20-F 1 lvro-20230630.htm 20-F lvro-20230630
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________________
FORM 20-F
(Mark One)
oREGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
xANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023
OR
oTRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
oSHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report:
Commission File Number: 001-41635
Lavoro Limited
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Not Applicable

Cayman Islands

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
Av. Dr. Cardoso de Melo, 1450, 4th floor, office 401
São Paulo—SP, Brazil, 04548-005
(Address of principal executive offices)
Julian Garrido Del Val Neto, Chief Financial Officer
Av. Dr. Cardoso de Melo, 1450, 4th floor, office 401
São Paulo—SP, Brazil, 04548-005
Tel: +55 (11) 4280-0709
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolsName of each exchange on which registered
Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.001 per shareLVROThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Warrants to purchase Class A ordinary shares, each whole warrant exercisable for one Class A ordinary share at an exercise price of $11.50 per shareLVROWThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: As of June 30, 2023, the issuer had 116,608,329 Class A ordinary shares and 10,083,592 warrants to purchase Class A ordinary shares outstanding.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.     Yes o    No x
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.     Yes ¨    No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes x    No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).     Yes x     No ¨    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
¨
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
x
Emerging growth company
¨
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ¨
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ¨
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
¨    U.S. GAAP
x    International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board
¨    Other
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.     Item 17 ¨    Item 18 ¨
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes ¨    No x



TABLE OF CONTENTS
____________________________________
Page
i


FREQUENTLY USED TERMS
Throughout this annual report, unless otherwise stated or unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “New Lavoro” and “the Registrant” refer to Lavoro Limited, a Cayman Islands exempted company, and the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” “the Company,” “our company,” “Lavoro” or “Lavoro Group” refer to: (i) the combined group of Lavoro Agro Holding S.A., or Lavoro Brazil, and its subsidiaries, Crop Care Holding S.A., or Crop Care, and its subsidiaries, and Lavoro Colombia S.A.S., or Lavoro Colombia, and its subsidiaries, prior to the contribution of the shares of Lavoro Brazil, Crop Care and Lavoro Colombia to an entity controlled by Lavoro Agro Limited, an exempted company incorporated with limited liability in the Cayman Islands, or Lavoro Agro Limited, which was completed in mid-2022; (ii) Lavoro Agro Limited, together with its consolidated subsidiaries, following the contribution of the shares of Lavoro Brazil, Crop Care and Lavoro Colombia to an entity controlled by Lavoro Agro Limited; and (iii) New Lavoro, together with its consolidated subsidiaries, following the completion of our corporate reorganization in January 2023 and the consummation of the Business Combination (as defined below). Unless the context requires otherwise, all references to “our financial statements” mean the financial statements of the Registrant included herein.
In addition, in this document, unless otherwise stated or unless the context otherwise requires:
“A&R Registration Rights Agreement” means the Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement, entered into by New Lavoro and the Sponsor on the Closing Date, pursuant to which that certain Registration Rights Agreement, dated as of August 13, 2021, was amended and restated in its entirety as of the Closing Date.
“bag” means a unit of measurement equal to: (i) 60 kilograms or 2.36 bushels of grains, i.e., the products that our farmer clients produce; (ii) 40 kilograms of seeds, i.e., an input that we sell.
“Brazil” means the Federative Republic of Brazil.
“Brazilian government” means the federal government of Brazil.
“Business Combination” means the Mergers and the other transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement, collectively, including the PIPE Investment.
“Business Combination Agreement” means the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of September 14, 2022, as may be amended, supplemented, or otherwise modified from time to time, by and among TPB SPAC, New Lavoro, First Merger Sub, Second Merger Sub, Third Merger Sub and Lavoro Agro Limited.
“CDI Rate” means the Brazilian interbank deposit (certificado de depósito interbancário) rate, which is an average of interbank overnight deposit interest rates in Brazil.
“Central Bank” means the Brazilian Central Bank (Banco Central do Brasil).
“Closing” means the closing of the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement.
“Closing Date” means February 28, 2023, the date of the Closing.
“Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
“Companies Act” means the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands.
“Conab” refers to the Brazilian National Food Supply Company (Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento).
“Continental” refers to Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, the Company’s transfer agent.
“COPOM” means the Brazilian Monetary Policy Committee (Comitê de Política Monetária do Banco Central).
“COVID-19” or the “COVID-19 pandemic” means SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19, and any evolutions or mutations thereof or other epidemics, pandemics or disease outbreaks.
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“CPI” means the Colombia Consumer Price Index (Índice de Precios al Consumidor).
“DTF Rate” means the Colombian investment rate (certificado de depósito a término), which is an average of interbank and financial corporation loan rates.
“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
“FGV” means the Getulio Vargas Foundation (Fundação Getulio Vargas).
“First Effective Time” means the time at which the First Merger became effective.
“First Merger” means the merger of First Merger Sub with and into TPB SPAC pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, with TPB SPAC surviving as a directly wholly owned subsidiary of New Lavoro.
“First Merger Sub” means Lavoro Merger Sub I Limited, a Cayman Islands exempted company and a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of New Lavoro prior to the consummation of the Business Combination.
“Forward Purchase Agreements” means the separate forward share purchase agreements entered into on February 21, 2023 by TPB SPAC and certain equity holders of TPB SPAC, pursuant to which TPB SPAC (or Second Merger Sub, as successor-in-interest to TPB SPAC following the Closing) agreed to purchase in the aggregate, on the date that is 24 months after the Closing Date, i.e. on February 28, 2025, 2,830,750 Ordinary Shares then held by the referred to equity holders of TPB SPAC. See “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—B. Related Party Transactions—Transactions Related to the Business Combination—Forward Purchase Agreements.”
Our “governing documents” refers to our memorandum and articles of association, as amended and restated from time to time.
A “hectare” is a unit of measurement equal to 2.471 acres.
“IASB” means the International Accounting Standards Board.
“IBGE” means the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística).
“IBR Rate” means the Colombia banking reference rate (Indicador Bancario de Referencia).
“ICMS” means the Brazilian tax on the circulation of goods and services (imposto sobre a circulação de mercadorias e serviços).
“IFRS” means International Financial Reporting Standards, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB.
“IGP-M” means the General Market Price Index (Índice Geral de Preços – Mercado), which is published by FGV.
“Investment Company Act” means the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.
“Investment Funds” means a group of Cayman Islands, Delaware and Ontario entities, which are the record holders of certain of our Ordinary Shares. The Investment Funds are ultimately controlled by Patria, which may be deemed to beneficially own the Investment Funds. See “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—A. Major Shareholders.” 
“IPCA” means the National Consumer Price Index (Índice Nacional de Preços ao Consumidor Amplo), which is published by the IBGE.
“JOBS Act” means the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended.
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“Lavoro Agro Limited” means Lavoro Agro Limited, an exempted company incorporated with limited liability in the Cayman Islands.
“Lavoro Agro Limited Shares” means the common shares, par value US$1.00 per share, of Lavoro Agro Limited.
“Lavoro Original Shareholders” means the Investment Funds and Patria Finance, collectively.
“Lavoro Share Plan” means the Lavoro Agro Holding S.A. Long-Term Incentive Policy (Política de Incentivo de Longo Prazo da Lavoro Agro Holding S.A.).
“management” or our “management team” means the officers of the Company.
“Mergers” means the First Merger, Second Merger and Third Merger, collectively.
“Minimum viable product,” or “MVP,” is a development technique in which a version of a new product is developed with sufficient features to be usable by early customers who can then provide feedback for future product development. The concept will be used to validate a market need for the product and for incremental developments.
“Nasdaq” means The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC.
“New Lavoro” means Lavoro Limited, a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability.
“Ordinary Shares” means the Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.001 per share, of the Company.
“Patria” means Patria Investments Limited, a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability, and its affiliates (including Patria Finance).
“Patria Finance” means Patria Finance Limited, a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability.
“PCAOB” means the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board.
“Private Warrants” means the 4,071,507 warrants issued by the Company, each exercisable at US$11.50 per one Ordinary Share, all of which are held by the Sponsor.
“Public Warrants” means the 6,012,085 warrants issued by the Company, each exercisable at US$11.50 per one Ordinary Share, and which are traded on Nasdaq under the symbol “LVROW.”
“RTVs” refer to Lavoro’s technical sales representatives (Representante Técnico de Vendas), who are linked to its retail stores, and who develop commercial relationships with farmers.
“SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
“SELIC rate” means the Brazilian interest rate established by the Brazilian Special Clearance and Custody System (Sistema Especial de Liquidação e Custódia).
“Second Effective Time” means the time at which the Second Merger became effective.
“Second Merger” means the merger of TPB SPAC with and into Second Merger Sub pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, with Second Merger Sub surviving as our directly wholly owned subsidiary.
“Second Merger Sub” means Lavoro Merger Sub II Limited, a Cayman Islands exempted company and our direct, wholly owned subsidiary prior to the consummation of the Business Combination.
“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
“SPAC Class A Ordinary Shares” means the Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share, of TPB SPAC.
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“SPAC Class B Ordinary Shares” means the Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share, of TPB SPAC.
“SPAC Mergers” means the First Merger and Second Merger.
“SPAC Ordinary Shares” means the SPAC Class A Ordinary Shares and SPAC Class B Ordinary Shares, collectively.
“SPAC Private Warrants” means the 4,071,507 private placement warrants issued by TPB SPAC and held by the Sponsor to acquire SPAC Class A Ordinary Shares that were outstanding immediately prior to the First Effective Time.
“SPAC Public Warrants” means the 6,012,085 public warrants issued by TPB SPAC to acquire SPAC Class A Ordinary Shares that were outstanding immediately prior to the First Effective Time.
“Sponsor” means TPB Acquisition Sponsor I, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company.
“Sponsor Letter Agreement” means that certain Sponsor Letter Agreement, dated August 13, 2021, by and among Sponsor, TPB SPAC and TPB SPAC’s directors and officers (as amended on September 14, 2022 and February 28, 2023 by and among the Sponsor, TPB SPAC, TPB SPAC’s directors and officers, Lavoro Agro Limited and New Lavoro, and as further amended on March 22, 2023 by and among the Sponsor, Second Merger Sub (as successor to TPB SPAC), The Production Board, Lavoro Agro Limited and New Lavoro).
“The Production Board” means The Production Board, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company.
“TIB Rate” means the Colombian interbank deposit rate (Tasa Interbancaria).
“tonne” is a unit of measurement equal to 1,000 kilograms, 1.10 short tons or 0.98 long tons.
“TPB PIPE Investment” means the entry by us and TPB SPAC into a subscription agreement with The Production Board, pursuant to which The Production Board agreed to subscribe for and purchase, and TPB SPAC agreed to issue an aggregate of 10,000,000 SPAC Class A Ordinary Shares at a price of US$10.00 per share.
“TPB SPAC” means TPB Acquisition Corporation I, a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability.
“Third Effective Time” means the time at which the Third Merger became effective.
“Third Merger” means the merger of Third Merger Sub with and into Lavoro Agro Limited pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, with Lavoro Agro Limited surviving as a directly wholly owned subsidiary of New Lavoro.
“Third Merger Sub” means Lavoro Merger Sub III Limited, a Cayman Islands exempted company and a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of New Lavoro prior to the consummation of the Business Combination.
“Trust Account” means that certain trust account that held certain funds maintained and invested pursuant to that certain Investment Management Trust Account Agreement dated August 13, 2021, by and between TPB SPAC and Continental.
“U.S. GAAP” means United States generally accepted accounting principles.
“Warrant Agreement” means the warrant agreement covering the Warrants, which is filed as an exhibit hereto and is incorporated by reference herein.
“Warrants” means the 10,083,592 warrants issued by us, consisting of 6,012,085 Public Warrants and 4,071,507 Private Warrants.
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PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION
Overview
New Lavoro was incorporated to become the holding entity of the Lavoro Group to effect the Business Combination. Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination on February 28, 2023, New Lavoro had only nominal assets and liabilities and no material contingent liabilities or commitments and did not conduct any material activities other than those incident to its formation and certain matters related to the Business Combination, such as the making of certain required securities law filings. New Lavoro continues not to have any assets other than its direct equity interests in its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Lavoro Merger Sub II Limited and Lavoro Agro Limited.
The Business Combination was accounted for as a capital reorganization. Under this method of accounting, TPB SPAC was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes, and New Lavoro was the accounting “acquirer.” The net assets of TPB SPAC were stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. The Business Combination, which is not within the scope of IFRS 3—Business Combinations, or IFRS 3, since TPB SPAC does not meet the definition of a “business” pursuant to IFRS 3, is accounted for within the scope of IFRS 2—Share-Based Payments, or IFRS 2. Any excess of fair value of New Lavoro’s Ordinary Shares issued over the fair value of TPB SPAC identifiable net assets acquired represents compensation for the service of a stock exchange listing for its shares and is expensed as incurred.
The corporate reorganizations undertaken in connection with the Business Combination were accounted for using the predecessor method of accounting, and, as a result, our consolidated financial statements are presented “as if” the historical combined consolidated operations of Lavoro Brazil, Crop Care and Lavoro Colombia were the predecessor operations of New Lavoro. Under the predecessor method, the historical operations of the Lavoro Group prior to our corporate reorganizations are deemed to be those of New Lavoro. Thus, our consolidated financial statements reflect:
the historical operating results and financial position of Lavoro Brazil, Crop Care and Lavoro Colombia on a combined basis prior to our corporate reorganizations
the assets and liabilities of Lavoro Brazil, Crop Care and Lavoro Colombia at their historical cost; and
New Lavoro’s earnings per share for all years presented. The number of Ordinary Shares issued by New Lavoro, as a result of our corporate reorganizations, is reflected retroactively, for purposes of calculating earnings per share in all prior years presented.
Our Financial Statements
We maintain our books and records in Brazilian reais, the presentation currency of our financial statements and also the functional currency of the Registrant. The functional currency for the majority of our subsidiaries is also the Brazilian real, except that companies located in Colombia have the Colombian peso (“COP”) as their reporting currency. The financial statements of our Colombian subsidiaries are translated into Brazilian reais as follows:
i.assets and liabilities for each statement of financial position presented are translated at the closing exchange rate at the date of that statement of financial position;
ii.income and expenses for each statement of profit or loss are translated at the respective average monthly exchange rate; and
iii.exchange rate differences arising from this translation are recognized in other comprehensive income.
Our financial statements presented in this annual report are the consolidated financial statements of New Lavoro. Our audited consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB. IFRS differs from the United States generally accepted accounting principles, or U.S. GAAP, in certain material respects and thus may not be comparable to financial information presented by U.S. companies.
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Our audited consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2023 and 2022 and for the years ended June 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, together with the notes thereto, included elsewhere in this annual report, are referred to herein as our audited consolidated financial statements or simply as our financial statements. Our financial information should be read in conjunction with “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects,” and our audited consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, included elsewhere in this annual report.
Our fiscal year ends on June 30. References in this annual report to a fiscal year, such as “fiscal year 2023,” or “FY23” relate to our fiscal year, the year ended June 30, 2023.
Reportable Segments
We have three reportable segments: the Brazil Cluster, which comprises companies dedicated to the distribution of agricultural inputs such as crop protection, seeds, fertilizers and specialty products, in Brazil; the LATAM Cluster, which includes companies dedicated to the distribution of agricultural inputs outside Brazil (primarily in Colombia); and the Crop Care Cluster, which includes companies that produce and import our own portfolio of private label products including off-patent crop protection and specialty products (e.g., biologicals and specialty fertilizers). The table below sets forth the entities that comprised each of our three reportable segments as of June 30, 2023:
Brazil Cluster
Facirolli Comércio e Representações S.A.
Cultivar Agrícola – Comércio, Importação e Exportação S.A.
Produtec Comércio e Representações S.A.
Produtiva Agronegócios Comércio e Representação Ltda.
Qualiciclo Agrícola S.A.
Lavoro Agrocomercial S.A.
Agrocontato Comércio e Representações de Produtos Agropecuários S.A.
PCO – Comércio, Importação, Exportação e Agropecuária Ltda.
Agrovenci – Comércio, Importação, Exportação e Agropecuária Ltda.
Agrovenci Distribuidora de Insumos Agrícolas Ltda.
Central Agricola Rural Distribuidora de Defensivos Ltda.
Denorpi Distribuidora de Insumos Agrícolas Ltda.
Deragro Distribuidora de Insumos Agrícolas Ltda.
Desempar Participações Ltda.
Desempar Tecnologia Ltda.
Futuragro Distribuidora de Insumos Agrícolas Ltda.
Distribuidora Pitangueiras de Produtos Agropecuários S.A.
Plenafértil Distribuidora de Insumos Agrícolas Ltda.
Realce Distribuidora de Insumos Agrícolas Ltda.
Nova Geração Comércio de Produtos Agrícolas Ltda.
Lavoro Agro Holding S.A.
Floema Soluções Nutricionais de Cultivos Ltda.
Sollo Sul Insumos Agrícolas Ltda.
Dissul Insumos Agrícolas Ltda.
Casa Trevo Comercial Agrícola Ltda.
Casa Trevo Participações S.A.
CATR Comercial Agrícola Ltda.
Lavoro Agro Fundo de Investimento nas Cadeias Produtivas Agroindustriais (FIAGRO) - Direitos Creditórios
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LATAM Cluster
Agrointegral Andina S.A.S.
Agroquímicos para la Agricultura Colombiana S.A.S.
Agricultura y Servicios S.A.S.
Cenagral S.A.S.
Grupo Cenagro S.A.S.
Servigral Praderas S.A.S.
Lavoro Colombia S.A.S.
Grupo Gral S.A.S.
Provecampo S.A.S.
Crop Care Colombia S.A.S.
Crop Care Cluster
Agrobiológica Sustentabilidade S.A.
Agrobiológica Soluções Naturais Ltda.
Perterra Insumos Agropecuários S.A.
Perterra Trading S.A.
Union Agro S.A.
Crop Care Holding S.A. (Brasil)
Araci Administradora de Bens S.A.
Cromo Indústria Química Ltda.
Acquisitions
As of the date of this annual report, we have completed the acquisition of the 26 following groups or companies since our inception: (1) Grupo Gral (comprising Agrointegral Andina S.A.S., Agroquímicos para la Agricultura Colombiana S.A.S., and Servigral Praderas S.A.S.); (2) Lavoro Agrocomercial; (3) Distribuidora Pitangueiras de Produtos Agropecuários S.A., or Pitangueiras; (4) Impacto Insumos Agrícola Ltda. (later merged into Lavoro Agrocomercial); (5) Agrovenci – Comércio, Importação, Exportação e Agropecuária Ltda., or Agrovenci; (6) Agrocontato Comércio e Representações de Produtos Agropecuários S.A. and PCO – Comércio, Importação, Exportação e Agropecuária Ltda., or Agrovale (which, together with Agrovenci, is referred to as the AGP Group); (7) Agricultura y Servicios S.A.S., or AgSe, and Fertilizantes Líquidos y Servicios S.A.S., or Fertilyser (which, together, are referred to as the AgSe Group); (8) Produtec Comércio e Representações S.A., or Produtec; (9) Agrobiológica Soluções; (10) Central Agricola Rural Distribuidora de Defensivos Ltda., or Central Agrícola; (11) Integra (as defined below); (12) Qualicitrus (as defined below); (13) América (as defined below); (14) Desempar (as defined below); (15) Cultivar (as defined below); (16) Cenagro/Cenagral (as defined below); (17) Produttiva (as defined below); (18) Union Agro (as defined below); (19) AgroZap (as defined below); (20) Nova Geração (as defined below); (21) Floema (as defined below); (22) Provecampo (as defined below); (23) Casa Trevo and CATR (as defined below); (24) Sollo Sul and Dissul (both as defined below), (25) Cromo Química (as defined below), and (26) Referência Agro (as defined below).
The following is a description of acquisitions completed in the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, and thereafter. For more information, see notes 21 and 33 to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.
Acquisitions Completed in the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2021
On June 18, 2020, we entered into an agreement to acquire 100.0% of Integra Soluções Agrícolas Ltda., or Integra, a company specializing in the sale of crop protection products, fertilizers, seeds, and other agricultural inputs. Part of the payment was made through the exchange of shares of Integra. The transaction closed on September 1, 2020.
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On July 17, 2020, we entered into an agreement to acquire 70.8% of Qualiciclo Agrícola S.A., or Qualicitrus, a company specializing in the sale of crop protection products, fertilizers, seeds, specialties and machinery, and related services such as soil testing and fertility maps. The transaction closed on November 17, 2020.
On July 21, 2020, we entered into an agreement to acquire 100.0% of Agrobiológica Soluções, a company specializing in the development, production and sale of biological agricultural products. Part of the payment was made through a share exchange with Agrobiológica Sustentabilidade. The transaction closed on August 28, 2020.
On September 11, 2020, we entered into an agreement to acquire 100.0% of América Insumos Agrícolas Ltda., or América, a company specializing in the sale of agricultural inputs, including crop protection products and fertilizers. The transaction closed on December 30, 2020.
On November 12, 2020, we entered into an agreement to acquire 60.7% of Cultivar Agrícola – Comércio, Importação e Exportação S.A., or Cultivar, a company specializing in the sale of agricultural inputs, including crop protection products and fertilizers. The contract provides for the payment of an installment in the event of the successful collection of receivables past due at the acquisition date in the amount of R$5.8 million. The transaction closed on April 1, 2021.
On December 4, 2020, we entered into an agreement to acquire 100.0% of Desempar Participações Ltda. (including its subsidiaries Denorpi Distribuidora de Insumos Agrícolas Ltda., Deragro Distribuidora de Insumos Agrícolas Ltda., Plenafértil Distribuidora de Insumos Agrícolas Ltda., Futuragro Distribuidora de Insumos Agrícolas Ltda., Realce Distribuidora de Insumos Agrícolas Ltda. and Desempar Tecnologia Ltda.), or Desempar, a group of companies specializing in the sale of crop protection products, fertilizer, specialties, and seeds, and related services. The transaction closed on March 31, 2021.
Acquisitions Completed in the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2022
On June 23, 2021, we entered into an agreement to acquire 100.0% of Produtiva Agronegócios Comércio e Representações S.A., or Produttiva, a company specializing in the sale of pesticides, seeds and foliar fertilizers as well as providing technical assistance to farmers in choosing products for planting. The total purchase price of R$86.9 million was divided as follows: (i) R$36.4 million was paid in cash on the closing date; (ii) R$22.5 million was paid in shares issued by Produtec to the selling shareholders on the closing date; and (iii) R$28.0 million was paid on the first anniversary of the closing date. The transaction closed on September 2, 2021.
On July 26, 2021, we entered into an agreement to acquire 73.0% of Union Agro, a company specializing in the production and distribution of special fertilizer. The total purchase price of R$124.0 million was divided as follows: (i) R$103.8 million was paid in cash on the closing date; and (ii) R$20.2 million was paid in cash within 12 months of the closing date. The transaction closed on October 28, 2021.
On July 28, 2021, we entered into an agreement to acquire 100.0% of each of Grupo Cenagro S.A.S., or Cenagro, and Cenagral S.A.S., or Cenagral, companies specializing in the sale of crop protection products, fertilizer, specialties, and seeds, and related services. The purchase price was the equivalent in Colombian pesos to R$44.2 million, of which: (i) the equivalent in Colombian pesos to R$32.1 million was paid in cash on the closing date; and (ii) the equivalent in Colombian pesos to R$12.1 million was paid in cash on the first anniversary of the closing date. The transaction closed on August 31, 2021.
On August 5, 2021, we entered into an agreement to acquire 75.0% of Facirolli Comércio e Representações Ltda., or AgroZap, a company specializing in the sale of agricultural inputs and related services. The total purchase price of R$41.0 million was divided as follows: (i) R$18.8 million was paid in cash on the closing date; and (ii) R$22.1 million was paid in cash within 12 months of the closing date. The transaction closed on January 7, 2022.
On December 24, 2021, we entered into an agreement to acquire 70.0% of Nova Geração Comércio de Produtos Agrícolas Ltda., or Nova Geração, a company specializing in the sale of agricultural inputs and related services. The total purchase price of R$30.7 million was divided as follows: (i) R$15.6 million was paid in cash on the closing date; (ii) R$7.8 million was paid in shares issued by Nova Geração to the selling shareholders on the closing date; and (iii) R$7.3 million was paid in cash within 12 months of the closing date. The transaction closed on April 6, 2022.
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Acquisitions Completed in the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2023
On March 22, 2022, we entered into an agreement to acquire 100.0% of Floema Soluções Nutricionais de Cultivos Ltda., or Floema, a company specializing in the sale of agricultural inputs and related services. The purchase price for 70% of Floema’s ownership interests is equivalent to R$27.6 million, of which: (i) R$20.7 million was payable in cash on the closing date, remaining subject to a preliminary price adjustment (which when calculated, was equivalent to a negative amount of R$9.5 million, resulting in a net payment in cash on the closing date amounting to R$11.2 million); and (ii) R$6.9 million was paid in cash on the first anniversary of the closing date (i.e. August 4, 2023), subject to a final price adjustment (to be calculated in the future). The purchase price for the remaining 30% of Floema’s ownership interests was paid in shares issued by AgroZap to the selling shareholders on the closing date, valued at R$11.8 million. The selling shareholders were also entitled to an earn-out of up to R$28.8 million, which was determined on the closing date to amount to R$18.8 million, of which: (i) R$14.1 million was paid in cash on the closing date; and (ii) R$4.7 million was paid in cash on the first anniversary of the closing date. Accordingly, on the closing date: (i) R$25.3 million was paid in cash; and (ii) R$12.3 million was paid in shares issued by AgroZap to the selling shareholders. The remaining R$11.6 million is subject to a final price adjustment and monetary adjustment and is payable in cash on the first anniversary of the closing date. The transaction closed on August 4, 2022.
On May 5, 2022, we entered into an agreement to acquire 85.0% of Casa Trevo Participações S.A. (including its subsidiary Casa Trevo Comercial Agrícola Ltda.), or Casa Trevo, and CATR Comercial Agrícola Ltda., or CATR, a Brazilian-based group of companies specializing in the sale of crop protection products, fertilizers, seeds, and other agricultural inputs. The total purchase price of R$42.5 million was divided as follows: (i) R$23.6 million was paid in cash on the closing date; and (ii) R$18.9 million is payable in cash in one annual installment within 12 months of the closing date. The transaction closed on August 31, 2022.
On June 16, 2022, we entered into an agreement to acquire 100% of Provecampo S.A.S., or Provecampo, a Colombian-based company specializing in the wholesale trade of basic chemical products, rubber and plastics in primary forms and chemical products for agricultural use. The total purchase price of R$21.7 million was divided as follows: (i) R$14.2 million was paid in cash on the closing date; and (ii) R$7.5 million is payable in cash in two equal annual installments within 24 months of the closing date. The transaction closed on July 29, 2022.
On July 22, 2022, we entered into an agreement to acquire 100% of Sollo Sul Insumos Agrícolas Ltda., or Sollo Sul, and Dissul Insumos Agrícolas Ltda., or Dissul, Brazilian-based companies specializing in the sale of crop protection products, fertilizers, seeds, and other agricultural inputs. The total purchase price of R$105.9 million was divided as follows: (i) R$53.0 million was paid in cash on the closing date; and (ii) R$53.0 million is payable in cash in two equal annual installments within 24 months of the closing date. The transaction closed on November 30, 2022.
On January 13, 2023, our subsidiary Crop Care entered into an agreement for the acquisition of a 70% interest in Cromo Indústria Química Ltda., or Cromo Química, a company specialized in the production of high-performance adjuvants. The purchase price of the acquisition totaled R$21.7 million, and is expected to be paid in cash in three installments: R$8.1 million on the closing date, R$10.8 million a year after the closing date and R$5.4 million two years after the closing date, all as adjusted by the IPCA. The transaction closed on May 31, 2023.
Acquisitions Completed Subsequent to the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2023
On February 28, 2023, we entered into an agreement to acquire a 70% equity interest in Referência Agroinsumos Ltda., or Referência Agro, an agricultural inputs distributor doing business in the south of Brazil. The purchase price for this transaction (as adjusted) is R$102.1 million, of which R$67.1 million was paid on the closing date and R$35.0 million is expected to be paid one year after the closing date. The transaction closed on July 31, 2023. Because we acquired Referência Agro through our subsidiary Pitangueiras, we currently beneficially own 66.6% of Referência Agro
Special Note Regarding Non-IFRS Financial Measures
This annual report presents our Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin, Net Debt (Net Cash), and Net Debt (Net Cash)/Adjusted EBITDA Ratio, and their respective reconciliations for the convenience of investors,
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which are non-IFRS financial measures. A non-IFRS financial measure is generally defined as a numerical measure of historical or future financial performance, financial position, or cash flow that purports to measure financial performance but excludes or includes amounts that would not be so adjusted in the most comparable IFRS measure. We present non-IFRS financial measures to aid the reader to evaluate our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin
Adjusted EBITDA is defined as profit (loss) for the year, adjusted for finance income (costs), net, income taxes, depreciation and amortization and excluding the impact of certain revenues or expenses that we believe are isolated in nature incurred as part of our expansion, namely: (i) fair value on inventories sold from acquired companies, (ii) M&A adjustments that in management’s judgment do not necessarily occur on a regular basis, (iii) gains on bargain purchases, (iv) listing and other expenses recognized in connection with the Business Combination, (v) share-based compensation expenses, (vi) bonuses paid out to our employees as a result of the closing of the Business Combination, and (vii) expenses paid to Patria in connection with management consultancy services. Adjusted EBITDA Margin is calculated as Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of revenue for the period/year. We believe that our Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin metrics are useful metrics used by analysts and investors because it provides additional information about trends in our operating performance prior to considering the impact of capital structure, depreciation, amortization and taxation on our results, as well as the effects of certain items or events that vary widely among similar companies, and therefore may hamper comparability across periods, although these measures are not explicitly defined under IFRS. Our calculation of Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin may be different from the calculation used by other companies, including our competitors in the industry, and therefore, our measures may not be comparable to those of other companies.
Net Debt (Net Cash) and Net Debt (Net Cash)/Adjusted EBITDA Ratio
Net Debt (Net Cash) is calculated as borrowings (current and non-current) plus payables for the acquisition of subsidiaries (current and non-current), obligations to FIAGRO quota holders, warrant liabilities and liability for FPA shares, less cash equivalents and restricted cash. Net Debt (Net Cash)/Adjusted EBITDA Ratio, also a non-IFRS financial measure, is calculated as Net Debt (Net Cash) divided by Adjusted EBITDA. We believe that Net Debt (Net Cash)/Adjusted EBITDA Ratio is an important measure to monitor leverage and evaluate our financial position. With respect to Net Debt (Net Cash), cash and equivalents are subtracted from the IFRS measure of borrowings because they could be used to reduce our borrowings. A limitation associated with using Net Debt (Net Cash) is that it subtracts cash and equivalents and therefore may imply that there is less Company debt than the comparable IFRS measures indicate. We believe that investors may find it useful to monitor leverage and evaluate our financial position using Net Debt (Net Cash) and Net Debt (Net Cash)/Adjusted EBITDA Ratio, although these measures are not explicitly defined under IFRS.
The non-IFRS financial measures described in this annual report should not be viewed in isolation and are not a substitute for the IFRS measures of earnings. Additionally, our calculation of Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin, Net Debt (Net Cash), and Net Debt (Net Cash)/Adjusted EBITDA Ratio may be different from the calculation used by other companies, including our competitors in the agricultural industry, and therefore, our measures may not be comparable to those of other companies. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating Results—Non-IFRS Financial Measures and Reconciliations” for a reconciliation of our Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin, Net Debt (Net Cash), and Net Debt (Net Cash)/Adjusted EBITDA Ratio to our profit (loss) for the year for the period.
Financial Information in U.S. Dollars
Solely for the convenience of the reader, we have translated some of the amounts included in this annual report from reais into U.S. dollars. You should not construe these translations as representations by us that the amounts actually represent these U.S. dollar amounts or could be converted into U.S. dollars at the rates indicated. Unless otherwise indicated, we have translated real amounts into U.S. dollars using a rate of R$4.8192 to US$1.00, the commercial selling rate for U.S. dollars as of June 30, 2023, as reported by the Central Bank. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Latin America—Exchange rate instability may impact our ability to hedge exchange rate risk, which may lead to interest rate volatility and have a material adverse effect on the price of our Ordinary Shares.”
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Rounding
Rounding adjustments have been made to some of the figures included in this annual report. Accordingly, numerical figures shown as totals in some tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures that preceded them; consequently, certain figures may add up to be more or less than the total amount and certain percentages may add up to be more or less than 100%. In particular and without limitation, amounts expressed in millions contained in this annual report have been rounded to a single decimal place for the convenience of readers.
JOBS Act
We ceased to be an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, on June 30, 2022 as our annual gross revenue exceeded the US$1.235 billion threshold for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022. As such, we are no longer eligible to take, and have not taken, advantage of certain exemptions that allow emerging growth companies to comply with certain reduced disclosure obligations, which are not available to non-emerging growth companies.
Industry and Market Data
This annual report contains data related to economic conditions in the market in which we operate. The information contained in this annual report concerning economic conditions is based on publicly available information from third-party sources that we believe to be reasonable. Market data and certain industry forecast data used in this annual report were obtained from internal reports and studies, where appropriate, as well as estimates, market research, publicly available information (including information available from the SEC’s website) and industry publications. We obtained the information included in this annual report relating to the industry in which we operate, as well as the estimates concerning market shares, through internal research, public information and publications on the industry prepared by official public sources, such as the IBGE, the FAO and the USDA, among others, as well as private sources, such as consulting and research companies in the Brazilian agricultural industry, among others.
Market data used throughout this annual report is based on management’s knowledge of the industry and the good faith estimates of management. All of management’s estimates presented are based on industry sources, including analyst reports and management’s knowledge. We also relied, to the extent available, upon management’s review of independent industry surveys and publications prepared by a number of sources and other publicly available information. We are responsible for all of the disclosure in this annual report and we believe that each of the publications, studies and surveys used throughout this annual report are prepared by reputable sources and are generally reliable, though we have not independently verified market and industry data from third-party sources. None of the publications, reports or other published industry sources referred to in this annual report were commissioned by us or prepared at our request. We have not sought or obtained the consent of any of these sources to include such market data in this annual report. All of the market data used in this annual report involves a number of assumptions and limitations and therefore is inherently uncertain and imprecise, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. Projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we operate are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” in this annual report. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in our estimates and beliefs and in the estimates prepared by independent parties.
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This annual report contains a number of forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this annual report, including statements regarding our future financial position, results of operations, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. Any statements that refer to projections, forecasts or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are also forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by words such as “estimate,” “plan,” “project,” “forecast,” “intend,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “seek,” “strategy,” “future,” “opportunity,” “may,” “target,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” or similar expressions that predict or indicate future events or trends or that are not statements of historical matters.
Forward-looking statements include, without limitation, our expectations concerning the outlook for our business, productivity, plans and goals for future operational improvements and capital investments, operational performance, future market conditions or economic performance and developments in the capital and credit markets and expected future financial performance, as well as any information concerning possible or assumed future results of our operations as set forth in the sections of this annual report.
The forward-looking statements are based on the current expectations of our management and are inherently subject to uncertainties and changes in circumstance and their potential effects and speak only as of the date of such statement. There can be no assurance that future developments will be those that have been anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties or other assumptions that may cause actual results or performance to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those factors described in “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors,” those discussed and identified in public filings made with the SEC by us and the following important factors:
general economic, financial, political, demographic and business conditions in Brazil, as well as any other countries we may serve in the future and their impact on our business;
geopolitical risk, including the political environment in Brazil and impacts of the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine;
the possibility that we may be adversely affected by other economic factors, particularly in Brazil;
fluctuations in interest, inflation and exchange rates in Brazil and any other countries we may serve in the future;
public health crises, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;
competition in the agricultural industry;
our ability to implement its business strategy;
our ability to adapt to the rapid pace of technological changes in the agricultural industry;
the reliability, performance, functionality and quality of our products and services;
our ability to obtain certain licenses, grants, registrations and authorizations issued by government authorities for certain aspects of its operations;
our ability to continue attracting and retaining new appropriately-skilled employees;
our capitalization and level of indebtedness;
the interests of our controlling shareholder;
changes in government regulations applicable to the agricultural industry in Brazil and elsewhere;
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our ability to compete and conduct its business in the future;
the success of operating initiatives, including advertising and promotional efforts and new product, service and concept development by us and our competitors;
changes in consumer demand regarding agricultural products, customer experience and technological advances, and our ability to innovate to respond to such changes;
changes in labor, distribution and other operating costs;
our compliance with, and changes to, government laws, regulations and tax matters that currently apply to us;
our ability to implement business plans, growth strategy and other expectations in the future;
litigation and regulatory enforcement risks, including the diversion of management time and attention and the additional costs and demands on our resources, including potential litigation regarding the Business Combination; and
other factors that may affect our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of the assumptions made by our management prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements.
We caution you against placing undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which reflect current beliefs and are based on information currently available as of the date a forward-looking statement is made. Forward-looking statements set forth herein speak only as of the date of this annual report. We do not undertake any obligation to revise forward-looking statements to reflect future events, changes in circumstances, or changes in beliefs. In the event that any forward-looking statement is updated, no inference should be made that we will make additional updates with respect to that statement, related matters, or any other forward-looking statements. Any corrections or revisions and other important assumptions and factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from forward-looking statements, including discussions of significant risk factors, may appear in our public filings with the SEC, which are or will be (as appropriate) accessible at www.sec.gov, and which you are advised to consult.
Market, ranking and industry data used throughout this annual report, including statements regarding market size and technology/data adoption rates, is based on the good faith estimates of our management, which in turn are based upon our management’s review of internal surveys, independent industry surveys and publications and other third-party research and publicly available information, as indicated. Industry reports, publications, research, studies and forecasts generally state that the information they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but that the accuracy and completeness of such information is not guaranteed. These data involve a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates.
In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which this data is derived. While we have compiled, extracted, and reproduced industry data from these sources and are not aware of any misstatements regarding the industry data presented herein, we have not independently verified the data. Forecasts and other forward-looking information obtained from these sources are subject to the same qualifications and uncertainties as the other forward-looking statements. Moreover, estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” of this annual report.
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PART I
Item 1.    Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Not applicable.
Item 2.    Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Not applicable.
Item 3.    Key Information
A.[Reserved]
B.Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C.Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
D.Risk Factors
Summary Risk Factors
The following summarizes the principal factors that make an investment in our company speculative or risky, all of which are more fully described in the risk factors below. This summary should be read in conjunction with the risk factors below and should not be relied upon as an exhaustive summary of the material risks facing our business. The following factors could result in harm to our business, reputation, revenue, financial results, and prospects, among other impacts:
Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry
We may be adversely affected by global market and economic conditions.
Our operating results are highly dependent upon and fluctuate based upon business and economic conditions and governmental policies affecting the agricultural industry in which we or our customers operate. These factors are outside of our control and may significantly affect our profitability.
Our business is highly seasonal and affected by adverse weather conditions and other factors beyond our control, which may cause our sales and operating results to fluctuate significantly.
Climate change may have an adverse effect on agribusiness in Latin America and us.
We do not control the activities of our customers, and facts or circumstances that may occur as a result of their actions or omissions could harm our reputation and sales.
We operate in a competitive market. If we are unable to compete effectively, our financial results will suffer.
We may not be successful in selling or marketing the agricultural products that we offer in the markets in which we operate.
If we are unable to retain our existing customers or attract new customers, including through opening new stores and geographic expansion, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected.
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Our business depends on a well-regarded and widely known brand, and any failure to maintain, protect and enhance our brand would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we fail to manage our growth effectively, our business could be harmed.
Our continued international expansion efforts may not be successful, or may subject our business to increased risks.
Our results of operations and operating metrics may fluctuate and we may continue to generate losses, which may cause the market price of our Ordinary Shares to decline.
Risks Relating to Acquisitions and Financial Information
Any acquisition, partnership or joint venture we make or enter into could disrupt our business and harm our financial condition.
Our recent acquisitions and the comparability of our results may make it difficult for investors to evaluate our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Relating to Legal and Regulatory Matters, Privacy, Litigation and Cybersecurity
Our business and the commercialization of our products are subject to various government regulations and agricultural, environmental, health and safety authorities and industry standards, and we or our collaborators may be unable to obtain, or may face delays in obtaining, necessary regulatory approvals.
Our operations are subject to various health and environmental risks associated with our production, handling, transportation, storage and commercialization.
Environmental, health and safety and food and agricultural input laws and regulations to which we are subject may become more stringent over time. This could increase the effects on us of these laws and regulations, and the increased effects could be materially adverse to our business, operations, liquidity and/or results of operations.
Risks Relating to Latin America
We are subject to risks relating to our significant presence in Latin American countries.
Latin America has experienced, and may continue to experience, adverse economic or political conditions that may impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Brazilian federal government has exercised, and continues to exercise, significant influence over the Brazilian economy. This influence, as well as Brazil’s political and economic conditions, could harm us and the price of our Ordinary Shares.
Risks Relating to Our Ordinary Shares and Warrants
We incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company.
We may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring and impairment or other charges that could have a significant negative effect on our financial condition, results of operations and share price, which could cause you to lose some or all of your investment.
The Lavoro Original Shareholders beneficially own approximately 84.7% of the outstanding Ordinary Shares, and control certain matters requiring shareholder approval. This concentration of ownership and voting power will limit your ability to influence corporate matters.
As a foreign private issuer, we have different disclosure, Nasdaq corporate governance standards and other requirements than U.S. domestic registrants.
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The exercise of our Warrants for our Ordinary Shares would increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market and result in dilution to our shareholders.
The sale of a substantial percentage of our outstanding Ordinary Shares could cause the market price of our Ordinary Shares to decline significantly.
We are a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability. The rights of our shareholders, including with respect to fiduciary duties and corporate opportunities, may be different from the rights of shareholders governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions.
We may redeem your unexpired Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to you, thereby making your Warrants worthless.
Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry
We may be adversely affected by global market and economic conditions.
Our ability to continue to develop and grow our business, build proprietary distribution channels and generate revenues from product sales may be adversely affected by global economic conditions in the future, including instability in financial and credit markets, declining consumer and business confidence, fluctuating commodity prices and interest rates, volatile exchange rates and other challenges that could affect the global economy such as the changing financial regulatory environment. For example, our customers may experience deterioration of their businesses, cash flow shortages or difficulties obtaining financing, which could adversely affect the demand for our agricultural products and services. Changes in the prices of certain commodity products could result in higher overall costs along the agricultural supply chain, which may negatively affect our ability to commercialize our products due to a reduction of demand by our clients. Additionally, negative fluctuations in commodity prices could have an impact on growers’ purchasing decisions and negatively affect their ability and decisions to purchase our agricultural input products and services. We cannot anticipate all of the ways in which the current economic climate and financial market conditions could adversely impact our business and may not be able to anticipate or react to changing costs by adjusting our practices, which could cause our operating results to deteriorate. Any downturn in the global market or general economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and business. See also “—Risks Relating to Latin America—Disruption or volatility in global financial and credit markets could have a material adverse effect on us.”
Our operating results are highly dependent upon and fluctuate based upon business and economic conditions and governmental policies affecting the agricultural industry in which we or our customers operate. These factors are outside of our control and may significantly affect our profitability.
Our operating results in particular, and agricultural production and trade flows more generally, are subject to factors outside our control that could adversely affect our operations and profitability. Therefore, the sale of our products may be adversely affected by circumstances beyond our control. The most important of these factors are:
weather, climatic variations and field conditions (particularly during periods of traditionally high agricultural and planting activity);
quantities of crop nutrients imported and exported;
cost increases by our suppliers and service providers for the agricultural inputs and services required in our activities, which may lead to decreased customer demand;
current and expected agricultural commodity inventories and prices (such as soybean and corn), which are heavily influenced by worldwide markets, with the United States, China, Brazil, Argentina and the European Union being the largest producers and consumers of these commodities; and
governmental policies and approvals of technologies affecting the agricultural industry, such as farm and biofuel policies, taxes, tariffs, duties, subsidies, incentives and import and export restrictions on agricultural commodities and commodity products, which may directly or indirectly influence the location or number of
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hectares planted, the level of inventories, the mix of crops planted or crop prices and the volume and types of imports and exports or otherwise negatively affect our operating results.
International market conditions, which are outside of our control, may significantly influence our operating results. The international market for agricultural inputs is influenced by such factors as the relative value of the U.S. dollar and its impact upon the cost of importing agricultural inputs; foreign agricultural policies, including subsidy policies; the existence of, or changes in, import or foreign currency exchange barriers in certain foreign markets; changes in the hard currency demands of certain countries; and other regulatory policies of foreign governments; as well as the laws and policies affecting foreign trade and investment, including use of tariffs. 
Moreover, our private label products use some basic raw materials, most of them mineral commodities, such as yellow phosphorus, acetic acid, CCMP (2-chloro-5-chloromethylpyridine), DMPAT (Dimethyl thiophosphoramidate), and manganese. These raw materials may suffer price increases in amounts higher than those expected by us, including changes to tax rates or the creation of new taxes, which can cause a decrease in the profitability of our products and, consequently, adversely affect our financial condition. Additionally, some of our raw materials are purchased in the foreign market and, therefore, their prices are linked to the variation of the dollar. If there is an increase in the price of the main raw materials that we or our suppliers use in the production process, our and/or their results of operations could be negatively impacted.
Our business is highly seasonal and affected by adverse weather conditions and other factors beyond our control, which may cause our sales and operating results to fluctuate significantly.
The sale of our products is dependent upon planting and growing seasons, which vary from year to year, and are expected to result in both highly seasonal patterns and substantial fluctuations in quarterly sales and profitability. Demand for our products is typically strongest between October and December, with a second period of strong demand between January and March. The seasonality of agricultural inputs demand results in our sales volumes and net sales typically being the highest during the South American spring and summer seasons (in particular, between December and February) and our working capital requirements typically being the highest just after the end of the spring season.
Weather conditions and natural disasters, such as heavy rains, hail, floods, frost, windstorms, drought or fire, as well as other factors beyond our control, such as demand conditions, availability of supply, food safety concerns, product recalls and government regulations also affect decisions by our distributors, direct customers and end users about the types and amounts of products to use and the timing of harvesting and planting. Disruptions may lead to delays in harvesting or planting by growers which can result in pushing orders to a future quarter, which could negatively affect results for the quarter in question and cause fluctuations in our operating results.
Moreover, we are exposed to the risk and significant cost of maintaining inventory if, due to the aforementioned reasons, the activities of our customers decrease. We cannot assure you that we will be able to distribute sufficient products during the year to meet the demand of our customers in peak seasons, nor that our customers will rapidly react to unexpected climate changes, which may adversely affect the demand for our products. Climate changes directly affect the planting schedule and demand of our customers and their crop yield and, as a result, adversely affect their financial condition and their ability to meet their obligations with us.
The overall level of seasonality in our business is difficult to evaluate as a result of our expansion into new geographical territories, the introduction of new products and the timing of introductions of new products. It is possible that our business may be more seasonal or experience seasonality in different periods than anticipated. Other factors may also contribute to the unpredictability of our operating results, including the size and timing of significant transactions. For example, as mentioned above, our most profitable months tend to be October, November and December in a given calendar year. If we acquire a large target between January and June of a given year, we would be missing its best performing months, and, therefore, our annual accounting statements for the fiscal year ended June 30 would not fully reflect the positive impact of the acquisition. Additionally, the delay or deferral of use of our agricultural products and services and the fiscal or quarterly budget cycles of our direct customers and end users may also impact the seasonality of our results. Customers may purchase large quantities of our products in a particular quarter to store and use over long periods of time or time their purchases to manage their inventories, which may cause significant fluctuations in our operating results for a particular quarter or year.
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If seasonal demand exceeds our expectations, we will not have enough product volumes and our customers may acquire products from our competitors, which would negatively impact our profitability. If seasonal demand is less than we expect, we will be left with excess inventory and higher working capital and liquidity requirements. The degree of the seasonality of our business can change significantly from year to year due to conditions in the agricultural industry and other factors.
Climate change may have an adverse effect on agribusiness in Latin America and us.
We are subject to risks related to climate change which are commonly grouped into physical risk and transition risk categories.
Physical risks include the impact that climate change could have on our operations, the operations of our customers, and our supply chain. The impact of climate change is uncertain and may be harmful due to changes in rainfall patterns and intensity, shortage of water, changes in sea levels, and changes in global temperature, among others. These physical impacts may vary depending on the location and intensity of climate events, comprising acute risks, including increased severity of extreme climate events, and chronic risks, deriving from long-term changes in climate patterns. These acute or recurrent physical impacts can cause significant losses to rural producers in Latin America. It can increase the non-payment risk by current and future customers. Similarly, they may limit geographic expansion strategies in certain regions, and consequently require significant changes in our business strategy. We cannot assure you that any losses caused by climate change effects on the crops of our customers will be recovered, even in following seasons, considering current productivity standards. As a result, we may be materially adversely affected and our financial results may significantly vary each year. Physical risks from climate change may also result in operational or supply chain delays, depending on the nature of the event. These events may impact the demand for our products, availability and/or cost of resource inputs, materials or insurance or increase the costs to our operations.
Transition risks relate to the risk inherent in changing strategies, policies or investments as society and industry work to reduce the reliance on carbon and impact on the climate, and depend on political, regulatory, legal, technological, and market responses. Impacts of transition risks include, among other things, policy constraints on carbon emissions, imposition of carbon pricing mechanisms and carbon taxes, enhanced reporting obligations, risks associated with investments in new technologies, costs to transition to lower emissions technologies, stranded assets, diminished access to capital and financing, water restrictions, land use restrictions or incentives, changing consumer behavior and preferences, and market demand and supply shifts. There are also reputational risks associated with climate change including our stakeholders’ perception of our role in the transition to a lower- carbon economy.
Climate change laws could also increase our costs and have an impact on our financial condition and the results of operations. The adoption of a national or international policy to limit greenhouse gas emissions for some industries may require significant investments for implementation. Several countries, including Brazil, may adopt a carbon pricing regime through a regulated market or by creating an emission tax, or by combining these two factors. This could result in a regulated carbon market, which may impose limits on greenhouse gas emissions for various industries and businesses, including their suppliers and customers (i.e., in line with an extended value chain concept).
There can be no assurance that our efforts to anticipate the costs associated with mitigating the physical risks of climate change and ability to work with governments and industry on potential regulatory requirements associated with climate change will be effective or that climate change or related governmental policy action in response to climate change will not have an adverse impact on our business and negatively impact our strategy, financial condition, results of operations, and/or cash flows, and our reputation and stakeholders’ support.
We do not control the activities of our customers, and facts or circumstances that may occur as a result of their actions or omissions could harm our reputation and sales.
Environmental concerns worldwide are continuing to rise. Tracts of land cleared for the harvesting of crops cause deforestation. To this effect, we do not control our customers or their environmental or other practices. A violation of environmental, health, agricultural or other laws by our customers or business partners, or an environmental or public health incident at customer locations, including acts of deforestation, or any failure of these third parties to follow generally accepted ethical business practices, could create negative publicity and harm our
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reputation. In addition, we may be required to seek alternative customers if these violations or failures were to occur. Although we conduct periodic due diligence of our customers’ compliance with environmental, health, agricultural laws or practices, we may be unable to detect related violations and our due diligence practices may not be sufficient to ensure our customers’ compliance with environmental laws or practices. Any conduct or actions that our customers could take could reduce demand for our products, harm our ability to meet demand or harm our reputation, brand image, business, financial condition or results of operations.
We operate in a competitive market. If we are unable to compete effectively, our financial results will suffer.
We currently face competition in the markets in which we operate. The market for agricultural inputs is competitive and evolving. The influence of the agricultural sector in Brazil and in other Latin American markets has been increasing, including in the Brazilian retail market of agricultural inputs, due to the creation of groups resulting from mergers and acquisitions, the entry of international players in Brazil and Latin America, and competition among farmer cooperatives. Additionally, agricultural inputs suppliers may intensify their strategy of making direct sales to rural producers or even decide to progress in the value chain, becoming retailers of agricultural inputs. If we are unable to adapt to changes in the competitive landscape in the markets in which we operate, or intend to operate in the future, and this leads to loss of markets and/or difficulties in the operation of our business, our results of operations and business may be adversely affected.
Moreover, the advancement and adoption of technology and digital innovations in agriculture and across the value chain have increased and are expected to further accelerate as grower demographics shift and pressures from consumer preferences, governments, and climate change initiatives evolve. Some emerging trends include the development of seeds that require less crop nutrients, development of full or partial substitutes for our products, or developments in the application of crop nutrients such as improved nutrient use or efficiency through use of precision agriculture. If we are unable to provide new products and services to satisfy emerging trends, it may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Further, digital innovations and use of new technology in the agriculture market, among other things, by new or existing competitors could alter the competitive environment, resulting in existing business models being disrupted, which may adversely impact our operations and financial performance.
Our ability to compete effectively and to achieve commercial success depends, in part, on our ability to control inventory and other supply-related costs; marketing costs and go to market strategy through our distribution channels; effectively price and market our products; successfully develop an effective marketing program and an efficient supply chain; obtain and commercialize new products and maintain an attractive product portfolio; among other factors. We may not be successful in achieving these factors and any such failure may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may not be successful in selling or marketing the agricultural products that we offer in the markets in which we operate.
Our success depends on our ability to continue to identify, obtain and commercialize the agricultural products we offer in the markets in which we operate, including agricultural inputs with attractive and high-value characteristics and technologies. We commit substantial efforts and resources to locate and source products that we seek to bring to the markets in which we operate, and we may not be successful in obtaining or commercializing such products at the same pricing or market conditions. Also, if the agricultural products we sell are unsuccessful in achieving their desired effect or no longer perform according to our customers’ expectations, our customers’ demand for our products may be affected, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth strategy.
Therefore, our success depends on our ability to (i) develop and distribute new products and technologies that are attractive to farmers, our final consumers, (ii) control expenses without affecting sales, (iii) predict and effectively respond to the products, prices and marketing sold by our competitors, (iv) develop marketing programs that meet the needs and desires of farmers and (v) maintain an efficient marketing and distribution system. There can be no assurances that our sales or marketing strategies will continue to be effective or that the amount we invest in RTV training and marketing activities will result in a corresponding increase in sales of our products. If our sales
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and marketing initiatives are not successful, including our ability to leverage new digital channels, we will have incurred significant expenses without the benefit of higher revenues.
If we are unable to retain our existing customers or attract new customers, including through opening new stores and geographic expansion, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected.
The growth of our business depends on existing customers increasing their use of our agricultural products and services, attracting new customers, and our ability to continue expanding geographically and opening new stores. If we are unable to expand our sales footprint and encourage customers to increase their purchases of our products and use of our services, our growth may slow or stop, and our business may be materially and adversely affected. The growth of our business also depends on our ability to attract new customers and introduce new agricultural products and services. We have invested and will continue to invest in opening new stores and in improving our portfolio of products and services and our e-commerce digital platform in order to offer better or new features, products and services, but if those features, products and services fail to attract new customers or encourage existing customers to expand their use of our products and services, our growth may slow or decline.
Our customers have no obligation to continue to use our products and services, and we can make no assurances that our customers will continue to do so. We generally do not have long-term contracts with our customers. Our sales may decrease for a variety of reasons, including our customers’ level of satisfaction with our products and services, our pricing and the pricing and quality of competing products and services, the effects of global economic conditions or reductions in our customers’ spending levels.
Our business depends on a well-regarded and widely known brand, and any failure to maintain, protect and enhance our brand would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Maintaining, protecting and enhancing our brand is critical to expanding our customer base. This will depend largely on our ability to remain – or, in markets into which we expand, become – widely known, gain and maintain our customers’ trust, be a technology leader and provide reliable, high-quality and secure products and services that continue to meet the needs of our customers at competitive prices, as well as the effectiveness of our marketing efforts and our ability to differentiate our services and platform capabilities from competitive products and services.
We believe that maintaining and promoting our brand in a cost-effective manner is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our products and services and expanding our customer base. Maintaining and promoting our brand will depend largely on our ability to continue to provide useful, reliable and innovative agricultural products and services, which we may not do successfully. Our brand promotion activities may not generate customer awareness or increase revenue, and even if they do, any increase in revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, we could lose significant market share and our business could be materially and adversely affected.
Even if we are able to promote our brand in a cost-effective manner, our reputation and, consequently, our brand may suffer as a result of internal and external factors, including any failure by us or our partners to satisfy expectations of service and quality, inadequate protection of personal and sensitive information, compliance failures and claims, unethical behavior or business practices, employee misconduct or misconduct by our associated partners, service providers or other counterparties, litigation and significant fluctuations in our share price, or rumors of any of the foregoing. Our reputation and brand may also be harmed by statements made by current or former employees, customers, vendors, competitors or other third parties, regardless of the veracity of such statements. Any negative publicity about any of the foregoing, or our industry, our company, customer experience, customer service, the quality and reliability of or changes to our agricultural products and services, our privacy and security practices or any regulatory activity, would amplify the harm to our reputation and brand, and could consequently adversely affect customers’ or potential customers’ confidence in and purchasing and use of our agricultural products and services. This, in turn, would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we fail to manage our growth effectively, our business could be harmed.
We have experienced and expect in the near term to continue to experience rapid growth. Our revenue increased to R$9,347.4 million for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023, from R$7,746.5 million for the fiscal year ended June
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30, 2022 and R$5,098.5 million for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2021. Our growth has placed and will continue to place significant demands on our administrative, operational and financial resources.
Our ability to effectively manage our growth will depend on a number of factors, including our ability to:
expand our sales and marketing, technology, finance and administration teams;
grow our facilities and infrastructure;
adapt and scale our information technology systems;
refine our operational, financial and risk management controls and reporting systems and procedures;
recruit, integrate, train and retain a growing employee base and maintain our corporate culture;
secure an adequate supply and quality of raw materials and agricultural input products sold, as well as available sources of financing to implement our growth strategy;
maintain and grow our customer base and provide quality customer service;
obtain and maintain our environmental and other governmental licenses; and
obtain, maintain, protect and develop our product portfolio, including our intellectual property and other proprietary rights.
Executing on these factors will require significant capital for working capital and investments and the allocation of valuable management and employee resources. We may be unable to effectively manage any future growth in an efficient, cost-effective or timely manner, or at all. Any failure to successfully implement accounting and other systems enhancements and improvements will likely negatively impact our ability to manage our expected growth, ensure uninterrupted operation of key business systems and comply with the rules and regulations that are applicable to public reporting companies. Moreover, if we do not effectively manage the growth of our business and operations, the quality of our agricultural inputs and services distribution platform could suffer, which could negatively affect our reputation, results of operations and overall business. Furthermore, as we grow, we may not be able to execute as quickly as smaller, more efficient organizations.
Our continued international expansion efforts may not be successful, or may subject our business to increased risks.
We currently have distribution operations in Brazil and Colombia, and have an emergent trading company in Uruguay. As part of our growth strategy, we intend to expand our operations by offering our services in additional international jurisdictions, including in Peru, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and other countries in South and Central America. We may not be successful in expanding our operations into these or other markets outside of Brazil, Colombia and Uruguay in a cost-effective or timely manner, if at all, and our products and services may not experience the same market adoption in such jurisdictions as we have enjoyed in the countries where we operate. In particular, the expansion of our business into new geographies may, depending on the local regulatory environment, require a commercial relationship with one or more local logistics providers or other intermediaries, which may prevent, delay or limit the introductions of our products and services in such countries.
Further, our international expansion efforts have and will continue to place a significant strain on our personnel (including management), technical, operational and financial resources, and our current resources may not be adequate to support our planned geographical expansion. Further, we may not be able to recoup our investments in new geographies in a timely manner, if at all. If our expansion efforts are unsuccessful, our ability to grow our business and revenue may be adversely affected.
Even if our international expansion efforts are successful, international operations will subject our business to increased risks, including:
increased licensing and regulatory requirements;
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competition from service providers or other entrenched market participants that have greater experience in the local markets than we do;
a lack of acceptance of our agricultural products and services;
increased costs associated with and difficulty in obtaining, maintaining, processing, transmitting, storing, handling and protecting sensitive data and proprietary rights;
changes to the way we do business as compared with our current operations;
the ability to find and use local third-party selling agents, intermediaries and other service providers;
difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations in an environment of diverse culture, language, laws and customs;
difficulties in recruiting and retaining qualified employees and maintaining our company culture;
increased travel, infrastructure and legal and compliance costs;
compliance with complex and potentially conflicting and changing tax regimes;
potential tariffs, sanctions, fines or other trade restrictions;
exchange rate exposure;
increased exposure to public health issues such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and related industry and governmental actions to address these issues; and
regional economic and political instability.
As a result of these risks, our international expansion efforts may not be successful or may be hampered, which could limit our ability to grow our business.
Our results of operations and operating metrics may fluctuate and continue to generate losses, which may cause the market price of our Ordinary Shares to decline.
While we generated revenue of R$9,347.4 million, R$7,746.5 million and R$5,098.5 million for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively, we generated a loss of R$218.7 million for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023, and a profit of R$107.8 million and R$21.5 million for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively. We intend to continue investing in our business, including with respect to acquisitions, our employee base, expanding our network of stores, sales and marketing, and development of the Lavoro Connected Farm digital solution; and general administration, including legal, finance and other compliance expenses related to being a public company. If these costs materially rise in the future, our expenses may rise significantly. If we are unable to generate adequate revenue growth and manage our expenses, we may continue to incur losses and fail to maintain profitability.
In addition, we intend to expand our customer base, and continue to invest in developing products and services that we believe will be attractive to our customers and therefore improve our long-term results of operations. However, customer acquisition could cause us to continue to incur losses in the short term because costs associated with acquiring new customers are generally incurred up front, while revenue is recognized thereafter as customers make payments and purchase our products and utilize our services. Both could cause our results of operations and operating metrics to fluctuate.
Further, from time to time, we have made and may make decisions that will have a negative effect on our short-term operating results if we believe those decisions will improve our operating results over the long term. These decisions may not produce the long-term benefits that we expect, or they may be inconsistent with the expectations of investors and research analysts, either of which could cause the price of our Ordinary Shares to decline.
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Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our customers are unable to repay trade receivables from us.
We extend commercial credit to our customers in Brazil and Colombia, in some cases for extended periods of time, by permitting customers to pay for agricultural inputs through installments or deferred payments. Although this receivable is typically guaranteed, as our exposure to longer trade credit extended to our customers increases, we are increasingly exposed to the risk that our guarantees may not suffice to cover the outstanding balance on these receivables should some of our customers fail to pay us. Additionally, we become increasingly exposed to risk due to weather and agricultural input conditions, fluctuations in agricultural input prices, commodity prices or foreign currencies, and other factors that influence the price, supply and demand for agricultural commodities, to the extent such factors affect the sufficiency of our guarantees to cover our loss if our customers fail to repay us.
We may incur significant losses if our customers do not meet their obligations under the barter transactions entered into with trading companies.
Under barter transactions, we carry out term sales of agricultural inputs (e.g., seeds, crop protection products, fertilizers, and specialty products) in exchange for the future delivery of commodities, primarily soybean and corn, at the time of their harvest.
Most of these barter transactions involve contracts between three different parties: us, our customers and commodity trading companies. A first contract (grain purchase agreement) is entered into with our customers, pursuant to which we and our customer agree on an amount of commodity, to be delivered at harvest, which is equal to the total sales price based on the future commodity price on the date in which the contract with the customer is entered into. Our customers’ main obligation under this contract is to deliver the agreed upon volume of commodities as payment at a future date. Contemporaneously, we enter into a future grain sale agreement with a commodity trading company, pursuant to which we assume the obligation to deliver the commodities received as payment from our client to the trading company. This agreement is signed for the same quantity and on the same terms as set forth in our contract with our customers. While this physical sale of the grains is not concluded with trading companies, we may enter into a derivative contract on commodity and futures exchanges such as CBOT, ICE, or B3, in an equivalent term associated with the physical grain purchases. This aims to mitigate our exposure to price fluctuations. Consequently, we maintain these derivative contracts to naturally hedge against market volatility. As soon as the physical sale of the grains is concluded, the derivative contracts are promptly liquidated to realize the hedging gains or losses.
Although barter transactions operate as a hedge against commodity price depreciation, we might be subject to other materially adverse effects from commodity price volatility. The prices of inputs and, primarily, the prices of soybean and corn are also subject to the volatility resulting from weather conditions, crop yield, transportation costs, storage costs, the Brazilian government agricultural policy, exchange rates and the prices of these commodities in the international market, among other factors.
In the event of a significant appreciation of the price of the commodity provided for in the barter agreement, at the time of settlement of such agreement, producers may consider diverting their production to other trading companies or customers, hence failing to deliver grains to us. In this case, we are required to purchase the commodity in the spot market and deliver it to the commodity trading company, or pay compensation to the commodity trading company in an amount equal to the difference between the commodity price between the time of delivery and the time of closing of the agreement (the so-called “washout risk”). Pursuant to the contractual arrangements governing these transactions, we may charge our customers for any losses we might incur in the case of such events.
Moreover, even though these agreements are settled physically (grains purchase and sale), we adopt IFRS 9 to designate, at initial recognition, such forward contracts as measured at fair value through profit and losses. The fair value of commodity forward contracts entered into with our customers and with commodity trading companies is estimated based on information available in the market and specific valuation methodologies, and discounted to present value, considering the contractual terms and the current market prices for such commodities. Such contracts are disclosed on a gross basis in our statement of financial position.
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For more information on the accounting policy underlying our barter transactions, see notes 8(g) and 11 to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. See also “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk—Commodity Price Risk in Barter Transactions.”
If we fail to identify, develop and maintain relationships with a sufficient number of qualified suppliers, our ability to timely and efficiently access products that meet our standards for quality could be adversely affected, or we may experience an increase in the costs of our products that could reduce our overall profitability.
We buy the majority of the products we commercialize. Our ability to continue to identify and develop relationships with qualified suppliers and enter into exclusive or restrictive distribution rights agreements with suppliers who can satisfy our standards for quality and our need to access products and supplies in a timely and efficient manner may be a challenge in the future. In the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, 9.1% and 11.6% of our distribution sales derived from products purchased from our top supplier, respectively. Our top ten largest suppliers accounted for approximately 45% and 57%, respectively, in the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022.
Any failure to maintain our relationship with any of our top ten largest suppliers, or a failure to replace any such supplier that is lost, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Shortfalls or disruptions in the supply of agricultural inputs by our current suppliers may adversely affect us until we are able to procure a replacement supplier for certain categories of the agricultural products we sell.
The crop protection (including crop protection solutions through chemistry, or ag-chemicals) and crop productivity market is a consolidated market. A relatively small number of large companies (the so-called “Big Four” companies: BASF, Bayer, Corteva and Syngenta) hold a significant stake of this market, while other smaller companies (the so-called “tier two and three” companies) hold a growing and majority, albeit fragmented, share of this market. Due to the small number of large players in our market, we have maintained relationships with and purchase certain categories of crop protection products from both larger and smaller suppliers. If we fail to develop or maintain our relationships with our current suppliers, that could impact our relationships with other suppliers or lead us to rely on other smaller suppliers that may not be able to provide products in the same standards or pricing conditions. The loss or disruption of our supply arrangements for any reason, including for issues such as COVID-19 or other health epidemics or pandemics, labor disputes, loss or impairment of key manufacturing sites, inability to procure sufficient raw materials, quality control issues, ethical sourcing issues, a supplier’s financial distress, natural disasters, looting, vandalism or acts of war or terrorism, trade sanctions or other external factors over which we have no control, could interrupt product supply and, if not effectively managed and remedied, have a material adverse impact on our business operations, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, even though other product categories are more fragmented (such as specialty fertilizers, biological products, and seeds), smaller players may not be able to immediately meet our volume demands and this could harm our sales and the relationship with our customers until we are able to procure additional supply chains with other large and/or small companies. While we seek to expand our portfolio of products in the future and to commercialize new agricultural input product candidates, we may need to obtain new relationships with crop protection companies to purchase such products from them. If we are unable to maintain or obtain such relationships, we may face challenges in expanding our commercial products portfolio and distribution networks, or other adverse impacts, which could have a material adverse effect on our business prospects.
We may be adversely affected by the ongoing armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine.
As a result of the current geopolitical tensions and armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine, and the recent recognition by Russia of the independence of the self-proclaimed republics of Donetsk and Luhansk in the Donbas region of Ukraine, the governments of the United States, the European Union, Japan and other jurisdictions have recently announced the imposition of sanctions on certain industry sectors and parties in Russia, Belarus and the regions of Donetsk and Luhansk, as well as enhanced export controls on certain products and industries. These and any additional sanctions and export controls, as well as any counter responses by the governments of Russia or other jurisdictions, could adversely affect, directly or indirectly, the global supply chain, with negative implications on the availability and prices of agricultural commodities and raw materials (including petrol, which would affect the price of agricultural inputs), energy prices, and our customers, as well as the global financial markets and financial
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services industry and the global supply chain in general, which has also been impacted by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
As a result, in particular, the availability and pricing of fertilizers for the 2022/2023 soy harvest is subject to significant continuing uncertainty in Brazil. From a supply point of view, Brazil is highly dependent on fertilizers imports, and Russia and Belarus hold a market share in Brazilian soil fertilizer imports of approximately 26% to 30%, respectively (a share which is higher for potash-based products), according to the Brazilian Ministry of Industry, Foreign Trade and Services. We currently buy all of our fertilizers from suppliers based in Brazil, but most of our fertilizer suppliers conduct or have conducted imports, to some degree, from sources in Russia and Belarus. Fertilizers represented approximately 21% of our revenues in the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023, compared to 20% of our revenues in the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022. In addition, fertilizer prices, which had already risen before the conflict, have continued to rise and have led producers to delay purchase negotiations. As a result of such supply risk and the slow pace of the market at present, we experienced a reduction in the total volume of fertilizers used in Brazil in the 2022/2023 harvest when compared to the 2021/2022 harvest; though we believe that this trend has since subsided and do not currently expect material shortages of fertilizers to continue in the future, no assurance can be provided in this respect.
Furthermore, in connection with the Russian war against Ukraine, we have limited the acquisition of NPK of Russian origin to one-off purchases, a volume that represented between 15% and 20% of the total sold in the 2022/2023 harvest. NPK is an essential input for large-scale agriculture and we are focused on avoiding shortages as much as possible, seeking supply alternatives whenever necessary. This did not have a material adverse effect on our business during the 2021/2022 harvest year, given that we had delivered substantially all soy and corn fertilizer for the harvest year, or during the 2022/2023 harvest year. However, given current market conditions and the continuing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the volume of fertilizers sold by us may be adversely affected in the future, which may adversely affect our results of operations, in particular if we are unable to mitigate any relevant reduction in fertilizer sales volumes through measures such as price increases of other products. In addition, we may also be unsuccessful in finding alternative direct imports from non-sanctioned regions or in increasing our prices to reflect increased supply costs in the future.
Disruptions of the supply or reliability of transportation services and/or changes in transportation service costs can affect our sales volumes and selling prices.
As of June 30, 2023, we transported 100% of our products to our customers via highways. Grains are also transported from our silos or from our clients’ sites to trading companies’ warehouses via highways. Considering the distance from the main agricultural regions in the locations where we operate, our operations primarily depend on the availability and reliability of logistics infrastructure in Latin America, especially truck transportation, to ensure that our agricultural inputs are delivered to our customers on time. Logistics bottlenecks as a result of poor highway conditions, which are aggravated during certain key planting periods, or resulting from adverse weather conditions or other causes, may delay or prevent the delivery of these products, adversely affecting the planting season of our customers and our relationship with them, which may adversely affect us.
Infrastructure deficiencies and the low development of transport services in the locations where we operate, increase the cost of the agricultural inputs we sell to our customers. The transportation of our products by trucks, for example, is significantly costlier than transportation by rail, which is not yet developed enough in the markets in which we operate to serve as a viable alternative, increasing the final cost of our products.
Therefore, our activities and those of our main service providers, including, but not limited to, resellers, suppliers and associated logistics, are subject to risks resulting from partial or total, as well as temporary or permanent transportation-related interruptions or stoppages. Disruption to the timely supply of these services or availability of associated infrastructure, or dramatic increases in the cost of these services for any reason including the availability of fuel for such services, labor disputes, governmental regulation, or governmental restrictions limiting specific forms of transportation could have an adverse effect on our ability to serve our customers and consumers and could have an adverse effect on our business and financial performance. Brazil and Colombia, for example, have faced significant social movements affecting their logistics infrastructure, such as the 2018 truck driver’s strike in Brazil or the political turmoil and protests in Colombia in 2021, which have in the past and may in the future negatively disrupt our operating schedule and result in increased transportation costs.
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The cost of delivery adds to the total agricultural input cost to customers and farmers. As a result, changes in transportation costs, or in customer expectations about them, can affect our sales volumes and prices. We cannot assure you that transportation of our products via highways will not be subject to blockades, invasions or occupations by social movements or other protestors, which may lead to increased transportation costs and adversely affect the delivery of products to our customers and our relationship with them. Additionally, we rely on third-party carriers for the transportation of our products. Such carriers may be less efficient and more costly and may delay deliveries, adversely affecting our image.
In addition, one of our storage and handling locations is located in an environmentally sensitive area and, should an accident or other problem occur in such location, such as toxic substance leaks, our operations may be adversely affected and may result in financial losses. These risks can also result in the loss of life, significant damage to our or third-party property, contamination and environmental damage, which may require us to interrupt our operations, which, in turn, may result in financial losses and significant reputational losses. The transportation and movement of waste, such as water and toxic substances, involve a variety of inherent hazards and operational risks, such as spills, accidents and natural disasters, which could cause significant financial losses for us. The proximity of storage sites to populated areas, including residential, commercial and industrial facilities, could increase the damage resulting from these hazards. Moreover, business with controlled chemical or flammable products can lead to fires and explosions or the intoxication of employees or third parties. Fatal work accidents will result in investigations as to compliance with applicable occupational health and safety rules and as to potential criminal liability.
Interruptions in the production or transportation of certain agricultural inputs we sell could adversely affect our operations and profitability.
We rely on agricultural inputs manufacturers to produce and supply agricultural inputs sold by us. Poor execution, failure to follow required agronomic practices, protocols or regulatory requirements, or mishandling of agricultural inputs by these producers could adversely affect our availability of products. Such delays could adversely affect our ability to deliver agricultural inputs to farmers to meet their planting window. In addition, our production and transportation may be adversely affected in the event of customs delays. Our dependency upon timely agricultural input deliveries means that interruptions or stoppages in such deliveries, or delays or limitations with respect to seed production, could adversely affect our operations until alternative arrangements could be made. Such a delay would adversely affect our reputation and revenues. If we were unable to obtain the necessary agricultural inputs for an extended period for any reason, our business, customer relations, and operating results could suffer.
We may not be able to enter into cost-effective agreements with suitable agricultural input producers on acceptable terms. If any agricultural inputs producers whom we engage fail to perform their obligations as expected or breach or terminate their agreements with us, or if we are unable to secure the services of such third parties when and as needed, it may adversely affect our business.
Our failure to accurately forecast and manage inventory could result in an unexpected shortfall or surplus of products which could harm our business.
We are required to maintain inventories of certain of our agricultural inputs products and we monitor our inventory levels based on our own projections of future demand. Because of the significant time it takes to acquire commercial quantities of agricultural inputs, purchasing decisions must be made well in advance of sales. An inaccurate forecast of demand can result in the unavailability of agricultural inputs in high demand. Such unavailability may depress sales volumes and adversely affect customer relationships. Conversely, an inaccurate forecast could also result in an over-supply of agricultural inputs which may increase costs, negatively impact cash flow, reduce the quality of inventory and ultimately create write-offs of inventory, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We cannot guarantee that our suppliers will not engage in improper practices, including inappropriate labor or manufacturing practices.
We cannot guarantee that our suppliers’ business operations comply with all applicable laws and regulations relating to working conditions, sustainability, production chain assurance and appropriate safety conditions, or that they will not carry out improper practices relating to such matters to reduce the cost of the products they sell to us.
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In the event that our suppliers engage in such improper business practices, our customers’ perception of our business may be adversely affected, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations and our reputation.
Moreover, considering Brazilian law and judicial precedent, we may be involved in litigation concerning our suppliers’ inappropriate labor practices, as labor authorities may argue that we failed to adequately supervise our supply chain. This risk is particularly relevant if these suppliers are involved in sensitive labor issues, such as child labor and direct or indirect use of forced labor or modern slavery. Any such litigation could impact our customers’ perception of our business, and adverse decisions may compel us to disburse material amounts in connection therewith, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations and our reputation.
If we are unable to effectively develop the Lavoro Connected Farm platform, our operating results may be affected.
We sell certain products and services over the Internet through the Lavoro Connected Farm platform and through our Minha Lavoro smartphone application, which represents a small but growing percentage of our overall net sales. The success of our Lavoro Connected Farm platform depends on our investment in this platform, consumer preferences and buying trends relating to e-commerce, and our ability to both maintain the continuous operation of our online store and our fulfillment operations and provide a shopping experience that will generate orders and return visits to our online store.
We are also vulnerable to certain additional risks and uncertainties associated with our e-commerce business, including: changes in required technology interfaces; website downtime; increased costs and technical issues; data and system security; and changes in and compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. Our failure to successfully respond to these risks and uncertainties may adversely affect the sales of our Lavoro Connected Farm platform.
Additionally, the success of our Lavoro Connected Farm platform and the satisfaction of our consumers depend on their timely receipt of our products and services. The efficient delivery of our products and services to our consumers requires that our distribution centers have adequate capacity to support the current level of e-commerce operations and any anticipated increased levels that may occur as a result of the growth of our e-commerce business. If we encounter difficulties with our distribution centers, we could face shortages of inventory, resulting in out-of-stock conditions in our online store, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We are dependent on third-party service providers in our Lavoro Connected Farm platform.
We utilize numerous third-party service providers in our Lavoro Connected Farm platform, including credit card transaction processing, back office and business process support, information technology production and support, internet connections, network access and cloud computing. A failure by a third-party service provider could expose us to an inability to provide contractual services to our customers in a timely manner. Additionally, if a third-party service provider is unable to provide services, we may incur significant costs to either internalize some of these services or find a suitable alternative. In some cases, certain third-party vendors may be the sole source or one of a limited number of sources of the services they provide for us. It would be difficult and disruptive for us to replace some of our third-party vendors in a timely manner if they were unwilling or unable to provide us with these services in the future (as a result of their financial or business conditions or otherwise), and our business and operations likely would be materially adversely affected. Further, any failure in the performance of our due diligence processes and controls related to the supervision and oversight of these third parties in detecting and addressing conflicts of interest, fraudulent activity, data breaches and cyber-attacks, non-compliance with relevant laws could cause us to suffer financial loss, regulatory sanctions or damage to our reputation.
In addition, we sell certain third-party products or services for commission on the Lavoro Connected Farm platform, such as insurance or credit services. Sellers are responsible for the conditions of sale and delivery of products or services to buyers according to their respective offers. However, if sellers do not comply with their obligations toward buyers, we may be held jointly and severally liable, which could compromise our service indicators, lead to sanctions from regulatory agencies, increase our exposure to litigation, and cause to us to bear certain costs of such products or services to buyers. These events may adversely affect our financial results and our image, as well as the trading price of our Ordinary Shares or cause reputational damage if these events have public repercussion at any level.
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We may require additional capital in the future, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all.
In the future, we may need to raise additional capital to fund our expansion (organically or through strategic acquisitions), to obtain new licenses or develop new or enhanced products or services or to respond to competitive pressures. Our ability to raise additional funds will depend on financial, economic and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. For example, financial markets have been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and current macroeconomic trends, including high interest rates, rising inflation, and more recently, the government closures of Silicon Valley Bank and Signature Bank and liquidity concerns at other financial institutions, and concerns regarding the potential for local and/or global economic recession. Adequate funding may not be available on terms favorable to us or at all, particularly in light of these conditions. If adequate funds are not available or are not available on acceptable terms, we may not be able to fund our expansion, take advantage of acquisition opportunities, develop or enhance our portfolio of agricultural products and services or respond to competitive pressures, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, if we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, our shareholders will experience dilution and the securities that we issue may have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of our shares. Any additional funds raised through debt financing will likely require our compliance with restrictive covenants that impose operating and financial restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to incur additional indebtedness, create liens, make acquisitions, dispose of assets and make restricted payments, among others. In addition, such indebtedness may require us to maintain certain financial ratios. These restrictions may limit our ability to obtain future financings, to withstand a future downturn in our business or the economy in general, or to otherwise conduct necessary corporate activities. A breach of any such covenant would likely result in a default under the applicable agreement, which, if not waived, could result in acceleration of the indebtedness outstanding. See also “—Risks Relating to Latin AmericaDisruption or volatility in global financial and credit markets could have a material adverse effect on us.”
Finally, because of the likelihood that our Warrants will expire worthless or may be exercised on a “cashless” basis, we do not intend to rely on the receipt of proceeds from the exercise of Warrants to fund our liquidity and capital resource requirements. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—B. Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
We may not be successful in developing biological agricultural products that we offer in the markets in which we operate.
The activities of Agrobiológica, which are part of Crop Care, depend on the research and development of advanced technologies to be used in our biological products. As part of our research and development process, we require a highly qualified and experienced team, laboratories equipped to support basic research tests and the development of efficient industrial processes, investments in partnerships with research and development institutions, third-party service providers to support our efficacy and toxicological tests, storage equipment for our microorganism bank, and support from our agronomic team to carry out field tests with producers. In addition, we must bear the costs of the regulatory process and launch and train our RTVs on the correct way to use our product.
The process of creating new products and technologies is time-consuming, and only a small percentage of our research projects reach the final sales stage. Additionally, launching new products and technologies in the market presents several marketing challenges, as well as risks associated with customer acceptance, since we analyze and make certain assumptions about a given product that may, throughout the development process, not come to fruition. As a consequence, selling new products and technology and implementing sales and distribution strategies may prove ineffective or inadequate. Furthermore, if our competitors are able to develop and execute marketing efforts that are more efficient than ours, our sales could be adversely affected.
The complexity of the approval processes for in the production of our private label products may negatively affect our business and results of operations.
The production process of our private label products must be extensively tested for safety, effectiveness and environmental impact before they can be registered for use or sale in a given market, in accordance with the processes provided for in the applicable regulation. The regulatory approval process is long and complex. Any
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negative or delayed approval processes for our industrial business could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic could impact our business, key metrics and results of operations in volatile and unpredictable ways.
Occurrences of epidemics or pandemics, depending on their scale, may cause different degrees of disruption to the regional, state and local economies in which we offer our products and services. While the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, and worldwide will likely continue to adversely impact national and global economies, the full extent of the impact of the pandemic on our business, key metrics and results of operations depends on future developments that are uncertain and unpredictable, including the duration, severity and spread of the pandemic, its impact on capital and financial markets and any new information that may emerge concerning the virus, vaccines or other efforts to control the virus.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have implemented additional measures intended to both protect the health and safety of our employees and maintain our ability to provide products to our customers, including (i) requiring a significant part of our workforce to work from home, (ii) monitoring our employees for COVID-19 symptoms, (iii) making additional personal protective equipment available to our operations team, (iv) modifying work methods and schedules of our office and field employees to create distance or add barriers between employees, consumers and others, (v) expanding cleaning efforts at our stores and operation centers, and (vi) modifying attendance policies so that employees may elect to stay home if they have symptoms. While we believe that these efforts should enable us to maintain our operations during the COVID-19 pandemic, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to do so as a result of the unpredictability of the ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the responses of local, state, federal and foreign governmental authorities to the pandemic.
As of the date of this annual report, we believe we have implemented adequate operational measures in order to avoid relevant disruptions to our business. However, we cannot assure you if, and to what extent, our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity will be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in the future, including regional or global outbreaks, or by national or international aftershocks of the pandemic once controlled, including a recession, slowdown of the economy or increase in unemployment levels. Further, if the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity in the future, many of the other risks described in this “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” section may be heightened.
Consumer and government resistance to genetically modified organisms may negatively affect our public image and reduce sales of the genetically modified seeds that we commercialize.
We are active in the commercialization of seeds, and a portion of our seeds product offering includes genetically modified seeds, or GM seeds. These GM seeds are used by farmers to produce GM grains that are generally sold for animal consumption. However, some of these GM grains may be diverted for human consumption. Foods made from such seeds are not accepted by many consumers and in certain countries production of certain GM crops is effectively prohibited for human consumption, including throughout the European Union, due to concerns over such products’ effects on food safety and the environment. The high public profile of biotechnology in food production and lack of consumer acceptance could negatively affect our results of operations.
The prohibition on the production of certain GM crops in select countries, and the current resistance from consumer groups, particularly in Europe, to GM crops, has the potential to spread to and influence the acceptance of products developed through biotechnology in other regions of the world. This may also influence regulators in other countries and lead them to limit or ban the production of GM crops, which could limit the commercial opportunities through biotechnology.
GM crops are grown principally in the United States, Brazil and Argentina where there are fewer restrictions on their production. If any of the countries in which we operate where GM crops are grown enact laws or regulations that ban the production of such crops or make regulations more stringent, we could have to abandon the commercialization of certain seeds or in certain geographies and focus solely on increasing our non-GM seed production, both of which would negatively affect our business and results of operations if we were unable to fully offset this loss with non-GM seed sales. Furthermore, any changes in such laws and regulations or end customers’
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acceptance of GM crops could negatively impact farmers, who in turn might terminate or reduce their demand for products from us.
If our products become adulterated, misbranded, or mislabeled, we might need to recall those items and may experience product liability claims; food safety and food-borne illness concerns could materially and adversely affect us.
We sell agricultural inputs, including seeds, fertilizers, and crop protection products, among others, for the agricultural industry. Selling products and additives that will be used in products sold for human and animal consumption involves inherent legal and other risks, including product contamination, spoilage, product tampering, allergens, or other adulteration. We could decide to, or be required to, recall the products we sell due to suspected or confirmed product contamination, adulteration, misbranding, mislabeling, tampering, or other deficiencies in our suppliers’ operations. A widespread product recall could result in significant losses due to the costs of a recall, the destruction of product inventory, and lost sales due to the unavailability of a product for a period of time.
We may suffer losses if our products or operations are deemed to violate applicable laws or regulations, or if the products we sold caused injury, illness, or death. Depending on the issue at hand, we may be able to bring suit alleging damages or otherwise seek contribution from third-party product manufacturers, but it may take several years until we receive a definitive judgment on such third-party claim. The availability and price of insurance to cover claims for damages are subject to market forces that we do not control, and such insurance may not cover all the costs of such claims and would not cover damage to our reputation. Moreover, even if a product liability or fraud claim is unsuccessful, has no merit, or is not pursued, the negative publicity surrounding assertions against our products or processes could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The incorrect or off-label use of our private label products may damage our reputation or negatively impact our results.
Our private label products (including liquid fertilizers, biological products and off-patent crop protection products) have been approved for use in agriculture in accordance with the instructions on their respective labels. If farmers, RTVs, other agronomists, or other individuals try to use our products incorrectly and/or as contraindicated, unwanted results and even harm related to the use of our products may arise, which may lead to possible claims against us and, consequently, adversely affect our reputation and results. In addition, the use of our products for indications other than those for which they have been approved could be harmful (including to the fauna, flora and to humans) or inefficient, which could negatively affect our reputation and increase the risk of litigation. Furthermore, the improper use of certain of our products may cause harmful effects to human beings and the environment, including health problems, diseases and contaminations.
If we are deemed to be involved, by any governmental, regulatory or judicial agency, in the promotion of any of our products for off-label uses, such agency may eventually require a change in our training procedures or promotional materials and practices, and we may further be subject to significant fines and penalties at the administrative and judicial level. The imposition of such sanctions could negatively affect our reputation and position in the market, and therefore, could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Our insurance policies may not be sufficient to cover all claims.
Our insurance policies may not cover all risks to which we are exposed. Courts have levied substantial damages in the United States and elsewhere against a number of companies in the agriculture industry in past years based upon claims for injuries allegedly caused by the use of their products. A significant claim may result in significant expenditures by us.
We depend on key management, as well as our experienced and capable employees, and any failure to attract, motivate and retain our employees could harm our ability to maintain and grow our business.
Our business functions at the intersection of rapidly changing technological, economic and regulatory developments that require a wide-ranging set of expertise and intellectual capital. Our future success is significantly dependent upon the continued service of our executives and other key employees, including our sellers. If we lose
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the services of any member of management or any key employee, we may not be able to locate a suitable or qualified replacement, and we may incur additional expenses to recruit and train a replacement, which could severely disrupt our business and growth.
To maintain and grow our business, we will need to identify, attract, hire, develop, motivate and retain highly skilled employees, which requires significant time, expense and effort. We may need to invest significant amounts of cash and equity to attract and retain new employees, and we may never realize returns on these investments. In addition, from time to time, there may be changes in our management team that may be disruptive to our business. If our management team, including any new hires that we make, fails to work together effectively and to execute our plans and strategies on a timely basis, our business could be harmed.
Our ability to maintain a competitive position depends on the organizational culture spread by us and the ability to control and keep working with us a sufficient number of professionals who are aligned with our organizational culture and available to assist our clients through proximity and knowledge of the demand for each producer. In addition, our salespeople may take some of all of their respective customer portfolios with them if they leave us, which could harm our business.
Our holding company structure makes us dependent on the operations of our subsidiaries.
As a holding company, our corporate purpose is to invest, as a partner or shareholder, in other companies, consortia or joint ventures in Brazil, where most of our operations are located, and outside of Brazil. Accordingly, our material assets are our direct and indirect equity interests in our subsidiaries, and we are therefore dependent upon the results of operations of and, in turn, the payments, dividends and distributions from, our subsidiaries for funds to pay our operating and other expenses and to pay future cash dividends or distributions, if any, to holders of our shares. In addition, the payments, dividends and distributions from our subsidiaries to us for funds to pay future cash dividends or distributions, if any, to holders of our shares could be restricted under financing arrangements that we or our subsidiaries may enter into in the future, and such subsidiaries may be required to obtain the approval of lenders to make such payments to us. Furthermore, we may be adversely affected if the Brazilian government imposes legal restrictions on dividend distributions by our Brazilian subsidiaries, and exchange rate fluctuations will affect the U.S. dollar value of any distributions our subsidiaries make with respect to our equity interests in those subsidiaries. For further information, see “—Risks Relating to Latin America—Exchange rate instability may impact our ability to hedge exchange rate risk, which may lead to interest rate volatility and have a material adverse effect on the price of our Ordinary Shares,” and “—Risks Relating to Latin America—The Brazilian federal government has exercised, and continues to exercise, significant influence over the Brazilian economy. This influence, as well as Brazil’s political and economic conditions, could harm us and the price of our Ordinary Shares.
We have a limited operating history as a consolidated company with financial results that may not be indicative of future performance, and our revenue growth rate is likely to slow as our business matures.
Our operations began in 2017, when the Lavoro Group was created. As a result of our limited operating history as a single, consolidated company, which is comprised of a number of pre-existing businesses that were acquired in recent years, our ability to accurately forecast our future results of operations is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties. Our historical revenue growth and other historical results should not be considered indicative of our future performance. In particular, over the long-term, we expect that our revenue growth will slow as our business matures. It is also possible that our revenue growth could decline for a number of reasons, including slowing demand for our products, increasing competition, changes in technology, a decrease in the growth of our overall market, increased regulation or our failure, for any reason, to take advantage of growth opportunities. If our assumptions regarding our future revenue growth and other operating and financial results are incorrect or change, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations.
We and our independent registered public accounting firm have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and, if we fail to implement and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud.
Prior to the Business Combination, we were a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources to address our internal control over financial reporting and procedures. Our management has not
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completed an assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and our independent registered public accounting firm has not conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting.. In connection with the preparation and audit of our consolidated financial statements for the year ended June 30, 2023 we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified a number of material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting as of June 30, 2023. Specifically, (i) inadequate controls around the monthly closing process which resulted in the need to make adjustments to the financial statements; (ii) controls on accounting procedures over revenue recognition, including cutoff procedures and revenue measurement; (iii) controls over the calculation of inventory impairment provisions and (iv) inadequate design of information technology general controls related to management and logical access to prevent the information system from providing complete and accurate information consistent with financial reporting objectives and current needs. Consequently, our business is exposed to risk from potential non-compliance with policies, employee misconduct, negligence and fraud, which could result in regulatory sanctions, civil claims and serious reputational or financial harm. Accordingly, because of the inherent limitations in the control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.
We are working on a remediation plan with respect to the material weaknesses identified above, adopting actions such as striving to implement a centralized ERP SAP S/4 Hana and SAP Business One for all subsidiaries, including new subsidiaries as a result of new investments. The implementation of new processes and procedures, include additional levels of review to improve our internal controls procedures, additional training for our staff, changing our internal organizational structure, and enhancing our documentation. There can be no assurance that we will achieve that target or that our remediation efforts and actions we may take in the future will be sufficient to remediate the control deficiencies that led to our material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting or that they will prevent or avoid potential future material weaknesses. Any failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our consolidated financial condition or results of operations, which could cause investors to lose confidence in our financial statements, and the trading price of our Ordinary Shares to decline. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating Results—Material Weakness in Internal Controls and Remediation.”
Under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, our management is not required to assess or report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in our annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended June 30, 2023. We are only required to provide such a report for the year ended June 30, 2024. At that time, our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. In addition, we expect our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting commencing with our annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended June 30, 2024. Even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may disagree with our assessment or may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, as a newly-public company, our reporting obligations may place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. We may be unable to timely complete our evaluation testing and any required remediation.
During the course of documenting and testing our internal control procedures, in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we may identify other deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. If we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements, fail to meet our reporting obligations or fail to prevent fraud, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could, in turn, limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations, and lead to a decline in the trading price of our Ordinary Shares. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from Nasdaq, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions.
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Disclosure controls and procedures over financial reporting may not prevent or detect all errors or acts of fraud.
Disclosure controls and procedures, including internal controls over financial reporting, are designed to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by the company in reports filed or submitted under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management, and recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms.
These disclosure controls and procedures have inherent limitations, which include the possibility that judgments in decision-making can be faulty and result in errors or mistakes. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by any unauthorized override of the controls. Consequently, our business is exposed to risk from potential non-compliance with policies, employee misconduct, negligence and fraud, which could result in regulatory sanctions, civil claims and serious reputational or financial harm. In particular, is not always possible to deter employee misconduct, and any precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not always be effective. Accordingly, because of the inherent limitations in the control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected. See “—We and our independent registered public accounting firm have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and, if we fail to implement and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud.
We may also acquire businesses with unknown liabilities, contingent liabilities, internal control deficiencies or other risks. We have plans and procedures to review potential acquisition candidates for a variety of due diligence matters, including compliance with applicable regulations and laws prior to acquisition. Despite these efforts, realization of any of these liabilities or deficiencies may increase our expenses, adversely affect our financial position or cause us to fail to meet our public financial reporting obligations (including as a result of difficulties in integrating different internal control systems with our existing internal control systems). For more information, see “—Risks Relating to Acquisitions and Financial Information—Any acquisition, partnership or joint venture we make or enter into could disrupt our business and harm our financial condition.”
We may not be able to renew or maintain all our stores and facilities’ leases.
Substantially all of the properties where our stores and certain of our facilities are located are subject to lease agreements. Our lease agreements in Brazil are governed by Law No. 8,245/1991, which establishes that tenants have the right to compulsory renewal of the agreement provided that: (1) the agreement is in writing and has a fixed term; (2) the term of the agreement is no less than five uninterrupted years, including taking into consideration contractual amendments; (3) the lessee engages in activity in the same branch, for the minimum and uninterrupted term of three years; and (4) the lessee files a proceeding requesting renewal within the one year to six months prior to the maturity of the lease. We may be adversely affected if: (1) we are unable to successfully negotiate current or future leases on acceptable terms; (2) we are unable to file proceedings requesting renewals within the statutory period or if we fail to satisfy the conditions listed above; or (3) we are unable to renew leases for properties having material locations or we renewed our leases on less favorable terms than those currently in effect.
We may be forced to vacate the property, or properties, if we fail to reach an agreement on renewal, or if our lessor decides to sell the property and we cannot reach an agreement with the new owner, or if we are unable to negotiate lease agreements on favorable conditions. Even though we do not rely on strategic locations for the success of our operations, and there are alternative lease locations in the markets where we operate, the loss of any of our locations, including by our not renewing or maintaining the leases of our stores or certain of our facilities, may adversely affect our operations, financial results and may impact our activities.
Risks Relating to Acquisitions and Financial Information
Any acquisition, partnership or joint venture we make or enter into could disrupt our business and harm our financial condition.
As part of our growth strategy, we intend to continue to acquire, or form partnerships or joint ventures with, businesses, technologies, services and products as appropriate opportunities arise. Any such transactions involve risks and uncertainties. We must fit them into our long-term growth strategies to generate sufficient value to justify
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their cost. We may not, however, be able to identify appropriate acquisition, partnership or joint venture targets in the future, and our efforts to identify such targets may result in a loss of time and financial resources. In addition, we may not be able to successfully negotiate or finance such future acquisitions, partnerships or joint ventures successfully or on favorable terms, or to effectively integrate acquisitions into our current business, and we may lose clients or personnel as a result of any such strategic transaction (in particular the clients and personnel of an acquired business).
The process of integrating an acquired business, technology, service or product into our business may divert management’s attention from our core business, and may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures and generate unforeseen pressures and strains on our organizational culture. Therefore, we may face significant challenges in the process of integrating the operations of any acquired companies with our existing business, such as the inability to manage a greater number of geographically dispersed employees and create and implement efficient uniform controls, procedures and policies, in addition to the incurrence of high or unexpected integration costs. We may acquire companies at various levels of maturity and managed by different internal controls, which could expose us to significant integration risks and increased organizational complexity in order for us to maintain a uniform control environment, including more complex and costly accounting processes and internal controls. Moreover, we may be unable to realize the expected benefits, synergies or developments that we initially anticipate from such a strategic transaction.
Financing an acquisition or other strategic transaction could result in dilution to existing shareholders from issuing equity securities or a weaker balance sheet from using cash or incurring debt, and equity or debt financing may not be available to us on favorable terms, if at all. In addition, in connection with an acquisition, it is possible that the goodwill that has been attributed, or may be attributed, to the target may have to be written down if the valuation assumptions are required to be reassessed as a result of any deterioration in the underlying profitability, asset quality and other relevant matters. There can be no assurances that we will not have to write down the value attributed to goodwill in the future, which would adversely affect our results of operations and net assets.
In addition, risks arising with respect to the historic business and operations of companies we acquire may be different than we anticipate. In particular, we may face contingent liabilities in connection with our acquisitions and joint ventures, including, among others, (1) judicial or administrative proceeding or contingencies relating to the company, asset or business acquired, including civil, regulatory, tax, labor, social security, environmental and intellectual property proceedings or contingencies; and (2) financial, reputational and technical issues, including with respect to accounting practices, financial statement disclosures and internal controls, as well as other regulatory or compliance matters. We may not have identified these risks as part of our due diligence process or may not have appreciated, understood or fully anticipated the extent of the risks associated with the business of these companies and of our acquisitions and integrations. Moreover, although we have the benefit of the indemnification provisions of these agreements, subject to the conditions and limitations set forth therein, our exercise of due diligence and risk mitigation strategies may not anticipate or mitigate the full risks of the acquisitions and the associated costs, including costs and expenses associated with previously unidentified contingencies. We may not be able to contain or control the costs associated with unanticipated risks or liabilities, some of which may not be sufficiently indemnifiable under the relevant acquisition or joint venture agreement, and which could materially and adversely affect our business, liquidity, capital resources or results of operations.
Furthermore, certain proposed acquisitions or other transactions may be subject to the approval of or requirements or conditions imposed by relevant antitrust authorities in the countries in which we currently operate or may operate in the future. For example, Brazilian legislation provides that acquisitions meeting certain requirements must be approved by Brazil’s Administrative Council for Economic Defense (Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econômica), or CADE, prior to the completion of the acquisition if one of the companies or group of companies involved has gross annual revenues in Brazil of at least R$750.0 million in the year immediately prior to the acquisition and any other party or group of companies involved has gross income of at least R$75.0 million in that same period. As part of this process, CADE must determine whether the specific transaction affects the competitiveness of the market in question or the consumers in such markets. CADE may not approve our future acquisitions or may condition approval of our acquisitions on our disposition of certain of the acquisition target’s operations, or impose restrictions on the operations and commercial activities of the target. In Colombia, the Superintendence of Industry and Commerce (Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio) is responsible for approving economic mergers, acquisitions and integrations between and among enterprises and has the power to
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impose corresponding sanctions for antitrust violations. Similar entities, rules and sanctions may exist in other Latin American countries into which we plan on expanding. Failure to obtain any required approvals for future acquisitions or to satisfy any relevant conditions or requirements imposed by relevant authorities may result in unforeseen or additional costs and expenses, or may prevent us from consummating potential acquisitions and successfully executing our growth strategy, which could adversely affect our business, growth prospects, results of operations and financial condition.
Finally, the competition for acquisition targets may increase and the terms of the transactions with available targets could become less favorable to us. Our competitors may be willing to pay more than us for acquisitions or investments, which may cause us to lose certain opportunities that we would otherwise desire to complete. Attractive transactions could also become scarcer for other reasons, such as economic or industry sector downturns, geopolitical tensions, or increases in the cost of additional capital needed. This could increase the cost of, delay or otherwise complicate or frustrate our ability to find and consummate an acquisition, and may result in our inability to consummate an acquisition on terms favorable to us. We cannot assure you that any acquisition, partnership or joint venture we make will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our recent acquisitions and the comparability of our results may make it difficult for investors to evaluate our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our recent acquisitions may make it difficult for you to evaluate our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Because the historical financial information included elsewhere in this annual report may not be representative of our results as a consolidated company, investors may have limited financial information on which to evaluate us, their investment decision and our prior performance. Our historical results of operations for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023 are not directly comparable to our results of operations for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 due to the effects of the acquisitions.
Our ability to forecast our future operating results, including revenue, cash flows and profitability, as well as the operational inefficiencies that we may face as we continue to integrate the companies acquired pursuant to these transactions, is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties. Moreover, past performance is no assurance of future returns.
Risks Relating to Legal and Regulatory Matters, Privacy, Litigation and Cybersecurity
Our business and the commercialization of our products are subject to various government regulations and agricultural, environmental, health and safety authorities and industry standards, and we or our collaborators may be unable to obtain, or may face delays in obtaining, necessary regulatory approvals.
We are subject to extensive federal, state and municipal laws, including agricultural, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations in Brazil and in other countries in which we operate. These laws and regulations govern a wide range of matters, including protection of human health, environmental and agricultural controls, land reclamation, the safety of our employees, discharges to air and water, and remediation of hazardous substance releases, among others. We are also required to obtain certain licenses, grants, registrations and authorizations issued by government authorities for certain aspects of our operations.
We are responsible for applying for and maintaining the regulatory approvals and registrations before agricultural and health agencies required for the commercialization of our agricultural products, in particular agrochemicals, fertilizers, and seeds. Additionally, we are responsible for hiring and maintaining responsible technicians in each of our facilities, who are responsible for the facility’s activities relating to agricultural products. We are also required to maintain annotations and certificates that prove the regularity of the responsible technician before the relevant work councils, and the legal relationship between the responsible technician and its respective facility. We may face difficulties in obtaining regulatory approvals in jurisdictions in which we have not previously operated or in which we have limited experience, or as a result of other specificities of the jurisdiction in which the approval is issued. In addition, for the granting and/or renewal of certain licenses, the competent authorities may determine that we make changes in our operations and facilities, causing us to incur additional costs. We may also struggle to hire and maintain responsible technicians for each of our facilities that handle agricultural products. Failure to comply with agricultural and health laws can lead to civil, criminal, and administrative liability, which
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may include penalties such as the apprehension or destruction of products, a ban on advertisement, the suspension or cancellation of licenses and authorizations, the temporary or definitive embargo of our facilities, and fines of up to R$3.0 million, which could adversely affect our operations.
Moreover, in some jurisdictions, environmental laws change frequently and it may be difficult for us to determine if we are in compliance with all material environmental laws at any given time. If we are not in compliance, we may be subject to enforcement or third-party claims, and may require new investment in our business. In those circumstances, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected. Failure to comply with environmental laws can subject us to civil, criminal and administrative liability. Specifically, in the civil sphere, Brazilian environmental laws provides for strict and joint civil liability, which means that we can be held fully responsible for environmental damages that have been caused within our chain of activities, regardless of whether we acted with fault. Courts have concluded that statutes of limitation are not applicable in those instances. In the administrative sphere, environmental fines can reach up to R$50.0 million, and may be accompanied by other administrative sanctions such as a ban on distributing products, a suspension on product manufacturing and sale, a suspension of our activities, a suspension of tax benefits and the cancellation or interruption of governmental credit facilities. Moreover, we may be subject to criminal liability under the applicable environmental law for any criminal action or omission, which may lead to (i) the interruption of our activities in whole or in part, (ii) a temporary shutdown of our facilities, of construction work or of our activity, and (iii) a ban on contracting with governmental authorities and obtaining governmental subsides, incentives or donations. More serious cases can lead to the arrest of officers and managers, impacting both our management capacity and our image. In addition to the application of environmental laws in Brazil, we are subject to several obligations, such as obtaining and maintaining different types of licenses and authorizations issued by regulatory bodies, as well as observing various technical specifications regarding their products and services. Failure to comply with or comply with these laws, regulations, licenses or authorizations may result in penalties, for example, fines and an obligation to compensate for environmental damage or even suspend our activities, which could adversely affect our results of operations, and result in the cancellation of the environmental license.
With respect to human health and worker safety, new laws and regulations may increase expenses to comply with health and safety regulations resulting in additional costs, which may have an adverse effect on our operating and financial results. In addition, we depend on positive perceptions of the safety and quality of our products, in general, from our customers and final consumers, and the lack of such perceptions regarding the handling of our agricultural input products could harm the marketing of our products and our reputation. These issues and the losses related to them may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Our operations are subject to various health and environmental risks associated with our production, handling, transportation, storage and commercialization.
We are subject to restrict federal, state, municipal and foreign environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures, the handling, use, storage, treatment, manufacture and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes, discharge of pollutants into the environment and human health and safety matters, mainly for our agrichemical portfolio. Considering that part of our portfolio involves chemical-related products, we are required to comply with regulations enacted by the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis), by state and local environmental agencies, by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária), ANVISA, and by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento), MAPA, and with state and municipal regulations and authorities and official agencies, which are responsible for approving the products themselves, as well as the wording for warnings and procedure for use on ours labels and leaflet.
Furthermore, as chemical and flammable materials are used in our agricultural input products, we are subject to operational risks, including the risk of environmental contamination or even death and bodily harm to employees and service providers, which could result in administrative, civil and criminal liability for us, as well as criminal liability for our officers and employees.
Brazilian legislation is generally in accordance with internationally recognized agencies such as the European Food Safety Authority and the Food and Agriculture Organization, or the FAO. Our sales and use recommendation
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are restricted to those established on labels and leaflets approved by authorities. If we fail to comply with the approved labels and leaflets, we could incur substantial costs and liabilities, including civil or criminal fines and penalties.
Environmental, health and safety and food and agricultural input laws and regulations to which we are subject may become more stringent over time. This could increase the effects on us of these laws and regulations, and the increased effects could be materially adverse to our business, operations, liquidity and/or results of operations.
Heightened regulation on food and agricultural inputs and environmental, health and safety issues in Brazil, Colombia and other Latin American countries where we may operate can be expected to result in requirements that apply to us and our operations that may be more stringent than those described elsewhere in this annual report. These requirements may include:
increased levels of future investments and expenditures for environmental controls at ongoing operations, which will be charged against income from future operations;
increased efforts or costs to obtain permits or denial of permits;
new interpretations of existing statutes or regulations that impose new or more stringent standards; and
other matters that could increase our expenses, capital requirements or liabilities, or adversely affect our business, liquidity or financial condition.
Trade agreements, foreign trade or environmental, health and safety, and food and agricultural inputs laws of countries importing Latin American agricultural production, especially Brazil, may, in the short and medium term, impose measures restricting access to such countries’ markets as a result of an actual or perceived non-conformity with matters relating to socio-environmental norms, rules or regulations, such as deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions associated with certain crops. The potential emergence of international barriers to Brazilian commodities exports because of an actual or perceived lack of deforestation control in Brazil may limit our ability to expand our business and our barter operations, e.g., in the event we are unable to adequately demonstrate traceability of grains (in particular soybeans and corn) and other products’ origination or their compliance with environmental requirements.
We may be liable for labor charges and disbursements if our sales representatives are considered to be our employees.
We and our subsidiaries, with the exception of Produtec Comércio e Representações S.A., Integra Soluções Agrícolas Ltda., and Qualiciclo Agrícola S.A., or Qualicitrus, engage all of our employees pursuant to employment relationships under Brazilian law. However, these three subsidiaries currently engage a minority of employees as third-party contractors or commercial representatives, particularly in the case of our RTVs. There is a risk, depending on how services are rendered in practice by each representative, that such RTVs or other governmental authorities could claim that an employment relationship between such subsidiaries and our RTVs exists, on a case-by-case basis, and thereby seek reclassification of such persons as employees—especially if they render services exclusively to us and under our exclusive control. Reclassification would mean that we would be liable for a series of labor charges and disbursements that we currently do not pay to our RTVs. Even if no such employment relationship is asserted, we may be deemed vicariously liable to pay the employees or agents of our RTVs if the latter become insolvent. In either event, any such disbursements may adversely affect our business, results of operations and our reputation.
Changes in tax laws, incentives, benefits and regulations may adversely affect us.
Changes in tax laws, regulations, related interpretations and tax accounting standards in Brazil, Colombia, the Cayman Islands or the United States may result in a higher tax rate on our earnings, which may significantly reduce our profits and cash flows from operations. For example, in 2015 the Brazilian government increased the rate of the social integration program contribution (Programa Integração Social), or PIS, and the social security program contribution (Contribuição para o Financiamento da Seguridade Social), or COFINS (both social contributions on
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gross revenues) from 0% to approximately 4.65% on financial income realized by Brazilian companies that are taxed under the non-cumulative regime (which is the tax regime that applies to us). However, it is not possible to precisely predict if and how potential changes may affect our business, but one or more states, municipalities, the federal government or other countries may seek to challenge the taxation or procedures applied to our transactions, and could impose taxes or additional reporting, record-keeping or indirect tax collection obligations on our business. New taxes could also require us to incur substantial costs to collect and remit taxes. If such obligations were imposed, the additional costs associated with tax collection, remittance and audit requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results. In addition, our profits may decline if certain tax incentives are not retained or renewed.
Further, Brazilian government authorities at the federal, state and local levels may consider changes in tax laws to cover budgetary shortfalls resulting from the recent economic downturn in Brazil, including the impact of COVID-19. If enacted, such changes may harm our profitability by increasing our tax burden, increasing our tax compliance costs or otherwise affecting our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The Brazilian government regularly enacts reforms to the tax and other assessment regimes to which we and our customers are subject. Such reforms include changes in tax rates and, occasionally, enactment of temporary levies, the proceeds of which are earmarked for designated governmental purposes. The effects of these changes and any other changes that result from the enactment of additional tax reforms cannot be quantified and there can be no assurance that any such reforms would not have an adverse effect upon our business. Furthermore, such changes may produce uncertainty in the financial system, increasing the cost of borrowing and contributing to an increase in our non-performing credit portfolio.
Recently, Brazilian government initiatives have proposed changes to the Brazilian tax regime—in particular, the reform of consumption and income taxes—that, if enacted, could impact our business. Ongoing discussions include replacing certain existing taxes, imposing withholding tax on the distribution of dividends (which are currently exempt from income taxation), increasing certain taxes levied on financial revenues, among other provisions. Nonetheless, it is not clear when or whether such a tax reform may ultimately be enacted. On July 6, 2023, the Brazilian Congress approved a constitutional amendment that would replace (i) PIS and COFINS with a single federal contribution over goods and services (contribuição sobre bens e serviços), (ii) ICMS and the municipal tax on services (imposto sobre serviços) with a single state tax (imposto sobre bens e serviços, and (iii) would replace the federal tax on industrialized goods (imposto sobre produtos industrializados) with an excise tax (imposto seletivo). This amendment is now expected to be reviewed and voted on by the Brazilian Senate in the coming months. In addition, proposed Bill No. 2,337/2021 would comprehensively reform income taxation rules primarily by revoking the income tax exemption on the distribution of dividends by Brazilian companies while also introducing new anti-avoidance provisions for a broad variety of transactions among related parties, ending the deductibility of interest on equity expenses, extending the minimum term for the amortization of intangibles, and changing the income tax rules related to Brazilian investment funds, among other changes. More specifically, ending the deductibility of interest on equity would impact the net amount to be received by our shareholders in the form of dividends. Although these laws have not yet been enacted and it is not possible to determine at this time the exact changes that will eventually pass into law, any such changes could have adverse effects on our results and operations.
In addition, establishing a provision for income tax expense and filing returns requires us to make judgments and interpretations about the application of inherently complex tax laws, and in particular Brazilian income tax laws, which are subject to different interpretations by the taxpayer and relevant governmental tax authorities. If the judgments, estimates and assumptions we use in preparing our tax returns are subsequently found to be incorrect, we could become involved in a dispute with the relevant authority, which in Brazil can involve prolonged evaluation periods and litigation before a final resolution is reached, and which introduces further uncertainty and risk with respect to our tax and related liabilities.
Finally, Colombian tax authorities have imposed additional taxes in a variety of areas, such as taxes on financial transactions, to fund Colombia’s war against terrorism and taxes created in order to fund post-conflict programs related to the peace negotiations with guerrilla forces. The Colombian government is also obliged by Law No. 1,473/2011, also known as the Law of Fiscal Rule, to significantly reduce its fiscal deficit over the following years. This, in addition to pressure from rating agencies, could lead to higher taxation rates on our business and that of our borrowers. Changes in tax-related laws and regulations, and interpretations thereof, can impact tax burdens by
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increasing tax rates and fees, creating new taxes, limiting tax deductions, and eliminating tax-based incentives and non-taxed income. In addition, tax authorities or courts may interpret tax regulations differently than we do, which could result in tax litigation and associated costs and penalties.
We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws and regulations.
We operate in jurisdictions that have a high risk for corruption and we are subject to various anti-corruption, anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws and regulations, including the Brazilian Federal Law No. 12,846/2013, also known as the Clean Company Act (and Decree No. 11,129/2022 that regulates the Clean Company Act), Brazilian Federal Law No. 9,613/1998, as amended by Brazilian Federal Law No. 12,683/2012, and Brazilian Federal Law No. 8,429/1992, as amended by Brazilian Federal Law No. 14,230/2022, in addition to the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA. Both the Clean Company Act and the FCPA impose liability against companies who engage in bribery of government officials, either directly or through intermediaries.
Anti-corruption laws are interpreted broadly and prohibit us and our collaborators from authorizing, offering, or directly or indirectly providing improper payments or benefits to recipients in the public or private sector. We or our collaborators may have direct and indirect interactions with government agencies and state-affiliated entities and universities in the course of our business. We use third-party collaborators, and strategic partners, law firms, and other representatives for regulatory compliance, patent registration, deregulation advocacy, field testing, and other purposes in countries that are known to present a high corruption risk such as Brazil and Colombia. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party collaborators, our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities.
Anti-money laundering, anti-bribery, anti-corruption and sanctions laws and regulations to which we are subject require us, among other things, to conduct full customer due diligence (including sanctions and politically exposed person screening) and keep our customer, account and transaction information up to date. We have implemented and are in the process of reviewing our policies and procedures detailing what is required from those responsible, but all such policies may not be completed or may not be fully in effect as of the date of this annual report (in particular, our policies relating to sanctions laws and regulations). In addition, we rely heavily on our employees to assist us by spotting such illegal and improper activities and reporting them, and our employees have varying degrees of experience in recognizing criminal tactics and understanding the level of sophistication of criminal organizations. In addition, we rely upon our relevant counterparties to a large degree to maintain and appropriately apply their own appropriate compliance measures, procedures and internal policies. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that all of our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, or agents will comply with these laws at all times. If we are unable to apply the necessary scrutiny and oversight of employees, third parties to whom we outsource certain tasks and processes or counterparties, we increase the risk of regulatory breach.
Violations of – or even accusations of or associations with violations of – anti-corruption, anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws and regulations could result in criminal liability, administrative and civil lawsuits, significant fines and penalties (including being added to “blacklists” that would prohibit certain parties from engaging in transactions with us), forfeiture of significant assets and reputational harm. Non-compliance with these laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, injunctions, suspension and debarment from contracting with certain governments or other persons, the loss of export privileges, reputational harm, adverse media coverage, and other collateral consequences. If any subpoenas or investigations are launched, or governmental or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal litigation, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially harmed. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and significant defense costs and other professional fees. Enforcement actions and sanctions could further harm our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.
If any person in the Cayman Islands knows or suspects, or has reasonable grounds for knowing or suspecting that another person is engaged in criminal conduct or money laundering, or is involved with terrorism or terrorist financing and property, and the information for that knowledge or suspicion came to their attention in the course of business in the regulated section, or other trade, profession, business or employment, the person will be required to report such knowledge or suspicion to (i) the Financial Reporting Authority of the Cayman Islands, or the FRA,
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pursuant to the Proceeds of Crime Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands, if the disclosure relates to criminal conduct or money laundering, or (ii) a police officer of the rank of constable or higher, or the FRA, pursuant to the Terrorism Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands, if the disclosure related to involvement with terrorism or terrorist financing and property. Such report shall not be treated as a breach of confidence or of any restriction upon the disclosure of information imposed by any enactment or otherwise.
Adverse outcomes in legal proceedings could subject us to substantial damages and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability.
The agricultural inputs industry faces substantial regulatory risks and litigation. From time to time, we may be involved in major lawsuits concerning regulatory, intellectual property, biotechnology, torts, contracts, antitrust allegations, civil and tax claims and other matters, as well as governmental inquiries and investigations, including in connection with a criminal case involving our subsidiary Agrobiológica Soluções. See “Item 8. Financial Information—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings.” Pending and future lawsuits and governmental inquiries and investigations may have outcomes that may be significant to our results of operations in the period recognized or limit our ability to engage in our business activities. We have recorded reserves for potential liabilities where we believe the liability to be probable and reasonably estimable, in accordance with accounting requirements under IFRS. However, our actual costs may be materially different from this estimate. The degree to which we may ultimately be responsible for the particular matters reflected in the reserve is uncertain. We had provisions for civil, tax and labor contingencies amounting to R$8.8 million and R$3.0 million as of June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
If our suppliers or outsourced service providers do not comply with their respective civil, administrative, labor and social security obligations, we may be jointly or severally liable for any non-compliance, resulting in fines, payment of these amounts and other sanctions, in accordance with labor and agricultural law. In addition, we may be liable for possible bodily injury and even the death of employees of our suppliers or outsourced service providers, in cases where such service providers do not observe or do not inspect the fulfillment of obligations related to the personal protection of their employees, which may adversely affect our results of operations and our reputation.
We are subject to costs and risks associated with increased or changing laws and regulations affecting our business, including those relating to data privacy, security and protection.
We operate in a complex regulatory and legal environment that exposes us to compliance and litigation risks that could materially affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. These laws may change, sometimes significantly, as a result of political, economic or social events. Responding to these changes and meeting existing and new requirements may be costly and burdensome. Changes in laws and regulations may occur that could:
discourage us and other collaborators from offering, and end-markets from purchasing, our products;
increase our export and import duties and costs or intensify controls and restrictions on our imports;
restrict or increase the costs of making payments and distributions;
render our technology less profitable or less attractive compared to that of competing products;
require significant product redesign or redevelopment;
increase our compliance and other costs of doing business through increases in the cost to protect our intellectual property, including know-how, trade secrets and regulatory data, or increases in the cost to obtain the necessary regulatory approvals to commercialize and market the products we develop directly or jointly; and
impair or eliminate our ability to source technology and develop our products, including validating our products through field trials and passing biosafety evaluations.
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Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In addition to the laws and regulations governing our operations in the agricultural inputs industry, some of the federal, state or local laws and regulations that affect us include those relating to consumer products, product liability or consumer protection; those relating to the manner in which we advertise, market or sell products; labor and employment laws, including wage and hour laws; tax laws or interpretations thereof; data protection and privacy laws and regulations; and other health and safety laws and regulations. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulatory Overview” for more information. We face significant compliance costs and risk of non-compliance with respect to these existing laws and regulations, which costs and risks could be heightened by changes and developments with respect to such laws and regulations. There can be no guarantee that we will be able to adapt our business, or have sufficient financial resources, to comply with any new regulations, or that we will be able to successfully compete in the context of a shifting regulatory environment.
In particular, data protection and privacy laws are developing rapidly to take into account the changes in cultural and consumer attitudes towards the protection of personal data. In operating our e-commerce business and selling our products and solutions to customers, we collect, use, store, transmit and otherwise process employee and customer data, including sensitive personal data, in and across multiple jurisdictions. As a result, we are subject to a variety of laws and regulations in Brazil, Colombia and other applicable countries, as well as contractual obligations, regarding data privacy, security and protection. In many cases, these laws and regulations apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between or among us, our subsidiaries and other parties with which we have commercial relationships.
Privacy, information security, and data protection are significant issues globally. The regulatory framework governing the collection, processing, storage, use and sharing of certain information, particularly financial and other personal data, is rapidly evolving and is likely to continue to be subject to uncertainty and varying interpretations. The occurrence of unanticipated events and the development of evolving technologies often rapidly drive the adoption of legislation or regulation affecting the use, collection or other processing of data and the manner in which we conduct our business. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our privacy policies or any applicable privacy, security or data protection, information security or consumer-protection related laws, regulations, orders or industry standards in one or more jurisdictions could expose us to costly litigation, significant awards, fines or judgments, civil and criminal penalties or negative publicity, and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In particular, on August 14, 2018, the President of Brazil approved Law No. 13,709 the Brazilian General Data Protection Law (Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados), or the LGPD, which came completely into force on August 1, 2021. The LGPD is a comprehensive data protection law establishing general principles and obligations that apply across multiple economic sectors and contractual relationships. The LGPD applies to individuals or legal entities, private or government entities, who process personal data in Brazil or collect personal data in Brazil or, further, when the processing activities have the purpose of offering or supplying goods or services to data subjects located in Brazil. The LGPD establishes detailed rules for the collection, use, processing, storage and any operation carried out with personal data (including personal data of clients, suppliers and employees), and affects all economic sectors, including the relationship between customers and suppliers of goods and services, employees and employers and other relationships in which personal data is collected, whether in a digital or physical environment.
Specifically, the LGPD establishes, among other things, data subjects’ rights, the legal basis for personal data protection, requirements for obtaining consent from data owners, obligations and requirements related to security incidents, data leaks and international data transfers, as well as the creation of the National Data Protection Authority (Autoridade Nacional de Proteção de Dados, “ANPD”), for the purposes of monitoring, implementing and supervising compliance with the LGPD in Brazil. In the event of non-compliance with the LGPD, we may be subject to penalties, including (1) warnings, with the impositions of a deadline for the adoption of corrective measures; (2) a one-time fine of up to 2% (subject to an upper limit of R$50,000,000) of our revenue; (3) a daily fine (subject to an upper limit of R$50,000,000); (4) public disclosure of the violation; (5) the restriction of access to the personal data to which the violation relates, until corrective measures are implemented; (6) deletion of the personal data to which the violation relates; (7) partial suspension of the databases to which the violation relates for up to six months, which can be extended for an equal period until corrective measures are implemented; (8) suspension of the
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personal data processing activities to which the violation relates for up to 12 months; and (9) partial or full prohibition on personal data processing activities. In addition, the LGPD creates a private cause of action, which means we are subject to both class-based and individual claims for violations of the LGPD.
While we are in the process of putting in place systems and processes to comply with the LGPD, we cannot assure you that our LGPD compliance efforts will be deemed appropriate or sufficient by regulatory authorities, in particular ANPD or by courts, such as the Brazilian Public Prosecution Office (Ministério Público). Moreover, as the LGPD requires further regulation from the ANPD regarding several aspects of the law, which are yet unknown, and we may have difficulty adapting our systems and processes to the new legislation due to the legislation’s complexity. The changes have impacted, and could further adversely impact, our business by increasing our operational and compliance costs.
In December 2022, we performed a maturity review based on US National Institute of Standards and Technology, or NIST, frameworks and we achieved an overall score of 3.65 (Policy), 3.32 (Practice) for Cyber Security (CSF) and 3.21 (Policy), 3.02 (Practice) for Privacy. The recommended target score is 3 (Defined), signifying that processes have become formal, standardized, and defined. We believe this helps create consistency across our organization. This review was conducted by BoxGroup, an independent firm.
Any additional privacy laws, rules or regulations enacted or approved in Brazil or in other jurisdictions in which we operate could cause us to incur costs to correct the breaches or failures, expose us to uninsured liability, increase our risk of regulatory scrutiny, subject us to lawsuits and administrative procedures, and result in the imposition of material penalties and fines under state and federal laws or regulations, which could seriously harm our business, financial condition or results of operations. Any failure, real or perceived, by us to comply with our privacy policies or with any regulatory requirements or orders or other local, state, federal or international privacy or consumer protection-related laws and regulations could cause customers to reduce their purchases of our agricultural products and services and could materially and adversely affect our business.
For more information, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulatory Overview—Brazil—Data Protection and Privacy.”
We may face restrictions and penalties under Brazilian and Colombian consumer protection laws.
Brazil has a series of strict consumer protection statutes, collectively known as the Consumer Protection Code (Código de Defesa do Consumidor) and Civil Code, that are intended to safeguard consumer interests and that apply to all companies in Brazil that supply products or services to Brazilian consumers. The Consumer Protection Code may apply to business customers if they are considered the “end user” of the products provided. Regardless, courts may understand that the rules of the Consumer Protection Code should exceptionally apply to instances where the company acquiring the products as input to its supply chain are considered to be technically, legally and/or financially vulnerable towards us. Similar protections exist in Colombia, where we are subject to laws that regulate competition and consumer protection, and which include the Consumer Protection Law (Ley de Protección al Consumidor), which is enforced by the Superintendence of Industry and Commerce (Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio). These consumer protection provisions include protection against misleading and deceptive advertising, protection against coercive or unfair business practices and protection in the formation and interpretation of contracts, usually in the form of civil liabilities and administrative penalties for violations. In addition, the Consumer Protection Code provides for a series of contractual clauses that are held null and void by operation of law, whenever they reduce or limit its liability towards consumers; entail a waiver or disposal of rights; transfer liability to third parties; establish obligations considered inequitable or abusive that place the consumer at an unreasonable disadvantage; or that are incompatible with good faith or equitable practices; among others.
In Brazil, penalties are often levied by the Brazilian Consumer Protection Agencies (Fundação de Proteção e Defesa do Consumidor, or PROCONs) and Public Prosecutors Office, which oversee consumer issues on a district-by-district basis. Companies that operate across Brazil may face penalties from multiple PROCONs, as well as the National Secretariat for Consumers (Secretaria Nacional do Consumidor, or SENACON). Companies may settle claims made by consumers via PROCONs and Judiciary by paying compensation for violations directly to consumers and through a mechanism that allows them to adjust their conduct, called a conduct adjustment agreement (Termo de Ajustamento de Conduta, or TAC). Brazilian Public Prosecutor Offices may also commence
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investigations related to consumer rights violations and this TAC mechanism is also available for them. Companies that violate TACs face potential automatic fines. Brazilian Public Prosecutor Offices may also file public civil actions against companies in violation of consumer rights, seeking strict observation to the consumer protection law provisions and compensation for the damages consumers may have suffered.
As of June 30, 2023, we had 15 active proceedings with ordinary civil courts in Brazil relating to consumer rights and clients’ rights. To the extent consumers in Brazil or Colombia file such claims against us in the future, we may face reduced revenue due to refunds and fines for non-compliance that could negatively impact our results of operations.
Unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential customer information or our failure or the perception by our customers that we failed to comply with privacy laws or properly address privacy concerns could harm our business and standing with our customers.
We collect, store, handle, transmit, use and otherwise process certain personal data and other user data in our business, especially as a result of our e-commerce digital distribution platform. A significant risk associated with our operations is the secure transmission of confidential information over public networks. The perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may harm our business and results of operations. We must ensure that all collection, use, storage, dissemination, transfer, disposal and any other processing activity involving personal data for which we are responsible comply with relevant data protection and privacy laws. The protection of our customer, employee and company data is critical to us. We rely on commercially available systems, software, tools and monitoring to provide secure processing, transmission and storage of confidential customer information, such as credit card and other personal data. Despite the security measures we have in place, our facilities and systems, and those of our third-party service providers, may be vulnerable to security breaches, acts of vandalism, computer viruses, misplaced or lost data, programming or human errors or other similar events. Any security breach, or any perceived failure involving the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, as well as any failure or perceived failure to comply with laws, policies, legal obligations or industry standards regarding data privacy and protection, whether by us or our vendors, could damage our reputation, expose us to administrative procedures and litigation risk and liability, subject us to negative publicity, disrupt our operations and harm our business. Our security measures may fail to prevent security breaches, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Unauthorized disclosure of, improper access to, or destruction or modification of data, through cybersecurity breaches, computer viruses or otherwise, or disruptions to our systems or services could expose us to liability, protracted and costly litigation and damage our reputation.
Our Lavoro Connected Farm platform involves the collection, storage, transmission and other processing activities involving customers’ personal data, including names, addresses, identification numbers and bank account numbers. We also have arrangements in place with certain third-party service providers that require us to share certain consumer information. Our and such third parties’ ability to protect such personal data and consumer information is dependent on our ability to prevent cybersecurity breaches and unauthorized access and disclosure.
An increasing number of organizations, including large clients and businesses, large technology companies, financial institutions and government institutions have disclosed breaches of their information security systems, some of which have involved sophisticated and highly targeted attacks, including on portions of their websites, networks or infrastructure, or those of third parties who provide services to them. Information security risks for companies with e-commerce operations such as ours in particular have significantly increased recently, in part because of new technologies, the use of the Internet and telecommunications technologies (including mobile devices) to conduct business transactions and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists and other external parties. Because of our position in the payments value chain, we believe that we are likely to continue to be a target of such threats and attacks. In addition, due to the growing size and complexity of our digital platform and services, the amount of personal data and other data that we store and the number of customers, employees and third-party providers with access to personal data and other data, we are potentially vulnerable to a variety of intentional and inadvertent cybersecurity attacks and other security-related incidents and threats, which could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
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The techniques used to obtain unauthorized, improper or illegal access to our systems, our data or our customers’ data, to disable or degrade service, or to sabotage systems are constantly evolving may be difficult to detect quickly and often are not recognized until launched against a target. Unauthorized parties may attempt to gain access to our systems or facilities through various means, including, among others, hacking into our systems or those of our customers, partners or vendors, attempting to fraudulently induce our employees, customers, partners, vendors or other users of our systems into disclosing user names, passwords, payment card information or other sensitive information, which may in turn be used to access our information technology systems, or installing malicious software. Certain efforts may be supported by significant financial and technological resources, making them even more sophisticated and difficult to detect.
Although we have developed systems and processes that are designed to protect our networks, applications, bank accounts and the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data and customer data and our information technology systems and to prevent data loss and other security breaches, and expect to continue to expend significant additional resources to bolster these protections, these security measures cannot provide absolute security and there can be no assurance that our safety and security measures (and those of our third-party providers) will prevent damage to, or interruption or breach of, our information systems and operations. Our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to cyberattacks or security breaches, and third parties may be able to access our customers’ personal or proprietary information and card data that are stored on or accessible through those systems. In addition to traditional computer “hackers,” malicious code (such as viruses and worms), phishing, ransomware, social engineering attacks, unauthorized access or misuse and denial-of-service attacks, sophisticated criminal networks as well as nation-state and nation-state supported actors now engage in attacks, including advanced persistent threat intrusions. Our security measures may also be breached due to human error, malfeasance, fraud or malice on the part of employees, accidental technological failures, system errors or vulnerabilities, or other irregularities.
Any actual or perceived cybersecurity attacks, security breaches, phishing attacks, ransomware attacks, computer malware, computer viruses, computer hacking attacks, unauthorized access, coding or configuration errors or similar incidents experienced by us or our third-party service providers could interrupt our operations, result in our systems or services being unavailable, result in the loss, compromise corruption or improper disclosure of data or personal data, subject us to regulatory or administrative investigations and orders, litigation, disputes, sanctions, indemnity obligations, damages for contract breach or penalties for violation of applicable laws or regulations, impair our ability to provide our solutions and meet our customers’ requirements, materially harm our reputation and brand, result in significant legal and financial exposure (including customer claims), lead to loss of customer confidence in, or decreased use of, our products and services, and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any breaches of network or data security at our customers, partners or third-party service provides (including data center and cloud computing providers) could have similar negative effects. We could be forced to expend significant financial and operational resources in response to a security breach, including repairing system damage, increasing security protection costs by deploying additional personnel and modifying or enhancing our protection technologies, investigating and remediating any information security vulnerabilities and defending against and resolving legal and regulatory claims, all of which could divert resources and the attention of our management and key personnel and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Specifically, because we leverage third-party providers, including cloud, software, data center and other critical technology vendors to deliver our solutions to our customers, we rely heavily on the data security technology practices and policies adopted by these third-party providers. Such third-party providers have access to personal data and other data about our customers and employees, and some of these providers in turn may subcontract with other third-party providers. Our ability to monitor our third-party providers’ data security is limited. A vulnerability in a third-party provider’s software or systems, a failure of our third-party providers’ safeguards, policies or procedures, or a breach of a third-party provider’s software or systems could result in the compromise of the confidentiality, integrity or availability of our systems or the data housed in our third-party solutions.
Many jurisdictions have enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals, regulatory authorities and others of security breaches involving certain types of data or information technology systems. Security compromises experienced by others in our industry, our customers, our third-party service providers or us may lead to public disclosures and widespread negative publicity. Any security compromise in our industry, whether actual or
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perceived, could erode customer confidence in the effectiveness of our security measures, negatively impact our ability to attract new customers, cause existing customers to elect not to renew or expand their use of our platform, services and products or subject us to third-party lawsuits, regulatory fines or other actions or liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Additionally, while we maintain insurance policies, we do not maintain insurance policies specifically for cyber-attacks and our current insurance policies may not be adequate to reimburse us for losses caused by security breaches, and we may not be able to collect fully, if at all, under these insurance policies. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases in or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
For information on the data protection and privacy laws and regulations to which we are subject and the risks associated therewith, see the section titled “—We are subject to costs and risks associated with increased or changing laws and regulations affecting our business, including those relating to data privacy, security and protection.
Interruption or failure of our infrastructure, information technology and communications systems could impair our operations, which could also damage our reputation and harm our results of operations.
Our operations are dependent on our ability to protect the continuity of our infrastructure against damage from catastrophe or natural disaster, breach of security, cyber-attack, loss of power, telecommunications failure or other natural or man-made events. A catastrophic event could have a direct negative impact on us by adversely affecting our customers, partners, third-party service providers, employees or facilities, or an indirect impact on us by adversely affecting the agricultural market, payment processing services or the overall economy. In the event of a catastrophe, we could experience a material adverse interruption of our operations.
We serve our customers using third-party data centers and cloud services. While we have electronic access to the infrastructure and components of our platform that are hosted by third parties, we do not control the operation of these facilities. Consequently, we may be subject to service disruptions as well as failures to provide adequate support for reasons that are outside of our direct control. These data centers and cloud services are vulnerable to damage or interruption from a variety of sources, including earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, system failures, cyber-attacks, physical or electronic break-ins, human error or interference (including by employees, former employees or contractors), and other catastrophic events. Our data centers may also be subject to local administrative actions, changes to legal or permitting requirements and litigation to stop, limit or delay operations. Despite precautions taken at these facilities, such as disaster recovery and business continuity arrangements, the occurrence of a natural disaster or an act of terrorism, a decision to close the facilities without adequate notice or other unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in interruptions or delays in our services, impede our ability to scale our operations or have other adverse impacts upon our business. See “—We depend on data centers operated by third parties and third-party Internet hosting providers, and any disruption in the operation of these facilities or access to the Internet could adversely affect our business.”
We depend on data centers operated by third parties and third-party Internet hosting providers, and any disruption in the operation of these facilities or access to the Internet could adversely affect our business.
Our business requires the ongoing availability and uninterrupted operation of internal and external transaction processing systems and services. While we maintain oversight of our third-party providers of transaction processing and IT-related functions, such third parties are ultimately responsible for maintaining their own network security, disaster recovery and system management procedures. We primarily serve our customers from third-party data center hosting facilities, and we rely on cloud infrastructure to operate certain aspects of our solutions. Any disruption of or interference with our use of our ERP and other core systems could impair our ability to deliver our solutions to our customers, resulting in customer dissatisfaction, damage to our reputation, loss of customers and harm to our business.
Moreover, we have architected our solutions and computer systems to use data processing, storage capabilities and other services provided by specific providers. Given this, we cannot easily switch our ERP and other core systems operations to another cloud provider, so any disruption of or interference with our use of cloud/hosting
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services could increase our operating costs and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, and we might not be able to secure service from an alternative provider on similar terms or at all.
The owners and operators of our current hosting facilities have a contract guaranteeing 99% availability and qualified professionals to keep the systems operating. However, such third-party providers may experience website disruptions, outages and other performance problems. These problems may be caused by a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, viruses, security attacks, fraud, spikes in customer usage and denial of service issues. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of these performance problems within an acceptable period of time. We do not control the operation of these data center facilities, and such facilities are vulnerable to damage or interruption from human error, intentional bad acts, power loss, hardware failures, telecommunications failures, improper operation, unauthorized entry, data loss, power loss, cyberattacks, fires, wars, terrorist attacks, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, natural disasters or similar catastrophic events. They also could be subject to break-ins, computer viruses, sabotage, intentional acts of vandalism and other misconduct. The occurrence of a natural disaster or an act of terrorism, a decision to close the facilities without adequate notice or terminate our hosting arrangement or other unanticipated problems could result in lengthy interruptions in the delivery of our solutions, cause system interruptions, prevent our customers from accessing their accounts online, reputational harm and loss of critical data, prevent us from supporting our solutions or cause us to incur additional expense in arranging for new facilities and support.
We also depend on third-party Internet-hosting providers and continuous and uninterrupted access to the Internet through third-party bandwidth providers to operate our business. If we lose the services of one or more of our Internet-hosting or bandwidth providers for any reason or if their services are disrupted, for example, due to viruses or denial of service or other attacks on their systems, or due to human error, intentional bad acts, power loss, hardware failures, telecommunications failures, fires, wars, terrorist attacks, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes or similar catastrophic events, we could experience disruption in our ability to offer our solutions and adverse perception of our solutions’ reliability, or we could be required to retain the services of replacement providers, which could increase our operating costs and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Furthermore, prolonged interruption in the availability, or reduction in the speed or other functionality, of our products or services could materially harm our reputation and business. Frequent or persistent interruptions in our products and services could cause customers to believe that our products and services are unreliable, leading them to switch to our competitors or to avoid our products and services, and could permanently harm our reputation and business.
Risks Relating to Latin America
We are subject to risks relating to our significant presence in Latin American countries, which have experienced, and may continue to experience, adverse economic or political conditions that may impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our operations are based in Latin America. For the years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, 87.3% and 84.9%, respectively, of our revenues were attributable to our Brazilian operations. We expect to increase our sales in Brazil and other countries in South and Central America. As a result, Our business is dependent to a significant extent upon the economic conditions prevalent in Brazil, as well as the other Latin American countries in which we currently operate, including Colombia and Uruguay, and in which we may seek to expand operations in the future, such as Peru, Chile, Paraguay and other countries in South and Central America.
Fluctuations in the economy of Brazil and Latin American countries have historically experienced uneven periods of economic growth, recessions, periods of high inflation and economic instability, including as a result of actions adopted by the governments of Latin American countries have had and may continue to have a significant impact on our subsidiaries operating in those countries. Recently, the economic growth rates of the economies of many Latin American countries have slowed and some have entered mild recessions. Additionally, economic and political developments in Latin America, including future economic changes or crises (such as inflation, currency devaluation or recession), government deadlock, political instability, terrorism, civil strife, changes in laws and
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regulations, restrictions on the repatriation of dividends or profits, expropriation or nationalization of property, restrictions on currency convertibility, volatility of the foreign exchange market and exchange controls could impact our operations and/or the market value of our Ordinary Shares and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, we may encounter the following difficulties, among others, related to the foreign markets in which we currently operate or will operate in the future:
unforeseen regulatory changes;
our inability to attract personnel and generate business outside of the Latin American countries in which we currently operate;
changes in tax law;
changes in trade and investment policies and regulations;
difficulties in registering and protecting trademarks and software;
nationalization, expropriation, price controls and other restrictive governmental actions;
adoption of governmental measures that protect, subsidize or otherwise favor competitors native to such
markets; and
cultural and linguistic barriers.
If one or more of these risks materialize, and we are not able to overcome these difficulties, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.
Developments and the perceptions of risks in other countries, including other emerging markets, the United States and Europe, may harm the Brazilian economy and the price of our Ordinary Shares.
The market for securities offered by companies such as ours is influenced by economic and market conditions in Brazil and emerging markets, as well as the United States, Europe and other countries. To the extent the conditions of the global markets or economy deteriorate, our business may be adversely affected. The weakness in the global economy has been marked by, among other adverse factors, lower levels of consumer and corporate confidence, decreased business investment and consumer spending, increased unemployment, reduced income and asset values in many areas, reduction of China’s growth rate, currency volatility and limited availability of credit and access to capital. Developments or economic conditions in other emerging countries have at times significantly affected the availability of credit to companies with significant operations in Brazil and resulted in considerable outflows of funds from Brazil, decreasing the amount of foreign investments in Brazil, impacting overall growth expectations for the Brazilian economy.
Crises and political instability in other emerging market countries, the United States, Europe or other countries, including increased international trade tensions and protectionist policies, could decrease investor demand for securities offered by companies with significant operations in Brazil, such as our Ordinary Shares. These developments, as well as potential crises and forms of political instability arising therefrom or any other as of yet unforeseen development, may harm our business and the price of our Ordinary Shares. These developments, as well as potential crises and forms of political instability arising therefrom or any other as of yet unforeseen development, may adversely affect the United States and global economies and capital markets, which may, in turn, materially adversely affect the trading price of our Ordinary Shares.
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The Brazilian federal government has exercised, and continues to exercise, significant influence over the Brazilian economy. This influence, as well as Brazil’s political and economic conditions, could harm us and the price of our Ordinary Shares.
The Brazilian federal government frequently exercises significant influence over the Brazilian economy and occasionally makes significant changes in policy and regulations. The Brazilian government’s actions to control inflation and other policies and regulations have often involved, among other measures, increases or decreases in interest rates, changes in fiscal policies, wage and price controls, foreign exchange rate controls, blocking access to bank accounts, currency devaluations, capital controls and import and export restrictions. We have no control over and cannot predict what measures or policies the Brazilian government may take in the future. Our business and the market price of our Ordinary Shares may be harmed by changes in Brazilian government policies, as well as general economic factors, including, without limitation:
growth or downturn of the Brazilian economy;
interest rates and monetary policies;
exchange rates and currency fluctuations;
inflation;
liquidity of the domestic capital and lending markets;
import and export controls;
exchange controls and restrictions on remittances abroad and payments of dividends;
modifications to laws and regulations according to political, social and economic interests;
fiscal policy, monetary policy and changes in tax laws and related interpretations by tax authorities;
economic, political and social instability, including general strikes and mass demonstrations;
labor and social security regulations;
energy and water shortages and rationing;
public health crises, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;
commodity prices; and
other political, diplomatic, social and economic developments in or affecting Brazil.
Uncertainty over whether the Brazilian federal government will implement reforms or changes in policy or regulation affecting these or other factors in the future may affect economic performance and contribute to economic uncertainty in Brazil, which may have an adverse effect on our activities and consequently our results of operations, and may also adversely affect the trading price of our Ordinary Shares. This scenario is further aggravated when analyzed together with the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, which may adversely affect our business, operations, results and share price.
Further, Brazil’s political environment has historically influenced, and continues to influence, the performance of the country’s economy. The recent economic instability in Brazil has contributed to a decline in market confidence in the Brazilian economy as well as to a deteriorating political environment. In addition, various investigations into allegations of money laundering and corruption being conducted by the Office of the Brazilian Federal Prosecutor, including the largest such investigation, known as “Operação Lava Jato,” have negatively impacted the Brazilian economy and political environment. The potential outcome of these investigations is uncertain, but they have already had an adverse impact on the image and reputation of the implicated companies, and on the general market perception of the Brazilian economy. In addition, the Brazilian Supreme Court is
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currently investigating Brazil’s current President in connection with allegations made by the former Minister of Justice. We cannot predict whether the ongoing investigations will result in further political and economic instability, or if new allegations against government officials or executives of private companies will arise in the future or will result in additional investigations.
As has been true in the past, the current political and economic environment in Brazil has and is continuing to affect the confidence of investors and the general public, which has historically resulted in economic deceleration and heightened volatility in the securities offered by companies with significant operations in Brazil, which may adversely affect us and our Ordinary Shares.
Any further downgrading of Brazil’s credit rating could reduce the trading price of our Ordinary Shares.
We may be harmed by investors’ perceptions of risks related to Brazil’s sovereign debt credit rating. Rating agencies regularly evaluate Brazil and its sovereign ratings, which evaluations consider a number of factors including macroeconomic trends, fiscal and budgetary conditions, indebtedness metrics and the potential for changes in any of these factors. The rating agencies began to review Brazil’s sovereign credit rating in September 2015. Subsequently, the three major rating agencies downgraded Brazil’s investment-grade status:
In 2015, Standard & Poor’s initially downgraded Brazil’s credit rating from BBB-negative to BB-positive and subsequently downgraded it again from BB-positive to BB, maintaining its negative outlook, citing a worse credit situation since the first downgrade. On January 11, 2018, Standard & Poor’s further downgraded Brazil’s credit rating from BB to BB-negative, and on December 11, 2019, the agency affirmed the rating at BB- and revised the outlook on Brazil to positive. On April 7, 2020, the rating was reaffirmed as BB- with stable outlook, reflecting uncertainties stemming from the coronavirus pandemic, along with how extraordinary government spending will adversely affect the fiscal performance in 2020. On June 14, 2023, Standard & Poor’s reaffirmed Brazil’s rating at BB- while changing the outlook to positive citing positive fiscal and monetary policies.
In December 2015, Moody’s placed Brazil’s Baa3’s issue and bond ratings under review for downgrade and subsequently downgraded the issue and bond ratings to below investment grade, at Ba2 with a negative outlook, citing the prospect of a further deterioration in Brazil’s debt indicators, taking into account the low growth environment and the challenging political scenario. On April 9, 2018, Moody’s revised the outlook to stable, reaffirming the Ba2 rating. In September 2020, Moody’s maintained Brazil’s credit rating at Ba2 and with a stable outlook. In May 2020, Moody’s confirmed Brazil’s long-term foreign currency sovereign credit rating at Ba2 maintaining the stable outlook. On May 25, 2021 and April 12, 2022, Moody’s further reaffirmed Brazil’s rating at Ba2 with stable outlook.
Fitch downgraded Brazil’s sovereign credit rating to BB-positive with a negative outlook, citing the rapid expansion of the country’s budget deficit and the worse-than-expected recession. In February 2018, Fitch downgraded Brazil’s sovereign credit rating again to BB-negative, citing, among other reasons, fiscal deficits, the increasing burden of public debt and an inability to implement reforms that would structurally improve Brazil’s public finances. In November 2020, Fitch Ratings affirmed Brazil’s long-term foreign currency sovereign credit rating at BB- with a negative outlook. On December 14, 2021, Fitch further reaffirmed Brazil’s credit rating at BB-negative with a negative outlook. On July 14, 2022, while reaffirming Brazil’s credit rating at BB-negative, Fitch changed its outlook on Brazil’s credit rating to a positive outlook.
Brazil’s sovereign credit rating is still rated below investment grade by the three main credit rating agencies. Consequently, the prices of securities offered by companies with significant operations in Brazil have been negatively affected. A continuation or deterioration of sluggish macroeconomic conditions in the Brazilian economy and continued political uncertainty, among other factors, could lead to further ratings downgrades. Any further downgrade of Brazil’s sovereign credit ratings could heighten investors’ perception of risk and, as a result, cause the trading price of our Ordinary Shares to decline.
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Inflation and certain measures by the Brazilian government to curb inflation have historically harmed the Brazilian economy and Brazilian capital markets, and high levels of inflation in the future could harm our business and the price of our Ordinary Shares.
In the past, Brazil has experienced extremely high rates of inflation. Inflation and some of the measures taken by the Brazilian government in an attempt to curb inflation have had significant negative effects on the Brazilian economy generally. Inflation, policies adopted to curb inflationary pressures and uncertainties regarding possible future government intervention have contributed to economic uncertainty and heightened volatility in the Brazilian economy and capital markets.
According to the IPCA, Brazilian inflation rates were 5.8%, 10.1% and 4.6%, respectively, as of December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020. Brazil may continue to experience high levels of inflation in the future and inflationary pressures may continue to lead to the Brazilian government intervening in the economy and introducing policies that could harm our business and the trading price of our Ordinary Shares. In the past, the Brazilian government’s interventions included the maintenance of a restrictive monetary policy with high interest rates that restricted credit availability and reduced economic growth, causing volatility in interest rates. For example, the official interest rate in Brazil decreased from 14.25% as of December 31, 2015 to 4.50% as of December 31, 2018, as established by the COPOM. On February 7, 2018, the COPOM reduced the SELIC rate to 6.75% and further reduced the SELIC rate to 6.50% on March 21, 2018. The COPOM reconfirmed the SELIC rate of 6.50% on May 16, 2018 and subsequently on June 20, 2018. As of December 31, 2018, the SELIC rate was 6.50%. The COPOM reconfirmed the SELIC rate of 6.50% on February 6, 2019, but reduced the SELIC rate to 6.00% on August 1, 2019 and further reduced the rate to 4.50% on December 12, 2019. On February 5, 2020, the COPOM reduced the SELIC rate to 4.25% and further reduced the rate to 3.75% on March 18, 2020, to 3.00% on June 5, 2020, to 2.25% on June 17, 2020 and to 2.00% on August 5, 2020. On March 17, 2021, the COPOM raised the SELIC rate to 2.75% and further raised the SELIC rate to 3.50% on May 5, 2021, to 4.25% on June 16, 2021, to 5.25% on August 4, 2021, to 6.25% on September 22, 2021, to 7.75% on October 27, 2021, to 9.25% on December 8, 2021, to 10.75% on February 2, 2022, to 11.75% on March 16, 2022, to 12.75% on May 4, 2022, to 13.25% on June 15, 2022 and to 13.75% on August 3, 2022. On August 2, 2023, the Central Bank lowered the SELIC rate to 13.25%, and as of the date of this annual report, the SELIC rate remains at 13.25%.Conversely, more lenient government and Central Bank policies and interest rate decreases have triggered and may continue to trigger increases in inflation, and, consequently, growth volatility and the need for sudden and significant interest rate increases, which could negatively affect us, increase our indebtedness and, consequently, adversely affect the trading price of our Ordinary Shares.
Exchange rate instability may impact our ability to hedge exchange rate risk, which may lead to interest rate volatility and have a material adverse effect on the price of our Ordinary Shares.
The Brazilian currency has experienced frequent and substantial variations in relation to the U.S. dollar and other foreign currencies. The Brazilian government has implemented various economic plans and used various exchange rate policies to stabilize the real, including sudden devaluations, periodic mini-devaluations (during which the frequency of adjustments has ranged from daily to monthly), exchange controls, dual exchange rate markets and a floating exchange rate system, which plans and policies have had varying degrees of success. Exchange rate volatility could make our foreign-currency-linked obligations, purchases and funding more expensive in the event of depreciation of the real and, resulting in exchange rate exposure that may lead to losses in the event we fail to adequately manage exchange rate risk.
Although long-term depreciation of the real is generally linked to the rate of inflation in Brazil, depreciation of the real occurring over shorter periods of time has resulted in significant variations in the exchange rate among the real, the U.S. dollar and other currencies. During 2015, due to the poor economic conditions in Brazil, including as a result of political instability, the real devalued at a much higher rate than in previous years. Overall, in 2015, the real depreciated 47.0%, reaching R$3.9048 per US$1.00 on December 31, 2015. In 2016, the real fluctuated significantly, appreciating 16.5% to R$3.2591 per US$1.00 on December 31, 2016. In 2017, the real depreciated 1.5% against the U.S. dollar, ending the year at an exchange rate of R$3.3080 per US$1.00. In 2018, the real depreciated 17.1% against the U.S. dollar, ending the year at an exchange rate of R$3.8742 per US$1.00 mainly due to lower interest rates in Brazil as well as uncertainty regarding the results of the Brazilian presidential elections, which were held in October 2018. In 2019, the real depreciated 4.0% against the U.S. dollar. The real/U.S. dollar exchange rate reported by the Central Bank of Brazil was R$5.1967 per US$1.00 on December 31, 2020, which
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reflected a 22.4% depreciation in the real against the U.S. dollar during 2020. The real/U.S. dollar exchange rate reported by the Central Bank of Brazil was R$5.5805 per US$1.00 on December 31, 2021, which reflected a 7.4% depreciation in the real against the U.S. dollar since December 31, 2020. The real/U.S. dollar exchange rate reported by the Central Bank of Brazil was R$5.2177 per US$1.00 on December 31, 2022, which reflected a 6.5% appreciation in the real against the U.S. dollar since December 31, 2021. The real/U.S. dollar exchange rate reported by the Central Bank of Brazil was R$4.8192 per US$1.00 on June 30, 2023, which reflected a 7.6% depreciation in the real against the U.S. dollar since December 31, 2022. There can be no assurance that the real will not depreciate or appreciate further against the U.S. dollar.
Depreciation of the real relative to the U.S. dollar has created additional inflationary pressures in Brazil, which has led to increases in interest rates, limited Brazilian companies’ access to financial markets and negatively affect the price of our Ordinary Shares. Conversely, appreciation of the real relative to the U.S. dollar and other foreign currencies could lead to a deterioration of the Brazilian balance of payments, as well as dampen export-driven growth, and affect our farmer client economics. Depending on the circumstances, either depreciation or appreciation of the real could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Disruption or volatility in global financial and credit markets could have a material adverse effect on us.
The global financial and credit markets are currently, and have from time to time experienced extreme volatility and disruptions, including severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, rising interest and inflation rates, declines in consumer confidence, declines in economic growth, increases in unemployment rates and uncertainty about economic stability. Such volatility and uncertainty in global financial and credit markets have also generally led to an increase in the cost of funding for Brazilian and international issuers and borrowers. More recently, the closures of Silicon Valley Bank and Signature Bank and their placement into receivership with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation created bank-specific and broader financial institution liquidity risk and concerns. We do not hold cash deposits or securities at Silicon Valley Bank or Signature Bank and have not experienced any adverse impact to our liquidity or to our current and projected business operations, financial condition or results of operations. However, uncertainty remains over liquidity concerns in the financial services industry and potential impacts on the broader economy, and our business, our business partners, and/or industry as a whole may be adversely impacted in ways that we cannot predict at this time.
Such conditions may adversely affect our ability to access capital and liquidity on financial terms acceptable, if at all. If we are unable to access capital and liquidity on financial terms acceptable to us or at all, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, the economic and market conditions of other countries, including the United States, countries in the European Union and emerging markets, may affect the volume of foreign investments in Brazil. If the level of foreign investment declines, our access to capital may likewise decline, which could negatively affect our business, ability to take advantage of strategic opportunities and, ultimately, the trading price of our Ordinary Shares.
Further, the demand for agricultural products and services is directly impacted by macroeconomic variables, such as economic growth, income, unemployment rate, inflation and fluctuations in interest and foreign exchange rates. Disruptions and volatility in the global financial markets may have significant consequences in the countries in which we operate, such as volatility in the prices of securities, interest rates and foreign exchange rates. Higher uncertainty and volatility may result in a slowdown in the credit market and the economy, which, in turn, could lead to higher unemployment rates and a reduction in the purchasing power of consumers. In addition, such events may significantly impair our customers’ ability to perform their obligations and increase overdue accounts payable, resulting in an increase in the risk associated with our business.
Infrastructure and workforce deficiency in Brazil may impact economic growth and have a material adverse effect on us.
Brazilian GDP growth has fluctuated over the past few years, with a contraction of 3.5% in 2015, a contraction of 3.3% in 2016, growth of 1.3% in 2017, growth of 1.8% in 2018, growth of 1.2% in 2019, a contraction of 3.3% in 2020 and growth of 5.0% and 2.9% in 2021 and 2022, respectively. Growth is limited by inadequate infrastructure, including potential energy shortages and deficient transportation, logistics and telecommunication sectors, general strikes, the lack of a qualified labor force and the lack of private and public investments in these areas, which limit
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productivity and efficiency. Any of these factors could lead to labor market volatility, which could limit growth and ultimately have a material adverse effect on us.
Risks Relating to Our Ordinary Shares and Warrants
The listing of our securities on Nasdaq did not benefit from the process customarily undertaken in connection with an underwritten initial public offering, which could result in diminished investor demand, inefficiencies in pricing and a more volatile public price for our securities.
Unlike an underwritten initial public offering of our securities, the initial listing of our securities as a result of the Business Combination did not benefit from the following:
the book-building process undertaken by underwriters that helps to inform efficient price discovery with respect to opening trades of newly listed securities;
underwriter support to help stabilize, maintain or affect the public price of the new issue immediately after listing; and
underwriter due diligence review of the offering and potential liability for material misstatements or omissions of fact in a prospectus used in connection with the securities being offered or for statements made by its securities analysts or other personnel.
The lack of such a process in connection with the listing of our securities could result in diminished investor demand, inefficiencies in pricing and a more volatile public price for our securities during the period immediately following the listing than in connection with an underwritten initial public offering.
We incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company.
We are a public company and incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as rules adopted, and to be adopted, by the SEC and Nasdaq. Our management and other personnel need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives and may not effectively or efficiently manage the transition into a public company. Moreover, we expect these rules and regulations to substantially increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be forced to accept reduced policy limits or incur substantially higher costs to maintain the same or similar coverage. We cannot predict or estimate the amount or timing of additional costs it may incur to respond to these requirements. The impact of these requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, its board committees or as executive officers.
Most members of our management team have limited experience managing a publicly traded company, interacting with public company investors and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies in the United States. The additional demands associated with being a public company may disrupt regular operations of our business by diverting the attention of some of our senior management team away from revenue producing activities to management and administrative oversight, adversely affecting our ability to attract and complete business opportunities and increasing the difficulty in both retaining professionals and managing and growing our businesses. Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage our transition to being a public company subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the U.S. federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors.
In addition, the public reporting obligations associated with being a public company in the United States may subject us to litigation as a result of increased scrutiny of our financial reporting. If we are involved in litigation regarding our public reporting obligations, this could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and management attention from our business and seriously undermine our business.
Any of these effects could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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We may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring and impairment or other charges that could have a significant negative effect on our financial condition, results of operations and share price, which could cause you to lose some or all of your investment.
We may be forced to write-down or write-off assets, restructure our operations, or incur impairment or other charges that could result in us reporting losses. Even though these charges may be non-cash items and not have an immediate impact on our liquidity, the fact that charges of this nature are reported could contribute to negative market perceptions about us or our securities. In addition, charges of this nature may cause us to violate covenants to which we may be subject. Accordingly, any of our shareholders could suffer a reduction in the value of their Ordinary Shares as a result of the foregoing factors and would be unlikely to have a remedy for such reduction in value.
The Lavoro Original Shareholders beneficially own approximately 84.7% of the outstanding Ordinary Shares, and control certain matters requiring shareholder approval. This concentration of ownership and voting power will limit your ability to influence corporate matters.
The Lavoro Original Shareholders control us through their beneficial ownership of approximately 84.7% of our outstanding Ordinary Shares (including 2,951,436 Vesting Founder Shares outstanding as of June 30, 2023). As a result, the Lavoro Original Shareholders are able to effectively control our decisions and are able to elect a majority of the members of our board of directors. The Lavoro Original Shareholders are also able to direct our actions in areas such as business strategy, financing, distributions, acquisitions and dispositions of assets or businesses, and may cause us to make acquisitions that increase the amount of our indebtedness or outstanding ordinary shares, sell revenue-generating assets or inhibit change of control transactions that may benefit other shareholders. The decisions of the Lavoro Original Shareholders on these matters may be contrary to your expectations or preferences, and they may take actions that could be contrary to your interests.
We may not be able to timely and effectively implement controls and procedures required by Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act that apply to us following the consummation of the Business Combination.
As a result of the consummation of the Business Combination on February 28, 2023 and the transactions related thereto, we will be required to provide management’s attestation on internal controls in connection with our second annual report on Form 20-F following consummation of the Business Combination, i.e., our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2024. The standards required for a public company under Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act are significantly more stringent than those that were required of us as a privately-held company. Our management may not be able to effectively and timely implement controls and procedures that adequately respond to the increased regulatory compliance and reporting requirements that apply following the Business Combination. If we are not able to implement the additional requirements of Section 404(a) in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, we may not be able to assess whether our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, which may subject us to adverse regulatory consequences and could harm investor confidence and the market price of our Ordinary Shares.
As a foreign private issuer, we have different disclosure, Nasdaq corporate governance standards and other requirements than U.S. domestic registrants.
As a foreign private issuer, we are subject to different disclosure and other requirements than domestic U.S. registrants. For example, as a foreign private issuer, in the United States, we are not subject to the same disclosure requirements as a domestic U.S. registrant under the Exchange Act, including the requirements to prepare and issue quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or to file current reports on Form 8-K upon the occurrence of specified significant events, the proxy rules applicable to domestic U.S. registrants under Section 14 of the Exchange Act or the insider reporting and short-swing profit rules applicable to domestic U.S. registrants under Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we rely on exemptions from certain U.S. corporate governance-related rules that permit us to follow Cayman Islands legal requirements rather than certain of the requirements that are applicable to U.S. domestic registrants. See “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees—C. Board Practices—Foreign Private Issuer Status” and “Item 10. Additional Information—B. Memorandum and Articles of Association—Principal Differences between Cayman Islands and U.S. Corporate Law” for more information.
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We follow certain Cayman Islands laws and regulations that are applicable to Cayman Islands companies. However, such laws and regulations may not contain any provisions comparable to the U.S. rules relating to the filing of reports on Form 10-Q or 8-K, the U.S. proxy rules, or the U.S. rules relating to liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time, as referred to above.
Furthermore, foreign private issuers are required to file their annual report on Form 20-F within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, while U.S. domestic issuers that are accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form 10-K within 75 days after the end of each fiscal year. Foreign private issuers are also exempt from Regulation Fair Disclosure, aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information, although we are subject to Cayman Islands laws and regulations having substantially the same effect as Regulation Fair Disclosure. As a result of the above, even though we are required to file reports on Form 6-K disclosing the limited information that we have made or are required to make public pursuant to Cayman Islands law, or are required to distribute to shareholders generally, and that are material to us, you may not receive information of the same type or amount that is required to be disclosed to shareholders of a U.S. company.
Moreover, we are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or within the same time frames as U.S. companies with securities registered under the Exchange Act. We currently prepare our financial statements in accordance with IFRS. We will not be required to file financial statements prepared in accordance with or reconciled to U.S. GAAP so long as our financial statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS, as issued by the IASB.
We cannot predict if investors will find our Ordinary Shares less attractive because we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Ordinary Shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Ordinary Shares and our share price may be more volatile.
We may lose our foreign private issuer status which would then require us to comply with the Exchange Act’s domestic reporting regime and cause us to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses.
In order to maintain our current status as a foreign private issuer, either (a) more than 50% of the voting power of all our outstanding classes of voting securities (on a combined basis) must be either directly or indirectly owned of record by non-residents of the United States or (b)(1) a majority of our executive officers or directors must not be U.S. citizens or residents; (2) more than 50% of our assets cannot be located in the United States; and (3) our business must be administered principally outside the United States. We intend to monitor the composition of our shareholder base to determine whether we meet these criteria. If we lose this status, we would be required to comply with the Exchange Act reporting and other requirements applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, which are more detailed and extensive than the requirements for foreign private issuers. We may also be required to make changes in our corporate governance practices in accordance with various SEC and Nasdaq rules, and report our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, which may differ materially from IFRS, all of which may involve time, effort and additional costs to implement. The regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws if we are required to comply with the reporting requirements applicable to a U.S. domestic issuer may be significantly higher than the costs we incur as a foreign private issuer.
As a foreign private issuer, we rely on exemptions from certain Nasdaq corporate governance standards applicable to U.S. issuers, including the requirement that a majority of an issuer’s directors consist of independent directors. This may afford less protection to holders of our Ordinary Shares.
Section 5605 of Nasdaq equity rules requires listed companies to have, among other things, a majority of their board members be independent, and to have independent director oversight of executive compensation, nomination of directors and corporate governance matters. As a foreign private issuer, however, we are permitted to follow, and we do follow, home country practice in lieu of the above requirements. See “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees—C. Board Practices—Foreign Private Issuer Status” and “Item 10. Additional Information—B. Memorandum and Articles of Association—Principal Differences between Cayman Islands and U.S. Corporate Law” for more information.
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If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, about our business, the price of our Ordinary Shares and our trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our Ordinary Shares depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our Ordinary Shares or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our Ordinary Shares would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our Ordinary Shares could decrease, which might cause the price of our Ordinary Shares and trading volume to decline. Moreover, if our financial results fail to meet, or significantly exceed, our announced guidance or the expectations of analysts or public investors, analysts could downgrade our securities or publish unfavorable research about it. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, our visibility in the financial markets could decrease, which in turn could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.
The Ordinary Shares registered for resale represent a substantial percentage of our outstanding Ordinary Shares and the sale of such securities could cause the market price of our Ordinary Shares to decline significantly.
On March 23, 2023, we filed a registration statement on Form F-1, which registration statement, as amended, was declared effective by the SEC on May 25, 2023, or the Resale Registration Statement. The Resale Registration Statement relates, among other things, to the offer and sale from time to time by certain selling securityholders named therein, or the Selling Securityholders, of (i) up to 10,000,000 Ordinary Shares purchased by The Production Board in a private placement under the TPB PIPE Investment consummated in connection with the Business Combination at a purchase price of US$10.00 per Ordinary Share; (ii) up to 2,830,750 Ordinary Shares issued to certain Selling Securityholders in exchange for 2,830,750 SPAC Class A Ordinary Shares that were held by such Selling Securityholders pursuant to the Forward Purchase Agreements entered into in connection with the Business Combination at a purchase price of approximately US$10.00 per Ordinary Share; and (iii) up to 98,726,401 Ordinary Shares issued to the Lavoro Original Shareholders in exchange for securities of Lavoro Agro Limited based on a value of US$10.00 per Ordinary Share, however, these shares were issued in exchange for securities of Lavoro Agro Limited that were acquired by the Lavoro Original Shareholders at prices that equate to purchase prices of less than US$10.00 per share. In addition, the Resale Registration Statement relates to the issuance by us of up to 10,083,592 Ordinary Shares that are issuable by us upon the exercise of Warrants (including Warrants issued in exchange for SPAC Private Warrants and Warrants issued in exchange for SPAC Public Warrants).
Due to the significant number of SPAC Class A Ordinary Shares that were redeemed in connection with the Business Combination, the number of Ordinary Shares that the Selling Securityholders can sell into the public markets pursuant to the Resale Registration Statement may exceed our public float. Furthermore, the 121,640,757 Ordinary Shares registered for sale in the Resale Registration Statement (including Ordinary Shares underlying Warrants) exceed the total number of outstanding Ordinary Shares (116,608,329 outstanding Ordinary Shares as of June 30, 2023, prior to any exercise of the Warrants). In addition, the Ordinary Shares beneficially owned by the Lavoro Original Shareholders represent 84.7% of our total outstanding Ordinary Shares (including 2,951,436 Vesting Founder Shares outstanding as of June 30, 2023) and, subject to the lock-up restrictions described herein, these holders have the ability to sell all of their Ordinary Shares pursuant to the Resale Registration Statement so long as it is available for use. Given the substantial number of Ordinary Shares registered for potential resale by Selling Securityholders pursuant to the Resale Registration Statement (and the concentration of such Ordinary Shares among the Lavoro Original Shareholders in particular), the sale of Ordinary Shares by the Selling Securityholders, or the perception in the market that the Selling Securityholders of a large number of Ordinary Shares intend to sell Ordinary Shares, particularly the Lavoro Original Shareholders, could increase the volatility of the market price of our Ordinary Shares or result in a significant decline in the public trading price of our Ordinary Shares.
In addition, some of the Ordinary Shares that have been registered for resale were acquired by the Selling Securityholders for prices considerably below the current market price of the Ordinary Shares. On June 30, 2023, the closing price of our Ordinary Shares on Nasdaq was US$5.96, 2023 per share. Even if the current market price is significantly below the price at the time of the initial public offering of TPB SPAC, certain Selling Securityholders may have an incentive to sell because they have purchased their Ordinary Shares at prices significantly lower than
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our public investors or the current trading price of the Ordinary Shares and may profit significantly so even under circumstances in which our public shareholders or certain other Selling Securityholders would experience losses in connection with their investment. For example, the Lavoro Original Shareholders were issued 98,726,401 Ordinary Shares in exchange for securities of Lavoro Agro Limited based on a value of US$10.00 per Ordinary Share, however, these Ordinary Shares were issued in exchange for Lavoro Agro Limited Shares that were acquired by the Lavoro Original Shareholders in various rounds of capital increases at purchase prices as low as approximately US$3.47 per share. As a result, the Lavoro Original Shareholders may experience a positive rate of return on the securities they purchased due to the differences in their purchase price of Lavoro Agro Limited shares. Based on the closing price of our Ordinary Shares referenced above, the Lavoro Original Shareholders may experience a potential profit of up to US$2.49 per share. While the Lavoro Original Shareholders may experience a positive rate of return based on the current trading price of our Ordinary Shares, other Selling Securityholders may not. For example, The Production Board (in respect of their TPB PIPE Investment shares) and the FPA Investors (in respect of their Forward Purchase Agreement Shares) acquired our Ordinary Shares at an original purchase price of US$10.00 per Ordinary Share, or approximately US$4.04 greater than the closing price of our Ordinary Shares as of June 30, 2023. Similarly, the public holders of our securities may not experience a positive rate of return on the securities they purchase due to differences in the applicable purchase price and the trading price. Accordingly, as of the date of this annual report and based on the closing price of our Ordinary Shares referenced above, The Production Board (in respect of their TPB PIPE Investment shares), FPA Investors (in respect of their Forward Purchase Agreement Shares) and public holders of Warrants would not experience a profit if they decided to sell their Ordinary Shares (including Ordinary Shares issued upon the exercise of Warrants).
As such, public shareholders of the Ordinary Shares have likely paid significantly more than certain of the Selling Securityholders, in particular the Lavoro Original Shareholders, for their Ordinary Shares, and should not expect to see a positive return unless the price of the Ordinary Shares appreciates above the price at which such shareholders purchased their Ordinary Shares. For example, investors who purchased SPAC Shares or SPAC Warrants in the initial public offering of TPB SPAC at a price of US$10.00 per unit, or investors who purchase the Ordinary Shares on Nasdaq following the Business Combination at prices above US$5.96 per Ordinary Share would not, as of June 30, 2023, have experienced a similar rate of return on the Ordinary Shares they purchased due to differences in the purchase prices and the current trading price. In addition, sales by the Selling Securityholders may cause the trading prices of our securities to experience a decline. As a result, the Selling Securityholders may effect sales of Ordinary Shares at prices significantly below the current market price, which could cause market prices to decline further.
The restrictions on selling, limited public float and trading volume for our Ordinary Shares may make it difficult to sell your shares and may cause volatility in the price of our securities. 
Historically, ownership of a significant portion of our outstanding Ordinary Shares has been concentrated in a small number of shareholders. The Ordinary Shares beneficially owned by the Lavoro Original Shareholders represent 84.7% of our total outstanding Ordinary Shares (including 2,951,436 Vesting Founder Shares outstanding as of June 30, 2023) and, are subject to lock-up restrictions as described herein. Consequently, our Ordinary Shares have a relatively small float and low average daily trading volume, which could affect a shareholder’s ability to sell our Ordinary Shares or the price at which it can be sold.
As of the effectiveness date of the Resale Registration Statement, the Lavoro Original Shareholders have the ability to sell all of their Ordinary Shares so long as it is available for use, subject to the lock-up restrictions described in “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—B. Related Party Transactions—Transactions Related to the Business Combination—Lock-Up Agreement.” Given the substantial number of Ordinary Shares registered for potential resale by Selling Securityholders pursuant to the Resale Registration Statement (and the concentration of such Ordinary Shares among the Lavoro Original Shareholders in particular), the sale of Ordinary Shares by the Selling Securityholders, or the perception in the market that the Selling Securityholders of a large number of Ordinary Shares intend to sell Ordinary Shares, particularly the Lavoro Original Shareholders, may adversely impact the market price of our Ordinary Shares and result in increased volatility in the trading price of our Ordinary Shares.
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Sales of our Ordinary Shares or the perception of such sales, by the Selling Securityholders, in the public market or otherwise, could cause the market price for our securities to decline, even if our business is doing well.
We filed the Resale Registration Statement in order to register the resale under the Securities Act of the Ordinary Shares (including Ordinary Shares exercisable upon the issuance of Warrants) by the Selling Securityholders set forth herein. All of our issued and outstanding Ordinary Shares are eligible for resale for so long as the Resale Registration Statement is in effect, subject to any applicable lock-up restrictions that affect the Selling Securityholders, and such Selling Securityholders hold a disproportionately large portion of our outstanding Ordinary Shares. We will not receive any of the proceeds from such sales, and, based on the current trading price of our Ordinary Shares, we do not currently expect to receive any proceeds from the exercise of Warrants. The market price of our Ordinary Shares could decline as a result of substantial sales of our Ordinary Shares, particularly sales by the Selling Securityholders. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate and cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
Sales of a substantial number of our Ordinary Shares, including as a result of the effectiveness of the Resale Registration Statement or upon expiration of the lock-up agreements, the perception that such sales may occur, or early release of these lock-up periods, could cause the trading price of our Ordinary Shares to fall or make it more difficult for you to sell your our Ordinary Shares at a time and price that you deem appropriate. For more information, see “—The Ordinary Shares registered for resale represent a substantial percentage of our outstanding Ordinary Shares and the sale of such securities could cause the market price of our Ordinary Shares to decline significantly.
In addition, one of the Investment Funds has pledged 64,239,660 of our Ordinary Shares to secure certain financial and other obligations in connection with the Loan Documents, which Ordinary Shares represent 55.1% of our outstanding share capital. If enforcement action is taken by or on behalf of the entities that have the benefit of the share pledges, or if shares of common stock are otherwise transferred in satisfaction of debt obligations, such enforcement action or transfers could result in transfer of such shares to the lender and one or more third parties and could result in a change of control with respect to us. A change of control may trigger a default under certain of our debt instruments and other material agreements, which may cause a material adverse effect on our business, operations, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
We may be required to repurchase up to 2,830,750 Ordinary Shares from the investors with whom we entered into Forward Purchase Agreements in connection with the closing of the Business Combination, which would reduce the amount of cash available to us to fund our growth plan.
On February 21, 2023, TPB SPAC entered into separate Forward Purchase Agreements with certain equity holders of TPB SPAC (together, the “FPA Investors”), pursuant to which TPB SPAC (or Second Merger Sub, as successor-in-interest to TPB SPAC following the Closing) agreed to purchase in the aggregate, on the date that is 24 months after the Closing Date (the “Maturity Date”), i.e. on February 28, 2025, up to 2,830,750 Ordinary Shares then held by the FPA Investors (subject to certain conditions and purchase limits set forth in the Forward Purchase Agreements). Pursuant to the terms of the Forward Purchase Agreements, each FPA Investor further agreed not to redeem, in connection with the Extraordinary General Meeting, of any of the SPAC Class A Ordinary Shares owned by it at such time. The per Ordinary Share price at which the FPA Investors have the right to sell the Ordinary Shares to us on the Maturity Date is (i) the total amount of the Escrowed Property in the Escrow Account (in each case, as defined in “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—B. Related Party Transactions—Transactions Related to the Business Combination—Forward Purchase Agreements”), divided by (ii) the total number of Ordinary Shares held by the FPA Investors as of the Maturity Date. The Forward Purchase Agreements may also be terminated, subject to certain conditions, if the trading price of our Ordinary Shares is less than US$5.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, cash dividends, reorganizations, combinations, recapitalizations and the like) on any 20 trading days within any consecutive 30 trading day period occurring following the six month anniversary of the date on which the Ordinary Shares are registered for resale. In this event, we would be required to deliver to the FPA Investors, for the FPA Investors’ use without restriction, an amount equal to (i) the Escrowed Property, divided by (ii) the total number of Ordinary Shares then held by the FPA Investors, multiplied by (iii) the number of Ordinary Shares then held by the FPA Investors.
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If the FPA Investors hold some or all of the 2,830,750 Forward Purchase Agreement Shares on the Maturity Date, and the per share trading price of our Ordinary Shares is less than the per Ordinary Share price at which the FPA Investors have the right to sell the Ordinary Shares to us on the Maturity Date, we would expect that the FPA Investors will exercise this repurchase right with respect to such shares. We have placed an amount equal to the Escrowed Property to secure our purchase obligation to the FPA Investors under the Forward Purchase Agreements. Nonetheless, in the event that we are required to repurchase these Forward Purchase Agreement Shares, or in the event that the Forward Purchase Agreements are terminated under the conditions described above, the amount of Escrowed Property to which we could be entitled to as of the Maturity Date may be reduced to zero, which would accordingly reduce the amount of cash arising from the Business Combination that would ultimately be available to fund our liquidity and capital resource requirements, which would adversely affect our ability to fund our growth plan in the manner we had contemplated when entering into the Forward Purchase Agreements.
For more information, see “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—B. Related Party Transactions—Transactions Related to the Business Combination—Forward Purchase Agreements.
An active trading market for our securities may not be sustained, and investors may not be able to resell their Ordinary Shares and Warrants at or above the price for which they purchased such securities.
An active trading market for the Ordinary Shares and Warrants may not be sustained. In the absence of an active trading market for our Ordinary Shares and/or Warrants, investors may not be able to sell their Ordinary Shares or Warrants, respectively, at or above the price they paid at the time that they would like to sell. If either none or only a limited number of securities or industry analysts maintain coverage, or if these securities or industry analysts are not widely respected within the general investment community, the demand for our Ordinary Shares could decrease, which might cause our share price and trading volume to decline significantly. In addition, an inactive market may impair our ability to raise capital by selling shares or equity securities and may impair our ability to acquire business partners by using Ordinary Shares as consideration, which, in turn, could harm our business.
You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, we conduct substantially all of our operations, and a majority of our directors and executive officers reside, outside of the United States.
We are an exempted company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, and we conduct a majority of our operations through our subsidiary, Lavoro Agro Limited, outside the United States. Substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States, primarily in Brazil. A majority of our officers and directors reside outside the United States and a substantial portion of the assets of those persons are located outside of the United States. As a result, it could be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals outside of the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed upon under the applicable securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of the jurisdictions that comprise the Latin American region could render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.
Our corporate affairs are governed by our governing documents, the Companies Act and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against our directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as that from English common law, which has persuasive, but not binding, authority on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less exhaustive body of securities laws than the United States. In addition, some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fulsome and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands.
As a result of all of the above, our shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the United States.
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While Cayman Islands law allows a dissenting shareholder to express the shareholder’s view that a court sanctioned reorganization of a Cayman Islands company would not provide fair value for the shareholder’s shares, Cayman Islands statutory law does not specifically provide for shareholder appraisal rights in connection with a court sanctioned reorganization (by way of a scheme of arrangement). This may make it more difficult for you to assess the value of any consideration you may receive in a merger or consolidation (by way of a scheme of arrangement) or to require that the acquirer gives you additional consideration if you believe the consideration offered is insufficient. However, Cayman Islands statutory law provides a mechanism for a dissenting shareholder in a merger or consolidation that does not take place by way of a scheme of arrangement to apply to the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands for a determination of the fair value of the dissenter’s shares if it is not possible for the company and the dissenter to agree on a fair price within the time limits prescribed.
Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies (such as the Company) have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records and accounts or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders. Our directors have discretion under our governing documents to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.
Subject to limited exceptions, under Cayman Islands law, a minority shareholder may not bring a derivative action against the board of directors. Class actions are not recognized in the Cayman Islands, but groups of shareholders with identical interests may bring representative proceedings, which are similar.
We do not anticipate paying dividends in the foreseeable future.
It is expected that we will retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, it is not expected that we will pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future for Lavoro Limited shareholders.
Our board of directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends. Even if the board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on the future results of operations and cash flow, capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by the board of directors. There is no guarantee that our Ordinary Shares will appreciate in value or that the trading price of the Ordinary Shares will not decline.
Our governing documents contain anti-takeover provisions that may discourage a third party from acquiring us and adversely affect the rights of holders of our Ordinary Shares.
Our governing documents contain certain provisions that could limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company, including provisions that:
authorize our board of directors to issue, without further action by our shareholders, undesignated preferred shares with terms, rights and preferences determined by its board of directors that may be senior to our Ordinary Shares;
impose advance notice requirements for shareholder proposals;
limit our shareholders’ ability to call special meetings; and
require approval from the holders of at least two-thirds in voting power of all outstanding shares who attend and voted at a general meeting of our shareholders to amend certain provisions of our governing documents.
These anti-takeover defenses could discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in our control. These provisions could also make it more difficult for you and our other shareholders to elect directors of your choosing and cause us to take other corporate actions than you desire.
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We have granted in the past, and intend to grant in the future, share incentives, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.
On the Closing Date, our board of directors adopted, and our shareholders approved the assumption of the Lavoro Share Plan. As a result, we reserved for issuance the number of Ordinary Shares equal to the number of Lavoro Share Plan Shares under the Lavoro Share Plan, as adjusted in accordance with the Business Combination Agreement. In addition, on August 16, 2023 and September 27, 2023 our board of directors approved and adopted the New Lavoro Equity Plan, which provides for the grant of restricted stock units to participants identified by our board. We believe the granting of share-based compensation is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel and employees, and as such, we can also grant share-based compensation and incur share-based compensation expenses. As a result, expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. See “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees—B. Compensation—Share-Based Compensation.
We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of Nasdaq listing standards and, as a result, qualify for, and intend to rely on, exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements. You will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to such requirements.
The Lavoro Original Shareholders control a majority of the voting power of our Ordinary Shares. As a result, we are a “controlled company” within the meaning of Nasdaq listing standards. Under these rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power is held by an individual, a group or another company is a “controlled company” and may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements of Nasdaq, including (1) the requirement that a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors, (2) the requirement that we have a nominating and corporate governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities and (3) the requirement that we have a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities. We rely on some or all of these exemptions. As a result, we currently do not have a majority of independent directors, we do not have a nominating or a corporate governance committee, and our compensation committee is not composed entirely of independent directors. Accordingly, our shareholders do not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of the corporate governance requirements of Nasdaq.
We are a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability. The rights of our shareholders, including with respect to fiduciary duties and corporate opportunities, may be different from the rights of shareholders governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions.
We are a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability. Our corporate affairs are governed, by our governing documents and by the laws of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders and the responsibilities of members of our board of directors may be different from the rights of shareholders and responsibilities of directors in companies governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions. In particular, as a matter of Cayman Islands law, directors of a Cayman Islands company owe fiduciary duties to the company and separately a duty of care, diligence and skill to the company. Under Cayman Islands law, directors and officers owe the following fiduciary duties: (1) duty to act in good faith in what the director or officer believes to be in the best interests of the company as a whole; (2) duty to exercise powers for the purposes for which those powers were conferred and not for a collateral purpose; (3) directors should not properly fetter the exercise of future discretion; (4) duty to exercise powers fairly as between different sections of shareholders; (5) duty to exercise independent judgment; and (6) duty not to put themselves in a position in which there is a conflict between their duty to the company and their personal interests. Our governing documents have varied this last obligation by providing that a director must disclose the nature and extent of his or her interest in any contract or arrangement, and following such disclosure and subject to any separate requirement under applicable law or the listing rules of Nasdaq, and unless disqualified by the chairman of the relevant meeting, such director may vote in respect of any transaction or arrangement in which he or she is interested and may be counted in the quorum at the meeting. Conversely, under Delaware corporate law, a director has a fiduciary duty to the corporation and its shareholders (made up of two components) and the director’s duties prohibit self-dealing by a director and mandate that the best interest of the corporation and its shareholders take precedence over any interest possessed by a director, officer or controlling shareholder and not shared by the shareholders generally. See “Item
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10. Additional Information—B. Memorandum and Articles of Association—Principal Differences between Cayman Islands and U.S. Corporate Law.”
United States civil liabilities and certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.
We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and substantially all of our assets are located outside of the United States. In addition, the majority of our directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States, and a substantial portion of the assets of these persons is located outside of the United States. As a result, it may be difficult to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons. It may also be difficult to enforce in U.S. courts judgments obtained in U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors who are not resident in the United States and the substantial majority of whose assets are located outside of the United States.
Further, it is unclear if original actions predicated on civil liabilities based solely upon U.S. federal securities laws are enforceable in courts outside the United States, including in the Cayman Islands and Brazil. Courts of the Cayman Islands may not, in an original action in the Cayman Islands, recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state of the United States on the grounds that such provisions are penal in nature. Although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, courts of the Cayman Islands will recognize and enforce a foreign judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction if such judgment is final, for a liquidated sum, provided it is not in respect of taxes or a fine or penalty, is not inconsistent with a Cayman Islands’ judgment in respect of the same matters, and was not obtained in a manner which is contrary to the public policy of the Cayman Islands. In addition, a Cayman Islands court may stay proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere.
Judgments of Brazilian courts to enforce our obligations with respect to our Ordinary Shares will be payable only in reais.
Most of our assets are located in Brazil. If proceedings are brought in the courts of Brazil seeking to enforce our obligations in respect of our Ordinary Shares, we will not be required to discharge our obligations in a currency other than the real. Under Brazilian exchange control laws, an obligation in Brazil to pay amounts denominated in a currency other than the real will only be satisfied in Brazilian currency at the exchange rate, typically as determined by the Central Bank, in effect on the date (i) of actual payment, (ii) on which such judgment is rendered, or (iii) on which collection or enforcement proceedings are started against us, and such amounts are then adjusted to reflect exchange rate variations through the effective payment date. The then-prevailing exchange rate may not afford non-Brazilian investors with full compensation for any claim arising out of or related to our obligations under our Ordinary Shares.
We may be unable to satisfy listing requirements in the future, which could limit investors’ ability to effect transactions in our securities and subject us to additional trading restrictions.
If we fail to satisfy the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq such as any applicable corporate governance requirements or the minimum closing bid price requirement, Nasdaq may take steps to delist our securities. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of our securities and would impair your ability to sell or purchase the securities when you wish to do so. In the event of a delisting, we can provide no assurance that any action taken by us to restore compliance with listing requirements would allow our securities to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our securities, prevent our securities from dropping below Nasdaq’s minimum bid price requirement or prevent future non-compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements. If we are delisted, there could be significant material adverse consequences, including:
a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;
a limited amount of news and analyst coverage for us; and
a decreased ability to obtain capital or pursue acquisitions by issuing additional equity or convertible securities.
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Additionally, if our securities are not listed on, or become delisted from, Nasdaq for any reason, and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of our securities may be more limited than if our securities were quoted or listed on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established or sustained. We may be unable to maintain the listing of our securities in the future.
The market price of our equity securities may be volatile, and your investment could suffer or decline in value.
The stock exchanges, including Nasdaq, on which certain of our securities are listed as described elsewhere herein, may from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. Even if an active, liquid and orderly trading market is sustained for our Ordinary Shares and Warrants, the market price of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants may be volatile and could decline significantly. Given the recent price volatility of our Ordinary Shares and relative lack of liquidity therein, there is no certainty that warrantholders will exercise their Warrants and, accordingly, we may not receive any proceeds in relation to our outstanding Warrants. In addition, the trading volume in our Ordinary Shares and Warrants may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to continue to occur. We cannot assure you that the market price of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants will not continue to fluctuate widely or decline significantly in the future in response to a number of factors, including, among others, the following:
certain of the Selling Securityholders purchased the securities registered for resale under the Resale Registration Statement at prices that are lower than the current market prices for such securities and, accordingly, may be or are incentivized to sell them under the Resale Registration Statement (for example, the Sponsor acquired its SPAC Private Warrants for US$1.50 per warrant, and each Warrant is exercisable for one Ordinary Share at an exercise price of US$11.50 per share);
the Ordinary Shares (including Ordinary Shares underlying Warrants) offered under the Resale Registration Statement exceeded the total number of outstanding Ordinary Shares as of June 30, 2023, and sales of a significant number of such Ordinary Shares could materially adversely affect the trading prices of our securities;
failure to comply with the requirements of Nasdaq;
failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act or other laws or regulations; and
failure of securities analysts to initiate or maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by any securities analysts who follow us or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors.
In addition, if our performance does not meet market expectations, the price of our securities may decline. Fluctuations in the price of our securities could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. Factors affecting the trading price of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants may also include:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;
changes in the market’s expectations about operating results;
our operating results failing to meet market expectations in a particular period;
operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of debt;
any significant change in our board or management;
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sales of substantial amounts of our Ordinary Shares by our directors, executive officers or significant shareholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and
general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.
Broad market and industry factors may depress the market price of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general has experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of our securities, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for companies engaging in the agricultural industry or the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to us could depress the price of our Ordinary Shares regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our Ordinary Shares and Warrants also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.
Moreover, in the past, following periods of volatility in the trading price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against that company. If we were to be involved in any similar litigation, we could incur substantial costs and our management’s attention and resources could be diverted, which would have a material adverse effect on us.
The exercise of our Warrants for our Ordinary Shares would increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to our shareholders.
Our Warrants to purchase our Ordinary Shares became exercisable in accordance with the terms of the Warrant Agreement on March 30, 2023, which was 30 days after the completion of the Business Combination. The exercise price of our Warrants is US$11.50 per share. Therefore, as from when our Warrants became exercisable, if and when the trading price of the Ordinary Shares is less than US$11.50, we expect that warrantholders would not exercise their Warrants. To the extent such warrants are exercised, additional Ordinary Shares will be issued, which will result in dilution to the holders of our Ordinary Shares and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market or the fact that such warrants may be exercised could adversely affect the market price of our Ordinary Shares. However, there is no guarantee that our Warrants will ever be in the money prior to their expiration, and as such, the Warrants may expire worthless.
We may redeem your unexpired Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to you, thereby making your Warrants worthless.
We have the ability to redeem our outstanding Public Warrants at any time prior to their expiration at a price of US$0.01 per warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of our Ordinary Shares is equal to or exceeds US$18.00 per share (as adjusted for share sub divisions, share capitalizations, rights issuances, subdivisions, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date they send the notice of redemption to the warrantholders (the price for such period, the “Reference Value”). If and when the Public Warrants become redeemable by us, we may not exercise our redemption right if the issuance of shares upon exercise of the Public Warrants is not exempt from registration or qualification under applicable state blue sky laws or if we are unable to effect such registration or qualification. We will use our best efforts to register or qualify such shares under the blue sky laws of the state of residence in those states in which the Warrants were offered by us. Redemption of the outstanding Public Warrants could force you (i) to exercise your Public Warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so, (ii) to sell your Public Warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your Public Warrants or (iii) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding Public Warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your Public Warrants.
In addition, we may redeem your Public Warrants at any time prior to their expiration at a price of US$0.10 per warrant if, among other things, the Reference Value equals or exceeds US$10.00 per share (as adjusted for share sub-divisions, share capitalizations, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like). The value received upon exercise of the Public Warrants (1) may be less than the value the holders would have received if they had exercised their Public Warrants at a later time where the underlying share price is higher and (2) may not compensate the
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holders for the value of the Public Warrants, including because the number of shares received is capped at 0.361 of our Ordinary Shares per warrant (subject to adjustment) irrespective of the remaining life of the Public Warrants.
In the event that we elect to redeem all of the outstanding Public Warrants, we would only be required to have the notice of redemption mailed by first class mail, postage prepaid by us not less than 30 days prior to the redemption date to registered holders of the outstanding Public Warrants to be redeemed at their last address as they shall appear on the registration books.
Our management has the ability to require holders of our Warrants to exercise such Warrants on a cashless basis, which will cause holders to receive fewer Ordinary Shares upon their exercise of the Warrants than they would have received had they been able to exercise their Warrants for cash.
If we call our Warrants for redemption after the redemption criteria have been satisfied, our management will have the option to require any holder that wishes to exercise their Warrant (including any Warrants held by the Sponsor or its permitted transferees) to do so on a “cashless basis.” If our management chooses to require holders to exercise their Warrants on a cashless basis, the number of Ordinary Shares received by a holder upon exercise will be fewer than it would have been had such holder exercised his Warrant for cash. This will have the effect of reducing the potential “upside” of the holder’s investment in us.
The Warrant Agreement designates the courts of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by holders of our warrants, which could limit the ability of warrant holders to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with our company.
The Warrant Agreement provides that, subject to applicable law, (i) any action, proceeding or claim against us arising out of or relating in any way to the each such agreement will be brought and enforced in the courts of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, and (ii) that the parties thereto irrevocably submit to such jurisdiction, which jurisdiction shall be the exclusive forum for any such action, proceeding or claim. The parties also agreed to waive any objection to such exclusive jurisdiction or that such courts represent an inconvenient forum.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, these provisions of the Warrant Agreement will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal district courts of the United States are the sole and exclusive forum. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in our warrants will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the forum provisions in the applicable agreement. If any action, the subject matter of which is within the scope the forum provisions of the Warrant Agreement, is filed in a court other than a court of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (a “foreign action”) in the name of any holder of our warrants, such holder shall be deemed to have consented to: (x) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts located in the State of New York in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the forum provisions (an “enforcement action”), and (y) having service of process made upon such warrant holder in any such enforcement action by service upon such warrant holder’s counsel in the foreign action as agent for such warrant holder.
This choice-of-forum provision may limit a warrant holder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us, which may discourage such lawsuits. Alternatively, if a court were to find this provision of the Warrant Agreement inapplicable or unenforceable with respect to one or more actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Relating to Taxation
New Lavoro may be or become a PFIC, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders of Ordinary Shares or Warrants.
In general, a non-U.S. corporation is a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year in which (i) 50% or more of the value of its assets (generally determined on the basis of a quarterly average) consists of assets that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income, or (ii) 75% or more of its gross income consists of
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passive income. Passive income generally includes dividends, interest, certain royalties and rents, and gains from the disposition of passive assets. Cash and cash equivalents are passive assets.
Based on the expected composition of New Lavoro’s income and assets and the estimated value of New Lavoro’s assets, New Lavoro does not believe they were a PFIC for the taxable year ending June 30, 2023. However, because New Lavoro’s PFIC status for any taxable year is an annual determination that can be made only after the end of that year and will depend on the composition of New Lavoro’s income and assets and the value of its assets from time to time (including the value of its goodwill, which may be determined in large part by reference to the market price of the Ordinary Shares from time to time, which could be volatile), there can be no assurances New Lavoro will not be a PFIC for its taxable year ending June 30, 2023, or any future taxable year.
If New Lavoro is a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder owns Ordinary Shares,
the U.S. Holder generally will be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences, including increased tax liability on disposition gains and certain “excess distributions” and additional reporting requirements. Prospective holders of Ordinary Shares and Warrants should consult their tax advisers regarding the application of the PFIC rules to New Lavoro and the risks of owning equity securities in a company that may be a PFIC. See “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules.
Item 4.    Information on the Company
A.History and Development of the Company
New Lavoro is an exempted company incorporated with limited liability in the Cayman Islands on August 25, 2022. New Lavoro owns no material assets other than its direct equity interests in its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Second Merger Sub and Lavoro Agro Limited. In addition, New Lavoro does not operate any business other than through its subsidiaries.
Business Combination
On the Closing Date, we consummated the previously announced Business Combination pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, by and among us, TPB SPAC, First Merger Sub, Second Merger Sub, Third Merger Sub and Lavoro Agro Limited.
Pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth therein, on the date immediately prior to the date on which the Third Merger took place, substantially concurrently with and immediately after the closing of the TPB PIPE Investment, (i) First Merger Sub merged with and into TPB SPAC, with TPB SPAC surviving as a direct wholly owned subsidiary of New Lavoro, and (ii) immediately following the First Merger, TPB SPAC, as successor in the First Merger, merged with and into Second Merger Sub, with Second Merger Sub surviving as a direct wholly owned subsidiary of New Lavoro. On the Closing Date, Third Merger Sub merged with and into Lavoro Agro Limited, with Lavoro Agro Limited surviving as a direct wholly owned subsidiary of New Lavoro.
The Business Combination was unanimously approved by TPB SPAC’s board of directors and at the extraordinary general meeting of TPB SPAC’s shareholders held on February 22, 2023 (the “Extraordinary General Meeting”). TPB SPAC’s shareholders also voted to approve all other proposals presented at the Extraordinary General Meeting. Prior to the Closing Date, TPB SPAC public shareholders exercised their redemption rights in respect of 14,663,445 SPAC Class A Ordinary Shares. As a result, immediately prior to the Closing Date, there were 3,372,854 SPAC Class A Ordinary Shares outstanding.
As a result of the SPAC Mergers, (i) each SPAC Class A Ordinary Shares and SPAC Class B Ordinary Share, other than SPAC Ordinary Shares that were owned by TPB SPAC, First Merger Sub or any wholly owned subsidiary of TPB SPAC, were exchanged for Ordinary Shares, at a one-to-one ratio, and (ii) each SPAC Public Warrant and SPAC Private Warrant, each exercisable at US$11.50 per one SPAC Class A Ordinary Share, became a Public Warrant and Private Warrant, respectively, at a one-to-one ratio, on the same terms and conditions prior to such conversion.
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As a result of the Third Merger, among other things, (i) each Lavoro Agro Limited Share owned by Lavoro Agro Limited, Third Merger Sub or any wholly owned subsidiary of Lavoro Agro Limited immediately prior to the Third Merger was automatically cancelled, and (ii) each Lavoro Agro Limited Share that was issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Third Effective Time (as defined in the Business Combination Agreement) was exchanged into and for all purposes represented only the right to receive a number of validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable Ordinary Shares equal to the Per Share Stock Consideration (as defined in the Business Combination Agreement).
Concurrently with the execution and delivery of the Business Combination Agreement, The Production Board entered into a subscription agreement pursuant to which The Production Board subscribed for and purchased 10,000,000 SPAC Class A Ordinary Shares at US$10.00 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of US$100,000,000. Moreover, certain other related agreements were executed in connection with the Business Combination, including the Voting and Support Agreement, the Lock-up Agreement, the Subscription Agreement, the Sponsor Letter Agreement and the A&R Registration Rights Agreement, each as described in “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—B. Related Party TransactionsTransactions Related to the Business Combination” included elsewhere in this annual report.
As a result of the Business Combination, Lavoro Agro Limited has become a wholly owned direct subsidiary of New Lavoro. On March 1, 2023, our Ordinary Shares and Public Warrants commenced trading on Nasdaq under the symbols “LVRO” and “LVROW,” respectively.
Due to the significant number of SPAC Class A Ordinary Shares that were redeemed in connection with the Business Combination, the number of Ordinary Shares that the Selling Securityholders can sell into the public markets pursuant to the Resale Registration Statement may exceed our public float. Furthermore, the 121,640,757 Ordinary Shares registered for sale in the Resale Registration Statement (including Ordinary Shares underlying Warrants) exceed the total number of outstanding Ordinary Shares (116,608,329 outstanding Ordinary Shares as of June 30, 2023, prior to any exercise of the Warrants). In addition, the Ordinary Shares beneficially owned by the Lavoro Original Shareholders represent 84.7% of our total outstanding Ordinary Shares (including 2,951,436 Vesting Founder Shares outstanding as of June 30, 2023) and, subject to the lock-up restrictions described herein, these holders have the ability to sell all of their Ordinary Shares pursuant to the Resale Registration Statement so long as it is available for use. Given the substantial number of Ordinary Shares registered for potential resale by Selling Securityholders pursuant to the Resale Registration Statement (and the concentration of such Ordinary Shares among the Lavoro Original Shareholders in particular), the sale of Ordinary Shares by the Selling Securityholders, or the perception in the market that the Selling Securityholders of a large number of Ordinary Shares intend to sell Ordinary Shares, particularly the Lavoro Original Shareholders, could increase the volatility of the market price of our Ordinary Shares or result in a significant decline in the public trading price of our Ordinary Shares.
In addition, some of the Ordinary Shares being registered for resale were acquired by the Selling Securityholders for prices considerably below the current market price of the Ordinary Shares. Even if the current market price is significantly below the price at the time of the initial public offering of TPB SPAC (as defined herein), certain Selling Securityholders may have an incentive to sell because they have purchased their Ordinary Shares at prices significantly lower than our public investors or the current trading price of the Ordinary Shares and may profit significantly so even under circumstances in which our public shareholders or certain other Selling Securityholders would experience losses in connection with their investment. For additional information, see “Selling Securityholders” and “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Ordinary Shares and Warrants—The Ordinary Shares being registered for resale in this annual report represent a substantial percentage of our outstanding Ordinary Shares and the sale of such securities could cause the market price of our Ordinary Shares to decline significantly.
Corporate Information
New Lavoro’s registered office is c/o Maples Corporate Services Limited, PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands, and New Lavoro’s principal executive office is Av. Dr. Cardoso de Melo, 1450, 4th floor, office 401, São Paulo, SP, 04548-005, Brazil. New Lavoro’s principal website address is www.lavoroagro.com/en/. We do not incorporate the information contained on, or accessible through, New Lavoro’s
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websites into this annual report, and you should not consider it a part of this annual report. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The SEC’s website is http://www.sec.gov.
Recent Developments
New Financing Transactions
Subsequent to June 30, 2023, through the date of this annual report, certain of our Brazilian and Colombian subsidiaries entered into a number of financing agreements totaling an aggregate principal amount of R$1,250.7 million, with interest rates ranging from CDI Rate plus 1.80% to 3.04% and maturities ranging from October 2023 to September 2024, and COP$24,244.1 million, with interest rates ranging from IBR Rate plus 3.20% to 5.60% and up to 16.60% at a fixed rate and maturities ranging from July 2024 to August 2028. These new financing transactions are in line with our business plan and reflect the seasonality of our business as the last quarter usually demands additional working capital. Our principal new financing agreements are described below:
New Bank Credit Notes and Related Term Loan Facilities
On July 20, 2023, our subsidiary Agrovenci issued a Finame (Financiamento de Máquinas e Equipamentos) Bank Credit Note (Cédula de Crédito Bancário, or “CCB”) to Banco Santander S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$100.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 1.80 % p.a. and maturing on March 15, 2024. This loan is guaranteed by our subsidiaries Pitangueiras and Lavoro Agro Holding S.A..
On July 21, 2023, our subsidiary Produtec issued a Finame CCB to Banco Santander S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$100.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 1.80 % p.a. and maturing on March 15, 2024. This loan is guaranteed by our subsidiaries Pitangueiras and Lavoro Agro Holding S.A..
On July 27, 2023, our subsidiary Agricultura y Servicios S.A.S issued an inversíon note to Banco de Bogotá S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of COP$2,774.1 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the IBR Rate plus 5.60 % p.a. and maturing on July 25, 2028.
On July 26, 2023, our subsidiary Agrointegral Andina S.A.S issued a tesorería note to Bancolombia S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of COP$7,500.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the IBR Rate plus 4.20 % p.a. and maturing on July 25, 2024.
On July 26, 2023, our subsidiary Agrointegral Andina S.A.S issued a tesorería note to Banco de Bogotá S.A in aggregate principal amount of COP$7,500.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to 16.60 % p.a. and maturing on July 25, 2024.
On August 2, 2023, our subsidiary Lavoro Agrocomercial issued a Finame CCB to Banco ABC S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$60.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.30% p.a. and maturing on August 15, 2024.
On August 28, 2023, our subsidiary Central Agrícola issued a financial rural products note (cédulo de produto rural financeira), or a CPR-F, to Banco Itaú S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$60.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.75% and maturing on March 28, 2024.
On August 29, 2023, our subsidiary Pitangueiras issued a Finame CCB to Banco Alfa S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$50.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.40% p.a. and maturing on April 15, 2024.
On August 29, 2023, our subsidiary Produtec issued a Finame CCB to Banco Alfa S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$50.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.40% p.a. and maturing on April 15, 2024.
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On August 30, 2023, our subsidiary Cenagro issued an inversíon note to Banco de Bogotá S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of COP$5,900.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the IBR Rate plus 5.35% p.a. and maturing on August 30, 2028.
On August 31, 2023, our subsidiary Lavoro Agrocomercial issued a CPR-F to Banco Safra S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$50.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.65% and maturing on August 31, 2024.
On September 8, 2023, our subsidiary Floema issued a Finame CCB to Banco Itaú S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$60.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.50 % p.a. and maturing on May 15, 2024.
On September 19, 2023, our subsidiary Produtec issued a CPR-F to Banco Safra S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$100.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.80% and maturing on October 24, 2024
On September 26, 2023, our subsidiary Agrointegral Andina S.A. issued a tesorería note to Banco de Bogotá S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of COP$4,700.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the IBR Rate plus 3.20% p.a. and maturing on September 25, 2024.
On September 27, 2023, our subsidiary Lavoro Agrocomercial issued a CPR-F to Banco Daycoval S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$50.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 3.04% and maturing on January 31, 2024.
New Export Credit Notes and Related Term Loan Facilities
On July 5, 2023, our subsidiary Lavoro Agrocomercial issued Export Credit Notes (Nota de Crédito à Exportação, or an NCE) to Banco Citi S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$79.7 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.85% p.a. and maturing on June 28, 2024. This NCE is guaranteed by our subsidiary Lavoro Agro Holding S.A..
On July 5, 2023, our subsidiary Lavoro Agrocomercial issued a 4131 Swap note to Banco Citi S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$161.8 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.98% p.a. and maturing on June 28, 2024. This NCE is guaranteed by our subsidiary Lavoro Agro Holding S.A.
On August 31, 2023, our subsidiary Crop Care Holding issued a 4131 Swap note to Banco Santander S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$49.9 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 3.40% p.a. and maturing on June 28, 2024.
On September 6, 2023, our subsidiary Pitangueiras issued an NCE to Banco do Brasil in an aggregate principal amount of R$50.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.98% p.a. and maturing on September 7, 2024.
On September 6, 2023, our subsidiary Lavoro Agrocomercial issued an NCE to Banco do Brasil in an aggregate principal amount of R$50.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.86% p.a. and maturing on August 25, 2024. This NCE is guaranteed by our subsidiary Lavoro Agro Holding S.A.
On September 18, 2023, our subsidiary Lavoro Agrocomercial issued a 4131 Swap note to Banco Santander S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$28.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.10% p.a. and maturing on October 10, 2024.
On September 28, 2023, our subsidiary Produtec issued a 4131 Swap note to Banco Itaú S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$50.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.75% p.a. and maturing on March 28, 2024.
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On October 11, 2023, our subsidiary Lavoro Agrocomercial issued a 4131 Swap note to Banco Itaú Unibanco S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$40.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.60% p.a. and maturing on January 16, 2024.
On October 16, 2023, our subsidiary Lavoro Agrocomercial issued a 4131 Swap note to Banco Santander S.A. in an aggregate principal amount of R$35.0 million, with interest accruing at a rate per annum equal to the CDI Rate plus 2.10% p.a. and maturing on May 16, 2024. This NCE is guaranteed by our subsidiary Lavoro Agro Holding S.A.
Acquisition of Referência Agroinsumos Ltda.
On February 28, 2023, we entered into an agreement to acquire a 70% equity interest in Referência Agroinsumos Ltda., or Referência Agro, an agricultural inputs distributor doing business in the south of Brazil. The purchase price for this transaction (as adjusted) is R$102.1 million, of which R$67.1 million was paid on the closing date and R$35.0 million is expected to be paid one year after the closing date. The transaction closed on July 31, 2023. Because we acquired Referência Agro through our subsidiary Pitangueiras, we currently beneficially own 66.6% of Referência Agro.
B.Business Overview
Overview
We are a leading player in the Latin America agricultural inputs retail market, with operations spread across Brazil and Colombia, and an emergent agricultural input trading company in Uruguay.
We have three reportable segments: (1) the Brazil Cluster, which comprises companies dedicated to the distribution of agricultural inputs such as crop protection, seeds, fertilizers and specialty products, in Brazil; (2) the LATAM Cluster, which includes companies dedicated to the distribution of agricultural inputs outside Brazil (primarily in Colombia); and (3) the Crop Care Cluster, which includes companies that produce and import our own portfolio of private label products including off-patent crop protection and specialty products (e.g., biologicals and specialty fertilizers).
As a result of our scale, differentiated business model, private label specialty products and digital strategy, we offer farmers a comprehensive portfolio of products and services. Our goal is to help our farmer clients succeed by providing omnichannel support throughout the crop cycle via our RTVs (Representante Técnico de Vendas), which are our technical sales representatives, our e-commerce platform and our Minha Lavoro smartphone application. We have a highly skilled and technical salesforce that provides high quality agronomic advisory services, generating value for farmers and, in turn, gaining their trust. With our proprietary database analysis, which is internally known as the Control Tower, we seek to acquire an intimate understanding of our farmer clients and to offer products and services tailored to their specific needs. We have also recently signed a multi-year agreement with Pattern Ag, Inc., or “Pattern Ag,” to deliver new services to farmers that use DNA sequencing and software-based tools to help improve farm productivity, aiming to increase crop yields and reduce farmers’ costs, land and water usage, and carbon footprint. Pattern Ag was founded with an initial investment from an affiliate of the Sponsor and is one of The Production Board’s portfolio companies. This project is still in pilot mode, and the first set of analyses began in June 2023, with orders spanning nearly 80,000 acres in four Brazilian states.
Moreover, we recently partnered with Brasilseg, an insurance company and affiliate of the BB Seguros group, to offer agricultural insurance solutions to Brazilian farmers. Agrotech, an insurance broker company, and Agristamp, an insurance platform, will be responsible for facilitating negotiations between Lavoro and its customers. The partnership reflects our expansion strategy, which seeks to implement integrated services aimed at farmers in a market that is still largely unexplored in Brazil. The type of insurance to be offered is called Agrícola Flex, which provides productivity coverage for soybean, corn and wheat crops. Commercial operations with Agrotech began in the first half of 2023 at all our retail stores in Brazil.
In addition, in June 2023, we announced our partnership with Stenon, a growing German agriculture innovator that has gained the support of The Production Board, an agriculture focused investment holding company based in San Francisco, United States. We believe Stenon’s FarmLab is an innovative tool that utilizes its sensor technology
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to generate cost efficient on-demand soil analysis in real time, a first-of-a-kind service in Latin America. In partnership with Stenon, Lavoro expects to offer soil analyses to its customers, enabling the precise identification of levels of chemical elements necessary for plant growth and yield optimization, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium, in addition to measuring other soil parameters such as temperature, pH and moisture in seconds.. Stenon services in partnership with Lavoro were officially launched in South of Brazil in early October 2023, where we deployed 25 real-time soil analysis devices in the state of Paraná and trained more than 100 RTVs.
We occupy a central role in the agribusiness chain: providing small and medium-sized farmers the most suitable agricultural inputs and services to grow their crops at higher yields, which in turn improves their profitability. These small and medium-sized farmers ranging between 100 and 10,000 hectares in planted acreage are typically not serviced directly by agricultural input producers. In Brazil, this segment of the market represents 65% of the cultivated land, whereas large farmers (owning more than 10,000 hectares) and micro farmers (owning less than 100 hectares) represent 15% and 20%, respectively, according to a 2017 census by IBGE. We do not focus on large farmers, who given their sizeable purchase volumes are typically directly serviced by agricultural inputs suppliers.
We have a broad geographical footprint in the countries where we operate. In Brazil, we are present in several states, with meaningful positions in the States of Mato Grosso, Paraná, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, and São Paulo, key agriculture centers in the country. In Colombia, we are present in 30 states and are an important agricultural input distributor as well. Our future growth plans include entry into other countries in South and Central America, such as Peru, Chile, Paraguay and Ecuador. Our geographic diversification across the continent provides us with an important risk mitigant to our operations, in particular with respect to potential adverse weather events and the seasonality of specific crop types.
footprint 29.10.jpg
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Source: Company.
As of June 30, 2023, we have 220 physical stores, of which 181 are in Brazil and 39 are in Colombia. On average, it generally costs us approximately US$100,000 to open a new store, and our CAPEX-to-sales ratio has averaged under approximately 1% of sales. Our retail stores represent a footprint covering approximately 150,000,000 acres in Latin America. Our 1,080 RTVs monitor the day-to-day needs of farmers and the evolution of each crop through regular visits. Our technical visits provide a wide range of advisory assistance, including crop-planning, planting and harvest advice, agricultural input selection advice, product application recommendations, among others, which Lavoro believes are important for sales conversion and client loyalty.
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Understanding our customer needs and providing first rate agronomic and other services is a critical element to our strategy. Building loyalty and trust with small and medium-size farmers is what we believe enables us to gain market share over time. As such, we regularly monitor our performance by conducting an annual survey with our customers to evaluate our Net Promoter Score, or our NPS. For our latest survey in June 2023, we contacted 16,000 customers across 151 stores and 24 subsidiaries. This survey showed an overall NPS of 66 out of 100 for 2022, which was consistent and within the margin of error relative to our NPS of 67 in 2022. In this 2023 survey, on a scale from 1 to 10 (10 being the highest), 73% of our clients responded with a 9 or 10 as their likelihood of recommending us to a friend or colleague, and we further decreased the number of detractors by 1%, a relative improvement as compared to 2022. These results suggest strong and improving satisfaction and brand awareness among our customer base and are a testament to our relentless efforts in optimizing our commercial organization. Our goal is to reach and/or consistently remain a leader in client satisfaction and market share in the regions that we operate. To achieve this will require us to (1) continue to recruit and retain high performing RTVs, and continuously train them to operate at the highest level in terms of their technical and agronomic knowledge, (2) provide our RTVs with the requisite Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and business intelligence tools to improve their productivity and effectiveness of their client interactions, (3) retain our reputation as a reliable distributor of the most in-demand agricultural inputs at competitive prices, even in times of short supply (as was the case in the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022). In addition, our plans of adding new differentiated services and distributing value-add agricultural technology to small and medium-sized farmers, which are particularly underserved at present, will further bolster our reputation as a “one-stop-shop” go-to retailer and improve our wallet share over time.
Maintaining a strong relationship with input suppliers is critical to the success of any agricultural inputs retailers in Latin America. In that respect, we have developed long-lasting relationships with the major agricultural inputs suppliers in the region. Our present scale and high growth relative to the rest of the agricultural retail landscape makes us a vital partner to our suppliers. In addition to distributing third-party products, we also offer our portfolio of private label specialty products and private label products under our Crop Care Cluster. Our Crop Care product portfolio is complementary to the third-party branded products from key suppliers that we also distribute, as we are mindful to not compete and disrupt our close relationships with them. Overall, as a result of our comprehensive portfolio of products, we can offer a customized approach to our farmer clients, and better meet their needs regardless of size, crop type or climate characteristics.
revenue breakdown.jpg
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Source: Company analysis for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023.
(1)Other revenues represent the remaining 2.0% of input retail revenues.
In addition to the personalized agronomic advisory assistance and agricultural inputs we provide to our clients, we also offer them different methods of payment for our products. For certain contracts with customers, we sell agricultural inputs at term (e.g., seeds, crop protection products, fertilizers, and specialty products) in exchange for the future delivery of grains and oilseeds, mainly soybeans and corn, at the time of their harvest. We call these
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contracts barter transactions. Barter transactions are important to our clients as a form of supplier financing, as it allows them to use their future production output as currency to purchase agricultural inputs at planting. This barter contract method of financing is a particular feature of the Latin American agricultural industry, especially in row crop farming, and has been common in the region in the past two decades.
The mechanics for these barter transactions are as follows. A contract (grain purchase agreement) is signed prior to the start of the crop planting season between us and our client. The contract stipulates the volume of the commodity to be delivered at harvest in exchange for Lavoro delivery of our input products during the planting period (the credit term is typically 7-9 months). The volume in this contract is determined such as to be equivalent to the negotiated value of the input products to be delivered by Lavoro, and is calculated based on the prevailing future price of that commodity on the signing date of that contract. The client’s main obligation is to deliver the agreed upon volume of commodities as a payment at a future date, and this obligation becomes our collateral in this transaction. Contemporaneously, we enter into a future commodity sale agreement with a commodity trading company, pursuant to which we agree to deliver the commodity to be received from our farmer client under the inputs sale transaction. This agreement is entered into for the same quantity and under the same terms as the contract between us and our client. Since we swap out the liability in-kind with trading houses, our exposure to commodity prices is limited. We also simultaneously fully hedge our foreign exchange exposure via futures and other derivative positions. While this physical sale of the grains is not concluded with trading companies, we may enter into a derivative contract on commodity and futures exchanges such as CBOT, ICE, or B3, in an equivalent term associated with the physical grain purchases. This aims to mitigate our exposure to price fluctuations. Consequently, we maintain these derivative contracts to naturally hedge against market volatility. As soon as the physical sale of the grains is concluded, the derivative contracts are promptly liquidated to realize the hedging gains or losses.
Barter transactions reduce the risk of customer default by guaranteeing our direct access to the farmer client’s harvest. Barter transactions are also an important commercial tool for us; they have the potential to increase client loyalty and allow us to sell farmers a wider and higher-quality range of products. In the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023, 6.8% of our revenue was derived from barter transactions (9.0% in the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022).
We may incur losses if our farmer clients do not meet their obligations under the barter transactions entered into with trading companies, in which case we would need to purchase certain grains in the open market at our expense to close outstanding obligations with trading companies. Moreover, we may incur losses if our farmer clients default on their obligations. In addition to the future grain/oilseed harvest serving as a collateral in these barter contracts, we have an internal credit team leveraging our proprietary credit scoring systems to help us manage and mitigate our credit risk.
The prices of agricultural inputs and crop prices (such as soybean and corn) are subject to volatility resulting from weather conditions, crop yield, transportation costs, storage costs, the Brazilian government agricultural policy, exchange rates and demand for these commodities in the international market, among other factors. If we are unable to pass rising costs onto our farmer clients, or the farmer barter exchange ratios for our clients worsen over time, the demand for our products and our margins may be affected, and we may face significant losses in our operations. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry—Our operating results are highly dependent upon and fluctuate based upon business and economic conditions and governmental policies affecting the agricultural industry in which we or our customers operate. These factors are outside of our control and may significantly affect our profitability” and “—We may be adversely affected by the ongoing armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine.”
Our History
We first began operations in August 2017 with the acquisition of the Gral Group based in Colombia, which positioned us as a leading retailer of agricultural inputs in the country. In December of the same year, we entered the market in Brazil, with the acquisition of Lavoro Agrocomercial, a prominent player in the agricultural inputs sales industry located in Mato Grosso. Since then, as of the date of this annual report, we have completed a total of 24 M&A transactions in the agricultural inputs market in Colombia and Brazil. The market continues to be fragmented, with several opportunities already mapped by our internal and experienced M&A team. Additionally, since 2019, we began our verticalization strategy of developing and purchasing input suppliers that sell both to Lavoro’s agricultural retail channel, as well as to third-party agricultural retailers. Collectively, this business is called Crop Care Cluster. It
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began in 2019 when we internally developed Perterra, our own line of off-patent crop protection products. We further strengthened our vertical integration strategy by acquiring Agrobiológica Soluções Naturais Ltda., or Agrobiológica, an agricultural biological player, in 2020; Union Agro, a special fertilizer manufacturer and supplier, in 2021; and Cromo Química, a company specialized in the production of high-performance adjuvants, in 2023. As a result of these acquisitions, we have become one of the leading agricultural inputs players in Brazil in a short period of time, and we continue to consolidate this position by developing our own line of products. The Crop Care Cluster currently operates only in Brazil, with plans to expand to the rest of our footprint.
Crop Care segments.jpg
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Source: Company analysis.
Note: Number of product registrations data as of June 2023; Agrobiológica gross margins data for fiscal year 2023.
Our M&A Strategy
Despite our limited operating history as a consolidated company, we have a proven track record of successfully acquiring and integrating companies. Our expertise allows us to integrate targets within our platform in less than 12 months. Our centralized management model enables us to extract synergies from every transaction, including economies of scale in procurement of agricultural input products, inventory management, logistics and other general and administrative operations. Lavoro also leverages its proprietary credit scoring system to mitigate financial risk for revenue booked via short-term credit to its clients. In addition, with our central structure, we are able to provide centralized services, such as legal, accounting, information technology and human resources, to better integrate each company and bring efficiencies and improve our standard of service.
Moreover, we have successfully executed our synergy plan for the companies we have acquired and accelerated their organic growth. The market in which we operate is still very fragmented and we believe we are one of the best positioned players to lead the consolidation. We have already completed 26 acquisitions since the start of our operations in 2017 and we have a fully dedicated M&A team with 10 professionals with deep expertise in private equity and agribusiness. The revenue of these companies grew considerably in the years following the closing of their acquisitions and at a faster pace compared to their growth before they were acquired. Our leadership and track
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record uniquely position us to continue consolidating the market and creating value from each acquisition, for our farmer clients, and for our shareholders.
Lavoro’s Management Model
management model.jpg______
Source: Company.
ESG Agenda: Execution Highlights
Our sustainability policy outlines the shared responsibilities and commitments of our senior leadership, employees, customers, investors, partners, suppliers, and other stakeholders. This policy serves as a guiding document for managing risks and opportunities related to social, environmental, and governance aspects inherent in our corporate, economic, operational, and marketing activities.
Our primary ESG focus areas include food security, climate change, promoting sustainable agriculture, controlling deforestation, and upholding human rights within our value chain, including client operations in rural areas. As a signatory of the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) in Brazil, we are committed to contributing significantly to achieving UN Sustainable Development Goals 2 (zero hunger), 8 (decent work and economic growth), 12 (responsible consumption and production), and 15 (life on land) through our operations. These priorities drive our dedication to offering innovative biological solutions, low carbon inputs, and specialty fertilizers, such as foliar products and organominerals.
In 2022, we established 20 ESG corporate goals aimed at enhancing our environmental, social, and governance impact on processes and projects related to sustainable agriculture, deforestation prevention, safer and innovative portfolio offerings, occupational health and safety (OHS), human capital development, equal opportunities, and recognition of good socio-environmental practices. We have set a target to achieve these goals by 2025 and will track our progress using key performance indicators that will be regularly reported to our board by our management.
Annually, we conduct a greenhouse gas emissions inventory of our operations, and publish a sustainability report following the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) protocol, using data from the fiscal year. The governance of sustainability-related matters and ESG performance is under the management of the Strategic Planning department, with a direct reporting line to the CEO and periodic oversight by the Board of Directors.
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Main Operating and Financial Information
We have delivered rapid growth and profitability. Between July 1, 2021 and June 30, 2023, our number of stores grew at a CAGR of 20% while our historical revenue grew at a CAGR of 36% during the same period.
Key Financial Metrics
The following table presents certain key financial performance metrics as of the dates and for the periods indicated:
As of and For the Fiscal Year Ended
June 30,
2023202320222021
(in US$)(1)(in R$)
(in millions, except as otherwise indicated)
Revenue
1,939.69,347.47,746.55,098.5
Gross margin(2)
18.5%18.5%17.1%14.4%
Profit (loss) for the period/year
(45.4)(218.7)