taxable year ended March 31, 2024 and we also expect to continue to do so for our subsequent taxable years. However, there are

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factual circumstances beyond our control that could cause us to lose the benefit of the Section 883 exemption. For example, we may no longer qualify for Section 883 exemption for a particular taxable year if 5% Shareholders were to own, in the aggregate, 50% or more of our outstanding common shares on more than half the days of the taxable year, unless we could establish that within the group of 5% Shareholders, qualified shareholders own sufficient number of our shares to preclude the non-qualified shareholders in such group from owning 50% or more of our common shares for more than half the number of days during the taxable year. Under the Treasury Regulations, we would have to satisfy certain substantiation requirements regarding the identity of our shareholders. These requirements are onerous and there is no assurance that we would be able to satisfy them. Given the factual nature of the issues involved, we can give no assurances in regards of our or our subsidiaries' qualification for the Section 883 exemption.

Taxation in Absence of Section 883 Exemption

If the benefits of Section 883 are unavailable, our United States source shipping income would be subject to a 4% tax imposed by Section 887 of the Code on a gross basis, without the benefit of deductions, or the “4% gross basis tax regime,” to the extent that such income is not considered to be “effectively connected” with the conduct of a United States trade or business, as described below. Since under the sourcing rules described above, no more than 50% of our shipping income would be treated as being United States source shipping income, the maximum effective rate of United States federal income tax on our shipping income would never exceed 2% under the 4% gross basis tax regime.

To the extent our United States source shipping income is considered to be “effectively connected” with the conduct of a United States trade or business, as described below, any such "effectively connected" United States source shipping income, net of applicable deductions, would be subject to United States federal income tax, currently imposed at a rate of 21%. In addition, we would generally be subject to the 30% "branch profits" tax on earnings effectively connected with the conduct of such trade or business, as determined after allowance for certain adjustments, and on certain interest paid or deemed paid attributable to the conduct of our United States trade or business.

Our United States source shipping income would be considered “effectively connected” with the conduct of a United States trade or business only if:

we have, or are considered to have, a fixed place of business in the United States involved in the earning of United States source shipping income; and

substantially all of our United States source shipping income is attributable to regularly scheduled transportation, such as the operation of a vessel that follows a published schedule with repeated sailings at regular intervals between the same points for voyages that begin or end in the United States.

We do not intend to have, or permit circumstances that would result in having, any vessel sailing to or from the United States on a regularly scheduled basis. Based on the foregoing and on the expected mode of our shipping operations and other activities, it is anticipated that none of our United States source shipping income will be “effectively connected” with the conduct of a United States trade or business.

United States Taxation of Gain on Sale of Vessels

Regardless of whether we qualify for exemption under Section 883, we will not be subject to United States federal income tax with respect to gain realized on a sale of a vessel, provided the sale is considered to occur outside of the United States under United States federal income tax principles. In general, a sale of a vessel will be considered to occur outside of the United States for this purpose if title to the vessel, and risk of loss with respect to the vessel, pass to the buyer outside of the United States. It is expected that any sale of a vessel by us will be considered to occur outside of the United States.

United States Federal Income Taxation of United States Holders

As used herein, the term “United States Holder” means a holder that for United States federal income tax purposes is a beneficial owner of common shares and is an individual United States citizen or resident, a United States corporation or other United States entity taxable as a corporation, an estate the income of which is subject to United States federal

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income taxation regardless of its source, or a trust if a court within the United States is able to exercise primary jurisdiction over the administration of the trust and one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust.

If a partnership holds the common shares, the tax treatment of a partner will generally depend upon the status of the partner and upon the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner in a partnership holding the common shares, you are encouraged to consult your tax advisor.

Distributions

Subject to the discussion of passive foreign investment companies below, any distributions made by us with respect to our common shares to a United States Holder will generally constitute dividends to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under United States federal income tax principles. Distributions in excess of such earnings and profits will be treated first as a nontaxable return of capital to the extent of the United States Holder’s tax basis in its common shares and thereafter as capital gain. Because we are not a United States corporation, United States Holders that are corporations will generally not be entitled to claim a dividends-received deduction with respect to any distributions they receive from us. Dividends paid with respect to our common shares will generally be treated as foreign source dividend income and will generally constitute “passive category income” for purposes of computing allowable foreign tax credits for United States foreign tax credit purposes.

Dividends paid on our common shares to certain non-corporate United States Holders will generally be treated as “qualified dividend income” that is taxable to such United States Holders at preferential tax rates provided that (1) the common shares are readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States (such as the NYSE, on which our common shares will be traded), (2) the shareholder has owned the common stock for more than 60 days in the 121-day period beginning 60 days before the date on which the common stock becomes ex-dividend, and (3) we are not a passive foreign investment company for the taxable year during which the dividend is paid or the immediately preceding taxable year.

There is no assurance that any dividends paid on our common shares will be eligible for these preferential rates in the hands of such non-corporate United States Holders, although, as described above, we expect such dividends to be so eligible provided an eligible non-corporate United States Holder meets all applicable requirements and we are not a passive foreign passive investment company in the taxable year during which the dividend is paid or the immediately preceding taxable year. Any dividends paid by us which are not eligible for these preferential rates will be taxed as ordinary income to a non-corporate United States Holder.

Special rules may apply to any “extraordinary dividend”—generally, a dividend in an amount which is equal to or in excess of 10% of a shareholder’s adjusted tax basis or dividends received within a one-year period that, in the aggregate, equal or exceed 20% of a shareholder's adjusted tax basis (or fair market value upon the shareholder's election) in a common share—paid by us. If we pay an “extraordinary dividend” on our common shares that is treated as “qualified dividend income,” then any loss derived by certain non-corporate United States Holders from the sale or exchange of such common shares will be treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of such dividend.

Sale, Exchange or Other Disposition of Common Shares

Assuming we do not constitute a passive foreign investment company for any taxable year, a United States Holder generally will recognize taxable gain or loss upon a sale, exchange or other disposition of our common shares in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized by the United States Holder from such sale, exchange or other disposition and the United States Holder’s tax basis in such shares. Such gain or loss will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the United States Holder’s holding period is greater than one year at the time of the sale, exchange or other disposition. Such capital gain or loss will generally be treated as United States source income or loss, as applicable, for United States foreign tax credit purposes. Long-term capital gains of certain non-corporate United States Holders are currently eligible for reduced rates of taxation. A United States Holder’s ability to deduct capital losses is subject to certain limitations.

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Passive Foreign Investment Company Status and Significant Tax Consequences

Special United States federal income tax rules apply to a United States Holder that holds shares in a foreign corporation classified as a “passive foreign investment company,” or a PFIC, for United States federal income tax purposes. In general, we will be treated as a PFIC with respect to a United States Holder if, for any taxable year in which such holder holds our common shares, either:

at least 75% of our gross income for such taxable year consists of passive income (e.g., dividends, interest, capital gains and rents derived other than in the active conduct of a rental business); or

at least 50% of the average value of our assets during such taxable year produce, or are held for the production of, passive income.

For purposes of determining whether we are a PFIC, we will be treated as earning and owning our proportionate share of the income and assets, respectively, of any of our ship-owning subsidiaries in which we own at least 25% of the value of the subsidiary's stock. Income earned, or deemed earned, by us in connection with the performance of services would not constitute passive income. By contrast, rental income would generally constitute "passive income" unless we were treated under specific rules as deriving our rental income in the active conduct of a trade or business.

We believe that income we earn from the voyage charters, and also from time charters, for the reasons discussed below, will be treated as active income for PFIC purposes and as a result, we intend to take the position that we satisfy the 75% income test for our taxable year ended March 31, 2024.

Based on our current and anticipated operations, we do not believe that we will be treated as a PFIC for our taxable year ended March 31, 2024 or subsequent taxable years, and we intend to take such position for our United States federal income tax reporting purposes. Our belief is based principally on the position that the gross income we derive from our voyage or time chartering activities should constitute services income, rather than rental income. Accordingly, such income should not constitute passive income, and the assets that we own and operate in connection with the production of such income, in particular, the vessels, should not constitute passive assets for purposes of determining whether we are a PFIC. There is substantial legal authority supporting this position consisting of case law and IRS pronouncements concerning the characterization of income derived from time charters as services income for other tax purposes. However, there is also authority which characterizes time charter income as rental income rather than services income for other tax purposes. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the IRS or a court of law will accept this position, and there is a risk that the IRS or a court of law could determine that we are a PFIC. In addition, although we intend to conduct our affairs in a manner to avoid being classified as a PFIC with respect to any taxable year, we cannot assure you that the nature of our operations will not change in the future.

As discussed more fully below, for any taxable year in which we are, or were to be treated as, a PFIC, a United States Holder would be subject to different taxation rules depending on whether the United States Holder makes an election to treat us as a "Qualified Electing Fund," which election we refer to as a “QEF election.” As an alternative to making a QEF election, a United States Holder should be able to make a “mark-to-market” election with respect to our common shares, as discussed below. A United States holder of shares in a PFIC will be required to file an annual information return containing information regarding the PFIC as required by applicable Treasury Regulations. We intend to promptly notify our shareholders if we determine we are a PFIC for any taxable year.

Taxation of United States Holders Making a Timely QEF Election

If a United States Holder makes a timely QEF election, which United States Holder we refer to as an “Electing Holder,” the Electing Holder must report for United States federal income tax purposes its pro rata share of our ordinary earnings and net capital gain, if any, for each of our taxable years during which we are a PFIC that ends with or within the taxable year of the Electing Holder, regardless of whether distributions were received from us by the Electing Holder. No portion of any such inclusions of ordinary earnings will be treated as “qualified dividend income.” Net capital gain inclusions of certain non-corporate United States Holders would be eligible for preferential capital gains tax rates. The Electing Holder's adjusted tax basis in the common shares will be increased to reflect any income included under the QEF

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election. Distributions of previously taxed income will not be subject to tax upon distribution but will decrease the Electing Holder's tax basis in the common shares. An Electing Holder would not, however, be entitled to a deduction for its pro rata share of any losses that we incur with respect to any taxable year. An Electing Holder would generally recognize capital gain or loss on the sale, exchange or other disposition of our common shares. A United States Holder would make a timely QEF election for our common shares by filing one copy of IRS Form 8621 with his United States federal income tax return for the first year in which he held such shares when we were a PFIC. If we take the position that we are not a PFIC for any taxable year, and it is later determined that we were a PFIC for such taxable year, it may be possible for a United States Holder to make a retroactive QEF election effective for such year. If we determine that we are a PFIC for any taxable year, we will provide each United States Holder with all necessary information required for the United States Holder to make the QEF election and to report its pro rata share of our ordinary earnings and net capital gain, if any, for each of our taxable years during which we are a PFIC that ends with or within the taxable year of the Electing Holder as described above.

Taxation of United States Holders Making a "Mark-to-Market" Election

Alternatively, for any taxable year in which we determine that we are a PFIC, and, assuming as we anticipate will be the case, our shares are treated as "marketable stock," a United States Holder would be allowed to make a “mark-to-market” election with respect to our common shares, provided the United States Holder completes and files IRS Form 8621 in accordance with the relevant instructions and related Treasury Regulations. If that election is made, the United States Holder generally would include as ordinary income in each taxable year the excess, if any, of the fair market value of the common shares at the end of the taxable year over such Holder's adjusted tax basis in the common shares. The United States Holder would also be permitted an ordinary loss in respect of the excess, if any, of the United States Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the common shares over its fair market value at the end of the taxable year, but only to the extent of the net amount previously included in income as a result of the mark-to-market election. A United States Holder's tax basis in his common shares would be adjusted to reflect any such income or loss amount recognized. In a year when we are a PFIC, any gain realized on the sale, exchange or other disposition of our common shares would be treated as ordinary income, and any loss realized on the sale, exchange or other disposition of the common shares would be treated as ordinary loss to the extent that such loss does not exceed the net mark-to-market gains previously included by the United States Holder.

Taxation of United States Holders Not Making a Timely QEF or Mark-to-Market Election

For any taxable year in which we determine that we are a PFIC, a United States Holder who does not make either a QEF election or a “mark-to-market” election for that year, whom we refer to as a “Non-Electing Holder,” would be subject to special rules with respect to (i) any excess distribution (i.e., the portion of any distributions received by the Non-Electing Holder on the common shares in a taxable year in excess of 125% of the average annual distributions received by the Non-Electing Holder in the three preceding taxable years, or, if shorter, the Non-Electing Holder’s holding period for the common shares), and (ii) any gain realized on the sale, exchange or other disposition of our common shares. Under these special rules:

the excess distribution or gain would be allocated ratably over the Non-Electing Holder’s aggregate holding period for the common shares;

the amount allocated to the current taxable year, and any taxable year prior to the first taxable year in which we were a PFIC, would be taxed as ordinary income and would not be “qualified dividend income”; and

the amount allocated to each of the other taxable years would be subject to tax at the highest rate of tax in effect for the applicable class of taxpayer for that year, and an interest charge for the deemed tax deferral benefit would be imposed with respect to the resulting tax attributable to each such other taxable year.

United States Federal Income Taxation of “Non-United States Holders”

As used herein, the term “Non-United States Holder” means a holder that, for United States federal income tax purposes, is a beneficial owner of common shares (other than a partnership) that is not a United States Holder.

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If a partnership holds our common shares, the tax treatment of a partner will generally depend upon the status of the partner and upon the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner in a partnership holding our common shares, you are encouraged to consult your tax advisor.

Dividends on Common Shares

Subject to the discussion of backup withholding below, a Non-United States Holder generally will not be subject to United States federal income or withholding tax on dividends received from us with respect to our common shares, unless:

the dividend income is effectively connected with the Non-United States Holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States; or

the Non-United States Holder is an individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of receipt of the dividend income and other conditions are met.

Sale, Exchange or Other Disposition of Common Shares

Subject to the discussion of backup withholding below, a Non-United States Holder generally will not be subject to United States federal income or withholding tax on any gain realized upon the sale, exchange or other disposition of our common shares, unless:

the gain is effectively connected with the Non-United States Holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States; or

the Non-United States Holder is an individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of disposition and other conditions are met.

Income or Gains Effectively Connected with a United States Trade or Business

If the Non-United States Holder is engaged in a United States trade or business for United States federal income tax purposes, dividends on our common shares and gain from the sale, exchange or other disposition of our common shares, that are effectively connected with the conduct of that trade or business (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, is attributable to a United States permanent establishment), will generally be subject to regular United States federal income tax in the same manner as discussed in the previous section relating to the taxation of United States Holders. In addition, in the case of a corporate Non-United States Holder, its earnings and profits that are attributable to the effectively connected income, which are subject to certain adjustments, may be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a rate of 30%, or at a lower rate as may be specified by an applicable United States income tax treaty.

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

In general, dividend payments, or other taxable distributions, and the payment of the gross proceeds on a sale of our common shares, made within the United States to a non-corporate United States Holder will be subject to information reporting. Such payments or distributions may also be subject to backup withholding if the non-corporate United States Holder:

fails to provide an accurate taxpayer identification number;

is notified by the IRS that it has have failed to report all interest or dividends required to be shown on its federal income tax returns; or

in certain circumstances, fails to comply with applicable certification requirements.

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Non-United States Holders may be required to establish their exemption from information reporting and backup withholding with respect to dividends payments or other taxable distribution on our common shares by certifying their status on an appropriate IRS Form W-8. If a Non-United States Holder sells our common shares to or through a United States office of a broker, the payment of the proceeds is subject to both United States backup withholding and information reporting unless the Non-United States Holder certifies that it is a non-United States person, under penalties of perjury, or it otherwise establish an exemption. If a Non-United States Holder sells our common shares through a Non-United States office of a Non-United States broker and the sales proceeds are paid outside the United States, then information reporting and backup withholding generally will not apply to that payment. However, United States information reporting requirements, but not backup withholding, will apply to a payment of sales proceeds, even if that payment is made outside the United States, if a Non-United States Holder sells our common shares through a Non-United States office of a broker that is a United States person or has some other contacts with the United States. Such information reporting requirements will not apply, however, if the broker has documentary evidence in its records that the Non-United States Holder is not a United States person and certain other conditions are met, or the Non-United States Holder otherwise establishes an exemption.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Rather, a refund may generally be obtained of any amounts withheld under backup withholding rules that exceed the taxpayer's United States federal income tax liability by filing a timely refund claim with the IRS.

Individuals who are United States Holders (and to the extent specified in applicable Treasury regulations, Non-United States Holders and certain United States entities) who hold “specified foreign financial assets” (as defined in Section 6038D of the Code) are required to file IRS Form 8938 with information relating to the asset for each taxable year in which the aggregate value of all such assets exceeds $75,000 at any time during the taxable year or $50,000 on the last day of the taxable year (or such higher dollar amount as prescribed by applicable Treasury Regulations). Specified foreign financial assets would include, among other assets, our common shares, unless the common shares are held in an account maintained with a United States financial institution. Substantial penalties apply to any failure to timely file IRS Form 8938, unless the failure is shown to be due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. Additionally, in the event an individual United States Holder (and to the extent specified in applicable Treasury Regulations, a Non-United States Holder or a United States entity) that is required to file IRS Form 8938 does not file such form, the statute of limitations on the assessment and collection of United States federal income taxes of such holder for the related tax year may not close until three years after the date that the required information is filed. United States Holders (including United States entities) and Non-United States Holders are encouraged consult their own tax advisors regarding their reporting obligations in respect of our common shares.

Available Information

Our website is located at www.dorianlpg.com. Information included on or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this Annual Report. Our goal is to maintain our website as a portal through which investors can easily find or navigate to pertinent information about us, including our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, and any other reports, after we file them with the Commission. The public may obtain a copy of our filings, free of charge, through our corporate internet website as soon as reasonably practicable after we have electronically filed such material with, or furnished it to, the Commission. Additionally, these materials, including this Annual Report and the accompanying exhibits are available from the Commission’s website http://www.sec.gov.

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ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS

The following risks relate principally to us and our business and the industry in which we operate. Other risks relate principally to the securities markets and ownership of our common shares. Any of the risk factors described below could significantly and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and our ability to pay dividends, and lower the trading price of our common shares.

Summary of Risk Factors

The following is a summary of the risk factors you should be aware of before making a decision to invest in our common stock. This summary does not address all the risks we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized in this risk factor summary, and other risks we face, can be found below in this risk factor section and should be carefully considered, together with other information in this Annual Report and other filings with the Commission, before making an investment decision regarding our common stock.

Risks Relating to Our Company

We, and the Helios Pool, operate exclusively in the VLGC segment of the LPG shipping industry. Due to the general lack of industry diversification, adverse developments in the VLGC segment of the LPG shipping industry may adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Seasonal and other fluctuations in respect of spot market charter rates have had in the past and may have in the future a negative effect on our revenues, results of operations and cash flows.
We and/or our pool managers may not be able to successfully secure employment for our vessels or vessels in the Helios Pool, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We face substantial competition in trying to expand relationships with existing and new customers.
We, and the Helios Pool, are subject to risks with respect to counterparties which could cause us to suffer losses or negatively impact our results of operations and cash flows.
We expect to be dependent on a limited number of customers for a material part of our revenues.
Restrictions on VLGC transits and increased toll charges at the Panama Canal may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our indebtedness and financial obligations may adversely affect our operational flexibility.
Our existing and future debt and financing agreements contain and are expected to contain restrictive covenants that may limit our liquidity and corporate activities.
We may be adversely affected by developments and exposed to volatility in the SOFR market.
We have and may in the future selectively enter into derivative contracts and forward freight agreements, which can result in higher than market interest rates, lower than market freight rates, and charges against our income and could result in losses.
Because we generate all of our revenues in U.S. dollars but incur a portion of our expenses in other currencies, exchange rate fluctuations could adversely affect our results of operations.
If we fail to manage our growth properly or effectively time investments, we may incur significant expenses and losses and prevent the implementation of our business strategy.
If our fleet grows in size, we may need to update our operations and financial systems and recruit additional staff and crew.
We may be unable to attract and retain key personnel without incurring substantial expense.
Our directors and officers may in the future hold direct or indirect interests in companies that compete with us.
Our business and operations involve inherent operating risks, and our insurance and indemnities from our customers may not be adequate to cover potential losses from our operations.
We may be unable to procure adequate insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates in the future and may be required to make additional premium payments.
We may incur increasing costs for the drydocking, maintenance or replacement of our vessels as they age, and, the risks associated with older vessels could adversely affect our ability to obtain profitable charters.
If we purchase secondhand vessels, we will be exposed to increased costs.
Certain shareholders have a substantial ownership stake in us, and their interests could conflict with the interests

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of our other shareholders.
United States tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company.”
Changes in tax laws and unanticipated tax liabilities, including if we have to pay tax on United States source shipping income, could materially and adversely affect the taxes we pay, results of operations and financial results.

Risks Relating to Our Industry

The cyclical nature of seaborne LPG transportation may lead to significant changes in charter rates, vessel utilization and vessel values, which may adversely affect our revenues, profitability and financial condition.
A shift in consumer demand from LPG towards other energy sources or changes to trade patterns may have a material adverse effect on our business.
The market values of our vessels may fluctuate significantly.
The IMO 2020 regulations have and may continue to cause us to incur substantial costs and to procure low-sulfur fuel oil directly on the wholesale market for storage at sea and onward consumption on our vessels.
New environmental regulations stipulated by the International Maritime Organization could lead to additional costs.
Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders and other market participants with respect to our ESG policies may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.
General economic, political and regulatory conditions, as well as macroeconomic conditions, could materially adversely affect our business, financial position and results of operations, as well as our future prospects.
The state of global financial markets and general economic conditions, as well as the perceived impact of emissions by our vessels on the climate may adversely impact our ability to obtain financing or refinancing.
Our operating results are subject to seasonal fluctuations, which could affect our operating results.
Future technological innovation could reduce our charter hire income and the value of our vessels.
Changes in fuel, or bunker, prices may adversely affect profits.
We are subject to regulations and liabilities, including environmental laws and restrictions, which could require significant expenditures and adversely affect our financial conditions and results of operations.
If our vessels call on ports located in countries or territories that are subject to sanctions or embargoes, it could lead to monetary fines or penalties and/or adversely affect our reputation and the market for our common shares.
Our vessels are subject to periodic inspections.
Maritime claimants could arrest and governments could requisition our vessels.
The operation of ocean-going vessels is inherently risky, and an incident resulting in significant loss or environmental consequences involving any of our vessels could harm our reputation and business.
We may be subject to litigation that could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels could adversely affect our business.
Our operations outside the United States expose us to global risks, such as political instability, terrorism, war, international hostilities, including as a result of the ongoing conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East, and global public health concerns, which may interfere with the operation of our vessels.
Outbreaks of epidemic and pandemic diseases could adversely affect our business.
If labor or other interruptions are not resolved in a timely manner, such interruptions could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
Information technology failures and data security breaches, including as a result of cybersecurity attacks, could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition and expose us to litigation.

Risks Relating to Our Common Shares

The price of our common shares has fluctuated in the past, has recently been volatile and may be volatile in the future, and as a result, investors in our common shares could incur substantial losses.
Although we may have paid irregular dividends in the past, there can be no assurance that we will or will be able to pay any dividends in the future. A reduction in or elimination of dividends could cause investors in our common shares to incur substantial losses.

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Although we have initiated a stock repurchase program, we cannot assure you that we will continue to repurchase shares or that we will repurchase shares at favorable prices.
We are a holding company and depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us in order to satisfy our financial obligations and to make dividend payments.
A future sale of shares by major shareholders may reduce the share price.
The Republic of the Marshall Islands does not have a well-developed body of corporate law.
It may be difficult to enforce a United States judgment against us, our officers and our directors.
Our organizational documents contain anti-takeover provisions.

Risks Relating to Our Company

We, and the Helios Pool, operate exclusively in the VLGC segment of the LPG shipping industry. Due to the general lack of industry diversification, adverse developments in the VLGC segment of the LPG shipping industry may adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

We currently rely almost exclusively on the cash flow generated from the vessels in our fleet, all of which are VLGCs operating in the LPG shipping industry (including through the Helios Pool). Unlike some other shipping companies, which have vessels of varying sizes that can carry different cargoes, such as containers, dry bulk, crude oil and oil products, we focus and may continue to focus exclusively on VLGCs transporting LPG. Similarly, the Helios Pool also depends exclusively on the cash flow generated from VLGCs operating in the LPG shipping industry. General lack of industry diversification makes us vulnerable to adverse developments in the LPG shipping industry, which would have a significantly greater impact on our business, financial condition and operating results than such lack of diversification would if we or the Helios Pool owned and operated more diverse assets or engaged in more diverse lines of business.

On November 24, 2023 we entered into an agreement for a newbuilding VLGC/AC, which is expected to be delivered in the third calendar quarter of 2026. The delivery of the VLGC/AC will mark our departure from operations exclusively in the LPG shipping industry and we may not be able to realize the benefits from our investment in the ammonia transportation sector. For more information, see “If we fail to manage our growth properly, we may incur significant expenses and losses.”

Seasonal and other fluctuations in respect of spot market charter rates have had in the past and may have in the future a negative effect on our revenues, results of operations and cash flows.

Currently, twenty-four vessels from our fleet, including our four time chartered-in vessels, operate in the Helios Pool, which employs vessels on short-term time charters, COAs, or in the spot market, the latter of which exposes us to fluctuations in spot market charter rates. We also employ one of our VLGCs on a fixed time charter outside of the Helios Pool. As these fixed time charters expire, we may employ these vessels in the spot market.

Generally, VLGC spot market rates are highly seasonal, typically demonstrating strength in the second and third calendar quarters as suppliers build inventory for high consumption during the northern hemisphere winter. However, 12-month time charter rates tend to smooth out these short-term fluctuations and recent LPG shipping market activity has not yielded the expected seasonal results.

The spot charter market may fluctuate significantly based upon LPG and LPG vessel supply and demand. The successful operation of our vessels in the competitive and highly volatile spot charter market depends on, among other things, obtaining profitable spot charters and minimizing, to the extent possible, time spent waiting for charters and time spent traveling in ballast to pick up cargo. The spot market is very volatile and there have been and will be periods when spot charter rates decline below the operating cost of vessels. If future spot charter rates decline, we may be unable to operate our vessels trading in the spot market profitably, meet our obligations, including payments on indebtedness, or pay any dividends in the future. Furthermore, as charter rates for spot charters are fixed for a single voyage which may last up to several weeks, during periods in which spot charter rates are rising, we will generally experience delays in realizing the benefits from such increases. If spot charter rates decline in the future, then we may not be able to profitably operate our

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vessels trading in the spot market or participating in the Helios Pool; meet our obligations, including payments on indebtedness; or pay dividends.

Further, although our one fixed time charter outside of the Helios Pool generally provides reliable revenues, it also limits the portion of our fleet available for spot market voyages during an upswing in the market, when spot market voyages might be more profitable. Conversely, when the current charter for the one vessel in our fleet on a fixed time charter outside of the Helios Pool expires (or if such charter is terminated early), we may not be able to re-charter this vessel at similar or higher rates, or at all. As a result, we may have to accept lower rates or experience off hire time for our vessels, which would adversely impact our revenues, results of operations and financial condition.

We and/or our pool managers may not be able to successfully secure employment for our vessels or vessels in the Helios Pool, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

As of May 23, 2024, twenty-four of our vessels, including our four time chartered-in vessels, are operating within the Helios Pool, which employs vessels on short-term time charters, COAs, or in the spot market, and one of our vessels is on a fixed time charter outside of the Helios Pool that expires in the fourth calendar quarter of 2024. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in finding employment for our vessels in the spot market, on time charters or otherwise, or that any employment will be at profitable rates. Moreover, as vessels entered into the Helios Pool are commercially managed by our wholly-owned subsidiary and MOL Energia, we also cannot assure you that we or they will be successful in finding employment for the vessels in the Helios Pool or that any employment will be profitable. Any inability to locate suitable employment for our vessels or the vessels in the Helios Pool could affect our general financial condition, results of operation and cash flow as well as the availability of financing.

We face substantial competition in trying to expand relationships with existing customers and obtain new customers.

The process of obtaining new charter agreements is highly competitive and generally involves an intensive screening and competitive bidding process, which, in certain cases, extends for several months. Contracts in the time charter market are awarded based upon a variety of factors, including:

the size, age, fuel efficiency, emissions levels, and condition of a vessel;

the charter rates offered;

the operator’s industry relationships, experience and reputation for customer service, quality operations and safety;

the quality, experience and technical capability of the crew;

the experience of the crew with the operator and type of vessel;

the operator’s relationships with shipyards and the ability to get suitable berths;

the operator’s construction management experience, including the ability to obtain on-time delivery of new vessels according to customer specifications; and

the operator's willingness to accept operational risks pursuant to the charter, such as allowing termination of the charter for force majeure events.

Contracts in the spot market are awarded based upon a variety of factors as well, and include:

location of the vessel;

attractiveness of the contractual terms of the voyage charter agreement; and

competitiveness of the charter rate offered.

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Our vessels, and the vessels operating in the Helios Pool, operate in a highly competitive market and we expect substantial competition for providing transportation services from a number of companies (both LPG vessel owners and operators). We anticipate that an increasing number of maritime transport companies, including many with strong reputations and extensive resources and experience, has entered or will enter the LPG shipping market. Our existing and potential competitors may have significantly greater financial resources than us. In addition, competitors with greater resources may have larger fleets, or could operate larger fleets through consolidations, acquisitions, newbuildings or pooling of their vessels with other companies, and, therefore, may be able to offer a more competitive service than us or the Helios Pool, including better charter rates. We expect competition from a number of experienced companies providing contracts for gas transportation services to potential LPG customers, including state-sponsored entities and major energy companies affiliated with the projects requiring shipping services. As a result, we (including the Helios Pool) may be unable to expand our relationships with existing customers or to obtain new customers on a profitable basis, if at all, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We and the Helios Pool are subject to risks with respect to counterparties, and failure of such counterparties to meet their obligations could cause us to suffer losses or negatively impact our results of operations and cash flows.

We have entered into, and expect to enter into in the future, various contracts that are material to the operation of our business, including charter agreements, COAs, shipbuilding contracts, credit facilities and financing arrangements, including leasing arrangements, that subject us to counterparty risks. Similarly, the Helios Pool has entered into, and expects to enter into in the future, various contracts, including charters and COAs, that subject it to counterparty risks. The ability and willingness of our and the Helios Pool’s counterparties to perform their obligations under any contract will depend on a number of factors that are beyond our control and may include, among other things, general economic conditions, the condition of the maritime and LPG industries, the overall financial condition of the counterparty, charter rates for specific types of vessels, and various expenses. For example, a reduction of cash flow resulting from declines in world trade or the lack of availability of debt or equity financing may result in a significant reduction in the ability of our charterers or the Helios Pool’s charterers to make required charter payments. In addition, in depressed market conditions, charterers and customers may no longer need a vessel that is then under charter or contract or may be able to obtain a comparable vessel at lower rates. As a result, charterers and customers may seek to renegotiate the terms of their existing charter agreements or avoid their obligations under those contracts. Should a counterparty fail to honor its obligations under agreements with us or the Helios Pool, we could sustain significant losses and a significant reduction in the charter hire we earn from the Helios Pool, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders in the amounts anticipated or at all.

Although we assess the creditworthiness of our counterparties, a prolonged period of difficult industry conditions could lead to changes in a counterparty’s liquidity and increase our exposure to credit risk and bad debts. In addition, we may offer extended payment terms to our customers in order to secure contracts, which may lead to more frequent collection issues and adversely affect our financial results and liquidity.

We expect to be dependent on a limited number of customers for a material part of our revenues, and failure of such customers to meet their obligations could cause us to suffer losses or negatively impact our results of operations and cash flows.

For the year ended March 31, 2024, the Helios Pool accounted for 95% of our total revenues. No other individual charterer accounted for more than 10%. Within the Helios Pool, one charterer represented more than 10% of net pool revenues—related party for the year ended March 31, 2024. We expect that a material portion of our revenues will continue to be derived from a limited number of customers. The ability of each of our customers to perform their obligations under a contract with us will depend on a number of factors that are beyond our control. Should the aforementioned customers fail to honor their obligations under agreements with us or the Helios Pool, we could sustain material losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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Restrictions on VLGC transits and increased toll charges at the Panama Canal may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

In June 2016, the expansion of the Panama Canal, or the Canal, was completed. The new locks allow the Canal to accommodate significantly larger vessels, including VLGCs, which we operate. Since the completion of the Canal, transit from the United States Gulf to Asia, an important trade route for our customers, has been shortened by approximately 15 days compared to transiting via the Cape of Good Hope. According to industry sources, over 90% of the US-to-Asia LPG voyages had switched to the Canal by November 2016 and the majority of USA-to-Asia LPG voyages continue to utilize the Panama Canal as of the date of this Annual Report. With increased traffic, the toll has been increased over time. The Panama Canal Authorities decreed that the slots for transit by VLGCs could only be reserved up to 14 days in advance of a proposed transit. This change has resulted in longer wait times and resales of slots among VLGC operators at significantly higher rates than those charged by the Panama Canal Authority. These restrictions have added waiting time to transits, which is typically not paid for by charterers. In April 2022 the Panama Canal Authority proposed a comprehensive restructuring of its toll structure, which would increase rates charged on cargo, including the LPG that crosses the waterway, result in increased rates or additional waiting time for our VLGCs to cross the Canal. Such factors are not generally reflected in charter rates. This proposal was approved in July 2022 and began its phase-in period in January 2023, which will continue until January 2025. Our vessels and voyages could be impacted as phase-in continues, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. Our latest three long-term time chartered-in dual-fuel ECO VLGCs are Panamax vessels and can transit the old Panama Canal locks, which are not currently affected by the toll restructuring referenced above. In addition, the Panama Canal suffered drought conditions during parts of calendar 2023. While these conditions resulted in increased freight rates during parts of 2023, those conditions moderated during the first calendar quarter of 2024, resulting in lower rates and future drought or other conditions impacting the Panama Canal could have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

Our indebtedness and financial obligations may adversely affect our operational flexibility and financial condition.

As of March 31, 2024, we had outstanding indebtedness of $610.5 million, of which $569.5 million is hedged or fixed. Amounts owed under our current credit facility and financing arrangements, and any future credit facilities or financing arrangements, will require us to dedicate a part of our cash flow from operations to paying interest and principal payments, as applicable. These payments will limit funds available for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, dividends, stock repurchases and other purposes and may also limit our ability to undertake further equity or debt financing in the future. Our indebtedness and obligations under our financing arrangements also increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions, limits our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in the industry, and places us at a disadvantage to other, less leveraged, competitors.

Our credit facility and several of our Japanese financing arrangements bear interest at variable rates and we anticipate that any future credit facilities will also bear interest at variable rates. Increases in prevailing rates could increase the amounts that we would have to pay to our lenders or financing counterparties, even though the outstanding principal amount remains the same, and our net income and available cash flows would decrease as a result.

We expect our earnings and cash flow to vary from year to year mainly due to the cyclical nature of the LPG shipping industry. If we do not generate or reserve enough cash flow from operations to satisfy our debt or financing obligations, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans, such as:

seeking to raise additional capital;

refinancing or restructuring our debt or financing obligations;

selling our VLGCs; and/or

reducing or delaying capital investments.

However, these alternative financing plans, if necessary, may not be sufficient to allow us to meet our debt or financing obligations. If we are unable to meet our debt or financing obligations and we default on our obligations under our debt agreement or financing arrangements, our lenders could elect to declare our outstanding borrowings and certain other amounts owed, together with accrued interest and fees, to be immediately due and payable and foreclose on the

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vessels securing that debt, and our counterparties may seek to repossess the vessels subject to our debt agreement or financing arrangements.

Our existing and future debt and financing agreements contain and are expected to contain restrictive covenants that may limit our liquidity and corporate activities, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Our debt agreement and financing arrangements contain, and any future debt agreements or financing arrangements are expected to contain, customary covenants and event of default clauses, including cross-default provisions that may be triggered by a default under one of our other contracts or agreements and restrictive covenants and performance requirements, which may affect operational and financial flexibility. Such restrictions could affect, and in many respects limit or prohibit, among other things, our ability to pay dividends or repurchase stock, incur additional indebtedness, create liens, sell assets, or engage in mergers or acquisitions. These restrictions could limit our ability to plan for or react to market conditions or meet extraordinary capital needs or otherwise restrict corporate activities. There can be no assurance that such restrictions will not adversely affect the 2023 A&R Debt Facility or the debt facility that we entered into in December 2021 with Banc of America Leasing & Capital, LLC, Pacific Western Bank, Raymond James Bank, a Florida chartered bank and City National Bank of Florida, as lenders (“BALCAP Facility”), which are secured by, among other things, two of our VLGCs, require us to maintain specified financial ratios and satisfy financial covenants.  

As of March 31, 2024, we were in compliance with the financial and other covenants contained in the 2023 A&R Debt Facility and the BALCAP Facility. As of May 23, 2024, approximately $205.0 million remains outstanding under the 2023 A&R Debt Facility and approximately $65.7 million remains outstanding under the BALCAP Facility.

The 2023 A&R Debt Facility conditions payments of dividends by us to our shareholders and by our subsidiaries to us on the absence of an event of default and such payments not creating an event of default.

As a result of the restrictions in our debt agreement and financing arrangements, or similar restrictions in our future debt agreements or financing arrangements, we may need to seek permission from our lenders or counterparties in order to engage in certain corporate actions. Our lenders’ or counterparties’ interests may be different from ours and we may not be able to obtain their permission when needed or at all. This may prevent us from taking actions that we believe are in our best interest, which may adversely impact our revenues, results of operations and financial condition.

A failure by us to meet our payment and other obligations, including our financial and value to loan covenants, could lead to defaults under our current or future secured loan agreements. In addition, a default under one of our current or future credit facilities could result in the cross-acceleration of our other indebtedness. Our lenders could then accelerate our indebtedness and foreclose on our fleet.

The market values of our vessels may decrease, which could cause us to breach covenants in our loan agreements or record an impairment loss, or negatively impact our ability to enter into future financing arrangements, and as a result could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The 2023 A&R Debt Facility and BALCAP Facility, which are secured by, among other things, liens on the vessels in our fleet contain various financial covenants, including requirements relating to our financial condition, financial performance and liquidity. For example, we are required to maintain a minimum ratio of the market value of the vessels securing a loan to the principal amount outstanding under such loan. The market value of LPG carriers is sensitive to, among other things, changes in the LPG carrier charter markets, with vessel values deteriorating when LPG carrier charter rates are anticipated to fall and improving when charter rates are anticipated to rise. LPG vessel values remain subject to significant fluctuations. A decline in the fair market values of our vessels could result in us not being in compliance with certain of these loan covenants. Furthermore, if the value of our vessels deteriorates and our estimated future cash flows decrease, we may have to record an impairment adjustment in our financial statements or we may be unable to enter into future financing arrangements acceptable to us or at all, which would adversely affect our financial results and further hinder our ability to raise capital.

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If we are unable to comply with any of the restrictions and covenants in our 2023 A&R Debt Facility and BALCAP Facility, financing arrangements, or in future debt financing agreements, and we are unable to obtain a waiver or amendment from our lenders or counterparties for such noncompliance, a default could occur under the terms of those agreements. Our ability to comply with these restrictions and covenants, including meeting financial ratios and tests, is dependent on our future performance and may be affected by events beyond our control. If a default occurs under these agreements, lenders could terminate their commitments to lend or in some circumstances accelerate the outstanding loans and declare all amounts borrowed due and payable. Our vessels serve as security under our debt agreement. If our lenders were to foreclose with respect to their liens on our vessels in the event of a default, such foreclosure could impair our ability to continue our operations. In addition, our current debt agreement contains, and future debt agreements are expected to contain, cross-default provisions, meaning that if we are in default under certain of our current or future debt obligations, amounts outstanding under our current or other future debt agreements may also be in default, accelerated and become due and payable. If any of these events occur, we cannot guarantee that our assets will be sufficient to repay in full all of our outstanding indebtedness, and we may be unable to find alternative financing. Even if we could obtain alternative financing, that financing might not be on terms that are favorable or acceptable to us. In addition, if we find it necessary to sell our vessels at a time when vessel prices are low, we will recognize losses and a reduction in our earnings, which could affect our ability to raise additional capital necessary for us to comply with our debt agreement.

We have and we intend to selectively enter into derivative contracts, which can result in higher than market interest rates and charges against our income.

We have entered into and may selectively in the future enter into derivative contracts to hedge our overall exposure to interest rate risk related to our credit facility. Entering into swaps and derivatives transactions is inherently risky and presents various possibilities for incurring significant expenses. The derivatives strategies that we employ currently and, in the future, may not be successful or effective, and we could, as a result, incur substantial additional interest costs or losses.

We are exposed to volatility in the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which has only been published since April 2018 and we may be adversely affected by developments in the SOFR market.

The amounts outstanding under our 2023 A&R Debt Facility accrue interest at a rate of SOFR plus a margin ranging between 2.05% and 2.15% depending on the ratio of outstanding debt under the facility to the value of the vessels secured under this facility, plus or minus a sustainability pricing adjustment of 0.05%. Changes in SOFR could affect the amount of interest payable on our debt, and, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our earnings and cash flow. Until recent years, global interest rates, including SOFR, have been at relatively low levels, but they have risen recently and may continue to rise in the future. SOFR has only been published by the Federal Reserve since April 2018, and therefore there is limited history with which to assess how changes in SOFR rates may differ from other rates during different macroeconomic and monetary policy conditions.  

Although SOFR appears to be the preferred replacement rate for U.S. Dollar LIBOR and has been adopted as the benchmark interest rate for our debt arrangements, it is unclear if other benchmarks may emerge. The consequences of these developments cannot be entirely predicted, and there can be no assurance that they will not result in financial market disruptions, significant increases in benchmark interest rates, substantially higher financing costs or a shortage of available debt financing, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations, and our ability to pay dividends.

We have and may in the future selectively enter into derivative contracts, which can result in higher than market interest rates and charges against our income.

Our financial condition could be materially adversely affected at any time that we have not entered into interest rate hedging arrangements to hedge our exposure to the interest rates applicable to our credit facilities and any other financing arrangements we may enter into in the future. We have entered into and may selectively in the future enter into derivative contracts to hedge our overall exposure to interest rate risk related to our credit facility. Entering into swaps and derivatives transactions is inherently risky and presents various possibilities for incurring significant expenses. The derivatives strategies that we employ currently and, in the future, may not be successful or effective, and we could, as a result, incur substantial additional interest costs or losses. As of May 23, 2024, $41.0 million of our total debt of $606.0

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million, or 6.8%, is unhedged or unfixed and a significant change in SOFR could materially adversely affect our financial condition, although we note that a theoretical 20 basis point increase or decrease in SOFR would only result in a $0.1 million over the next 12 months.

Investments in forward freight derivative instruments could result in losses.

 

From time to time, we may take hedging or speculative positions in derivative instruments, including forward freight agreements, or FFAs. Upon settlement, if an FFA contracted charter rate is less than the average of the rates, as reported by an identified index, for the specified route and period, the seller of the FFA is required to pay the buyer an amount equal to the difference between the contracted rate and the settlement rate, multiplied by the number of days in the specified period. Conversely, if the contracted rate is greater than the settlement rate, the buyer is required to pay the seller the settlement sum. If we do not correctly anticipate charter rate movements over the specified route and time period when we take positions in FFAs or other derivative instruments, we could suffer losses in the settling or termination of the FFA. This could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows. As of March 31, 2024, we had no FFAs in our portfolio.

Because we generate all of our revenues in U.S. dollars but incur a portion of our expenses in other currencies, exchange rate fluctuations could adversely affect our results of operations.

We generate all of our revenues in U.S. dollars and the majority of our expenses are also in U.S. dollars. However, a portion of our overall expenses is incurred in other currencies, particularly the Euro, Singapore Dollar, Danish Krone, Japanese Yen, British Pound Sterling, and Norwegian Krone. Changes in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to the other currencies, in particular the Euro, or the amount of expenses we incur in other currencies could cause fluctuations in our net income. See “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk—Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk.”

If we fail to manage our growth properly, we may incur significant expenses and losses.

As and when market conditions permit, we may prudently grow our fleet. Acquisition opportunities may arise from time to time, and any such acquisition could be significant. Successfully consummating and integrating acquisitions will depend on:

locating and acquiring suitable vessels at a suitable price;

identifying and completing acquisitions or joint ventures;

integrating any acquired vessels or businesses successfully with our existing operations;

hiring, training and retaining qualified personnel and crew to manage and operate our growing business and fleet;

expanding our customer base; and

obtaining required financing.

Certain acquisition and investment opportunities may not result in the consummation of a transaction and the incurrence of certain advisory costs. Any acquisition could involve the payment by us of a substantial amount of cash, the incurrence of a substantial amount of debt or the issuance of a substantial amount of equity. In addition, we may not be able to obtain acceptable terms for the required financing for any such acquisition or investment that arises.

Growing a business by acquisition presents numerous risks such as undisclosed liabilities and obligations, difficulty in obtaining additional qualified personnel, managing relationships with customers and suppliers and integrating newly acquired vessels into existing infrastructures. Moreover, acquiring any business is subject to risks related to incorrect assumptions regarding the future results of acquired operations or assets or expected cost reductions or other synergies expected to be realized as a result of acquiring operations or assets.

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On November 24, 2023 we entered into an agreement for a newbuilding VLGC/AC, which is expected to be delivered in the third calendar quarter of 2026. The delivery of the VLGC/AC will give us the opportunity to carry full cargoes of LPG or ammonia.

The expansion of our fleet, through our investment in the VLGC/AC or otherwise in the future, may impose significant additional responsibilities on our management and staff, including the management and staff of our in-house commercial and technical managers, and may necessitate that we increase the number of our personnel. Further, there is the risk that we may fail to successfully and timely integrate the operations or management of any acquired businesses or assets and the risk of diverting management's attention from existing operations or other priorities. If we fail to consummate and integrate our acquisitions in a timely and cost-effective manner, our financial condition, results of operations and ability to pay dividends, if any, to our shareholders could be adversely affected. Moreover, we cannot predict the effect, if any, that any announcement or consummation of an acquisition would have on the trading price of our common shares.

An inability to effectively time investments in and divestments of vessels could prevent the implementation of our business strategy and negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.

Our strategy is to own and operate a fleet large enough to provide global coverage, but not larger than what the demand for our services can support over a longer period by both contracting newbuildings and through acquisitions and divestitures in the second-hand market. Our business is influenced by the timing of investments, including strategic and vessel acquisitions, time charter in arrangements and the contracting of newbuildings, and/or divestments of such investments or existing assets. If we are unable to identify the optimal timing of such investments or divestments in relation to the shipping value cycle due to capital restraints, or otherwise, this could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position.

If our fleet grows in size, we may need to update our operations and financial systems and recruit additional staff and crew; if we cannot adequately update these systems or recruit suitable employees, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

As and when market conditions permit, we intend to continue to prudently grow our fleet over the long term. We have and may continue to have to invest in upgrading our operating and financial systems. In addition, we may have to recruit additional well-qualified seafarers and shoreside administrative and management personnel. We may not be able to hire suitable employees to the extent we continue to expand our fleet. Our vessels require technically skilled staff with specialized training. If our crewing agents are unable to employ such technically skilled staff, they may not be able to adequately staff our vessels. If we are unable to operate our financial and operations systems effectively or we are unable to recruit suitable employees as we expand our fleet, our results of operation and our ability to expand our fleet may be adversely affected.

We may be unable to attract and retain key management personnel and other employees in the shipping industry without incurring substantial expense, which may negatively affect the effectiveness of our management and our results of operations.

The successful development and performance of our business depends on our ability to attract and retain skilled professionals with appropriate experience and expertise. The loss of the services of any of our senior management or key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.

Additionally, obtaining voyage and time charters with leading industry participants depends on a number of factors, including the ability to man vessels with suitably experienced, high-quality masters, officers and crew. In recent years, the limited supply of and increased demand for well-qualified crew has created upward pressure on crewing costs, which we generally bear under our time and spot charters. Increases in crew costs may adversely affect our profitability. In addition, if we cannot retain sufficient numbers of quality on-board seafaring personnel, our fleet utilization will decrease, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

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Our directors and officers may in the future hold direct or indirect interests in companies that compete with us.

Our directors and officers have a history of involvement in the shipping industry and some of them currently, and some of them may in the future, directly or indirectly, hold investments in companies that compete with us. In that case, they may face conflicts between their own interests and their obligations to us.

We cannot provide assurance that our directors and officers will not be influenced by their interests in or affiliation with other shipping companies, or our competitors, and seek to cause us to take courses of action that might involve risks to our other shareholders or adversely affect us or our shareholders. However, we have written policies in place to address such situations if they arise.

We may be unable to procure adequate insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates in the future.

We may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at acceptable rates in the future during adverse insurance market conditions. For example, more stringent environmental regulations have led in the past to increased costs for, and in the future may result in the lack of availability of, insurance against risks of environmental damage or pollution. A marine disaster could exceed our insurance coverage, which could harm our business, financial condition and operating results. Any uninsured or underinsured loss could harm our business and financial condition. In addition, our insurance may be voidable by the insurers as a result of certain of our actions, such as our vessels failing to maintain certification with applicable maritime self-regulatory organizations even when such failure is not caused intentionally or by negligence, but, for example, due to computer error or external manipulation.

Changes in the insurance markets attributable to terrorist attacks may also make certain types of insurance more difficult for us to obtain. In addition, upon renewal or expiration of our current policies, the insurance that may be available to us may be significantly more expensive than our existing coverage.

Because we obtain some of our insurance through protection and indemnity associations, we may be required to make additional premium payments.

Although we believe we carry P&I cover consistent with industry standards, all risks may not be adequately insured against, and any particular claim may not be paid. Any claims covered by insurance would be subject to deductibles, and since it is possible that a large number of claims may be brought, the aggregate amount of these deductibles could be material. Certain of our insurance coverage is maintained through mutual P&I clubs, and as a member of such associations we may be required to make additional payments, or calls, over and above budgeted premiums if total member claims exceed association reserves. These calls will be in amounts based on our claim records, as well as the claim records of other members of the P&I clubs through which we receive insurance coverage for tort liability, including pollution-related liability. Our payment of these calls could result in significant expense to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition, and ability to pay dividends.

We may incur increasing costs for the drydocking, maintenance or replacement of our vessels as they age, and, as our vessels age, the risks associated with older vessels could adversely affect our ability to obtain profitable charters.

The drydocking of our vessels requires significant capital expenditures and loss of revenue while our vessels are off-hire. Any significant increase in the number of days of off-hire due to such drydocking or in the costs of any repairs could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Although we do not anticipate that more than one vessel will be out of service at any given time, we may underestimate the time required to drydock our vessels, or unanticipated problems may arise.

In addition, although all of our vessels were built within the past fifteen years, we estimate that our vessels have a useful life of 25 years. In general, the costs of maintaining a vessel in good operating condition increase with the age of the vessel. Older vessels are typically less fuel-efficient than more recently constructed vessels due to improvements in engine technology. Cargo insurance rates increase with the age of a vessel, making older vessels less desirable to charterers.

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As our vessels become older, we may have to replace such vessels upon the expiration of their useful lives. Unless we maintain reserves or are able to borrow or raise funds for vessel replacement, we will be unable to replace such older vessels. The inability to replace the vessels in our fleet upon the expiration of their useful lives could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Any reserves set aside for vessel replacement will not be available for the payment of dividends to shareholders.

If we purchase secondhand vessels, we may be exposed to increased costs which could adversely affect our earnings.

We may acquire secondhand vessels in the future, and while we rigorously inspect previously owned or secondhand vessels prior to purchase, that inspection does not provide us with the same knowledge about their condition and cost of any required (or anticipated) repairs that we would have had if these vessels had been built for and operated exclusively by us. A secondhand vessel may also have conditions or defects that we were not aware of when we bought the vessel and which may require us to incur costly repairs to the vessel. These repairs may require us to put a vessel into drydock, which would reduce our fleet utilization and increase our operating costs. The market prices of secondhand vessels also tend to fluctuate with changes in charter rates and the cost of newbuild vessels, and if we sell the vessels, the sales prices may not equal and could be less than their carrying values at that time. Therefore, our future operating results could be negatively affected if our secondhand vessels do not perform as we expect.

Certain shareholders have a substantial ownership stake in us, and their interests could conflict with the interests of our other shareholders.

According to information contained in public filings, Blackrock, Inc.; John C. Hadjipateras; and Dimensional Fund Advisors LP, as of May 23, 2024, own, or may be deemed to beneficially own, 13.4%, 13.3%, and 8.1%, respectively, of our total shares outstanding. John C. Hadjipateras, as our Chief Executive Officer, President and Chairman of the Board of Directors, has the ability to influence certain actions requiring shareholders' approval, including increasing or decreasing the authorized share capital, the election of directors, declaration of dividends, the appointment of management, and other policy decisions. While any future transaction with significant shareholders could benefit us, their interests could at times conflict with the interests of our other shareholders. Conflicts of interest may also arise between us and our significant shareholders or their affiliates, which may result in the conclusion of transactions on terms not determined by market forces. Any such conflicts of interest could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, and the trading price of our common shares. Moreover, the concentration of ownership may delay, deter or prevent acts that would be favored by our other shareholders or deprive shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our business. Similarly, this concentration of share ownership may adversely affect the trading price of our shares because investors may perceive disadvantages in owning shares in a company with concentrated ownership.

United States tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company,” which could have adverse United States federal income tax consequences to United States holders.

A foreign corporation will be treated as a PFIC for United States federal income tax purposes if either (1) at least 75% of its gross income for any taxable year consists of “passive income” or (2) at least 50% of the average value of the corporation’s assets produce or are held for the production of “passive income.” For purposes of these tests, “passive income” generally includes dividends, interest, and gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties which are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business. For purposes of these tests, income derived from the performance of services generally does not constitute “passive income.” United States shareholders of a PFIC are subject to an adverse United States federal income tax regime with respect to the income derived by the PFIC, the distributions they receive from the PFIC and the gain, if any, they derive from the sale or other disposition of their shares in the PFIC.

Whether we will be treated as a PFIC for our taxable year ended March 31, 2024 and subsequent taxable years will depend upon the nature and extent of our operations. In this regard, we intend to treat the gross income we derive from our voyage and time chartering activities as services income, rather than rental income. Accordingly, such income should not constitute passive income, and the assets that we own and operate in connection with the production of such income, in particular, our vessels, should not constitute passive assets for purposes of determining whether we are a PFIC. There is substantial legal authority supporting this position consisting of case law and the United States Internal Revenue

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Service, or the IRS, pronouncements concerning the characterization of income derived from time charters as services income for other tax purposes. However, there is also authority which characterizes time charter income as rental income rather than services income for other tax purposes. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the IRS or a court of law will accept this position, and there is a risk that the IRS or a court of law could determine that we are a PFIC. In addition, although we intend to conduct our affairs in a manner to avoid being classified as a PFIC with respect to any taxable year, we cannot assure you that the nature of our operations will not change in the future.

For any taxable year in which we are, or were to be treated as, a PFIC, United States shareholders would face adverse United States federal income tax consequences. Under the PFIC rules, unless a shareholder makes an election available under the Code (which election could itself have adverse consequences for such shareholders, as discussed below under “Item 1. Business—Taxation—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—United States Federal Income Taxation of United States Holders”), excess distributions and any gain from the disposition of such shareholder's common shares would be allocated ratably over the shareholder's holding period of the common shares and the amounts allocated to the taxable year of the excess distribution or sale or other disposition and to any year before we became a PFIC would be taxed as ordinary income. The amount allocated to each other taxable year would be subject to tax at the highest rate in effect for individuals or corporations, as appropriate, for that taxable year, and an interest charge would be imposed with respect to such tax. See “Item 1. Taxation—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—United States Federal Income Taxation of United States Holders” for a more comprehensive discussion of the United States federal income tax consequences to United States shareholders if we are treated as a PFIC.

We may have to pay tax on United States source shipping income, which would reduce our earnings.

Under the Code, 50% of the gross shipping income of a corporation that owns or charters vessels, as we and our subsidiaries do, that is attributable to transportation that begins or ends, but that does not both begin and end, in the United States may be subject to a 4%, or an effective 2%, United States federal income tax without allowance for deduction, unless that corporation qualifies for exemption from tax under Section 883 of the Code and the applicable Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder.

We believe that we qualify, and we expect to qualify, for exemption under Section 883 for our taxable year ended March 31, 2024 and our subsequent taxable years and we intend to take this position for United States federal income tax return reporting purposes. However, there are factual circumstances beyond our control that could cause us to lose the benefit of this tax exemption and thereby become subject to United States federal income tax on our United States source shipping income. For example, we would no longer qualify for exemption under Section 883 of the Code for a particular taxable year if certain “non-qualified” shareholders with a 5% or greater interest in our common shares owned, in the aggregate, 50% or more of our outstanding common shares for more than half the days during the taxable year. Due to the factual nature of the issues involved, there can be no assurances that we or any of our subsidiaries will qualify for exemption under Section 883 of the Code.

If we or our subsidiaries were not entitled to exemption under Section 883 of the Code for any taxable year based on our failure to satisfy the publicly-traded test, we or our subsidiaries would be subject for such year to an effective 2% United States federal income tax on the gross shipping income we or our subsidiaries derive during the year that is attributable to the transport of cargoes to or from the United States. The imposition of this taxation would have a negative effect on our business and would decrease our earnings available for distribution to our shareholders.

Changes in tax laws and unanticipated tax liabilities could materially and adversely affect the taxes we pay, results of operations and financial results.

We are subject to income and other taxes in the United States and foreign jurisdictions, and our results of operations and financial results may be affected by tax and other initiatives around the world. For instance, there is a high level of uncertainty in today’s tax environment stemming from global initiatives put forth by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (“OECD”) two-pillar base erosion and profit shifting project. In October 2021, members of the OECD put forth two proposals: (i) Pillar One reallocates profit to the market jurisdictions where sales arise versus physical presence; and (ii) Pillar Two compels multinational corporations with €750 million or more in annual revenue to pay a global minimum tax of 15% on income received in each country in which they operate. The reforms aim

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to level the playing field between countries by discouraging them from reducing their corporate income taxes to attract foreign business investment. Over 140 countries agreed to enact the two-pillar solution to address the challenges arising from the digitalization of the economy and, in 2024, these guidelines were declared effective and must now be enacted by those OECD member countries. It is possible that these guidelines, if adopted in jurisdictions in which we operate including the global minimum corporate tax rate measure of 15%, could increase the burden and costs of our tax compliance, the amount of taxes we incur in those jurisdictions and our global effective tax rate, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and financial results.

Risks Relating to Our Industry

The cyclical nature of seaborne LPG transportation may lead to significant changes in charter rates, vessel utilization and vessel values, which may adversely affect our revenues, profitability and financial condition.

Historically, the LPG shipping market has been cyclical with attendant volatility in profitability, charter rates and vessel values. The degree of charter rate volatility among different types of gas carriers has varied widely. Because many factors influencing the supply of, and demand for, vessel capacity are unpredictable, the timing, direction and degree of changes in the LPG shipping market are also not predictable. If charter rates decline, our earnings may decrease, particularly with respect to our vessels deployed in the spot market, including through the Helios Pool, but also with respect to our other vessels when their charters expire, as they may not be rechartered on favorable terms when compared to the terms of the expiring charters. Accordingly, a decline in charter rates could have an adverse effect on our revenues, profitability, liquidity, cash flow and financial position.

Future growth in the demand for LPG carriers and charter rates will depend on economic growth in the world economy and demand for LPG transportation that exceeds the capacity of the growing worldwide LPG carrier fleet. We believe that the future growth in demand for LPG carriers and the charter rate levels for LPG carriers will depend primarily upon the supply and demand for LPG, particularly in the economies of China, India, Japan, Southeast Asia, the Middle East and the United States and upon seasonal and regional changes in demand and changes to the capacity of the world fleet. The capacity of the world LPG shipping fleet appears likely to increase in the near term. Economic growth may be limited in the near term, and possibly for an extended period, as a result of global economic conditions, or otherwise, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Our growth depends on the continued growth of the global LPG market and supply chain. The factors affecting the supply of and demand for LPG carriers are outside of our control, and the nature, timing and degree of changes in industry conditions are unpredictable.

The factors that influence demand for our vessels include:

levels of demand for and supply and production of LPG, which may be affected by competition due to availability of new, alternative energy sources, changes in the price of LPG or natural gas relative to other energy sources or other factors making consumption of LPG or natural gas less attractive;

global or regional economic, political or geopolitical conditions, including armed conflicts, including the ongoing conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East, terrorist activities, embargoes, strikes, tariffs and “trade wars,” particularly in LPG consuming regions;

changes in global or general industrial activity, specifically in the plastics and chemical industries, and changes in trade patterns;

changes in the global prices of or production costs of oil and natural gas from which LPG is derived;

the development and location of production facilities for LPG and the distance LPG is to be transported by sea;

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changes in the production levels of crude oil and natural gas (including in particular production by OPEC, the United States and other key producers) and inventories and regional imbalances in production and demand of LPG;

availability of competing LPG vessels;

availability of alternative transportation means, including pipelines for LPG, which are currently few in number, linking production areas and industrial and residential areas consuming LPG, or the conversion of existing non-petroleum gas pipelines to petroleum gas pipelines in those markets;

development and exploitation of alternative fuels and non-conventional hydrocarbon production;

local and international political and economic conditions, including environmental regulations or restrictions on offshore transportation of LPG and other gases and economic slowdowns caused by public health events;

domestic and foreign tax policies;

accidents, severe weather conditions, natural disasters and other similar incidents relating to the natural gas industry; and

international sanctions embargoes, important and export restrictions, nationalizations and wars.

The factors that influence the supply of vessel capacity include:

the number of and potential delays of newbuilding deliveries;

the scrapping rate of older vessels;

port and canal congestion;

LPG vessel prices, including financing costs and the price of steel, other raw materials and vessel equipment;

the availability of shipyards to build LPG vessels when demand is high;

changes in environmental and other regulations that may limit the useful lives of vessels;

piracy and other vessel attacks and their impact on voyage routes;

technological advances in LPG vessel design and capacity;

conversion of LPG carriers to other uses; and

the number of vessels that are off-hire and out of service.

A significant decline in demand for the seaborne transport of LPG or a significant increase in the supply of LPG vessel capacity without a corresponding growth in LPG vessel demand could cause a significant decline in prevailing charter rates, which could materially adversely affect our financial condition and operating results and cash flow.

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Prolonged low natural gas and LPG prices could negatively affect us in a number of ways, including the following:

a reduction in exploration for or development of new natural gas reserves or projects, or the delay or cancellation of existing projects as energy companies lower their capital expenditures budgets, which may reduce our growth opportunities;

a decrease in the expected returns relating to investments in LPG projects;

low gas prices globally and/or weak differentials between prices in the Atlantic Basin and the Pacific Basin leading to reduced inter-basin trading of LPG and reduced demand for LPG shipping;

decreased demand for the types of vessels we own and operate, which may reduce charter rates and revenue available to us upon redeployment of our vessels following the expiration or termination of existing contracts or upon the initial chartering of vessels;

customers potentially seeking to renegotiate or terminate existing vessel contracts, or failing to extend or renew contracts upon expiration;

the inability or refusal of customers to make charter payments to us due to financial constraints or otherwise, including limitations imposed by government sanctions ; or

declines in vessel values, which may result in losses to us upon vessel sales or impairment charges against our earnings and could impact our compliance with the covenants in our loan agreements.

Reduced demand for LPG or LPG fractionation, storage, or shipping, or any reduction or limitation in LPG production capacity, could have a material adverse effect on prevailing charter rates or the market value of our vessels, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

A shift in consumer demand from LPG towards other energy sources or changes to trade patterns may have a material adverse effect on our business.

Substantially all of our earnings are related to the LPG industry. In recent years, there has been a strong supply of natural gas and an increase in the construction of plants and projects involving natural gas, of which LPG is a byproduct. If the supply of natural gas decreases, we may see a concurrent reduction in LPG production and resulting lesser demand and lower charter rates for our vessels and the vessels in the Helios Pool, which could ultimately have a material adverse impact on our revenues, operations and future growth. Additionally, changes in environmental or other legislation establishing additional regulation or restrictions on LPG production and transportation, including the adoption of climate change legislation or regulations, or legislation in the United States placing additional regulation or restrictions on LPG production from shale gas could result in reduced demand for LPG shipping. 

A shift in the consumer demand from LPG towards other energy resources such as wind energy, solar energy, or water energy will affect the demand for our LPG carriers. This could have a material adverse effect on our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position.

Seaborne trading and distribution patterns are primarily influenced by the relative advantage of the various sources of production, locations of consumption, pricing differentials and seasonality. Changes to the trade patterns of LPG may have a significant negative or positive impact on the demand for our vessels. This could have a material adverse effect on our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position.

The market values of our vessels may fluctuate significantly. When the market values of our vessels are low, we may incur a loss on sale of a vessel or record an impairment charge, which may adversely affect our earnings and possibly lead to defaults under our loan agreements or under future loan agreements we may enter into.

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Vessel values are both cyclical and volatile, and may fluctuate due to a number of different factors, including general economic and market conditions affecting the shipping industry; sophistication and condition of the vessels; types and sizes of vessels; competition from other shipping companies; the availability of other modes of transportation; increases in the supply of vessel capacity; charter rates; the cost and delivery of newbuildings; governmental or other regulations; supply of and demand for LPG; prevailing freight rates; and the need to upgrade secondhand and previously owned vessels as a result of charterer requirements, technological advances in vessel design, equipment propulsion, overall vessel efficiency, or otherwise. In addition, as vessels grow older, they generally decline in value.

Due to the cyclical nature of the market, if for any reason we sell any of our owned vessels at a time when prices are depressed and before we have recorded an impairment adjustment to our financial statements, the sale may be for less than the vessel's carrying value in our financial statements, resulting in a loss and reduction in earnings. Furthermore, if vessel values experience significant declines and our estimated future cash flows decrease, we may have to record an impairment adjustment in our financial statements, which could adversely affect our financial results. If the market value of our fleet declines, we may not be in compliance with certain provisions of our loan agreements and we may not be able to refinance our debt or obtain additional financing or pay dividends, if any. If we are unable to pledge additional collateral, our lenders could accelerate our debt and foreclose on our vessels.

The IMO 2020 regulations have and may continue to cause us to incur substantial costs and to procure low-sulfur fuel oil directly on the wholesale market for storage at sea and onward consumption on our vessels.

Effective January 1, 2020, the IMO implemented a new regulation for a 0.50% global sulfur cap on emissions from vessels (the “IMO 2020 Regulations”). Under this new global cap, vessels must use marine fuels with a sulfur content of no more than 0.50% against the former regulations specifying a maximum of 3.50% sulfur in an effort to reduce the emission of sulfur oxide into the atmosphere.

We have and may continue to incur costs to comply with these revised standards. Additional or new conventions, laws and regulations may be adopted that could require, among others, the installation of expensive emission control systems and could adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Currently, fourteen of our technically managed vessels are equipped with scrubbers and, since January 1, 2020, we have transitioned to burning IMO compliant fuels for our non-scrubber equipped vessels. Since the implementation of the IMO 2020 Regulations, scrubber-equipped vessels have been permitted to consume high-sulfur fuels instead of low-sulfur fuels. A decrease in the difference in the costs between low-sulfur fuel and high-sulfur fuel or unavailability of high-sulfur fuel at ports on certain trading routes, may cause us to fail to recognize benefits of operating scrubbers.

Fuel is a significant expense in our shipping operations when vessels are under voyage charter and is an important factor in negotiating charter rates. Our operations and the performance of our vessels, and as a result our results of operations, face a host of challenges. These include concerns over higher costs, international compliance, and the availability of both high and low-sulfur fuels at key international bunkering hubs such as Singapore, Houston, Fujairah, or Rotterdam. In addition, we are taking seriously concerns which have recently arisen in Europe that certain blends of low-sulfur fuels can emit greater amounts of harmful black carbon than the high-sulfur fuels they are meant to replace. Costs of compliance with these and other related regulatory changes may be significant and may have a material adverse effect on our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position. As a result, an increase in the price of fuel beyond our expectations may adversely affect our profitability.

While we carry insurance to protect us against certain risks of loss of or damage to the procured commodities, we may not be adequately insured to cover any losses from such operational risks, which could have a material adverse effect on us. Any significant uninsured or under-insured loss or liability could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition and our available cash.

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New environmental regulations stipulated by the International Maritime Organization could lead to additional costs of our operations and adversely affect our business.

On July 7, 2023, at the Marine Environmental Protection Committee’s (“MEPC”) 80th session, the MEPC adopted the 2023 IMO Strategy on Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships, which, in part, includes (A) enhanced targets to reach net-zero GHG emissions close to 2050; (B) a targeted uptake in use of zero or near-zero GHG emissions technologies and fuels to represent at least 5% (striving for 10%) of the energy used by international shipping by 2030; and (C) indicative check-points to reach net-zero GHG emissions from international shipping, with targets to reduce the total annual GHG emissions from international shipping by (i) at least 20% (striving for 30%) by 2030, as compared to 2008 and (i) at least 70% (striving for 80%) by 2040, as compared to 2008. These regulations may cause us to incur additional substantial expenses in the future and therefore could impact the cost of our operations and adversely affect our business.

Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders and other market participants with respect to our Environmental, Social and Governance policies may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.

Companies across all industries are facing increasing scrutiny relating to their ESG policies. Investor advocacy groups, certain institutional investors, investment funds, lenders and other market participants are increasingly focused on ESG practices and in recent years have placed increasing importance on the implications and social cost of their investments.

In February 2021, the Acting Chair of the SEC issued a statement directing the Division of Corporation Finance to enhance its focus on climate-related disclosure in public company filings and in March 2021 the SEC announced the creation of a Climate and ESG Task Force in the Division of Enforcement (the “Task Force”). The Task Force’s goal is to develop initiatives to proactively identify ESG-related misconduct consistent with increased investor reliance on climate and ESG-related disclosure and investment. To implement the Task Force’s purpose, the SEC has taken several enforcement actions, with the first enforcement action taking place in May 2022, and promulgated new rules. On March 21, 2022, the SEC proposed that all public companies are to include extensive climate-related information in their SEC filings. On May 25, 2022, SEC proposed a second set of rules aiming to curb the practice of "greenwashing" (i.e., making unfounded claims about one's ESG efforts) and would add proposed amendments to rules and reporting forms that apply to registered investment companies and advisers, advisers exempt from registration, and business development companies. In March 2024, the SEC adopted its final rule, which requires standardized qualitative and quantitative disclosure about climate-related risks, expenditures and greenhouse gas emissions, among a long list of other items, by public companies and in public offerings. The final rule will become effective 60 days after publication in the Federal Register, and compliance will be phased in over time for all companies with the compliance date dependent upon the status of the registrant.

The increased focus and activism related to ESG and similar matters may hinder access to capital, as investors and lenders may decide to reallocate capital or to not commit capital as a result of their assessment of a company’s ESG practices. Companies which do not adapt to or comply with investor, lender or other industry shareholder expectations and standards, which are evolving, or which are perceived to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for ESG issues, regardless of whether there is a legal requirement to do so, may suffer from reputational damage and the business, financial condition, and/or stock price of such a company could be materially and adversely affected. For more information with respect to our ESG efforts, please see Item 1. Business—Our Environmental, Social and Governance Efforts.

We may face increasing pressures from investors, lenders and other market participants, who are increasingly focused on climate change, to prioritize sustainable energy practices, reduce our carbon footprint and promote sustainability. As a result, we may be required to implement more stringent ESG procedures or standards so that our existing and future investors and lenders remain invested in us and make further investments in us, especially given the highly focused and specific trade of LPG transportation in which we are engaged. Such ESG corporate transformation calls for an increased resource allocation to serve the necessary changes in that sector, increasing costs and capital expenditure. If we do not meet these standards, our business and/or our ability to access capital could be harmed. In connection with the 2023 A&R Debt Facility, the margin applicable to certain new facilities (the “New Facilities”) may be adjusted by up to ten (10) basis points (upwards or downwards) per annum for changes in the average efficiency ratio

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(“AER”) (which weighs carbon emissions for a voyage against the design deadweight of a vessel and the distance travelled on such voyage) for the vessels in our fleet that are owned or technically managed pursuant to a bareboat charter.

Additionally, certain investors and lenders may exclude fossil fuel transport companies, such as us, from their investing portfolios altogether due to environmental, social and governance factors. These limitations in both the debt and equity capital markets may affect our ability to grow as our plans for growth may include accessing the equity and debt capital markets. If those markets are unavailable, or if we are unable to access alternative means of financing on acceptable terms, or at all, we may be unable to implement our business strategy, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and impair our ability to service our indebtedness. Further, it is likely that we will incur additional costs and require additional resources to monitor, report and comply with wide-ranging ESG requirements.

Finally, organizations that provide information to investors on corporate governance and related matters have developed ratings processes for evaluating companies on their approach to ESG matters. Such ratings are used by some investors to inform their investment and voting decisions. Unfavorable ESG ratings and recent activism directed at shifting funding away from companies with fossil fuel-related assets could lead to increased negative investor sentiment toward us and our industry and to the diversion of investment to other, non-fossil fuel markets, which could have a negative impact on our access to and costs of capital. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

General economic, political and regulatory conditions could materially adversely affect our business, financial position and results of operations, as well as our future prospects.

The global economy remains subject to downside risks, including substantial sovereign debt burdens in countries throughout the world, continuing turmoil and hostilities in the Middle East, Ukraine and other geographic areas and the refugee crisis in Europe and the Middle East. There has historically been a strong link between the development of the world economy and demand for LPG shipping. Accordingly, an extended negative outlook for the world economy could reduce the overall demand for our services. More specifically, LPG is used as a feedstock in cyclical businesses, such as the manufacturing of plastics and in the petrochemical industry, which can be adversely affected by an economic downturn and, accordingly, continued weakness and any further reduction in demand in those industries could adversely affect the LPG shipping industry. In particular, an adverse change in economic conditions affecting China, India, Japan or Southeast Asia generally could have a negative effect on the demand for LPG, thereby adversely affecting our business, financial position and results of operations, as well as our future prospects. Additionally, Brexit, or similar events in other jurisdictions, could impact global markets, including foreign exchange and securities markets; any resulting changes in currency exchange rates, tariffs, treaties and other regulatory matters could in turn adversely impact our business and operations.

The global economy faces a number of challenges, including the effects of volatile oil prices, trade tensions between the United States and China, continuing turmoil and hostilities in the Middle East, the Korean Peninsula, North Africa, Venezuela, and other geographic areas and countries, including the recent conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and Israel and Hamas, continuing threat of terrorist attacks around the world, continuing instability and conflicts and other recent occurrences in the Middle East and in other geographic areas and countries, continuing economic weakness in the European Union, or the E.U., and stabilizing growth in China. The demand for energy, including oil and gas may be negatively affected by global economic conditions.

Our ability to secure funding is dependent on well-functioning capital markets and on an appetite to provide funding to the shipping industry. If global economic conditions continue to worsen, or if capital markets related financing is rendered less accessible or made unavailable to the shipping industry or if lenders for any reason decide not to provide debt financing to us, we may, among other things not be able to secure additional financing to the extent required, on acceptable terms or at all. If additional financing is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to meet our obligations as they come due, or we may be unable to enhance our existing business, complete additional vessel acquisitions or otherwise take advantage of business opportunities as they arise.

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Credit markets in the United States and Europe have in the past experienced significant contraction, de-leveraging and reduced liquidity, and there is a risk that the U.S. federal government and state governments and European authorities continue to implement a broad variety of governmental action and/or new regulation of the financial markets. Global financial markets and economic conditions have been, and continue to be, disrupted and volatile. We face risks attendant to changes in economic environments, changes in interest rates, and instability in the banking and securities markets around the world, among other factors. Major market disruptions may adversely affect our business or impair our ability to borrow amounts under our credit facilities or any future financial arrangements. In the absence of available financing, we also may be unable to take advantage of business opportunities or respond to competitive pressures.

We face risks attendant to changes in economic environments, changes in interest rates, and instability in the banking and securities markets around the world, among other factors. We cannot predict how long the current market conditions will last. However, these recent and developing economic and governmental factors, may have negative effects on charter rates and vessel values, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition and may cause the price of our ordinary shares to decline.

In recent history, China has had one of the world's fastest growing economies in terms of gross domestic product, or GDP, which had a significant impact on shipping demand. While the growth rate of China’s GDP for the year ended December 31, 2023 is estimated to be approximately 5.1%, up from a growth rate of approximately 3.0% for the year ended December 31, 2022, the market is still subject to volatility. For example, following the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, China experienced reduced industrial activity with temporary closures of factories and other facilities, labor shortages and restrictions on travel, resulting in a global economic slowdown. As such, the outlook for China and any impact on the global economy is uncertain, and our financial condition and results of operations, as well as our future prospects, could be impeded by an economic downturn in China and the Asia Pacific region.

In addition, in 2020 President Xi Jinping committed China to achieving carbon neutrality by 2060 at the UN General Assembly despite that carbon emissions are currently a prominent part of China’s economic and industrial structure as it relies heavily on nonrenewable energy sources, generally lacks energy efficiency, and has a rapidly growing energy demand. The method by which China attempts to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060, and any attendant reduction in the demand for oil, petroleum and related products, could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows and results of operations.

Governments may also turn to trade barriers to protect their domestic industries against foreign imports, thereby depressing shipping demand. In particular, leaders in the United States have indicated the United States may seek to implement more protective trade measures. There is significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States, China, and other exporting countries, including with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations, and tariffs. Protectionist developments, or the perception that they may occur, may have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions, and may significantly reduce global trade. Moreover, increasing trade protectionism may cause an increase in (i) the cost of goods exported from regions globally, particularly from the Asia-Pacific region, (ii) the length of time required to transport commodities and (iii) the risks associated with exporting commodities. A decrease in the level of imports to and exports from China could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

Prospective investors should consider the potential impact, uncertainty and risk associated with the development in the wider global economy. Further economic downturn in any of these countries could have a material effect on our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position.

Our business may be affected by macroeconomic conditions, including rising inflation, higher interest rates, market volatility, economic uncertainty, and global supply chain constraints.

Various macroeconomic factors, including rising inflation, higher interest rates, global supply chain constraints, and the effects of overall economic conditions and uncertainties such as those resulting from the current and future conditions in the global financial markets, could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. Significant increases in inflation and interest rates may negatively impact us by increasing our operating costs and our cost

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of borrowing. Interest rates, the liquidity of the credit markets and the volatility of the capital markets could also affect the operation of our business and our ability to raise capital on favorable terms, or at all.

The state of global financial markets and general economic conditions, as well as the perceived impact of emissions

by our vessels on the climate may adversely impact our ability to obtain financing or refinance our credit facility on acceptable terms, which may hinder or prevent us from operating or expanding our business.

Global financial markets and economic conditions have been, and continue to be, volatile, which might adversely impact our ability to issue additional equity at prices that will not be dilutive to our existing shareholders or preclude us from issuing equity at all. Economic conditions may also adversely affect the market price of our common shares.

Also, as a result of concerns about the stability of financial markets generally, and the solvency of counterparties specifically, the availability and cost of obtaining money from the public and private equity and debt markets has become more difficult. Many lenders have increased interest rates, enacted tighter lending standards, refused to refinance existing debt at all or on terms similar to current debt, and reduced, and in some cases ceased, to provide funding to borrowers and other market participants, including equity and debt investors, and some have been unwilling to invest on attractive terms or even at all. Due to these factors, we cannot be certain that financing will be available if needed and to the extent required, or that we will be able to refinance our existing and future credit facilities, on acceptable terms or at all. If financing or refinancing is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to meet our obligations as they come due or we may be unable to enhance our existing business, complete additional vessel acquisitions or otherwise take advantage of business opportunities as they arise.

In 2019, a number of leading lenders to the shipping industry and other industry participants announced a global framework by which financial institutions can assess the climate alignment of their ship finance portfolios, called the Poseidon Principles, and additional lenders have subsequently announced their intention to adhere to such principles. If the ships in our fleet are deemed not to satisfy the emissions and other sustainability standards contemplated by the Poseidon Principles, the availability and cost of bank financing for such vessels may be adversely affected.

Our operating results are subject to seasonal fluctuations, which could affect our operating results and the amount of available cash with which we can pay dividends or repurchase our common stock .

Liquefied gases are primarily used for industrial and domestic heating, as a chemical and refinery feedstock, and as a transportation fuel and in agriculture. The LPG shipping market historically has been stronger in the spring and summer months in anticipation of increased consumption of propane and butane for heating during the winter months. In addition, unpredictable weather patterns in these months tend to disrupt vessel scheduling and the supply of certain commodities. Demand for our vessels therefore may be stronger in the quarters ending June 30 and September 30 and relatively weaker during the quarters ending December 31 and March 31, although 12-month time charter rates tend to smooth these short-term fluctuations. Recent LPG shipping market activity, however, has not yielded the expected seasonal results. The increase in petrochemical industry buying has contributed to less marked seasonality than in the past, but there can no guarantee that this trend will continue. To the extent any of our time charters expire during the typically weaker fiscal quarters ending December 31 and March 31, it may not be possible to re-charter our vessels at similar rates. As a result, we may have to accept lower rates or experience off-hire time for our vessels, which may adversely impact our business, financial condition and operating results.

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Future technological innovation could reduce our charter hire income and the value of our vessels.

The charter hire rates and the value and operational life of a vessel are determined by a number of factors including the vessel's efficiency, operational flexibility and physical life. Efficiency includes speed, fuel type and economy and the ability to load and discharge cargo quickly. Flexibility includes the ability to enter harbors, utilize related docking facilities and pass through canals and straits. The length of a vessel's physical life is related to its original design and construction, its maintenance and the impact of the stress of operations. We believe that our fleet is among the youngest and most eco-friendly fleet of all our competitors. However, if new LPG carriers are built that are more efficient and environmentally friendly or more flexible or have longer physical lives than our vessels, competition from these more technologically advanced vessels could adversely affect the amount of charter hire payments we receive for our vessels and the resale value of our vessels could significantly decrease. Similarly, if the vessels of the other participants in the Helios Pool fleet become outdated, the amount of charter hire payments to the Helios Pool may be adversely affected. As a result of the foregoing, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Changes in fuel, or bunker, prices may adversely affect profits.

While we do not bear the cost of fuel, or bunkers, under time charters, including for our vessels employed on time charters through the Helios Pool, fuel is a significant expense in our shipping operations when vessels are off-hire or deployed under spot charters. The cost of fuel can also be an important factor considered by charterers in negotiating charter rates. Therefore, changes in the price of fuel may adversely affect our profitability. The price and supply of fuel is unpredictable and fluctuates based on events outside our control, including geopolitical developments, supply and demand for oil and gas, actions by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and other oil and gas producers, war and unrest in oil producing countries and regions, regional production patterns and environmental concerns.

Furthermore, fuel may become significantly more expensive in the future, which may reduce our profitability. In addition, the entry into force, on January 1, 2020, of the 0.5% global sulfur cap in marine fuels used by vessels that are not equipped with sulfur oxide (“SOx”) exhaust gas cleaning systems (“scrubbers”) under the International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships (“MARPOL”) Annex VI may lead to changes in the production quantities and prices of different grades of marine fuel by refineries and introduces an additional element of uncertainty in fuel markets, which could result in additional costs and adversely affect our cash flows, earnings and results from operations.

In addition, since the implementation of the IMO’s sulfur oxide emission limits in 2020, we have been using compliant low sulfur fuels for some of our vessels that have not yet been retrofitted with scrubbers or that are trading in regions where the use of scrubbers is not permitted, the price of which has increased as a result of increased demand. Fuel may continue to become much more expensive in the future, which may adversely affect the competitiveness of our business compared to other forms of transportation and reduce our profitability.

We are subject to regulations and liabilities, including environmental laws, which could require significant expenditures and adversely affect our financial conditions and results of operations.

Our business and the operation of our VLGCs are subject to complex laws and regulations and materially affected by government regulation, including environmental regulations in the form of international conventions and national, state and local laws and regulations in force in the jurisdictions in which our corporate offices are located, as well as in the country or countries in which the vessels operate, as well as in the respective country of their registration.

These regulations include, but are not limited to US-OPA 90, which establishes an extensive regulatory and liability regime for the protection and cleanup of the environment from oil spills and applies to any discharges of oil from a vessel, including discharges of fuel oil and lubricants, the CAA, the CWA, and requirements of the USCG and the EPA, and the MTSA, and regulations of the IMO, including MARPOL, the Bunker Convention, the IMO International Convention of Load Lines of 1966, as from time to time amended, and the SOLAS Convention. To comply with these and other regulations we may be required to incur additional costs to modify our vessels, meet new operating maintenance and inspection requirements, develop contingency plans for potential spills, and obtain insurance coverage. We are also required by various governmental and quasi-governmental agencies to obtain permits, licenses, certificates and financial assurances with respect to our corporate and ships’ operations. These permits, licenses, certificates and financial assurances

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may be issued or renewed with terms that could materially and adversely affect our operations. Because these laws and regulations are often revised, we cannot predict the ultimate cost of complying with them or the impact they may have on the resale prices or useful lives of our vessels. However, a failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations may result in administrative and civil penalties, criminal sanctions or the suspension or termination of our operations. Additional laws and regulations may be adopted which could limit our ability to do business or increase the cost of our doing business and which could materially adversely affect our operations. For example, a future serious incident, such as the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, may result in new regulatory initiatives.

The operation of our vessels is affected by the requirements set forth in the ISM Code. The ISM Code requires ship owners and bareboat charterers to develop and maintain an extensive “Safety Management System” that includes, among other things, the adoption of a safety and environmental protection policy setting forth instructions and procedures for safe operation and describing procedures for dealing with emergencies. The failure of a ship owner or bareboat charterer to comply with the ISM Code may subject the owner or charterer to increased liability, may decrease available insurance coverage for the affected vessels, or may result in a denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports. Non-compliance with the ISM Code may result in breach of our loan covenants. Currently, each of the vessels in our fleet is ISM Code certified. Because these certifications are critical to our business, we place a high priority on maintaining them. Nonetheless, there is the possibility that such certifications may not be renewed.

We currently maintain, for each of our vessels, pollution liability insurance coverage in the amount of $1.0 billion per incident. In addition, we carry hull and machinery and protection and indemnity insurance to cover the risks of fire and explosion. Under certain circumstances, fire and explosion could result in a catastrophic loss. We believe that our present insurance coverage is adequate, but not all risks can be insured, and there is the possibility that any specific claim may not be paid, or that we will not always be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates. If the damages from a catastrophic spill exceeded our insurance coverage, the effect on our business would be severe and could possibly result in our insolvency.

Recent action by the IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee and United States agencies indicates that cybersecurity regulations for the maritime industry are likely to be further developed in the near future in an attempt to combat cybersecurity threats. For example, by IMO resolution, administrations are encouraged to ensure that cyber-risk management systems are incorporated by ship-owners and managers by their first annual Document of Compliance audit after January 1, 2021. This might cause companies to create additional procedures for monitoring cybersecurity, which could require additional expenses and/or capital expenditures. However, the impact of such regulations is hard to predict at this time.

The IMO has imposed updated guidelines for ballast water management systems specifying the maximum amount of viable organisms allowed to be discharged from a vessel’s ballast water. Depending on the date of the IOPP renewal survey, existing vessels constructed before September 8, 2017 must comply with the updated D-2 standard on or after September 8, 2019. For most vessels, compliance with the D-2 standard will involve installing on-board systems to treat ballast water and eliminate unwanted organisms. Ships constructed on or after September 8, 2017 are to comply with the D-2 standards on or after September 8, 2017. All of our VLGCs are in compliance with the updated guidelines.

Furthermore, United States regulations are currently changing. Although the 2013 Vessel General Permit VGP program and NISA are currently in effect to regulate ballast discharge, exchange and installation, the Vessel Incidental Discharge Act VIDA, which was signed into law on December 4, 2018, requires that the EPA develop national standards of performance for approximately 30 discharges, similar to those found in the VGP within two years. On October 26, 2020, the EPA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Vessel Incidental Discharge National Standards of Performance under VIDA. On October 18, 2023, the EPA published a supplemental notice of the proposed rule sharing new ballast water data received from USCG and providing clarification on the proposed rule. The public comment period for the proposed rule ended on December18, 2023. Once EPA finalizes the rule (possibly by Fall 2024), USCG must develop corresponding implementation, compliance and enforcement regulations regarding ballast water within two years. The new regulations could require the installation of new equipment, which may cause us to incur substantial costs.

We believe that regulation of the shipping industry will continue to become more stringent and compliance with such new regulations will be more expensive for us and our competitors. Substantial violations of applicable requirements

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or a catastrophic release from one of our vessels could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

Climate change and greenhouse gas restrictions may adversely impact our operations and markets.

Due to concern over the risk of climate change, a number of countries and the IMO have adopted, or are considering the adoption of, regulatory frameworks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These regulatory measures may include, among others, adoption of cap and trade regimes, carbon taxes, increased efficiency standards, and incentives or mandates for renewable energy. Compliance with changes in laws, regulations and obligations relating to climate change could increase our costs related to operating and maintaining our vessels and require us to install new emission controls, acquire allowances or pay taxes related to our greenhouse gas emissions, or administer and manage a greenhouse gas emissions program. Revenue generation and strategic growth opportunities could also be adversely affected by compliance with such changes. Additionally, increased regulation of greenhouse gas emissions may incentivize use of alternative energy sources. Unless and until such regulations are implemented and their effects are known, we cannot reasonably or reliably estimate their impact on our financial condition, results of operations and ability to compete. However, any long-term material adverse effect on the LPG industry may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We operate globally, including in countries, states and regions where our businesses, and the activities of our consumer customers, could be negatively impacted by climate change. Climate change presents both immediate and long-term risks to us and our customers, with the risks expected to increase over time. Climate risks can arise from physical risks (acute or chronic risks related to the physical effects of climate change) and transition risks (risks related to regulatory and legal, technological, market and reputational changes from a transition to a low-carbon economy). Physical risks could damage or destroy our or our customers’ and clients’ properties and other assets and disrupt our or their operations. For example, climate change may lead to more extreme weather events occurring more often which may result in physical damage and additional volatility within our business operations and potential counterparty exposures and other financial risks. Transition risks may result in changes in regulations or market preferences, which in turn could have negative impacts on our results of operation or the reputation of us and our customers. For example, carbon-intensive industries like LPG are exposed to climate risks, such as those risks related to the transition to a low-carbon economy, as well as low-carbon industries that may be subject to risks associated with new technologies. Ongoing legislative or regulatory uncertainties and changes regarding climate risk management and practices may result in higher regulatory, compliance, credit and reputational risks and costs.

If our vessels call on ports located in countries or territories that are subject to sanctions or embargoes imposed by the United States or other authorities, it could lead to monetary fines or penalties and/or adversely affect our reputation and the market for our common shares.

None of our vessels have called on ports located in countries or territories subject to country-wide or territory-wide sanctions and/or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government or other applicable governmental authorities (“Sanctioned Jurisdictions”) in violation of applicable sanctions laws. Although we do not expect that our vessels will call on ports located in Sanctioned Jurisdictions and we endeavor to take precautions reasonably designed to mitigate such activities, including relevant trade exclusion clauses in our charter contracts forbidding the use of our vessels in trade that would be in violation economic sanctions, it is possible that on charterers’ instructions, and without our consent, our vessels may call on ports located in such countries or territories in the future. If such activities result in a sanctions violation, we could be subject to monetary fines, penalties, or other sanctions, and our reputation and the market for our common shares could be adversely affected.

The laws and regulations imposed by the United States and other governmental jurisdictions vary in their application, and do not all apply to the same covered persons or proscribe the same activities. In addition, the sanctions and embargo laws and regulations of each jurisdiction may be amended to increase or reduce the restrictions they impose over time, and the lists of persons and entities designated under these laws and regulations are amended frequently. Moreover, most sanctions regimes provide that entities owned or controlled by the persons or entities designated in such lists are also subject to sanctions. The United States and EU both have enacted new sanctions programs in recent years. Additional countries or territories, as well as additional persons or entities within or affiliated with those countries or

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territories, have, and in the future may, become the target of sanctions. These require us to be diligent in ensuring our compliance with sanctions laws. Further, the United States has increased its focus on sanctions enforcement with respect to the shipping sector. Current or future counterparties of ours may be or become affiliated with persons or entities that are now or may in the future be the subject of sanctions imposed by the United States Government, the European Union, and/or other international bodies. If we determine that such sanctions or embargoes require us to terminate existing or future contracts to which we or our subsidiaries are party or if we are found to be in violation of such applicable sanctions or embargoes, we could face monetary fines, we may suffer reputational harm and our results of operations may be adversely affected.

As a result of the armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine and Israel and Hamas, the United States, EU and United Kingdom, together with numerous other jurisdictions, have imposed significant sanctions, which may adversely affect our ability to operate in such regions and also restrict parties whose cargo our vessels may carry. Sanctions against Russia have also placed significant prohibitions on the maritime transportation of seaborne Russian oil, the importation of certain Russian energy products and other goods, and new investments in the Russian Federation. These sanctions further limit the scope of permissible operations and cargo we may carry.

Although we believe that we have been in compliance with all applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2024, and intend to maintain such compliance, there can be no assurance that we will be in compliance in the future, particularly as the scope of certain laws may be unclear and may be subject to changing interpretations. Any such violation could result in reputational damages, fines, penalties or other sanctions that could severely impact our ability to access U.S. capital markets and conduct our business and could result in some investors deciding, or being required, to divest their interest, or not to invest, in us.

Our vessels are subject to periodic inspections.

The hull and machinery of every commercial vessel must be classed by a classification society authorized by its country of registry. The classification society certifies that a vessel is safe and seaworthy in accordance with the applicable rules and regulations of the country of registry of the vessel and SOLAS. Most insurance underwriters make it a condition for insurance coverage and lending that a vessel be certified “in class” by a classification society which is a member of the International Association of Classification Societies, or the IACS. The IACS has adopted harmonized Common Structural Rules, or “the Rules,” which apply to oil tankers and bulk carriers contracted for construction on or after July 1, 2015. The Rules attempt to create a level of consistency between IACS Societies. Our technically managed VLGCs are currently classed with either Lloyd's Register, ABS or Det Norske Veritas.

A vessel must undergo annual surveys, intermediate surveys, drydockings, and special surveys. In lieu of a special survey, a vessel's machinery may be on a continuous survey cycle, under which the machinery would be surveyed periodically over a five-year period. Our vessels are on special survey cycles for hull inspection and continuous survey cycles for machinery inspection. Every vessel is also required to be drydocked every 30 to 36 months for inspection of the underwater parts of such vessel. However, for vessels not exceeding 15 years that have means to facilitate underwater inspection in lieu of drydocking, the drydocking can be skipped and be conducted concurrently with the special survey. Certain cargo vessels that meet the system requirements set by classification societies may qualify for extended drydocking, which extends the 5-year period to 7.5 years, by replacing certain dry-dockings with in-water surveys.

Our vessels also undergo inspections with a view towards compliance under the SIRE and USCG requirements, as applicable. If a vessel does not maintain its class and/or fails any annual survey, intermediate survey, dry-docking, or special survey, the vessel will be unable to carry cargo between ports and will be unemployable and uninsurable, which would cause us to be in violation of covenants in our loan agreements and insurance contracts or other financing arrangements. This would adversely impact our operations and revenues.

Maritime claimants could arrest our vessels, which could interrupt our cash flow.

Crew members, suppliers of goods and services to a vessel, shippers of cargo and others may be entitled to a maritime lien against that vessel for unsatisfied debts, claims or damages. In many jurisdictions, a maritime lien holder

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may enforce its lien by arresting or attaching a vessel through foreclosure proceedings. The arrest or attachment of one or more of our vessels could interrupt our cash flow and require us to pay large sums of funds to have the arrest lifted.

In addition, in some jurisdictions, such as South Africa, under the "sister ship" theory of liability, a claimant may arrest both the vessel which is subject to the claimant's maritime lien and any "associated" vessel, which is any vessel owned or controlled by the same owner. Claimants could try to assert "sister ship" liability against one vessel in our fleet for claims relating to another of our ships or, possibly, another vessel managed by one of our shareholders holding more than 5% of our common shares or entities affiliated with them.

Governments could requisition our vessels during a period of war or emergency, resulting in loss of revenues.

The government of a vessel's registry could requisition for title or hire or seize our vessels. Requisition for title occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and becomes the owner. Requisition for hire occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and effectively becomes the charterer at dictated charter rates. Generally, requisitions occur during a period of war or emergency. Government requisition of one or more of our vessels could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

The operation of ocean-going vessels is inherently risky, and an incident resulting in significant loss or environmental consequences involving any of our vessels could harm our reputation and business.

The operation of an ocean-going vessel carries inherent risks. Our vessels and their cargoes are at risk of being damaged or lost because of events such as marine disasters, bad weather, mechanical failures, grounding, fire, explosions, collisions, human error, war, terrorism, piracy, cargo loss, latent defects, acts of nature and other circumstances or events. Changing economic, regulatory and political conditions in some countries, including political and military conflicts, have from time to time resulted in attacks on vessels, mining of waterways, piracy, terrorism, labor strikes and boycotts. For example, since December 2023 there have been threats, including piracy and drone and missile attacks, on commercial vessels transiting the Red Sea and surrounding waterways, which are believed to be led by the Yemen-based Houthi rebel group purportedly in response to the armed conflict between Israel and Hamas. Damage to the environment could also result from our operations, particularly through spillage of fuel, lubricants or other chemicals and substances used in operations, or extensive uncontrolled fires. These hazards may result in death or injury to persons, loss of revenues or property, environmental damage, higher insurance rates, damage to our customer relationships, market disruptions, delay or rerouting, any of which may also subject us to litigation. As a result, we could be exposed to substantial liabilities not recoverable under our insurances. Further, the involvement of our vessels in a serious accident could harm our reputation as a safe and reliable vessel operator and lead to a loss of business.

If our vessels suffer damage, they may need to be repaired at a drydocking facility and in certain instances such damage may result in lost revenues under and in certain cases the termination of the employment contract under which such vessel is operating. The costs of drydock repairs are unpredictable and may be substantial. We may have to pay drydocking costs that our insurance does not cover at all or in full. The loss of earnings while these vessels are being repaired and repositioned, as well as the actual cost of these repairs, may adversely affect our business and financial condition. In addition, space at drydocking facilities is sometimes limited and not all drydocking facilities are conveniently located. We may be unable to find space at a suitable drydocking facility or our vessels may be forced to travel to a drydocking facility that is not conveniently located to our vessels' positions. The loss of earnings while these vessels are forced to wait for space or to travel or be towed to more distant drydocking facilities may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We may be subject to litigation that could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

We are currently not involved in any litigation matters that are expected to have a material adverse effect on our business or financial condition. Nevertheless, we anticipate that we could be involved in litigation matters from time to time in the future. The operating hazards inherent in our business expose us to litigation, including personal injury litigation, environmental litigation, contractual litigation with clients, intellectual property litigation, tax or securities litigation, and maritime lawsuits including the possible arrest of our vessels. We cannot predict with certainty the outcome or effect of any claim or other litigation matter. Any future litigation may have an adverse effect on our business, financial

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position, results of operations and our ability to pay dividends, because of potential negative outcomes, the costs associated with prosecuting or defending such lawsuits, and the diversion of management's attention to these matters. Additionally, our insurance may not be applicable or sufficient to cover the related costs in all cases or our insurers may not remain solvent.

Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels could adversely affect our business.

Acts of piracy have historically affected ocean-going vessels in regions of the world such as the Gulf of Aden region off the coast of Somalia, the South China Sea, the Sulu Sea, the Celebes Sea and the Gulf of Guinea region off Nigeria. Additionally, since December 2023, there have been multiple drone and missile attacks on commercial vessels transiting international waters in the southern Red Sea by groups believed to be affiliated with the Yemen-based Houthi rebel group purportedly in response to the ongoing military conflict between Israel and Hamas. We cannot predict the severity or length of the current conditions impacting international shipping in this region and the continuing disruption of the trade routes in the region of the Red Sea, and it is possible that they could have a material and adverse impact on our results of operations in the future.

If these piracy attacks continue or occur in regions in which our vessels are deployed and are characterized by insurers as “war risk” zones or Joint War Committee “war and strikes” listed areas, premiums payable for such coverage, for which we are responsible with respect to vessels employed on spot charters, but not vessels employed on bareboat or time charters, could increase significantly and such insurance coverage may be more difficult to obtain. In addition, costs to employ onboard security guards could increase in such circumstances. We may not be adequately insured to cover losses from these incidents, which could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, detention hijacking as a result of an act of piracy against our vessels, or an increase in cost, or unavailability of insurance for our vessels, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our operations outside the United States expose us to global risks, such as political instability, terrorism, war, and international hostilities, which may interfere with the operation of our vessels and have a material adverse impact on our operating results, revenues and costs.

We are an international company and primarily conduct our operations outside the United States. Changing economic, political and governmental conditions in the countries where we are engaged in business or where our vessels are registered affect us. In the past, political conflicts have resulted in attacks on vessels or other petroleum-related infrastructures, mining of waterways and other efforts to disrupt shipping. Continuing conflicts, instability and other recent developments in the Middle East and elsewhere, may lead to additional acts of terrorism or armed conflict around the world, and our vessels may face higher risks of being attacked or detained, or shipping routes transited by our vessels, such as the Strait of Hormuz, may be otherwise disrupted. In addition, future hostilities or other political instability in regions where our vessels trade could affect our trade patterns and adversely affect our operations and performance, including the ongoing conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and Israel and Hamas. Recent developments in the Ukraine region and continuing conflicts in the Middle East, including the military conflict between Israel and Hamas, may lead to additional armed conflicts around the world, which may contribute to further economic instability in the global financial markets and international commerce.

Specifically, the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine has had a significant direct and indirect impact on the trade of refined petroleum products. This conflict has resulted in the United States, United Kingdom, and the European Union, among other countries, implementing sanctions and executive orders against citizens, entities, and activities connected to Russia. Some of these sanctions and executive orders target the Russian oil sector, including a prohibition on the import of oil and refined petroleum products from Russia to the United States, United Kingdom or the European Union. We cannot foresee what other sanctions or executive orders may arise that affect the trade of petroleum products and it is possible that the current conflict in Ukraine could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, financial position and future performance.

Additionally, since December 2023, there have been multiple drone and missile attacks on commercial vessels transiting international waters in the southern Red Sea by groups believed to be affiliated with the Yemen-based Houthi rebel group purportedly in response to the ongoing military conflict between Israel and Hamas. These attacks continue to

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threaten the political stability of the region and may lead to further military conflicts, including continued hostile actions towards commercial shipping in the region. We cannot predict the severity or length of the current conditions impacting international shipping in this region and the continuing disruption of the trade routes in the region of the Red Sea. It is also possible that these conditions could have a material and adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations, and future performance.

In February of 2022, President Biden and several European leaders also announced various economic sanctions against Russia in connection with the aforementioned conflicts in the Ukraine region, which have continued to expand over the past year and may adversely impact our business, given Russia’s role as a major global exporter of crude oil and natural gas. The Russian Foreign Harmful Activities Sanctions program includes prohibitions on the import of certain Russian energy products into the United States, including crude oil, petroleum, petroleum fuels, oils, liquefied natural gas and coal, as well as prohibitions on all new investments in Russia by U.S. persons, among other restrictions. Furthermore, the United States has also prohibited a variety of specified services related to the maritime transport of Russian Federation origin crude oil and petroleum products, including trading/commodities brokering, financing, shipping, insurance (including reinsurance and protection and indemnity), flagging, and customs brokering. These prohibitions took effect on December 5, 2022 with respect to the maritime transport of crude oil and are scheduled to take effect on February 5, 2023 with respect to the maritime transport of other petroleum products. An exception exists to permit such services when the price of the seaborne Russian oil does not exceed the relevant price cap; but implementation of this price exception relies on a recordkeeping and attestation process that allows each party in the supply chain of seaborne Russian oil to demonstrate or confirm that oil has been purchased at or below the price cap. Violations of the price cap policy or the risk that information, documentation, or attestations provided by parties in the supply chain are later determined to be false may pose additional risks adversely affecting our business.

Further hostilities in or closure of major waterways in the Middle East, Black Sea, or South China Sea region could adversely affect the availability of and demand for crude oil and petroleum products, as well as LPG, and negatively affect our investment and our customers' investment decisions over an extended period of time. In addition, sanctions against oil exporting countries such as Iran, Russia, Sudan and Syria may also impact the availability of crude oil, petroleum products and LPG would increase the availability of applicable vessels thereby negatively impacting charter rates.

Terrorist attacks, or the perception that LPG or natural gas facilities or oil refineries and LPG carriers are potential terrorist targets, could materially and adversely affect the continued supply of LPG. Concern that LPG and natural gas facilities may be targeted for attack by terrorists has contributed to a significant community and environmental resistance to the construction of a number of natural gas facilities, primarily in North America. If a terrorist incident involving a gas facility or gas carrier did occur, the incident may adversely affect necessary LPG facilities or natural gas facilities currently in operation. In addition, such terrorist attacks could lead to certain areas or routes not being available for shipping and therefore creating additional costs for alternative itineraries, including in connection with the recent attacks in the Red Sea. Furthermore, future terrorist attacks could result in increased volatility of the financial markets in the United States and globally and could result in an economic recession in the United States or the world.

As a result of these conflicts and other potential future conflicts, insurers may increase premiums and reduce or restrict coverage for losses caused by terrorist acts generally. These uncertainties could also adversely affect our ability to obtain additional financing on terms acceptable to us or at all. Any of these occurrences and related consequences could have a material adverse impact on our operating results, revenues and costs.

Outbreaks of epidemic and pandemic diseases and governmental responses thereto could adversely affect our business.

Our operations are subject to risks related to pandemics, epidemics or other infectious disease outbreaks and government responses thereto. COVID-19, which was initially declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020 and was declared no longer a global health emergency on May 5, 2023, negatively affected economic conditions, supply chains, labor markets, and demand for certain shipped goods both regionally and globally as a result of government efforts to combat the pandemic, including the enactment or imposition of travel bans, quarantines and other emergency public health measures.

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The extent to which our business, the global economy and the petroleum product transportation industry may be negatively affected by future pandemics, epidemics or other outbreaks of infectious diseases is highly uncertain and will depend on numerous evolving factors that we cannot predict, including, but not limited to (i) the duration and severity of the infectious disease outbreak; (ii) the imposition of restrictive measures to combat the outbreak and slow disease transmission; (iii) the introduction of financial support measures to reduce the impact of the outbreak on the economy; (iv) volatility in the demand for and price of oil and gas; (v) shortages or reductions in the supply of essential goods, services or labor; and (vi) fluctuations in general economic or financial conditions tied to the outbreak, such as a sharp increase in interest rates or reduction in the availability of credit. We cannot predict the effect that an outbreak of a new COVID-19 variant or strain, or any future infectious disease outbreak, pandemic or epidemic may have on our business, results of operations and financial condition, which could be material and adverse.

If labor or other interruptions are not resolved in a timely manner, such interruptions could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.

We employ masters, officers and crews to man our vessels. If not resolved in a timely and cost-effective manner, industrial action or other labor unrest or any other interruption arising from incidents of whistleblowing whether proven or not, could prevent or hinder our operations from being carried out as we expect and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Information technology failures and data security breaches, including as a result of cybersecurity attacks, could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition, subject us to increased operating costs, and expose us to litigation.

We rely on our computer systems and network infrastructure across our operations, including on our vessels. Despite our implementation of security and back-up measures, all of our technology systems are vulnerable to damage, disability or failures due to physical theft, fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, operational error, or other catastrophic events. Our technology systems are also subject to cybersecurity attacks including malware, other malicious software, phishing email attacks, attempts to gain unauthorized access to our data, the unauthorized release, corruption or loss of our data, loss or damage to our data delivery systems, and other electronic security breaches. In addition, as we continue to grow the volume of transactions in our businesses, our existing IT systems infrastructure, applications and related functionality may be unable to effectively support a larger scale operation, which can cause the information being processed to be unreliable and impact our decision-making or damage our reputation with customers.

Despite our efforts to ensure the integrity of our systems and prevent future cybersecurity attacks, it is possible that our business, financial and other systems could be compromised, especially because such attacks can originate from a wide variety of sources including persons involved in organized crime or associated with external service providers. Those parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce employees, customers or other users of our systems to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our data or use electronic means to induce the company to enter into fraudulent transactions. A successful cyber-attack could materially disrupt our operations, including the safety of our vessel operations. Past and future occurrences of such attacks could damage our reputation and our ability to conduct our business, impact our credit and risk exposure decisions, cause us to lose customers or revenues, subject us to litigation and require us to incur significant expense to address and remediate or otherwise resolve these issues, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Further, data protection laws apply to us in certain countries in which we do business. Specifically, the EU General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which was applicable beginning May 2018, increases penalties up to a maximum of 4% of global annual turnover for breach of the regulation. The GDPR requires mandatory breach notification, the standard for which is also followed outside the EU (particularly in Asia). Non-compliance with data protection laws could expose us to regulatory investigations, which could result in fines and penalties. In addition to imposing fines, regulators may also issue orders to stop processing personal data, which could disrupt operations. We could also be subject to litigation from persons or corporations allegedly affected by data protection violations. Violation of data protection laws is a criminal offence in some countries, and individuals can be imprisoned or fined. Any violation of these laws or harm to our reputation could have a material adverse effect on our earnings, cash flows and financial condition.

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Moreover, cyber-attacks against the Ukrainian government and other countries in the region have been reported in connection with the recent conflict between Russia and Ukraine. To the extent such attacks have collateral effects on global critical infrastructure or financial institutions, such developments could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. At this time, it is difficult to assess the likelihood of such a threat and any potential impact at this time.

For more information on our cybersecurity efforts and risk management of cyber-incidents and threats, see the section entitled “Part I—Item 1C. Cybersecurity.”

Risks Relating to Our Common Shares

The price of our common shares has fluctuated in the past, has recently been volatile and may be