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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
__________________________
FORM 10-Q
__________________________
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from        to    
Commission File Number: 001-40502
__________________________
Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
__________________________
Delaware83-1300510
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
201 Haskins Way
South San Francisco, California
94080
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (650) 695-0677
__________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.0001 par valueLYELThe Nasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
As of May 5, 2022, the registrant had 246,135,142 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, outstanding.


Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.
Table of Contents
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy, product candidates, planned preclinical studies and clinical trials, results of preclinical studies, clinical trials, research and development costs, planned regulatory submissions, regulatory approvals, timing and likelihood of success, as well as plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that are in some cases beyond our control and may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. Forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q include, but are not limited to, statements about:
the sufficiency of our existing cash to fund our future operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements;
the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, revenue opportunities, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
the scope, progress, results and costs of developing LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, and conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, including for LYL797 and LYL845;
the timing and costs involved in obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, and the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including our expectation to seek special designations for our product candidates for various diseases;
our expectations regarding GlaxoSmithKline’s (GSK) plans for the NY-ESO-1 programs;
our plans relating to commercializing LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, if approved, including the geographic areas of focus and our ability to grow a sales force;
the size of the market opportunity for LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop in each of the diseases we target;
our reliance on third parties to conduct preclinical research activities for LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop;
the characteristics, safety, efficacy and therapeutic effects of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop;
our estimates of the number of patients in the United States who suffer from the diseases we target and the number of subjects that will enroll in our clinical trials;
the progress and focus of our and GSK’s current and planned clinical trials of our product candidates, and the reporting of data from those trials, including the timing thereof;
the ability of our clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, and other positive results;
the success of competing therapies that are, or may become, available;
developments relating to our competitors and our industry, including competing product candidates and therapies;
our plans relating to the further development and manufacturing of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, including additional indications that we may pursue;
existing regulations and regulatory developments in the United States and other jurisdictions;
our potential and ability to successfully manufacture and supply LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop for clinical trials and for commercial use, if approved;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, as well as the pricing and reimbursement of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, if approved;
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our continued reliance on third parties to conduct additional clinical trials of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, and for the manufacture of our product candidates;
the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights, including LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop;
our ability to retain the continued service of our key personnel and to identify, hire and then retain additional qualified personnel;
our expectations regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and operations, including clinical trials, manufacturing suppliers, collaborators, use of contract research organizations (CROs) and employees;
our expectations regarding the period during which we will qualify as an emerging growth company under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the JOBS Act); and
our anticipated use of our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities.
We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about our business, the industry in which we operate and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and these forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance or development. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results could differ materially from those projected in these forward-looking statements. Except as required by applicable law, we undertake no obligation to update or supplement any forward-looking statements publicly, or to update or supplement the reasons that actual results could differ materially from those projected in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
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PART 1. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
(unaudited)
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$222,596 $293,828 
Marketable securities391,316 320,966 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets11,793 11,492 
Total current assets625,705 626,286 
Restricted cash279 466 
Marketable securities, non-current224,118 283,531 
Other investments47,001 47,001 
Property and equipment, net125,707 120,098 
Operating lease right-of-use assets45,725 46,541 
Other non-current assets3,568 3,483 
Total assets$1,072,103 $1,127,406 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$6,510 $3,207 
Accrued liabilities and other current liabilities22,68629,057
Success payment liabilities5,6359,486
Deferred revenue6,2244,988
Total current liabilities41,05546,738
Operating lease liabilities, non-current67,47566,650
Deferred revenue, non-current77,87179,665
Other non-current liabilities4,4534,566
Total liabilities190,854197,619
Commitments and contingencies (Note 12)
Stockholders equity:
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 10,000 shares authorized at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021; zero shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021
  
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 500,000 shares authorized at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021; 245,423 and 242,738 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively
25 24 
Additional paid-in capital1,540,330 1,515,748 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(6,600)(1,623)
Accumulated deficit(652,506)(584,362)
Total stockholders equity
881,249 929,787 
Total liabilities and stockholders equity
$1,072,103 $1,127,406 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Revenue$553 $2,445 
Operating expenses:
Research and development35,830 41,529 
General and administrative34,421 16,831 
Other operating income, net(1,122)(545)
Total operating expenses69,129 57,815 
Loss from operations(68,576)(55,370)
Interest income, net397 354 
Other income (expense), net35 (27)
Total other income, net432 327 
Net loss(68,144)(55,043)
Comprehensive loss:
Net unrealized loss on marketable securities(4,977)(93)
Comprehensive loss$(73,121)$(55,136)
Net loss per common share, basic and diluted$(0.28)$(3.19)
Weighted-average shares used to compute net loss per common share, basic and diluted244,178 17,272 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Convertible Preferred Stock and Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
 Convertible Preferred StockCommon Stock
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive Loss
Accumulated
Deficit
Total Stockholders
Equity
 SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 2021
— $— 242,738 $24 $1,515,748 $(1,623)$(584,362)$929,787 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options— — 1,710 1 2,554 — — 2,555 
Stock-based compensation— — 975 — 22,028 — — 22,028 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — (4,977)— (4,977)
Net loss— — — — — — (68,144)(68,144)
Balance as of March 31, 2022
— $— 245,423 $25 $1,540,330 $(6,600)$(652,506)$881,249 


Convertible Preferred StockCommon Stock
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income
Accumulated
Deficit
Total Stockholders
Deficit
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 2020
194,474 $1,010,968 15,570 $2 $41,357 $256 $(334,143)$(292,528)
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options— — 242 — 884 — — 884 
Stock-based compensation— — 2,019 — 12,732 — — 12,732 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — (93)— (93)
Net loss— — — — — — (55,043)(55,043)
Balance as of March 31, 2021
194,474 $1,010,968 17,831 $2 $54,973 $163 $(389,186)$(334,048)


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20222021
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES
Net loss$(68,144)$(55,043)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Stock-based compensation expense22,028 12,732 
Depreciation and amortization4,187 1,958 
Change in fair value of success payment liabilities(3,851)9,967 
Net amortization or accretion on marketable securities475 483 
Non-cash lease (income) expense(214)1,040 
Loss on property equipment and disposals84  
Change in fair value of warrants(28)43 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Prepaid expenses, other current assets and other assets(397)(342)
Accounts payable2,937 634 
Accrued liabilities and other current liabilities(6,393)(4,695)
Deferred revenue(558)(2,437)
Operating lease liabilities, non-current2,135 2,063 
Other non-current liabilities(113) 
Net cash used in operating activities(47,852)(33,597)
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES
Purchases of property and equipment(9,733)(19,190)
Purchases of marketable securities(96,196)(48,291)
Sales and maturities of marketable securities79,807 204,158 
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities(26,122)136,677 
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES
Proceeds from exercise of stock options2,555 884 
Net cash provided by financing activities2,555 884 
Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(71,419)103,964 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period294,294 140,872 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$222,875 $244,836 
Represented by:
Cash and cash equivalents$222,596 $244,370 
Restricted cash279 466 
Total$222,875 $244,836 
SUPPLEMENTAL CASH FLOW INFORMATION
Cash received for amounts related to tenant improvement allowances$2,042 $2,063 
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities$2,672 $1,362 
Non-cash investing and financing activities:
Purchases of property and equipment included in accounts payable and accrued liabilities$107 $13,543 
Remeasurement of operating lease right-of-use asset for lease modification$5 $4,208 
Deferred offering costs included in accounts payable and accrued liabilities$ $398 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
1. Organization
Lyell Immunopharma, Inc. (the “Company”) was incorporated in Delaware in June 2018. The Company is a T‑cell reprogramming company dedicated to the mastery of T cells to cure patients with solid tumors. The Company is building a multi-modality product pipeline. The Company’s primary activities since incorporation have been to develop T‑cell therapies, perform research and development, enter into strategic collaboration and license arrangements, build manufacturing capabilities, enable manufacturing activities in support of its product candidate development efforts, acquire technology, organize and staff the Company, conduct business planning, establish its intellectual property portfolio, raise capital and provide general and administrative support for these activities.
Initial Public Offering
In June 2021, the Company successfully completed its initial public offering (“IPO”) of its common stock. In connection with its IPO, the Company issued and sold 25,000,000 shares of common stock at an IPO price of $17.00 per share. The Company received $391.8 million in net proceeds, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $29.8 million and offering expenses of $3.4 million. Upon the closing of the IPO, 194,474,431 shares of convertible preferred stock then outstanding converted into an equal number of shares of common stock. The related carrying value of the converted preferred stock of $1.0 billion was reclassified to common stock and additional paid in-capital.
2. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary. All significant intercompany transactions and balances are eliminated in consolidation. Certain prior period amounts in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been reclassified to conform to the current period’s presentation.
The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 included herein was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of that date. Certain information and footnote disclosures typically included in the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements have been condensed or omitted. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual consolidated financial statements and reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments of a normal and recurring nature that are necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented, but are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for any future annual or interim period.
These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited financial statements and notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Liquidity and Management’s Plan
The Company is currently working on a number of long-term product candidates that involve experimental technologies. The product candidates may require several years and substantial expenditures to complete and ultimately may be unsuccessful. The Company plans to finance operations with available cash resources or from the issuance of equity or debt securities. The Company believes that its available cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities as of March 31, 2022 will be adequate to fund its operations at least through the next 12 months from the date these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are issued.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts and related disclosures. Specific accounts that require management estimates include, but are not limited to, stock-based compensation, valuation of success payments, revenue recognition and accrued expenses. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
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Concentrations of Credit Risk and Off-balance Sheet Risk
The Company maintains its cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash with high quality, accredited financial institutions. These amounts, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. The Company also makes short-term investments in money market funds, U.S. Treasury securities, U.S. government agency securities and corporate debt securities, which can be subject to certain credit risk. However, the Company mitigates the risks by investing in high-grade instruments, limiting exposure to any one issuer or type of investment and monitoring the ongoing creditworthiness of the financial institutions and issuers. The Company has not experienced any credit losses in such accounts and does not believe it is exposed to significant risk on these funds. The Company has no off-balance sheet concentrations of credit risk, such as foreign currency exchange contracts, option contracts or other hedging arrangements.
Significant Accounting Policies
There have been no material changes to the significant accounting policies from the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
3. License, Collaboration and Success Payment Agreements
Fred Hutch
License Agreement - In 2018, the Company entered into a license agreement with Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (“Fred Hutch”) that grants the Company an exclusive, worldwide, sublicensable license under certain patent rights and a non-exclusive, worldwide, sublicensable license for certain technology, to research, develop, manufacture, improve and commercialize products and processes covered by such patent rights or incorporating such technology for all therapeutic uses for the treatment of human cancer.
The Company is also required to pay Fred Hutch annual license maintenance payments of $50,000 on the second anniversary of the effective date, and each anniversary of the effective date thereafter until the first commercial sale of a licensed product.
Collaboration - In 2018, the Company entered into a research and collaboration agreement with Fred Hutch (“Fred Hutch Collaboration Agreement”), focused on research and development of cancer immunotherapy products. The Company funded aggregate research performed by Fred Hutch of $12.0 million under the Fred Hutch Collaboration Agreement and the research is conducted in accordance with a research plan and budget approved by the parties. The Fred Hutch Collaboration Agreement has a six-year term. During 2021, one of the research plans on which the success payment service term is based was extended from January 31, 2022 to December 31, 2022. The Company incurred $0.5 million and $1.0 million in expense in connection with the Fred Hutch Collaboration Agreement for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Success Payments - In 2018, the Company granted Fred Hutch rights to certain success payments, pursuant to the terms of the Fred Hutch Collaboration Agreement. The potential payments for the Fred Hutch success payments are based on multiples of increased value ranging from 10x to 50x based on a comparison of the estimated per share fair value of the Series A convertible preferred stock, or any security into which such stock has been converted or for which it has been exchanged, relative to its original $1.83 per share issuance price. Upon the closing of the IPO, all shares of Series A convertible preferred stock then outstanding converted into an equal number of shares of common stock. The aggregate success payments to Fred Hutch are not to exceed $200.0 million, which would only occur upon a 50 times increase in value. Each threshold is associated with a success payment, ascending from $10.0 million at $18.29 per share to $200.0 million at $91.44 per share, payable if such threshold is reached during the measurement period. Any previous success payments made are credited against the success payment owed as of any valuation date, such that Fred Hutch does not receive multiple success payments in connection with the same threshold. The term of the success payment agreement ends on the earlier to occur of (i) the nine-year anniversary of the date of the agreement and (ii) a change in control transaction.
The following table summarizes the aggregate potential success payments, which are payable to Fred Hutch in cash or cash equivalents, or at the Company’s discretion, publicly-tradeable shares of the Company’s common stock:
Multiple of initial equity value at issuance10x20x30x40x50x
Per share common stock price required for payment$18.29 $36.58 $54.86 $73.15 $91.44 
Aggregate success payment(s) (in millions)$10 $40 $90 $140 $200 
The success payments will be owed if the per share fair value of the Company’s common stock on the contractually specified valuation measurement dates during the term of the success payment agreement equals or exceeds
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the above outlined multiples. The valuation measurement dates are triggered by the following events: the one-year anniversary of the Company’s IPO and each two-year anniversary of the Company’s IPO thereafter, the closing of a change in control transaction and the last day of the term of the success payment agreement, unless the term has ended due to the closing of a change of control transaction.
The estimated fair values of the success payments to Fred Hutch as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 were $4.4 million and $8.5 million, respectively. The success payment liability is estimated at the fair value at inception and at each subsequent reporting period and the expense is accreted over the service period of the Fred Hutch Collaboration Agreement. The success payment liability was $3.6 million and $6.4 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. With respect to the Fred Hutch Collaboration Agreement success payment obligations, the Company recognized a decrease in success payment expense of $(2.8) million and expense of $8.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Stanford
License Agreement - In 2019, the Company entered into a license agreement with The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University (“Stanford”) to license specified patent rights. The Company is also required to pay Stanford annual license maintenance payments of $50,000 on the second anniversary of the effective date, and each anniversary of the effective date thereafter until the date of the first commercial sale of a licensed product.
Milestone payments to Stanford of up to a maximum of $3.7 million per target are payable upon achievement of certain specified clinical and regulatory milestones. The Company is also obligated to pay Stanford $2.5 million collectively for all licensed products upon the achievement of a certain commercial milestone. Additionally, low single‑digit tiered royalties based on annual net sales of the licensed products are payable to Stanford.
Collaboration Agreement - In October 2020, the Company entered into a research and collaboration agreement with Stanford (“Stanford Collaboration Agreement”), focused on research and development of cellular immunotherapy products. The Stanford Collaboration Agreement has a four-year term. The Company is committed to fund aggregate research performed by Stanford of $12.0 million under the Stanford Collaboration Agreement, and the research will be conducted in accordance with a research plan and budget approved by the parties. The Company incurred $0.8 million in expense in connection with the Stanford Collaboration Agreement for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Success Payments - In October 2020, the Company granted Stanford rights to certain success payments, pursuant to the terms of the Stanford Collaboration Agreement. The potential payments for the Stanford Collaboration Agreement success payments are based on multiples of increased value ranging from 10x to 50x based on a comparison of the estimated per share fair value of the Series A convertible preferred stock, or any security into which such stock has been converted or for which it has been exchanged, relative to its original $1.83 per share issuance price. At the closing of the IPO, all shares of Series A convertible preferred stock then outstanding converted into an equal number of shares of common stock. The aggregate success payments to Stanford are not to exceed $200.0 million, which would only occur upon a 50 times increase in value. Each threshold is associated with a success payment, ascending from $10.0 million at $18.29 per share to $200.0 million at $91.44 per share, payable if such threshold is reached during the measurement period. Any previous success payments made are credited against the success payment owed as of any valuation date, so that Stanford does not receive multiple success payments in connection with the same threshold. The term of each success payment agreement ends on the earlier to occur of (i) the nine-year anniversary of the date of the agreement and (ii) a change in control transaction.
The following table summarizes the aggregate potential success payments, which are payable to Stanford in cash or cash equivalents or, at the Company’s discretion, publicly-tradeable shares of the Company’s common stock:
Multiple of initial equity value at issuance10x20x30x40x50x
Per share common stock price required for payment$18.29 $36.58 $54.86 $73.15 $91.44 
Aggregate success payment(s) (in millions)$10 $40 $90 $140 $200 
The success payments will be owed if the per share fair value of the Company’s common stock on the contractually specified valuation measurement dates during the term of the success payment agreement equals or exceeds the above outlined multiples. The valuation measurement dates are triggered by the following events: the one-year anniversary of the Company’s IPO and each two-year anniversary of the Company’s IPO thereafter, the closing of a change in control transaction and the last day of the term of the success payment agreement, unless the term has ended due to the closing of a change of control transaction.
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The estimated fair value of the success payments to Stanford as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 was $5.5 million and $9.9 million, respectively. The success payment liability is estimated at the fair value at inception and at each subsequent reporting period and the expense is accreted over the service period of the Stanford Collaboration Agreement. The success payment liability was $2.1 million and $3.1 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. With respect to the Stanford Collaboration Agreement success payment obligations, the Company recognized a decrease in success payment expense of $(1.0) million and expense of $1.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
GSK
In 2019, the Company entered into a Collaboration and License Agreement, amended in June 2020 and December 2021 (“GSK Agreement”) with GlaxoSmithKline Intellectual Property (No. 5) Limited and Glaxo Group Limited (together, “GSK”) for potential T-cell therapies that apply the Company’s platform technologies and cell therapy innovations with T-cell receptors (“TCRs”) or chimeric antigen receptors (“CARs”) under distinct collaboration programs. The GSK Agreement has defined two initial collaboration targets and allows GSK to nominate seven additional targets through July 2024. The Company is expected to perform research and development services for each selected target up until a defined point (the “GSK Option Point”), at which time GSK will decide whether or not to exercise an option to obtain a license from the Company (“License Option”) and take over the future development and commercialization. Selected targets may be developed as either a Proof of Concept (“PoC”) Development Program or Component Development Program. For a PoC Development Program, the Company is expected to conduct both preclinical and clinical development for the target and present clinical trial data to GSK in connection with their evaluation of whether to exercise the License Option. For a Component Development Program, the Company is obligated to perform preclinical studies only. Along with the research activities, the Company appoints three representatives to the joint steering committee (“JSC”) and is responsible for the manufacture of all compounds and products necessary for its research and development activities.
The Company received a non-refundable upfront payment of $45.0 million under the GSK Agreement. In addition to the upfront payment, the Company is eligible to receive up to two one-time payments, totaling up to approximately $200.0 million in aggregate for technology validation of the Company’s cell therapy innovations. For each cell therapy target for which there has been a joint collaboration program, the Company is also entitled to receive up to approximately $400.0 million in aggregate in development and sales milestones if the target is already within GSK’s pipeline and meets certain criteria, up to approximately $900.0 million in aggregate in development and sales milestones for all other targets, and tiered royalties on a per-product basis ranging from low to high single digits for targets that are already within GSK’s pipeline and meet certain criteria, or from high single digit to low teens for all other targets. Milestones are paid once per target, even if there is more than one of the Company’s innovations applied to a T-cell therapy directed to that target. Any amounts received from GSK are generally non-refundable unless the Company terminates a collaboration target for safety or feasibility reasons and the funding received from GSK exceeds the costs incurred for the terminated target.
In connection with the GSK Agreement, in May 2019, the Company also entered into a Stock Purchase Agreement with GSK (“GSK Stock Purchase Agreement”), pursuant to which the Company agreed to sell 30,253,189 shares of Series AA convertible preferred stock at a price of $6.78 per share, which was above the issuance date estimated fair value of $4.84 per share. The difference between the per share values resulted in $58.6 million additional deemed consideration, bringing the total upfront payment of the GSK Agreement to $103.6 million.
Research and Development Services
The GSK Agreement was deemed to be within the scope of ASC 606 because GSK engaged the Company to initially provide research and development services, which are outputs of its ongoing activities, in exchange for consideration.
The Company identified the following two distinct performance obligations: (i) research and development services related to the two initial collaboration targets, inclusive of the JSC participation and the manufacture of compounds necessary for providing the research and development services and (ii) a material right for GSK to nominate seven additional collaboration targets for which the Company will perform research and development services until the GSK Option Point.
To allocate revenue among the performance obligations, the Company determined standalone selling prices (“SSP”) of each obligation. For the research and development services, the SSP was calculated using a cost-plus margin approach. For the material right, SSP was calculated by reference to the underlying research and development services expected to be provided and the corresponding expected consideration. All amounts included in the transaction price are allocated to performance obligations proportionate to their SSPs.
As of December 31, 2020, the transaction price was deemed to be $103.6 million, consisting of the upfront payment of $45.0 million under the GSK Agreement and the $58.6 million allocated from the GSK Stock Purchase
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Agreement. Other than the upfront payment and the amounts allocated from the GSK Stock Purchase Agreement, all other contingent consideration that may be earned under the GSK Agreement is subject to uncertainties including but not limited to target addition, research and investigational new drug enabling studies, initiation of clinical trials, and other related achievements. Consequently, the transaction price currently does not include any such contingent consideration that, if included, could result in a probable significant reversal of cumulative revenue when related uncertainties become resolved. The Company will re-evaluate the transaction price at each reporting period. If and when contingent consideration is included in the transaction price, it will be allocated to the two performance obligations proportionate to their SSPs and a cumulative catch up in revenue will be recorded for the portion of the services already completed. The remaining amounts will be deferred and recognized as the services are rendered.
The research and development services are transferred as the services are performed, with cost used as the measure of progress compared to the total estimated cost to complete. Incurred cost represents work performed, which corresponds with, and thereby best depicts, the transfer of control to the customer. The determination of the percentage of completion requires the Company to estimate the costs to complete the project. The Company makes a detailed estimate of the costs to complete, which is reassessed every reporting period based on the latest project plan and discussions with project teams. If a change in facts or circumstances occurs, the estimate will be adjusted, and the revenue will be recognized based on the revised estimate. The difference between the cumulative revenue recognized based on the previous estimate and the revenue recognized based on the revised estimate would be recognized as an adjustment to revenue in the period in which the change in estimate occurs.
The Company recognized revenue related to the research and development services related to the two initial targets of $0.6 million and $2.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had deferred revenue of $84.1 million and $84.7 million, respectively, related to this agreement.
Exercise of the License Option
In April 2021, GSK exercised the License Option on NY-ESO-1 TCR with Gen-R, a Component Development Program, and will assume sole responsibility for future development and commercialization of the program at its own cost and expense. The Company is entitled to the remaining development and sales milestones up to an aggregate of approximately $400.0 million as well as the tiered royalties on future sales of all such products covered by the license granted pursuant to the License Option.
The exercise of the License Option was accounted for as a separate license contract for revenue recognition purposes. The Company identified one performance obligation, which was the license delivered to GSK upon the exercise of the License Option and transfer of information and data associated with the license. The Company concluded that the development milestone payments are solely dependent on GSK’s performance and achievement of the specified events and are deemed to be not probable until such development milestones are actually achieved. Therefore, the remaining development milestones are fully constrained and excluded from the transaction price until the respective milestone is achieved. The Company also concluded that sales milestones and royalties relate predominantly to the license granted to GSK. Therefore, they also have been excluded from the transaction price and will be recognized when the related sales occur. At the end of each reporting period, the Company will update its assessment of whether an estimate of variable consideration is constrained and update the estimated transaction price accordingly.
As of March 31, 2022, there were no contract assets or contract liabilities related to the license contract. None of the costs to obtain or fulfill the contract were capitalized. No license revenue was recognized for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
PACT
In June 2020, the Company entered into an agreement (“PACT Agreement”) with PACT Pharma, Inc. (“PACT”) to jointly develop and test a next generation personalized anti-cancer T-cell therapy against solid tumors. The Company paid PACT an upfront non-refundable payment of $50.0 million upon execution of the PACT Agreement. In November 2020, the parties agreed to suspend research and development activity under the PACT Agreement, and neither party would be required to conduct any further work under the development plan (including manufacturing development) nor incur any financial obligations (including milestone payments) that might otherwise arise, for as long as the parties continued to negotiate in good faith to resolve the issues that have arisen between them relating to the PACT Agreement.
In June 2020 in connection with the entry into the PACT Agreement, the Company also entered into a stock purchase agreement with PACT (“PACT SPA”), pursuant to which the Company purchased 17,806,901 shares of PACT Series C-1 convertible preferred stock at a purchase price of $2.81 per share. As of the purchase date, the estimated fair value of the Series C-1 convertible preferred stock was $2.05 per share, and the difference between the estimated fair value of the preferred stock as of the purchase date and the purchase price of $13.6 million was deemed to be additional
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consideration for the PACT Agreement and recognized as research and development expense. As a result, the total upfront payment paid in connection with the PACT Agreement was $63.6 million and was included in research and development expense. The remaining $36.4 million associated with the PACT Series C-1 convertible preferred stock was recorded in other investments. In the fourth quarter of 2021, the Company fully impaired the remaining balance of $36.4 million. See Note 5, Other Investments, for additional details regarding the PACT investment impairment.
In February 2021, the Company filed a demand for arbitration seeking, among other things, rescission of the PACT Agreement and the PACT SPA and recovery of the consideration paid thereunder. Arbitration hearings occurred in March and April 2022. The Company expects to receive the outcome of the arbitration panel in the third quarter of 2022.
NCI
In December 2020, the Company entered into a license agreement with the National Cancer Institute (“NCI”) to access certain intellectual property for the development of treatment of human cancers. In connection with this agreement, the Company paid $100,000 upfront, which was recorded as research and development expense for the year ended December 31, 2020. The Company is also required to pay NCI annual maintenance payments which may be credited against earned royalties. The Company incurred $105,000 and $75,000 in maintenance fees for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Under the agreement, the Company may also be required to make certain prespecified development milestone payments up to an aggregate of $3.1 million, and prespecified commercial milestone payments up to a maximum aggregate of $12.0 million for all licensed products. In June 2021, the Company entered into an amendment to the license agreement with NCI to include additional intellectual property and one additional inventor. In connection with this amendment, the Company paid $25,000 upfront, which was recorded in research and development expense. Under the amendment, the Company may also be required to pay prespecified additional development milestone payments that total $75,000.
4. Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities
The fair value and amortized cost of cash equivalents and marketable securities by major security type as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 are as follows (in thousands):
March 31, 2022
Amortized Cost Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair Value
Money market funds$103,842 $— $— $103,842 
U.S. Treasury securities315,497 5 (4,877)310,625 
U.S. government agency securities153,149  (964)152,185 
Corporate debt securities263,823 1 (765)263,059 
Total cash equivalents and marketable securities$836,311 $6 $(6,606)$829,711 
Classified as:Fair Value
Cash equivalents$214,277 
Marketable securities391,316 
Marketable securities, non-current224,118 
Total cash equivalents and marketable securities$829,711 
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December 31, 2021
Amortized Cost Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair Value
Money market funds$206,245 $— $— $206,245 
U.S. Treasury securities290,909 2 (1,205)289,706 
U.S. government agency securities93,864 2 (240)93,626 
Corporate debt securities285,338  (182)285,156 
Total cash equivalents and marketable securities$876,356 $4 $(1,627)$874,733 
Classified as:Fair Value
Cash equivalents$270,236 
Marketable securities320,966 
Marketable securities, non-current283,531 
Total cash equivalents and marketable securities$874,733 
As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the fair value of securities held by the Company in an unrealized loss position was $680.1 million and $602.9 million, respectively, and as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, securities held by the Company in an unrealized loss position have been in the continuous loss position for less than 12 months. The Company determined that there was no material change in the credit risk of the above investments during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021. As such, an allowance for credit losses has not been recognized. The Company does not intend to sell these securities nor does the Company believe that it will be required to sell these securities before recovery of their amortized cost basis. Gross realized gains and losses were de minimis for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 and as a result, amounts reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive loss for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 were also de minimis.
As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, all of the Company’s marketable securities had a maturity date of two years or less, were available for use and were classified as available-for-sale. See Note 6, Fair Value Measurements, for additional information regarding cash equivalents and marketable securities.
5. Other Investments
From time to time, the Company makes minority ownership strategic investments. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the aggregate carrying amounts of the Company’s strategic investments in non-publicly traded companies were $47.0 million. These investments were measured at initial cost, minus impairment, if any, and plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for an identical or similar investment of the same issuer.
In connection with the preparation of the financial statements for 2021, the Company performed a qualitative assessment of potential indicators of impairment and determined that indicators existed for its $36.4 million investment in PACT Series C-1 convertible preferred stock. While there was no single event or factor, the Company considered PACT’s operating cash flow requirements over the next year and liquid asset balances to fund those requirements and PACT’s inability to raise funds as indicators of impairment. Due to these indicators, the Company assessed the valuation of the investment in PACT as of December 31, 2021 and determined the fair value to be negligible and the impairment to be other-than-temporary in nature. As a result, the Company recorded a $36.4 million impairment expense for the PACT investment in the fourth quarter of 2021, which was recorded within impairment of other investments on the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Loss and as a reduction to the investment balance within other investments on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. There were no adjustments recorded to the carrying amount for the other investments for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
In November 2020, the Company made a strategic equity investment of $13.0 million in Outpace Bio, Inc. (“Outpace”), a privately-held company, which represented a minority ownership interest at the time of the strategic investment. Outpace is engaged in the research and development of protein and cell technology platforms and has financed its activities via issuances of preferred stock. The Company determined that Outpace is a variable interest entity (“VIE”) and the at-risk equity holders, as a group, lack the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. The Company does not have majority voting rights, representation on Outpace’s board of directors or the power to direct the activities of this entity, and therefore it is not the primary beneficiary. As of both March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the carrying value of the Company’s investment in Outpace was $13.0 million, which is recorded in other investments.
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6. Fair Value Measurements
The following table sets forth the fair value of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis based on the three-tier fair value hierarchy (in thousands):
March 31, 2022
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Financial assets:
Money market funds$103,842 $ $ $103,842 
U.S. Treasury securities 310,625  310,625 
U.S. government agency securities 152,185  152,185 
Corporate debt securities 263,059  263,059 
Equity warrant investment  1,095 1,095 
Total financial assets$103,842 $725,869 $1,095 $830,806 
Financial liabilities:
Success payment liabilities$ $ $5,635 $5,635 
Total financial liabilities$ $ $5,635 $5,635 
December 31, 2021
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Financial assets:
Money market funds$206,245 $ $ $206,245 
U.S. Treasury securities289,706  289,706 
U.S. government agency securities93,626  93,626 
Corporate debt securities285,156  285,156 
Equity warrant investment  1,067 1,067 
Total financial assets$206,245 $668,488 $1,067 $875,800 
Financial liabilities:
Success payment liabilities$ $ $9,486 $9,486 
Total financial liabilities$ $ $9,486 $9,486 
The Company measures the fair value of money market funds based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. The Level 2 marketable securities include U.S. Treasury securities, U.S. government agency securities and corporate debt securities. The Company’s Level 2 securities are valued using third-party pricing sources. The pricing services applied industry standard valuation models. Inputs utilized include market pricing based on real-time trade data for the same or similar securities and other significant inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data.
The Level 3 financial instruments include an equity warrant investment and the success payment liabilities. The Company’s Level 3 financial instruments are valued using valuation models which include the Black-Scholes model for valuing the equity warrant investment and a Monte Carlo simulation for the success payment liabilities. To determine the estimated fair value of the success payment liabilities, the Company uses a Monte Carlo simulation methodology that models the future movement of stock prices based on several key variables combined with empirical knowledge of the process governing the behavior of the stock price. The following variables were incorporated in the estimated fair value of the success payment liabilities: fair value of the Company’s common stock (Series A convertible preferred stock, prior to IPO), expected volatility, the risk-free interest rate and the estimated number and timing of valuation measurement dates on the basis of which payments may be triggered. The computation of expected volatility was estimated based on available information about the historical volatility of stocks of similar publicly traded companies for a period matching the expected term assumption.
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The following assumptions were incorporated into the calculation of the estimated fair value of the Fred Hutch success payment liability:
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Fair value of common stock$5.05 $7.74 
Risk-free interest rate
0.52% - 2.95%
0.19% - 1.88%
Expected volatility75 %75 %
Expected term (in years)
0.21 - 5.72
0.46 - 5.97
The following assumptions were incorporated into the calculation of the estimated fair value of the Stanford success payment liability:
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Fair value of common stock$5.05 $7.74 
Risk-free interest rate
0.52% - 2.95%
0.19% - 1.88%
Expected volatility75 %75 %
Expected term (in years)
0.21 - 7.50
0.46 - 7.75
The Company utilizes estimates and assumptions in determining the estimated success payment liabilities and associated expense. A small change in the valuation of the Company’s common stock may have a relatively large change in the estimated fair value of the success payment liability and associated expense.
The following table sets forth a summary of the changes in the fair value of the Company’s Level 3 financial assets and liabilities (in thousands):
Equity Warrant
Investment
Success Payment
Liabilities
Balance at December 31, 2021
$1,067 $9,486 
Change in fair value (1)
28 (3,851)
Balance at March 31, 2022
$1,095 $5,635 
(1)The change in fair value associated with the equity warrant investment held is recorded in other income (expense), net and the change in fair value associated with success payment liabilities is recorded in research and development expense.
7. Leases
The Company’s lease portfolio is comprised of operating leases for laboratory, office and manufacturing facilities located in South San Francisco, California, and Seattle and Bothell, Washington with contractual periods expiring between December 2028 and March 2031. In addition to minimum rent, the leases require payment of real estate taxes, insurance, common area maintenance charges and other executory costs. These additional charges are considered variable lease costs and are recognized in the period in which the costs are incurred.
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The following table summarizes the Company’s future minimum operating lease commitments, including expected lease incentives to be received, as of March 31, 2022 (in thousands):
Year Ending December 31:
2022 (remaining nine months)
$7,289 
202311,018 
202411,347 
202511,859 
202612,209 
Thereafter48,094 
Total undiscounted lease payments101,816 
Less: imputed interest(30,282)
Less: tenant improvement allowances(2,720)
Total operating lease liabilities$68,814 
Reported as of March 31, 2022:
Short-term portion of lease liabilities (included in accrued liabilities and other current liabilities)$1,339 
Operating lease liabilities, non-current67,475 
Total$68,814 
The operating lease costs for all operating leases were $2.5 million and $2.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The operating lease costs and total commitments for short-term leases were de minimis for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021. Variable lease costs for operating leases were $1.3 million and $1.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021. The weighted-average remaining lease terms for operating leases were 8.5 and 8.8 years as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. The weighted-average discount rates for operating leases were 8.5% and 8.4% as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
In May 2021, the Company entered into a sublease, whereby the Company agreed to sublease approximately 11,000 square feet of its space in South San Francisco, California currently leased by the Company. The sublease is classified as an operating lease and will expire in March 2031. The monthly fixed payment due to the Company is $0.1 million, subject to annual rent increases in accordance with the contract.
In September 2021, the Company entered into a sublease with Sonoma Biotherapeutics, Inc. (“Sonoma”), a related party, whereby the Company agreed to sublease approximately 18,000 square feet of space in South San Francisco, California currently leased by the Company. See Note 13, Related-Party Transactions. As a part of the sublease, in September 2021, the Company received a $4.6 million tenant improvement contribution payment, which will be recognized over the term of the sublease. The sublease is classified as an operating lease and will expire in March 2031. The monthly fixed payment due to the Company is $0.2 million, subject to annual rent increases in accordance with the contract.
8. Convertible Preferred Stock
Upon the closing of the IPO, 194,474,431 shares of convertible preferred stock then outstanding converted into an equal number of shares of common stock. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, no shares of convertible preferred stock were outstanding.
9. Stockholders' Equity
Preferred Stock
The Company is authorized to issue 10.0 million shares of preferred stock with a par value of $0.0001 per share. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.
Common Stock
The Company is authorized to issue 500.0 million shares of common stock with a par value of $0.0001 per share. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, there were 245,422,849 shares and 242,738,350 shares of the Company’s
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common stock outstanding, respectively, excluding 1,625,002 shares and 2,600,002 shares, respectively, of restricted stock awards (“RSAs”) outstanding that are subject to vesting requirements.
10. Stock-based Compensation
2021 Equity Incentive Plan
In June 2021, the Company adopted the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan (“2021 Plan”), which on the date of the underwriting agreement related to the Company’s IPO became effective with an initial reserve of 26,662,087 shares, plus any shares subject to outstanding awards granted under the 2018 Equity Incentive Plan (“2018 Plan”) that, on or after the effectiveness of the 2021 Plan, terminate or expire before exercise or settlement, are not issued because the award is settled in cash, are forfeited because of the failure to vest, or are reacquired or withheld (or not issued) to satisfy a tax withholding obligation or the purchase or exercise price. In addition, the number of shares reserved for issuance under the 2021 Plan will automatically increase on January 1 of each year for a period of ten years, beginning on January 1, 2022 and continuing through January 1, 2031, in an amount equal to (1) 5% of the total number of shares of the Company’s common stock outstanding on December 31 of the immediately preceding year, or (2) a lesser number of shares determined by the Company’s board of directors no later than December 31 of the immediately preceding year. On January 1, 2022, the Company reserved an additional 12,266,917 shares of common stock for issuance under the 2021 Plan representing 5% of the total common shares outstanding as of December 31, 2021. On March 29, 2022, the Company filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") a Form S-8 registering the additional shares. Under the 2021 Plan, the Company may grant incentive stock options, non-statutory stock options, RSAs, restricted stock units ("RSUs"), stock appreciation rights, performance awards and other stock-based awards. Terms of stock awards, including vesting requirements, are determined by the Company’s board of directors or by a committee authorized by the Company’s board of directors, subject to provisions of the 2021 Plan. The term of any stock option granted under the 2021 Plan cannot exceed ten years. Generally, awards granted by the Company vest over four years but may be granted with different vesting terms. In conjunction with adopting the 2021 Plan, the Company discontinued the 2018 Plan with respect to new equity awards.
As of March 31, 2022, 28.0 million shares were available for future issuance pursuant to the 2021 Plan.
2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan
In June 2021, the Company adopted the 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“2021 ESPP”), which became effective immediately prior to the execution of the underwriting agreement related to the Company’s IPO with an initial reserve of 2,470,000 shares. The 2021 ESPP allows eligible employees to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock at a discount through payroll deductions of up to 15% of their earnings, subject to plan limitations. Unless otherwise determined by the Company’s board of directors, employees are able to purchase shares at 85% of the lower of the fair market value of the Company’s common stock on the first date of an offering or on the purchase date. The number of shares of the Company’s common stock reserved for issuance under the 2021 ESPP will automatically increase on January 1 of each year for a period of ten years, beginning on January 1, 2022 and continuing through January 1, 2031, by the lesser of (1) 1% of the total number of shares of the Company’s common stock outstanding on December 31 of the immediately preceding year, and (2) 4,940,000 shares; provided, however, that the Company’s board of directors may act to provide a lesser increase in number of shares. On January 1, 2022, the Company reserved an additional 2,453,383 common shares for issuance under the 2021 ESPP representing 1% of the total common shares outstanding as of December 31, 2021. On March 29, 2022, the Company filed with the SEC a Form S-8 registering the additional shares. The Company may specify offerings with durations not more than 27 months and may specify shorter purchase periods within each offering. No shares have been issued under the 2021 ESPP as of March 31, 2022.
2018 Equity Incentive Plan
In 2018, the Company established the 2018 Plan under which it may grant incentive stock options, non-statutory stock options, RSAs, RSUs, stock appreciation rights and other stock-based awards. Terms of stock awards, including vesting requirements, are determined by the board of directors or by a committee authorized by the Company’s board of directors, subject to provisions of the 2018 Plan. The term of any stock option granted under the 2018 Plan cannot exceed ten years. Generally, awards granted by the Company vest over four years, but may be granted with different vesting terms. Pursuant to the terms of the 2021 Plan, any shares subject to outstanding options originally granted under the 2018 Plan that terminate, expire or lapse for any reason without the delivery of shares to the holder thereof shall become available for issuance pursuant to awards granted under the 2021 Plan. While no shares are available for future issuance under the 2018 Plan, it continues to govern outstanding equity awards granted thereunder.
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Stock-based Compensation Expense
Stock-based compensation expense by classification included within the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss was as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Research and development$3,764 $4,851 
General and administrative18,264 7,881 
Total stock-based compensation expense$22,028 $12,732 
At March 31, 2022, total stock-based compensation cost related to unvested awards not yet recognized was $156.4 million, which is expected to be recognized over a remaining weighted-average period of 2.64 years.
Restricted Stock Awards
A summary of the Company’s RSA activity was as follows:
Number of
Shares
Weighted-Average
Value at Grant
Date Per Share
Unvested shares as of December 31, 2021
2,600,002$0.0001 
Vested(975,000)$0.0001 
Unvested shares as of March 31, 2022
1,625,002$0.0001 
Restricted Stock Units
A summary of the Company’s RSU activity was as follows:
Restricted Stock Units OutstandingWeighted-Average
Value at Grant
Date Per Share
Unvested RSUs as of December 31, 2021
 $ 
RSUs granted1,330,962$5.98 
RSUs forfeited or canceled(31,375)$5.98 
Unvested RSUs as of March 31, 2022
1,299,587$5.98 
Stock Options
A summary of the Company’s stock option activity was as follows:
Number of
Stock Options
Weighted-
Average
Exercise Price
Per Share
Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual Life
 (in years)
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
(in thousands)
Options outstanding as of December 31, 2021
41,775,179$5.05 7.84$142,076 
Granted7,962,442$6.03 
Exercised(1,709,498)$1.49 
Canceled or forfeited(321,796)$5.51 
Options outstanding as of March 31, 2022
47,706,327$5.34 7.84$51,890 
Options exercisable as of March 31, 2022
24,398,342$3.82 6.73$48,645 
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The fair value of stock options granted to employees, directors and consultants was estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model using the following assumptions:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Risk-free interest rate2.14 %0.68 %
Expected volatility85 %80 %
Expected term (in years)6.006.06
Expected dividend yield0 %0 %
The weighted-average grant date fair value of options granted for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $4.35 per share and $4.29 per share, respectively.
11. Net Loss Per Share
Basic and diluted net loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. The Company’s potentially dilutive shares, which include preferred stock, unvested RSAs, unvested RSUs and options to purchase common stock, are considered to be common stock equivalents and are only included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share when their effect is dilutive.
Potentially dilutive securities excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share due to their anti-dilutive effects were as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Convertible preferred stock 194,474,431 
Unvested RSAs1,625,002 5,525,002 
Unvested RSUs1,299,587  
Options to purchase common stock47,706,327 40,556,956 
Total50,630,916 240,556,389 
12. Commitments and Contingencies
Collaboration and License Agreements
The Company has entered into certain collaboration and license agreements, including those identified in Note 3, License, Collaboration and Success Payment Agreements above, with third parties that include the funding of certain development, manufacturing and commercialization efforts with the potential for future milestone and royalty payments upon the achievement of pre-established developmental, regulatory and/or commercial milestones. The Company’s obligation to fund these efforts is contingent upon continued involvement in the programs and/or the lack of any adverse events that could cause the discontinuance of the programs. Due to the nature of these agreements, the future potential payments are inherently uncertain, and accordingly no amounts had been recorded for the potential future achievement of these targets as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021.
13. Related-party Transactions
In September 2021, the Company entered into a sublease with Sonoma, whereby the Company agreed to sublease approximately 18,000 square feet of space in South San Francisco, California currently leased by the Company. Dr. Klausner serves as a member of the board of directors of Sonoma and he and certain holders of more than 5% of our outstanding common stock are also stockholders of Sonoma. As a part of the sublease, a $4.6 million tenant improvement contribution payment was made by Sonoma, which will be recognized over the term of the sublease. As of March 31, 2022, accrued liabilities and other current liabilities of $0.5 million and other non-current liabilities of $3.9 million were in connection with the sublease with Sonoma. Income of $0.7 million was recognized in other operating income, net for the three months ended March 31, 2022. See Note 7, Leases, for more detail on the Sonoma sublease.
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The Company is party to the GSK Agreement, who is a holder of more than 10% of the Company’s outstanding common stock. See Note 3, License, Collaboration and Success Payment Agreements. Deferred revenue of $6.2 million and $5.0 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively, and deferred revenue, net of current portion of $77.9 million and $79.7 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively, were in connection with the GSK Agreement. Revenue recognized in connection with the GSK agreement was $0.6 million and $2.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. This discussion and analysis and other parts of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contain forward-looking statements based upon current beliefs, plans and expectations related to future events and our future financial performance that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions, such as statements regarding our intentions, plans, objectives and expectations for our business. Our actual results and the timing of selected events could differ materially from those described in or implied by these forward-looking statements as a result of several factors, including those set forth in the section titled “Risk Factors” in Part II, Item 1A of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. See also the section titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
This section under Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations generally discusses the first quarter of 2022 and 2021 and period-over-period comparisons between these periods. Discussions of 2021 items and period-over-period comparisons between 2021 and 2020 that are not included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q can be found in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in the prospectus we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, on June 21, 2021.
Overview
We are a T-cell reprogramming company dedicated to the mastery of T cells to cure patients with solid tumors. We believe the key to effective cell therapy is the deep and profound understanding of the identity, fate and function of cells to create living medicines. We take a systematic, interrogative, cell biology-driven approach to overcome what we view as the two major barriers to successful Adoptive Cell Therapy (ACT) – (1) T-cell exhaustion and (2) lack of durable stemness – through the application of our proprietary ex vivo genetic and epigenetic reprogramming technologies, Gen-R™ and Epi-R™. Gen-R is designed to overcome loss of T-cell function attributable to an exhausted state, and Epi-R is designed to create T-cell populations with properties of durable stemness. T cells with properties of durable stemness are able to proliferate, persist and self-renew, as well as generate differentiated effector cell progenies to provide durable anti-tumor functionality.
Our technologies are designed to be applied in a target and modality agnostic manner to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and T-cell receptor (TCR) therapies to fundamentally improve the properties of T cells needed to eradicate solid tumors. We believe our autologous T-cell therapies will generate improved, durable clinical outcomes that are potentially curative for patients with solid tumors. We are building a multi-modality product pipeline across several solid tumor indications with high unmet needs.
We are advancing a product pipeline of promising living cell product candidates across multiple ACT modalities that incorporate our Gen-R and Epi-R technology platforms. Each of our programs provide opportunities to expand into additional indications beyond the patient populations we are initially targeting. Our lead product candidates are summarized in the table below:
lyel-20220331_g1.jpg
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We were incorporated in June 2018. Our primary activities to date have included developing T-cell therapies, performing research and development, acquiring technology, entering into strategic collaboration and license agreements, building manufacturing capability, enabling and executing manufacturing activities in support of our product candidate development efforts, organizing and staffing the company, business planning, establishing our intellectual property portfolio, preparing for and initiating clinical trials, raising capital and providing general and administrative support for these activities. We are early in our research and development efforts and just beginning clinical development of our product candidates. Besides LYL797 and LYL132, all of our other product candidates are currently in preclinical development. We also do not have any products approved for sale.
We anticipate that our expenses and operating losses will increase substantially over the foreseeable future. The expected increase in expenses will be driven in large part by our ongoing activities, if and as we:
continue preclinical development of our current and future product candidates and initiate additional preclinical studies;
commence and continue clinical trials of our current and future product candidates;
advance our Gen-R, Epi-R and cell rejuvenation technology platforms as well as other research and development efforts;
attract, hire and retain qualified personnel;
seek regulatory approval of our current and future product candidates;
expand our manufacturing and process development capabilities;
expand our operational, financial and management systems;
acquire and license technology or technology platforms;
continue to develop, protect and defend our intellectual property portfolio; and
incur additional legal, accounting or other expenses in operating our business, including the additional costs associated with operating as a public company.
Pipeline Programs and Operational Updates
Pipeline Programs
Phase 1 clinical development of two product candidates (LYL797, LYL132) has commenced and additional product candidates are in preclinical development (LYL845, LYL331). LYL797 and LYL845 are wholly‑owned by us, and LYL132 and LYL331 are being developed in collaboration with GlaxoSmithKline Intellectual Property (No. 5) Limited and Glaxo Group Limited (together, “GSK”).
LYL797 - CAR T-cell therapy targeting ROR1+ solid tumors, incorporating Gen-R and Epi-R
We are applying our Gen-R and Epi-R technology platforms to our lead CAR T-cell product candidate, LYL797, which is expected to be an IV administered CAR T-cell product targeting receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1). LYL797 contains a CAR with a 4-1BB/CD3z co-stimulatory domain, an optimized spacer and a single-chain variable fragment (scFy) derived from an R12 rabbit monoclonal antibody that recognizes and binds with high specificity to human ROR1. LYL797 also incorporates Gen-R and a proprietary optimized version of human EGFR (EGFRopt) used for tracking of the CAR T cells in the peripheral blood. LYL797 is manufactured utilizing our proprietary Epi-R technology.
We are initially developing LYL797 for the treatment of ROR1+ triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ROR1 expression is associated with poor prognosis. Significant subsets of patients with common cancers express ROR1, including TNBC (~60%) and NSCLC (~40%), two of the highest ROR1 expressing indications. If successful, we anticipate expanding into other ROR1+ cancers with a lower incidence of ROR1 expression, including potentially hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, ovarian and other solid tumors.
Screening has been initiated for the Phase 1 clinical trial. The trial is designed to be an open label dose escalation and expansion trial that initially enrolls patients with relapsed/refractory triple‑negative breast cancer or non-small cell lung cancer who have failed at least two lines of therapy. Initial data is expected in 2023.
Presented preclinical data characterizing LYL797 at the Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 2022 Annual Meeting.
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LYL845 - TIL therapy designed to target multiple solid tumor indications, incorporating Epi-R
We are applying our Epi-R technology to develop our product candidate, LYL845, which is expected to be an IV administered autologous TIL therapy in multiple solid tumors. TILs have previously shown clinical benefit in patients with melanoma and other solid tumors with high mutation burdens. TILs target a variety of tumor antigens, but it is thought that the clinical efficacy of TILs is largely driven by specific recognition of mutated tumor neoantigens. Further, broad TIL efficacy has been limited by poor enrichment of tumor-reactive T cells, poor quality and growth potential of expanded T cells and failure to maintain polyclonality of TILs during production. We have designed LYL845 to incorporate our Epi‑R technology that has shown promising improvements in enhancing T cell potency, antitumor activity and increased polyclonality of TILs. We are initially targeting melanoma, with plans to expand into additional solid tumor indications.
On track to submit an IND in the second half of 2022 for LYL845, a TIL therapy.
LYL132 and LYL331 - TCR therapy targeting NY-ESO-1 solid tumors
Our collaborator, GSK, is developing an NY-ESO-1 TCR T cell product candidate, NY-ESO-1c259, currently in pivotal development (letetresgene autoleucel (lete-cel)) designed to target solid tumors expressing New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1). Our collaboration explores the potential next-generation enhancement of that product candidate though the application of our Epi-R (LYL132) and Gen-R (LYL331) platform technologies, with a goal to improve the depth and durability of clinical responses. While we are currently evaluating Epi-R and Gen-R in separate preclinical and clinical programs, together these programs could represent a single future product opportunity for GSK utilizing one or both of our platform technologies.
LYL132, a TCR therapy targeting NY-ESO-1 solid tumors incorporating Epi-R is in Phase 1 clinical development.
LYL331 is a TCR therapy targeting NY-ESO-1 solid tumors incorporating Gen-R and is on track to submit an IND in late 2022 – early 2023.
Our Manufacturing Capabilities
We believe it is critically important to own, control and continuously monitor all aspects of the cell therapy manufacturing process in order to mitigate risks the field has seen, including challenges in managing production, supply chain, patient specimen chain of custody and quality control. We made a strategic decision to invest in building our own manufacturing facility to control our supply chain, maximize efficiencies in cell product production time, cost and quality, and have the ability to rapidly incorporate disruptive advancements and new innovations. Controlling manufacturing also enables us to protect proprietary aspects of our Gen-R and Epi-R technology platforms. We view our manufacturing team and capabilities as a significant competitive advantage. Our manufacturing facility, LyFE™, is commissioned and qualified in compliance with the FDA's Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) and is designed to produce cell products at scale for our current and planned clinical trials across our CAR, TIL and TCR programs.
COVID-19 Update
The global COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve rapidly, and we will continue to monitor it closely. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, operations and development timelines and plans remains uncertain and will depend on certain developments, including the duration and spread of the outbreak and its impact on our clinical trial plans, CROs, contract manufacturing organizations and other third parties with whom we do business, as well as its impact on regulatory authorities and our key scientific and management personnel. While the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations remain uncertain, to date, we have not experienced delays in our discovery development activities as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to avoid materially adverse impacts from the evolving effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this regard, site initiation and patient enrollment may be delayed due to prioritization of hospital resources toward the COVID-19 pandemic, which may delay enrollment in our current and planned clinical trials, and some patients may not be able to comply with clinical trial protocols if quarantines impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services, and we may be unable to obtain blood samples for testing. For example, limitations or modifications in surgery scheduling for oncology patients at collaborating institutions has limited and may continue to limit supply of patient tumor samples that we use in our research. We have closely monitored the COVID-19 pandemic and have strived to follow recommended containment and mitigation measures, including the guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as the states of California and Washington and applicable counties. We implemented preventative measures at our facilities in order to minimize the risk of employee exposure to the virus, including the following requirements: that each employee or contractor who entered a facility be vaccinated or agreed to comply with social distancing, frequent hand washing and the requirement to wear masks. We also increased cleaning of high touch areas, provided hand sanitizing stations and implemented an employee questionnaire to ensure employee health status and to provide for limited on-site tracing if
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needed. We expect to continue such measures for the near foreseeable future, though we have begun to allow employees to return to our facilities on an as‑needed basis and may continue to do so if we determine that it can be done while continuing to maintain a safe work environment. We will continue to actively monitor the situation related to the COVID-19 pandemic and may take further actions that alter our operations, including those that may be required by federal, state or local authorities, or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees and other third parties with whom we do business.
License, Collaboration and Success Payment Agreements
For a detailed description of our license, collaboration and success payment agreements, see Note 3 to our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
We have no products approved for sale and have never generated any revenue from product sales.
To date, we have generated revenue primarily from the recognition of a portion of the upfront payment under the Collaboration and License Agreement with GSK (GSK Agreement) that we entered into in May 2019. As we continue to conduct research under the GSK Agreement, we will recognize revenue based upon our estimate of the progress made. In the future, we may generate additional revenue from other collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing agreements, product sales, or a combination of these.
Operating Expenses (Income)
Research and Development
To date, research and development expenses consist of costs incurred by us for the discovery and development of our technology platforms and product candidates and includes costs incurred in connection with strategic collaborations, costs to license technology, personnel-related costs, including stock-based compensation expense, facility and technology related costs, research and laboratory expenses, as well as other expenses, which include consulting fees and other costs. Upfront payments and milestones paid to third parties in connection with technology platforms that have not reached technological feasibility and do not have an alternative future use are expensed as incurred.
Research and development expenses also include non-cash expenses related to the change in the estimated fair value of the liabilities associated with our success payments granted to Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Fred Hutch) and The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University (Stanford). See Note 3 of the notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included under Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10‑Q. Research and development expenses related to our success payment liabilities are unpredictable and may vary significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year due to changes in our assumptions used in the calculation.
We deploy our employee and infrastructure resources across multiple research and development programs for identifying and developing product candidates and establishing manufacturing capabilities. Due to the stage of development and number of ongoing programs and our ability to use resources across several programs, most of our research and development costs are not recorded on a program-specific basis. These include costs for personnel, laboratory and other indirect facility and operating costs.
Research and development activities account for a significant portion of our operating expenses. We anticipate that our research and development expenses will increase over the foreseeable future as we expand our research and development efforts including completing preclinical studies, commencing planned clinical trials, conducting and completing current and planned clinical trials, seeking regulatory approval of our product candidates, identifying new product candidates and incurring costs to acquire and license technology platforms. A change in the outcome of any of these variables could mean a significant change in the costs and timing associated with the development of our product candidates. Because we are early in our research and development efforts and just beginning clinical development of our product candidates, and the outcome of these efforts is uncertain, we cannot estimate the actual amounts necessary to successfully complete the preclinical development, clinical development and commercialization of product candidates or whether, or when, we may achieve profitability.
Our research and development expenses may vary significantly based on factors such as:
the number and scope of preclinical and IND-enabling studies;
per patient trial costs;
the number of trials required for approval;
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the number of sites included in the trials;
the countries in which the trials are conducted;
the length of time required to enroll eligible patients;
the number of patients that participate in the trials;
the drop-out or discontinuation rates of patients;
potential additional safety monitoring requested by regulatory agencies;
the duration of patient participation in the trials and follow-up;
the cost and timing of manufacturing our product candidates;
the phase of development of our product candidates;
the efficacy and safety profile of our product candidates;
the extent to which we establish additional collaboration or license agreements; and
whether we choose to partner any of our product candidates and the terms of such partnership.
A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of any of our product candidates could significantly change the costs and timing associated with the development of that product candidate. We may never succeed in obtaining regulatory approval for any of our product candidates. We may obtain unexpected results from our preclinical studies and future clinical trials.
General and Administrative
General and administrative costs include personnel-related expenses, including stock-based compensation expense for personnel in executive, legal, finance and other administrative functions, legal costs, transaction costs related to collaboration and licensing agreements, as well as fees paid for accounting and tax services, consulting fees and facilities costs not otherwise included in research and development expenses. Legal costs include those related to corporate, dispute and patent matters.
We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will increase over the foreseeable future to support our continued research and development activities, operations generally, future business development opportunities, consulting fees, as well as due to the increased costs of operating as a public company such as costs related to accounting, audit, legal, regulatory and tax-related services associated with maintaining compliance with exchange listing and SEC requirements, director and officer insurance costs and investor and public relations costs.
Other Operating Income, Net
Other operating income, net, consists primarily of service and occupancy fees received associated with subleases as well