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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                         to                         
Commission file number: 001-34726
LyondellBasell Industries N.V.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Netherlands 98-0646235
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1221 McKinney St.,4th Floor, One Vine Street
Suite 300LondonDelftseplein 27E
Houston,TexasW1J0AH3013AARotterdam
USA77010United KingdomNetherlands
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(713)309-7200+44 (0)207220 2600+31 (0)102755 500
(Registrant’s telephone numbers, including area codes)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
Ordinary Shares, €0.04 Par ValueLYB New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    þ  Yes    ¨  No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    ¨  Yes     þ  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    þ  Yes    ¨  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    þ  Yes    ¨  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.  
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).      Yes      No
The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based on the closing price on that date of $91.83, was $23.6 billion. For purposes of this disclosure, in addition to the registrant’s executive officers and members of its Board of Directors, the registrant has included Access Industries, LLC and its affiliates as “affiliates.”
The registrant had 324,523,140 shares of common stock outstanding at February 20, 2024 (excluding 15,899,358 treasury shares).
Documents incorporated by reference:
Portions of the 2024 Proxy Statement, in connection with the Company’s 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders (in Part III), as indicated herein.


Page
PART I
PART II
PART III
PART IV


CAUTIONARY STATEMENT FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE “SAFE HARBOR” PROVISIONS OF THE PRIVATE SECURITIES LITIGATION REFORM ACT OF 1995
This report includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). You can identify our forward-looking statements by the words “anticipate,” “estimate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “should,” “will,” “expect,” “objective,” “projection,” “forecast,” “goal,” “guidance,” “outlook,” “effort,” “target” and similar expressions.
We based forward-looking statements on our current expectations, estimates and projections of our business and the industries in which we operate. We caution you that these statements are not guarantees of future performance. They involve assumptions about future events that, while made in good faith, may prove to be incorrect and involve risks and uncertainties we cannot predict. Our actual outcomes and results may differ materially from what we have expressed or forecast in the forward-looking statements. Any differences could result from a variety of factors, including the following:
the cost of raw materials represents a substantial portion of our operating expenses and energy costs generally follow price trends of crude oil, natural gas liquids and/or natural gas; price volatility can significantly affect our results of operations and we may be unable to pass raw material and energy cost increases on to our customers due to the significant competition that we face, the commodity nature of our products and the time required to implement pricing changes;
our operations in the United States (“U.S.”) have benefited from low-cost natural gas and natural gas liquids; decreased availability of these materials (for example, from their export or regulations impacting hydraulic fracturing in the U.S.) could reduce the current benefits we receive;
if crude oil prices are low relative to U.S. natural gas prices, we could see less benefit from low-cost natural gas and natural gas liquids and it could have a negative effect on our results of operations;
industry production capacities and operating rates may lead to periods of oversupply and low profitability;
we may face unplanned operating interruptions (including leaks, explosions, fires, weather-related incidents, mechanical failures, unscheduled downtime, supplier disruptions, labor shortages, strikes, work stoppages or other labor difficulties, transportation interruptions, spills and releases and other environmental incidents) at any of our facilities, which would negatively impact our operating results;
changes in general economic, business, political and regulatory conditions in the countries or regions in which we operate could increase our costs, restrict our operations and reduce our operating results;
our ability to execute our organic growth plans may be negatively affected by our ability to complete projects on time and on budget;
our ability to acquire or dispose of product lines or businesses could disrupt our business and harm our financial condition;
uncertainties associated with worldwide economies could create reductions in demand and pricing, as well as increased counterparty risks, which could reduce liquidity or cause financial losses resulting from counterparty default;
the negative outcome of any legal, tax and environmental proceedings or changes in laws or regulations regarding legal, tax and environmental matters may increase our costs, reduce demand for our products, or otherwise limit our ability to achieve savings under current regulations;
any loss or non-renewal of favorable tax treatment under tax agreements or tax treaties, or changes in tax laws, regulations or treaties, may substantially increase our tax liabilities;
we may be required to reduce production or idle certain facilities because of the cyclical and volatile nature of the supply-demand balance in the chemical and refining industries, which would negatively affect our operating results;
2

we rely on continuing technological innovation, and an inability to protect our technology, or others’ technological developments, could negatively impact our competitive position;
we have significant international operations, and fluctuations in exchange rates, valuations of currencies and our possible inability to access cash from operations in certain jurisdictions on a tax-efficient basis, if at all, could negatively affect our liquidity and our results of operations;
we are subject to the risks of doing business at a global level, including wars, terrorist activities, political and economic instability and disruptions and changes in governmental policies, which could cause increased expenses, decreased demand or prices for our products and/or disruptions in operations, all of which could reduce our operating results;
if we are unable to achieve our emission reduction, circularity, or other sustainability targets, it could result in reputational harm, changing investor sentiment regarding investment in our stock or a negative impact on our access to and cost of capital;
our ability to execute and achieve expected results of our value enhancement program;
if we are unable to comply with the terms of our credit facilities, indebtedness and other financing arrangements, those obligations could be accelerated, which we may not be able to repay; and
we may be unable to incur additional indebtedness or obtain financing on terms that we deem acceptable, including for refinancing of our current obligations; higher interest rates and costs of financing would increase our expenses.
Any of these factors, or a combination of these factors, could materially affect our future results of operations and the ultimate accuracy of the forward-looking statements. Our management cautions against putting undue reliance on forward-looking statements or projecting any future results based on such statements or present or prior earnings levels.
All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section and any other cautionary statements that may accompany such forward-looking statements. Except as otherwise required by applicable law, we disclaim any duty to update any forward-looking statements. Additional factors that could cause results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements can be found in the “Risk Factors” section of this report.
3

PART I
Items 1 and 2. Business and Properties.
OVERVIEW
LyondellBasell Industries N.V. is a global, independent chemical company and was incorporated, as a Naamloze Vennootschap, under Dutch law on October 15, 2009. Unless otherwise indicated, the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “us” and “LyondellBasell” are used in this report to refer to the businesses of LyondellBasell Industries N.V. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
We participate globally across the petrochemical value chain and are an industry leader in many of our product lines. Our chemicals businesses consist primarily of large processing plants that convert large volumes of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon feedstocks into plastic resins and other chemicals. Our chemical products tend to be basic building blocks for other chemicals and plastics. Our plastic products are used in large volumes as well as smaller specialty applications. Our customers use our plastics and chemicals to manufacture a wide range of products that people use in their everyday lives including food packaging, home furnishings, automotive components, paints and coatings. Our refining business consists of our Houston refinery, which processes crude oil into refined products such as gasoline and distillates. We also develop and license chemical and polyolefin process technologies and manufacture and sell polyolefin catalysts.
Our financial performance is influenced by the supply and demand for our products, the cost and availability of feedstocks and commodity products, global and regional production capacity, our operational efficiency and our ability to control costs. We have a strong operational focus and, as a large volume producer of commodities, continuously strive to differentiate ourselves through safe, reliable and low-cost operations in all of our businesses. We purchase large quantities of natural gas, electricity and steam which we use as energy to fuel our facilities and purchase large quantities of natural gas liquids and crude oil derivatives which we use as feedstocks. The relatively low cost of natural gas-derived raw materials in the U.S. versus the global cost of crude oil-derived raw materials has had a significant positive influence on the profitability of our North American operations.
In March 2023, we introduced our new strategy to deliver sustainable solutions and profitable long-term growth.
Our strategy aims to drive focus, differential growth and value creation through three strategic pillars:
Growing and upgrading the core—We expect to reshape our business portfolio to support growth, increase resiliency and drive higher returns. We will leverage our legacy strengths in technology, cost management, operational excellence and our global reach to focus on businesses with leading positions in growing markets with advantaged feedstocks and attractive returns.
Building a profitable Circular & Low Carbon Solutions (“CLCS”) business—We expect our CLCS business will grow to become a leader in meeting the rapidly growing demand for sustainable solutions at scale. We are building a comprehensive platform for sourcing recycled and renewable feedstocks while leveraging our innovative technologies and our existing asset base to serve our customers’ needs for sustainable materials. Our CLCS business is a part of our O&P-Americas and O&P-Europe, Asia, International segments.
Stepping up performance and culture—We aim to unlock significant opportunities by reshaping our culture toward a more comprehensive focus on continuous value creation, including the transformation of our Advanced Polymer Solutions business.
Our strategy is supported by an experienced leadership team, an optimized organizational structure and an ownership mindset; our strong cash generation and an investment-grade balance sheet; our advantaged cost position and global scale; our robust Value Enhancement Program (“VEP”); and our disciplined approach to capital allocation.
4

SEGMENTS
We manage our operations through six operating segments. Our reportable segments are:
Olefins and Polyolefins-Americas (“O&P-Americas”). Our O&P-Americas segment produces and markets olefins and co-products, polyethylene and polypropylene.
Olefins and Polyolefins-Europe, Asia, International (“O&P-EAI”). Our O&P-EAI segment produces and markets olefins and co-products, polyethylene and polypropylene.
Intermediates and Derivatives (“I&D”). Our I&D segment produces and markets propylene oxide and its derivatives; oxyfuels and related products; and intermediate chemicals, such as styrene monomer, acetyls, ethylene oxide and ethylene glycol.
Advanced Polymer Solutions (“APS”). Our APS segment produces and markets compounding and solutions, such as polypropylene compounds, engineered plastics, masterbatches, engineered composites, colors and powders.
Refining. Our Refining segment refines heavy, high-sulfur crude oil and other crude oils of varied types and sources available on the U.S. Gulf Coast into refined products, including gasoline and distillates.
Technology. Our Technology segment develops and licenses chemical and polyolefin process technologies and manufactures and sells polyolefin catalysts.
Effective January 1, 2023, our Catalloy and polybutene-1 businesses were moved from the APS segment and reintegrated into the O&P-Americas and O&P-EAI segments. This move allows the APS team to focus on our compounding and solutions business, and to develop a more agile operating model with meaningful regional and segment growth strategies.
Financial information about our business segments and geographical areas can be found in Note 21 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Information about the locations where we produce our primary products can be found under “Description of Properties.” No single customer accounted for 10% or more of our total revenues in 2023, 2022 or 2021.
Olefins and Polyolefins Segments Generally
We are one of the leading worldwide producers of olefins and polyethylene (“PE”) and we are the world’s second largest producer of polypropylene (“PP”). We manage our olefin and polyolefin business in two reportable segments, O&P-Americas and O&P-EAI.
Olefins & Co-products—Ethylene is the most significant petrochemical in terms of worldwide production volume and is the key building block for PE and many other chemicals and plastics. Ethylene is produced by steam cracking hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, butane and naphtha. This production results in co-products such as aromatics and other olefins, including propylene and butadiene. Ethylene and its co-products are fundamental to many parts of the economy, including the production of consumer products, packaging, housing and automotive components and other durable and nondurable goods. Olefins & co-products sales accounted for approximately 9%, 9% and 11% of our consolidated revenues in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Polyolefins—Polyolefins such as PE and PP are polymers derived from olefins including ethylene and propylene. Polyolefins are the most widely used thermoplastics in the world and are found in applications and products that enhance the everyday quality of life. Our products are used in consumer, automotive and industrial applications ranging from food and beverage packaging to housewares and construction materials.
Polyethylene—We produce high density polyethylene (“HDPE”), low density polyethylene (“LDPE”) and linear low-density polyethylene (“LLDPE”). PE sales accounted for approximately 18%, 19% and 22% of our consolidated revenues in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
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Polypropylene—We produce PP homopolymers and copolymers. PP sales accounted for approximately 14%, 15% and 19% of our consolidated revenues in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Olefins and Polyolefins-Americas Segment
Overview—Our O&P-Americas segment produces and markets olefins and co-products, polyethylene and polypropylene.
Sales & Marketing / Customers—Most of the ethylene we produce is consumed internally as a raw material in the production of PE and other derivatives, with the balance sold to third party customers, primarily under multi-year contracts.
We use all the propylene we produce in the production of PP, propylene oxide and other derivatives of those products. We also purchase propylene from third parties. In addition to purchases of propylene, we purchase ethylene for resale, when necessary, to satisfy customer demand above our own production levels. Volumes of any of these products purchased for resale can vary significantly from period to period and are typically most significant during extended outages of our own production, such as during planned maintenance. However, purchased volumes have not historically had a significant impact on profits, except to the extent that they replace our lower-cost production. We also consume PP in our PP compounding business, which is included in our APS segment.
Most of the ethylene and propylene production from our Channelview, Corpus Christi and La Porte, Texas facilities is shipped via a pipeline system, which has connections to numerous U.S. Gulf Coast consumers. This pipeline system extends from Corpus Christi to Mont Belvieu, Texas. In addition, exchange agreements with other ethylene and co-products producers allow access to customers who are not directly connected to this pipeline system. Some ethylene is shipped by railcar from our Clinton, Iowa facility to our Morris, Illinois facility and some is shipped directly to customers. Propylene from Clinton and Morris is generally shipped by marine vessel, barge, railcar or truck.
Our PP and PE production is typically sold through our sales organization to an extensive base of established customers and distributors servicing both the domestic and export markets either under annual contracts or on a spot basis. We have sales offices in various locations in North America and our polyolefins are primarily transported in North America by railcar or truck. Export sales are primarily to customers in Latin America, with sales to Asia expected to increase in the coming years as global supply and demand balances shift.
Joint Venture Relationships—We have a 50% interest in Louisiana Integrated PolyEthylene JV LLC (“Louisiana Joint Venture”) which provides us with capacity of approximately 770 thousand tons of ethylene and 445 thousand tons of low density and linear-low density PE production per year. We operate the joint venture assets and market the polyethylene off-take for all partners through our global sales team. We also participate in a joint venture in Mexico, which provides us with capacity of approximately 290 thousand tons of PP production per year. We do not hold a majority interest in or have operational control of this joint venture. The capacities are based on our percentage ownership of the joint venture’s total capacity.
Raw Materials—Raw material cost is the largest component of the total cost to produce ethylene and its co-products. The primary raw materials used in our Americas olefin facilities are natural gas liquids (“NGLs”) and heavy liquids. Heavy liquids include crude oil-based naphtha and other refined products, as well as condensate, a very light crude oil resulting from natural gas production. NGLs include ethane, propane and butane. The use of heavy liquid raw materials results in the production of significant volumes of co-products such as propylene, butadiene and benzene, as well as gasoline blending components, while the use of NGLs results in the production of fewer co-products.
Our ability to pass on raw material price increases to our customers is dependent on market-driven demand for olefins and polyolefins. Sales prices for products sold in the spot market are determined by market forces. Our contract prices are influenced by product supply and demand conditions, spot prices, indices published in industry publications and, in some instances, cost recovery formulas.
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Technological advances for extracting shale-based oil and gas have led to an increased supply of NGLs, providing a cost advantage over heavy liquids, particularly in the U.S. A plant’s flexibility to consume a wide range of raw materials generally provides an advantage over plants that are restricted in their processing capabilities. Our Americas facilities can process significant quantities of either heavy liquids or NGLs. We estimate that in the U.S. we can produce up to approximately 90% of our total ethylene output using NGLs. Changes in the raw material feedstock mix utilized in the production process will result in variances in production capacities among products. We believe our raw material flexibility in the U.S. is a key advantage in our production of ethylene and its co-products.
Industry Dynamics / Competition—With respect to olefins and polyolefins, competition is based on price and, to a lesser extent, on product quality, product delivery, reliability of supply, product performance and customer service. Profitability is affected not only by supply and demand for olefins and polyolefins, but also by raw material costs and price competition among producers, which may intensify due to, among other things, the addition of new capacity. In general, demand is a function of economic growth, including the regional dynamics that underlie global growth trends.
We compete in North America with other large marketers and producers, including global chemical companies, chemical divisions of large oil companies and regional marketers and producers.
Based on published capacity data and including our proportionate share of joint ventures, we believe as of December 31, 2023, we were:
the third largest producer of ethylene in North America, with ethylene capacity of 6.2 million tons per year;
the third largest producer of PE in North America with capacity of 4.1 million tons per year; and
the second largest producer of PP in North America, with capacity of 1.9 million tons per year, including approximately 290 thousand tons of Catalloy capacity.
Olefins and Polyolefins-Europe, Asia, International Segment
Overview—Our O&P-EAI segment produces and markets olefins and co-products, polyethylene and polypropylene.
Sales & Marketing / Customers—Our ethylene production is primarily consumed internally as a raw material in the production of polyolefins, and we purchase additional ethylene as needed to meet our production needs. Our propylene production is used as a raw material in the production of PP and propylene oxide and derivatives of those products, and we regularly purchase propylene from third parties because our internal needs exceed our internal production.
With respect to PP and PE, our production is typically sold through our sales organization to an extensive base of established customers under annual contracts or on a spot basis and is also sold through distributors. Our polyolefins are primarily transported in Europe by railcar or truck.
Our regional sales offices are in various locations, including The Netherlands, Hong Kong, China, India and the United Arab Emirates. We also operate through a worldwide network of local sales and representative offices in Europe and Asia. Our joint ventures described below typically manage their domestic sales and marketing efforts independently, and we typically operate as their agent for all or a portion of their exports.
Joint Venture Relationships—We participate in several manufacturing joint ventures in Saudi Arabia, China, Poland, South Korea, and Thailand. We do not hold majority interests in any of these joint ventures, nor do we have operational control. These joint ventures provide us with annual production capacity of approximately 1.6 million tons of PP, approximately 1.2 million tons of olefins and approximately 760 thousand tons of PE. These capacities are based on our percentage ownership interest in the joint ventures’ total capacities.
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We generally license our polyolefin process technologies and supply catalysts to our joint ventures through our Technology segment. Some of our joint ventures are able to source cost advantaged raw materials from their local shareholders.
In November 2017 we acquired a 50% interest in Quality Circular Polymers (“QCP”), a mechanical recycling joint venture. In April 2023, we acquired the remaining 50% interest in QCP resulting in QCP becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary. The QCP plants, located in The Netherlands and Belgium, are capable of converting consumer waste into 55 thousand tons of recycled polypropylene and recycled high-density polyethylene annually.
Raw Materials—Raw material cost is the largest component of the total cost for the production of olefins and co-products. The primary raw material used in our European olefin facilities is naphtha; however, we also have the capability to displace up to half of our European assets’ naphtha needs with other feedstocks, such as liquified petroleum gases. We have flexibility to vary the raw material mix and process conditions in our plants in order to maximize profitability as market prices for both feedstocks and products change.
The principal raw materials used in the production of polyolefins are propylene and ethylene. In Europe, we have the capacity to produce approximately 60% of the propylene requirements for our European PP production and all of the ethylene requirements for our European PE production. Propylene and ethylene requirements that are not produced internally are generally acquired pursuant to long-term contracts with third party suppliers or via spot purchases.
Our ability to pass through the increased cost of raw materials to customers is dependent on global market demand for olefins and polyolefins. In general, the pricing for purchases and sales of most products is determined by global market forces, including the impacts of foreign exchange rates relative to the pricing of the underlying raw materials, most of which are priced in U.S. dollars. There can be a lag between raw material price changes and contract product price changes that will cause volatility in our product margins.
Industry Dynamics / Competition—With respect to olefins and polyolefins, competition is based on price, product quality, product delivery, reliability of supply, product performance and customer service. We compete with regional and multinational chemical companies and divisions of large oil companies. The petrochemical market has been affected by the price volatility of naphtha, the primary feedstock for olefins in the region.
Based on published capacity data and including our proportionate share of our joint ventures, we believe as of December 31, 2023, we were:
the fifth largest producer of ethylene in Europe with an ethylene capacity of 1.9 million tons per year;
the largest producer of PE in Europe with 2.1 million tons per year of capacity; and
the largest producer of PP in Europe with 2.7 million tons per year of capacity, including approximately 280 thousand tons of Catalloy capacity.
Intermediates and Derivatives Segment
Overview—Our I&D segment produces and markets propylene oxide (“PO”) and its derivatives, oxyfuels and related products, and intermediate chemicals such as styrene monomer (“SM”), acetyls, and ethylene oxides and derivatives.
PO and Derivatives—We produce PO through two distinct technologies, one of which yields tertiary butyl alcohol (“TBA”) as the co-product and the other of which yields SM as the co-product. The two technologies are mutually exclusive with dedicated assets for manufacturing either PO/TBA or PO/SM. PO is an intermediate commodity chemical and is a precursor of polyols, propylene glycol, propylene glycol ethers and butanediol. PO and derivatives are used in a variety of durable and consumable items with key applications such as polyurethanes used for insulation, automotive/furniture cushioning, coatings, surfactants, synthetic resins and several other household usages. In 2023, we started up a world-scale PO/TBA plant in Houston, Texas, which has the capacity to produce 470 thousand tons of PO and 1.0 million tons of TBA per year.
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Oxyfuels and Related Products—We produce two distinct ether-based oxyfuels, methyl tertiary butyl ether (“MTBE”) and ethyl tertiary butyl ether (“ETBE”). These oxyfuels are produced by converting the TBA co-product of PO into isobutylene and reacting with methanol or ethanol to produce either MTBE or ETBE. Both are used as high-octane gasoline components that help gasoline burn cleaner and reduce automobile emissions. Other TBA derivatives, which we refer to as “C4 chemicals,” are largely used to make synthetic rubber and other gasoline additives.
Intermediate Chemicals—We produce other commodity chemicals that utilize ethylene as a key component feedstock, including SM, acetyls and ethylene oxide derivatives. SM is utilized in various applications such as plastics, expandable polystyrene for packaging, foam cups and containers, insulation products and durables and engineering resins. Our acetyls products comprise methanol, glacial acetic acid (“GAA”) and vinyl acetate monomer (“VAM”). Natural gas (methane) is the feedstock for methanol, some of which is converted to GAA, and a portion of the GAA is reacted with ethylene to create VAM. VAM is an intermediate chemical used in fabric or wood treatments, pigments, coatings, films and adhesives. Ethylene oxide is an intermediate chemical that is used to produce ethylene glycol, glycol ethers and other derivatives. Ethylene oxide and its derivatives are used in the production of polyester, antifreeze fluids, solvents and other chemical products.
Sales & Marketing / Customers—We sell our PO and derivatives through multi-year sales and processing agreements as well as spot sales. Some of our sales agreements have cost plus pricing terms. PO and derivatives are transported by barge, marine vessel, pipeline, railcar and tank truck.
We sell our oxyfuels and related products under market and cost-based sales agreements and in the spot market. Oxyfuels are transported by barge, marine vessel and tank truck and are used as octane blending components worldwide outside of the U.S. due to their blending characteristics and emission benefits. C4 chemicals, such as high-purity isobutylene, are sold to producers of synthetic rubber and other chemical products primarily in the U.S. and Europe, and are transported by railcar, tank truck, pipeline and marine shipments. The sales of oxyfuels and related products accounted for approximately 14%, 11% and 8% of our consolidated revenues in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Intermediate chemicals are shipped by barge, marine vessel, pipeline, railcar and tank truck. SM is sold globally into regions such as North America, Europe, Asia and South America export markets through spot sales and commercial contracts. Within acetyls, methanol is consumed internally to make GAA, used as a feedstock for oxyfuels and related products and also sold directly into the merchant commercial market. GAA is converted with ethylene to produce VAM which is sold worldwide under multi-year commercial contracts and on a spot basis.
Sales of our PO and derivatives, oxyfuels and related products, and intermediate chemicals are made by our marketing and sales personnel, and also through distributors in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Africa and the Asia-Pacific region.
Joint Venture Relationships—We have two PO joint ventures with Covestro AG, one in the U.S. and one in Europe. We operate all production facilities for the PO joint ventures. Our proportional production capacity provided through this venture is approximately 160 thousand tons of PO and approximately 340 thousand tons of SM. We do not share marketing or product sales for these PO joint ventures. We also have two joint venture manufacturing relationships in China with China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (“Sinopec”). The first joint venture provides us with production capacity of approximately 50 thousand tons of PO per year. The second joint venture provides us with annual production capacity of approximately 140 thousand tons of PO and 300 thousand tons of SM. We market our share of the joint ventures production in the Chinese market. These capacities are based on our operational share of the joint ventures’ total capacities.
Raw Materials—The cost of raw materials is the largest component of total production cost for PO, its co-products and its derivatives. Propylene, isobutane or mixed butane, ethylene and benzene are the primary raw materials used in the production of PO and its co-products. The market prices of these raw materials historically have been related to the price of crude oil, NGLs and natural gas, as well as supply and demand for the raw materials.
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In the U.S., we obtain a large portion of our propylene, benzene and ethylene raw materials needed for the production of PO and its co-products from our O&P-Americas segment and to a lesser extent from third parties. Raw materials for the non-U.S. production of PO and its co-products are obtained from our O&P-EAI segment and from third parties. We consume a significant portion of our internally produced PO in the production of PO derivatives.
The raw material requirements not sourced internally are purchased at market-based prices from numerous suppliers in the U.S. and Europe with which we have established contractual relationships, as well as in the spot market.
For the production of oxyfuels, we purchase our ethanol feedstock requirements from third parties, and obtain our methanol from both internal production and external sources. Carbon monoxide and methanol are the primary raw materials required for the production of GAA. We source carbon monoxide from internal production, which can be complemented by purchases from external sources as needed. The methanol required for our downstream production of acetyls is internally sourced from our methanol plants in La Porte, Texas, and Channelview, Texas. Natural gas is the primary raw material required for the production of methanol.
In addition to ethylene, acetic acid is a primary raw material for the production of VAM. We obtain all our requirements for acetic acid and ethylene from our internal production. Historically, we have used a large percentage of our acetic acid production to produce VAM.
Industry Dynamics / Competition—With respect to product competition, the market is influenced and based on a variety of factors, including product quality, price, reliability of supply, technical support, customer service and potential substitute materials. Profitability is affected by the worldwide level of demand along with price competition, which may intensify due to, among other things, new industry capacity and industry outages. Demand growth could be impacted by further development of alternative bio-based methodologies. Our major worldwide competitors include other multinational chemical and refining companies as well as some regional marketers and producers.
Based on published capacity data and including our proportionate share of our joint ventures, we believe as of December 31, 2023, we were:
the second largest producer of PO worldwide; and
the largest producer of oxyfuels worldwide.
Other—During the fourth quarter of 2023, we entered into an agreement to sell our U.S. Gulf Coast-based ethylene oxide & derivatives business along with the production facility located in Bayport, TX for cash consideration of $700 million. The EO&D business had been identified as a non-core business. The transaction is expected to close in the second quarter of 2024 following completion of the planned maintenance at the facility and is subject to regulatory and other customary closing conditions.
Advanced Polymer Solutions Segment
Overview—Our APS segment produces and markets compounding and solutions, such as polypropylene compounds, engineered plastics, masterbatches, engineered composites, colors and powders.
Our polypropylene compounds are produced from blends of polyolefins and additives and are largely focused on automotive applications. Engineered plastics and engineered composites add value for more specialized high-performance applications used across a variety of industries. Masterbatches are compounds that provide differentiated properties when combined with commodity plastics used in packaging, agriculture and durable goods applications. Specialty powders are largely used to mold toys, industrial tanks and sporting goods such as kayaks. Performance colors provide powdered, pelletized and liquid color concentrates for the plastics industry.
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Sales & Marketing / Customers—Our products are sold through our regional sales organizations to a broad base of established customers and distributors. These products are transported to our customers primarily by either truck or bulk rail.
Joint Venture Relationships—We participate in several manufacturing joint ventures in Saudi Arabia, Indonesia and Thailand. We hold majority interests and have operational control of the joint ventures in Indonesia. We do not hold majority interests in any of the remaining joint ventures, nor do we have operational control. These ventures provide us with production capacity of approximately 70 thousand tons of compounding and solutions. These capacities are based on our percentage ownership interest in the joint ventures’ total capacities.
Raw Materials—The principal materials used in the production of our products are polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, nylon and titanium dioxide. Raw materials required for the production of our products are obtained from our wholly owned or joint venture facilities and from a number of major plastic resin producers or other suppliers at market-based prices.
Our ability to pass through the increased cost of raw materials to customers is dependent on global market demand. In general, the pricing for purchases and sales of most products is determined by global market forces.
Industry Dynamics / Competition—With respect to product competition, the market is influenced and based on a variety of factors, including product development, price, product quality, product delivery, reliability of supply, product performance and customer service. We compete with regional and multinational marketers and producers of plastic resins and compounds. As polypropylene compounds are largely utilized in the automotive industry, we are also exposed to the volatility of this industry, which has significantly decreased since 2019.
Refining Segment
Overview—The primary products of our Refining segment are refined products made from heavy, high-sulfur crude oil and other crude oils of varied types and sources available on the U.S. Gulf Coast. These refined products include gasoline and distillates.
Sales & Marketing / Customers—The Houston refinery’s products are primarily sold in bulk to other refiners, marketers, distributors and wholesalers at market-related prices. Most of the Houston refinery’s products are sold under contracts with a term of one year or less or are sold in the spot market. The Houston refinery’s products generally are transported to customers via pipelines and terminals owned and operated by other parties. The sales of refined products accounted for approximately 22%, 22% and 16% of our consolidated revenues in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Raw Materials—Our Houston refinery, which is located on the Houston Ship Channel in Houston, Texas, has a crude oil processing capacity of approximately 268 thousand barrels per day on a calendar day basis (normal operating basis), or approximately 292 thousand barrels per day on a stream day basis (maximum achievable over a 24-hour period). The Houston refinery is a full conversion refinery designed to refine heavy, high-sulfur crude oil. This crude oil is more viscous and denser than traditional crude oil and contains higher concentrations of sulfur and heavy metals, making it more difficult to refine into gasoline and other high-value fuel products. As a result, high-sulfur crude oil has historically been less costly to purchase than light, low-sulfur crude oil. U.S. production is predominantly light sweet crude and much of the heavy crude used in production has generally been imported from Canada, Mexico and other global producers, and has at times been subject to supply disruptions.
We purchase the crude oil used as a raw material for the Houston refinery on the open market on a spot basis and under a number of supply agreements with regional producers, generally with terms varying from three months to one year.
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Industry Dynamics / Competition—Our refining competitors are major integrated oil companies, refineries owned or controlled by foreign governments and independent domestic refiners. Based on published data, as of November 2023, there were 126 operable crude oil refineries in the U.S., and total U.S. refinery capacity was approximately 18 million barrels per day. During 2023, the Houston refinery processed an average of approximately 237 thousand barrels per day of heavy crude oil.
Our refining operations compete for the purchases of crude oil based on price and quality. Supply disruptions could impact the availability and pricing. We compete in gasoline and distillate markets as a bulk supplier of fungible products satisfying industry and government specifications. Competition is based on price and location.
The markets for fuel products tend to be volatile as well as cyclical due to supply and demand fundamentals and changing crude oil and refined product prices. Crude oil prices are impacted by worldwide political events, the economics of exploration and production and refined products demand. Prices and demand for fuel products are influenced by seasonal and short-term factors such as weather and driving patterns, as well as by longer term issues such as the economy, environmental concerns, energy conservation and alternative fuels. Industry fuel products supply is dependent on short-term industry operating capabilities and on long-term refining capacity.
A crack spread is a benchmark indication of refining margins based on the processing of a specific type of crude oil into an assumed selection of major refined products. The Houston refinery generally tracks the Maya 2-1-1 crack spread, which represents the difference between the current month U.S. Gulf Coast price of two barrels of Maya crude oil as set by Petróleos Mexicanos and one barrel each of U.S. Gulf Coast Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygen Blending Gasoline and of U.S. Gulf Coast Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel. While these benchmark refining spreads are generally indicative of the level of profitability at the Houston refinery and similarly configured refineries, there are many other factors specific to each refinery and the industry in general, such as the price of other crude oils used in processing and the value of refinery by-products, which influence operating results. Refinery by-products are products other than gasoline and distillates that represent about one-third of the total product volume, and include coke, sulfur, and lighter materials such as NGLs and crude olefins streams. The cost of Renewable Identification Numbers (“RINs”), which are renewable fuel credits mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”), can also affect profitability.
Other—After thoroughly analyzing our options, we determined that exiting the refining business no later than the end of the first quarter of 2025 is the best strategic and financial path forward for the Company. Our exit from the refining business progresses our greenhouse gas emission reduction goals, and the site’s prime location gives us more options for advancing our future strategic objectives, including circularity.
Technology Segment
Overview—Our Technology segment develops and licenses chemical and polyolefin process technologies and manufactures and sells polyolefin catalysts. We market our process technologies and our polyolefin catalysts to external customers and also use them in our own manufacturing operations. Over the past three years, approximately 20% of our catalyst sales were sold internally to other segments.
Our polyolefin process licenses are structured to provide a standard core technology, with individual customer needs met by adding customized modules that provide the required capabilities to produce the defined production grade slate and plant capacity. In addition to the basic license agreement, a range of services can also be provided, including project assistance, training, assistance in starting up the plant and ongoing technical support after start-up. We may also offer marketing and sales services. In addition, licensees may continue to purchase polyolefin catalysts that are consumed in the production process, generally under long-term catalyst supply agreements with us.
Research and Development—Our research and development (“R&D”) activities are designed to improve our existing products and processes, and discover and commercialize new materials, catalysts and processes. These activities focus on product and application development, process development, catalyst development and fundamental polyolefin-focused research.
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In 2023, 2022 and 2021, our R&D expenditures were $130 million, $124 million and $124 million, respectively. A portion of these expenses are related to technical support and customer service and are allocated to the other business segments. In 2023, 2022, and 2021 approximately 45% to 50% of all R&D costs were allocated to business segments other than Technology.
GENERAL
Intellectual Property
We maintain an extensive patent portfolio and continue to file new patent applications in the U.S. and other countries. As of December 31, 2023, we owned approximately 6,200 patents and patent applications worldwide. Our patents and trade secrets cover our processes, products and catalysts and are significant to our competitive position, particularly with regard to PO, intermediate chemicals, petrochemicals, polymers and our process technologies. While we believe that our intellectual property provides competitive advantages, we do not regard our businesses as being materially dependent upon any single patent, trade secret or trademark. Some of our production capacity operates under licenses from third parties.
Environmental
Most of our operations are affected by national, state, regional and local environmental laws. Matters pertaining to the environment are discussed in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors; Part I, Item 3. Legal Proceedings; Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations; and Notes 2 and 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
We have made, and intend to continue to make, the expenditures necessary for compliance with applicable laws and regulations relating to environmental, health and safety matters. We incurred capital expenditures of $256 million in 2023 for health, safety and environmental compliance purposes and improvement programs, and estimate such expenditures to be approximately $246 million in 2024 and $288 million in 2025.
While capital expenditures or operating costs for environmental compliance, including compliance with potential legislation and potential regulation related to climate change, cannot be predicted with certainty, we do not believe they will have a material effect on our competitive position in the near term.
While there can be no assurance that physical impacts to our facilities and supply chain due to climate change will not occur in the future, we do not believe these impacts are material in the near term.
Sustainability
Our sustainability goals center on addressing three global challenges: ending plastic waste, taking climate actions and advancing a thriving society.
Ending Plastic Waste—We have a goal to produce and market at least two million metric tons of recycled and renewable-based polymers annually by 2030, which represents approximately 20% of our 2023 global sales of polyethylene and polypropylene.
We have invested upstream to secure plastic waste material needed to deliver on our ambition. In 2023, we expanded our mechanical and advanced recycling capacity globally through investments and commercial agreements in Europe, Asia, and North America. We also made the final investment decision to build our first industrial-scale advanced recycling plant at our site in Wesseling, Germany, using our proprietary MoReTec technology to convert post-consumer plastic waste into feedstock for production of new plastic materials.
These activities will enable us to deliver our customer’s and society’s increasing demand for more sustainable solutions and help ending plastic waste going to landfills and incineration.
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Taking Climate Action—We are dedicated to providing solutions to the market to help enable the transition towards a low carbon world. Our 2030 goal is to reduce scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions reduction by 42% by 2030 and reduce our scope 3 emissions by 30% relative to a 2020 baseline. Our previously announced goal to achieve net zero scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions from global operations by 2050 remains unchanged.
Certain GHG emissions reduction initiatives planned for implementation by 2030 are expected to begin in the near-term as we plan to leverage existing asset turnaround schedules for our largest sites. In 2024, our Wesseling site in Germany is planning implementation of process heat recovery projects, electrification of a large process turbine and optimization of steam demand, including phasing out the use of coal, reducing scope 1 emissions by 150 thousand metric tons annually when compared to the average for 2019 and 2020. In 2025, we plan to optimize heat equipment at our Channelview site in Texas through advanced digitization, efficiency improvements and fuel management.
We also aim to secure at least 50% of our global electricity from renewable sources by 2030. As of December 2023, we have executed power purchase agreements achieving almost 90% of our 2030 target. These agreements will generate an estimated 3.7 million megawatt hours of renewable electricity annually and reduce our scope 2 emissions by more than 1.3 million metric tons of carbon emissions.
Our plans to close the Houston refinery no later than the end of the first quarter 2025 is expected to reduce our scope 1 and scope 2 GHG emissions by more than 3 million metric tons annually and scope 3 emissions by approximately 40 million metric tons annually. We are evaluating multiple options to transform the site for future growth, including recycled and renewable-based feedstocks and green and blue hydrogen.
As we progress in our efforts to achieve our goal to produce and market at least two million metric tons of recycled and renewable based products, the corresponding increases in recycling rates will positively impact scope 3 emissions. We expect the emissions reductions from accomplishing this goal to be incremental to plans we currently have to reduce our scope 3 emissions by 30% by 2030. We estimate approximately 1 million metric tons of scope 3 reductions from achieving our circularity ambition.
Our ambition to achieve net zero by 2050 will need to be enabled by the development and deployment of new technology, including those related to cracker electrification, the use of hydrogen, carbon capture and storage, carbon utilization and other technologies, across our manufacturing footprint.
Advancing a Thriving Society—By working to advance a thriving society, we make a positive impact far beyond our company and create long-term value for our stakeholders. We are creating solutions for everyday sustainable living, working to ensure the safety and well-being of our colleagues by holding ourselves to the highest standards, embracing different backgrounds and perspectives, promoting equity and respect among our global colleagues and in our communities, and aligning our suppliers’ values with our own.
Capital Budget—We estimate capital spending to support our sustainability goals will represent approximately 20% of our total capital expenditures over the next two years. We also anticipate incurring costs for environmental compliance, including compliance with potential legislation and potential regulation related to climate change in subsequent periods.
Human Capital
Our success as a company is tied to the passion, knowledge and talent of our global team. To achieve our purpose of creating solutions for everyday sustainable living, we must attract top performers and equip them with the tools needed to continuously grow and leverage their potential. Key areas of focus for 2023 include Stepping up Performance and Culture, Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (“DEI”) and Global Talent Development.
Stepping up Performance and Culture—In 2023, we introduced a new long-term strategy and began the transformation of our company culture, including shifting to a more comprehensive view of value creation and customer centricity. Our culture emphasizes the role we seek to play in the world, what we uniquely deliver, and how we behave.
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Diversity, Equity, Inclusion—DEI remained a key focus area in 2023. Our efforts reflect a holistic, multi-year strategy to improve representation, ensure fairness, and increase visibility and accountability to leadership.
Demographics—As of December 31, 2023 we had approximately 20 thousand employees. Our employee demographics, excluding temporary employees, consisted of:
HumanCapitalGraph_10K 2023.jpg
U.S. Underrepresented population (“URP”) is based on reporting for the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and includes employees who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American, Asian or Pacific Islander, Indian, Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian or two or more races. Employees who self-identify as White or Caucasian are considered U.S. Non-Underrepresented.
Diversity (Representation)— In 2022, we set five-year aspirational goals to increase the number of female senior leaders globally to at least 33% and the number of underrepresented senior leaders in the U.S. to 29%, a 50% increase in both groups relative to 2022. By 2032, we have committed to achieving gender parity in senior leadership globally and URP parity in U.S. senior leadership. These ambitious goals demonstrate our commitment to having a diverse group of leaders.
In 2023, women represented 25% of global senior leadership roles, an increase from 22% in 2022. The increase in representation is the result of increased external hiring and improved attrition. In the U.S., 19% of senior leaders were from underrepresented groups. For URP, hiring, promotions, and attrition all improved. Job growth in the U.S. senior leader population, however, resulted in flat overall representation when compared to 2022.
Equity (Fairness)—Our efforts on equity are focused on ensuring that our systems and processes are fair to all employees. Our goal in this area is for all employees to believe they are being treated fairly. In 2023, we completed a pay equity review and performance analysis that involved approximately 13,500 employees, comparing pay for like jobs and focusing on base pay for gender (globally) and ethnicity (U.S. only). Consistent with 2022 findings, the review reflected that pay is generally administered fairly. In 2023, our analysis led to a pay review for approximately 380 employees. Ultimately, after additional review, we adjusted the base salary of approximately 50 employees, half of whom are female and/or underrepresented.
Inclusion (Belonging)—Like equity, we desire a culture where all of our employees feel they are included and belong. To drive change, we introduced new competencies, including one dedicated to promoting inclusion. We focus our inclusion efforts on learning and education, outreach, and our six global employee networks. In 2023, we achieved 18% participation, an increase from 15% in 2022. Network programming is strongly tied to career development and business and community impact. Our engagement survey indicates that participants in our employee networks are 20% more engaged than employees who are not members of a network.
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Code of Conduct and Human Rights Policy—Our Code of Conduct establishes our expectations on topics such as respect in the workplace, anti-corruption, conflicts of interest, trade compliance, anti-trust and competition law, insider trading, sanctions, misconduct and political donations. It is available in seventeen languages on our company website. New employees are trained on the Code of Conduct, and all employees receive annual refresher training. We also have a human rights policy that establishes our standards for workforce health and safety; prevention of discrimination, harassment and retaliation; diversity and inclusion; workplace security; working conditions and fair wages; freedom of association; freely chosen employment; and child labor protections.
Global Talent Development and Engagement—We provide opportunities for growth through training and other development programs. In 2023, we expanded our LYB University, which includes formal learning and development resources to empower our employees to grow their capabilities. Through our leadership development framework, we had approximately 400 leaders participate in a structured leadership development program tailored to different stages in their career.
Safety, Employee Health and Well-Being—We are committed to providing a safe workplace, free from recognized hazards, and we comply with all applicable health and safety laws and recognized standards to achieve a goal of zero incidents, zero injuries and zero accidents. We cultivate a GoalZERO mindset with clear standards, regular communication, training, and targeted campaigns and events, including our annual Global Safety Day.
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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

Our executive officers as of February 22, 2024 were as follows:

Name and Age
Significant Experience
Peter Vanacker, 57Chief Executive Officer since May 2022.

President, Chief Executive Officer and Chair of the Executive Committee of Neste Corporation, a renewable products company From September 2018 to May 2022.

Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director of the CABB Group, a global supplier of fine and specialty chemicals from April 2015 to August 2018.
Tracey Campbell, 57Executive Vice President, Sustainability and Corporate Affairs since October 2022.

Vice President, Public Affairs from November 2020 to September 2022.

Director, Polyolefins Asia Pacific from July 2018 to October 2020.

Director, North America Feedstock Supply from April 2015 to June 2018.
Trisha Conley, 51Executive Vice President, People and Culture since February 2023.

Senior Vice President, People Development of Renewable Energy Group, a renewable energy company, from August 2020 to January 2023.

Vice President of Human Resources, Fuels North America and Head of Country (United States) for Downstream Human Resources at BP, a global energy provider, from July 2015 to July 2020.
Kim Foley, 57
Executive Vice President, Intermediates and Derivatives and Refining since October 2022.

Senior Vice President, HSE, Global Engineering and Turnarounds from August 2020 to September 2022.

Vice President, Health, Safety and Environment from October 2019 to July 2020.

Site Manager at Channelview from May 2017 to October 2019.
Dale Friedrichs, 60
Executive Vice President, Operational Excellence and HSE since October 2022.

Interim Executive Vice President, People and Culture from October 2022 to February 2023.

Senior Vice President, Human Resources and Global Projects from August 2020 to September 2022.

Vice President, Human Resources from October 2019 to July 2020.

Vice President, Health, Safety, Environment and Security from February 2017 to October 2019.
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Name and Age
Significant Experience
Jeffrey Kaplan, 55Executive Vice President and General Counsel since October 2022.

Executive Vice President, Legal & Public Affairs and Chief Legal Officer from March 2015 to September 2022.
Kenneth Lane, 55
Executive Vice President, Olefins & Polyolefins since October 2022.

Executive Vice President, Global Olefins and Polyolefins from July 2019 to September 2022.

Interim Chief Executive Officer from January 2022 to May 2022.

President, Monomers Division at BASF, a German chemical company, from January 2019 to July 2019.

President, Global Catalysts at BASF from June 2013 to December 2018.
Michael McMurray, 59Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since November 2019.

Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer at Owens Corning, a global manufacturer of insulation, roofing and fiberglass composites, from August 2012 to November 2019.
Torkel Rhenman, 60
Executive Vice President, Advanced Polymer Solutions since October 2022.

Executive Vice President, Intermediates & Derivatives, and Refining from August 2020 to September 2022.

Executive Vice President, Intermediates & Derivatives from July 2019 to July 2020.

Chief Executive Officer and Director of Lhoist Group, a privately held minerals and mining company, from 2012 to 2017.
James Seward, 56Executive Vice President and Chief Innovation Officer since October 2022.

Senior Vice President, Research & Development, Technology and Sustainability from August 2020 to September 2022.

Senior Vice President, Technology Business, Sustainability, and Olefins & Polyolefins, Europe, Asia and International Joint Venture Management from September 2018 to July 2020.

Vice President, Joint Ventures and International Marketing from May 2014 to August 2018.
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Name and Age
Significant Experience
Yvonne van der Laan, 52Executive Vice President, Circular and Low Carbon Solutions since October 2022.

Senior Director, Global Circularity from May 2022 to September 2022.

Director, Olefins & Optimizations, Europe from September 2019 to April 2022.

Vice President, Industry & Bulk Cargo for the Port of Rotterdam, the largest seaport in Europe, from February 2016 to September 2019.





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Description of Properties
Our principal manufacturing facilities as of December 31, 2023 are set forth below and are identified by the principal segment or segments using the facility. All of the facilities are wholly owned, except as otherwise noted.
LocationSegment
Americas
Bayport (Pasadena), Texas(1)
I&D
Bayport (Pasadena), TexasO&P-Americas
Channelview, TexasO&P-Americas
Channelview, Texas(1)(2)
I&D
Chocolate Bayou, TexasO&P-Americas
Clinton, IowaO&P-Americas
Corpus Christi, TexasO&P-Americas
Edison, New JerseyO&P-Americas
Houston, TexasRefining
La Porte, Texas(3)
O&P-Americas
La Porte, Texas(3)
I&D
Lake Charles, LouisianaO&P-Americas
Lake Charles, Louisiana(4)
O&P-Americas
Matagorda, TexasO&P-Americas
Morris, IllinoisO&P-Americas
Victoria, Texas†O&P-Americas
Europe
Berre l’Etang, FranceO&P-EAI
Botlek, Rotterdam, The Netherlands†I&D
Brindisi, ItalyO&P-EAI
Carrington, UK†O&P-EAI
Ferrara, ItalyO&P-EAI
Technology
Fos-sur-Mer, France†I&D
Frankfurt, Germany†O&P-EAI
Technology
Knapsack, Germany†O&P-EAI
APS
Kerpen, GermanyAPS
Ludwigshafen, Germany†Technology
Maasvlakte, The Netherlands(5)
I&D
Moerdijk, The Netherlands†O&P-EAI
Münchsmünster, GermanyO&P-EAI
Tarragona, Spain(6)
O&P-EAI
APS
Wesseling, GermanyO&P-EAI
Asia-Pacific
Panjin, China(7)
O&P-EAI
†     The facility is located on leased land.
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(1)The Bayport PO/TBA plants and the Channelview PO/SM I plant are held by the U.S. PO joint venture between Covestro and Lyondell Chemical Company. These plants are located on land leased by the U.S. PO joint venture.
(2)Equistar Chemicals, LP operates a polybutadiene unit, which is owned by an unrelated party and is located within the Channelview facility on property leased from Equistar Chemicals, LP.
(3)The La Porte facilities are on contiguous property.
(4)The Lake Charles facility is owned by the Louisiana Integrated PolyEthylene JV LLC joint venture and is located on land owned by the joint venture.
(5)The Maasvlakte plant is owned by the European PO joint venture and is located on land leased by the European PO joint venture.
(6)The Tarragona PP facility is located on leased land; the compounds facility is located on co-owned land.
(7)The Panjin facility is owned by the Bora LyondellBasell Petrochemical Co., Ltd. joint venture and is located on land leased by the joint venture.

Other Locations and Properties
We maintain executive offices in London, the United Kingdom; Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Houston, Texas and Hong Kong, China. We maintain research facilities in Lansing, Michigan; Channelview, Texas; Cincinnati, Ohio; Ferrara, Italy and Frankfurt, Germany. Our Asia-Pacific headquarters are in Hong Kong. We also have technical support centers in Bayreuth, Germany; Mumbai, India; and Tarragona, Spain. We have various sales facilities worldwide.
Website Access to SEC Reports
Our Internet website address is http://www.LyondellBasell.com. Information contained on our Internet website is not part of this report on Form 10-K.
Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are available on our website, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with, or furnished to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Alternatively, these reports may be accessed at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

Item 1A.     Risk Factors.
You should carefully consider the following risk factors in addition to the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Each of these risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our common stock.
Risks Related to our Business and Industry
The cyclicality and volatility of the industries in which we participate may cause significant fluctuations in our operating results.
Our business operations are subject to the cyclical and volatile nature of the supply-demand balance in the chemical and refining industries. Our future operating results are expected to continue to be affected by this cyclicality and volatility. The chemical and refining industries historically have experienced alternating periods of capacity shortages, causing prices and profit margins to increase, followed by periods of excess capacity, resulting in oversupply, declining capacity utilization rates and declining prices and profit margins.
In addition to changes in the supply and demand for products, changes in energy prices and other worldwide economic conditions can cause volatility. These factors result in significant fluctuations in profits and cash flow from period to period and over business cycles.
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New capacity additions around the world may lead to periods of oversupply and lower profitability. The timing and extent of any changes to currently prevailing market conditions are uncertain and supply and demand may be unbalanced at any time. As a consequence, we are unable to accurately predict the extent or duration of future industry cycles or their effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
A sustained decrease in the price of crude oil may adversely impact the results of our operations, primarily in North America.
Energy costs generally follow price trends of crude oil and natural gas. These price trends may be highly volatile and cyclical. In the past, raw material and energy costs have experienced significant fluctuations that adversely affected our business segments’ results of operations. For example, we have benefited from the favorable ratio of U.S. crude oil prices to natural gas prices in the past. If the price of crude oil remains lower relative to U.S. natural gas prices or if the demand for natural gas and NGLs increases, this may have a negative impact on our results of operations.
Costs and limitations on supply of raw materials and energy may result in increased operating expenses.
The costs of raw materials and energy represent a substantial portion of our operating expenses. Due to the significant competition we face and the commodity nature of many of our products we are not always able to pass on raw material and energy cost increases to our customers. When we do have the ability to pass on the cost increases, we are not always able to do so quickly enough to avoid adverse impacts on our results of operations. For example, during 2022, increases in costs for energy and raw materials, and the related decline in demand for our products, resulted in the reduction of operating rates or delayed restart of operations at several of our sites in Europe.
Cost increases for raw materials, energy, or broad-based price inflation also increase working capital needs, which could reduce our liquidity and cash flow. Even if we are able to increase our sales prices to reflect these increases, demand for products may decrease as consumers and customers reduce their consumption or use substitute products, which may have an adverse impact on our results of operations. In addition, producers in natural gas cost-advantaged regions, such as the Middle East and North America, benefit from the lower prices of natural gas and NGLs. Competition from producers in these regions may cause us to reduce exports from Europe and elsewhere. Any such reductions may increase competition for product sales within Europe and other markets, which can result in lower margins in those regions.
For some of our raw materials and utilities there are a limited number of suppliers and, in some cases, the supplies are specific to the particular geographic region in which a facility is located. It is also common in the chemical and refining industries for a facility to have a sole, dedicated source for its utilities, such as steam, electricity and gas. Having a sole or limited number of suppliers may limit our negotiating power, particularly in the case of rising raw material costs. Any new supply agreements we enter into may not have terms as favorable as those contained in our current supply agreements.
Additionally, there is concern over the reliability of water sources, including around the U.S. Gulf Coast where several of our facilities are located. The decreased availability or less favorable pricing for water as a result of population growth, drought or regulation could negatively impact our operations, including by impacting our ability to produce or transport our products.
If our raw material or utility supplies were disrupted, our businesses would likely incur increased costs to procure alternative supplies or incur excessive downtime, which would have a negative impact on plant operations. Disruptions of supplies may occur as a result of transportation issues resulting from natural disasters, water levels, and interruptions in marine water routes, among other causes, that can affect the operations of vessels, barges, rails, trucks and pipeline traffic. These risks are particularly prevalent in the U.S. Gulf Coast area. Additionally, increasing exports of NGLs and crude oil from the U.S. or greater restrictions on hydraulic fracturing could restrict the availability of our raw materials, thereby increasing our costs.
With increased volatility in raw material costs, our suppliers could impose more onerous terms on us, resulting in shorter payment cycles and increasing our working capital requirements.
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Our ability to source raw materials or deliver products may be adversely affected by political instability, civil disturbances or other governmental actions.
We obtain a portion of our principal raw materials from sources in the Middle East and Central and South America that may be less politically stable than other areas in which we conduct business. Political instability, civil disturbances and actions by governments in these areas are more likely to substantially increase the price and decrease the supply of raw materials necessary for our operations or impair our ability to deliver products to customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Incidents of civil unrest, including terrorist attacks and demonstrations that have been marked by violence, have occurred in a number of countries, including in the Middle East and South America. Some political regimes in these countries are threatened or have changed as a result of such unrest. Political instability and civil unrest could continue to spread in the region and involve other areas. Such unrest, if it continues to spread or grow in intensity, could lead to civil wars, regional conflicts or regime changes resulting in governments that are hostile to countries in which we conduct substantial business, such as in the U.S., Europe or their respective trading partners.
Our business is capital intensive and we rely on cash generated from operations and external financing to fund our growth and ongoing capital needs. Limitations on access to external financing could adversely affect our operating results.
We require significant capital to operate our current business and fund our growth strategy. Moreover, interest payments, dividends, capital requirements of our joint ventures, the expansion of our current business or other business opportunities may require significant amounts of capital. If we need external financing, our access to credit markets and pricing of our capital is dependent upon maintaining sufficient credit ratings from credit rating agencies and the state of the capital markets generally. There can be no assurances that we would be able to incur indebtedness on terms we deem acceptable, and it is possible that the cost of any financings could increase significantly, thereby increasing our expenses and decreasing our net income. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow or raise adequate external financing, including as a result of significant disruptions in the global credit markets, we could be forced to restrict our operations and growth opportunities, which could adversely affect our operating results.
We may use our $3,250 million revolving credit facility, which backs our commercial paper program, to meet our cash needs, to the extent available. As of December 31, 2023, we had no borrowings or letters of credit outstanding under the facility and no borrowings outstanding under our commercial paper program, leaving an unused and available credit capacity of $3,250 million. We may also meet our cash needs by selling receivables under our $900 million U.S. Receivables Facility. As of December 31, 2023, we had no borrowing or letters of credit outstanding and availability of $900 million under this facility. In the event of a default under our credit facilities or any of our senior notes, we could be required to immediately repay all outstanding borrowings and make cash deposits as collateral for all obligations the facility supports, which we may not be able to do. Any default under any of our credit arrangements could cause a default under many of our other credit agreements and debt instruments. Without waivers from lenders party to those agreements, any such default could have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue to operate.
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Risks Related to our Operations
Our operations are subject to risks inherent in chemical and refining businesses, and we could be subject to liabilities for which we are not fully insured or that are not otherwise mitigated.
We maintain property, business interruption, product, general liability, casualty and other types of insurance that we believe are appropriate for our business and operations as well as in line with industry practices. However, we are not fully insured against all potential hazards incident to our business, including losses resulting from natural disasters or climate-related exposures, wars or terrorist acts. Changes in insurance market conditions have caused, and may in the future cause, premiums and deductibles for certain insurance policies to increase substantially and, in some instances, for certain insurance to become unavailable or available only for reduced amounts of coverage. If we were to incur a significant liability for which we were not fully insured, we might not be able to finance the amount of the uninsured liability on terms acceptable to us, or at all, and might be obligated to divert a significant portion of our cash flow from normal business operations.
Our business, including our results of operations and reputation, could be adversely affected by safety or product liability issues.
Failure to appropriately manage occupational safety, process safety, product safety, human health, product liability and environmental risks inherent in the chemical and refining businesses and associated with our products, product life cycles and production processes could result in unexpected incidents including releases, fires, or explosions resulting in personal injury, loss of life, environmental damage, loss of revenue, legal liability, and/or operational disruption. Public perception of the risks associated with our products and production processes could impact product acceptance and influence the regulatory environment in which we operate. While we have management systems, procedures and controls to manage these risks, issues could be created by events outside of our control, including natural disasters, severe weather events and acts of sabotage.
Further, because a part of our business involves licensing polyolefin process technology, our licensees are exposed to similar risks involved in the manufacture and marketing of polyolefins. Hazardous incidents involving our licensees, if they do result or are perceived to result from use of our technologies, may harm our reputation, threaten our relationships with other licensees and/or lead to customer attrition and financial losses. Our policy of covering these risks through contractual limitations of liability and indemnities and through insurance may not always be effective. As a result, our financial condition and results of operation would be adversely affected, and other companies with competing technologies may have the opportunity to secure a competitive advantage.
Interruptions of operations at our facilities may result in increased liabilities or lower operating results.
We own and operate large-scale facilities. Our operating results are dependent on the continued operation of our various production facilities and the ability to complete construction and maintenance projects on schedule. Interruptions at our facilities may materially reduce the productivity and profitability of a particular manufacturing facility, or our business as a whole, during and after the period of such operational difficulties. In recent years, we have had to shut down plants on the U.S. Gulf Coast, including the temporary shutdown of a portion of our Houston refinery, as a result of various hurricanes and cold weather events striking Texas and Louisiana. In addition, because the Houston refinery is our only refining operation, an outage at the refinery could have a particularly negative impact on our operating results as we do not have the ability to increase refining production elsewhere.
Our operations are subject to hazards inherent in chemical manufacturing and refining and the related storage and transportation of raw materials, products and wastes. These potential hazards include:
pipeline leaks and ruptures;
explosions;
fires;
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severe weather and natural disasters;
mechanical failure;
unscheduled downtimes;
supplier disruptions;
labor shortages or other labor difficulties;
transportation interruptions;
remediation complications;
increased restrictions on, or the unavailability of, water for use at our manufacturing sites or for the transport of our products or raw materials;
chemical and oil spills;
discharges or releases of toxic or hazardous substances or gases;
shipment of incorrect or off-specification product to customers;
storage tank leaks;
other environmental risks; and
cyber-attack or other terrorist acts.
Some of these hazards may cause severe damage to or destruction of property and equipment, personal injury, loss of life, environmental damage, legal liability resulting from government action or litigation, loss of revenue, suspension of operations or the shutdown of affected facilities.
Large capital projects can take many years to complete, and market conditions could deteriorate significantly between the project approval date and the project startup date, negatively impacting project returns. If we are unable to complete capital projects at their expected costs and in a timely manner, or if the market conditions assumed in our project economics deteriorate, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
Delays or cost increases related to capital spending programs involving engineering, procurement and construction of facilities could materially adversely affect our ability to achieve forecasted internal rates of return and operating results, or impair our ability to meet our sustainability or other targets or goals. For example, higher costs arising from delaying construction of our world-scale PO/TBA plant in Houston including more extensive civil construction and unexpected tariffs on materials, increased our costs and impacted our projected rate of return on the project. Delays in making required changes or upgrades to our facilities could subject us to fines or penalties as well as affect our ability to contract with our customers and supply certain products we produce. Such delays or cost increases may arise as a result of unpredictable factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:
denial of or delay in receiving requisite regulatory approvals and/or permits;
unplanned increases in the cost of construction materials or labor;
disruptions in transportation of components or construction materials;
adverse weather conditions, natural disasters or other events (such as equipment malfunctions, explosions, fires or spills) affecting our facilities, or those of vendors or suppliers;
shortages of sufficiently skilled labor, or labor disagreements resulting in unplanned work stoppages; and
nonperformance by, or disputes with, vendors, suppliers, contractors or subcontractors.
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Any one or more of these factors could have a significant impact on our ongoing capital projects. If we were unable to make up the delays associated with such factors or to recover the related costs, or if market conditions change, it could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Shared control or lack of control of joint ventures or equity investments may delay decisions or actions regarding our joint ventures, or adversely affect our financial results.
A portion of our operations are conducted through joint ventures or equity investments, where control may be exercised by or shared with unaffiliated third parties. We cannot control the actions or ownership of these partners, including any nonperformance, default or bankruptcy of the joint venture or its partners. The joint ventures that we do not control may also lack financial reporting systems to provide adequate and timely information for our reporting purposes.
Our joint venture partners may have different interests or goals than we do and may take actions contrary to our requests, policies or objectives. Differences in views among the joint venture participants also may result in delayed decisions or in failures to agree on major matters, potentially adversely affecting the business and operations of the joint ventures and in turn our business and operations. We may develop a dispute with any of our partners over decisions affecting the venture that may result in litigation, arbitration or some other form of dispute resolution. If a joint venture participant acts contrary to our interest, or is unsuccessful in conducting its business, it could harm our brand, business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may be required to record material charges against our earnings due to any number of events including impairments of our assets.
We may be required to reduce production or idle facilities for extended periods of time or exit certain businesses as a result of the cyclical nature of our industry. Specifically, oversupplies of or lack of demand for particular products or high raw material prices may cause us to reduce production. We may choose to reduce production at certain facilities because we have off-take arrangements at other facilities, which make any reductions or idling unavailable at those facilities. For example, during the fourth quarter of 2023, we identified an impairment trigger related to the adverse financial performance of our European PO joint venture which resulted in a non-cash impairment charge of $192 million.
Any decision to permanently close facilities or exit a business may result in impairment and other charges to earnings. For example, in April 2022, the Finance Committee of the Board of Directors of the Company approved a plan to exit the refining business, resulting in the recognition of $334 million and $187 million of expense in 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Temporary outages at our facilities can last for several quarters and sometimes longer. These outages could cause us to incur significant costs, including the expenses of maintaining and restarting these facilities. In addition, we have significant obligations under take-or-pay agreements. Even though we may reduce production at facilities, we may be required to continue to purchase or pay for utilities or raw materials under these arrangements.
Acquisitions or dispositions of assets or businesses could disrupt our business and harm our financial condition and stock price.
We continually evaluate the performance and strategic fit of all of our businesses and evaluate whether our businesses would benefit from acquisitions to enhance growth or dispositions that would align our footprint with our overall business strategy. These transactions pose risks and challenges that could negatively impact our business and financial statements.
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Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including meeting our standards for compliance, problems combining the purchased operations, technologies or products, unanticipated costs and liabilities, diversion of management’s attention from our core businesses, and potential loss of key employees. There can be no assurance that we will be able to integrate successfully any businesses, products, technologies, or personnel that we might acquire. The integration of businesses that we may acquire is likely to be a complex, time-consuming, and expensive process and we may not realize the anticipated revenues, synergies, or other benefits associated with our acquisitions if we do not manage and operate the acquired business up to our expectations. If we are unable to efficiently operate as a combined organization utilizing common information and communication systems, operating procedures, financial controls, and human resources practices, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Dispositions of assets or businesses involve risks, including difficulties in the separation of operations, services, products and personnel, the diversion of management's attention from other business concerns, the disruption of our business, the potential loss of key employees and the retention of uncertain environmental or other contingent liabilities related to the divested business. In addition, they may result in significant asset impairment charges, including those related to goodwill and other intangible assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In the event we are unable to successfully divest a business or product line, we may be forced to wind down such business or product line, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We cannot assure you that we will be successful in managing these or any other significant risks that we encounter in acquiring or divesting a business or product line, and any transaction we undertake could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, and may also result in a diversion of management attention, operational difficulties and losses.
Risks related to the Global Economy and Multinational Operations
Economic disruptions and downturns in general, and particularly continued global economic uncertainty or economic turmoil in emerging markets, could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
Our results of operations can be materially affected by adverse conditions in the financial markets and depressed economic conditions generally. Economic downturns in the businesses and geographic areas in which we sell our products could substantially reduce demand for our products and result in decreased sales volumes and increased credit risk. Recessionary environments adversely affect our business because demand for our products is reduced, particularly from our customers in industrial markets generally and the automotive and housing industries specifically, and may result in higher costs of capital. A significant portion of our revenues and earnings are derived from our business in Europe. In addition, most of our European transactions and assets, including cash and receivables, are denominated in euros.
We also derive significant revenues from our business in emerging markets, particularly the emerging markets in Asia and South America. Any broad-based downturn in these emerging markets, or in a key market such as China, could require us to reduce export volumes into these markets and could also require us to divert product sales to less profitable markets. Any of these conditions could ultimately harm our overall business, prospects, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
We sell products in highly competitive global markets and face significant price pressures.
We sell our products in highly competitive global markets. Due to the commodity nature of many of our products, competition in these markets is based primarily on price and, to a lesser extent, on product performance, product quality, product deliverability, reliability of supply and customer service. Often, we are not able to protect our market position for these products by product differentiation and may not be able to pass on cost increases to our customers due to the significant competition in our business.
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In addition, we face increased competition from companies that may have greater financial resources and different cost structures or strategic goals than us. These include large integrated oil companies (some of which also have chemical businesses), government-owned businesses, and companies that receive subsidies or other government incentives to produce certain products in a specified geographic region. Continuing competition from these companies, especially in our olefin and refining businesses, could limit our ability to increase product sales prices in response to raw material and other cost increases, or could cause us to reduce product sales prices to compete effectively, which would reduce our profitability. Competitors with different cost structures or strategic goals than we have may be able to invest significant capital into their businesses, including expenditures for research and development. In addition, specialty products we produce may become commoditized over time. Increased competition could result in lower prices or lower sales volumes, which would have a negative impact on our results of operations.
We operate internationally and are subject to exchange rate fluctuations, exchange controls, political risks and other risks relating to international operations.
We operate internationally and are subject to the risks of doing business on a global level. These risks include fluctuations in currency exchange rates, economic instability and disruptions, restrictions on the transfer of funds and the imposition of trade restrictions or duties and tariffs, and complex regulations concerning privacy and data security. Additional risks from our multinational business include transportation delays and interruptions, war, terrorist activities, epidemics, pandemics, political instability, import and export controls, sanctions, changes in governmental policies, labor unrest and current and changing regulatory environments.
We generate revenues from export sales and operations that may be denominated in currencies other than the relevant functional currency. Exchange rates between these currencies and functional currencies in recent years have fluctuated significantly and may do so in the future. It is possible that fluctuations in exchange rates will result in reduced operating results. Additionally, we operate with the objective of having our worldwide cash available in the locations where it is needed, including the United Kingdom for our parent company’s significant cash obligations as a result of dividend payments. It is possible that we may not always be able to provide cash to other jurisdictions when needed or that such transfers of cash could be subject to additional taxes, including withholding taxes.
Our operating results could be negatively affected by the laws, rules and regulations, as well as political environments, in the jurisdictions in which we operate. There could be reduced demand for our products, decreases in the prices at which we can sell our products and disruptions of production or other operations. Trade protection measures such as quotas, duties, tariffs, safeguard measures or anti-dumping duties imposed in the countries in which we operate could negatively impact our business. Additionally, there may be substantial capital and other costs to comply with regulations and/or increased security costs or insurance premiums, any of which could reduce our operating results.
We obtain a portion of our principal raw materials from international sources that are subject to these same risks. Our compliance with applicable customs, currency exchange control regulations, transfer pricing regulations or any other laws or regulations to which we may be subject could be challenged. Furthermore, these laws may be modified, the result of which may be to prevent or limit subsidiaries from transferring cash to us.
Furthermore, we are subject to certain existing, and may be subject to possible future, laws that limit or may limit our activities while some of our competitors may not be subject to such laws, which may adversely affect our competitiveness.
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Changes in tax laws and regulations could affect our tax rate and our results of operations.
The Company operates in multiple jurisdictions with complex legal and tax regulatory environments and is subject to taxes in the U.S. and non-U.S. jurisdictions. Significant changes to tax laws and regulations in these jurisdictions or their interpretation could have a material impact on our effective income tax rate. Our future effective income tax rates could also fluctuate based on, among other factors, changes in pre-tax income in countries with varying statutory tax rates, changes in valuation allowances, changes in foreign exchange gains/losses, the amount of exempt income, and changes in unrecognized tax benefits associated with uncertain tax positions. Our tax returns are periodically audited or subjected to review by tax authorities, and any adverse result of these examinations could also have an impact on our effective income tax rate and our results of operations. We regularly evaluate the likelihood of an adverse result of an examination, however, there is no assurance as to the ultimate outcome and impact.
Risks Related to Health, Safety, and the Environment
We cannot predict with certainty the extent of future costs under environmental, health and safety and other laws and regulations, and cannot guarantee they will not be material.
We may face liability arising out of the normal course of business, including alleged personal injury or property damage due to exposure to chemicals or other hazardous substances at our current or former facilities, or exposure to products or chemicals that we manufacture, handle or own. In addition, because our products are components of a variety of other end-use products, we, along with other members of the chemical industry, are subject to potential claims related to those end-use products. Any substantial increase in the success of these types of claims could negatively affect our operating results.
We are subject to extensive national, regional, state and local environmental laws, regulations, directives, rules and ordinances concerning pollution, protection of the environment, hazardous materials, health and safety, the security of our facilities, and the safety of our products. We generally expect that these requirements are likely to become more stringent over time. Changes to such laws could result in restrictions on our operations, denial of permits, loss of business opportunities, increased operating costs or additional capital expenditures. We could incur significant costs or operational restrictions due to violations of or liabilities under such laws and regulations in the form of fines, penalties, and injunctive relief. Any substantial liability under such laws could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Additionally, we are required to have permits for our businesses and are subject to licensing regulations. These permits and licenses are subject to renewal, modification and in some circumstances, revocation. Further, the permits and licenses are often difficult, time consuming and costly to obtain and could contain conditions that limit our operations.
We may incur substantial costs to comply with climate change legislation and related regulatory initiatives.
There has been a broad range of proposed or promulgated international, national and state laws focusing on greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emission reduction and global climate change. These proposed or promulgated laws apply or could apply in countries where we have interests or may have interests in the future. Laws and regulations in this field continue to evolve and, while they are likely to be increasingly widespread and stringent, at this stage it is not possible to accurately estimate either a timetable for implementation or our future compliance costs relating to implementation. Under the 2015 Paris Agreement, parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to undertake ambitious efforts to reduce GHG emissions and strengthen adaptation to the effects of climate change.
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Jurisdictions in which we operate, including, in particular, the European Union (EU), are preparing national legislation and protection plans to implement their emission reduction commitments under the Paris Agreement. In June 2021, the European Climate Law set legally binding targets of net zero GHG emissions by 2050, and a 55% reduction in GHG emissions by 2030. Throughout 2023, a series of legislative reforms arising out of the EU’s ‘Fit for 55’ package of proposals have been adopted and are in the process of being implemented, including reforms to the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), and the introduction of a Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism. Our operations in Europe participate in the ETS and we meet our obligations through a combination of free and purchased emission allowances. We anticipate that these regulations will result in an accelerated reduction of our free allowances and higher market prices for purchased allowances. These and other future regulations could result in increased costs, additional capital expenditures, and/or restrictions on operations.
In the U.S., addressing climate change is a stated priority of President Biden, and in February 2021, the U.S. recommitted to the Paris Agreement after having withdrawn in August 2017. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as well as several state governments have promulgated regulations directed at GHG emissions reductions from certain types of facilities. Additional regulations could be forthcoming at the U.S. federal or state level that could result in increased operating costs for compliance, required acquisition or trading of emission allowances, or compliance costs associated with additional regulatory frameworks for a range of potential carbon reduction projects, including carbon capture, use, and sequestration projects. Additionally, demand for the products we produce may be reduced.
Non-Governmental Organizations have been active in filing lawsuits against governments and private parties in various jurisdictions around the world seeking enforcement of existing laws and new requirements to reduce GHG emissions. In one case decided in the Netherlands in May 2021, plaintiffs obtained a ruling ordering Royal Dutch Shell to reduce its Scope 1, 2 and 3 carbon emissions by 45% by 2030. These types of laws, regulations, and litigation results could increase the cost of purchased energy and increase costs of compliance in various locations.
Compliance with climate regulations may result in increased permitting necessary for the operation of our business or for any of our growth plans. Difficulties in obtaining such permits could have an adverse effect on our future growth. In addition, any future potential climate regulations, legislation, or litigation results could impose additional operating restrictions or delays in implementing growth projects or other capital investments, require us to incur increased costs, and could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Legislation and regulatory initiatives could lead to a decrease in demand for our products or reputational harm.
New or revised governmental regulations and independent studies relating to the effect of our products on health, safety and the environment may affect demand for our products and the cost of producing our products. Initiatives by governments and private interest groups will potentially result in increased toxicological testing and risk assessments of a wide variety of chemicals, including chemicals used or produced by us. New or revised legislation or regulations could result in additional use restrictions and/or bans of certain chemicals. For example, in the EU, the European Commission as part of its Green Deal published the Chemicals Strategy for Sustainability Towards a Toxic-Free Environment (“CSS”). The CSS sets forth far-reaching plans for introducing significant changes to the EU regulatory frameworks for chemicals including the Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (“REACH”), and the Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulation (“CLP”) that could result in increased compliance costs, additional restrictions, and/or bans of chemicals used or produced by us. In the U.S., changes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s risk evaluation process under the Toxic Substances Control Act (“TSCA”) could also result in additional restrictions and/or bans of chemicals used or produced by us.
Assessments under TSCA, REACH or similar programs or regulations in other state or national jurisdictions may result in heightened concerns about the chemicals we use or produce and may result in additional requirements or bans being placed on the production, handling, labeling or use of those chemicals. Such concerns and additional requirements could also increase the cost incurred by our customers to use our chemical products and otherwise limit the use of these products, which could lead to a decrease in demand for these products. Such a decrease in demand could have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
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U.S. state and federal regulators, international regulators, investors, consumers and other stakeholders are focused on environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) considerations. ESG disclosure obligations have required and may continue to require us to implement new practices and reporting processes, and have created and will continue to create additional compliance risk. If we are unable to meet our circularity, greenhouse gas reduction, diversity or other goals, or if we are perceived by regulators, customers, stockholders or employees to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for these issues, our reputation, and therefore our ability to sell our products, could be negatively impacted. If, as a result of their assessment of our ESG performance, certain investors are unsatisfied with our actions or progress, they may reconsider their investment in our shares or debt securities. Providers of debt and equity financing may also consider our sustainability performance and external ESG ratings, which we have limited ability to influence, which could impact our cost of capital and adversely affect our business.
The physical impacts of climate change can negatively impact our facilities and operations.
Potential physical impacts of climate change include increased frequency and severity of hurricanes and floods as well as freezing conditions, tornadoes, and global sea level rise. Although we have preparedness plans in place designed to minimize impacts and enhance safety, should an event occur, it could have the potential to disrupt our supply chain and operations. A number of our facilities are located on the U.S. Gulf Coast, which has been impacted by hurricanes that have required us to temporarily shut down operations at those sites. Our sites rely on rivers and other waterways for transportation that may experience restrictions in times of drought or other unseasonal weather variation. In addition, scarcity of water and drought conditions due to climate change could reduce the availability of fresh water needed to produce our products which could increase our costs of operations.
Increased regulation or deselection of plastic could lead to a decrease in demand growth for some of our products.
There is a growing concern with the accumulation of plastic, plastic additives, and microplastics in the environment, particularly in waterways and oceans. Additionally, plastics have recently faced increased public backlash and scrutiny, as well as governmental investigations and enforcement, and private litigation. Policy measures to address this concern are being discussed or implemented by governments at all levels. For example, on March 2, 2022, the United Nations Environment Assembly adopted a resolution to develop a new international legally binding instrument on plastic pollution with the ambition to complete the negotiations by the end of 2024. The European Union has been undertaking a series of actions under its Circular Economy Action Plan, including adoption of the Single Use Plastics Directive in 2019, which introduced policy measures for single use plastics including bans, product design requirements, extended producer responsibility obligations, and labeling requirements, and a proposal for a Packaging and Packaging Waste Regulation to replace the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive. In addition, a host of single-use plastic bans and taxes have been passed by countries around the world and states and municipalities throughout the U.S. Consumer deselection, increased regulation of, or prohibition on, the manufacturing or use of plastic or plastic products could limit the use of these products or increase the costs incurred by our customers to use such products, and could lead to a decrease in demand for PE, PP, and other products we make. Such a decrease in demand could adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.
Failure to effectively and timely achieve our GHG emissions reduction goals could damage our reputation and have an adverse effect on the demand for our products.
We have set GHG emissions reduction targets for 2030, and aim to achieve net zero scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions by 2050. Our ability to achieve these goals depends on many factors, including the availability of technology, our ability to secure permits and emissions credits, evolving regulatory requirements, competitor actions, customer preferences, and our ability to reduce emissions from our operations through modernization and innovation, reduce the emissions intensity of the electricity we buy, and invest in renewables and low carbon energy. We may also not timely adapt to changes or methods in carbon pricing that could increase our costs and reduce our competitiveness. The cost associated with our GHG emissions reduction goals could be significant. Failure to achieve our emissions targets could result in reputational harm, enforcement or litigation, changing investor sentiment regarding investment in LyondellBasell or a negative impact on access to and cost of capital. In addition, if customers increasingly set their own scope 3 GHG emissions reduction targets, this could lead to a decrease in demand for our products.
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Failure to achieve our circularity goals could have an adverse effect on the demand for our products.
In September 2020, we announced a circularity goal of producing and marketing at least two million metric tons of recycled and renewable-based polymers annually by 2030. Many of our customers also have goals to increase the recycled and renewable content in their own products and packaging. Our ability to achieve this goal depends on many factors, including the availability of collection and sortation infrastructure, evolving regulations on chemical recycling and recycled content, our ability to grow our circular and low carbon solutions business established in 2022, make investments in new technologies, expand the global footprint of our recycling facilities and joint ventures, secure access to feedstock, and manufacture recycled and low carbon products at commercial scale.
General Risk Factors
Increased IT and cybersecurity threats and more sophisticated and targeted computer crime could pose a risk to our systems, networks, data, products, facilities and services.
Increased global information cybersecurity threats and more sophisticated, targeted computer crime pose a risk to the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our data, operations and infrastructure. While we attempt to mitigate these risks by employing a number of measures, including security measures, employee training, comprehensive monitoring of our networks and systems, and maintenance of backup and protective systems, our employees, systems, networks, products, facilities and services remain potentially vulnerable to ransomware or sophisticated espionage. Depending on their nature and scope, such threats could potentially lead to the compromise of confidential information, improper use of our systems and networks, manipulation and destruction of data, defective products, production downtimes and operational disruptions, which in turn could adversely affect our reputation, competitiveness and results of operations.
Many of our businesses depend on our intellectual property. Our future success will depend in part on our ability to develop new technologies and protect our intellectual property rights, and our inability to do so could reduce our ability to maintain our competitiveness and margins.
We have a significant worldwide patent portfolio of issued and pending patents and our future results could be impacted by our ability to successfully develop and protect new processes and technologies. Our patents and patent applications, together with proprietary technical know-how, are significant to our competitive position, particularly with regard to PO, intermediate chemicals, polyolefins, licensing and catalysts. We rely on the patent, copyright and trade secret laws of the countries in which we operate to protect our investment in research and development, manufacturing and marketing. We operate plants, sell catalysts and products, participate in joint ventures, and license our process technology in many foreign jurisdictions, including those having heightened risks for intellectual property. In some of these instances, we must disclose at least a portion of our technology to third parties or regulatory bodies. In these cases, we rely primarily on contracts and trade secret laws to protect the associated trade secrets. However, we may be unable to prevent third parties from using our intellectual property without authorization. Proceedings to protect these rights could be costly, and we may not prevail.
The failure of our patents or confidentiality agreements to protect our processes, apparatuses, technology, trade secrets or proprietary know-how could result in significantly lower revenues, reduced profit margins and cash flows and/or loss of market share. We also may be subject to claims that our technology, patents or other intellectual property infringes on a third party’s intellectual property rights. Unfavorable resolution of these claims could result in restrictions on our ability to deliver the related service or in a settlement that could be material to us.
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Adverse results of legal proceedings could materially adversely affect us.
We are subject to and may in the future be subject to a variety of legal proceedings and claims that arise out of the ordinary conduct of our business. Results of legal proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty. Irrespective of its merits, litigation may be both lengthy and disruptive to our operations and may cause significant expenditure and diversion of management attention. We may be faced with significant monetary damages or injunctive relief against us that could have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations should we fail to prevail in certain matters.
If we lose key employees or are unable to attract and retain the employees we need, our business and operating results could be adversely affected.
Our success depends on our ability to attract and retain key personnel, and we rely heavily on our management team. The inability to recruit and retain key personnel or the unexpected loss of key personnel may adversely affect our operations. In addition, because of the reliance on our management team, our future success depends in part on our ability to identify and develop talent to succeed senior management. The retention of key personnel and appropriate senior management succession planning will continue to be critically important to the successful implementation of our strategies.
There is substantial and continuous competition for diverse, talented engineering, manufacturing, and operations employees. We may not be successful in attracting and retaining such personnel, and we may experience increased compensation and training costs that may not be offset by either improved productivity or higher sales. We have from time to time experienced, and we may continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications, and may not be able to fill positions in desired geographic areas or at all.
Significant changes in pension fund investment performance or assumptions relating to pension costs may adversely affect the valuation of pension obligations, the funded status of pension plans, and our pension cost.
Our pension cost is materially affected by the discount rates used to measure pension obligations, the level of plan assets available to fund those obligations at the measurement date and the expected long-term rates of return on plan assets. Significant changes in investment performance or a change in the portfolio mix of invested assets may result in corresponding increases and decreases in the value of plan assets, particularly equity securities, or in a change of the expected rate of return on plan assets. Any changes in key actuarial assumptions, such as the discount rate or mortality rate, would impact the valuation of pension obligations, affecting the reported funded status of our pension plans as well as the net periodic pension cost in the following fiscal years.
Many of our current pension plans have projected benefit obligations that exceed the fair value of the plan assets. As of December 31, 2023, the aggregate deficit was $853 million. Any declines in the fair values of the pension plans’ assets could require additional payments by us in order to maintain specified funding levels.
Our pension plans are subject to legislative and regulatory requirements of applicable jurisdictions, which could include, under certain circumstances, local governmental authority to terminate the plan.
See Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding pensions and other post-retirement benefits.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
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Item 1C.    Cybersecurity.
We recognize sophisticated global cybersecurity threats and targeted computer crimes pose a continuously evolving risk to the confidentiality, availability, and integrity of our data, operations and infrastructure. We have implemented comprehensive practices to minimize these risks. Our cybersecurity program is certified to the International Organization for Standardization ISO 27001, a standard for information security management, which covers key areas of management, technical and physical controls, legal, compliance and business continuity management.
Our management utilizes a systematic approach to evaluating and determining risk tolerance and prioritizes the safeguarding of our digital assets. The Vice President of Cybersecurity leads our cybersecurity program and reports to the Executive Vice President and Chief Innovation Officer, who serves on the Executive Committee and reports to the CEO. The Vice President of Cybersecurity has a Master of Science degree in Cybersecurity Operations, is certified as an information security professional with the International Information System Security Certification Consortium (ISC2) and International Association of Privacy Professionals, and has over thirty years of leadership experience in technology, systems architecture, and cybersecurity.
Cybersecurity events are continuously monitored by global security operations centers staffed in the United States, European Union, and Asia Pacific regions with events and incidents being managed based upon the MITRE ATT&CK framework, a system for classifying and describing cyber attacks and intrusions. Management provides guidance and is informed of cybersecurity events through a committee with cross-functional representation of executive leadership. The committee meets at least quarterly for activities such as determining policy, reviewing active risks, assessing impact of emerging threats or regulatory changes, and monitoring active incidents. This committee also receives escalated alerts within 24-hours of confirmed cybersecurity events, and will determine the severity of the incident, engage with crisis management as necessary, and disseminate that information internally as appropriate and warranted.
Third-party service providers must meet baseline security requirements before they connect to our systems or manage sensitive information. They are evaluated based on risk, which is based on financial, operational, legal/regulatory, capacity, cybersecurity posture, and reputational impact. Additionally, high risk third-party service providers are continuously monitored for security health and active threats.
We recognize the risk posed by global cybersecurity threats, and our Board is regularly updated on emerging risks and maintains oversight of our cybersecurity program implemented to address them. In 2023, the Board conducted its annual comprehensive review of specific cybersecurity and process control topics at its September meeting. Cybersecurity risk evaluation is integrated into our enterprise risk management processes and is presented to management and the board as a part of that process.
While management is responsible for assessing and managing our day-to-day risks and control systems, the Audit Committee of the Board oversees our information technology and cybersecurity risks. The Committee conducts a comprehensive review of cybersecurity topics and reviews our programs and practices with management at least annually, and receives management’s report on our cybersecurity dashboard, which summarizes key security metrics and activities, at each quarterly Committee meeting.
To further advance cybersecurity awareness, we are developing solutions to mitigate the impact of third-party fraudulent cyber activity, including public facing portals for potential and current partners with capability to report suspected phishing.
Our cybersecurity program includes, but is not limited to:
annual cybersecurity education for all company computer users on relevant policies and standards, best practices at work and at home;
communication processes including how to identify, respond, and report threats or potential vulnerabilities;
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protective software installed and configured on Company systems and mobile devices, updated and patched on a regular basis, to provide the highest level of protection against malicious threats;
an established program based on the MITRE ATT&CK framework for dealing with ransomware and other cybersecurity incidents;
regular technical risk assessments of our network, applications and manufacturing facilities, using a combination of trusted suppliers and a dedicated, objective team;
penetration, discovery and vulnerability assessments conducted daily;
mobile threat protection mechanisms and policies;
business continuity plans that are well documented and tested regularly; disaster recovery plans that are also well documented and tested at least annually; and
coverage for non-damage business interruption or liability for data breaches as a part of the Company’s combined insurance programs.
In addition, in 2023, management conducted ransomware simulation exercises and engaged outside consultants to perform external perimeter penetration testing.
While we attempt to mitigate cybersecurity risks by employing a number of measures, as described above, our employees, systems, networks, products, facilities and services remain potentially vulnerable to ransomware or sophisticated espionage. Depending on their nature and scope, such threats could potentially lead to the compromise of confidential information, improper use of our systems and networks, manipulation and destruction of data, defective products, production downtimes and operational disruptions, which in turn could adversely affect our reputation, competitiveness and results of operations or financial condition. No risks from cybersecurity threats, including those resulting from any previous cybersecurity incidents, have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company, including its business strategy, results of operations or financial condition.
Item 3.     Legal Proceedings.
Environmental Matters
From time to time, we and our joint ventures receive notices or inquiries from government entities regarding alleged violations of environmental laws and regulations pertaining to, among other things, the disposal, emission and storage of chemical and petroleum substances, including hazardous wastes. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission rules require disclosure of certain environmental matters when a governmental authority is a party to the proceedings and the proceedings involve potential monetary sanctions that we reasonably believe could exceed $300,000. The matters below are disclosed solely pursuant to that requirement and we do not believe that any of these proceedings will have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
In April 2022, the State of Texas filed suit against Equistar Chemicals, LP, in Travis County District Court seeking civil penalties and injunctive relief for alleged violations of the Texas Clean Air Act related to multiple emissions events at Equistar’s Bayport Plant. In October 2023, we came to an agreement with the State to resolve the matter for $1.5 million. The court entered the final judgment in January 2024, and we have paid the penalty amount.
Litigation and Other Matters
Information regarding our litigation and other legal proceedings can be found in Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.




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PART II 
Item 5.     Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Market and Dividend Information
Our shares were listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) on October 14, 2010 under the symbol “LYB.”
The payment of dividends or distributions in the future will be subject to the requirements of Dutch law and the discretion of our Board of Directors. The declaration of any future cash dividends and, if declared, the amount of any such dividends, will depend upon general business conditions, our financial condition, our earnings and cash flow, our capital requirements, financial covenants and other contractual restrictions on the payment of dividends or distributions.
We intend to continue to declare and pay quarterly dividends, with the goal of increasing the dividend over time, after giving consideration to our cash balances and expected results from operations. However, there can be no assurance that any dividends or distributions will be declared or paid in the future.
Holders
As of February 20, 2024, there were approximately 5,000 record holders of our shares, including Cede & Co. as nominee of the Depository Trust Company.
Equity Compensation Plan
See Part III, Item 11. Executive Compensation for information relating to the Company’s equity compensation plans.
United Kingdom Tax Considerations
As a result of its United Kingdom tax residency, dividend distributions by LyondellBasell Industries N.V. to its shareholders are not subject to withholding tax, as the United Kingdom currently does not levy a withholding tax on dividend distributions.
Performance Graph
The performance graph and the information contained in this section is not “soliciting material,” is being furnished, not filed, with the SEC and is not to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language contained in such filing.
The graph below shows the relative investment performance of LyondellBasell Industries N.V. shares, the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Chemicals Index since December 31, 2018. The graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2018 and any dividends paid were reinvested at the date of payment. The graph is presented pursuant to SEC rules and is not meant to be an indication of our future performance. 
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2428
12/31/201812/31/201912/31/202012/31/202112/31/202212/31/2023
LyondellBasell Industries N.V.$100.00$119.41$122.56$128.77$127.51$153.91
S&P 500 Index$100.00$131.49$155.68$200.37$164.08$207.21
S&P 500 Chemicals Index$100.00$122.01$144.03$181.35$160.92$178.69
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On May 19, 2023, our shareholders approved a proposal to authorize us to repurchase up to 34.0 million ordinary shares, through November 19, 2024, which superseded any prior repurchase authorizations. The maximum number of shares that may yet be purchased is not necessarily an indication of the number of shares that will ultimately be purchased.
Item 6.     Reserved
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Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
GENERAL
This discussion should be read in conjunction with the information contained in our Consolidated Financial Statements, and the accompanying notes elsewhere in this report. Unless otherwise indicated, the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” or similar words are used to refer to LyondellBasell Industries N.V. together with its consolidated subsidiaries (“LyondellBasell N.V.”).
Effective January 1, 2023, our Catalloy and polybutene-1 businesses were moved from the Advanced Polymer Solutions (“APS”) segment and reintegrated into the Olefins and Polyolefins-Americas (“O&P-Americas”) and Olefins and Polyolefins-Europe, Asia, International (“O&P-EAI”) segments. This move allows the APS team to focus on our compounding and solutions business, and to develop a more agile operating model with meaningful regional and segment growth strategies. The segment information provided herein has been revised for all periods presented to reflect these changes.
The discussion summarizing the significant factors affecting the results of operations and financial condition for the year ended December 31, 2021 and for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to 2021 has been excluded from this Form 10-K and can be found in the update to Part II, “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 as reported in Exhibit 99.1 to the Current Report on form 8-K of the Company filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 12, 2023 and is incorporated herein by reference.
OVERVIEW
Throughout 2023, petrochemical markets faced headwinds from soft global demand, capacity additions and economic uncertainty. Markets were broadly pressured by weak demand for durable goods which impacted margins in the O&P-Americas, O&P-EAI, Intermediates & Derivatives (“I&D”) and APS segments. Refining results declined primarily as a result of lower demand for diesel and other distillates, compared to the prior year. In contrast, oxyfuels margins benefited from tight supply and strong summertime gasoline crack spreads.
During 2023, we recognized non-cash impairment charges of $518 million, primarily consisting of a goodwill impairment charge of $252 million in our APS segment and an impairment charge of $192 million related to our European PO joint venture recognized in our I&D segment.
In the first quarter of 2023, we started up the world's largest propylene oxide (PO) and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) unit in Texas. These new assets on the U.S. Gulf Coast have an annual capacity of 470 thousand metric tons of PO and one million metric tons of TBA and its derivatives.
In May 2023, we issued our inaugural $500 million green bond. Proceeds from the bond are being used to finance or refinance, in whole or in part, new or existing eligible green projects in the areas of circular economy, renewable energy, pollution prevention and control, and energy efficiency.
During 2023, we generated $4.9 billion in cash from operating activities. We remain committed to a disciplined approach to capital allocation. Additionally, approximately $1.5 billion was reinvested in the business through capital expenditures while $1.8 billion was returned to shareholders through quarterly dividends and share repurchases.
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Results of operations for the periods discussed are presented in the table below.
  Year Ended December 31,
Millions of dollars20232022
Sales and other operating revenues$41,107 $50,451 
Cost of sales35,849 43,847 
Impairments518 69 
Selling, general and administrative expenses1,557 1,310 
Research and development expenses130 124 
Operating income3,053 5,101 
Interest expense(477)(287)
Interest income129 29 
Other expense, net(58)(72)
(Loss) income from equity investments(20)
Income from continuing operations before income taxes2,627 4,776 
Provision for income taxes501 882 
Income from continuing operations2,126 3,894 
Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax(5)(5)
Net income2,121 3,889 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax –
Financial derivatives(80)208 
Defined benefit pension and other postretirement benefit plans(97)346 
Foreign currency translations73 (123)
Total other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax(104)431 
Comprehensive income$2,017 $4,320 

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Revenues—Revenues decreased by $9,344 million, or 19%, in 2023 compared to 2022. Average sales prices in 2023 were lower for many of our products, as sales prices generally correlate with crude oil prices, which decreased relative to 2022. These lower prices led to a 21% decrease in revenue. Volume improvements resulted in a 1% increase in revenue, primarily driven by increased I&D sales volumes. Favorable foreign exchange impacts resulted in a 1% increase in revenue.
Cost of Sales—Cost of sales decreased by $7,998 million, or 18%, in 2023 compared to 2022. This decrease primarily related to lower feedstock and energy costs. Fluctuations in our cost of sales are generally driven by changes in feedstock and energy costs. On an annual basis, feedstock and energy related costs generally represent approximately 70% to 80% of cost of sales. Other variable costs account for approximately 10% of cost of sales and fixed operating costs, consisting primarily of expenses associated with employee compensation, depreciation and amortization, and maintenance, account for the remainder.
Impairments—During 2023, we recognized non-cash impairment charges of $518 million, primarily consisting of a goodwill impairment charge of $252 million in our APS segment and an impairment charge of $192 million related to our European PO joint venture recognized in our I&D segment. During 2022 we recognized a non-cash impairment of $69 million related to the sale of our Australian polypropylene manufacturing facility. See Notes 8, 9 and 21 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding impairment charges.
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SG&A Expenses—Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses increased by $247 million, or 19%, in 2023 compared to 2022. Approximately 60% of this increase was attributable to higher employee-related expenses and the remaining increase was primarily driven by professional fees incurred for strategic projects.
Operating Income—Operating income decreased by $2,048 million, or 40%, in 2023 compared to 2022. In 2023, Operating income decreased for our Refining, O&P-Americas, I&D, APS and O&P-EAI segments by $668 million, $541 million, $342 million, $277 million and $235 million, respectively. Operating income for our Technology segment increased by $3 million in 2023 compared to 2022. Results for each of our business segments are discussed further in the Segment Analysis section below.
Interest Expense—Interest expense increased by $190 million, or 66%, in 2023 compared to 2022. Approximately 55% of this increase was attributable to lower capitalized interest associated with our new PO/TBA plant which started-up in the first quarter of 2023. The remaining increase was primarily due to the impact of our fixed-for-floating interest rate swaps driven by higher interest rates in 2023.
Interest Income—Interest income increased by $100 million, or 345%, in 2023 compared to 2022. Approximately three quarters of the increase was due to higher interest rates in 2023. The remaining increase was driven by higher cash balances during 2023.
Income Taxes—Our effective income tax rates of 19.1% in 2023 and 18.5% in 2022 resulted in tax provisions of $501 million and $882 million, respectively. In 2023, non-deductible impairments, an audit settlement in the second quarter, and fluctuations in uncertain tax positions increased the effective tax rate by 1.1%, 1.4%, and 2.2%, respectively. These increases were partially offset by decreases in the effective tax rate of 2.8% related to changes in pre-tax income in countries with varying statutory tax rates and 1.0% related to a patent box ruling received in the fourth quarter of 2023. For additional information, see Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Comprehensive Income—Comprehensive income decreased by $2,303 million in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily due to a decrease in net income. The activities from the remaining components of Comprehensive income are discussed below.
Financial derivatives designated as cash flow hedges, primarily our forward-starting interest rate swaps, led to a decrease in Comprehensive income of $288 million in 2023 compared to 2022, due to periodic changes in the benchmark interest rates combined with a decrease in notional outstanding.
Defined benefit pension and other postretirement benefit plans led to a decrease in Comprehensive income of $443 million in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily due to actuarial losses resulting from lower-than-expected asset returns combined with the absence of pre-tax pension settlements in 2023.
Foreign currency translations increased Comprehensive income by $196 million in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily due to the weakening of the U.S. dollar relative to the euro and the British pound sterling in 2023, offset by the effective portion of our net investment hedges.
See Notes 14, 15 and 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussions.
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Segment Analysis
We use earnings from continuing operations before interest, income taxes, and depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) as our measure of profitability for segment reporting purposes. This measure of segment operating results is used by our chief operating decision maker to assess the performance of, and allocate resources to, our operating segments. Intersegment eliminations and items that are not directly related or allocated to business operations, such as foreign exchange gains (losses) and components of pension and other post-retirement benefit costs other than service cost, are included in “Other.” For additional information related to our operating segments, as well as a reconciliation of EBITDA to its nearest generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) measure, Income from continuing operations before income taxes, see Note 21 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
The following table presents the reconciliation of Net Income to EBITDA for each of the periods presented:
Year Ended December 31,
Millions of U.S. dollars20232022
Net income$2,121 $3,889 
Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax
Income from continuing operations2,126 3,894 
Provision for income taxes501 882 
Depreciation and amortization1,534 1,267 
Interest expense, net348 258 
EBITDA$4,509 $6,301 
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Our continuing operations are managed through six reportable segments: O&P-Americas, O&P-EAI, I&D, APS, Refining and Technology. Revenues and the components of EBITDA for the periods presented are reflected in the tables below for our reportable segments:
Year Ended December 31,
Millions of dollars20232022
Sales and other operating revenues:
O&P-Americas$11,280 $14,480 
O&P-EAI10,479 13,455 
I&D11,086 12,950 
APS3,698 4,202 
Refining9,714 11,893 
Technology663 693 
Other, including segment eliminations(5,813)(7,222)
Total$41,107 $50,451 
Operating income (loss):
O&P-Americas$1,665 $2,206 
O&P-EAI(160)75 
I&D1,262 1,604 
APS(261)16 
Refining221 889 
Technology334 331 
Other, including segment eliminations(8)(20)
Total$3,053 $5,101 
Depreciation and amortization:
O&P-Americas$587 $591 
O&P-EAI207 171 
I&D443 332 
APS98 95 
Refining158 39 
Technology41 39 
Total$1,534 $1,267 
Income (loss) from equity investments:
O&P-Americas$49 $98 
O&P-EAI(55)(68)
I&D(13)(25)
APS(1)— 
Total$(20)$
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 Year Ended December 31,
Millions of dollars20232022
Other (expense) income, net:
O&P-Americas$$(30)
O&P-EAI(1)— 
I&D(13)(39)
APS
Refining— (7)
Technology— (4)
Other, including intersegment eliminations(48)
Total$(58)$(72)
EBITDA:
O&P-Americas$2,303 $2,865 
O&P-EAI(9)178 
I&D1,679 1,872 
APS(162)115 
Refining379 921 
Technology375 366 
Other, including intersegment eliminations(56)(16)
Total$4,509 $6,301 

Olefins and Polyolefins-Americas Segment
Overview—EBITDA decreased in 2023 relative to 2022 primarily driven by lower polyolefin margins.
In calculating the impact of margin and volume on EBITDA, consistent with industry practice, management offsets revenues and volumes related to ethylene co-products against the cost to produce ethylene. Volume and price impacts of ethylene co-products are reported in margin.
Ethylene Raw Materials—Ethylene and its co-products are produced from two major raw material groups:
NGLs, principally ethane and propane, the prices of which are generally affected by natural gas prices; and
crude oil-based liquids (“liquids” or “heavy liquids”), including naphtha, condensates and gas oils, the prices of which are generally related to crude oil prices.
We have flexibility to vary the raw material mix and process conditions in our U.S. olefins plants in order to maximize profitability as market prices fluctuate for both feedstocks and products. Although prices of crude-based liquids and natural gas liquids are generally related to crude oil and natural gas prices, during specific periods the relationships among these materials and benchmarks may vary significantly. Ethane made up approximately 70% of the raw materials used in our North American crackers in 2023 and 2022.
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The following table sets forth selected financial information for the O&P-Americas segment including Income from equity investments, which is a component of EBITDA.
 Year Ended December 31,
Millions of dollars20232022
Sales and other operating revenues$11,280 $14,480 
Income from equity investments49 98 
EBITDA2,303 2,865 
Revenues—Revenues decreased by $3,200 million, or 22%, in 2023 compared to 2022. Lower average sales prices resulted in a 23% decrease in revenue primarily driven by increased market supply and lower demand. Higher volumes due to improved operating rates resulted in a 1% increase in revenue.
EBITDA—EBITDA decreased by $562 million, or 20%, in 2023 compared to 2022. Lower polyolefins results led to a 29% decrease in EBITDA primarily driven by lower margins as a result of lower average sales prices reflecting softer demand and new industry capacity. Higher olefins results contributed to a 7% increase in EBITDA driven equally by increased volumes and higher margins, due to higher operating rates and lower feedstock and energy costs, respectively.
Olefins and Polyolefins-Europe, Asia, International Segment
OverviewEBITDA decreased in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily as a result of lower polyolefin margins partially offset by higher olefins results.
In calculating the impact of margin and volume on EBITDA, consistent with industry practice, management offsets revenues and volumes related to ethylene co-products against the cost to produce ethylene. Volume and price impacts of ethylene co-products are reported in margin.
Ethylene Raw Materials—In Europe, naphtha is the primary raw material for our ethylene production and represents approximately 65% to 70% of the raw materials used in 2023 and 2022.
The following table sets forth selected financial information for the O&P-EAI segment including Loss from equity investments, which is a component of EBITDA.
 Year Ended December 31,
Millions of dollars20232022
Sales and other operating revenues$10,479 $13,455 
Loss from equity investments(55)(68)
EBITDA(9)178 
Revenues—Revenues decreased by $2,976 million, or 22%, in 2023 compared to 2022. Lower average sales prices resulted in a 23% decrease in revenue as sales prices generally correlate with crude oil prices, which, on average, decreased compared to 2022. Lower volumes resulted in a revenue decrease of 1% primarily due to weak demand. Favorable foreign exchange impacts resulted in a revenue increase of 2%.
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EBITDA—EBITDA decreased by $187 million, or 105%, in 2023 compared to 2022. Lower polyolefins results led to a 241% decrease in EBITDA primarily driven by decreased margins due to lower average sales prices reflecting weak demand. Higher olefins results led to an 88% increase in EBITDA driven equally by higher volumes and margins resulting from the absence of planned and unplanned downtime and lower feedstock and energy costs, respectively. In 2022, we recognized a $69 million non-cash impairment charge in conjunction with the sale of our polypropylene manufacturing facility located in Australia. The absence of this charge in 2023 resulted in a 39% increase in EBITDA. See Note 21 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Intermediates and Derivatives Segment
Overview—EBITDA decreased in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily driven by a non-cash impairment charge related to our European PO joint venture recognized in 2023. Segment results were relatively unchanged as improvements in our oxyfuels and related products results were offset by lower margins for propylene oxide and derivatives and intermediate chemicals.
The following table sets forth selected financial information for the I&D segment including Loss from equity investments, which is a component of EBITDA.
 Year Ended December 31,
Millions of dollars20232022
Sales and other operating revenues$11,086 $12,950 
Loss from equity investments(13)(25)
EBITDA1,679 1,872 
Revenues—Revenues decreased by $1,864 million, or 14%, in 2023 compared to 2022. Lower average sales prices resulted in a 20% decrease in revenue as a result of lower demand. Sales volumes increased resulting in a 5% increase in revenue primarily due to additional volumes derived from our new PO/TBA facility and strong demand. Favorable foreign exchange impacts resulted in a revenue increase of 1%.
EBITDA—EBITDA decreased $193 million, or 10%, in 2023 compared to 2022. During 2023, we recognized a non-cash impairment charge of $192 million related to our equity investment in the European PO joint venture resulting in a 10% decrease in EBITDA. See Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Excluding the impact of the impairment discussed above, segment results remained relatively unchanged. Improved oxyfuels and related products results led to an EBITDA increase of 31% primarily driven by increased volumes due to increased capacity related to our PO/TBA facility combined with higher margins due to increased gasoline cracks. This improvement was largely offset by a 20% decrease in EBITDA from propylene oxide and derivatives results as margins decreased due to lower demand for durable goods. Lower intermediate chemicals results led to a 9% decrease in EBITDA driven by lower margins as demand softened.
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Advanced Polymer Solutions Segment
Overview—EBITDA decreased in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily due to the recognition of a $252 million non-cash goodwill impairment charge in 2023.
The following table sets forth selected financial information for the APS segment including Loss from equity investments, which is a component of EBITDA.
Year Ended December 31,
Millions of dollars20232022
Sales and other operating revenues$3,698 $4,202 
Loss from equity investments(1)— 
EBITDA(162)115 
Revenues—Revenues decreased in 2023 by $504 million, or 12%, compared to 2022. Average sales price declines resulted in an 11% decrease in revenue as a result of lower demand. Sales volumes declines resulted in a 2% decrease in revenue stemming from lower demand. Favorable foreign exchange impacts resulted in a revenue increase of 1%.
EBITDA—EBITDA decreased in 2023 by $277 million, or 241%, compared to 2022. During 2023, we recognized a non-cash goodwill impairment charge of $252 million after the effect of moving our Catalloy and polybutene-1 businesses from our APS segment and reintegrating them into our O&P-Americas and O&P-EAI segments. This impairment charge resulted in a 219% decrease in EBITDA. See Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. Lower volumes resulted in a 43% decrease in EBITDA as a result of a decline in demand. During 2023 and 2022, we recognized a LIFO inventory benefit of $8 million and charge of $21 million, respectively, which resulted in a 25% increase in EBITDA.
Refining Segment
Overview—EBITDA decreased in 2023 relative to 2022 primarily due to lower margins.
The following table sets forth selected financial information and heavy crude oil processing rates for the Refining segment and the U.S. refining market margins for the applicable periods. “Brent” is a light sweet crude oil and is one of the main benchmark prices for purchases of oil worldwide. “Maya” is a heavy sour crude oil grade produced in Mexico that is a relevant benchmark for heavy sour crude oils in the U.S. Gulf Coast market. References to industry benchmarks for refining market margins are to industry prices reported by Platts, a division of S&P Global.
 Year Ended December 31,
Millions of dollars