20-F 1 d303429d20f.htm FORM 20-F Form 20-F
2001-072014-012003-032008-062000-082002-042008-062005-01falseFY0001290109Redemption at maturity :Redeemed on the maturity date, at their outstanding principal amount, which has not been early redeemed or converted. Early redemption :The Controlling Company has a right to redeem before maturity (call option) or the bondholders have a right to require the Controlling Company to redeem before maturity (put option). At exercise of each option, the outstanding principal amount together with accrued but unpaid interest are to be redeemed.₩19,845 per common share (subject to adjustment based on diluted effects of certain events)KRKRM5For the year ended December 31, 2021, the Controlling Company contributed W38,565 million in cash for the capital increase of LG DISPLAY FUND I LLC. There was no change in the Controlling Company’s percentage of ownership in LG DISPLAY FUND I LLC as a result of this additional investment.Represents cross currency interest rate swap contracts and others entered into by the Group to hedge currency and interest rate risks with respect to foreign currency denominated borrowings and bonds. The contracts are not designated as hedging instruments.Represents forward exchange contracts entered into by the Group to hedge exchange rate risks with respect to forecast sales in foreign currency. The contracts are designated as hedging instruments.Principal of the won denominated bonds is to be repaid at maturity and interests are paid quarterly. Principal of the foreign currency denominated bonds is to be repaid at maturity and interests are paid quarterly or semi-annually. Reclassified to current considering the bondholders’ right to redeem before maturity (put option).The Group depreciates the right-of-use assets from the commencement date to the earlier of the end of the useful life of the right-of-use asset or the end of the lease term.Represents transactions occurred prior to the Group’s disposal of the entire investmentsRepresents transactions occurred prior to LG Electronics Inc.’s disposal of the entire investments.Software license and patent royalty are amortized over the useful lives considering the contract period.The net proceeds from selling items produced during the test are reclassified from net cash used in investing activity to net cash provided by operating activity.Capitalized development costs are amortized over the useful lives considering the life cycle of the developed products. 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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 28, 2022
 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM
20-F
 
 
(Mark One)
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
    
    
    
    
For the transition period from                to
Commission file number
1-32238
 
 
LG Display Co., Ltd.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
LG Display Co., Ltd.
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
 
 
The Republic of Korea
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
LG Twin Towers, 128 Yeoui-daero,
Yeongdeungpo-gu,
Seoul
07336, Republic of Korea
(Address of principal executive offices)
Gihwa Kim
LG Twin Towers, 128 Yeoui-daero,
Yeongdeungpo-gu,
Seoul
07336, Republic of Korea
Telephone No.:
+82-2-3777-1010
Facsimile No.:
+82-2-3777-0793
(Name, telephone,
e-mail
and/or facsimile number and address of company contact person)
 
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.
 
Title of each class
 
Trading
Symbol
 
Name of each exchange
on which registered
American Depositary Shares, each representing
one-half
of one share of Common Stock
 
LPL
 
New York Stock Exchange
Common Stock, par value
5,000 per share
 
LPL
 
New York Stock Exchange*
 
*
Not for trading, but only in connection with the registration of the American Depositary Shares.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.
None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.
None
 
 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
357,815,700 shares of common stock, par value
W
5,000 per share
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    ☒  
Yes    
☐  
No
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    ☐  Yes    ☒  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    ☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
(§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    ☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer
 
  
Accelerated filer
 
       
Non-accelerated filer
 
  
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.      Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
U.S. GAAP  ☐
 
        International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
 
 
  
 
  
Other  ☐
 
 
        by the International Accounting Standards Board
 
  
 
  
 
Auditor Name: KPMG Samjong Accounting Corp.            Auditor Location: Seoul, Korea            Auditor Firm ID: 1357
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.    ☐  Item 17    ☐  Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act).    ☐  Yes      No
 
 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
  
Page
 
  
 
4
 
   
  
 
5
 
     
PART I
 
 
  
     
     
Item 1.
 
  
 
6
 
     
Item 2.
 
  
 
6
 
     
Item 3.
 
  
 
6
 
     
 
 
  
 
6
 
     
 
 
  
 
6
 
     
 
 
  
 
6
 
     
 
 
  
 
6
 
     
Item 4.
 
  
 
25
 
     
 
 
  
 
25
 
     
 
 
  
 
26
 
     
 
 
  
 
37
 
     
 
 
  
 
37
 
     
Item 4A.
 
  
 
38
 
     
Item 5.
 
  
 
39
 
     
 
 
  
 
39
 
     
 
 
  
 
51
 
     
 
 
  
 
55
 
     
 
 
  
 
57
 
     
 
 
  
 
57
 
     
Item 6.
 
  
 
58
 
     
 
 
  
 
58
 
     
 
 
  
 
61
 
     
 
 
  
 
62
 
     
 
 
  
 
63
 
     
 
 
  
 
64
 
 
(i)

 
 
 
  
Page
 
     
Item 7.
 
  
 
64
 
     
 
 
  
 
64
 
     
 
 
  
 
65
 
     
 
 
  
 
66
 
     
Item 8.
 
  
 
66
 
     
 
 
  
 
66
 
     
 
 
  
 
67
 
     
Item 9.
 
  
 
68
 
     
 
 
  
 
68
 
     
 
 
  
 
68
 
     
 
 
  
 
68
 
     
 
 
  
 
68
 
     
 
 
  
 
68
 
     
 
 
  
 
68
 
     
Item 10.
 
  
 
68
 
     
 
 
  
 
68
 
     
 
 
  
 
68
 
     
 
 
  
 
73
 
     
 
 
  
 
73
 
     
 
 
  
 
76
 
     
 
 
  
 
81
 
     
 
 
  
 
81
 
     
 
 
  
 
81
 
     
 
 
  
 
81
 
     
Item 11.
 
  
 
81
 
     
Item 12.
 
  
 
84
 
     
PART II
 
 
  
     
     
Item 13.
 
  
 
85
 
 
(ii)

Item 14.
 
  
 
86
 
     
Item 15.
 
  
 
86
 
     
Item 16.
 
  
 
86
 
     
Item 16A.
 
  
 
86
 
     
Item 16B.
 
  
 
86
 
     
Item 16C.
 
  
 
87
 
     
Item 16D.
 
  
 
87
 
     
Item 16E.
 
  
 
87
 
     
Item 16F.
 
  
 
87
 
     
Item 16G.
 
  
 
87
 
     
Item 16H.
 
  
 
89
 
     
Item 16I.
 
  
 
89
 
     
PART III
 
 
  
     
     
Item 17.
 
  
 
90
 
     
Item 18.
 
  
 
90
 
     
Item 19.
 
  
 
91
 
 
(iii)

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION
In this annual report, the terms “we,” “us,” “our” and “LG Display” refer to LG Display Co., Ltd. and, unless otherwise indicated or required by context, our consolidated subsidiaries. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the context of any legal proceedings or governmental investigations, “LG Display” refers to LG Display Co., Ltd. and does not include any of its subsidiaries, or any other entities or persons.
The financial statements included in this annual report are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB. As such, we make an explicit and unreserved statement of compliance with IFRS, as issued by the IASB, with respect to our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020 and 2021 and for each of the years ended in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021 included in this annual report.
In addition to preparing financial statements in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB included in this annual report, we also prepare financial statements in accordance with Korean International Financial Reporting Standards, or
K-IFRS,
as adopted by the Korean Accounting Standards Board, or KASB, which we are required to file with the Financial Services Commission and the Korea Exchange under the Financial Investment Services and Capital Markets Act of Korea. See “Item 10.B. Memorandum and Articles of Association—Business Report.” English translations of such financial statements are furnished to the SEC on Form
6-K,
which are not incorporated by reference to this or any of our previous annual reports on Form
20-F.
The operating profit or loss presented in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income or loss prepared in accordance with
K-IFRS
for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021 included in the Form
6-K
furnished to the SEC on March 8, 2022 is a loss of
W
36 billion and a profit of
W
2,231 billion, respectively. For further information, please see the Form
6-K
furnished to the SEC on March 8, 2022, which is not incorporated by reference to this annual report.
Pursuant to the IFRS as issued by the IASB, we are not required to separately present operating profit or loss in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income or loss prepared in accordance with IFRS. Therefore, the financial statements included in this annual report, which are prepared in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB, do not present operating profit or loss as a separate line item.
Unless expressly stated otherwise, all financial data included in this annual report are presented on a consolidated basis.
All references to “Korean Won,” “Won” or “
W
” in this annual report are to the currency of the Republic of Korea, all references to “U.S. dollars” or “US$” are to the currency of the United States, all references to “Japanese Yen,” “Yen” or “¥” are to the currency of Japan, all references to “CNY” or “Chinese Yuan” are to the currency of the People’s Republic of China, all references to “NT$” are to the currency of Taiwan, all references to “Euro” or “€” are to the official currency of the European Economic and Monetary Union, and all references to “R$” are to the currency of Brazil.
Any discrepancies in any table between the totals and the sums of the amounts listed are due to rounding.
For your convenience, this annual report contains translations of Won amounts into U.S. dollars at the noon buying rate in New York City for cable transfers in Korean Won as certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes in effect on December 31, 2021, which was
W
1,188.59 = US$1.00.
 
4

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
We have made forward-looking statements in this annual report. Our forward-looking statements contain information regarding, among other things, our financial condition, future plans and business strategy. Words such as “contemplate,” “seek to,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan” and similar expressions, as they relate to us, are intended to identify a number of these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements reflect management’s present expectations and projections about future events and are not a guarantee of future performance. Although we believe that these expectations and projections are reasonable, such forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us, including, among other things:
 
   
the cyclical nature of our industry;
 
   
our dependence on introducing new products on a timely basis;
 
   
our dependence on growth in the demand for our products;
 
   
our ability to compete effectively;
 
   
our dependence on a select group of key customers;
 
   
our ability to successfully manage our capacity expansion and allocation in response to changing industry and market conditions;
 
   
our dependence on key personnel;
 
   
general economic and political conditions, including those related to the display panel industry;
 
   
possible disruptions in commercial activities caused by events such as natural disasters, health epidemics, terrorist activity and armed conflict;
 
   
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; and
 
   
those other risks identified in the “Risk Factors” section of this annual report.
Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the events discussed in the forward-looking statements in this annual report might not occur and our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements.
All subsequent forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.
 
5

PART I
 
Item 1.
IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
Not applicable.
 
Item 2.
OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
Not applicable.
 
Item 3.
KEY INFORMATION
 
Item 3.A.
[RESERVED]
 
Item 3.B.
Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
 
Item 3.C.
Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
 
Item 3.D.
Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the risks described below.
Risks Relating to Our Industry
The display panel industry is subject to cyclical fluctuations, including recurring periods of capacity increases, that may adversely affect our results of operations.
Most of the global supply of display panels is currently manufactured based on thin-film transistor liquid crystal display, or
TFT-LCD,
technology. Display panel manufacturers are vulnerable to cyclical market conditions. Intense competition and expectations of growth in demand across the display panel industry may cause manufacturers to make additional investments in manufacturing capacity on similar schedules, resulting in a surge in capacity when production is ramped up at new fabrication facilities. During such surges in capacity growth, as evidenced by past experiences, customers can exert strong downward pricing pressure, resulting in sharp declines in average selling prices and significant fluctuations in the panel manufacturers’ gross margins. Conversely, demand surges and fluctuations in the supply chain can lead to price increases.
From time to time, we have been affected by overcapacity in the display panel industry relative to the general demand for such panels which, together with uncertainties in the current global economic environment, has contributed to a general decline in the average selling prices of a number of our display panel products. We attempt to counteract, at least in part, the effects of overcapacity in the industry by increasing the proportion of high margin, differentiated specialty products based on newer technologies in our product mix, including products that utilize organic light-emitting diode, or OLED, technology, which are relatively less affected by the industry-wide overcapacity problems affecting display panel products using older technologies, while also engaging in cost reduction efforts. We also address overcapacity issues by, in the short-term, adjusting the utilization rates of our existing fabrication facilities based on our assessment of industry inventory levels and demand for our products and, in the
mid-
to long-term, by fine-tuning our investment strategies relating to product development and capacity growth in light of our assessment of future market conditions.
Our average revenue per square meter of net display area, which is derived by dividing our total revenue by total square meters of net display area shipped, increased by 29.7% from
W
610,716 in 2019 to
W
791,900 in 2020 and further increased by 7.3% to
W
849,481 (US$715) in 2021 primarily due to our ongoing efforts to continue increasing in our product mix the proportion of higher-priced OLED panels and differentiated
TFT-LCD
panels as well as a stronger global demand for both OLED and
TFT-LCD
panel products reflecting increased levels of working remotely, online schooling and social distancing in light of the ongoing global pandemic of a new strain of coronavirus referred to as
“COVID-19,”
an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that is known to have been first transmitted to humans in November 2019 and has spread globally.
 
6

While we believe that overcapacity and other cyclical issues in the industry are best addressed by increasing the proportion of high margin, differentiated specialty products based on newer technologies (such as OLED technology) in our product mix that are tailored to our customers’ evolving needs, we cannot provide any assurance that an increase in demand, which has helped to mitigate the impact of industry-wide overcapacity in the past, can be sustained in future periods. We will therefore continue to closely monitor any overcapacity issues in the industry and respond accordingly. However, construction of new fabrication facilities and other capacity expansion projects in the display panel industry are undertaken with a multi-year time horizon based on expectations of future market trends. Therefore, even if overcapacity issues persist in the industry, there may be continued capacity expansion in the near future due to
pre-committed
capacity expansion projects in the industry that were undertaken in past years. Any significant industry-wide capacity increases that are not accompanied by a sufficient increase in demand could further drive down the average selling price of our panels, which would negatively affect our gross margin. Any decline in prices may be further compounded by a seasonal weakening in demand growth for end products such as personal computer products, consumer electronics products and mobile and other application products. Furthermore, once the differentiated products that had a positive impact on our performance mature in their technology cycle, if we are not able to develop and commercialize newer products to offset the price erosion of such maturing products in a timely manner, our ability to counter the impact of cyclical market conditions on our gross margins would be further limited. We cannot provide assurance that any future downturns resulting from any large increases in capacity or other factors affecting the industry would not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A global economic downturn may result in reduced demand for our products and adversely affect our profitability.
In recent years, adverse conditions and volatility in the worldwide financial markets, fluctuations in oil and commodity prices and the general weakness of the global economy have contributed to the uncertainty of global economic prospects in general and have adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, the Korean economy. Global economic downturns in the past have adversely affected demand for consumer products manufactured by our customers in Korea and overseas, including IT products (which term is used by us to collectively refer to notebook computers, desktop monitors and tablet computers), televisions and mobile and other application products utilizing display panels, which in turn led them to reduce or plan reductions of their production.
The overall prospects for the global economy remain uncertain, especially in light of the ongoing global pandemic of
COVID-19,
which has had and may continue to have a negative effect on the global economy. See “—Risks Relating to Our Company—Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, severe health epidemics (including the ongoing global
COVID-19
pandemic and any possible recurrence of other types of widespread infectious diseases) and other natural calamities could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.” We cannot provide any assurance that demand for our products can be sustained at current levels in future periods or that the demand for our products will not decrease in the future due to such economic downturns, which may adversely affect our profitability.
We may decide to adjust our production levels in the future subject to market demand for our products, the production outlook of the global display panel industry, any significant disruptions in our supply chain and global economic conditions in general. For example, as part of our continued efforts to increase the proportion of higher-margin OLED panels in our product mix, we have been reducing the production level of less profitable types of
TFT-LCD
panels in recent years. In particular, in 2020, we significantly reduced the production level of
TFT-LCD
television display panels by substantially ceasing the production of most types of such panels in Korea, in light of continued overcapacity in the market and our increased focus on producing OLED panels and higher margin
TFT-LCD
panels for IT products. In 2021, we increased our production capacity of
larger-sized
eighth-generation OLED panels and
high-end
TFT-LCD
panels for IT products in light of increased market demand. Any decline in demand for display panel products may adversely affect our business, results of operations and/or financial condition.
Our industry continues to experience steady declines in the average selling prices of display panels irrespective of cyclical fluctuations in the industry, and our margins would be adversely impacted if prices decrease faster than we are able to reduce our costs.
The average selling prices of display panels have declined in general and are expected to continually decline with time irrespective of industry-wide cyclical fluctuations as a result of, among other factors, technological advancements and cost reductions. Although we may be able to take advantage of the higher selling prices typically associated with new products and technologies when they are first introduced in the market, such prices decline over time, and in certain cases, very rapidly, as a result of market competition or otherwise. If we are unable to effectively anticipate and counter the price erosion that accompanies our products, or if the average selling prices of our display panels decrease faster than the speed at which we are able to reduce our manufacturing costs, our gross margin would decrease and our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.
 
7

We operate in a highly competitive environment and we may not be able to sustain our current market position.
The display panel industry is highly competitive. We have experienced pressure on the prices and margins of our major products due largely to additional capacity from panel makers in Asia, particularly in China. Our main competitors in the industry include leading display manufacturers in China, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. See “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Competition.”
Some of our competitors may currently, or at some point in the future, have greater financial, sales and marketing, manufacturing, research and development or technological resources than we do. In addition, our competitors may be able to manufacture panels on a larger scale or with greater cost efficiencies than we do, and we anticipate increases in production capacity in the future by other display panel manufacturers using similar display panel technologies as ours. Any price erosion resulting from strong global competition or additional industry capacity may materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Consolidation within the industry in which we operate may result in increased competition as the entities emerging from such consolidation may have greater financial, manufacturing, research and development and other resources than we do, especially if such mergers or consolidations result in vertical integration and operational efficiencies. Increased competition resulting from such mergers or consolidations may lead to decreased margins, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to compete successfully also depends on factors both within and outside our control, including product pricing, performance and reliability, our relationship with customers, successful and timely investment and product development, success or failure of our
end-brand
customers in marketing their brands and products, newly established industry standards, component and raw material supply costs, and general economic and industry conditions. We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to maintain a competitive advantage with respect to all these factors and, as a result, we may be unable to sustain our current market position.
Our operating results fluctuate from period to period, so you should not rely on
period-to-period
comparisons to predict our future performance.
Our industry is affected by market conditions that are often outside the control of manufacturers. Our results of operations may fluctuate significantly from period to period due to a number of factors, including seasonal variations in consumer demand, capacity
ramp-up
by competitors, industry-wide technological changes, the loss of a key customer and the postponement, rescheduling or cancellation of large orders by a key customer, any of which may or may not reflect a continued trend from one period to the next. As a result of these factors and other risks discussed in this section, you should not rely on
period-to-period
comparisons to predict our future performance.
Risks Relating to Our Company
Our financial condition may be adversely affected if we cannot introduce new products to adapt to rapidly evolving customer needs on a timely basis.
Our success will depend greatly on our ability to respond quickly to rapidly evolving customer requirements and to develop and efficiently manufacture new and differentiated products in anticipation of future demand. A failure or delay on our part to develop and efficiently manufacture products of such quality and technical specifications that meet our customers’ evolving needs may adversely affect our business.
Close cooperation with our customers to gain insights into their product needs and to understand general trends in the
end-product
market is a key component of our strategy to produce successful products. In addition, when developing new products, we often work closely with equipment suppliers to design equipment that will make our production processes for such new products more efficient. If we are unable to work together with our customers and equipment suppliers, or to sufficiently understand their respective needs and capabilities or general market trends, we may not be able to introduce or efficiently manufacture new products in a timely manner, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial situation.
In addition, product differentiation, especially the ability to develop and market differentiated specialty products that command higher premiums in a timely manner, has become a key competitive strategy in the display panel market. This is in part due to trends in consumer electronics and other markets, such as IT products, televisions and mobile and other applications, where the growth in demand is led by end products employing newer technologies with specifications tailored to deliver enhanced performance, convenience and user experience in a cost-efficient and timely manner. Accordingly, we have focused our efforts on developing and marketing differentiated specialty products, such as OLED display panels for televisions and commercial displays including “Cinematic Sound OLED” sound integrated panels, rollable OLED display panels, transparent OLED display panels as well as OLED display panels for gaming monitors.
We also strive to deliver differentiated values to meet our consumers’ demand for various display panels including (i) panels utilizing ultra-high definition, or Ultra HD, technology and low power consumption with oxide TFT backplanes, (ii) Advanced High-Performance
In-Plane
Switching, or
AH-IPS,
panels for IT products and televisions, and (iii) plastic OLED display panels for smartphones, automotive products and wearable devices. We have also focused our efforts on cost reductions in the production process, in particular of panels with newer technologies, such as OLED, in order to improve or maintain our profit margins while offering competitive prices to our customers.
 
8

We have developed differentiated sales and marketing strategies to promote our panels for differentiated specialty products as part of our strategy to grow our operations to meet increasing demand for new applications in consumer electronics and other markets. However, we cannot provide assurance that the differentiated products we develop and market will be responsive to our end customers’ needs nor that our products will be successfully incorporated into end products or new applications that lead market growth in consumer electronics or other markets.
Problems with product quality, including defects, in our products could result in a decrease in customers and sales, unexpected expenses and loss of market share.
Our products are manufactured using advanced, and often new, technology and must meet stringent quality requirements. Products manufactured using more advanced and newer technology, such as our OLED technology, may contain undetected errors or defects, especially when first introduced. For example, our latest display panels may contain defects that are not detected until after they are shipped or installed because we cannot test for all possible scenarios. Such defects could cause us to incur significant
re-designing
costs, divert the attention of our technology personnel from product development efforts and significantly affect our customer relations and business reputation. In addition, future product failures could cause us to incur substantial expense to repair or replace defective products. We recognize a provision for warranty obligations based on the estimated costs that we expect to incur under our basic limited warranty for our products, which covers defective products and is valid for a period of time mutually agreed between us and the relevant customer from the date of purchase by such customer.
The warranty provision is largely based on historical and anticipated rates of warranty claims, and therefore we cannot provide assurance that the provision would be sufficient to cover any surge in future warranty expenses that significantly exceed historical and anticipated rates of warranty claims. In addition, if we deliver products with errors or defects, or if there is a perception that our products contain errors or defects, our credibility and the market acceptance and sales of our products could be harmed. Widespread product failures may damage our market reputation, and/or reduce our market share and cause our sales to decline.
We sell our products to a select group of key customers, including our largest shareholder and its affiliates, and any significant decrease in their order levels or material deterioration in their financial condition will negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.
A substantial portion of our sales is attributable to a limited group of
end-brand
customers and their designated system integrators. Sales attributed to our
end-brand
customers are for their
end-brand
products and do not include sales to these customers for their system integration activities for other
end-brand
products, if any. Our top ten
end-brand
customers, including LG Electronics Inc., our largest shareholder, together accounted for a substantial majority of our sales in each of 2019, 2020 and 2021.
We benefit from the strong collaborative relationships we maintain with our
end-brand
customers by participating in the development of their products and gaining insights about levels of future demand for our products and other industry trends. Customers look to us for a dependable supply of quality products, even during downturns in the industry, and we benefit from the brand recognition of our customers’ end products. The loss of these
end-brand
customers, as a result of their entering into strategic supplier arrangements with our competitors or otherwise, would thus result not only in reduced sales, but also in the loss of these benefits. We cannot provide assurance that a select group of key
end-brand
customers, including our largest shareholder, will continue to place orders with us in the future at the same levels as in prior periods, or at all.
We expect that we will continue to be dependent upon LG Electronics and its affiliates for a significant portion of our revenue for the foreseeable future. See “Item 7.B. Related Party Transactions” for a description of these related party transactions with LG Electronics and its affiliates. Our results of operations and financial condition could therefore be affected by the overall performance of LG Electronics and its affiliates.
 
9

Furthermore, although we have not experienced any material problems relating to customer payments to date, as a result of our significant dependence on a concentrated group of
end-brand
customers and their designated system integrators, we are exposed to credit risks associated with these entities.
Consolidation and other changes at our
end-brand
customers could cause sales of our products to decline.
Mergers, acquisitions, divestments or consolidations involving our
end-brand
customers can present risks to our business, as management at the new entity may change the way they do business, including their transactions with us, or may decide not to use us as one of their suppliers of display panels. In addition, we cannot provide assurance that a combined entity resulting from a merger, acquisition or consolidation or a newly formed entity resulting from a divestment will continue to purchase display panels from us at the same level, if at all, as each entity purchased in the aggregate when they were separate companies or that a divested company will purchase panels from us at the same level, if at all, as prior to the divestment.
Our results of operations depend on our ability to keep pace with changes in technology.
Advances in technology typically lead to rapid declines in sales volumes for products made with older technologies and may lead to these products becoming less competitive in the marketplace, or even obsolete. As a result, we have made, and will likely be required to continue to make, significant expenditures to develop or acquire new process and product technologies, along with corresponding manufacturing capabilities. For example, we commenced mass production of
large-sized
OLED panels at our CO fabrication facility, located in Guangzhou, China, in July 2020. Furthermore, we expanded our production capacity of plastic OLED panels for mobile and other applications by commencing production on our E6 production line (which has since been integrated into our AP4 fabrication facility to be collectively referred to as “AP4”) in July 2019. More recently, in August 2021, we announced plans to make investments in an aggregate amount of up to
W
3.3 trillion in a new small- to
mid-sized
OLED fabrication facility in Paju, Korea.
With the addition of
48-inch
and
83-inch
OLED televisions to the
line-up
of available products in 2020, following the prior launch of
55-inch,
65-inch,
77-inch
and
88-inch
OLED televisions, we are continuing to deploy greater resources into
large-sized
OLED panel fabrication capabilities in order to maintain our competitive edge in the OLED television panel market. We are also deploying significant resources into plastic OLED panels for mobile and other applications (especially automotive products) in order to expand our market presence. Our ability to develop differentiated products with new display technologies and utilize advanced manufacturing processes to increase production yields while lowering production cost will be critical to our sustained competitiveness. However, we cannot provide assurance that we will be able to continue to successfully develop new products or manufacturing processes through our research and development efforts or through obtaining technology licenses, or that we will keep pace with technological changes in the marketplace.
Our revenue depends on continuing demand for IT products, televisions and mobile and other application products with panels of the type we produce. Our sales may not grow at the rate we expect if consumers do not purchase these products.
Currently, our total sales are derived principally from customers who use our products in IT products, televisions and mobile and other application products with display devices. In particular, a substantial percentage of our sales is derived from
end-brand
customers, or their designated system integrators, who use our panels in their IT products, which accounted for 38.6%, 41.7% and 41.7% of our total revenue in 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. A substantial portion of our sales is also derived from
end-brand
customers, or their designated system integrators, who use our panels in their televisions, which accounted for 34.1%, 27.8% and 31.7% of our total revenue in 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively, and those who use our panels in their mobile and other applications, which accounted for 27.1%, 30.3% and 26.4% of our total revenue in 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. As each of these product segments significantly contributes to our total sales, we will continue to be dependent on continuing demand from each of the IT products industry, the television industry and the mobile device industry for a substantial portion of our sales. Any downturn in any of those industries in which our customers operate would result in reduced demand for our products, which may in turn result in reduced revenue, lower average selling prices and/or reduced margins.
Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, severe health epidemics (including the ongoing global
COVID-19
pandemic and any possible recurrence of other types of widespread infectious diseases) and other natural calamities could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
If earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, severe health epidemics or any other natural calamities were to occur in the future in any area where any of our assets, suppliers or customers are located, our business, results of operations or financial condition could be adversely affected. A number of suppliers of our raw materials, components and manufacturing equipment, as well as certain of our manufacturing facilities, are located in countries which have historically suffered natural calamities from time to time, such as China, Japan, Taiwan and Vietnam, as well as Korea. Any occurrence of such natural calamities in countries where our suppliers are located may lead to shortages or delays in the supply of raw materials, components or manufacturing equipment. In addition, natural calamities in areas where our customers are located, including China, the United States, Europe, Korea and Japan, may cause disruptions in their businesses, which in turn could adversely impact their demand for our products.
 
10

In particular,
COVID-19
has materially and adversely affected the global economy and caused significant volatility in the global financial markets since the first quarter of 2020 as well as minor disruptions in our business operations in 2020, including temporary suspension of operations at certain of our manufacturing facilities, and it has continued to cause significant volatility and uncertainty in the global economy and financial markets in 2021 and 2022 to date. See “—If we cannot maintain high capacity utilization rates, our profitability will be adversely affected.” The World Health Organization declared the
COVID-19
as a pandemic in March 2020.
While we believe that the overall impact of
COVID-19
on our business and results of operations to date has generally been mixed, as the ensuing increase in demand for certain types of our products, including IT products, due to increased levels of working remotely, online schooling and social distancing, helped offset the negative effects of such pandemic, including those listed below, risks associated with a prolonged outbreak of
COVID-19
or other types of widespread infectious diseases include:
 
   
an increase in unemployment among, and/or decrease in disposable income of, consumers who purchase the products manufactured by our
end-brand
customers and a decline in overall consumer confidence and spending levels, which in turn may decrease demand for our products;
 
   
disruption in the normal operations of the businesses of our customers, which in turn may decrease demand for our products;
 
   
disruption in the supply of raw materials, components and equipment, including semiconductors from our vendors;
 
   
disruption in the delivery of our products to our customers;
 
   
disruption in the normal operations of our business resulting from contraction of
COVID-19
by our employees, which may necessitate our employees to be quarantined and/or our manufacturing facilities or offices to be temporarily shut down;
 
   
disruption resulting from the necessity for social distancing, including implementation of temporary adjustment of work arrangements requiring employees to work remotely and restriction on overseas and domestic business travel, which may lead to a reduction in labor productivity;
 
   
fluctuations of the Won against major foreign currencies (see “—
Our results of operations are subject to exchange rate fluctuations
”);
 
   
unstable global and Korean financial markets, which may adversely affect our ability to meet our funding needs on a timely and cost-effective basis; and
 
   
decreases in the fair value of our investments in companies that may be adversely affected by the pandemic.
While demand for certain types of our products has increased as a result of social distancing caused by
COVID-19,
this increased demand may not continue once the impact of
COVID-19
tapers. It is not possible to predict the duration or full magnitude of harm from
COVID-19.
In the event that
COVID-19
or other types of widespread infectious diseases cannot be effectively and timely contained, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.
The emergence of OLED technology as an alternative to panels with
TFT-LCD
technology may erode sales of our
TFT-LCD
panels, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
While our revenue and sales volume have historically been predominantly derived from the sale of display panels with
TFT-LCD
technology, OLED technology is widely seen in the display industry as a successor technology to
TFT-LCD
technology and is gaining wider market acceptance for use in display panels for IT products, televisions and mobile and other applications, including commercial displays, entertainment systems, automotive displays, portable navigation devices and medical diagnostic equipment, and the proportion of our sales derived from our panel products utilizing OLED technology have been increasing in recent years. For example, all of our display panels for mobile devices and certain of our display panels for televisions utilize OLED technology. We have recognized the importance and potential of OLED technology and have in recent years engaged in research and development and invested in production facilities to develop and commercialize OLED panels for small-, medium- and
large-sized
products. We have been producing OLED panels for televisions and smartphones since 2013. We also began production of plastic OLED panels at our AP3 and AP4 fabrication facilities in August 2017 and July 2019, respectively, in each case for mobile and other applications. More recently, we commenced mass production of
large-sized
OLED panels at our CO fabrication facility, located in Guangzhou, China, in July 2020.
 
11

Our early efforts in developing and commercializing OLED technology were recognized by the Society for Information Display, a display panel industry group, when we were awarded the Display of the Year Award for our Ultra HD Cinematic Sound OLED technology in May 2018. In addition, our
65-inch
rollable OLED television panels received multiple awards at the 2019 Consumer Electronics Show in January 2019 as well as the Presidential Award at the 2019 Korea Tech Show. In November 2020, our OLED television panels received an “Eco Product” certification from SGS S.A., a Switzerland-based global inspection and verification company, and in December 2020, our
88-inch
“8K” OLED television panels received the Prime Minister’s Award at the 2020 Korea Tech Show. In June 2021, our
65-inch
rollable OLED television panels received the Display of the Year Award by the Society for Information Display and in November 2021, our plastic OLED panels for automotive products received the Presidential Award at the 2021 Korea Tech Show. While we strive to maintain our early competitive edge in the market for OLED panels, the market for OLED panels is still relatively small compared to the market for
TFT-LCD
panels, and we expect competition will intensify in the future. In addition, the speed at which we achieve cost reduction for our OLED technology-based new products or at which significant demand for such products develops may be slower than our current expectations.
As OLED panels continue to gain market acceptance as an alternative to
TFT-LCD
panels, if we are unable to continue to develop and commercialize OLED technology in a commercially viable and timely manner to offset declining sales of our
TFT-LCD
panels, or if customers prefer panels developed and manufactured by our competitors utilizing competing technologies to OLED technology, this would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. See also “—We operate in a highly competitive environment and we may not be able to sustain our current market position.” above.
We will have significant capital requirements in connection with our business strategy and if capital resources are not available we may not be able to implement our strategy and future plans.
In connection with our strategy to further enhance the diversity and capacity of our display panel production, we anticipate that we will continue to incur significant capital expenditures for the construction of new production facilities and the maintenance and enhancement of existing production facilities, particularly in connection with our continued investments in OLED technology. Our significant recent and pending capital expenditures include the following:
 
   
In August 2021, we announced plans to make investments in an aggregate amount of up to
W
3.3 trillion in a new fabrication facility in Paju, Korea, which would be used for the production of small- to
mid-sized
OLED panels. We have begun construction in August 2021, which is expected to continue until the first quarter of 2024. The exact completion date is subject to change based on market conditions and any changes to our investment timetable.
 
   
In response to and in anticipation of growing demand in the China market, we established a joint venture with the government of Guangzhou to construct a new fabrication facility to manufacture next generation
large-sized
OLED panels, which was established under the name of LG Display High-Tech (China) Co., Ltd., in July 2018. We currently hold a 70% ownership interest in the joint venture and the government of Guangzhou holds the remaining 30% ownership interest. We have invested approximately
W
6 trillion in capital expenditures for the joint venture and commenced mass production of
large-sized
OLED panels at such fabrication facility in July 2020.
 
   
In July 2017, we announced plans to make investments in an aggregate amount of up to
W
7.8 trillion in new
large-sized
and plastic OLED production lines in Paju, Korea. In July 2019, we announced plans to make additional investments of
W
3.0 trillion in the previously announced new
large-sized
OLED production lines. We are in the process of developing and assessing the specifics of such planned investments, including the timing.
 
12

In 2021, our total cash outflows for capital expenditure amounted to
W
3.1 trillion. We currently expect that, in 2022, our total cash outflows for capital expenditure will be higher compared to 2021 and will be used primarily to continue to fund our previously announced investments related to facilities for OLED panels. Such expected capital expenditures are subject to periodic assessment, and we cannot provide any assurance that such expected capital expenditures may not change materially after assessment.
These capital expenditures will be made well in advance of any additional sales that will be generated from these expenditures. However, in the event of adverse market conditions, or if our actual expenditures far exceed our planned expenditures, our external financing activities combined with our internal sources of liquidity may not be sufficient to carry out our current and future operational plans, and we may decide not to expand the capacity of certain of our facilities or construct new production facilities as scheduled or at all. Our ability to obtain additional financing will depend upon a number of factors outside our control, including general economic, financial, competitive, regulatory and other considerations.
In the past, difficulties affecting the global financial sectors, adverse conditions and volatility in the worldwide credit and financial markets, fluctuations in oil and commodity prices and the general weakness of the global economy have increased the uncertainty of global economic prospects in general and have adversely affected the global and Korean economies. Because we rely on financing both within and outside of Korea from time to time, difficulties affecting the global and Korean economies, including any increase in market volatility and their lingering effects (including those in relation to the ongoing global
COVID-19
pandemic), could adversely affect our ability to obtain sufficient financing on commercially reasonable terms. The failure to obtain sufficient financing on commercially reasonable terms to complete our expansion plans could delay or impair our ability to pursue our business strategy, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our manufacturing processes are complex and periodic improvements to increase efficiency can expose us to potential disruptions in operations.
The manufacturing processes for
TFT-LCD,
OLED and other display products are highly complex, requiring sophisticated and costly equipment that is periodically modified and upgraded to improve manufacturing yields and product performance, and reduce unit manufacturing costs. These updates expose us to the risk that from time to time production difficulties will arise that could cause delivery delays, reduced output or both. We cannot provide assurance that we will not experience manufacturing problems in achieving acceptable output, product delivery delays or both as a result of, among other factors, construction delays, difficulties in upgrading or modifying existing production lines or building new plants, difficulties in modifying existing or adopting new manufacturing line technologies or processes or delays in equipment deliveries, any of which could constrain our capacity and adversely affect our results of operations.
We may be unable to successfully execute our growth strategy or manage and sustain our growth on a timely basis, if at all, and, as a result, our business may be harmed.
We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, rapid growth in the scope and complexity of our operations due to the building of new fabrication facilities and the expansion and conversion of existing fabrication facilities to meet the evolving and anticipated demands of our customers. For example, we established our AP4 fabrication facility to increase our production capacity of plastic OLED panels for mobile and other applications in July 2019. See “Item 4.D. Property, Plants and Equipment—Current Facilities.” With respect to our overseas facilities in recent years, in response to and in anticipation of growing demand in the China market, in July 2018, we established and acquired a majority ownership interest in, a joint venture with the government of Guangzhou to construct our new CO fabrication facility to manufacture next generation
large-sized
OLED panels in Guangzhou, China. We have invested approximately
W
6 trillion in capital expenditures for the joint venture and commenced mass production of
large-sized
OLED panels at the CO fabrication facility in July 2020. See also “—We will have significant capital requirements in connection with our business strategy and if capital resources are not available we may not be able to implement our strategy and future plans.” above.
Sustained growth in the scope and complexity of our operations may strain our managerial, financial, manufacturing and other resources. We may experience manufacturing difficulties in starting new production lines, upgrading existing facilities or building new plants as a result of cost overruns, construction delays or shortages of, or quality problems with, materials, labor or equipment, any of which could result in a loss of future revenue. We may also incur opportunity costs if we misjudge the anticipated demand for certain display panel products and allocate our limited resources in increasing production capacity for such display panel products at the cost of maintaining existing or increasing production capacity of other display panel products that turn out to be more popular. In addition, failure to keep up with our competitors in future investments in next-generation panel fabrication facilities or in the upgrading of manufacturing capacity of existing facilities would impair our ability to effectively compete within the display panel industry. Failure to obtain intended economic benefits from expansion projects could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
13

If we cannot maintain high capacity utilization rates, our profitability will be adversely affected.
The production of display panels entails high fixed costs resulting from considerable expenditures for the construction of complex fabrication and assembly facilities and the purchase of costly equipment, particularly for productions involving new technologies, such as OLED. We aim to maintain high capacity utilization rates so that we can allocate these fixed costs over a greater number of panels produced and realize a higher gross margin. However, due to any number of reasons, including fluctuating demand for our products, overcapacity in the display industry or a significant disruption in the supply chain of raw materials, equipment and labor, we may need to reduce or delay the production of our products, resulting in lower-than-optimal capacity utilization rates. For example, the high degree of uncertainty regarding global economic prospects resulting from the global
COVID-19
pandemic may adversely impact global demand for our products. In addition, as a result of the pandemic, we have experienced minor temporary suspensions in production at certain of our manufacturing facilities during 2020, and we may experience further disruptions in our production or supply chain in the future if the pandemic continues for a prolonged period of time. See “—
Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, severe health epidemics (including the ongoing global
COVID-19
pandemic and any possible recurrence of other types of widespread infectious diseases) and other natural calamities could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition
.” As such, we cannot provide assurance that we will be able to sustain our capacity utilization rates in the future nor can we provide assurance that we will not reduce our utilization rates in the future as market and industry conditions change.
Limited availability of raw materials, components and manufacturing equipment could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Our production operations depend on obtaining adequate supplies of quality raw materials and components on a timely basis. As a result, it is important for us to control our raw material and component costs and reduce the effects of fluctuations in price and availability. In general, we source most of our raw materials as well as key components, such as glass substrates, driver integrated circuits and polarizers used in both our
TFT-LCD
and OLED products, backlight units and liquid crystal materials used in our
TFT-LCD
products and hole transport materials and emission materials used in our OLED products, from two or more suppliers for each key component. However, we may establish a working relationship with a single supplier if we believe it is advantageous to do so due to performance, quality, support, delivery, capacity, price or other considerations. We may experience shortages in the supply of these key components, as well as other components or raw materials, as a result of, among other things, anticipated capacity expansion in the display industry, our dependence on a limited number of suppliers or temporary disruptions in the supply chain thereof due to factors outside of our control (such as the ongoing global
COVID-19
pandemic or natural calamities). Our results of operations would be adversely affected if we were unable to obtain adequate supplies of high-quality raw materials or components in a timely manner or make alternative arrangements for such supplies in a timely manner.
Furthermore, we may be limited in our ability to pass on increases in the cost of raw materials and components to our customers. We do not typically enter into binding long-term contracts with our customers, and even in those cases where we do enter into long-term agreements with certain of our major
end-brand
customers, the price terms are contained in the purchase orders which are generally placed by them several weeks in advance of delivery. Except under certain special circumstances, the price terms in the purchase orders are not subject to change. Prices for our products are generally determined through negotiations with our customers, based generally on the complexity of the product specifications and the labor and technology involved in the design or production processes. However, if we become subject to any significant increase in the cost of raw materials or components that were not anticipated when negotiating the price terms after the purchase orders have been placed, we may be unable to pass on such cost increases to our customers.
We have purchased, and expect to purchase, a substantial portion of our equipment from a limited number of qualified foreign and local suppliers. From time to time, increased demand for new equipment may cause lead times to extend beyond those normally required by the equipment vendors. The unavailability of equipment, delays in the delivery of equipment, or the delivery of equipment that does not meet our specifications, could delay implementation of our expansion plans and impair our ability to meet customer orders. This could result in a loss of revenue and cause financial stress on our operations.
 
14

Advance purchase orders from our customers vary in volume from period to period, and we operate with a modest inventory, which may make it difficult for us to efficiently allocate capacity on a timely basis in response to changes in demand.
Our major customers and their designated system integrators provide us with advance rolling forecasts of their product requirements. However, firm orders are not placed until negotiations on purchase prices are subsequently finalized a few weeks prior to delivery.
As a result, firm orders may be less than anticipated based on these prior forecasts. Due to the cyclicality of the display industry, purchase order levels from our customers have varied from period to period. Although we typically operate with an inventory level estimated for several weeks, it may be difficult for us to adjust production costs or to allocate production capacity in a timely manner to compensate for any such volatility in order volumes. Our inability to respond quickly to changes in overall demand for display products as well as changes in product mix and specifications may result in lost revenue, which would adversely affect our results of operations.
We may experience losses on inventories.
Frequent new product introductions in the consumer electronics industries can result in a decline in the average selling prices of our display panels and the obsolescence of our existing display panel inventory. This can result in a decrease in the stated value of our panel inventory, which we value at the lower of cost or net realizable value.
We manage our inventory based on our customers’ and our own forecasts and typically operate with an inventory level estimated for several weeks. Although adjustments are regularly made based on market conditions, we typically deliver our goods to the customers within several weeks after a firm order has been placed. While we maintain open channels of communication with our major customers to avoid unexpected decreases in firm orders or subsequent changes to placed orders, and try to minimize our inventory levels, such actions by our customers may have an adverse effect on our inventory management.
Unfavorable outcomes in investigations and proceedings against us and other
TFT-LCD
panel producers for possible anti-competitive activities may have a direct and indirect material impact on our operations.
Since 2006, we and certain other
TFT-LCD
panel producers have been subject to an investigation by the U.S. Department of Justice, various and separate claims brought by direct and indirect purchasers, and a number of legal proceedings brought by attorneys general of various states in the United States, with respect to possible anti-competitive activities in the
TFT-LCD
industry. We have since settled and resolved the investigation and various subsequent legal proceedings, with the exception of the attorney general of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The settlements were duly approved by the applicable courts and, in the case of the state attorneys general actions, by their respective state governments. As of April 20, 2022, we have not been served with the complaint from the attorney general of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
We have also been subject to investigations outside of the United States, including by the European Commission, with respect to the same subject matter. We have since settled, resolved, and/or paid fines for such actual investigations brought by the relevant competition authorities. Following the European Commission’s decision, various
follow-on
claims were initiated in the United Kingdom by various claimants alleging damages as a result of violation of European competition laws. We have since reached settlements with each of the claimants, with the exception of a
follow-on
damages claim filed by Granville Technology Group and others (“Granville”) in the U.K. in December 2016. As of April 20, 2022, we are vigorously defending ourselves against claims by Granville.
In addition, in December 2013, a class action complaint was filed by Hatzlacha, a consumer organization, on behalf of Israeli consumers against LG Display and other defendants in the Central District in Israel. As of April 20, 2022, we have not been served with the complaint from Hatzlacha.
See “Item 8.A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings—Antitrust and Others” for a more detailed description of these matters as well as other material legal proceedings that we are involved in.
In each of the foregoing matters that are ongoing, we are continually evaluating the merits of the respective claims and vigorously defending ourselves. Irrespective of the validity or the successful assertion of the claims described above, we may incur significant costs with respect to litigating or settling any or all of the asserted claims. While we continue to vigorously defend the various ongoing proceedings that we are involved in, it is possible that one or more proceedings may result in cash outflow to settle or resolve these claims. We recognize provisions with respect to those legal claims in which our management has concluded that there is a present or constructive obligation arising from a past event, it is more likely than not that an outflow of resources will result to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. As of December 31, 2021, we did not recognize any provisions with respect to any legal claims based on our management’s assessment of the likely outcomes. However, the actual outcomes may be different from those estimated as of December 31, 2021 and may have an adverse effect on our operating results or financial condition.
 
15

We need to observe certain financial and other covenants under the terms of our debt obligations, the failure to comply with which would put us in default under such debt obligations.
We are subject to financial and other covenants, including maintenance of credit ratings and
debt-to-equity
ratios, under certain of our debt obligations. The documentation for such debt also contains negative pledge provisions limiting our ability to provide liens on our assets as well as cross-default and cross-acceleration clauses, which give related creditors the right to accelerate the amounts due under such debt if an event of default or acceleration has occurred with respect to our existing or future indebtedness, or if any material part of our indebtedness or indebtedness of our subsidiaries is capable of being declared payable before the stated maturity date. In addition, such covenants restrict our ability to raise future debt financing.
If we breach the financial or other covenants contained in the documentation governing our debt obligations, our financial condition will be adversely affected to the extent we are not able to cure such breaches, obtain a waiver from the relevant lenders or debtholders or repay the relevant debt.
Uncertainties regarding the transition away from the London Interbank Offered Rate, or LIBOR, or any other interest rate benchmark could have adverse consequences for market participants, including us.
Certain financings extended to us are made at variable rates that use London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) as a benchmark for establishing the applicable interest rates. As of December 31, 2021,
W
614 billion (US$518 million) of our outstanding short-term borrowings,
W
3,069 billion (US$2,582 million) of our outstanding long-term borrowings (including current portions thereof) and
W
119 billion (US$100 million) of our outstanding bonds were indexed to LIBOR. While none of our financial instruments currently outstanding are indexed to LIBOR settings that have been ceased to date, we plan to change the benchmark interest rate applied to some of our financial instruments from LIBOR to the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which has been identified by the Alternative Reference Rates Committee convened by the Board of Governors of the U.S. Federal Reserve System and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York as the preferred alternative benchmark reference rate for LIBOR. See Note 25 of the notes to our financial statements for a further discussion of our exposure to LIBOR.
In March 2021, the Financial Conduct Authority of the United Kingdom (“FCA”), which has regulatory authority with respect to LIBOR, announced that all LIBOR settings will either cease to be provided by any administrator or no longer be representative (i) after December 31, 2021 in the case of all sterling, euro, Swiss franc and Japanese yen settings and the
one-week
and
two-month
U.S. dollar settings and (ii) after June 30, 2023 in the case of the remaining U.S. dollar settings. While the ICE Benchmark Administration, the administrator of LIBOR, may publish certain LIBOR settings on the basis of a synthetic methodology for “tough legacy” contracts, there is no guarantee that such rates will be determined and published after the announced deadlines nor confirmed to be representative by the FCA. Given the extensive use of LIBOR across financial markets, the transition away from LIBOR presents various risks and challenges to financial markets and institutions, including us.
If not sufficiently planned for, the discontinuation of LIBOR or any other interest rate benchmark could result in increased financial, operational, legal, reputational and/or compliance risks. For example, a significant challenge will be managing the impact of the LIBOR transition on the contractual mechanics of LIBOR-based financial instruments and contracts that mature after the announced deadlines. Certain of these instruments and contracts may not provide for alternative reference rates, and even if such instruments and contracts provide for alternative reference rates, such alternative reference rates are likely to differ from the prior benchmark rates and may require us to pay interest at higher rates on the related obligations, which could adversely impact our interest expense, results of operations and cash flows. For example, SOFR differs from LIBOR in many respects, including its basis on actual observed transactions in the U.S. Treasury market as opposed to LIBOR’s usage of estimations of borrowing rates. While there are a number of international working groups focused on transition plans and the provision of fallback contract language that seek to minimize market disruption, replacement of LIBOR or any other benchmark, such as SOFR, with a new benchmark rate could adversely impact the value of and return on existing instruments and contracts. Moreover, replacement of LIBOR or other benchmark rates could result in market dislocations and have other adverse consequences for market participants, including the potential for increased costs, and litigation risks stemming from potential disputes with customers and counterparties regarding the interpretation and enforceability of fallback contract language in the LIBOR-based financial instruments and contracts. Accordingly, our failure to adequately prepare for the potential discontinuation of LIBOR could have a material adverse impact on our business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.
 
16

Our results of operations are subject to exchange rate fluctuations.
There has been considerable volatility in foreign exchange rates in recent years, including rates between the Korean Won and the U.S. dollar, between the Korean Won and the Chinese Yuan and between the Korean Won and the Japanese Yen. To the extent that we incur costs in one currency and make sales in another, our profit margins may be affected by changes in the exchange rates between the two currencies.
Our sales of display panels are denominated mainly in U.S. dollars, while our purchases of raw materials are denominated mainly in U.S. dollars and, to a much lesser extent, Japanese Yen and Chinese Yuan. The largest proportion of our expenditures on capital equipment are denominated in Korean Won and U.S. dollars and, to a lesser extent, Japanese Yen and Chinese Yuan. Accordingly, fluctuations in exchange rates, in particular between the U.S. dollar and the Korean Won, between the Chinese Yuan and the Korean Won as well as between the Japanese Yen and the Korean Won, affect our
pre-tax
income, and in recent years, the value of the Won relative to the U.S. dollar, Chinese Yuan and Japanese Yen has fluctuated widely. Although a depreciation of the Korean Won against the U.S. dollar increases the Korean Won value of our export sales and enhances the price-competitiveness of our products in foreign markets in U.S. dollar terms, it also increases the cost of imported raw materials and components in Korean Won terms and our cost in Korean Won of servicing our U.S. dollar denominated debt. A depreciation of the Korean Won against the Chinese Yuan or Japanese Yen increases the Korean Won cost of our Chinese Yuan- or Japanese
Yen-denominated
purchases of equipment, raw materials or components, as applicable, and, to the extent we have any debt denominated in Chinese Yuan or Japanese Yen, our cost in Korean Won of servicing such debt, but has relatively little impact on our sales as most of our sales are denominated in U.S. dollars. In addition, continued exchange rate volatility may also result in foreign exchange losses for us. Although a depreciation of the Korean Won against the U.S. dollar, in general, has a net positive impact on our results of operations that more than offsets the net negative impact caused by a depreciation of the Korean Won against the Chinese Yuan or Japanese Yen, we cannot provide assurance that the exchange rate of the Korean Won against foreign currencies will not be subject to significant fluctuations, or that the impact of such fluctuations will not adversely affect the results of our operations.
Our business relies on our patent rights which may be narrowed in scope or found to be invalid or otherwise unenforceable.
Our success will depend, to a significant extent, on our ability to obtain and enforce our patent rights both in Korea and worldwide. The coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before a patent is issued, either in Korea or abroad. Consequently, we cannot provide assurance that any of our pending or future patent applications will result in the issuance of patents. Patents issued to us may be subjected to further proceedings limiting their scope and may not provide significant proprietary protection or competitive advantage. Our patents also may be challenged, circumvented, invalidated or deemed unenforceable. In addition, because patent applications in certain countries generally are not published until more than 18 months after they are first filed, and because publication of discoveries in scientific or patent literature often lags behind actual discoveries, we cannot be certain that we were, or any of our licensors was, the first creator of inventions covered by pending patent applications, that we or any of our licensors will be entitled to any rights in purported inventions claimed in pending or future patent applications, or that we were, or any of our licensors was, the first to file patent applications on such inventions.
Furthermore, pending patent applications or patents already issued to us or our licensors may become subject to dispute, and any dispute could be resolved against us. For example, we may become involved in
re-examination,
reissue or interference proceedings and the result of these proceedings could be the invalidation or substantial narrowing of our patent claims. We also could be subject to court proceedings that could find our patents invalid or unenforceable or could substantially narrow the scope of our patent claims. In addition, depending on the jurisdiction, statutory differences in patentable subject matter may limit the protection we can obtain on some of our inventions.
Failure to protect our intellectual property rights could impair our competitiveness and harm our business and future prospects.
We believe that developing new products and technologies that can be differentiated from those of our competitors is critical to the success of our business. We take active measures to obtain international protection of our intellectual property by obtaining patents and undertaking monitoring activities in our major markets. However, we cannot assure you that the measures we are taking will effectively deter competitors from improper use of our proprietary technologies. Our competitors may misappropriate our intellectual property, disputes as to ownership of intellectual property may arise and our intellectual property may otherwise become known or independently developed by our competitors.
 
17

Any failure to protect our intellectual property could impair our competitiveness and harm our business and future prospects.
Our rapid introduction of new technologies and products may increase the likelihood that third parties will assert claims that our products infringe upon their proprietary rights.
The rapid technological changes that characterize our industry require that we quickly implement new processes and components with respect to our products. Often with respect to recently developed processes and components, a degree of uncertainty exists as to who may rightfully claim ownership rights in such processes and components. Uncertainty of this type increases the risk that claims alleging that such components or processes infringe upon third party rights may be brought against us. Although we take and will continue to take steps to ensure that our new products do not infringe upon third party rights, if our products or manufacturing processes are found to infringe upon third party rights, we may be subject to significant liabilities and be required to change our manufacturing processes or be prohibited from manufacturing certain products, which could have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial condition.
We may be required to defend against charges of infringement of patent or other proprietary rights of third parties. Although patent and other intellectual property disputes in our industry have often been settled through licensing or similar arrangements, such defense could require us to incur substantial expense and to divert significant resources of our technical and management personnel, and could result in our loss of rights to develop or make certain products or require us to pay monetary damages or royalties to license proprietary rights from third parties. Furthermore, we cannot be certain that the necessary licenses would be available to us on acceptable terms, if at all. Accordingly, an adverse determination in a judicial or administrative proceeding or failure to obtain necessary licenses could prevent us from manufacturing and selling certain of our products. Any such litigation, whether successful or unsuccessful, could result in substantial costs to us and diversions of our resources, either of which could adversely affect our business.
We were a defendant in four patent infringement lawsuits (two in the United States, one in Germany and one in China) filed against us by Solas OLED Ltd. between April 2019 and September 2020. In December 2020, we entered into a settlement and license agreement with the plaintiff with respect to each of the four cases, and the plaintiff subsequently withdrew its claim in each of these cases between January and March 2021.
We rely on technology provided by third parties and our business will suffer if we are unable to renew our licensing arrangements with them.
From time to time, we have obtained licenses for patent, copyright, trademark and other intellectual property rights to process and device technologies used in the production of our display panels. We have entered into key licensing arrangements with third parties, for which we have made, and continue to make, periodic license fee payments. In addition, we also have cross-license agreements with certain other third parties.
These agreements terminate upon the expiration of the respective terms of the patents. See “Item 5.C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, etc.—Intellectual Property—License Agreements.”
If we are unable to renew our technology licensing arrangements on acceptable terms, we may lose the legal protection to use certain of the processes we employ to manufacture our products and be prohibited from using those processes, which may prevent us from manufacturing and selling certain of our products, including our key products. In addition, we could be at a disadvantage if our competitors obtain licenses for protected technologies on more favorable terms than we do.
In the future, we may also need to obtain additional patent licenses for new or existing technologies. We cannot provide assurance that these license agreements can be obtained or renewed on acceptable terms or at all, and if not, our business and operating results could be adversely affected.
 
18

We rely upon trade secrets and other unpatented proprietary
know-how
to maintain our competitive position in the display panel industry and any loss of our rights to, or unauthorized disclosure of, our trade secrets or other unpatented proprietary
know-how
could negatively affect our business.
We also rely upon trade secrets, unpatented proprietary
know-how
and information, as well as continuing technological innovation in our business. The information we rely upon includes price forecasts, core technology and key customer information. We enter into confidentiality agreements with each of our employees and consultants upon the commencement of an employment or consulting relationship. These agreements generally provide that all inventions, ideas, discoveries, improvements and copyrightable material made or conceived by the individual arising out of the employment or consulting relationship and all confidential information developed or made known to the individual during the term of the relationship is our exclusive property. We cannot provide assurance that these types of agreements will be fully enforceable, or that they will not be breached. We also cannot be certain that we will have adequate remedies for any such breach. The disclosure of our trade secrets or other
know-how
as a result of such a breach could adversely affect our business. Also, our competitors may come to know about or determine our trade secrets and other proprietary information through a variety of methods. Disputes may arise concerning the ownership of intellectual property or the applicability or enforceability of our confidentiality agreements, and there can be no assurance that any such disputes would be resolved in our favor. Furthermore, others may acquire or independently develop similar technology, or if patents are not issued with respect to technologies arising from our research, we may not be able to maintain information pertinent to such research as proprietary technology or trade secrets and that could have an adverse effect on our competitive position within the display panel industry.
If our cybersecurity is breached, we may incur significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation and a loss of confidence of our customers.
Our business involves the storage and transmission of confidential information relating to us as well as our customers and suppliers, and any breach in our cybersecurity could expose us to a risk of loss, the improper use or disclosure of such information, ensuing potential liability or litigation, any of which could harm our reputation and adversely affect our business. Although there has been no material instance where an unauthorized party was able to obtain access to our data or our customers’ data, there can be no assurance that we will not be vulnerable to cyber-attacks in the future.
Our cybersecurity measures may also fail due to employee error, malfeasance or otherwise. Instituting appropriate access controls and safeguards across our information technology infrastructure is challenging. Furthermore, outside parties may attempt to fraudulently induce employees to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our data or our customers’ data or accounts or may otherwise obtain access to such data or accounts. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. If an actual or perceived breach of our cybersecurity occurs or the market perception of the effectiveness of our cybersecurity measures is adversely affected, we may incur significant legal and financial exposure, including legal claims and regulatory fines and penalties, damage to our reputation and a loss of confidence of our customers, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on key researchers and engineers, senior management and production facility operators, and the loss of the services of any such personnel or the inability to attract and retain them may negatively affect our business.
Our success depends to a significant extent upon the continued service of our research and development and engineering personnel, and on our ability to continue to attract, retain and motivate qualified researchers and engineers, especially during periods of rapid growth. In particular, our focus on leading the market in introducing new products and advanced manufacturing processes has meant that we must aggressively recruit research and development personnel and engineers with expertise in cutting-edge technologies.
We also depend on the services of experienced key senior management, and if we lose their services, it would be difficult to find and integrate replacement personnel in a timely manner, if at all. We also employ highly skilled line operators at our various production facilities.
The loss of the services of any of our key research and development and engineering personnel, senior management or skilled operators without adequate replacement, or the inability to attract new qualified personnel, would have a material adverse effect on our operations.
 
19

The interests of LG Electronics, our largest shareholder, and any directors or officers nominated by it, may differ from or conflict with those of us or our other shareholders.
When exercising its rights as our largest shareholder, LG Electronics may take into account not only our interests but also its interests and the interests of its affiliates. LG Electronics’ interests may at times conflict with ours in a number of areas relating to our business, including potential acquisitions of businesses or properties, incurrence of indebtedness, financial commitments, sales and marketing functions, indemnity arrangements, service arrangements and the exercise by LG Electronics of significant influence over our management and affairs. See “Item 6.A. Directors and Senior Management” for a description of the composition of our current board of directors and senior management.
Labor unrest may disrupt our operations.
As of December 31, 2021, more than half of our employees based in Korea were union members, and production employees accounted for substantially all of these members. We have a collective bargaining arrangement with our labor union, which is negotiated once a year.
Any deterioration in our relationship with our employees or labor unrest resulting in a work stoppage or strike may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to strict safety and environmental regulations and we may be subject to fines or restrictions that could cause our operations to be interrupted.
Our manufacturing processes involve hazardous materials and generate chemical waste, waste water and other industrial waste at various stages in the manufacturing process, and we are subject to a variety of laws and regulations relating to the use, storage, discharge and disposal of such chemical
by-products
and waste substances. We have enacted safety measures, engaged in employee education on handling such materials and installed various types of safety and anti-pollution equipment, consistent with industry standards, for the treatment of chemical waste and equipment for the recycling of treated waste water at our various facilities. See “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Environmental Matters” for a description of the anti-pollution equipment that we have installed in our various facilities. However, we cannot provide assurance that our protocols will always be followed and safety or environmental related claims will not be brought against us or that the local or national governments will not take steps toward adopting more stringent safety or environmental standards.
Any failure on our part to comply with any present or future safety and environmental regulations could result in the assessment of damages or imposition of fines and penalties against us, suspension of production or a cessation of operations. Since 2019, we and certain of our employees have received and paid aggregate fines and penalties of approximately
W
138 million in connection with violations of safety and environmental regulations under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Wastes Control Act and the Clean Air Conservation Act. We have also implemented certain measures to facilitate future compliance with such regulations. In addition, in January 2021, there was an incident involving a leakage of tetramethylammonium hydroxide chemicals, which occurred during refurbishment of equipment at one of our production facilities in Paju, Korea, causing casualties to several of the workers performing such task. In connection with such incident, we and our employees involved in the incident were prosecuted for violating the Occupational Safety and Health Act and the Chemicals Substances Control Act, and a criminal case is currently pending at the Goyang Branch of the Uijeongbu District Court. More recently, in March 2022, an accident occurred at our contracted construction site in Paju, Korea, resulting in injuries to several contracted workers. We are cooperating with the government authorities on such investigations and are implementing various measures to further enhance our safety management standards. Furthermore, safety and environmental regulations could require us to acquire costly equipment or to incur other significant compliance expenses that may materially and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Relating to our American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, or our Common Stock
Future sales of shares of our common stock or convertible securities in the public market may depress our stock price and make it difficult for you to recover the full value of your investment in our common stock or our ADSs.
We cannot predict the effect, if any, that market sales of shares of our common stock or other securities that may be converted into shares of our common stock or the availability of such shares or securities for sale will have on the market price of our common stock prevailing from time to time. Our largest shareholder, LG Electronics, currently owns 37.9% of our voting stock.
There is no assurance that LG Electronics will not sell all or a part of its ownership interest in us.
Any future sales by LG Electronics or any future issuance by us of a significant number of shares of our common stock or other securities that may be converted into shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that any of these events may occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decrease or to be lower than it might be in the absence of these events or perceptions.
 
20

Our public shareholders may have more difficulty protecting their interests than they would as shareholders of a U.S. corporation.
Our corporate affairs are governed by our articles of incorporation and by the laws governing Korean corporations. The rights and responsibilities of our shareholders and members of our board of directors under Korean law may be different from those that apply to shareholders and directors of a U.S. corporation. For example, minority shareholder rights afforded under Korean law often require the minority shareholder to meet minimum shareholding requirements in order to exercise certain rights. In the case of public companies, a shareholder must own, individually or collectively with other shareholders, at least 1% of our common stock, or 0.01% of our common stock for at least six consecutive months, in order to file a derivative suit on our behalf. While the facts and circumstances of each case will differ, the duty of care required of a director under Korean law may not be the same as the fiduciary duty of a director of a U.S. corporation. Therefore, holders of our common stock or our ADSs may have more difficulty protecting their interests against actions of our management, members of our board of directors or largest shareholders than they would as shareholders of a U.S. corporation.
You may be limited in your ability to deposit or withdraw the common stock underlying the ADSs, which may adversely affect the value of your investment.
Under the terms of our deposit agreement, holders of common stock may deposit such common stock with the depositary’s custodian in Korea and obtain ADSs, and holders of ADSs may surrender ADSs to the depositary and receive common stock. However, to the extent that a deposit of common stock exceeds the difference between:
 
   
the aggregate number of shares of common stock we have consented to allow to be deposited for the issuance of ADSs (including deposits in connection with offerings of ADSs and stock dividends or other distributions relating to ADSs); and
 
   
the number of shares of common stock on deposit with the custodian for the benefit of the depositary at the time of such proposed deposit,
such common stock will not be accepted for deposit unless (1) our consent, subject to governmental authorization, with respect to such deposit has been obtained or (2) such consent is no longer required under Korean laws and regulations.
Under the terms of the deposit agreement, no consent is required if the shares of common stock are obtained through a dividend, free distribution, rights offering or reclassification of such stock. The current limit on the number of shares that may be deposited into our ADR facility is 68,095,700 as of April 20, 2022. The number of shares issued or sold in any subsequent offering by us or our major shareholders, subject to government authorization, raises the limit on the number of shares that may be deposited into the ADR facility, except to the extent such deposit is prohibited by applicable laws or violates our articles of incorporation, or we decide with the ADR depositary to limit the number of shares of common stock so offered that would be eligible for deposit under the deposit agreement in order to maintain liquidity for the shares in Korea as may be requested by the relevant Korean authorities. We might not consent to the deposit of any additional shares of common stock. As a result, if a holder surrenders ADSs and withdraws common stock, it may not be able to deposit the common stock again to obtain ADSs.
Holders of ADSs will not have preemptive rights in some circumstances.
The Korean Commercial Code, as amended, and our articles of incorporation require us, with some exceptions, to offer shareholders the right to subscribe for new shares of our common stock in proportion to their existing shareholding ratio whenever new shares are issued, except under certain circumstances as provided in our articles of incorporation.
Accordingly, if we issue new shares to
non-shareholders
based on such exception, a holder of our ADSs may experience dilution in its holdings. Furthermore, if we offer any right to subscribe for additional shares of our common stock or any rights of any other nature to existing shareholders subject to their preemptive rights, the depositary, after consultation with us, may make the rights available to holders of our ADSs or use reasonable efforts to dispose of the rights on behalf of such holders and make the net proceeds available to such holders. The depositary, however, is not required to make available to holders any rights to purchase any additional shares of our common stock unless it deems that doing so is lawful and feasible and
 
   
a registration statement filed by us under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, is in effect with respect to those shares; or
 
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the offering and sale of those shares is exempt from or is not subject to the registration requirements of the Securities Act.
We are under no obligation to file any registration statement with the SEC or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective. Moreover, we may not be able to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, a holder of our ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution in its holdings. If a registration statement is required for a holder of our ADSs to exercise preemptive rights but is not filed by us or is not declared effective, the holder will not be able to exercise its preemptive rights for additional ADSs and it will suffer dilution of its equity interest in us. If the depositary is unable to sell rights that are not exercised or not distributed or if the sale is not lawful or feasible, it will allow the rights to lapse, in which case the holder will receive no value for these rights.
Holders of ADSs will not be able to exercise dissent and appraisal rights unless they have withdrawn the underlying shares of our common stock and become our direct shareholders.
In some limited circumstances, including the transfer of the whole or any significant part of our business and our merger or consolidation with another company, dissenting shareholders have the right to require us to purchase their shares under Korean law. However, a holder of our ADSs will not be able to exercise such dissent and appraisal rights if the depositary refuses to do so on their behalf. Our deposit agreement does not require the depositary to take any action in respect of exercising dissent and appraisal rights. In such a situation, holders of our ADSs must initiate the withdrawal of the underlying common stock from the ADS facility (and incur charges relating to that withdrawal) by the day immediately following the date of public disclosure of our board of directors’ resolution of a merger or other events triggering appraisal rights and become our direct shareholder prior to the record date of the shareholders’ meeting at which the relevant transaction is to be approved, in order to exercise dissent and appraisal rights.
Dividend payments and the amount you may realize upon a sale of our common stock or ADSs that you hold will be affected by fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Korean Won.
Cash dividends, if any, in respect of the shares represented by our ADSs will be paid to the depositary in Korean Won and then converted by the depositary into U.S. dollars, subject to certain conditions. Accordingly, fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Korean Won and the U.S. dollar will affect, among other things, the amounts a holder will receive from the depositary in respect of dividends, the U.S. dollar value of the proceeds that a holder would receive upon sale in Korea of the shares of our common stock obtained upon surrender of ADSs and the secondary market price of ADSs. Such fluctuations will also affect the U.S. dollar value of dividends and sales proceeds received by holders of our common stock.
Risks Relating to Korea
If economic conditions in Korea deteriorate, our current business and future growth could be materially and adversely affected.
We are incorporated in Korea, and a substantial portion of our operations and assets are located in Korea. As a result, we are subject to political, economic, legal and regulatory risks specific to Korea, and our performance and successful fulfillment of our operational strategies are dependent in large part on the overall Korean economy. The economic indicators in Korea in recent years have shown mixed signs of growth and uncertainty, and starting in 2020, the overall Korean economy and the economies of Korea’s major trading partners have shown signs of deterioration due to the debilitating effects of the
COVID-19
pandemic. See “—Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, severe health epidemics (including the ongoing global
COVID-19
pandemic and any possible recurrence of other types of widespread infectious diseases) and other natural calamities could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.” As a result, future growth of the Korean economy is subject to many factors beyond our control, including developments in the global economy.
In recent years, adverse conditions and volatility in the worldwide financial markets, fluctuations in oil and commodity prices, supply chain disruptions and the increasing weakness of the global economy, in particular due to the
COVID-19
pandemic, have contributed to the uncertainty of global economic prospects in general and have adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, the Korean economy. The value of the Won relative to major foreign currencies has fluctuated significantly and, as a result of uncertain global and Korean economic conditions, there has been significant volatility in the stock prices of Korean companies recently. Future declines in the Korea Composite Stock Price Index (the “KOSPI”), and large amounts of sales of Korean securities by foreign investors and subsequent repatriation of the proceeds of such sales may adversely affect the value of the Won, the foreign currency reserves held by financial institutions in Korea, and the ability of Korean companies to raise capital. Any future deterioration of the Korean or global economy could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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Developments that could have an adverse impact on Korea’s economy include:
 
   
declines in consumer confidence and a slowdown in consumer spending, including as a result of the ongoing global
COVID-19
pandemic;
 
   
adverse conditions or developments in the economies of countries and regions that are important export markets for Korea, such as China, the United States, Europe and Japan, or in emerging market economies in Asia or elsewhere, including as a result of deteriorating economic and trade relations between the United States and China and increased uncertainties resulting from the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union;
 
   
adverse changes or volatility in foreign currency reserve levels, commodity prices (including oil prices), exchange rates (including fluctuation of the U.S. dollar, the Euro or the Japanese Yen exchange rates or revaluation of the Chinese Yuan), interest rates, inflation rates or stock markets;
 
   
the occurrence of severe health epidemics in Korea or other parts of the world, such as
the COVID-19 pandemic;
 
   
deterioration in economic or diplomatic relations between Korea and its trading partners or allies, including deterioration resulting from territorial or trade disputes or disagreements in foreign policy;
 
   
increased sovereign default risk in select countries and the resulting adverse effects on the global financial markets;
 
   
a deterioration in the financial condition or performance of small- and
medium-sized
enterprises and other companies in Korea due to the Korean government’s policies to increase minimum wages and limit working hours of employees;
 
   
investigations of large Korean business groups and their senior management for possible misconduct;
 
   
a continuing rise in the level of household debt and increasing delinquencies and credit defaults by retail and
small-
and
medium-sized
enterprise borrowers in Korea;
 
   
the economic impact of any pending or future free trade agreements or of any changes to existing free trade agreements;
 
   
social and labor unrest;
 
   
substantial changes in the market prices of Korean real estate;
 
   
a substantial decrease in tax revenues and a substantial increase in the Korean government’s expenditures for fiscal stimulus measures, unemployment compensation and other economic and social programs, in particular in light of the Korean government’s ongoing efforts to provide emergency relief payments to households and emergency loans to corporations in need of funding in light of
COVID-19,
which, together, would likely lead to a national budget deficit as well as an increase in the Korean government’s debt;
 
   
financial problems or lack of progress in the restructuring of Korean business groups, other large troubled companies, their suppliers or the financial sector;
 
   
loss of investor confidence arising from corporate accounting irregularities or corporate governance issues concerning certain Korean companies;
 
   
increases in social expenditures to support an aging population in Korea or decreases in economic productivity due to the declining population size in Korea;
 
   
geopolitical uncertainty and the risk of further attacks by terrorist groups around the world;
 
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political uncertainty or increasing strife among or within political parties in Korea;
 
   
hostilities or political or social tensions involving oil producing countries in the Middle East (including a potential escalation of hostilities between the United States and Iran) and Northern Africa and any material disruption in the global supply of oil or sudden increase in the price of oil;