Company Quick10K Filing
Magal Security Systems
20-F 2020-12-31 Filed 2021-04-26
20-F 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-04-23
20-F 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-04-15
20-F 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-03-28
20-F 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-03-29
20-F 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-03-29
20-F 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-03-27
20-F 2012-12-31 Filed 2013-03-21
20-F 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-04-04
20-F 2010-12-31 Filed 2011-04-11
20-F 2009-12-31 Filed 2010-05-03

MAGS 20F Annual Report

Item 17 ☐ Item 18 ☐
Part I
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Information on The Company
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8. Financial Information
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities
Part II
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16. [Reserved]
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert
Item 16B. Code of Ethics
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E. Purchase of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F. Changes in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
Item 16G. Corporate Governance
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure
Part III
Item 17. Financial Statements
Item 18. Financial Statements
Item 19. Exhibits
Note 1: - General
Note 2: - Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3: - Other Accounts Receivable and Prepaid Expenses
Note 4: - Inventories
Note 5: - Leases
Note 6: - Property and Equipment, Net
Note 7: - Intangible Assets, Net
Note 8: - Goodwill
Note 9: - Other Accounts Payable and Accrued Expenses
Note 10: - Commitments and Contingent Liabilities
Note 11: - Shareholders' Equity
Note 12: - Basic and Diluted Net Earnings per Share
Note 13: - Taxes on Income
Note 14: - Balances and Transactions with Related Parties
Note 15: - Segment Information
Note 16: - Selected Statements of Income Data
EX-8.1 exhibit_8-1.htm
EX-12.1 exhibit_12-1.htm
EX-12.2 exhibit_12-2.htm
EX-13.1 exhibit_13-1.htm
EX-13.2 exhibit_13-2.htm
EX-15.1 exhibit_15-1.htm
EX-15.2 exhibit_15-2.htm

Magal Security Systems Earnings 2020-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

20-F 1 zk2125915.htm 20-F

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F
 
☐       REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR
 
☒       ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
 
OR
 
☐       TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from __________ to __________
 
☐       SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
           Date of event requiring this shell company report .................
 
Commission file number: 0‑21388
 
MAGAL SECURITY SYSTEMS LTD.
(Exact Name of Registrant as specified in its charter
and translation of Registrant’s name into English)
 
Israel
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

P.O. Box 70, Industrial Zone, Yehud 5621617, Israel
(Address of principal executive offices)

Yaacov Vinokur, Chief Financial Officer
Magal Security Systems Ltd.
P.O. Box 70, Industrial Zone
 Yehud 5621617, Israel
+972-3-5391444 (phone), +972-3-5366245 (fax)
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number of Company Contact Person)
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary Shares, NIS 1.0 Par Value
 
MAGS
 
Nasdaq Global Market
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 23,163,985 Ordinary shares, par value NIS 1.0 per share, as of December 31, 2020.


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
 
Yes ☐       No ☒
 
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes ☐       No ☒
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes ☒       No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).   

Yes ☒       No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of "accelerated filer", "large accelerated filer" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer ☐
Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☒
Emerging growth company ☐
 
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
     
U.S. GAAP ☒
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ☐
Other ☐

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow:

Item 17 ☐       Item 18 ☐
 
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes ☐       No ☒

This Annual Report on Form 20-F is incorporated by reference into the Registrant’s Registration Statements on Form S-8, File Nos. 333-164696, 333-174127 and 333-190469.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page No.


1
1
1
1
A.   Selected Consolidated Financial Data.
1
B.   Capitalization and Indebtedness.
2
C.   Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds.
2
D.   Risk Factors.
2
18
A.   History and Development of the Company.
18
B.   Business Overview.
19
C.   Organizational Structure.
31
D.   Property, Plants and Equipment.
31
32
32
A.   Operating Results.
32
B.   Liquidity and Capital Resources
46
C.   Research and Development, Patents and Licenses.
49
D.   Trend Information.
50
E.   Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements.
50
F.    Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations.
50
51
A.   Directors and Senior Management.
51
B.   Compensation
54
C.   Board Practices
55
D.   Employees
65
E.   Share Ownership.
67
68
A.   Major Shareholders.
68
B.   Related Party Transactions.
69
C.   Interests of Experts and Counsel.
69
69
A.   Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information.
69
B.   Significant Changes.
70
70
A.   Offer and Listing Details.
70
B.   Plan of Distribution.
70
C.   Markets.
70
D.   Selling Shareholders.
71
E.   Dilution.
71
F.   Expenses of the Issue.
71
71
A.   Share Capital.
71
B.   Memorandum and Articles of Association.
71
C.   Material Contracts.
72
D.   Exchange Controls.
72
E.   Taxation.
72
F.    Dividends and Paying Agents.
83
G.   Statements by Experts.
83
H.   Documents on Display.
83
I.     Subsidiary Information.
84

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84
84
84
84
84
85
85
85
86
86
86
86
87
87

87
87
88
89

- ii -


INTRODUCTION
 
Magal Security Systems Ltd. is a leading international provider of turn-key projects, solutions and products for physical security, as well as site management. Since 1969, we have delivered our products as well as tailor-made security solutions and turnkey projects to customers in over 100 countries under some of the most challenging conditions. We offer comprehensive integrated solutions for critical sites, which leverage our broad portfolio of homegrown PIDS (Perimeter Intrusion Detection Systems), advanced VMS (Video Management Software) with native IVA (Intelligent Video Analytics) security solutions, as well as a proprietary command and control platform.
 
Based on our multi decade industry experience and interaction with customers, we have developed a comprehensive set of solutions and products, optimized for perimeter, outdoor and general security applications. Our broad portfolio of critical infrastructure protection and site protection technologies includes a variety of smart barriers and fences, fence mounted sensors, virtual gates, buried and concealed detection systems and sophisticated sensors for sub-surface intrusion such as to secure pipelines, as well as advanced video analytics software and video management systems. Our turnkey solutions are typically integrated and managed by sophisticated modular command and control software, supported by expert systems for real-time decision support. We have successfully installed customized solutions and products in more than 100 countries worldwide.

On February 7, 2021 we signed a share and asset purchase agreement with Aeronautics Ltd. (a subsidiary of Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd.) to sell our Integrated Solutions (Project) Division in consideration of $35 million in cash, on a cash-free debt-free basis subject to post-closing working capital and other customary adjustments. As part of the acquisition, Aeronautics is also acquiring our facility in Yehud, Israel. Following the sale of the Integrated Solutions (Project) Division, we will continue to operate our Senstar Products Division, with development and manufacturing facilities located in Canada and sales and support offices in the US, EMEA, APAC, and LATAM regions.
 
 Our ordinary shares are traded on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “MAGS”.  Our website is www.magalsecurity.com.  The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this annual report.  As used in this annual report, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” and “Magal” mean Magal Security Systems Ltd. and its subsidiaries, unless otherwise indicated.

CYBERSEAL, DTR, FENSOR, FORTIS, MAGAL, MAGAL SECURITY SYSTEMS, ROBOGUARD, AIMETIS SYMPHONY, FIBERPATROL, FLARE, FLEXPI, FLEXZONE, OMNITRAX, PINPOINTER, SENNET, SENSTAR,  SENTIENT, ULTRAWAVE and XFIELD are registered trademarks.

ARMOURFLEX, ENTERPRISE MANAGER, GALLIUM PDS, INTELLI-FLEX, INTELLIFIBER, LM100, the MAGAL logo, NETWORK MANAGER, RUBIDIUM, STARLED, STARNET, SENSTAR CARE, SENSTAR logo, SENSTAR SYMPHONY, SENSTAR SAFE SPACES, TUNGSTEN and VANADIUM and all other marks used to identify particular products and services associated with our businesses are trademarks.  Any other trademarks and trade names appearing in this annual report are owned by their respective holders.

Our consolidated financial statements appearing in this annual report are prepared in U.S. dollars and in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or U.S. GAAP.  All references in this annual report to “dollars” or “$” are to U.S. dollars, all references to “NIS” are to New Israeli Shekels and all references to “CAD” are to Canadian dollars.

Statements made in this annual report concerning the contents of any contract, agreement or other document are summaries of such contracts, agreements or documents and are not complete descriptions of all of their terms.  If we filed any of these documents as an exhibit to this annual report or to any registration statement or annual report that we previously filed, you may read the document itself for a complete description of its terms.

This Annual Report on Form 20-F contains various “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and within the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended. Such forward-looking statements reflect our current view with respect to future events and financial results.  Forward-looking statements usually include the verbs, “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “projects,” “understands” and other verbs suggesting uncertainty.  We remind readers that forward-looking statements are merely predictions and therefore inherently subject to uncertainties and other factors and involve known and unknown risks that could cause the actual results, performance, levels of activity, or our achievements, or industry results, to be materially different from any future results, performance, levels of activity, or our achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements.  Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date hereof.  We undertake no obligation to publicly release any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date hereof or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.  We have attempted to identify additional significant uncertainties and other factors affecting forward-looking statements in the Risk Factors section which appears in Item 3.D “Key Information -- Risk Factors.”
- iii -

 
PART I
 
ITEM 1.
IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 2.
OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 3.
KEY INFORMATION
 
A.           Selected Consolidated Financial Data.
 
The following selected consolidated financial data for and as of the five years ended December 31, 2020 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.  We have derived the following selected consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2019 and 2020 and for each of the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020 from our consolidated financial statements set forth elsewhere in this annual report that have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.  We have derived the following selected consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018 and for each of the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017 from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report.  The selected consolidated financial data set forth below should be read in conjunction with and are qualified entirely by reference to Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this annual report.
 
   
2016
   
2017
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
 
                               
                               
Revenues          
 
$
67,825
   
$
64,292
   
$
92,602
   
$
86,831
   
$
81,464
 
Cost of revenues          
   
34,570
     
32,967
     
52,299
     
48,070
     
47,027
 
Gross profit          
   
33,255
     
31,325
     
40,303
     
38,761
     
34,437
 
Operating expenses:
                                       
Research and development, net          
   
6,779
     
6,558
     
6,852
     
6,373
     
5,658
 
Selling and marketing          
   
17,536
     
18,158
     
18,557
     
16,902
     
13,883
 
General and administrative          
   
7,445
     
7,853
     
11,139
     
9,447
     
9,713
 
Total operating expenses          
   
31,760
     
32,569
     
36,548
     
32,722
     
29,254
 
Operating income (loss)          
   
1,495
     
(1,244
)
   
3,755
     
6,039
     
5,183
 
Financial income (expenses), net          
   
(591
)
   
(3,961
)
   
1,361
     
(1,667
)
   
(1,480
)
Income (loss) before income taxes          
   
904
     
(5,205
)
   
5,116
     
4,372
     
3,703
 
Taxes on income (tax benefit)          
   
(122
)
   
1,695
     
2,072
     
1,553
     
3,001
 
Net income (loss)
 
$
1,026
   
$
(6,900
)
 
$
3,044
   
$
2,819
   
$
702
 
Less: net income (loss) attributable to redeemable non-controlling interests and non-controlling interest
   
(3
)
   
14
     
95
     
526
     
342
 
Net income (loss) attributable to Magal’s shareholders
 
$
1,029
   
$
(6,914
)
 
$
2,949
   
$
2,293
   
$
360
 
Basic and diluted net earnings (loss) per share
 
$
0.06
   
$
(0.30
)
 
$
0.12
   
$
0.07
   
$
0.01
 

1

   
2016
   
2017
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
 
Weighted average number of ordinary shares used in computing basic net earnings per share
   
17,999,779
     
22,989,009
     
23,040,436
     
23,129,394
     
23,154,422
 
Weighted average number of ordinary shares used in computing diluted net earnings per share
   
18,031,433
     
22,989,009
     
23,287,751
     
23,144,740
     
23,154,422
 

   
2016
   
2017
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
 
Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:
                             
Cash and cash equivalents          
 
$
19,692
   
$
22,463
   
$
38,665
   
$
34,531
   
$
27,093
 
Short and long-term deposits and restricted deposits
   
32,971
     
30,022
     
16,431
     
17,207
     
379
 
Working capital          
   
58,752
     
59,401
     
61,023
     
67,202
     
44,798
 
Total assets
   
105,993
     
112,545
     
119,171
     
127,049
     
108,057
 
Total shareholders’ equity          
 
$
81,918
   
$
82,949
   
$
81,216
   
$
87,806
   
$
67,098
 

B.           Capitalization and Indebtedness.
 
Not applicable.

C.           Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds.
 
Not applicable.

D.           Risk Factors.
 
Investing in our ordinary shares involves a high degree of risk and uncertainty.  You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below before investing in our ordinary shares.  If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.  In that case, the value of our ordinary shares could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry


We depend on large orders from a relatively small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenues.
 

The loss of one or more of our key customers could result in a loss of a significant amount of our revenues.
 

While we were profitable in 2020, we have incurred major losses in past years and may not operate profitably in the future.
 

Our operations are negatively impacted by the Coronavirus pandemic.
 

Our operating results may fluctuate from quarter to quarter and year to year.
 

Our financial results may be significantly affected by currency fluctuations.
 

Because our project-related sales tend to be concentrated among a small number of customers during any period, our operating results may be subject to substantial fluctuations.
 

We may be unable to successfully integrate our recent acquisitions to fully realize targeted synergies.
 

We expect to make additional acquisitions in the future that could disrupt our operations and harm our operating results.
 
2


Our revenues depend on government procurement procedures and practices.  A substantial decrease in our customers’ budgets would adversely affect our results of operations.
 

Because competition in our industry is intense, our business, operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected.
 

Increased competition and bid protests in a budget-constrained environment may make it more difficult to maintain our financial performance.
 

Unfavorable global economic conditions may adversely affect our customers, which directly impact our business and results of operations.
 

We have significant operations in countries that may be adversely affected by political events, economic instability, regime replacement, major hostilities or acts of terrorism.
 

We may be adversely affected by our long sales cycles.
 

Our business involves significant risks and uncertainties that may not be covered by indemnity or insurance.
 

The market for our products may be affected by changing technology, requirements, standards and products, and we may be adversely affected if we do not respond promptly and effectively to these changes.
 

Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations with respect to our ESG, policies may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.
 

Our failure to retain and attract personnel could harm our business, operations and product development efforts.
 

Our failure to comply with anti-corruption laws and regulations could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
 

We face risks associated with doing business in international markets.
 

We may be vulnerable to physical and electronic security breaches and cyber-attacks which could disrupt our operations and have a material adverse effect on our financial performance and operating results.
 

We may not be able to protect our proprietary technology and unauthorized use of our proprietary technology by third parties may impair our ability to compete effectively.
 

Claims that our products infringe upon the intellectual property of third parties may require us to incur significant costs, enter into licensing agreements or license substitute technology.
 

Undetected defects in our products may increase our costs and harm the market acceptance of our products.
 

Systems and information technology interruptions or cyber-attacks could adversely impact our ability to operate.
 

If subcontractors and suppliers terminate our arrangements with them, or amend them in a manner detrimental to us, we may experience delays in production and implementation of our products and our business may be adversely affected.
 

We currently benefit from government programs and tax benefits that may be discontinued or reduced in the future, which would increase our future tax expenses.
 

We may fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, which could result in material misstatements in our financial statements.
 

We may be adversely affected by regulations and market expectations related to sourcing and our supply chain, including conflict minerals.
 
3

Risks Relating to Our Ordinary Shares
 

Volatility of the market price of our ordinary shares could adversely affect our shareholders and us.
 

We may not pay dividends in the future.
 

As a foreign private issuer whose shares are listed on the NASDAQ Global Market, we may follow certain home country corporate governance practices instead of certain NASDAQ requirements.
 

We may in the future be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, which would subject our U.S. investors to adverse tax rules.
 
Risks Relating to Our Location in Israel
 

Political, economic and military instability in Israel may disrupt our operations and negatively affect our business condition, harm our results of operations and adversely affect our share price.
 

Our results of operations may be negatively affected by the obligation of our personnel to perform reserve military service.
 

The rights and responsibilities of the shareholders are governed by Israeli law and differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders under U.S. law.
 

Provisions of Israeli law may delay, prevent or make difficult a change of control and therefore depress the price of our shares.
 

Our shareholders generally may have difficulties enforcing a U.S. judgment against us, our executive officers and directors and some of the experts named in this annual report or asserting U.S. securities law claims in Israel.
 
Risks Related to Our Business
 
We depend on large orders from a relatively small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenues.  The loss of one or more of our key customers could result in a loss of a significant amount of our revenues.
 
Historically, a relatively small number of customers account for a significant percentage of our revenues (mainly in our Integrated Solutions Division).   The Israeli Ministry of Defense, or the MOD, and the Israeli Defense Forces, or the IDF accounted for 10.9%, 17.2% and 20.6% of our revenues in the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. The MOD, the IDF or any of our other major continuing customers may not maintain their volume of business with us or, if such volume is reduced, other customers generating similar revenues may not replace the lost business. Our inability to replace business from large contracts will adversely affect our financial results.  Any unanticipated delays in a large project, changes in customer requirements or priorities during the project implementation period, or a customer’s decision to cancel a project, may adversely impact our operating results and financial performance. Our revenues may also be affected in the future if there is a reduction in Israeli government defense spending for our programs or a change in priorities to purchase products other than ours.  Accordingly, changes in government contracting policies, budgetary constraints and delays or changes in the appropriations process could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

While we were profitable in 2020, we have incurred major losses in past years and may not operate profitably in the future.
 
While we reported an operating profit of $5.2 million and net income of $0.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2020, we have incurred losses in the past.  We may not be able to sustain profitable operations in the future due to a number of factors, including the recent outbreak of the novel Coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19), which has negatively impacted  our operations.  If we do not generate sufficient cash from operations, we will be required to obtain financing or reduce our level of expenditure or cash balance.  Such financing may not be available in the future, or, if available, may not be on terms favorable to us.  If adequate funds are not available to us, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be materially and adversely affected.
4

 
Our operations are negatively impacted by the Coronavirus pandemic.
 
International health epidemics from communicable diseases, such as the recent outbreak of the novel Coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19), have impacted our operations and may continue doing so in the future. The impact of Covid-19 in 2020 primary related to our ability to execute and deliver projects, thus affecting the operations of our Integrated Solutions Division, as well causing a slowdown in product and software orders in certain territories. We continue to assess the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on our operations, including on our employees, customers, suppliers and logistics/transport providers. Despite the widespread lockdowns and working from home initiatives in the territories in which we operated during 2020, we were able to continue production in our Israeli and Canadian facilities throughout 2020. Following the dramatic drop in Covid-19 numbers in Israel during March and April 2021, we were able to resume full operations at our Israeli offices. However, our ability to continue or resume operations from our offices and manufacturing facilities are dependent on the Covid-19 status in the territories in which we operate. For example: in April 2021 lockdowns to various degrees were announced in Ottawa, Canada and Nairobi, Kenya, limiting our ability to resume work from our offices at these locations.
 
 In addition, we are evaluating the possible impact of governmental actions being taken to curtail the spread of the virus, such as instructions regarding quarantine of individuals, restrictions on holding large-scale events, workplace restrictions and international travel. We also are monitoring the impact of the pandemic on our industry and on governmental priorities, both in Israel and worldwide, as well as its macro-economic implications. We cannot presently estimate the ongoing impact of Covid-19 on our company, but the continued spread of that disease could partially or fully prevent our employees, customers, suppliers and other business partners from conducting normal activities, potentially resulting in cessation, reduction or delay of business either voluntarily or by governmental mandate and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow.
 
Our operating results may fluctuate from quarter to quarter and year to year.

Our sales and operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter and from year to year in the future.  Our operating results are characterized by a seasonal pattern, with a higher volume of revenues towards the end of the year and lower revenues in the first part of the year.  In addition, our operating results are affected by a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control.  Factors contributing to these fluctuations include the following:


changes in customers’ or potential customers’ budgets as a result of, among other things, government funding and procurement policies;
 

changes in demand for our existing products and services;
 

our long and variable sales cycle;
 

our ability to maintain sales volumes at a level sufficient to cover fixed manufacturing and operating costs;
 

the timing of the introduction and market acceptance of new products, product enhancements and new applications.

Our expense levels are based, in part, on expected future sales.  If the level of sales in a particular quarter does not meet expectations, we may be unable to adjust operating expenses quickly enough to compensate for the shortfall of sales, and our results of operations may be adversely affected.  Due to these and other factors, we believe that quarter to quarter and year to year comparisons of our past operating results may not be meaningful.  You should not rely on our results for any quarter or year as an indication of our future performance.  Our operating results in future quarters and years may be below expectations, which would likely cause the price of our ordinary shares to fall.
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Our financial results may be significantly affected by currency fluctuations.
 
Most of our sales are made in North America, Latin America, Africa, Israel and Europe.  Our revenues are primarily denominated in Dollars, NIS, Euros and Mexican Pesos while a portion of our expenses, primarily labor expenses, is incurred in NIS and Canadian Dollars. Additionally, certain assets, especially trade receivables, as well as part of our liabilities are denominated in NIS.  As a result, fluctuations in rates of exchange between the dollar and non-dollar currencies may affect our operating results and financial condition.  The dollar cost of our operations in Israel may be adversely affected by the appreciation of the NIS against the dollar.  In addition, the value of our non-dollar revenues could be adversely affected by the depreciation of the dollar against such currencies. Our financial expenses may also be adversely affected by the depreciation of a currency in which we maintain our monetary assets.
 
We recorded foreign exchange losses, net of $2 million and $1.3 million in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively and a foreign exchange gain, net of $1.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2018. As a result of our rights offering in late 2016, we held a significant amount of cash and cash equivalents in U.S. dollars during 2018, 2019 and 2020. These balances were translated into Israeli Shekels, which depreciated by 7.8% and 7.0% against the U.S. dollar in 2019 and 2020, respectively, and which appreciated by 8.1% against the U.S. dollar in 2018. We may incur exchange losses in the future which may materially affect our operating results.

Because our project-related sales tend to be concentrated among a small number of customers during any period, our operating results may be subject to substantial fluctuations. Accordingly, our revenues and operating results for any particular quarter may not be indicative of our performance in future quarters, making it difficult for investors to evaluate our future prospects based solely on the results of any one quarter.
 
Given the nature of our customers and projects, we receive relatively large orders for projects from a relatively small number of customers. Consequently, a single order from one customer may represent a substantial portion of our sales in any one period and significant orders by any customer during one period may not be followed by further orders from the same customer in subsequent periods. Our sales and operating results are subject to very substantial periodic variations. Since quarterly performance is likely to vary significantly, our results of operations for any quarter or calendar year are not necessarily indicative of the results that we might achieve for any subsequent period. Accordingly, quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. In addition, our order backlog is generally composed of orders that are mostly fulfilled within a period of three to twelve months after receipt, which makes revenues in any quarter substantially dependent upon orders received in prior quarters.

We may be unable to successfully integrate our recent acquisitions to fully realize targeted synergies, revenues and other expected benefits of the acquisitions. We expect to make additional acquisitions in the future that could disrupt our operations and harm our operating results.
 
We have made a number of acquisitions in the past and may continue to do so in the future. In April 2018, we completed the acquisition of a 55% controlling interest in ESC BAZ Ltd., an Israeli-based company, focused on the development and manufacturing of military-grade smart Security Video Observation and Surveillance systems, and in December 2020 we acquired the remaining 45% interest. In April 2016, Senstar, our fully owned Canadian subsidiary, acquired Aimetis, a Canadian-based company, which specializes in advanced video analytics software and intelligent IP video management software (VMS).

Achieving the targeted synergies, such as operating and long-term strategic cost-savings, of the acquisitions will depend in part upon whether we can continue to integrate their businesses and technologies in an efficient and effective manner. We may not be able to accomplish this integration process smoothly or successfully. The integration of our respective operations will require the dedication of significant management resources, which may distract management’s attention from day-to-day operations. Employee uncertainty and lack of focus during the integration process may also disrupt our business and result in undesired employee attrition. An inability of management to successfully integrate the operations into our business could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

An inability to realize the full extent of, or any of, the anticipated benefits and synergies of the acquisitions, as well as any delays encountered in the integration process, could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. We may also be required in the future to record impairment charges relating to the carrying value of our intangible assets and goodwill arising from such acquisitions.  Moreover, future acquisitions by us could result in potentially dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities and amortization expenses related to identifiable intangible assets, any of which could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial position.  Acquisitions also involve other risks, including risks inherent in entering markets in which we have no or limited prior experience.
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Mergers and acquisitions of companies are inherently risky and subject to many factors outside of our control and no assurance can be given that our future acquisitions will be successful and will not adversely affect our business, operating results, or financial condition.  In the future, we may seek to acquire or make strategic investments in complementary businesses, technologies, services or products, or enter into strategic partnerships or alliances with third parties in order to expand our business. Failure to manage and successfully integrate such acquisitions could materially harm our business and operating results. Prior acquisitions have resulted in a wide range of outcomes, from successful introduction of new products technologies and professional services to a failure to do so.  Even when an acquired company has previously developed and marketed products, there can be no assurance that new product enhancements will be made in a timely manner or that pre-acquisition due diligence will have identified all possible issues that might arise with respect to such products. If we acquire other businesses, we may face difficulties, including:
 

Difficulties in integrating the operations, systems, technologies, products, and personnel of the acquired businesses or enterprises;
 

Diversion of management’s attention from normal daily operations of the business and the challenges of managing larger and more widespread operations resulting from acquisitions;
 

Integrating financial forecasting and controls, procedures and reporting cycles;
 

Difficulties in entering markets in which we have no or limited direct prior experience and where competitors in such markets have stronger market positions;
 

Insufficient revenue to offset increased expenses associated with acquisitions; and
 

The potential loss of key employees, customers, distributors, vendors and other business partners of the companies we acquire following and continuing after announcement of acquisition plans.
 
Our revenues depend on government procurement procedures and practices.  A substantial decrease in our customers’ budgets would adversely affect our results of operations.
 
Our products are primarily sold to governmental agencies, governmental authorities and government-owned companies, many of which have complex and time-consuming procurement procedures.  A substantial period of time often elapses from the time we begin marketing a product until we actually sell that product to a particular customer.  In addition, our sales to governmental agencies, authorities and companies are directly affected by these customers’ budgetary constraints and the priority given in their budgets to the procurement of our products.  A decrease in governmental funding for our customers’ budgets would adversely affect our results of operations.  This risk is heightened during periods of global economic slowdown.
 
Accordingly, governmental purchases of our systems, products and services may decline in the future as the governmental purchasing agencies may terminate, reduce or modify contracts or subcontracts if:
 

their requirements or budgetary constraints change;
 

they cancel multi-year contracts and related orders if funds become unavailable;
 

they shift spending priorities into other areas or for other products; or
 

they adjust contract costs and fees on the basis of audits.
 
Any such event may have a material adverse effect on us.
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Because competition in our industry is intense, our business, operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected.
 
The global market for security, safety, site management solutions and products is highly fragmented and intensely competitive.  We compete principally in the market for perimeter intrusion detection systems, or PIDS, Video Management Software, or VMS, Intelligent Video Analytics, or IVA, and turnkey projects and solutions.  Some of our competitors and potential competitors have greater research, development, financial and personnel resources, including governmental support, as well as established greater penetration into certain vertical markets or geographical market segments. We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete effectively relative to our competitors or continue to develop and market new products effectively. Continued competitive pressures could cause us to lose significant market share or erode profitability margins.
 
Increased competition and bid protests in a budget-constrained environment may make it more difficult to maintain our financial performance.
 
A substantial portion of our Integrated Solutions Division's business is awarded through competitive bidding. Governments increasingly have relied upon competitive contract award types and multi-award contracts, which has the potential to create pricing pressure and increase our cost by requiring that we submit multiple bids and proposals. The competitive bidding process entails substantial costs and managerial time to prepare bids and proposals for contracts that may not be awarded to us or may be split among competitors. Multi award contracts require that we make sustained efforts to obtain follow-on orders under the contract. Following award, we may encounter significant expenses, delays, contract modifications, or even loss of the contract if our competitors protest or challenge contracts that are awarded to us.
 
Unfavorable global economic conditions may adversely affect our customers, which directly impact our business and results of operations. We have significant operations in countries that may be adversely affected by political events, economic instability, regime replacement, major hostilities or acts of terrorism.
 
During periods of slowing economic activity, such as is expected as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, our customers may reduce their demand for our products, technology and professional services, which would reduce our sales, and our business, operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected. Economic challenges may develop, including threatened sovereign defaults, credit downgrades, restricted credit for businesses and consumers and potentially falling demand for a variety of products and services. These developments, or the perception that any of them could occur, could result in longer sales cycles, slower adoption of new technologies and increased price competition for our products and services. We could also be exposed to credit risk and payment delinquencies on our accounts receivable, which are not covered by collateral.

              In particular, there is currently significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the U.S. and various other countries, with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations, and tariffs. For example, the  imposition of tariffs and/or changes in tariffs on various products by the U.S. and other countries, including China and Canada, have introduced greater uncertainty with respect to trade policies and government regulations affecting trade between the U.S. and other countries, and new and/or increased tariffs have subjected, and may in the future subject, us to additional costs and expenditure of resources. Major developments in trade relations, including the imposition of new or increased tariffs by the U.S. and/or other countries, and any emerging nationalist trends in specific countries could alter the trade environment and consumer purchasing behavior which, in turn, could have a material effect on our financial condition and results of operations. While the U.S. and China recently signed a “phase one” trade deal on January 15, 2020 to reduce planned increases to tariffs, concerns over the stability of bilateral trade relations remain.  The United Kingdom exited the European Union on January 31, 2020 and entered a transition period through December 31, 2020, during which EU law still applied in the United Kingdom. On December 24, 2020, the United Kingdom and the EU agreed to a trade deal, which went into effect on January 1, 2021, replacing the transitional agreements.. Brexit has created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU, and given rise for the governments of other EU member states to consider withdrawal. Our regulatory risk could increase if there were to be future divergence with the EU regime. If these actions impacting our international distribution and sales channels result in increased costs for us or our international partners, such changes could result in higher costs to us, adversely affecting our operations, particularly as we expand our international presence.
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Significant portions of our operations are conducted outside the markets in which our products and solutions are manufactured or generally sold, and accordingly, we often export a substantial number of products into such markets. We may, therefore, be denied access to potential customers or suppliers or denied the ability to ship products from any of our subsidiaries into the countries in which we currently operate or wish to operate, as a result of economic, legislative, political and military conditions, including hostilities and acts of terrorism, in such countries.

We may also be required in the future to increase our reserves for doubtful accounts.  In addition, the fair value of some of our assets may decrease as a result of an uncertain economy and as a result, we may be required to record impairment charges in the future.  If global economic and market conditions or economic conditions in key markets remain uncertain or weaken, our financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected.
 
We may be adversely affected by our long sales cycles (mainly in our Integrated Solutions Divisions).
 
We have in the past and expect in the future to experience long time periods between initial sales contacts and the execution of formal contracts for our products and completion of product installations.  The cycle from first contact to revenue generation in our business involves, among other things, selling the concept of our technology and products, developing and implementing a pilot program to demonstrate the capabilities and accuracy of our products, negotiating prices and other contract terms, and, finally, installing and implementing our products on a full-scale basis.  This cycle entails a substantial period of time, sometimes as much as one or more years, and the lack of revenues during this cycle and the expenses involved in bringing new sales to the point of revenue generation may put a substantial strain on our resources.
 
Our business involves significant risks and uncertainties that may not be covered by indemnity or insurance.
 
A significant portion of our business relates to designing, developing, and manufacturing advanced security, site management and systems and products.  New technologies may be untested or unproven. Failure of some of these products and services could result in extensive loss of life or property damage. Accordingly, we also may incur liabilities that are unique to our products and services. In some, but not all circumstances, we may be entitled to certain legal protections or indemnifications from our customers, either through regulatory protections, contractual provisions or otherwise. The amount of insurance coverage that we maintain may not be adequate to cover all claims or liabilities, and it is not possible to obtain insurance to protect against all operational risks and liabilities.
 
Substantial claims resulting from an accident, failure of our products or services, or other incident, or liability arising from our products and services in excess of any indemnity and our insurance coverage (or for which indemnity or insurance is not available or not obtained) could adversely impact our financial condition, cash flows, or operating results. Any accident, even if fully indemnified or insured, could negatively affect our reputation among our customers and the public, and make it more difficult for us to compete effectively. It also could affect the cost and availability of adequate insurance in the future.
 
The market for our products may be affected by changing technology, requirements, standards and products, and we may be adversely affected if we do not respond promptly and effectively to these changes.
 
The market for our products may be affected by evolving technologies, changing industry standards, changing regulatory environments, new product introductions and changes in customer requirements.  The introduction of products embodying new technologies and the emergence of new industry standards and practices can render existing products obsolete and unmarketable.  Our future success will depend on our ability to enhance our existing products and to develop and introduce, on a timely and cost-effective basis, new products and product features that keep pace with technological developments and emerging industry standards. In the future:
 

we may not be successful in developing and marketing new products or product features that respond to technological change or evolving industry standards;
 

we may experience difficulties that could delay or prevent the successful development, introduction and marketing of these new products and features; or
 
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our new products and product features may not adequately meet the requirements of the marketplace and achieve market acceptance.
 
If we are unable to respond promptly and effectively to changing technologies and market requirements, we will be unable to compete effectively in the future.
 
Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders, customers and other market participants with respect to our Environmental, Social and Governance, or ESG, policies may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.

Companies across all industries are facing increasing scrutiny relating to their ESG policies.  Investors, lenders and other market participants are increasingly focused on ESG practices and in recent years have placed increasing importance on the implications and social cost of their investments. The increased focus and activism related to ESG may hinder our access to capital, as investors and lenders may reconsider their capital investment allocation as a result of their assessment of our ESG practices. If we do not adapt to or comply with investor, lender or other industry shareholder expectations and standards, which are evolving, or if we are perceived to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for ESG issues, regardless of whether there is a legal requirement to do so, we may suffer from reputational damage and the business, financial condition and  the price of our company’s shares could be materially and adversely affected.

Our failure to retain and attract personnel could harm our business, operations and product development efforts.
 
Our products require sophisticated research and development, marketing and sales and technical customer support.  Our success depends on our ability to attract, train and retain qualified research and development, marketing and sales and technical customer support personnel.  Competition for personnel in all of these areas is intense and we may not be able to hire adequate personnel to achieve our goals or support the anticipated growth in our business. Competition may be amplified by evolving restrictions on immigration, travel, or availability of visas for skilled technology workers. If we fail to attract and retain qualified personnel, our business, operations and product development efforts would suffer.
 
Our international operations require us to comply with anti-corruption laws and regulations of various governments and different international jurisdictions, and our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Doing business on a worldwide basis requires us and our subsidiaries to comply with the laws and regulations of various governments and different international jurisdictions, and our failure to successfully comply with these rules and regulations may expose us to liabilities. These laws and regulations apply to companies, individual directors, officers, employees and agents, and may restrict our operations, trade practices, investment decisions and partnering activities. In particular, as a company registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, we are subject to the regulations imposed by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA. The FCPA prohibits us from providing anything of value to foreign officials for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment and requires companies to maintain adequate record-keeping and internal accounting practices to accurately reflect the transactions of the company. As part of our business, we deal with state-owned business enterprises, the employees and representatives of which may be considered foreign officials for purposes of the FCPA. If our efforts to screen third-party agents and detect cases of potential misconduct fail, we could be held responsible for the noncompliance of these third parties under applicable laws and regulations, which may have a material adverse effect on our reputation and our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, some of the international locations in which we operate lack a developed legal system and have elevated levels of corruption. As a result of the above activities, we are exposed to the risk of violating anti-corruption laws. We have established policies and procedures designed to assist us and our personnel to comply with applicable U.S. and international laws and regulations. However, there can be no assurance that our policies and procedures will effectively prevent us from violating these regulations in every transaction in which we may engage, and such a violation could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
10

 
We face risks associated with doing business in international markets.
 
A large portion of our sales is to markets outside of Israel.  For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020 approximately 85.3%, 78.1% and 74.4% respectively, of our revenues were derived from sales to markets outside of Israel.  A key component of our strategy is to continue to expand in such international markets.  Our international sales efforts are affected by costs associated with the shipping of our products and risks inherent in doing business in international markets, including:
 

different and changing regulatory requirements in the jurisdictions in which we currently operate or may operate in the future;
 

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
 

export restrictions, tariffs and other trade barriers;
 

difficulties in staffing, managing and supporting foreign operations;
 

longer payment cycles;
 

difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;
 

political and economic changes, hostilities and other disruptions in regions where we currently sell or products or may sell our products in the future; and
 

seasonal changes in business activity.
 
Negative developments in any of these areas in one or more countries could result in a reduction in demand for our products, the cancellation or delay of orders already placed, difficulty in collecting receivables, and a higher cost of doing business, any of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
 
We may be vulnerable to physical and electronic security breaches and cyber-attacks which could disrupt our operations and have a material adverse effect on our financial performance and operating results.
 
A party who is able to compromise the security measures on our networks or the security of our infrastructure could, among other things, misappropriate our proprietary information and the personal information of our customers and employees, cause interruptions or malfunctions in our or our customers’ operations, cause delays or interruptions to our ability to meet customer needs, cause us to breach our legal, regulatory or contractual obligations, create an inability to access or rely upon critical business records or cause other disruptions in our operations. These breaches may result from human errors, equipment failure, or fraud or malice on the part of employees or third parties. Our exposure to cybersecurity threats and negative consequences of cybersecurity breaches will likely increase as we store increasing amounts of customer data. Additionally, as we increasingly market the security features in our data centers, our data centers may be targeted by computer hackers seeking to compromise data security.
 
We have experienced and defended against certain threats to our systems and security (such as fishing attempts), none have had a material adverse effect on our business or operations to date. However, we could incur significant costs in order to investigate and respond to future attacks, to respond to evolving regulatory oversight requirements, to upgrade our cybersecurity systems and controls, and to remediate security compromise or damage. In response to past threats and attacks, we have implemented further controls and planned for other preventative actions to further strengthen our systems against future attacks. However, we cannot assure you that such measures will provide absolute security, that we will be able to react in a timely manner, or that our remediation efforts following past or future attacks will be successful. Consequently, our financial performance and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.
 
In the event of a breach resulting in loss of data, such as personally identifiable information or other such data protected by data privacy or other laws, we may be liable for damages, fines and penalties for such losses under applicable regulatory frameworks despite not handling the data. Furthermore, if a high-profile security breach or cyber-attack occurs with respect to another provider of mission-critical data center facilities, our customers and potential customers may lose trust in the security of these business models generally, which could harm our reputation and brand image as well as our ability to retain existing customers or attract new ones. In addition, the regulatory framework around data custody, data privacy and breaches varies by jurisdiction and is an evolving area of law. We may not be able to limit our liability or damages in the event of such a loss.
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We may not be able to protect our proprietary technology and unauthorized use of our proprietary technology by third parties may impair our ability to compete effectively.
 
Our success and ability to compete depend in large part upon protecting our proprietary technology. We have 13 patents and have 3 patent applications pending. We also rely on a combination of trade secret and copyright law and confidentiality, non-disclosure and assignment-of-inventions agreements to protect our proprietary technology.  It is our policy to protect our proprietary rights in our products and operations through contractual obligations, including confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements with certain employees, distributors and agents, suppliers and subcontractors.  These measures may not be adequate to protect our technology from third-party infringement, and our competitors may independently develop technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to ours.  Additionally, our products may be sold in foreign countries that provide less protection to intellectual property than that provided under U.S. or Israeli laws.
 
Claims that our products infringe upon the intellectual property of third parties may require us to incur significant costs, enter into licensing agreements or license substitute technology.
 
Third parties may in the future assert infringement claims against us or claims asserting that we have violated a patent or infringed upon a copyright, trademark or other proprietary right belonging to them.  Any infringement claim, even one without merit, could result in the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources to defend against the claim.  In addition, we purchase components for our turnkey products from independent suppliers.  Certain of these components contain proprietary intellectual property of these independent suppliers.  Third parties may in the future assert claims against our suppliers that such suppliers have violated a patent or infringed upon a copyright, trademark or other proprietary right belonging to them.  If such infringement by our suppliers or us were found to exist, a party could seek an injunction preventing the use of their intellectual property.  Moreover, a successful claim of product infringement against us or a settlement could require us to pay substantial amounts or obtain a license to continue to use such technology or intellectual property.  Infringement claims asserted against us could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
 
Undetected defects in our products may increase our costs and harm the market acceptance of our products.
 
Despite our regular quality assurance testing, the development, enhancement and implementation of our complex systems entail substantial risks of product defects or failures.  Undetected errors or “bugs” may be found in existing or new products, resulting in delays, loss of revenues, warranty expense, loss of market share, failure to achieve market acceptance, adverse publicity, product returns, loss of competitive position or claims against us by customers. Any such problems could be costly to remedy and could cause interruptions, delays, or cessation of our product sales, which could cause us to lose existing or prospective customers and could negatively affect our results of operations.  Moreover, the complexities involved in implementing our systems entail additional risks of performance failures.  We may encounter substantial difficulties due to such complexities which could have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Systems and information technology interruptions or cyber-attacks could adversely impact our ability to operate.
 
             Our operations rely on computer, information and communications technology and related systems.  From time to time, we may experience system interruptions and delays.  If we are unable to continually add software and hardware, effectively upgrade our systems and network infrastructure and take other steps to improve the efficiency of and protect our systems, our operations could be interrupted or delayed.  Our computer and communications systems and operations could be damaged or interrupted by natural disasters, telecommunications failures, acts of war, terrorism or similar events or disruptions.  Any of these or other events could cause system interruption, delays and loss of critical data, or delay or stoppage of our operations, and adversely affect our operating results. We have experienced and defended against certain threats to our systems and security, and none have had a material adverse effect on our business or operations to date. However, we could incur significant costs in order to investigate and respond to future attacks, to respond to evolving regulatory oversight requirements, to upgrade our cybersecurity systems and controls, and to remediate security compromise or damage. In response to past threats and attacks, we have implemented further controls and planned for other preventative actions to further strengthen our systems against future attacks. However, we cannot assure you that such measures will provide absolute security, that we will be able to react in a timely manner, or that our remediation efforts following past or future attacks will be successful. Consequently, our financial performance and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.
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If subcontractors and suppliers terminate our arrangements with them, or amend them in a manner detrimental to us, we may experience delays in production and implementation of our products and our business may be adversely affected.
 
We acquire most of the components utilized in our products, including our turnkey solutions, from a limited number of suppliers.  We may not be able to obtain such items from these suppliers in the future or we may not be able to obtain them on satisfactory terms.  Temporary disruptions of our manufacturing operations would result if we were required to obtain materials from alternative sources, which may have an adverse effect on our financial results.
 
We currently benefit from government programs and tax benefits that may be discontinued or reduced in the future, which would increase our future tax expenses.
 
We currently benefit from grants and tax benefits under Israeli government programs, which require us to meet specified conditions, including, but not limited to, making specified investments from our equity in fixed assets and paying royalties with respect to grants received.  In addition, some of these programs restrict our ability to manufacture particular products or transfer particular technology outside of Israel.  We also benefit from tax credits pursuant to the Scientific Research and Experimental Development Tax Incentive Program in Canada, and from research grant programs such as the “Industrial Research Assistance Program” (IRAP).
 
If we fail to comply with the conditions imposed by the Israeli law or the Canadian tax program in the future, the benefits we receive could be cancelled and we could be required to refund any payments previously received under these programs, including any accrued interest, or pay increased taxes or royalties.  Canadian research grant programs are dependent on the Government’s continued commitment to support R&D, on availability of funding, and may be more difficult to realize or may not be available in the future.  Such a result would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
 
The Israeli government has reduced the benefits available under these programs in recent years and these programs and benefits may be discontinued or curtailed in the future. If the Israeli or Canadian governments resolve to end these programs and benefits, our business, financial condition, results of operations and net income could be materially adversely affected.
 
We may fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, which could result in material misstatements in our financial statements.
 
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 imposes certain duties on us and our executives and directors.  Our efforts to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 governing internal controls and procedures for financial reporting have resulted in increased general and administrative expense and a diversion of management time and attention, and we expect these efforts to require the continued commitment of significant resources.  Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires management’s annual review and evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting in connection with the filing of the annual report on Form 20-F for each fiscal year.  We may identify material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting.  Failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in material misstatements in our financial statements.  Any such failure could also adversely affect the results of our management’s evaluations and annual auditor reports regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.  We have documented and tested our internal control systems and procedures in order for us to comply with the requirements of Section 404. While our assessment of our internal control over financial reporting resulted in our conclusion that as of December 31, 2020, our internal control over financial reporting was effective, we cannot predict the outcome of our testing in future periods. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, we may not be able to ensure that we can conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal controls over financial reporting. Failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in investigation or sanctions by regulatory authorities and could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, investor confidence in our reported financial information and the market price of our ordinary shares.
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We may be adversely affected by regulations and market expectations related to sourcing and our supply chain, including conflict minerals.
 
The SEC has adopted disclosures and reporting requirements for companies whose products contain certain minerals and their derivatives, namely tin, tantalum, tungsten, or gold, known as conflict minerals. Companies must report annually whether or not such minerals originate from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and adjoining countries. These requirements could adversely affect the sourcing, availability, and pricing of materials used in the manufacturing of our products. In addition, we have incurred additional costs to comply with the disclosure requirements, including cost related to determining the source of any of the relevant minerals used in our products. Since our supply chain is complex, due diligence procedures we have implemented to understand the origins of the minerals we use in our operations may not enable us to ascertain with sufficient certainty the origins for these minerals or determine that these minerals are DRC conflict free, which may harm our reputation. We may also face difficulties in satisfying customers who may require that our products be certified as DRC conflict free, which could harm our relationships with these customers and/or lead to a loss of revenue. These requirements also could have the effect of limiting the pool of suppliers from which we source these minerals, and we may be unable to obtain conflict-free minerals at prices similar to the past, which could increase our costs and adversely affect our manufacturing operations and our profitability.
 
Future laws, regulations, or customers may make additional demands on supply chain transparency. These demands can include more transparency into the activities of our suppliers with regard to human rights and sustainable sourcing. We have significant protections in place to ensure we partner with responsible suppliers, but increased demands may cause us to incur increased supply chain costs. If we cannot satisfy customers' demands, we may lose business, and if we cannot meet new regulatory requirements, we may have to alter our sourcing at increased expense.

Risks Relating to Our Ordinary Shares
 
Volatility of the market price of our ordinary shares could adversely affect our shareholders and us.
 
The market price of our ordinary shares has been, and is likely to be, highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to numerous factors, including the following:
 

actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results or those of our competitors;
 

announcements by us or our competitors of technological innovations or new and enhanced products;
 

developments or disputes concerning proprietary rights;
 

introduction and adoption of new industry standards;
 

changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;
 

market conditions or trends in our industry;
 

changes in the market valuations of our competitors;
 

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions;
 

entry into strategic partnerships or joint ventures by us or our competitors;
 

additions or departures of key personnel;
 

political and economic conditions, such as a recession or interest rate or currency rate fluctuations or political events; and
 

other events or factors in any of the countries in which we do business, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism, natural disasters or responses to such events.
 
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In addition, the stock market in general, and the market for Israeli companies and homeland security companies in particular, has been highly volatile.  Many of these factors are beyond our control and may materially adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares, regardless of our performance.  In the past, following periods of market volatility, shareholders have often instituted securities class action litigation relating to the stock trading and price volatility of the company in question. If we were involved in any securities litigation, it could result in substantial cost to us to defend and divert resources and the attention of management from our business.
 
The FIMI Partnerships owned approximately 42.6% of our outstanding ordinary shares as of April 23, 2021. In May 2020, the FIMI Partnerships commenced a cash special tender offer to purchase additional 8,669,029 ordinary shares of our company for $3.01 per share. This tender offer expired in July 2020 as the minimum condition was not met and therefore none of the tendered shares were accepted.

For as long as FIMI has a controlling interest in our company, it will have the ability to exercise a controlling influence over our business and affairs, including any determinations with respect to potential mergers or other business combinations involving us, our acquisition or disposition of assets, our incurrence of indebtedness, our issuance of any additional ordinary shares or other equity securities, our repurchase or redemption of ordinary shares and our payment of dividends. Because the interests of FIMI may differ from the interests of our other shareholders, actions taken by FIMI with respect to us may not be favorable to our other shareholders.

We may not pay dividends in the future.
 
While we have historically retained our earnings to finance operations and expand our business, on December 7, 2020, we announced a cash distribution in the amount of US$1.079 per share (approximately US$ 25 million in the aggregate) which was paid on December 28, 2020.  We have not determined whether we will continue to make distributions in the future or refrain from similar distributions, whether in a form of capital reduction or dividend distribution.  According to the Israeli Companies Law, a company may distribute dividends out of its profits (as defined by the Israeli Companies Law), provided that there is no reasonable concern that such dividend distribution will prevent the company from paying all its current and foreseeable obligations, as they become due, or otherwise upon the permission of the court.  The declaration of dividends is subject to the discretion of our board of directors, requires a shareholders approval and would depend on various factors, including our operating results, financial condition, future prospects and any other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors.  You should not rely on an investment in our company if you require dividend income from your investment.
 
As a foreign private issuer whose shares are listed on the NASDAQ Global Market, we may follow certain home country corporate governance practices instead of certain NASDAQ requirements.  We follow Israeli law and practice instead of NASDAQ rules regarding the director nomination process, compensation of executive officers and the requirement that our independent directors have regularly scheduled meetings at which only independent directors are present.
 
As a foreign private issuer listed on the NASDAQ Global Market, we may also follow home country practice with regards to, among other things, the composition of the board of directors and quorum at shareholders’ meetings.  In addition, we may follow home country practice instead of the NASDAQ requirement to obtain shareholder approval for certain dilutive events (such as for the establishment or amendment of certain equity-based compensation plans, an issuance that will result in a change of control of the company, certain transactions other than a public offering involving issuances of a 20% or more interest in the company and certain acquisitions of the stock or assets of another company).  A foreign private issuer that elects to follow a home country practice instead of NASDAQ requirements must submit to NASDAQ in advance a written statement from an independent counsel in such issuer’s home country certifying that the issuer’s practices are not prohibited by the home country’s laws.  In addition, a foreign private issuer must disclose in its annual reports filed with the SEC, each such requirement that it does not follow and describe the home country practice followed by the issuer instead of any such requirement.  Accordingly, our shareholders may not be afforded the same protection as provided under NASDAQ’s corporate governance rules.
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We may in the future be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, which would subject our U.S. investors to adverse tax rules.
 
U.S. holders of our Ordinary Shares may face income tax risks. Based on the composition of our income, assets (including the value of our goodwill, going-concern value or any other unbooked intangibles, which may be determined based on the price of the ordinary shares), and operations, we believe we will not be classified as a “passive foreign investment company”, or PFIC, for the 2020 taxable year. However, because PFIC status is based on our income, assets and activities for the entire taxable year, it is not possible to determine whether we will be characterized as a PFIC for our current taxable year or future taxable years until after the close of the applicable taxable year. Moreover, we must determine our PFIC status annually based on tests that are factual in nature, and our status in the current year and future years will depend on our income, assets and activities in each of those years and, as a result, cannot be predicted with certainty as of the date hereof. Furthermore, fluctuations in the market price of our ordinary shares may cause our classification as a PFIC for the current or future taxable years to change because the aggregate value of our assets for purposes of the asset test, including the value of our goodwill and unbooked intangibles, generally will be determined by reference to the market price of our shares from time to time (which may be volatile). The IRS or a court may disagree with our determinations, including the manner in which we determine the value of our assets and the percentage of our assets that are passive assets under the PFIC rules. Therefore, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for the current taxable year or for any future taxable year. Our treatment as a PFIC could result in a reduction in the after-tax return to U.S. Holders (as defined below under Item 10E. “Additional Information – Taxation”) of our Ordinary Shares and would likely cause a reduction in the value of such shares. A foreign corporation will be treated as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes if either (1) at least 75% of its gross income for any taxable year consists of certain types of “passive income,” or (2) at least 50% of the average value of the corporation’s gross assets produce, or are held for the production of, such “passive income.” For purposes of these tests, “passive income” includes dividends, interest, gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties that are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business. If we are treated as a PFIC, U.S. Holders of Ordinary Shares would be subject to a special adverse U.S. federal income tax regime with respect to the income derived by us, the distributions they receive from us, and the gain, if any, they derive from the sale or other disposition of their Ordinary Shares. U.S. Holders should carefully read Item 10E. “Additional Information – Taxation” for a more complete discussion of the U.S. federal income tax risks related to owning and disposing of our Ordinary Shares.

Risks Relating to Our Location in Israel
 
Political, economic and military instability in Israel may disrupt our operations and negatively affect our business condition, harm our results of operations and adversely affect our share price (mainly with respect to our Integrated Solutions Division's operations).
 
We are incorporated under the laws of Israel and our principal executive offices, as well as approximately one-third of our manufacturing and research and development facilities are located in the State of Israel.  As a result, political, economic and military conditions affecting Israel directly influence us.  Any major hostilities involving Israel, a full or partial mobilization of the reserve forces of the Israeli army, the interruption or curtailment of trade between Israel and its present trading partners, or a significant downturn in the economic or financial condition of Israel could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Conflicts in North Africa and the Middle East, including in Lebanon and Syria which border Israel, have resulted in continued political uncertainty and violence in the region. Efforts to improve Israel’s relationship with the Palestinian Authority have failed to result in a permanent solution, and there have been numerous periods of hostility in recent years. In addition, relations between Israel and Iran continue to be seriously strained, especially with regard to Iran’s nuclear program. Such instability may affect the local and global economy, could negatively affect business conditions and, therefore, could adversely affect our operations. To date, these matters have not had any material effect on our business and results of operations; however, the regional security situation and worldwide perceptions of it are outside our control and there can be no assurance that these matters will not negatively affect us in the future.
 
Furthermore, we could be adversely affected by the interruption or reduction of trade between Israel and its trading partners. Some countries, companies and organizations continue to participate in a boycott of Israeli companies and others doing business with Israel or with Israeli companies.  As a result, we are precluded from marketing our products to these countries, companies and organizations.  Foreign government defense export policies towards Israel could also make it more difficult for us to obtain the export authorizations necessary for our activities.  Over the past several years there have also been calls in Europe and elsewhere to reduce trade with Israel.  Restrictive laws, policies or practices directed towards Israel or Israeli businesses may have an adverse impact on our operations, our financial results or the expansion of our business.
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Our results of operations may be negatively affected by the obligation of our personnel to perform reserve military service (mainly in our Integrated Solutions Divisions).
 
Many of our employees and some of our directors and officers in Israel are obligated to perform annual reserve duty in the Israeli Defense Forces and may be called for active duty under emergency circumstances at any time.  If a military conflict or war arises, these individuals could be required to serve in the military for extended periods of time.  Our operations could be disrupted by the absence for a significant period of one or more of our executive officers or key employees or a significant number of other employees due to military service.  Any disruption in our operations could adversely affect our business.
 
The rights and responsibilities of the shareholders are governed by Israeli law and differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders under U.S. law.
 
We are incorporated under Israeli law.  The rights and responsibilities of holders of our ordinary shares are governed by our Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association and by Israeli law.  These rights and responsibilities differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders in typical U.S. corporations.  In particular, a shareholder of an Israeli company has a duty to act in good faith in exercising his or her rights and fulfilling his or her obligations toward the company and other shareholders and to refrain from abusing his power in the company, including, among other things, in voting at the general meeting of shareholders on certain matters.  Israeli law provides that these duties are applicable in shareholder votes on, among other things, amendments to a company’s articles of association, increases in a company’s authorized share capital, mergers and interested party transactions requiring shareholder approval.  In addition, a controlling shareholder of an Israeli company or a shareholder who knows that it possesses the power to determine the outcome of a shareholder vote or who has the power to appoint or prevent the appointment of a director or executive officer in the company has a duty of fairness toward the company.  However, Israeli law does not define the substance of this duty of fairness.  There is little case law available to assist in understanding the implications of these provisions that govern shareholder behavior.
 
Provisions of Israeli law may delay, prevent or make difficult a change of control and therefore depress the price of our shares.
 
Some of the provisions of Israeli law could discourage potential acquisition proposals, delay or prevent a change in control and limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for our ordinary shares. Israeli Companies law regulates mergers and acquisitions of shares through tender offers, requires approvals for transactions involving significant shareholders and regulates other matters that may be relevant to these types of transactions. Furthermore, Israel tax law treats stock-for-stock acquisitions between an Israeli company and a foreign company less favorably than does U.S. tax law. For example, Israeli tax law may subject a shareholder who exchanges his ordinary shares for shares in a foreign corporation to immediate taxation or to taxation before his investment in the foreign corporation becomes liquid. These provisions may adversely affect the price of our shares.
 
Our shareholders generally may have difficulties enforcing a U.S. judgment against us, our executive officers and directors and some of the experts named in this annual report or asserting U.S. securities law claims in Israel.
 
We are incorporated in Israel and all of our executive officers and directors named in this annual report reside outside the United States. Service of process upon them may be difficult to effect within the United States. Furthermore, since substantially all of our assets and all of our directors and officers are located outside the United States, any judgment obtained in the United States against us or these individuals may not be collectible within the United States and may not be enforced by an Israeli court. It also may be difficult for you to assert U.S. securities law claims in original actions instituted in Israel.
 
There is doubt as to the enforceability of civil liabilities under the Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Act in original actions instituted in Israel.  However, subject to certain time limitations and other conditions, Israeli courts may enforce final judgments of U.S. courts for liquidated amounts in civil matters, including judgments based upon the civil liability provisions of those and similar acts.
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ITEM 4.
Information on the Company
 
A.           History and Development of the Company.
 
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Israel on March 27, 1984 under the name Magal Security Systems Ltd.  We are a public limited liability company under the Israeli Companies Law, 5759-1999, and operate under this law and associated legislation.  Our principal executive offices are located near Tel Aviv, Israel, in the Yehud Industrial Zone.  Our mailing address is P.O. Box 70, Industrial Zone, Yehud 5621617, Israel and our telephone number is +972-3-539-1444.  Our agent for service of process in the United States is Senstar Inc., 13800 Coppermine Road, Second Floor, Herndon, Virginia 20171. Our website address is www.magalsecurity.com. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this annual report.
 
On February 7, 2021 we entered into an agreement  with Aeronautics Ltd. (a subsidiary of Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd.) to sell our Integrated Solutions (Project) Division in consideration of $35 million in cash, on a cash-free debt-free basis subject to post-closing working capital and other customary adjustments. As part of the acquisition, Aeronautics is also acquiring our facility in Yehud, Israel. The share and asset purchase agreement contains customary representations, warranties, covenants and indemnification provisions and is subject to regulatory approvals and the satisfaction of customary closing conditions. We expect the acquisition to close during the second quarter of 2021.
 
Following the sale of the Integrated Solutions (Projects) Division, we will continue to operate our Senstar Products Division, with development and manufacturing facilities located in Canada and sales and support offices in the US, EMEA, APAC, and LATAM regions.
 
We are a leading international provider of products and solutions for physical security, safety and site management. We commenced operations in 1969 as a department of Israel Aircraft Industries Ltd., specializing in perimeter security systems and have delivered products, tailor-made solutions and turnkey projects to thousands of satisfied customers in over 100 countries in some of the world’s most demanding locations.
 
We offer broad portfolio of homegrown Perimeter Intrusion Detection Systems (PIDS), Video Management Software (VMS), Intelligent Video Analytics (IVA), technology and cyber security solutions. We also provide full turn-key projects for physical security for critical sites. Our offering is complemented by our comprehensive integrated solutions for critical sites, managed by Fortis X – our newest generation cutting edge Physical Security Information Management system (PSIM).
 
 Our strategy is to increase our revenues from our Products segment, which includes our PIDS, VMS and IVA products by (i) focusing our efforts on our strategic verticals; (ii) locating new channels to promote and market our products; (iii) investing in research and development thus maintaining technology leadership; (iv) entering into OEM agreements which will increase our offerings  for the verticals on which we focus; and (v) acquiring new technologies relevant to our target verticals independently or through mergers and acquisitions.
 
In April 2018, we completed the acquisition of a 55% controlling interest in ESC BAZ Ltd. an Israeli-based company, focused on the development and manufacturing of military-grade smart security video observation and surveillance systems, and in December 2020, we acquired the remaining 45% interest.

In April 2016, we acquired Aimetis, a Canadian-based company, which specializes in advanced video analytics software and intelligent IP video management software (VMS). In July 2017 we amalgamated our two Canadian subsidiaries. Following the amalgamation, the company maintained the name Senstar Corporation.

In April 2014, we acquired a U.S. based fiber-optic technology company which provides advanced solutions for sensing, security, and communication. In January 2013, we purchased CyberSeal Ltd., an Israeli cyber security company whose products and services complement our physical security products and services.
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Our capital expenditures for property and equipment for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020 were approximately $2.1 million, $0.8 million and $0.8 million respectively.

B.           Business Overview.
 
Overview and Strategy
 
We develop, manufacture, market and sell comprehensive lines of perimeter intrusion detection sensors, physical barriers, video analytics and video management systems, cyber security products and systems as well as security video observation and surveillance systems to high profile customers.  Our systems are used in more than 100 countries to protect sensitive facilities, including national borders, military bases, power plants, airports, seaports, prisons, industrial sites, large retailer organizations, banks, oil and gas facilities, sporting events including athlete villages and stadiums, and municipalities from intrusion, terror, crime, sabotage or vandalism to infrastructure, assets and personnel.
 
Based on our decades of experience and interaction with customers, we have developed a comprehensive set of solutions and products, optimized for perimeter, outdoor and general security applications.  Our portfolio of mission critical infrastructure and site protection technologies includes a variety of smart fences and barriers, fence mounted sensors, fence mounted sensors with perimeter lighting, virtual (volumetric) fences and gates, buried and concealed detection systems and tunneling sensors to secure prisons, bank vaults and pipelines.  We deliver comprehensive IP technology and traditional closed-circuit television, or CCTV, solutions, supported by our own advanced Video Management Software, or VMS solutions, which include Video Motion Detection, or VMD and Intelligent Video Analytics, or IVA.
 
Since the addition of Aimetis’ products and expertise, we were able to address new markets and offer solutions incorporating advanced video analytics and VMS for physical indoor and outdoor security applications. Since the addition of the newly acquired state of the art technology and expertise, we were able to expand our overall solutions, offer a wider range of products in addition to our PSIM and PIDS solutions, and address new markets.
 
Our primary objective is to become a leading international solution provider of security products and site security management solutions.
 
Post-divestiture of our Integrated Solutions (Project) Division and its acquisition by Aeronautics, we anticipate the business will grow organically. We plan to leverage Senstar’s industry-leading position in the security sector as a technology platform to optimize future strategic acquisitions and achieve incremental growth in our global markets. To achieve this objective, we are implementing a business strategy incorporating the following key elements:
 

Leverage existing customer relationships. We believe that we have the capability to offer certain of our customers a comprehensive security package.  As part of our product development process, we seek to maintain close relationships with our customers to identify market needs and to define appropriate product specifications.  We intend to expand the depth and breadth of our existing customer relationships while initiating similar new relationships. Our VMS offering is an excellent opportunity to revisit our existing customers.
 

Refine and broaden our product portfolio.  We have identified the security needs of our customers and intend to enhance our current products’ capabilities, develop new products, acquire complementary technologies and products and enter into OEM agreements with third parties in order to meet those needs.
 

Develop and enhance our presence in verticals which we have identified as strategic. We intend to enhance our presence in our target vertical markets: critical infrastructure, correctional facilities (mainly in the USA), logistics and energy (among other, oil and gas terminals as well as oil and gas pipelines infrastructure). Many if not all of the verticals are highly regulated and require unique security solutions. As a solution provider with a wide selection of security technologies and products we believe that we can offer a comprehensive security solution that meets the standards required by the applicable regulations.
 
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Enhance our presence in emerging markets. We intend to enhance our presence in emerging markets such China in order to increase our exposure to small and medium size business opportunities for our products segment.
 

Strengthen our presence in existing markets.   We intend to increase our marketing efforts in our existing markets mainly in North America, the European Union, and Latin America region and to acquire or invest in complementary businesses and joint ventures.
 
Emerging Opportunities
 
We believe that the proliferation of digital communication and information technology into the security market provides us with the opportunity to consolidate safety and site management with security applications.  Cities and municipalities, air and seaports, chemical factories, green energy plants and distribution facilities, oil and gas terminals and pipeline infrastructure, large logistics warehouses, and critical infrastructure sites are currently utilizing the benefits of this approach to security management.  This integration allows users to share diverse sensors (such as cameras and intrusion detection sensors), IT systems, traffic management tools, Cyber solutions and other resources and feed them into a single command and control platform. Users from different departments within organizations can now share the same information, allowing for improved communication and coordination, whether it is a routine operation or crisis situation.  We believe that we are well positioned and are in the forefront of this emerging market opportunity.
 
The unrest in Africa and the Middle East along with terrorist actions and massive migration of refugees may generate new requirements in these regions and in Europe.
 
Products and Services
 
General
 
Our principal physical (PIDS), VMS, EAC and cyber security products and solutions include:
 

Perimeter Intrusion Detection Systems (PIDS), fence mounted, buried and free standing;
 

PIDS fence sensor with intelligent perimeter LED based lighting;
 

VMS, including IVA applications;
 

EAC (Electronic Access Control) systems;
 

CCTV systems;
 

Security Video Observation & Surveillance systems;
 

Pipeline security, third party interference (TPI);
 

Cyber security systems for security networks;
 

Life safety/duress alarm systems;
 

Command and control systems; and
 

Miscellaneous systems tailored for specific vertical market needs.
 
Commencing on January 1, 2019, in order to more accurately reflect management’s focus, we reorganized our structure into two divisions: the Senstar Products Division (“Products” segment) and the Integrated Solutions Division (“Projects” segment). Each division represents and reports as a separate business segment. The financial results of each division are reported under their respective operating segments. We analyze our operating segments based on each operating segment’s operational profit. The Products segment includes products oriented subsidiaries with R&D and production centers in Canada. The Projects segment includes our project-oriented subsidiaries with R&D, production and integration technology excellence center in Israel.  The Products segment is managed and led by the Managing Director of Senstar Corporation and the Projects segment is managed and led by the General Manager of our Magal Israel Business Unit.  Previously, we operated in three segments, Products, Turnkey Projects, and Video and Cyber Security.
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The company’s operating segments are strategic business units and are managed accordingly. Beginning January 1, 2019, we presented for the first time our new operating segments. We analyze our operating segments based on each segment’s gross profit. Our two current reportable segments are (i) Products and (ii) Projects.
 
The following table shows the breakdown of our consolidated revenues for the calendar years 2018, 2019 and 2020 by operating segments:
 
   
Year ended December 31,
 
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
 
   
(In thousands)
 
Products          
 
$
35,169
   
$
36,633
   
$
35,038
 
Projects          
   
61,119
     
52,426
     
48,803
 
Eliminations          
   
(3,686
)
   
(2,228
)
   
(2,377
)
Total          
 
$
92,602
   
$
86,831
   
$
81,464
 

Perimeter security products enable customers to monitor, limit and control access by unauthorized personnel to specific regions or areas.  High-end perimeter products are sophisticated in nature and are used for correctional facilities, borders, nuclear and conventional power plants, air and seaports, military installations and other high security installations.
 
Our line of perimeter security products utilizes sophisticated sensor devices to detect and locate intruders and identify the nature of intrusions.  Our perimeter security products have been installed along tens of thousands of kilometers of borders and facility boundaries throughout the world, including more than 600 correctional institutions and prisons in the United States and several other countries.  We have installed several hundred kilometers of high security smart perimeter systems along Israel’s borders.
 
Our line of outdoor perimeter security products consists of the following:
 

Fence mounted detection systems – mechanical sensors, “microphonic” wire sensors, fiber optic sensors and electronic ranging sensors;
 

Smart barriers – a variety of robust detection grids, gates and innocent looking fences, designed to protect water passages, VIP residences and other outdoor applications;
 

Buried sensors –buried coaxial cable volumetric sensors and buried fiber sensors to secure pipelines, borders and critical assets against intrusion by targets on the surface and excavation;
 

Taut wire – hybrid perimeter intrusion detection system with physical barrier;
 

Electrical field disturbance sensors (volumetric);
 

Microwave sensors; and
 

Hybrid perimeter intrusion detection and intelligent lighting system.
 
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Fence Mounted Detection Systems
 
We offer various types of detection systems. While less robust than taut wire installations, the adaptability of these systems to a wide range of pre-existing barrier structures makes these products viable alternatives for cost-conscious customers.  Our detection devices are most effective when installed on common metal fabric perimeter systems, such as chain link or welded mesh. In our BARRICADE* system, electro-mechanical sensors are attached to fence panels approximately three meters apart on any of several common types of fence structures.  Once attached to the fence, each sensor detects vibrations in the underlying structures.  The sensor system’s built-in electro-mechanical filtering combines with system input from a weather analysis component to minimize the rate of alarms from wind, hail or other sources of nuisance vibrations. Our most recent product is the FENSOR* – an accelerometer-based fence mounted detection system that is capable of locating the exact location of an intrusion within 3 meters and is optimized for rigid fences such as palisade. FENSOR has been approved by various Israeli security and military authorities.
 
FlexZone, our latest coaxial cable based fence mounted ranging sensor can pinpoint intrusions to within ±3 m (±10 ft); it provides long physical cable lengths (up to 600 m (1,968 ft) per processor) configurable through software to many smaller virtual zones for site operations. Power and data between processors is supported through the sensor cable significantly reducing the requirement for supporting infrastructure. A novel wireless gate sensor module is available with FlexZone providing an accelerometer based gate sensor integrated via wireless communications into a FlexZone network eliminating the need to have sensor cables attached to sliding gates.

FiberPatrol, our newest FP1150 product featuring long distance ranging to 50 Km (31 mi) via a fence mounted fiber optic cable detects and locates fence cut and climb events with an accuracy of approximately 4m (13 ft).  Released in 2019 our latest FP400 product zone based fiber optic cable PIDS solution replaces the IntelliFiber product line.  Its advanced features include processing of 4 fence mounted fiber optic cable detection zones from a single remote processor with an alarm given for each zone independently.

Buried Sensors

Omnitrax is a fifth generation covert outdoor perimeter security intrusion detection sensor that generates an invisible radar detection field around buried sensor cables.  The exact location of an intruder is identified within approximately one meter when an intruder disturbs the detection field.  Targets are detected by their conductivity, size and movement and the digital processor is able to filter out nuisance alarms that could be caused by environmental conditions and small animals.
 
FiberPatrol, our newest FP1150 product featuring long distance ranging fiber optic cable based detection technology in a single rack mount unit is also offered as a buried solution detecting surface intrusion and to protect pipelines against sabotage or accidental third party interference (TPI) for example by manual or machine excavation. FiberPatrol has the capability to protect distances of up to 80 Km (50 Miles) with a single indoor processor.
 
Taut Wire Perimeter Intrusion Detection Systems*
 
Our taut wire perimeter systems consist of wire strung at high tension between anchor posts.  Sensor posts are located at the middle between anchor posts.  These sensor posts contain one or more devices that detect changes in the tension being exerted on and by the taut wires.  Any abnormal force applied against these wires or released from them (such as by cutting) automatically triggers an alarm. Taut wire technology provides three critical elements of protection against unauthorized intruders: deterrence, detection and delay (until first responders may react and intercept the intruder).
 
Our sealed sensors are not affected by radio frequency interference, climatic or atmospheric conditions, or electrical transients from power lines or passing vehicles. The sensors self-adjust to, or remain unaffected by, extreme temperature variation, minor soil movements and other similar environmental changes that might trigger false alarms in less sophisticated systems. Our taut wire perimeter systems are designed to distinguish automatically between fence tension changes such as caused by small animals, violent weather or forces more typically exerted by a human intruder.
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Our taut wire perimeter systems offer customers a wide range of installation options. Sensor posts can be as far as 200 feet apart, with relatively inexpensive ordinary fence support posts and anchor posts between them. These systems may stand alone, be mounted on a variety of fence posts or added to an existing wall or other structure, or mounted on short posts, with or without outriggers.
 
Taut wire perimeter systems have been approved by various Israeli and U.S. security and military authorities.  We have installed several hundred kilometers of these perimeter systems along Israel’s borders to assist in preventing unauthorized entry and infiltration.
 
Electro-static Field Disturbance Sensors
 
Terrain following volumetric sensors detect intrusions without requiring an intruder to touch the sensor.  They can be installed on buildings, free-standing posts, existing fences, walls or rooftops, and will sense changes in the electrostatic field when events, such as intruders penetrating through the wires takes place.  The system’s tall, narrow, well contained detection zone allows the sensor to be installed in almost any application and minimizes nuisance alarms caused by nearby moving objects.  Our flagship product is X-Field; it consists of a set of four to as many as eight parallel field generating and sensing wires that form a volumetric detection field as much as 5m (16.4 ft) in height.
 
Microwave Products
 
Ultrawave is our K-band all digital bi-static microwave beam perimeter intrusion detection system designed for reliable operation in extreme outdoor environments.  Coverage distance range from 5 meters to 200 meters. Older generations of X band microwaves are retired but still supported.
 
Hybrid Perimeter Intrusion Detection and Intelligent Lighting System
 
The Senstar LM100 is the world’s first 2-in-1 perimeter intrusion detection and intelligent lighting system. Combining high performance LED lighting with accelerometer-based vibration sensors, the LM100 deters potential intruders by detecting and illuminating them at the fence line.
 
Video
 
VMS / IVA Solutions
 
Senstar Symphony 7, has been designed to become a new benchmark for intelligent Video Management Software (VMS). The Symphony software package includes a proprietary seamless set of Electronic Access Control (EAC) features.  Senstar Symphony Access Control (AC) is a complete software solution designed to support the industry’s most trusted brand of access control hardware. Available as a tightly integrated extension to the Senstar Symphony, the module provides a full set of access control functions, including enrollment, scheduling, monitoring, and reporting. Access control events can be used in the Senstar Symphony VMS as triggers for rules, camera call-up, and alarm generation. Each alarm can be linked to a map location and multiple video feeds, enabling each event to be viewed from different camera perspectives or locations. For security personnel monitoring the building, this means only one application is required for monitoring and responding to events, with live and recorded video being accessible from the Senstar Symphony VMS..
 
Senstar Symphony 7 is highly scalable, easy to set up and use, and can be used in both single server installations and multi-server deployments. Symphony 7 offers web-based administrator capabilities, centralized cloud management, native analytics applications which include motion tracking, auto-PTZ (pan–tilt–zoom) tracking, people counting, and high security and server and storage failover reducing the need for costly Microsoft clustering and extra servers. We intend to expand the Symphony product line over time to address a broad new market of applications.
 
Our intelligent video analytics (IVA) transforms IP video into more than a passive monitoring tool with video analytics that are seamlessly incorporated into Senstar Symphony 7. Each video analytic is specially designed for physical security and business intelligence applications, providing value across many vertical markets.
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Our intelligent video analytics (IVA) capabilities include:
 

Face Recognition - A robust video analytic, ideally suited for securing facilities that require a stronger layer of protection for access control. With real-time alarms and intuitive searching when paired with Senstar Symphony, the Face Recognition video analytic transforms what is possible with a video surveillance system.
 

Automatic License Plate Recognition - Automatically recognize and record vehicle license plates from over 100 countries. Set alarms for specific plates to deny or approve entry.
 

Outdoor People and Vehicle Tracking - Detect and track all moving objects and classify them as a person, vehicle, or unknown. Movement tracks are recorded to know exactly where each object came from and where it left the camera’s point-of-view.
 

Left and Removed Item Detection - Monitor changes in an environment to detect when objects are added or removed from a scene. Set alarms to notify security staff when an item has been removed from an area or left unattended for a designated amount of time. This solution designed for use in airports, train stations, and other public spaces.
 

Indoor People Tracking - Detect and track people moving within the frame of a camera. Alarms can be set when unauthorized entry into an area is detected and dwell times can be tracked and recorded for the detection of unwanted loitering. Heat maps can also be created in retail stores and public spaces to determine areas of highest traffic and interest.
 

Crowd Detection - Real-time occupancy estimation for indoor and outdoor deployments, ideal for monitoring public spaces, event venues, and capacity restricted environments. Crowd Detection also offers numerous business intelligence applications.
 

PTZ Auto-Tracking (Auto PTZ) - Auto PTZ can automatically control a PTZ camera, enabling it to zoom in and follow moving people and vehicles within the field of the camera. This is designed for use in outdoor perimeter monitoring and provides a closer look at people and vehicles for future forensic purposes.
 
Hardware solutions offered supporting our VMS software products are an “R series” of preconfigured servers, “E series” of physical appliances for smaller applications and a novel POE powered Thin Client device for convenient network access for monitors or other applications.
 
Senstar Life SafetyTM
 
Senstar Safe Spaces™ is an all-in-one video analytics solution to help businesses operate safely amidst COVID-19. Consisting of the Senstar Edge Platform, a simple plug-and-play, stand-alone device with embedded software, Senstar Safe Spaces uses network cameras to verify if health and safety protocols are being followed. Face Mask Detection, Physical Distancing, Sanitization Station Monitoring, and Occupancy Counting.
24

 
Cyber Security
 
Our solutions monitor, detect and protect against abnormal network activity, both landline and wireless, within and close to protected sites. Our current solutions are:
 

Tungsten* – A hardened managed edge switch with built in security capabilities to monitor unauthorized traffic which is optimized for outdoors security and ICS networks (Industrial Control System); and
 

Rubidium* – An easily operated SIEM (Security Information & Event Management) software application, designed to manage an array of Tungsten products as well as third party network and cyber monitoring devices.
 
Anti-Drone
 
In 2019, we introduced our new concept for anti-drone perimeter security solution called MAG 3D*, a family of advance and modular solutions for drone detection, identification and defeat. The MAG 3D is based on Fortis, our powerful command and control system which integrates complementary sub systems such as: radar, RF signal detector, electro-optic sensor and drone maneuverable jamming system to a single easy to deploy and operate system. The MAG 3D enables operators to detect, identify, track and defeat malicious drones threats, thus providing another critical layer of physical security.
 
A typical MAG – 3D configuration includes:
 

Fortis Xour high-end comprehensive command and control system;
 

One or more radars to detect small Arial targets;
 

RF signal detectors to recognize commercial drones;
 

Electro-Optical sensors; and
 

Drone maneuverable jamming system.
 
Other Products
 
Life Safety / Duress Alarm Systems
 
Our products include high reliability, personal, portable duress alarm systems to protect personnel in prisons.  These products identify individuals in distress and can pinpoint the location of the distress signal with an indoor-to-outdoor and floor-to-floor accuracy unmatched by any other product.
 
Flash and Flare personal emergency locating systems use radio frequency technology to provide a one touch emergency system that can be worn on a belt, or used with our newly released pendant style alarm initiation device.  The systems, sold to prisons, consist of transmitters that send distress signals to receivers mounted throughout the building.  Receivers relay the signal to a central location, indicating that someone requires assistance and their exact location in the building.  As a radio frequency based product, it can also perform its function in outdoor areas surrounding a building. The systems employ an automated testing mechanism that helps to reduce maintenance costs.
 
PAS is another personal alarm system that uses an ultrasonic based emergency notification system. The system, sold mainly to jails and prisons in the United States, allows individuals moving throughout a facility to quickly indicate the location of an indoor crisis situation.
 
CCTV Systems
 
We have a proven track record in delivering CCTV and IVA solutions that are designed for use in outdoor applications. Following the ESC BAZ and Aimetis acquisitions, our VMS outdoor and indoor solutions present advanced technologies. These capabilities are now fully embedded as part of our Fortis4G Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) system.
25

 
Following the ESC BAZ acquisition, our portfolio includes a wide range of modular and customizable medium and long-range dual technology (thermal Imaging and CCD) surveillance systems for distances of 500m (1,640 ft) up to 25Km (15.6 Miles). These surveillance systems include:
 

AVIV* - a short to mid-range surveillance system designed for perimeter defense and border protection.
 

Giraffe* - a long-range surveillance system designed to provide powerful Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance capabilities (ISR) for commercial ports and merchant ships.
 

TOM Vehicle* - a vehicle-mounted surveillance system that offers any type of patrol vehicle patrol vehicles a high quality, mobile video surveillance unit that gives vehicles operators real-time video enabling them to be fully aware of what is happening outside and around the vehicle.
 

Hawk-Eye* - a surveillance system, designed for perimeter defense and border protection. It is ideal for strategic locations such as airports, borders, critical utilities, nuclear plants and oil refineries.
 

C-HAWK* - a surveillance system designed for maritime environments, such as civilian ports and ships that are often difficult to protect.
 

MODOS* - a discreet early-warning multi-sensor intruder detection and observation system that includes motion-detection radar, seamlessly integrated with an AVIV Video Surveillance system that can play a significant role in urban security architecture.
 
Command and Control Systems
 
The development of communication and IT technology has significantly affected the security market.  Multiple security systems and technologies, sometimes supplied by different vendors, can now be integrated into a unified command and control system.  We offer three types of command and control systems:
 

Fortis X  – our new generation high-end comprehensive command and control system;
 

StarNet 2 – our security management system, or SMS, was launched in the latter part of 2015 and replaces the legacy StarNet 1000; and
 

Network Manager – a middleware (software) package which is essential for integration with 3rd party control systems and offers an entry level alarm management system called AIM.
 
Fortis X*
 
Fortis X our most innovative C5I system, is a comprehensive, wide area and real time command and control solution, management of security, safety and Big data analysis. It is designed to manage daily security and safety routines and enforce facility regulation, security, regular and irregular events as well as crisis situations.
 
Fortis X architecture integrates with 3rd parties legacy systems and sensors starting at the physical and logical layers through a configuration and business logic layer, and up to the situational awareness and management layers.  Fortis X is based on a strong GIS (Geospatial Information System) engine, which creates a common layer for inputs, outputs and presentation.  The GIS engine enables the display of synchronized information in time and space across all screens such as location of mobile forces, located alarms from stationary sensors, video of related cameras, pop-ups of associated radar screens and managed voice communication related to the managed area.  Real-time information enables security personnel to respond immediately, while maintaining a full two-way communication and situational awareness between the command and control center(s) and the first responder(s). The target markets for Fortis X are safe city airports, seaports, international borders, oil and gas and other strategic facilities.
26

 
Fortis X easily integrates via API/ SDK tools to Perimeter Intrusion Detection Systems, Video management, access control, public address, ground /maritime radars, fire and smoke detection and many more sub systems all presented and controlled from a single platform.
 
Fortis X stands out from previous PISIMs technology in its ability to use AI based engines allowing to detection and prediction of incidents while harnessing the power of computer vision into the command and control application software.
 

In addition, the Fortis X  user interface is our most user friendly interface to-date, using a Widget based presentation containing all relevant information.
 
StarNet 2*
 
StarNet 2, an SMS, is designed to manage basic sites, consisting of a PIDS with a few other devices.
 
Network Manager
 
Network Manager is a middleware (software) package interfacing between our family of PIDS sensors and any command and control solution, be it our own system or an external third party application. It is provided to integrators with a full software development kit to enable fast integration of our PIDS into any other SMS and physical security information system.  It offers an entry level operator display system called the Alarm Information Module (AIM), typically for management of a single PIDS sensor.
 
* Products and Technologies which are part of the sale of our Integrated Solution Division (Projects Segment) which is expected to close in the second quarter of 2021.
 
Marketing, Sales and Distribution
 
We believe that our reputation as a vendor of sophisticated security products in one of the world’s most security conscious countries often provides us and our sales representatives with direct access to senior government and corporate officials in charge of security matters elsewhere.
 
Our sales efforts focus on:
 

PIDS products are sold indirectly through system integrators and distribution channels.  Due to the sophistication of our products, we often need to approach end-users directly and be in contact with system integrators; however, sales are directed through third-parties. Our sales team is trained on cross-selling PIDS, VMS, IVA and EAC.
 

VMS and IVA.  Video management system software and Intelligent Video Applications licenses, the associated maintenance and support services, are sold primarily through locally based distributor partners. Some key accounts are managed directly with the end-users. Our sales team is trained on cross-selling PIDS, VMS, IVA and EAC.
 

Projects.  This part of the business deals with end-customers or high-end system integrators.  We offer full comprehensive solutions, which include our in-house portfolio of products and products manufactured by third parties.  Solutions are focused around our core competencies -outdoor and cyber security, safety and site management, VMS, IVA and EAC applications.  In many cases we take responsibility for the full turnkey solution and we integrate and deliver a full solution, including civil works infrastructure, installation, training, warranty and after sale support. Cyber security solutions are now offered as an integrated part of our comprehensive solutions.
 
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Cyber. In addition to cyber solutions provided as part of our projects that are tailored to the customer’s requirements, in 2019 we entered into a license agreement with a commercial switch manufacturer and distributor, licensing our Tungsten and Rubidium technologies to be offered with commercially standard switches.
 
In addition to our main facilities in Israel, Canada, the United States and Mexico, we have sales and technical support offices in India, the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, China, the Philippines, Kenya and other countries.
 
Customers
 
The following table shows the geographical breakdown of our consolidated revenues for the three years ended December 31, 2020:
 
   
Year ended in December 31,
 
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
 
   
(in thousands)
 
Israel          
 
$
13,577
   
$
18,975
   
$
20,860
 
North America          
   
24,324
     
19,713
     
18,316
 
Europe          
   
14,021
     
18,896
     
15,490
 
South and Latin America          
   
25,471
     
8,077
     
4,485
 
Africa          
   
7,126
     
11,144
     
13,970
 
Others          
   
8,083
     
10,026
     
8,343
 
Total          
 
$
92,602
   
$
86,831
   
$
81,464
 

For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, revenues generated from sales to the MOD and IDF accounted for 10.9%,17.2% and 20.6% of our revenues, respectively. In addition, revenues from the national electricity company in Latin America, accounted for 25.3%, 5.4% and 0% of our revenues in 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. We cannot assure you that any of our major customers will maintain their level of business with us or that, if such business is reduced, other customers generating similar revenues will replace the lost business. The failure to replace these customers with one or more customers generating similar revenues will have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

Installation, Support and Maintenance

Our systems are installed by us or by an integrating partner or in some cases by the customer after appropriate training, depending on the size of the specific project and the location of the customer’s facilities, as well as prior experience with our systems. We generally provide our customers with training on the use and maintenance of our systems, that we conduct either on-site or at our facilities. In addition, some of our local perimeter security products customers have signed maintenance contracts with us. The life expectancy of a high-security perimeter system is approximately ten years. Consequently, many miles of perimeter systems need to be replaced each year.
 
For systems installed outside of Israel, maintenance is provided by our local subsidiaries, by an independent third party, by partners or by the end-user. We also provide services, maintenance and support on an “as needed” basis. During the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, we derived approximately 19.3%, 20.4% and 22.2% of our total revenues, respectively, from maintenance and services.
 
Research and Development; Royalties
 
We place considerable emphasis on research and development to improve our existing products and technology and to develop new products and technology.  We believe that our future success will depend upon our ability to enhance our existing products and technology and to introduce on a timely basis new commercially viable products and technology addressing the needs of our customers.  We intend to continue to devote a significant portion of our personnel and financial resources to research and development.  As part of our product development process, we seek to maintain close relationships with our customers to identify market needs and to define appropriate product specifications.  Our development activities are a direct result of the input and guidance we receive from our marketing personnel during our annual meetings with such personnel.  In addition, the heads of research and development for each of our development centers discussed below meet annually to identify market needs for new products.
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We have development centers in Israel, Canada and the United States, each of which develops products and technologies based on its area of expertise.
 
Our research and development expenses during 2018, 2019 and 2020 were $6.9 million, $6.4 million and $5.7 million, respectively.  In addition to our own research and development activities, we also acquire know-how from external sources.  We cannot assure you that any of our research and development projects will yield profitable results in the future.
 
Manufacturing and Supply
 
Our manufacturing operations consist of engineering, fabricating, assembly, quality control, final testing and shipping of finished products.  Substantially all of our manufacturing operations are currently performed at our facilities in Canada and Israel. In 2018 we launched a “Made in USA” version of our FlexZone product to better serve our US - based partners and customers. See Item 4D. “Information on the Company – Property, Plants and Equipment.”
 
We acquire most of the components utilized in our products, including our turnkey products, and certain services from a limited number of suppliers and subcontractors.  We cannot assure you that we will continue to be able to obtain such items from these suppliers on satisfactory terms.  Alternative sources of supply are available, and therefore we are not dependent upon these suppliers and subcontractors.  We also maintain an inventory of systems and spare parts in order to enable us to overcome potential temporary supply shortages until an alternate source of supply is available.  Nevertheless, temporary disruptions of our manufacturing operations would result if we were required to obtain materials from alternative sources, which may have an adverse effect on our financial results.
 
Competition
 
PIDS Sensors.  The principal factors affecting competition in the market for security systems are a system’s high probability for detection and low probability of false and nuisance alarms.  We believe that a manufacturer’s reputation for reliable equipment is a major competitive advantage, and that such a reputation will usually be based on the performance of the manufacturer’s installed systems.  Additional competitive factors include quality of customer support, maintenance and price.
 
The PIDS market is very fragmented.  Our most frequently encountered competitors include EL-FAR Electronics Systems 2000 LTD, Afcon Security and Parking Ltd. in Israel and Southwest Microwave Inc., Future Fiber Technologies, Fibersensys Inc. (an Optex Company), GPS Standard SpA, CIAS Elettronica Srl, Sorhea and Gallagher (New Zealand) outside of Israel.
 
We believe that our principal competitors for our pipeline security products (FiberPatrol) are; AVA, formerly named Future Fibre Technologies Pty. Ltd., Optasense, an Aluna company, Omnisens SA, and Fotech Solutions Ltd; and that our principal competitors for personal emergency location systems are Actall Corp., Bosch LLC and Visonic Networks.
 
The video management software market is well developed internationally with several large manufacturers.  Our most frequently encountered competitors are Genetec Inc., Avigilon Corp., Milestone Systems A/S, and SeeTec GmbH.  There are a large number of entrants into the cyber security market which is expected to mature over the next few years.
 
We also face indirect competition from competing technologies such as ground based radar and thermal cameras as PIDS sensors with principal competitors being, SpotterRF, Navtech, FLIR, SightLogix and PureTech.
 
Turn Key Projects and Solutions.   Thousands of solution providers offer security products and services.  Most of the integrators focus on indoor applications, but some also offer outdoor solutions.  Most of the market players are local to their countries; however, some are global, such as ADT, Honeywell, Johnson Controls and Siemens.  In some cases, we may cooperate with global integrators or may supply equipment to them.  We believe that our principal competitors in Israel for security solutions are C. Mer Industries Ltd., Afcon Industries Ltd., Shamrad Electronics (1977) Ltd., EL-FAR Electronics Systems 2000 LTD and Orad Ltd.
29

 
Some of our competitors and potential competitors have greater research, development, financial and personnel resources, including governmental support, or more extensive business experience than we do.  We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain the quality of our products relative to those of our competitors or continue to develop and market new products effectively.
 
Intellectual Property Rights
 
We have 13 patents and have 3 patent applications pending in the U.S. and in several other countries and have obtained licenses to use proprietary technologies developed by third parties.  We cannot assure you:
 

that patents will be issued from any pending applications, or that the claims allowed under any patents will be sufficiently broad to protect our technology;
 

that any patents issued or licensed to us will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented; or
 

as to the degree or adequacy of protection any patents or patent applications may or will afford.
 
In addition, we claim proprietary rights in various technologies, know-how, trade secrets and trademarks relating to our principal products and operations.  We cannot assure you as to the degree of protection these claims may or will afford.  It is our policy to protect our proprietary rights in our products and operations through contractual obligations, including confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements with certain employees and distributors.  We cannot assure you as to the degree of protection these contractual measures may or will afford.  Although we are not aware that we are infringing upon the intellectual property rights of others, we cannot assure you that an infringement claim will not be asserted against us in the future.  We believe that our success is less dependent on the legal protection that our patents and other proprietary rights may or will afford than on the knowledge, ability, experience and technological expertise of our employees.  We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to protect our proprietary technology.  The unauthorized use of our proprietary technology by third parties may impair our ability to compete effectively.  We could become subject to litigation regarding intellectual property rights, which could seriously harm our business.
 
CYBERSEAL*, DTR*, FENSOR*, FORTIS*, MAGAL*, MAGAL SECURITY SYSTEMS*, ROBOGUARD*, AIMETIS SYMPHONY, FIBERPATROL, FLARE, FLEXPI, FLEXZONE, OMNITRAX, PINPOINTER, SENNET, SENSTAR,  SENTIENT, ULTRAWAVE and XFIELD are registered trademarks.

ARMOURFLEX, ENTERPRISE MANAGER, GALLIUM PDS*, INTELLI-FLEX, INTELLIFIBER, LM100, the MAGAL logo*, NETWORK MANAGER, RUBIDIUM*, STARLED, STARNET, SENSTAR CARE, SENSTAR logo, SENSTAR SYMPHONY, SENSTAR SAFE SPACES, TUNGSTEN* and VANADIUM* and all other marks used to identify particular products and services associated with our businesses are trademarks.  Any other trademarks and trade names appearing in this annual report are owned by their respective holders.
 
* Trademarks which will be transferred to Aeronautics following closing of the acquisition of our Integrated Solutions (Project) Division
30

 
Government Regulations
 
Current Israeli governmental policy encourages the export of security related products to approved customers, as long as the export is consistent with Israeli government policy.  We are also subject to regulations related to the export of “dual use” items (items that are typically sold in the commercial market, but which may also be used for military use).  Israel enhanced enforcement of export control legislation under the Defense Export Control Law, 2007, under which a license is required to initiate marketing activities and a specific export license is required for any hardware, software and knowhow exported from Israel.  The law provides for certain exemptions from the licensing requirement and broadens certain areas of licensing, particularly with respect to transfer of technology.
 
At present, only a limited number of our products require a permit or license for export. We cannot assure that we will receive all the required permits and licenses for which we may apply in the future. In addition, our participation in governmental procurement processes in Israel and other countries is subject to specific regulations governing the conduct of the process of procuring defense contracts.  Furthermore, solicitations for procurements by governmental purchasing agencies in Israel and other countries are governed by laws, regulations and procedures relating to procurement integrity, including avoiding conflicts of interest and corruption in the procurement process.
 
In addition, antitrust laws and regulations in Israel and other countries often require governmental approvals for transactions that are considered to limit competition.  Such transactions may include cooperative agreements for specific programs or areas, as well as mergers and acquisitions.
 
C.           Organizational Structure.
 
We have wholly owned and majority-owned active subsidiaries that operate world-wide.   Set forth below are our significant subsidiaries.
 
Subsidiary Name
 
Country of Incorporation/Organization
 
Ownership Percentage
 
Senstar Corporation
 
Canada
   
100
%
Senstar Inc.
 
United States (Delaware)
   
100
%
Senstar GmbH.
 
Germany
   
100
%
Magal Soluciones Integrales, S.A. de C.V.*
 
Mexico
   
100
%
MAGAL-S3 CANADA INC.*
 
Canada
   
100
%
ESC BAZ LTD.*
 
Israel
   
100
%
Magal Security Limited (Kenya)*
 
Kenya
   
51
%
Magal S3 Spain*
 
Spain
   
100
%

* Subsidiaries that will be sold following closing of the sale of our Integrated Solutions (Project) Division.
 
D.           Property, Plants and Equipment.
 
We own a two-story 2,533 square meter facility located on a 4,352 square meter parcel in the Yehud Industrial Zone, Israel, which is used as our principal facility.  Approximately 600 square meters are devoted to administrative, marketing and management functions and approximately 800 square meters are used for engineering, system integration and customer service.  We use the remaining area of approximately 1,100 square meters for production management and production operations, including manufacturing, assembly, testing, warehousing, shipping and receiving.  We also lease a one-story 810 square meter facility located on a 1,820 square meter parcel in the Yehud Industrial Zone for approximately $155,000 per year for use in production and operations.  The lease terminates in 2029.  The products that we manufacture at our facilities in the Yehud Industrial Zone include our taut-wire intrusion detection systems, Fortis X, our detection systems such as Fensor and other perimeter systems.
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We own a 33,000 square foot facility in Carp, Ontario, Canada.  Approximately 9,000 square feet are devoted to administrative, marketing and management functions, and approximately 8,000 square feet are used for engineering, system integration and customer service.  We use the remaining area of approximately 16,000 square feet for production operations, including cable manufacturing, assembly, testing, warehousing, shipping and receiving.  We own an additional 182,516 square feet of vacant land adjacent to this property, which is being held for future expansion.  We also lease 358,560 square feet of land near this facility for use as an outdoor sensor test and demonstration site for our products including the Omnitrax buried cable intrusion detection system, the X-Field volumetric system, the FlexZone microphonic fence detection system, Flash and Flare, and various perimeter monitoring and control systems.  The lease for this site is approximately $3,500 per year plus taxes under a lease that expires in November 2024.
 
We own a 999 square meter facility in Cuernavaca, Mexico, which we built in August 2013.
 
We lease office space in Waterloo, Canada, which houses our video management software operations. We also lease a 8,000 square foot facility in Carp, Ontario, Canada for Magal-S3 Canada Inc. and lease other sites world-wide. The aggregate annual rent for such offices was approximately $775,000 in 2020.
 
We believe that our facilities are suitable and adequate for our current operations and the foreseeable future.
 
ITEM 4A.           Unresolved Staff Comments
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 5.
Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
 
The following discussion of our results of operations and financial condition should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this annual report.  This discussion contains forward‑looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties.  Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward‑looking statements as a result of certain factors, including, but not limited to, those set forth in Item 3.D. “Key Information–Risk Factors.”
 
A.           Operating Results.
 
Overview
 
We develop, manufacture, market and sell complex computerized security systems.  Our systems are used in more than 100 countries to protect national borders and sensitive facilities, including military bases, power plant installations, airports, sea ports, postal facilities, prisons, banks, retail operations, municipal security, sporting events including athlete villages and stadiums, and industrial locations from terrorism, theft and other security threats.
 
The Company’s operating segments are strategic business units that offer different services and are managed accordingly. Beginning January 1, 2019, we presented for the first time our new operating segments. We analyze our operating segments based on each segment’s gross profit.
 
Our two reportable segments are (i) Products and (ii) Projects.
 
Products Segment (PIDS, VMS, IVA and EAC)
 
The Products segment sells its products worldwide and this segment primarily includes the operations of Senstar Canada, Senstar US and Senstar Germany as one reporting unit.
 
This segment includes Video Management Software (VMS), Intelligent Video Analytics (IVA) and PIDS products. The PIDS, VMS and IVA activities which are operated and managed by Senstar, offer an unmatched portfolio of PIDS technologies, as well as, integrated intelligent video management solutions for security surveillance and business intelligence applications worldwide.
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Integrated Solutions Division Segment (Projects Segment)
 
The Projects segment, which is led by the General manager of our Magal Israel business unit, has operations worldwide and includes a number of reporting units operating in Israel, Mexico, Canada, India, Spain, Kenya and Romania. On February 7, 2021 we signed a share and asset purchase agreement for the sale of our Integrated Solutions (Projects) Division to Aeronautics. Closing is conditioned various commercial and regulatory approvals customary for such transactions and is expected to be achieved within 2021 2nd quarter.
 
Business Challenges/Areas of Focus

Our primary business challenges and areas of focus include:
 

continuing the growth of revenues and profitability of our perimeter security system and video management system lines of products;
 

enhancing the introduction and recognition of our new products into the markets;
 

penetrating new markets and strengthening our presence in existing markets;
 

strengthening our presence in our strategic verticals;
 

succeeding in selling our comprehensive turnkey solutions; and
 

succeeding in selling our comprehensive PIDS, VMS and EAC products as a combined solution.
 
Our business is subject to the effects of general global economic conditions.  If general economic conditions or economic conditions in key markets will be uncertain or weaken further, demand for our products could be adversely affected.
 
Key Performance Indicators and Sources of Revenues
 
Our management believes that our revenues and operating income are the two key performance indicators for our business.
 
Our revenues from our Products and Projects segments for the three years ended December 31, 2020 were as follows:
 
   
Year ended December 31,
 
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
 
   
(In thousands)
 
Products          
 
$
35,169
   
$
36,633
   
$
35,038
 
Projects          
   
61,119
     
52,426
     
48,803
 
Eliminations          
   
(3,686
)
   
(2,228
)
   
(2,377
)
Total          
 
$
92,602
   
$
86,831
   
$
81,464
 

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The decrease in revenues from Products as well as from Projects was primarily due to the Covid-19 crisis, which impacted our operations in 2020 reflecting a shift in governmental expenditures from HLS related projects towards addressing the crisis caused by the spread of the pandemic, and various travel and social distancing restrictions that reduced the volume of security related projects globally. Our operating income from our Products and Projects segments for the three years ended December 31, 2020 were as follows:

   
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
 
   
(In thousands)
 
Products          
 
$
1,425
   
$
3,880
   
$
6,387
 
Projects          
   
4,356
     
3,536
     
65
 
Eliminations          
   
(2,026
)
   
(1,377
)
   
(1,269
)
Total          
 
$
3,755
   
$
6,039
   
$
5,183
 

In parallel to the reduction in total revenues, our operating profit in 2020 decreased.
 
Key Factors Affecting Our Business
 
Our operations and the operating metrics discussed below have been, and will likely continue to be affected by certain key factors as well as certain historical events and actions. The key factors affecting our business and results of operations include among others, reliance on large orders from a small number of customers, reliance on government contracts and competition. For further discussion of the factors affecting our results of operations, see “Risk Factors.”
 
Reliance on large orders from a small number of customers (mainly in our Projects segment)
 
We receive relatively large orders for products from a relatively small number of customers. Consequently, a single order from one customer may represent a substantial portion of our sales in any one period and significant orders by any customer during one period may not be followed by further orders from the same customer in subsequent periods. Our sales and operating results are subject to very substantial periodic variations. Since quarterly performance is likely to vary significantly, our results of operations for any quarter or calendar year are not necessarily indicative of the results that we might achieve for any subsequent period. Accordingly, quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. In addition, we have a limited order backlog that is generally composed of orders that are fulfilled within a period of three to twelve months after receipt, which makes revenues in any quarter substantially dependent upon orders received in prior quarters.

Growth Strategy

During 2020 we continued our recent strategic growth plan. Pursuant to the plan, in 2019 we reorganized our group structure and clearly separated our two core areas of operation - Products and Projects. We also streamlined our product sales activity in our four main regions, the Americas, EMEA, APAC and LATAM, identifying and focusing on strategic verticals: critical infrastructure, oil and gas, logistics and correctional facilities (mainly in the US). We intend to continue to expand our sales to the verticals of focus through allocation of resources and funds, including mergers and acquisitions of complementary technologies that will increase our offerings to these targeted verticals versus our competition.
 
We may not be able to implement our growth strategy plan and may not be able to successfully expand our business activity and increase our sales.  If we are successful in the implementation of our strategic plan, we may be required to hire additional employees in order to meet customer demands. If we are unable to attract or retain qualified employees, our business could be adversely affected.
 
Our failure to successfully integrate the operations of an acquired business or to retain key employees of acquired businesses and integrate and manage our growth may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation or prospects.  We may not be able to realize the anticipated benefits of any acquisition.  Moreover, future acquisitions by us could result in potentially dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities and amortization expenses related to identifiable intangible assets, any of which could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial position.  Acquisitions also involve other risks, including risks inherent in entering markets in which we have no or limited prior experience.
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Reliance on government contracts
 
Our products are primarily sold to governmental agencies, governmental authorities and government-owned companies, many of which have complex and time consuming procurement procedures.  A substantial period of time often elapses from the time we begin marketing a product until we actually sell that product to a particular customer.  In addition, our sales to governmental agencies, authorities and companies are directly affected by these customers’ budgetary constraints and the priority given in their budgets to the procurement of our products.  A decrease in governmental funding for our customers’ budgets would adversely affect our results of operations.  This risk is heightened during periods of global economic slowdown. Accordingly, governmental purchases of our systems, products and services may decline in the future if governmental purchasing agencies terminate, reduce or modify contracts.
 
Competition
 
The global market for safety, security, video management, site management solutions and products is highly fragmented and intensely competitive.  It is characterized by changing technology, new product introductions and changing customer requirements.  We compete principally in the market for perimeter intrusion detection systems, or PIDS, video management systems, and turnkey projects and solutions.  Some of our competitors and potential competitors have greater research, development, financial and personnel resources, including governmental support.  We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain the quality of our products relative to those of our competitors or continue to develop and market new products effectively. Continued competitive pressures could cause us to lose significant market share.
 
Explanation of Key Income Statement Items
 
Cost of revenues.  Our cost of revenues for perimeter products consists of component and material costs, direct labor costs, subcontractor costs, shipping expenses, overhead related to manufacturing and depreciation.  Our cost of revenues for turnkey projects consists primarily of component and material costs, subcontractor costs, direct labor costs and overhead related to the turnkey projects. Our cost of revenues for Video and Cyber Security sales consists primarily of direct labor costs, some component, material and subcontractor costs and overhead related to those sales.
 
Our gross margin is affected by the proportion of our revenues generated from our Products and Projects segments.  Our revenues from Products generally have higher gross margins than our Projects revenues.
 
Research and development expenses, net.  Research and development expenses, net consists primarily of expenses for on-going research and development activities and other related costs.
 
Selling and marketing expenses.  Selling and marketing expenses consist primarily of commission payments, compensation and related expenses of our sales teams, attendance at trade shows and advertising expenses and related costs for facilities and equipment.
 
General and administrative expenses.  Our general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salary and related costs associated with our executive and administrative functions, public company related expenses, legal and accounting expenses, allowances for credit losses and bad debts and other miscellaneous expenses.  Staff costs include direct salary costs and related costs, such as severance pay, social security and retirement fund contributions, vacation and other pay.
35


Depreciation and Amortization and impairment of goodwill. The amount of depreciation and amortization attributable to our Products and Projects segments for the three years ended December 31, 2020 were as follows:
 
   
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
 
   
(in thousands)
 
Products          
 
$
2,273
   
$
1,260
   
$
1,172
 
Projects          
   
951
     
840
     
784
 
Total          
 
$
3,224
   
$
2,100
   
$
1,956
 

Financial Expenses, Net.  Financial expenses, net include exchange rate differences arising from changes in the value of monetary assets and monetary liabilities stated in currencies other than the functional currency of each entity, currency transactions as well as interest income on our cash and cash equivalents and short term investments.

Discussion of Critical Accounting Policies
 
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.  Actual results could differ from those estimates and the use of different assumptions would likely result in materially different results of operations.  Critical accounting policies are those that are both most important to the portrayal of our financial position and results of operations and require management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgments.  Although not all of our significant accounting policies require management to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments or estimates, the following policies and estimates are those that we deem most critical.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
We generates our revenues mainly from (1) performance of turn-key security projects for which revenues are generated from long-term fixed price contracts; (2) sales of security products; (3) services and maintenance, which are performed either on a fixed-price basis or as time-and-materials based contracts; and (4) software license fees and related services.

Revenues from our contracts are recognized using the five-step model in ASC 606 - "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" ("ASC 606"). At first, we determine if an agreement with a customer is considered to be a contract to the extent it has a commercial substance, it is approved in writing by both parties, all rights and obligations including payment terms are identifiable, the agreement between the parties creates enforceable rights and obligations, and collectability in exchange for goods and services that will be transferred to the customer is considered as probable. We then assess the transaction price for a contract in order to determine the consideration we expects to receive for satisfying the performance obligations called for in the contract. To the extent, the transaction price includes variable consideration (e.g., contract penalties, unpriced change orders or like measures), we usually estimate the most likely amount that should be included in the transaction price subject to constraints based on the specific facts and circumstances.

At the inception of a contract, we also evaluate and determines if a contract should be separated into more than one performance obligation. Our installation of comprehensive security systems contracts usually includes one-performance obligations due to a significant customization for each customer's specific needs and integrated system or solution.
 
For most of our turn-key security projects contracts, where our performance does not create an asset with an alternative use, we recognize revenue over performance time because of continuous transfer of control to the customer. For these performance obligations that are satisfied over time, we generally recognize revenue using an input method with revenue amounts being recognized proportionately as costs are incurred relative to the total expected costs to satisfy the performance obligation. We believe that costs incurred as a portion of total estimated costs is an appropriate measure of progress towards satisfaction of the performance obligation since this measure reasonably depicts the progress of the work effort and we have the ability to make reasonably dependable estimates of the extent of progress towards completion, contract revenues and contract costs. In addition, contracts executed include provisions that clearly specify the enforceable rights regarding services to be provided and received by the parties to the contracts, the consideration to be exchanged, the manner, and the terms of settlement, including in cases of termination for convenience. Project costs include materials purchased to produce the system, related labor, overhead expenses and subcontractor's costs. The performance costs are measured by monitoring costs and efforts devoted using records of actual costs incurred to date in the project compared to the total estimated project requirements, which corresponds to the costs related to earned revenues. We estimate the profit on a contract as the difference between the total estimated transaction price and the total expected performance costs of the contract and recognizes revenue and costs over the life of the contract. Estimated gross profit or loss from long-term contracts may change due to changes in estimates resulting from differences between actual performance and original forecasts. Such changes in estimated gross profit are recorded in results of operations when they are reasonably determinable by management, on a cumulative catch-up basis.
36

 
For contracts that are deemed to be loss contracts, we establish forward loss reserves for total estimated costs that are in excess of total estimated consideration under a contract in the period in which they become probable.
 
Fees are payable upon completion of agreed upon milestones and subject to customer acceptance. Amounts of revenues recognized in advance of contractual billing are recorded as unbilled accounts receivable. In most instances, the period between the advanced recognition of revenues and the customers' billing generally ranges between one to six months.
 
Revenues for performance obligations that are not recognized over time are recognized at the point in time when control is transferred to the customer (which is generally upon delivery) and include mainly revenues from the sales of security products and software license fees without significant installation work. We generally do not provide a right of return to our customers. For performance obligations that are satisfied at a point in time, we evaluate the point in time when the customer can direct the use of, and obtain the benefits from, the products. Shipping and handling costs are not considered performance obligations and are included in cost of sales as incurred.
 
In some sales arrangements, we fulfill our obligations and bill the customer for the work performed but do not ship the goods until a later date. These arrangements, called “bill-and-hold” are usually at the request of the customer. We recognize revenue for bill and hold arrangements once the customer obtains control of a product (usually after inspection and acceptance by the customer) and all of the following criteria are met: (1) the reason for the bill-and-hold arrangement are substantive; (2) the product is identified separately as belonging to the customer; (3) the product currently is ready for physical transfer to the customer; and (4) the customer does not have the ability to use the product or to direct it to another customer.
 
If we recognize revenue for the sale of a product on a bill-and-hold basis, we consider whether we have any remaining performance obligations (such as for custodial services) to which we should allocate a portion of the transaction price.
 
Services and maintenance are performed under either fixed-price or time-and-materials based contracts. Under fixed-price contracts, we agree to perform certain work for a fixed price. Under time-and-materials contracts, we are reimbursed for labor hours at negotiated hourly billing rates and for materials. Our service contracts include contracts in which the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided as the performance obligations are satisfied, accordingly, related revenues are recognized, as those services are performed or over the term of the related agreements.
 
Maintenance and support agreements provide customers with rights to unspecified software product updates, if and when available. These services grant the customers on line and telephone access to technical support personnel during the term of the service. We recognize maintenance and support services revenues ratably over the term of the agreement, usually one year.
37

 
We generate revenues from the sales of our software products user licenses as well as from maintenance, support, consulting and training services.
 
As required by ASC 606, following the determination of the performance obligations in the contract, we allocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation in an amount based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the promised license fees or services underlying each performance obligation. Standalone selling price is the price at which we would sell a promised license or service separately to a customer.
 
We capitalizes sales commission as costs of obtaining a contract when they are incremental and if they are expected to be recovered. Amortization of sales commission expense is included in selling and marketing expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of income. For costs that we would have capitalized and amortized over one year or less, we have elected to apply the practical expedient and expense these contract costs as incurred.
 
Inventories
 
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market value.  We periodically evaluate the quantities on hand relative to historical and projected sales volumes, current and historical selling prices and contractual obligations to maintain certain levels of parts.  Based on these evaluations, inventory write-offs are provided to cover risks arising from slow-moving items, discontinued products, excess inventories, market prices lower than cost and adjusted revenue forecasts.  Cost is determined as follows:
 

Raw materials, parts and supplies – using the “first-in, first-out” method.
 

Work-in-progress and finished products – on the basis of direct manufacturing costs with the addition of allocable indirect manufacturing costs.
 
During the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020 we recorded inventory write-offs from continuing operations in the amounts of $0.1 million, $0.3 million and $0.2 million, respectively.  Such write-offs were included in cost of revenues.
 
Income taxes
 
We account for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740 “Income Taxes.”  This statement prescribes the use of the liability method whereby deferred tax asset and liability account balances are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse.  We provide a valuation allowance, if necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets to their estimated realizable value.
 
As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to estimate our income taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate.  This process involves estimating our actual current tax exposure together with assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and accounting purposes.  These differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included within our consolidated balance sheet.  We must then assess the likelihood that our deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income and we must establish a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized.  Increases in the valuation allowance result in additional expense to be reflected within the tax provision in the consolidated statement of income.
 
As of December 31, 2020, we had a net deferred tax asset of $3.1 million, of which $2.3 million is foreign and $0.8 million is domestic.  We had total estimated available operating tax loss carryforwards of $11.3 million with respect to our operations in Israel. Our non-Israeli subsidiaries had estimated total available operating tax loss carryforwards of $17.8 million, of which $8.6 million was attributable to our U.S. subsidiaries (federal and state net operating losses), which may be used as an offset against future taxable income for periods ranging between 1 and 20 years.  As of December 31, 2020, we recorded a partial valuation allowance on these carryforward tax losses due to the uncertainty of their future realization. Utilization of U.S. net operating losses may be subject to a substantial annual limitation due to the “change in ownership” provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and similar state provisions.  The annual limitation may result in the expiration of net operating losses before utilization.
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Goodwill
 
We have recorded goodwill as a result of acquisitions, which represents the excess of the cost over the net fair value of the assets of the businesses acquired.  We follow ASC 350, “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other,” which requires goodwill to be tested for impairment, at the reporting unit level.

ASC 350 allows an entity to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is necessary to perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test. If the qualitative assessment does not result in a more likely than not indication of impairment, no further impairment testing is required. If it does result in a more likely than not indication of impairment, the quantitative impairment test is performed. Alternatively, ASC 350 permits an entity to bypass the qualitative assessment for any reporting unit and proceed directly to performing the first step of the goodwill impairment test.  We perform annual impairment test of goodwill as of December 31 of each year, or more frequently if impairment indicators are present

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, "Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment". ASU 2017-04 eliminates the requirement to measure the implied fair value of goodwill by assigning the fair value of a reporting unit to all assets and liabilities within that unit (the "Step 2 Test") from the goodwill impairment test. Instead, if the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess, limited by the amount of goodwill in that reporting unit. ASU 2017-04 will become effective for us beginning January 1, 2020 and must be applied to any annual or interim goodwill impairment assessments after that date. We will adopt this standard on a prospective basis as of January 1, 2020 and does not expect this standard to have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.

With effect from January 1, 2019, as a result of the reorganization of the Company’s reporting structure into two business segments, we identify two reporting unite to which our goodwill relates: (1) the Products reporting unit which comprises the Products segment and; (2) the BAZ reporting unit within the Project segment. During the year ended December 31, 2020 we did not record any goodwill impairment charges.

Annual goodwill impairment test for the year ended December 31, 2020:

Annual goodwill impairment test for the Products segment.  According to the income approach, the material assumptions used for the annual goodwill impairment test for the Products segment were five years of projected net cash flows, a weighted average cost of capital rate of 13% and a long-term growth rate of 3%. We considered historical rates and current market conditions when determining the discount and growth rates to use in this analysis. If these estimates or their related assumptions change in the future, we may be required to record impairment charges for our goodwill. As required by ASC 820, "Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures," we apply assumptions that marketplace participants would consider in determining the fair value of its reporting unit.

Annual goodwill impairment test for the BAZ reporting unit within the Project segment. The According to the income approach, the material assumptions used for the goodwill annual impairment test for the BAZ reporting unit within the Project segment were five years of projected net cash flows, a weighted average cost of capital rate of 15% and a long-term growth rate of 1.5%. We considered historical rates and current market conditions when determining the discount and growth rates to use in this analysis. If these estimates or their related assumptions change in the future, we may be required to record impairment charges for our goodwill. As required by ASC 820, "Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures," we apply assumptions that marketplace participants would consider in determining the fair value of its reporting unit.

Annual goodwill impairment test for the year ended December 31, 2019:

Annual goodwill impairment test for the Products segment. According to the income approach, the material assumptions used for the goodwill annual impairment test for the Products segment were five years of projected net cash flows, a weighted average cost of capital rate of 13% and a long-term growth rate of 3%. We considered historical rates and current market conditions when determining the discount and growth rates to use in this analysis. If these estimates or their related assumptions change in the future, we may be required to record impairment charges for our goodwill. As required by ASC 820, "Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures," we apply assumptions that marketplace participants would consider in determining the fair value of its reporting unit.
39


Annual goodwill impairment test for the BAZ reporting unit within the Project segment. According to the income approach, the material assumptions used for the goodwill annual impairment test for the BAZ reporting unit within the Project segment were five years of projected net cash flows, a weighted average cost of capital rate of 15% and a long-term growth rate of 1.5%. We considered historical rates and current market conditions when determining the discount and growth rates to use in this analysis. If these estimates or their related assumptions change in the future, we may be required to record impairment charges for our goodwill. As required by ASC 820, "Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures," we apply assumptions that marketplace participants would consider in determining the fair value of its reporting unit.

Annual goodwill impairment test for the year ended December 31, 2018:

In 2018, for the purposes of impairment testing of goodwill, we identified four reporting units: (1) PIDS reporting unit within the Products segment, (2) BAZ reporting unit within the Project segment, (3) Cyber security and (4) Video reporting units, both the Cyber security and the Video reporting units were included within the former Video and Cyber security segment.

In 2018, the excess of the  carrying amount over its fair value of the Cyber security reporting unit within the former Video and Cyber security segment (currently included within the Products segment), represented an impairment loss of goodwill in the amount of $979, which was recorded as part of the general and administrative expenses in the statements of operations.

Intangible assets

Our intangible assets are comprised of patents, acquired technology, customer relations and backlog. Intangible assets are amortized over their useful lives using a method of amortization that reflects the pattern in which the economic benefits of the intangible assets are consumed or otherwise used up, in accordance with ASC 350, “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other.”
 
During the three years ended December 31, 2020, we did not record any impairment charges relating to intangible assets.
 
Impairment of long lived assets
 
We periodically evaluate our intangible assets and long-lived assets (mainly property and equipment) in all of our reporting units for potential impairment indicators in accordance with ASC 360, “Property, Plant and Equipment”, or “ASC 360”.  Our judgments regarding the existence of impairment indicators are based on legal factors, market conditions, operational performance and prospects of our acquired businesses and investments. Our long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of the assets to the future undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the assets. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. In measuring the recoverability of assets, we are required to make estimates and judgments in assessing our future cash flows which derive from the estimated useful life of our current primary assets, and compare that with the carrying amount of the assets. Additional significant estimates used by management in the methodologies employed to assess the recoverability of our long-lived assets include estimates of future short-term and long-term growth rates, useful lives of assets, market acceptance of products and services, our success in winning bids and other judgmental assumptions, which are also affected by factors detailed in our risk factors section in this annual report.

During the three years ended December 31, 2020, we did not record any impairment charges relating to long lived assets.
40


Functional Currency and Financial Statements in U.S. Dollars
 
While our functional currency in Israel is the NIS, our reporting currency is the U.S. dollar.  Translation adjustments resulting from translating our financial statements from NIS and other local operation currencies to the U.S. dollar are reported as a separate component in shareholders’ equity.
 
The first step in the translation process is to identify the functional currency for each entity included in the financial statements.  The accounts of each entity are then “re-measured” in its functional currency.  All transaction gains and losses from the re-measurement of monetary balance sheet items are reflected in the statement of operations as financial income or expenses, as appropriate. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency and measured at cost are translated at the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.
 
After the re-measurement process is complete the financial statements are translated into our reporting currency, which is the U.S. dollar, using the current rate method.  Equity accounts are translated using historical exchange rates.  All other balance sheet accounts are translated using the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date.  Statement of operations amounts have been translated using the average exchange rate for the year.  The resulting translation adjustments are reported as a component of shareholders’ equity. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, our foreign currency translation adjustments totaled $2.8 million, $5.9 million and $9.1 million respectively. We recorded foreign exchange losses, net of $2 million and $1.3 million in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively and a foreign exchange gain, net of $1.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2018. The losses in 2019 and 2020 were exacerbated as a result of our increased cash balances.  In late 2016 we completed a rights offering that provided us with proceeds of $ 23.6 million, which we deposited into our bank accounts in Israel. These balances were translated into NIS, which depreciated by 7.8% and 7.0% against the U.S. dollar in 2019 and 2020, respectively. In 2018 the NIS appreciated by 8.1% against the U.S. dollar.
 
Concentrations of credit risk
 
Financial instruments that are potentially subject to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents, short and long-term bank deposits, unbilled accounts receivable, trade receivables, long-term trade receivables and long-term loans.
 
Of our cash and cash equivalents and short-term and restricted bank deposits at December 31, 2020, $8.3 million were deposited with major Israeli banks.  An additional $19.0 million was deposited mainly with the Royal Bank of Canada, Deutsche Bank, Natwest Bank, Caixa Bank and BBVA Bancomer. Cash and cash equivalents deposited with U.S. banks or other banks may be in excess of insured limits and are not insured in other jurisdictions. Generally, these deposits maybe redeemed upon demand and therefore bear low risk.
 
The trade receivables and the unbilled accounts receivable of our company and our subsidiaries are derived from sales to large and solid organizations located mainly in Israel, the United States, Canada, Africa, Mexico and Europe.  We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers and to date have generally not experienced any material losses.  An allowance for credit losses is recognized with respect to those amounts that we have determined to be doubtful of collection.  In certain circumstances, we may require letters of credit, other collateral or additional guarantees.  During the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020 we recorded $1.5 million, $0.1 million and $0.4 million of expenses related to credit losses, respectively.  As of December 31, 2020, our allowance for credit losses amounted to $2.1 million.
 
We have no significant off-balance sheet concentration of credit risks, such as foreign exchange contracts or foreign hedging arrangements, except derivative instruments, which are detailed below.
 
Recent Developments
 
An outbreak of infectious respiratory illness caused by a novel Coronavirus known as COVID-19 was first detected in China in December 2019 and has now spread globally. This outbreak has resulted in travel restrictions, closed international borders, enhanced health screenings at ports of entry and elsewhere, disruption of and delays in deliveries, prolonged quarantines, supply chain disruptions, and lower customer demand, layoffs and other significant economic impacts, as well as general concern and uncertainty. The impact of this outbreak has adversely affected the economies of many nations and the entire global economy and may impact our company in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen.
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The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has had an adverse effect on our industry and the markets in which we operate. The COVID-19 outbreak has impacted the verticals in which our customers operate and has resulted in a slowdown in our business with some of our customers. We have experienced postponed orders and suspended decision making in the markets that are likely to be negatively affected by COVID-19. Further, the guidance of social distancing and the requirements to work from home in key territories such as Israel, USA, Canada, Germany, Spain, Mexico and other countries, in addition to greatly reduced travel globally, has resulted in a substantial curtailment of business activities, which has affected and is likely to continue to affect our ability to conduct fieldwork as well as deliver products and services, thus, delaying some of the revenues expected in the first part of 2020 to a later date. We are unable at this time to estimate the extent of the effect of COVID-19 on our business.  In order to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on our business, we have adopted a plan to reduce expenses and have enacted cost savings measures. In addition, we have benefitted from $1.5 million in subsidies from the Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy program and from a $0.1 million governmental subsidy in Israel.
 
Most of our administrative functions can be performed remotely.  Our ability to collect money, pay bills, handle customer communications, schedule production, and order raw materials necessary for our production has not been materially impacted. To date we have not experienced a significant change in the timeliness of payments of our invoices and our cash position remains stable with approximately $27 million of cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2021.
 
Results of Operations
 
Due to the nature of our customers and products, our revenues are often generated from a relatively small number of large orders.  Consequently, individual orders from individual customers can represent a substantial portion of our revenues in any one period and significant revenues from a customer during one period may not be followed by additional significant revenues from the same customer in subsequent periods.  Accordingly, our revenues and operating results may vary substantially from period to period.  Consequently, we do not believe that our revenues and operating results should necessarily be judged on a quarter-to-quarter comparative basis.
 
The following table presents certain financial data expressed as a percentage of revenues for the periods indicated:
 
   
Year Ended December 31
 
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
 
Revenues          
   
100
%
   
100
%
   
100
%
Cost of revenues          
   
56.5
     
55.4
     
57.7
 
Gross profit          
   
43.5
     
44.6
     
42.3
 
Operating expenses:
                       
Research and development, net          
   
7.4
     
7.3
     
6.9
 
Selling and marketing, net          
   
20.0
     
19.5
     
17.0
 
General and administrative          
   
12.0
     
10.9
     
11.9
 
Operating income
   
4.1
     
7.0
     
6.4
 
Financial income (expenses), net          
   
1.5
     
(1.9
)
   
(1.8
)
Income before income taxes          
   
5.5
     
5.0
     
4.5
 
Taxes on income
   
2.2

   
1.8

   
3.7

Net income          
   
3.3
     
3.2
     
0.9
 

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Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2019
 
Revenues.  Revenues decreased by 6.2% to $81.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $86.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019.  Revenues from sales of products decreased by 4.4% to $35.0 million in 2020 from $36.6 million in 2019, primarily due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular in the APAC and European regions. Revenues from projects decreased by 6.9% to $48.8 million in 2020 from $52.4 million in 2019, primarily due to a reduction in revenues from customers in LATAM and Canada.
 
Cost of revenues.  Cost of revenues decreased by 2.2% to $47.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $48.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. This decrease was primarily due the decrease in revenues. Cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues increased slightly to 57.7% in 2020 from 55.4% in 2019, primarily due to our revenue mix and due to subsidies granted to our Canadian subsidiary.

Research and development expenses, net.  Research and development expenses, net decreased by 11.2% to $5.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $6.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. This is mainly due to subsidies granted to our Canadian subsidiary.
 
Selling and marketing expenses.  Selling and marketing expenses decreased by 17.9% to $13.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $16.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily due to the decrease in revenues, travel and marketing activities in 2020.  Selling and marketing expenses as a percentage of revenues, decreased to 17.0% in 2020 from 19.5% in 2019. The decrease is driven mainly by the reduction in travel, as well as due to subsidies granted to our Canadian subsidiary.
 
General and administrative expenses.  General and administrative expenses increased by 2.8% to $9.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $9.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase is driven by increased legal costs, partially offset by subsidies granted to our Canadian subsidiary. General and administrative expenses amounted to 11.9% and 10.9% of revenues in 2020 and 2019, respectively.
 
Operating income (loss).  We had operating income of $5.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to operating income of $6.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease in operating income was primarily attributable to the reduction in revenues, partially offset by the costs reductions, including the non-recurring subsidy, granted to our Canadian subsidiary. The operating income (loss) of our business segments in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 were as follows:
 
   
Year Ended December 31
 
   
2019
   
2020
 
   
(In thousands)
 
Products          
 
$
3,880
   
$
6,387
 
Projects          
   
3,536
     
65
 
Eliminations          
   
(1,377
)
   
(1,269
)
Total          
 
$
6,039
   
$
5,183
 

Our Products segment recorded operating income of $6.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to operating income of $3.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily as a result of travel and marketing cost reductions and subsidies received in Canada. Our Projects segment recorded operating income of $0.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to operating income of $3.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily as a result of a decrease in revenues, partially offset by cost reduction.
 
Financial income (expenses), net.  Our financial expenses, net, for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $1.5 million compared to financial expenses, net of $1.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019.  The financial expenses in 2020 were primarily attributable to foreign exchange loss, net of $1.3 million compared to foreign exchange loss, net of $2.0 million in 2019.
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Income taxes.  We recorded tax expenses of $3.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to tax expenses of $1.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily due to a different geographical mix of pre-tax profitability as well as due to provisions for uncertain tax positions.

Year Ended December 31, 2019 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
Please see Item 5 on Form 20-F for the Year ended December 31, 2019 filed on April 23, 2020 for this comparison.
 
Seasonality
 
Our operating results are characterized by a seasonal pattern, with a higher volume of revenues towards the end of the year and lower revenues in the first part of the year. This pattern, which is expected to continue, is mainly due to two factors:
 

our customers are mainly budget-oriented organizations with lengthy decision processes, which tend to mature late in the year; and
 

due to harsh weather conditions in certain areas in which we operate during the first quarter of the calendar year, certain projects and services are put on hold and consequently revenues are delayed.
 
Our revenues are dependent on government procurement procedures and practices, and because we receive large product orders from a relatively small number of customers, our revenues and operating results are subject to substantial periodic variations.
 
Impact of Inflation and Currency Fluctuations on Results of Operations, Liabilities and Assets
 
We sell most of our products in North America, Africa, Latin America Europe and Israel.  Our financial results, which are reported in U.S. dollars, are affected by changes in foreign currency.  Our revenues are primarily denominated in U.S. dollars, Euros, Mexican Peso and NIS, while a portion of our expenses, primarily labor expenses, is incurred in NIS, CAD and Mexican Peso.  Additionally, certain assets, especially cash, trade receivables and other accounts receivables, as well as part of our liabilities are denominated in NIS and CAD.  As a result, fluctuations in rates of exchange between the U.S. dollar and non-U.S. dollar currencies may affect our operating results and financial condition.  The dollar cost of our operations in Israel and Canada may be adversely affected by the appreciation of the NIS and the CAD against the U.S. dollar.  In addition, the value of our non-U.S. dollar revenues could be adversely affected by the depreciation of the U.S. dollar against such currencies.
 
The appreciation of the NIS, the Mexican Pesos and the CAD in relation to the U.S. dollar has the effect of increasing the U.S. dollar value of any unlinked assets and the U.S. dollar amounts of any unlinked liabilities and increasing the U.S. dollar value of revenues and expenses denominated in other currencies.  Conversely, the depreciation of the NIS, the Mexican Peso and the CAD in relation to the U.S. dollar has the effect of reducing the U.S. dollar value of any of our liabilities which are payable in NIS, Mexican Pesos or in Canadian dollars (unless such costs or payables are linked to the U.S. dollar).  Such depreciation also has the effect of decreasing the U.S. dollar value of any asset that is denominated in NIS, Mexican Pesos and CADs or receivables payable in NIS, Mexican Pesos or CAD (unless such receivables are linked to the U.S. dollar).  In addition, the U.S. dollar value of revenues and expenses denominated in NIS, Mexican Pesos or CAD would increase.  Because foreign currency exchange rates fluctuate continuously, exchange rate fluctuations may have an impact on our profitability and period-to-period comparisons of our results.  The effects of foreign currency re-measurements are reported in our consolidated financial statements in current operations.
44

 
The following table presents information about the rate of inflation in Israel, the rate of devaluation or appreciation of the NIS against the dollar, and the rate of inflation in Israel adjusted for the devaluation. These metrics provide insight on the impact of currency fluctuations on our financial results.
 
Year ended
December 31,
 
Israeli inflation
rate %
   
NIS devaluation (appreciation)
rate %
   
Israeli inflation adjusted
for devaluation (appreciation) %
 
2016
   
(0.2
)
   
(1.5
)
   
1.3
 
2017
   
0.4
     
(9.8
)
   
10.2
 
2018
   
1.3
     
8.1
     
(6.8
)
2019
   
0.6
     
(7.8
)
   
8.4
 
2020
   
(0.7
)
   
(7.0
)
   
6.3
 

The U.S. dollar cost of our operations in Canada is influenced by the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the CAD.  In 2019 and 2020 the CAD appreciated against the U.S. dollar by 4.4% and 2.1%, respectively. In 2018 the CAD depreciated against the U.S. dollar by 8.6%. In addition, the U.S. dollar cost of our operations in Mexico is influenced by the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Mexican Peso.  In 2020 the Mexican Peso depreciated against the U.S. dollar by 5.6%. In 2018 and 2019 the Mexican Peso appreciated against the U.S. dollar by 0.4% and 4%, respectively.
 
In 2019 and 2020, foreign currency fluctuations had a negative impact on our results of operations as we recorded foreign exchange loss, net of $2 million and $1.3 million, compared to $1.1 million of foreign exchange gain, net in 2018.  We expect that our results of operations will continue to be affected by currency fluctuations in the future.

Conditions in Israel
 
We are incorporated under the laws of, and our principal executive offices and manufacturing and research and development facilities are located in, the State of Israel.  See Item 3D “Key Information – Risk Factors – Risks Relating to Our Location in Israel” for a description of governmental, economic, fiscal, monetary and political policies or factors that have materially affected or could materially affect our operations.
 
Effective Corporate Tax Rate
 
The Israeli corporate tax rate has been 23% since 2018.

Our effective corporate tax rate may substantially exceed the Israeli tax rate since our U.S.-based subsidiaries will generally be subject to applicable federal, state, local and foreign taxation, and we may also be subject to taxation in the other foreign jurisdictions in which we own assets, have employees or conduct activities.  Because of the complexity of these local tax provisions, it is not possible to anticipate the actual combined effective corporate tax rate, which will apply to us.
 
As of December 31, 2020, we had net deferred tax assets of $3.1 million, of which $2.3 million is foreign and $0.8 million is domestic. We had total estimated available carryforward operating tax losses of $11.3 million with respect to our operations in Israel to offset against future taxable income. We have recorded a partial valuation allowance for such carryforward tax losses due to the uncertainty of their future realization. As of December 31, 2020, our subsidiaries outside of Israel had estimated total available carryforward operating tax losses of $17.8 million, of which $8.6 million was attributable to our U.S. subsidiaries (federal and state net operating losses), which may be used as an offset against future taxable income for periods ranging between 1 and 20 years.  Utilization of U.S. net operating losses may be subject to a substantial annual limitation due to the “change in ownership” provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and similar state tax law provisions.  The annual limitation may result in the expiration of net operating losses before utilization.
45

 
Trade Relations
 
Israel is a member of the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Finance Corporation.  Israel is a member of the World Trade Organization and is a signatory to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.  Israel is also a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, or the OECD, an international organization whose members are governments of mostly developed economies.  The OECD’s main goal is to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world.  In addition, Israel has been granted preferences under the Generalized System of Preferences from the United States, Australia, Canada and Japan.  These preferences allow Israel to export products covered under such programs either duty-free or at reduced tariffs.
 
Israel and the European Union Community, known as the “European Union,” concluded a Free Trade Agreement in July 1975 that confers some advantages with respect to Israeli exports to most European countries and obligates Israel to lower its tariffs with respect to imports from these countries over a number of years.  In 1985, Israel and the United States entered into an agreement to establish a Free Trade Area.  The Free Trade Area has eliminated all tariff and some non-tariff barriers on most trade between the two countries.  On January 1, 1993, an agreement between Israel and the European Free Trade Association, known as the “EFTA,” established a free-trade zone between Israel and the EFTA nations.  In November 1995, Israel entered into a new agreement with the European Union, which includes a redefinition of rules of origin and other improvements, such as allowing Israel to become a member of the Research and Technology programs of the European Union.  In recent years, Israel has established commercial and trade relations with a number of other nations, including Russia, China, India, Turkey and other nations in Eastern Europe and the Asia-Pacific region.  In addition, Israel has entered into a free trade agreement with the MercoSur countries (Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay) which became fully effective in September 2011.  Generally, the purpose of this agreement is to reduce the custom rates between Israel and these countries and to abolish them completely in certain cases.  Israel is the first country outside of Latin America to enter into such an agreement with the MercoSur countries.
 
B.           Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Our working capital at December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $45.0 million and $67.2 million, respectively.  Cash and cash equivalents amounted to $27.1 million at December 31, 2020 compared to $34.5 million at December 31, 2019.  The decrease in cash and cash equivalents is primarily due to net cash used in operating activities and investing activities. Our cash and cash equivalents, short and long-term bank deposits are held in various banks, mainly in U.S. dollars, Euros, NIS and CAD.
 
From our inception until our initial public offering in March 1993, we financed our activities mainly through cash flow from operations and bank loans.  In March 1993, we received proceeds of $9.8 million from our initial public offering of 1,380,000 ordinary shares.  Subsequently, we made follow-on public offerings, in February 1997 (of 2,085,000 ordinary shares) and in April 2005 (of 1,700,000 ordinary shares), in which we raised $9.4 million and $14.9 million, respectively.  To allow us to begin to implement a new strategic plan, on September 8, 2010, a company affiliated with Mr. Nathan Kirsh, our former principal shareholder, provided us with a bridge loan of $10.0 million.  To repay the loan and to raise permanent capital for general working capital purposes including facilitating the implementation of our new business strategy, in July and August 2011 we raised $16.2 million from a rights offering of 5,273,274 ordinary shares and a private placement of 150,000 of our ordinary shares.
 
In October 2016, we completed a rights offering in which we received gross proceeds of approximately $23.8 million from the sale of 6,170,386 ordinary shares. Our controlling shareholders, FIMI V Funds purchased 3,392,869 ordinary shares including through an exercise of over-subscription rights.
 
In 2016, we paid approximately $12.1 million, (including $0.8 million placed in escrow to secure potential indemnity obligations and net of cash acquired) in consideration of our acquisition of Aimetis in 2016, and approximately $0.4 million (net of $2.4 million of acquired cash) in consideration of our acquisition of a majority interest in ESC BAZ Ltd. in 2018.
46

 
In connection with our acquisition of CyberSeal, we issued warrants to purchase 898,203 of our ordinary shares at an exercise price of $4.16 per share to CyberSeal's former owners.  Of such warrants, 60,000 warrants were exercised in 2017. In October 2018, we agreed to purchase the remaining 838,203 warrants from the warrant holders for an aggregate consideration of $375,000. Under Israeli law, the consummation of such transaction was subject to court approval, which was granted on January 16, 2019. The closing of the purchase of the warrants occurred in March 2019.

On December 7, 2020, following receipt of the required court approval under Israeli law, we announced a cash distribution in the amount of US$1.079 per share (approximately US$ 25 million in the aggregate) which was paid on December 28, 2020.  On December 31, 2020 we paid approximately $1.9 million in consideration for the remaining 45% interest in ESC BAZ.

We expect that our total research and development expenses in 2021 will be approximately $6.8 million (out of which approximately $5 million will be made by ou Senstar Products Division).  Our research and development plan for 2021 covers development of new and innovative products, as well as improvement of existing technologies.

We believe that our cash and cash equivalents, bank facilities, bank deposits and our expected cash flows from operations will be sufficient to meet our ongoing cash requirements through 2021.  However, our liquidity could be negatively affected by a decrease in demand for our products, including the impact of potential reductions in customer purchases that may result from the current general economic climate.

Cash Flows

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods presented:
 
   
Year ended December 31,
 
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
 
   
(in thousands)
 
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
   
7,326
     
(4,523
)
   
2,317
 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
   
10,121
     
(4,779
)
   
16,220
 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
   
77
     
178
     
(28,785
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
   
(1,029
)
   
2,089
     
2,828
 
Increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
   
16,495
     
(7,035
)
   
(7,420
)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at the beginning of the year
   
25,305
     
41,800
     
34,765
 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at the end of the year
   
41,800
     
34,765
     
27,345
 

Net cash used in operating activities of approximately $4.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to net cash provided by operating activities in the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2020 of approximately $7.3 million and $2.3 million, respectively.
 
Net cash provided by operating activities in the year ended December 31, 2020 was primarily attributable to our profit in 2020, as well as $2.0 million of depreciation and amortization expenses, an increase of $1.9 million in trade payables, an increase of $1.8 million in other accounts payable and accrued expenses and deferred revenues, a decrease of $0.9 million in deferred income taxes and a decrease of $0.8 million in inventories. This was offset in part by an increase of $2.1 million in unbilled receivables, an increase of $1.6 million in trade receivables, a decrease of $1.5 million in customer advances and an increase of $0.5 million in other accounts receivables and prepaid expenses.
 
Net cash used in operating activities in the year ended December 31, 2019 was primarily attributable to a decrease of $5.1 million in customer advances, an increase of $4 million in trade receivables, an increase of $2.3 million in unbilled receivables, a decrease of $1.3 million in trade payables and an increase of $0.6 million in deferred income taxes. This was offset in part by 2019 profit, as well as $2.1 million of depreciation and amortization expenses, a decrease of $2.1 million in inventories, an increase of $1 million in other accounts payable and accrued expenses and deferred revenues and an increase of $0.7 million in accrued interest and exchange differences on short-term and other long-term liabilities.
47

 
Net cash provided by operating activities in the year ended December 31, 2018 was primarily attributable to our profit in 2018, as well as $3.2 million of depreciation and amortization expenses, an increase of $3.2 million in customer advances, an increase of $3.1 million in other accounts payable and accrued expenses and deferred revenues, an increase of $1.1 million in trade payables and a decrease of $0.6 million in trade receivables. This was offset in part by an increase of $4 million in inventories, an increase of $1.2 million in deferred income taxes, an increase of $1.1 million in other accounts receivables and prepaid expenses and an increase of $0.5 million in accrued interest and exchange differences on short-term and other long-term liabilities.
 
Net cash used in investing activities was approximately $4.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to net cash provided by investing activities of approximately $10.1 million and $16.2 million in the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2020, respectively.
 
In the year ended December 31, 2020, our net cash provided by investing activities was primarily attributable to sale of short-term bank deposits of $17.0 million. This was offset in part by purchase of property and equipment for $0.8 million.
 
In the year ended December 31, 2019, our net cash used in investing activities was primarily attributable to investment in short-term deposits of $3.1 million, investment in technology of $0.9 million and the purchase of property and equipment for $0.8 million.
 
In the year ended December 31, 2018, our net cash provided by investing activities was primarily attributable to sale of short-term bank deposits of $12.9 million. This was offset in part by the purchase of property and equipment for $2.1 million, payment for business acquisitions of ESC BAZ of $0.4 million (net of acquired cash) and investment in technology of $0.3 million.
 
Net cash provided by financing activities was $0.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to net cash provided by financing activities of approximately $0.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 and net cash used in financing activities of approximately $28.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2020.
 
In the year ended December 31, 2020, our net cash used in financing activities was attributable to cash distribution to Company’s shareholders of $25 million, dividend to redeemable non-controlling interests of $1.9 million and purchase of redeemable non-controlling interest of $1.9 million.
 
In the year ended December 31, 2019, our net cash provided by financing activities was attributable to issuance of shares upon exercise of options of $0.5 million. This was offset in part by our purchase of outstanding warrants of $0.4 million.
 
In the year ended December 31, 2018, our net cash provided by financing activities was attributable to issuance of shares upon exercise of options of $0.1 million.
 
We had capital expenditures for property and equipment of approximately $2.1 million, $0.8 million and $0.8 million in the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively.  We estimate that our capital expenditures for 2021 will total approximately $0.8 million (of which approximately $0.4 million will be made with respect to our Senstar Products Division).  We expect to finance these expenditures primarily from our cash and cash equivalents and our operating cash flows.  However, the actual amount of our capital expenditures will depend on a variety of factors, including general economic conditions and changes in the demand for our products.
 
Credit Lines and Other Debt
 
As of December 31, 2020, we had credit lines with Bank Leumi Le-Israel B.M., or Bank Leumi, and Union Bank of Israel Ltd., or Union Bank, totaling $15 million in the aggregate (of which $10.5 million is reserved exclusively for guarantees, out of which $4.3 million was available as of December 31, 2020).  Our credit lines at Bank Leumi and Union Bank have no restrictions as to our use of the credit.  We are not under any obligation to maintain financial ratios or other terms in respect of our credit lines. In addition, as of December 31, 2020, our foreign subsidiary had credit lines with the Royal Bank of Canada of $1.2 million in the aggregate, of which $1.1 million was available at December 31, 2020.
48

 
As of December 31, 2020, our outstanding balances under our credit lines in Israel consisted of several bank performance, advance payment and bid guarantees totaling approximately $6.2 million, at an annual cost of 0.65%-1%.  As of December 31, 2020, the outstanding balances under the credit lines of our subsidiary consisted of several bank performance, advance payment and bid guarantees totaling approximately $0.2 million, at an annual cost of 2.05%.
 
C.           Research and Development, Patents and Licenses.
 
Government Grants
 
We participate in programs sponsored by the Israeli Government for the support of research and development activities.  In the past we have received royalty-bearing grants from the Innovation Authority (formerly the Office of the Chief Scientist) for certain of our research and development projects for perimeter security products. We are obligated to pay royalties to the Innovation Authority amounting to 3.5% of revenues derived from sales of the products funded with these grants and ancillary services, up to 100% of the grants received, linked to the U.S. dollar.  All grants received after January 1, 1999 also bear interest equal to the 12 month LIBOR rate.  The obligation to pay these royalties is contingent on actual sales of the products, and in the absence of such sales no payment is required. [On July 27, 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority (the authority that regulates LIBOR) announced that it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. It is unclear whether new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, is considering replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with a newly created index, calculated based on repurchase agreements backed by treasury securities. It is not possible to predict the effect of these changes, other reforms or the establishment of alternative reference rates in the United Kingdom, the United States or elsewhere. To the extent these interest rates increase, interest expense will increase. If sources of capital for FirstEnergy are reduced, capital costs could increase materially. Restricted access to capital markets and/or increased borrowing costs could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and liquidity.
 
In 2018, Magal received approval for a grant of $301,000 from the Innovation Authority, subject to development milestones achievement. The grant is for further development of Roboguard.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, we paid the Innovation Authority royalties in the amount of $6,000, $23,000 and $3,000, respectively.  These royalties related to sales of perimeter security products and management security systems. As of December 31, 2020, we had a contingent obligation to pay royalties to the Innovation Authority in the amount of approximately $1.9 million upon the successful sale of perimeter security products developed under research and development programs sponsored by the Innovation Authority.
 
We participate in programs sponsored by the Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP) in Canada. During 2018 our Canadian subsidiary received grants in the amount of $6,000. During 2019 and 2020 our Canadian subsidiary did not receive any grants with respect to such programs.
 
Investment Tax Credit
 
Our Canadian subsidiary is eligible for investment tax credits for its research and development activities and for certain current expenditures.  For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, our Canadian subsidiary recognized $151,000, $180,000 and $189,000, respectively, of investment tax credits.
 
In addition, as of December 31, 2020, our U.S. subsidiary had available investment tax credits of approximately $193,000 to reduce future federal and state income taxes payable.  These credits will expire in 2021 through 2025 in the U.S. As of December 31, 2020, our subsidiaries made a full valuation allowance in respect of such investment tax credits.
49

 
D.           Trend Information.
 
Our 2020 results were impacted by a decrease in revenues from project customers and by the decrease in revenues from products customers due to the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic whereas the guidance of social distancing and the requirements to work from home in key territories such as Israel, USA, Canada, Germany, Spain, Mexico and other countries, in addition to greatly reduced travel globally, has resulted in a substantial curtailment of business activities. The  COVID-19 outbreak has impacted verticals in which our customers operate (such as: oil and gas) and has resulted in a slowdown, postponement and sometime cancelation of projects.
 
E.           Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements.
 
We are not a party to any material off-balance sheet arrangements.  In addition, we have no unconsolidated special purpose financing or partnership entities that are likely to create material contingent obligations.
 
F.            Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations.
 
The following table summarizes our minimum contractual obligations and commercial commitments as of December 31, 2020 and the effect we expect them to have on our liquidity and cash flow in future periods.
 
 
Payments due by period
 
Contractual Obligations
 
Total
   
Less than 1 year
   
1-2 years
   
3-4 years
   
More than 4 years
 
   
(in thousands)
 
Operating lease obligations (nominal)
   
3,768
     
1,074
     
1,110
     
709
     
875
 
Other long-term liabilities reflected on our balance sheet under U.S. GAAP
   
2,689
     
-
     
-
     
-
     
2,689
 
Total
   
6,457
     
1,074
     
1,110
     
709
     
3,564
 

In addition, we have guaranteed advance payments, the performance of our work and provided warranties for the performance of our work to certain of our customers (usually governmental entities).  Such guarantees are required by contract for our performance during the installation and operational period of projects throughout Israel and the rest of the world.  The performance guarantees typically expire soon after certain milestones are met and warranty guarantees typically expire at the end of the warranty period.  The maximum potential amount of future payments we could be required to make under our guarantees at December 31, 2020 was $6.4 million.  We have not recorded any liability for such amounts as we believe our performance will not result in any claims.
 
50


ITEM 6.
Directors, Senior Management and Employees
 
A.           Directors and Senior Management.
 
Set forth below are the name, age, principal position and a biographical description of each of our directors and executive officers:
 
Name
 
Age
 
Position
Gillon Beck          
 
59
 
Chairman of the Board of Directors
Ron Ben-Haim          
 
51
 
Director
Jacob Berman          
 
72
 
Director
Avraham Bigger (1)(2)          
 
75
 
Director
Limor Steklov (1)(2)          
 
50
 
External Director
Moshe Tsabari (1)(2)          
 
67
 
External Director
Dror Sharon          
 
55
 
Chief Executive Officer
Yaacov (Kobi) Vinokur          
 
43
 
Chief Financial Officer
Brian Rich          
 
64
 
President and CTO of Senstar Corporation
Doron Kerbel          
 
49
 
Vice President – General Counsel and Company Secretary
Arnon Bram          
 
46
 
Vice President & General Manager Magal Israel and Head of the Integrated Solutions Division
Fabien Haubert
 
46
 
Vice President & Managing Director of Senstar and Head of the Product Division
____________
(1) Member of our Audit Committees.
(2) Member of our Compensation Committee

Gillon Beck has served as a director and Executive Chairman of our board of directors since September 2014. Since 2003, Mr. Beck has been a Senior Partner at FIMI Opportunity Funds, the controlling shareholder of Magal, as well as a Director of the FIMI Opportunity Funds’ General Partners and SPV companies. In addition, Mr. Beck currently serves as Chairman of the Board of E&M Computing Ltd (TASE), ImageSat NV, Bet Shemesh Engines Ltd. (TASE:BSEN), , ,., and., Bird Aerosystems Ltd, and is a director of, Orbit Technologies Ltd (TASE:ORBI), Carmel Forge Ltd., Simplivia Ltd,  AITECH Ltd,  Rafa Laboratories Ltd., Stern engineering Ltd., Utron Ltd (TASE) and Unitronics (1989) (RG) Ltd (TASE:UNIT).  During the past five years, Mr. Beck had served as a member of the Board of Directors of the following public companies: Overseas Commerce Ltd (TASE:OVRS), Ham-Let (Israel-Canada) Ltd. (TASE:HAML), Inrom Construction Industries Ltd. (TASE:INRM) , Ormat Technologies Inc. (NYSE:ORA) and Ormat Industries Ltd. From 1999 to 2003, Mr. Beck served as Chief Executive Officer and President of Arad Ltd., a publicly-traded water measurement and automatic meter reading company. Mr. Beck received a Bachelor of Science degree (Cum Laude) in Industrial Engineering in 1990 from the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, and a Master of Business Administration in Finance in 1992 from Bar-Ilan University.

Ron Ben-Haim has served as a director since September 2014.  Mr. Ben-Haim has been a partner in FIMI Opportunity Funds since 2006. Mr. Ben-Haim currently serves on the boards of directors of  Poliram Plastic Industries Ltd., Oxygen and Argon Works Ltd., Tadir-Gan (Precision Products) 1993, Ltd. (TASE:TDGN), Aitech Rugged Group, Inc., Rivulis Irrigation Ltd., Inrom Industries Ltd., Inrom Construction Industries Ltd. (TASE:INRM), Nirlat Paints Ltd., Alony Ltd., Orbit Technologies, Ltd. (TASE:ORBI), G1 Security Solutions Ltd (TASE:GOSS) and TAT Technologies, Ltd. (TASE, NASDAQ:TATT). Mr. Ben Haim formerly served as a member of the boards of directors of the following public companies: Hadera Paper Ltd., Overseas Commerce, Ltd., Medtechnica, Ltd., Ginegar Plastic Products, Ltd., Raval Acs, Ltd., Merhav Ceramic and Building Materials Center, Ltd. and Ophir Optronics, Ltd. Mr. Ben Haim was previously with Compass Advisers, LLP, an investment banking firm based in New York and in Tel Aviv and with the Merrill Lynch Mergers and Acquisitions group in New York. Prior to Merrill Lynch, Mr. Ben-Haim worked at Teva Pharmaceuticals in production management. Mr. Ben-Haim holds a B.Sc. degree in industrial engineering from the Tel Aviv University and an M.B.A. degree from New York University.
51


Jacob Berman has served as a director since November 2013.  From 2014 to 2019, Mr. Berman served as the chairman of the board of directors of Israel Discount Bank of New York and acted as a member of our audit committee and compensation committee between September 2014 and December 2014. Mr. Berman has been President of JB Advisors, Inc., a New York based financial advisory firm with extensive experience in international private banking, real estate investment counseling, and commercial/retail banking since 2002.  Mr. Berman served as a director of Micronet Enertec Technologies, Inc. Previously, Mr. Berman was the founder, President and CEO of the Commercial Bank of New York.

Avraham Bigger has served as a director since September 2014.  Mr. Bigger has been, since 2010, the owner and a member of the Board of Directors of Bigger Investments Ltd. Mr. Bigger currently serves as a board member of Migdal insurance, chairman of the board at Recha, board member at MCA (car import and distributor), international board member of the Weitzman Science Institute and president of the Israel Nature and Heritage Foundation. He formerly served as the Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Makhteshim Agam Industries Ltd., Chairman of the Boards of Directors of Supersol Ltd. (TASE:SAE), Caniel Beverages & Caniel Packaging Industries Ltd., the Edmond Benjamin de Rothschild Caesarea Foundation and as managing director of Paz Oil Company Ltd. (TASE:PZOL) and Israel General Bank (U Bank). Mr. Bigger also served as a member of the Boards of Directors of Bank Leumi Le-Israel Ltd. (TASE:LUMI), First International Bank of Israel Ltd. (TASE:FIBI), Strauss Group Ltd. (formerly known as Strauss-Elite Ltd.) (TASE:STRS), Partner Communications Company Ltd. (TASE, NASDAQ:PTNR), Cellcom Israel Ltd. (TASE, NYSE:CEL), El-Al Israel Airlines Ltd. and various private companies. Mr. Bigger received a Bachelor of Economics degree and an M.B.A. degree, both from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Limor Steklov has served as an external director since August 2019. Ms. Steklov serves as the CFO of TNT Express Worldwide (Israel) Ltd. Ms. Steklov has extensive experience in business partnering, combining business and financial visions, leading economic and business analytics, leading worldwide/local projects, creating effective and efficient processes, and leading, coaching, motivating and mentoring large finance teams. Ms. Steklov currently serves as a board member of the parent company of FEDEX Israel. Ms. Steklov holds a B.A. degree in economics and accountancy from College of Management – Academic Studies (COMAS) in Rishon LeZion and a M.A. degree in law from Bar-Ilan University.

Moshe Tsabari has served as an external director since December 2014.  Mr. Tsabari is the owner and serves as the joint CEO of GME Trust, a company that advises on crisis management and improvement of work processes, in Israel and worldwide.  Since 2005, Mr. Tsabari has served as the owner and director of Osher – Training & Consulting Ltd.  From 2006 to 2011 Mr. Tsabari served as a senior partner in the International Company for Defense and Rescue Ltd. and in QG Company, two companies that are engaged in the provision of consultancy and training projects in the security field in Israel.  In addition, Mr. Tsabari is the founder of the International Institute for Researching the Arab World, is a former director in Links Aviation and is the former CEO of SYS-TRY, an electronic equipment development company.  Prior to that, Mr. Tsabari served for 15 years, until 2004, in the Israeli Security Agency (ISA) in a number of positions, including Director of Personal in the Human Resources Division, Director of Security Assistance Division (rank in both positions equivalent to Major General) and Head of the Operations Division (rank equivalent to Brigadier).  Mr. Tsabari holds a B.Sc. degree in Geodetic Engineering, a M.A. degree in Industrial and Management Engineering and a PhD degree in Science, all from the Technion – The Israeli Institute of Technology. In addition, Mr. Tsabari is an A.M.P. graduate from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.

Dror Sharon has served as our Chief Executive Officer since June 24, 2018 following a six years career as President and CEO of Controp Precision Technology Ltd., a company specializing in developing, manufacturing and selling electro optical and precision motion control systems for the global defense and homeland security (HLS) markets. Prior to that, Mr. Sharon served in various positions at Opgal Optronics Ltd., the last four years as its President and CEO. Mr. Sharon holds an MBA degree from Derby University, United Kingdom and a B.Sc. degree in Mechanical Engineering (Dean’s award of excellence) from the Technion -Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
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Yaacov (Kobi) Vinokur joined our company as Chief Financial Officer in September 2016. Prior to joining our company, Mr. Vinokur served for three years as Chief Financial Officer of Miya (Arison Group), a global provider of comprehensive water efficiency solutions and a water utilities operator. Prior to that, Mr. Vinokur served in several key leadership positions at Brink’s Company (NYSE:BCO), a global leader in cash logistics, including Chief Financial Officer - Developing Markets division, Director of Procurement - EMEA division and Director of Finance - Global Services division. Prior to his career with Brink’s, Mr. Vinokur served as an Executive Director at Shapira Films, one of the leading film distribution and production companies in Israel, as well as a Head of Treasury at the Ministry of Defense of Israel. In 2017, the Israeli CFO Forum honored Mr. Vinokur with its annual CFO Excellence award. Mr. Vinokur, a certified public accountant in the United States and Israel, holds a B.A. degree in Accounting and Economics (magna cum laude) from Haifa University and a M.B.A. degree (cum laude) from Tel Aviv University. Mr. Vinokur is also a graduate of Harvard Business School’s Leadership Development Program and Stanford University's Executive M&A Program.
 
Brian Rich serves as CTO and President of Senstar Corporation, our Canadian subsidiary since May 2015.  Prior to such date, he served as President of Senstar Corporation since September 2000.  Prior to joining Magal, Mr. Rich served as Vice President, Engineering and Operations at Intelligent Detection Systems (IDS), a designer and manufacturer of trace explosives and narcotics detection equipment.  Prior to IDS he was a founding member of Senstar Corporation Canada from October 1981 to February 1998, during which time he held positions of increasing responsibility ending as Vice President, Engineering and Systems, and prior to that was a research engineer at Computing Devices Company of Canada (a Control Data company).  Mr. Rich holds a B.A.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Toronto.

Doron Kerbel has served as our General Counsel since July 2015.  Prior to joining Magal, Mr. Kerbel had served for more than eight years as legal counsel at Elbit Systems Ltd. (NASDAQ: ESLT) Aerospace Division.  Mr. Kerbel has extensive experience in advising on variety of commercial legal issues, mergers and acquisitions as well as (private finance initiatives) PFI and BOT (Build Operate Transfer) projects, both locally and internationally.  Prior to his work at Elbit Systems, Mr. Kerbel was an associate lawyer at M. Firon & Co. and Senior Legal Counsel for International Law at the Israeli Embassy to the Netherlands.  Mr. Kerbel holds a LL.B. degree from the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya and a LL.M. degree (with distinction) from the International Law School, University of Amsterdam.

Arnon Bram joined our company in February 2020 as Vice President - General Manager Magal Israel and Head of the Integrated Solutions (Projects) Division.  Prior joining the Company, Mr. Bram was DIRCM (Directional Infrared Counter Measures) Business Unit Manager at Elbit Systems Ltd. (NASDAQ:ESLT). Mr. Bram's previous roles include CEO of UAV Tactical Systems, a JV between Elbit Systems and Thales in the UK in the field of Unmanned Air Vehicles. He has also held various leadership roles in program management, operations and engineering at Elbit Systems. Mr. Bram brings extensive experience in international sales, multi-year strategy setting and execution, international customers management, multi-disciplinary engineering development programs, production and large scale supply chain management. Mr. Bram holds a B.Sc. in Information Systems Engineering from Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Fabien Haubert has served as Managing Director of Sensor Corp. Since February 2020. Mr. Haubert joined our company in February 2018 as Vice President Sales – EMEA Region, based in Paris, France.  Mr. Haubert’s most recent experience (February 2014 – February 2018) was with UK based CCTV solution provider Indigo Vision located in Edinburgh where he was Regional Director – EMEA South.  Previous to his four years at Indigo he worked with several companies in the VMS, IP CCTV, intrusion, access control and integration areas since 2002.  He has extensive experience in sales management with past responsibility for the EMEA region.  Mr. Haubert has a technical background with a Master of Science degree in Electronics Engineering (Ecole Supérieure d’Ingénieurs en Electrontechnique et Electronique) as well as a Master of Strategy and Engineering of International business (Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Economiques et Commerciales).  He speaks French, English, Spanish, and Italian and has a working knowledge of Dutch.
 
The terms of office of Messrs. Beck, Berman, Ben-Haim and Bigger will expire at our 2021 annual general meeting of shareholders.  The terms of our external directors, Mr. Tsabari and Ms. Steklov, expire in 2023 and 2022, respectively.
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B.           Compensation
 
Compensation of Directors and Executive Officers
 
The aggregate compensation costs on behalf of our directors and executive officers as a group during 2020 consisted of approximately $2.5 million in salary, fees, bonus, equity based compensation, commissions and directors’ fees, but excluding dues for professional and business associations, business travel and other expenses commonly reimbursed or paid by companies. As of December 31, 2020, the aggregate amount set aside or accrued for pension, retirement and vacation or similar benefits for our directors and executive officers was approximately 0.1 million.  In addition, we provide automobiles to our executive officers at our expense.
 
We pay our directors an annual fee of NIS 90,000 (approximately $26,000) and a fee of NIS 4,000 (approximately $1,150) for each board or committee meeting that they attend.  Such amounts are linked to the Israeli consumer price index, or CPI, and are updated on a semi-annual basis and accordingly, are adjusted to reflect changes in the CPI in February and August, each year. In addition, we pay to our Executive Chairman a monthly payment of NIS 15,000 (approximately $4,350).  Our executive Chairman is also entitled to a director fees paid to all of our directors as described above. In addition, Mr. Beck is entitled to annual cash bonus of $30,000 payable in the event our net profit pursuant to our annual audited and consolidated financial statement exceeds $5,000,000.  
 
As of December 31, 2020, our directors and executive officers as a group, then consisting of 12 persons, held options to purchase an aggregate of 603,334 ordinary shares, having exercise prices ranging from $2.778 to $4.491 and expiration dates ranging from 2021 to 2027.  Generally, the options vest over a two to four year period.  See this Item 6E. “Directors, Senior Management and Employees – Share Ownership – Stock Option Plans.”
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Compensation of Senior Office Holders – Israel Companies Law Disclosure
 
The table below sets forth the compensation paid to our five most highly compensated senior office holders (as defined in the Israeli Companies Law) during the year ended December 31, 2020 (which include one former senior officer), in the disclosure format of Regulation 21 of the Israeli Securities Regulations (Periodic and Immediate Reports), 1970. We refer to the five individuals for whom disclosure is provided herein as our “Covered Executives.”
 
Information Regarding the Covered Executive(1)
(dollars in thousands)
 
 
Name and Principal Position(2)
Base Salary
Benefits and
Perquisites(3)
Variable  Compensation(4)
Equity-Based
Compensation(5)
Total
Dror Sharon – Chief Executive Officer
316
148
186
176
826
Fabien Haubert – Vice President Managing Director Senstar Corp. & head of the Senstar Products Division
175
113
81
10
379
Yaacov (Kobi) Vinokur - Chief Financial Officer
185
70
62
37
354
Arnon Bram - Vice President & General Manager Magal Israel and Head of the Integrated Solutions Division
168
63
-
18
249
Doron Kerbel - Vice President General Counsel and Company Secretary
143
61
36
6
246
(1)
All amounts reported in the table are in terms of cost to our company, as recorded in our financial statements.
(2)
All current Covered Executives listed in the table are full-time employees. Cash compensation amounts denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar were converted into U.S. dollars at the average conversion rate for the year ended December 31, 2020.
(3)
Amounts reported in this column include benefits and perquisites or on account of such benefits and perquisites, including those mandated by applicable law. Such benefits and perquisites may include, to the extent applicable to each executive, payments, contributions and/or allocations for savings funds, pension, severance, vacation, car or car allowance, medical insurances and benefits, risk insurances (e.g., life, disability, accident), convalescence pay, payments for social security, tax gross-up payments and other benefits and perquisites consistent with our guidelines.
(4)
Amounts reported in this column refer to Variable Compensation such as commission, incentive and bonus payments as recorded in our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020.
(5)
Amounts reported in this column represent the expense recorded in our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, we have adopted a compensation policy and are required to follow certain approval requirements with respect to the compensation of our directors and executive officers.  See below “Board of Directors – Compensation Committee” and Item 10. Additional Information –– Office Holders.
 
We follow Israeli law and practice instead of the requirements of the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules regarding the compensation of our chief executive office and other executive officers.  See Item 16G. “Corporate Governance.”
 
C.           Board Practices
 
Introduction
 
According to the Israeli Companies Law and our articles of association, the management of our business is vested in our board of directors.  The board of directors may exercise all powers and may take all actions that are not specifically granted to our shareholders.  Our executive officers are responsible for our day-to-day management.  The executive officers have individual responsibilities established by our chief executive officer and board of directors.  Executive officers are appointed by and serve at the discretion of the board of directors, subject to any applicable agreements.
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Election of Directors
 
Our articles of association provide for a board of directors of not less than three and not more than 11 members, as may be determined from time to time at our annual general meeting.  Our board of directors is currently composed of six (6) directors.
 
Our directors (except the external directors, as detailed below), are elected by our shareholders at our annual general meeting and hold office until the next annual general meeting.  All the members of our board of directors (except the external directors), may be reelected upon completion of their term of office.  Our annual general meetings of shareholders are held at least once every calendar year, but not more than 15 months after the last preceding annual general meeting.  In the intervals between our annual general meetings of shareholders, the board of directors may from time to time appoint a new director to fill a casual vacancy or to add to their number, and any director so appointed will remain in office until our next annual general meeting of shareholders and may be re-elected.
 
Under the Israeli Companies Law, our board of directors is required to determine the minimum number of directors who must have “accounting and financial expertise,” as such term is defined in regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law.  Our board of directors has determined that at least one director must have “accounting and financial expertise.”  Our board of directors has further determined that Ms. Limor Steklov has the requisite “accounting and financial expertise.”
 
We do not follow the requirements of the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules regarding the nomination process of directors, and instead, we follow Israeli law and practice, in accordance with which our directors are recommended by our board of directors for election by our shareholders.  See Item 16G. “Corporate Governance.”
 
External and Independent Directors
 
External directors.  The Israeli Companies Law requires Israeli companies with shares that have been offered to the public in or outside of Israel to appoint at least two external directors.  The Israeli Companies Law provides that a person may not be appointed as an external director if the person, or the person’s relative, partner, employer or an entity under that person’s control, has or had during the two years preceding the date of appointment any affiliation with the company, or any entity controlling, controlled by or under common control with the company.  The term “relative” means a spouse, sibling, parent, grandparent, child or child of spouse or spouse of any of the above as well as a sibling, brother, sister or parent of the foregoing relatives.  In general, the term “affiliation” includes an employment relationship, a business or professional relationship maintained on a regular basis, control and service as an office holder.  Furthermore, if the company does not have a controlling shareholder or a shareholder holding at least 25% of the voting rights, “affiliation” also includes a relationship, at the time of the appointment, with the chairman of the board, the chief executive officer, a substantial shareholder or the most senior financial officer of such company. Regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law include certain additional relationships that would not be deemed an “affiliation” with a company for the purpose of service as an external director. In addition, no person may serve as an external director if the person’s position or other activities create, or may create a conflict of interest with the person’s responsibilities as director or may otherwise interfere with the person’s ability to serve as director or if such person is an employee of the Israel Securities Authority or of an Israeli stock exchange.  If, at the time an external director is appointed, all current members of the board of directors are of the same gender, then that external director must be of the other gender.  A director of one company may not be appointed as an external director of another company if a director of the other company is acting as an external director of the first company at such time.
 
At least one of the elected external directors must have “accounting and financial expertise” and any other external director must have “accounting and financial expertise” or “professional qualification,” as such terms are defined by regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law.
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The external directors are elected by shareholders at a general meeting.  The shareholders voting in favor of their election must include at least a majority of the shares voted by shareholders other than controlling shareholders or shareholders who have a personal interest in the election of the external director (unless such personal interest is not related to such persons relationship with the controlling shareholder) present and voting at such meeting (excluding abstentions).  This majority requirement will not be required if the total number of shares of such non-controlling shareholders and disinterested shareholders who vote against the election of the external director represent 2% or less of the voting rights in the company.
 
In general, under the Israeli Companies Law, external directors serve for a three-year term and may be reelected to two (2) additional three-year terms.  However, Israeli companies listed on certain stock exchanges outside Israel, including The NASDAQ Global Market, such as our company, may appoint an external director for additional terms of not more than three years subject to certain conditions.  Such conditions include the determination by the audit committee and board of directors, that in view of the director’s professional expertise and special contribution to the company’s board of directors and its committees, the appointment of the external director for an additional term is in the best interest of the company.  External directors can be removed from office only by the same special percentage of shareholders that can elect them, or by a court order, and then only if the external directors cease to meet the statutory qualifications with respect to their appointment or if they violate their fiduciary duty to the company.
 
Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, external directors up for re-election are nominated either by the board of directors or by any shareholder(s) holding at least 1% of the voting rights in the company.  If the board of directors proposed the nominee, the reelection must be approved by the shareholders in the same manner required to appoint external directors for an initial term, as described above. If such reelection is proposed by shareholders, such reelection requires the approval of the majority of the shareholders voting on the matter, and satisfaction of all of the following requirements: (i) In calculating the majority votes, the votes of the controlling shareholders and other shareholders that have personal interest in such reelection (unless such personal interest is not related to such persons relationship with the controlling shareholder) as well as abstentions are not included; (ii) the votes of the non-controlling shareholders in favor of the reelection and of the shareholders who do not have personal interest in the reelection (unless such personal interest is not related to such person’s relationship with the controlling shareholder) is greater than 2% of the voting rights in the company; and (iii) the external director is not, at the time of such reelection, a related shareholder or competitor or a relative thereof and does not have any affiliation to any related shareholder, competitor or any relative thereof during the two years prior to such re-election. A related shareholder or a competitor are defined as the shareholder proposing the reelection, any substantial shareholder (within the meaning of the Israeli Companies Law) if at the time of reelection either such shareholder, its controlling shareholder or any company controlled by either of them has business relations with the company or that either such shareholder, its controlling shareholder or a company controlled by either of them is a competitor of the company.
 
Each committee of the board of directors that is authorized to exercise powers vested in the board of directors must include at least one external director and the audit committee must include all the external directors.  An external director is entitled to compensation as provided in regulations adopted under the Israeli Companies Law and is otherwise prohibited from receiving any other compensation, directly or indirectly, in connection with such service.
 
Ms. Steklov and Mr. Tsabari serve as our external directors under the Israeli Companies Law.  Ms. Steklov’s first term will expire in 2022 and Mr. Tsabari’s third term will expire in 2023.
 
Independent Directors.  Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, a director may be qualified as an independent director if such director is either (i) an external director; or (ii) or a director who is appointed or classified as such, and who meets the qualifications of an external director (other than the professional qualifications/accounting and financial expertise requirement), who the audit committee has confirmed meets the external director qualifications, and who has not served as a director for more than nine consecutive years (with any period of up to two years during which such person does not serve as a director not being viewed as interrupting a nine-year period).
 
In general, NASDAQ Stock Market Rules require that the board of directors of a NASDAQ-listed company has a majority of independent directors and that its audit committee has at least three members and be comprised only of independent directors, each of whom satisfies the “independence” requirements of NASDAQ and the SEC.  However, foreign private issuers, such as our company, may follow certain home country corporate governance practices instead of certain requirements of the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules.  On June 30, 2006, we provided NASDAQ with a notice that instead of maintaining a majority of independent directors, we follow Israeli law, under which we are required to appoint at least two external directors, within the meaning of the Israeli Companies Law, to our board of directors.  In addition, in accordance with the rules of the SEC and NASDAQ, our audit committee is composed of three independent directors, as defined in the rules of the SEC and NASDAQ.  At present the majority of our directors satisfy the independence requirements of NASDAQ and the SEC.
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Our board of directors has determined that our external directors, Ms. Steklov and Mr. Tsabari, qualify as independent directors under the requirements of the SEC and NASDAQ.  Our board of directors has further determined that Messrs. Bigger and Berman also qualify as independent directors under the requirements of the SEC and NASDAQ.
 
Audit Committee under Israeli Law
 
Under the Israeli Companies Law, the board of directors of any public company must establish an audit committee, or the Israeli Audit Committee.  The Israeli Audit Committee must consist of at least three directors and must include all of the external directors, the majority of which must be independent directors.  The Israeli Audit Committee may not include the chairman of the board of directors; any director employed by the company or providing services to the company on an ongoing basis (other than as a director); a controlling shareholder or any of the controlling shareholder’s relatives; and any director who is employed by, or rendered services to, the controlling shareholder or an entity controlled by the controlling shareholder, or a director whose main livelihood is from the controlling shareholder.  Any person who is not permitted to be a member of the Israeli Audit Committee may not be present in the meetings of the Israeli Audit Committee unless the chairman of the Israeli Audit Committee determines that such person’s presence is necessary in order to present a specific matter.  However, an employee who is not a controlling shareholder or relative of a controlling shareholder may participate in the audit committee’s discussions but not in any vote, and at the request of the Israeli Audit Committee, the secretary of the company and its legal counsel may be present during the meeting. The chairman of the Israeli Audit Committee must be an external director.
 
The role of the Israeli Audit Committee, pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, includes:
 

monitoring deficiencies in the management of the company, including in consultation with the independent auditors or the internal auditor, and to advise the board of directors on how to correct such deficiencies. If the audit committee finds a material deficiency, it will hold at least one meeting regarding such material deficiency, with the presence of the internal auditor or the independent auditors but without the presence of the senior management of the company. However, a member of the company’s senior management can participate in the meeting in order to present an issue which is under his or her responsibility;
 

determining, on the basis of detailed arguments, whether to classify certain engagements or transactions as material or extraordinary, as applicable, and therefore as requiring special approval under the Israeli Companies Law. The audit committee may make such determination according to principles and guidelines predetermined on an annual basis;
 

determining if transactions (excluding extraordinary transactions) with a controlling shareholder, or in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, are required to be rendered pursuant to a competitive procedure;
 

deciding whether to approve engagements or transactions that require the Israeli Audit Committee approval under the Israeli Companies Law;
 

determining the approval procedure of non-extraordinary transactions, following classification as such by the Israeli Audit Committee, including whether such specific non-extraordinary transactions require the approval of the Israeli Audit Committee;
 

examining and approving the annual and periodical working plan of the internal auditor;
 

overseeing the company’s internal auditing and the performance of the internal auditor; confirm that the internal auditor has sufficient tools and resources at his disposal, considering, among other matters, the special requirements of the company and its size;
 

examining the scope of work of the independent auditor and its pay, and bringing such recommendations on these issue before the Board;
 
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determining the procedure of addressing complaints of employees regarding shortcomings in the management of the company and ensure the protection of employees who have filed such complaints;
 

determining with respect to transactions with the controlling shareholder or in which such controlling shareholder has personal interest, whether such transactions are extraordinary or not, an obligation to conduct competitive process under supervisions of the audit committee or determination that prior to entering into such transactions the company shall conduct other process as the audit committee may deem fit, all taking into account the type of the company; and
 

determining the manner of approval of transactions with the controlling shareholder or in which it has personal interest which (i) are not negligible transactions (pursuant to the committee’s determination) and (ii) are not qualified by the Israeli Audit Committee as extraordinary transactions.
 
Our Israeli Audit Committee is currently composed of Ms. Steklov and Messrs. Bigger and Tsabari. Both Ms. Steklov and Mr. Tsabari satisfy the “independence” requirements of the Israeli Companies Law.  Our board of directors has determined that Ms. Steklov has the requisite accounting and financial expertise to serve as our audit committee financial expert. Ms. Steklov also serves as the chairperson of our Israeli Audit Committee. The Israeli Audit Committee meets at least once each quarter.
 
Audit Committee under U.S. Laws and Regulations
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market Rules require us to establish an audit committee consisting of at least three members, each of whom must be financially literate and satisfy the respective ‘‘independence’’ requirements of the SEC and NASDAQ and one of whom has accounting or related financial management expertise.  Such audit committee is established for the primary purpose of assisting the Board in overseeing the:
 

integrity of the Company’s financial statements;
 

independent auditor’s qualifications, independence and performance;
 

Company’s financial reporting processes and accounting policies; performance of the Company’s internal audit function; and
 

Company’s compliance with legal and regulatory requirements.
 
Ms. Steklov and Messrs. Bigger and Tsabari satisfy the respective “independence” requirements of the SEC and NASDAQ.  Our board of directors has determined that Ms. Steklov has the requisite accounting and financial expertise to serve as our Audit Committee financial expert and that both Mr. Bigger and Mr. Tsabari are financially literate, having a basic understanding of financial controls and reporting.  The U.S. Audit Committee meets at least once each quarter. Mr. Bigger serves as chairperson of our U.S. Audit Committee for purposes of compliance with U.S. law and regulations.
 
Compensation Committee
 
Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, each publicly traded company is required to establish a compensation committee which must be comprised of at least three directors, including all of the external directors. The additional members of the compensation committee must be directors that receive compensation in accordance with the provisions and limitations set forth in the regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law with respect to external directors. An external director shall serve as the chairman of the compensation committee. Under the Israeli Companies Law, the external directors shall constitute a majority of the compensation committee. Similar to the rules that apply to the audit committee, the compensation committee may not include the chairman of the board, or any director employed by us, by a controlling shareholder or by any entity controlled by a controlling shareholder, or any director providing services to us, to a controlling shareholder or to any entity controlled by a controlling shareholder on a regular basis, or any director whose primary income is dependent on a controlling shareholder, and may not include a controlling shareholder or any of its relatives.  Individuals who are not permitted to be compensation committee members may not participate in the committee’s meetings other than to present a particular issue; provided, however, that an employee that is not a controlling shareholder or relative may participate in the committee’s discussions but not in any vote, and the company’s legal counsel and corporate secretary may participate in the committee’s discussions and votes if requested by the committee.
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The compensation committee is responsible for (i) recommending the compensation policy to the board of directors for its approval (and subsequent approval by shareholders) and (ii) duties related to the compensation policy and to the approval of the terms of engagement of office holders, including: recommending whether a compensation policy should continue in effect, if the then-current policy has a term of greater than three (3) years (approval of either a new compensation policy or the continuation of an existing compensation policy must in any case occur every three years), recommending to the board of directors periodic updates to the compensation policy, assessing implementation of the compensation policy; determining whether the compensation terms of a proposed new Chief Executive Officer of the company need not be brought to approval of the shareholders; and determining whether to approve transactions concerning the terms of engagement and employment of the company’s officers and directors that require compensation committee approval under the Israeli Companies Law or the company’s compensation plans and policies.
 
We have established a compensation committee that is currently composed of Ms. Steklov and Messrs. Bigger and Tsabari. Mr. Tsabari serves as the chairperson of our Compensation Committee. The composition and function of the Compensation Committee comply with the requirements of the Israeli Companies Law and NASDAQ Stock Market Rules.
 
Israeli Regulations
 
In March 2016, the Israeli Companies Law Regulations were amended to reduce certain duplicative regulatory burden to which Israeli companies publicly-traded on NASDAQ are subject to.
 
Generally, pursuant to the new regulations, an Israeli company traded on NASDAQ that does not have a “controlling shareholder” (as defined in the Israeli Companies Law) will be able to elect not to appoint External Directors to its Board of Directors and not to comply with the Audit Committee and Compensation Committee composition and chairman requirements of the Israeli Companies Law (as described above under); provided, the company complies with the applicable NASDAQ independent director requirements and the NASDAQ Audit Committee and Compensation Committee composition requirements.
 
Since our largest shareholder, the limited partnerships managed by FIMI FIVE 2012 Ltd., are deemed to be a “controlling shareholder” under the Israeli Companies Law, we are not currently eligible to benefit from the relief provided by these new amended Israeli regulations.
 
Internal Auditor
 
Under the Israeli Companies Law, the board of directors of a publicly traded company must appoint an internal auditor nominated by the audit committee.  The role of the internal auditor is to examine whether the company’s actions comply with the law, integrity and orderly business practice.  Under the Israeli Companies Law, the internal auditor may not be an interested party, an office holder, or an affiliate, or a relative of an interested party, office holder or affiliate, nor may the internal auditor be the company’s independent accountant or its representative.  KPMG serves as our Internal Auditor.
 
Directors’ Service Contracts
 
There are no arrangements or understandings between us and any of our subsidiaries, on the one hand, and any of our directors, on the other hand, providing for benefits upon termination of their employment or service as directors of our company or any of our subsidiaries.
 
Chairman of the Board

Under the Israeli Companies Law, the general manager of a company (or a relative of the general manager) may not serve as the chairman of the board of directors, and the chairman of the board of directors (or a relative of the chairman of the board of directors) may not serve as the general manager, unless approved by the shareholders by a special majority vote prescribed by the Israeli Companies Law.  The shareholder vote cannot authorize the appointment for a period of longer than three years, which period may be extended from time to time by the shareholders with a similar special majority vote.  The chairman of the board of directors shall not hold any other position with the company (except as general manager if approved in accordance with the above procedure) or in any entity controlled by the company, other than as chairman of the board of directors of a controlled entity, and the company shall not delegate to the chairman duties that, directly or indirectly, make him or her subordinate to the general manager.
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Approval of Related Party Transactions under Israeli Law
 
Fiduciary Duties of Office Holders
 
The Israeli Companies Law codifies the fiduciary duties that “office holders,” including directors and executive officers, owe to a company.  An “office holder” is defined in the Israeli Companies Law as a director, general manager, chief business manager, deputy general manager, vice general manager, other manager directly subordinate to the general manager or any other person assuming the responsibilities of any of the foregoing positions without regard to such person’s title.  An office holder’s fiduciary duties consist of a duty of care and a fiduciary duty. The duty of care requires an office holder to act at a level of care that a reasonable office holder in the same position would employ under the same circumstances. This includes the duty to utilize reasonable means to obtain (i) information regarding the appropriateness of a given action brought for his approval or performed by him by virtue of his position and (ii) all other information of importance pertaining to the foregoing actions. The fiduciary duty includes (i) avoiding any conflict of interest between the office holder’s position in the company and any other position he holds or his personal affairs, (ii) avoiding any competition with the company’s business, (iii) avoiding exploiting any business opportunity of the company in order to receive personal gain for the office holder or others, and (iv) disclosing to the company any information or documents relating to the company’s affairs that the office holder has received due to his position as an office holder.
 
Disclosure of Personal Interests of an Office Holder; Approval of Transactions with Office Holders
 
The Israeli Companies Law requires that an office holder promptly, and no later than the first board meeting at which such transaction is considered, disclose any personal interest that he or she may have and all related material information known to him or her and any documents in their position, in connection with any existing or proposed transaction by us. In addition, if the transaction is an extraordinary transaction, that is, a transaction other than in the ordinary course of business, other than on market terms, or likely to have a material impact on the company’s profitability, assets or liabilities, the office holder must also disclose any personal interest held by the office holder’s spouse, siblings, parents, grandparents, descendants, spouse’s descendants and the spouses of any of the foregoing, or by any corporation in which the office holder or a relative is a 5% or greater shareholder, director or general manager or in which he or she has the right to appoint at least one director or the general manager.
 
Some transactions, actions and arrangements involving an office holder (or a third party in which an office holder has an interest) must be approved by the board of directors or as otherwise provided for in a company’s articles of association, however, a transaction that is adverse to the company’s interest may not be approved. In some cases, such a transaction must be approved by the audit committee and by the board of directors itself, and under certain circumstances shareholder approval may also be required. A director who has a personal interest in a transaction that is considered at a meeting of the board of directors or the audit committee may not be present during the board of directors or audit committee discussions and may not vote on the transaction, unless the transaction is not an extraordinary transaction or the majority of the members of the board or the audit committee have a personal interest, as the case may be. In the event the majority of the members of the board of directors or the audit committee have a personal interest, then the approval of the general meeting of shareholders is also required.
 
Approval of a Compensation Policy for Office Holders
 
The Israeli Companies Law and the regulations adopted thereunder require the compensation committee to adopt a policy for director and office holders.  In adopting the compensation policy, the compensation committee must consider factors such as the office holder’s education, experience, past compensation arrangements with the company, and the proportional difference between the person’s cost of compensation and the average cost of compensation of the company’s employees.
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The compensation policy must be approved at least once every three years at the company’s general meeting of shareholders, and is subject to the approval of a majority vote of the votes of the shareholders present and voting at a shareholders’ meeting, provided that either: (i) such majority includes at least a majority of the votes of  all shareholders who are not controlling shareholders and do not have a personal interest in the approval of the compensation policy, present and voting at such meeting (excluding abstentions); or (ii) the total number of ordinary shares of non-controlling shareholders and shareholders who do not have a personal interest in the approval of the compensation policy, voting against the resolution does not exceed 2% of the aggregate voting rights in the company. Our compensation policy was last approved by the shareholders in November 2020.
 
The Board may approve the compensation policy even if such policy was not approved by the shareholders, provided that the compensation committee and the board of directors resolve, based on detailed consideration of the compensation policy that approval of the policy, is in the best interest of the company, despite the fact that it was not approved at the shareholders’ meeting.
 
The compensation policy serves as the basis for decisions concerning the financial terms of employment or engagement of officer holders, including exculpation, insurance, indemnification or any monetary payment or obligation of payment in respect of employment or engagement. The compensation policy must relate to certain factors, including advancement of the company’s objectives, the company’s business and its long-term strategy, and creation of appropriate incentives for executives. It must also consider, among other things, the company’s risk management, size and the nature of its operations. The compensation committee must also consider among others, the ratio between the cost of terms offered to the relevant director or office holder and the average  and median cost of compensation of the other employees of the company, including those employed through manpower companies, the effect of disparities in salary upon work relationships in the company, the possibility of reducing variable compensation at the discretion of the board of directors; the possibility of setting a limit on the exercise value of non-cash variable compensation; and as to severance compensation (in excess of those promulgated by applicable labor law), the period of service of the director or office holder, the terms of his or her compensation during such service period, the company’s performance during that period of service, the person’s contribution towards the company’s achievement of its goals and the maximization of its profits, and the circumstances under which the person is leaving the company.
 
The compensation policy must also include the link between variable compensation and long-term performance and measurable criteria, the relationship between variable and fixed compensation, and the upper limit for the value of variable compensation, the conditions under which a director or an office holder would be required to repay compensation paid to him or her if it was later shown that the data upon which such compensation was based was inaccurate and was required to be restated in the company’s financial statements, the minimum holding or vesting period for variable, equity-based compensation whilst referring to appropriate a long-term perspective based incentives; and maximum limits for severance compensation.
 
Once a compensation policy is properly adopted, the Israeli Companies Law requires the compensation policy to be approved by the company’s compensation committee, with subsequent approval of the board of directors. In addition, compensation of the directors and the chief executive officer is also subject to the approval of the shareholders at a general meeting. The approval of the compensation of the chief executive officer that complies with the compensation policy is subject to the same majority requirements as the approval of a transaction between a company and its controlling shareholder.  Where the director is also a controlling shareholder, the requirements for approval of transactions with controlling shareholders apply.  The terms of employment of the company’s directors and executive officers must satisfy the requirements of the compensation policy in respect of matters relating to compensation. Any deviations from the compensation policy in respect of the compensation of the office holders require the approval of the compensation committee, the board of directors and the shareholders. If the deviation is with respect to the compensation of the chief executive office then such approval must be made by the majority of the shareholders provided that such majority includes the majority of the votes of the non-controlling shareholder and other shareholders who have personal interest in the proposal (unless such personal interest is not related to the controlling shareholder) present and voting (excluding abstention). Such special majority is not required if the number of votes of the non-controlling shareholders and shareholder who do not have personal interest in the proposal as previously mentioned is lower than 2% of the aggregate voting rights in the company.
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Under the Israeli Companies Law, all arrangements as to compensation of office holders who are not directors require the approval of the compensation committee prior, and in addition, to the approval of the board of directors.  However, if the Company duly adopts a compensation plan for its office holders, the approval of the board of directors is not required if the new arrangement only modifies an existing arrangement and the compensation committee determines that such modification is not material.  Generally, the compensation of the CEO must be approved by the compensation committee, the board of directors and by the majority of the shareholders provided that either: (i) such majority includes a majority of the total votes of shareholders who are not controlling shareholders and do not have a Personal Interest in the approval of the compensation policy and who participate in the voting, in person, by proxy or by written ballot, at the meeting (abstentions not taken into account); or (ii) the total number of votes of shareholders mentioned in (i) above that are voted against the approval of the compensation policy do not represent more than 2% of the total voting rights in the company.  The compensation of office holders who are directors must be approved by the compensation committee, board of directors and simple majority vote of the shareholders.
 
External directors of the company are prohibited from receiving, directly or indirectly, any compensation from the company, other than for their services as external directors pursuant to the provisions and limitations set forth in regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law, which compensation is determined prior to their appointment and may not be changed throughout the term of their service as external directors (except for certain exceptions set forth in such regulations).
 
Disclosure of Personal Interests of a Controlling Shareholder; Approval of Transactions with Controlling Shareholders
 
Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, the disclosure requirements regarding personal interests that apply to directors and executive officers also apply to a controlling shareholder of a public company. A controlling shareholder is a shareholder who has the ability to direct the activities of a company, but excludes a shareholder whose power derives solely from its position on the board of directors or any other position at the company. A person is presumed to be a “controlling shareholder” if it holds or controls, by itself or together with others, one half or more of any one of the “Means of Control” of the company. “Means of Control” is defined as any one of the following: (i) the right to vote at a General Meeting of the company, or (ii) the right to appoint directors of the company or its chief executive officer. For the purpose of related party translations, under the Israeli Companies Law, a controlling shareholder is also a shareholder who holds 25% or more of the voting rights if no other shareholder who holds more than 50% of the voting rights. For this purpose, the holdings of all shareholders who have a personal interest in the same transaction will be aggregated. Certain shareholders also have a duty of fairness toward the company. These shareholders include any controlling shareholder, together with any shareholder who knows that it has the power to determine the outcome of a shareholder vote and any shareholder who has the power to appoint or to prevent the appointment of an office holder of the company or exercise any other rights available to it under the company’s articles of association with respect to the company. The Israeli Companies Law does not define the substance of this duty of fairness, except to state that the remedies generally available upon a breach of contract will also apply in the event of a breach of the duty of fairness.
 
An extraordinary transaction between a public company and a controlling shareholder, or in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, including a private placement in which the controlling shareholder has a personal interest, and the terms of engagement of the company, directly or indirectly, with a controlling shareholder or a controlling shareholder’s relative (including through a corporation controlled by a controlling shareholder), regarding the company’s receipt of services from the controlling shareholder, and if such controlling shareholder is also an office holder of the company, regarding his or her terms of employment, require the approval of a company’s audit committee (or compensation committee with respect to compensation arrangements), board of directors and shareholders, in that order. Such transaction must be elected by a majority vote of the Ordinary Shares present and voting at a shareholders’ meeting, provided that either: (i) such majority includes at least a majority of votes held by all shareholders who do not have a personal interest in such transaction, present and voting at such meeting (excluding abstentions); or (ii) the total number of votes of shareholders who do not have a personal interest in such transaction voting against the approval of the transaction, does not exceed 2% of the aggregate voting rights in the company.
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Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, the audit committee of the company should determine in connection with such transaction if it requires rendering pursuant to a competitive procedure or pursuant to other proceedings. See “Audit Committee” above.
 
To the extent that any such transaction with a controlling shareholder or his relative is for a period extending beyond three years, shareholder approval is required once every three years, unless, in respect to certain transactions, the audit committee determines that the longer duration of the transaction is reasonable under the circumstances.
 
Pursuant to regulations promulgated pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, a transaction with a controlling shareholder that would otherwise require approval of the shareholders is exempt from shareholders’ approval if each of the audit committee and the board of directors determine that the transaction meets certain criteria that are set out in specific regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law. Under these regulations, a shareholder holding at least 1% of the issued share capital of the company may require, within 14 days of the publication of such determination, that despite such determination by the audit committee and the board of directors, such transaction will require shareholder approval under the same majority requirements that otherwise apply to such transactions.
 
The Israeli Companies Law provides that an acquisition of shares in a public company must be made by means of a tender offer if as a result of the acquisition the purchaser would become a 25% or greater shareholder of the company. This rule does not apply if there is already another 25% or greater shareholder of the company. Similarly, the Israeli Companies Law provides that an acquisition of shares in a public company must be made by means of a tender offer if as a result of the acquisition the purchaser would hold greater than a 45% interest in the company, unless there is another shareholder holding more than a 45% interest in the company. These requirements do not apply if, in general, (i) the acquisition was made in a private placement that received shareholder approval, (ii) was from a 25% or greater shareholder of the company which resulted in the acquirer becoming a 25% or greater shareholder of the company, if there is not already a 25% or greater shareholder of the company, or (iii) was from a shareholder holding a 45% interest in the company which resulted in the acquirer becoming a holder of a 45% interest in the company if there is not already a 45% or greater shareholder of the company.

If, as a result of an acquisition of shares, the acquirer will hold more than 90% of a public company’s outstanding shares or a class of shares, the acquisition must be made by means of a tender offer for all of the outstanding shares or a class of shares. If less than 5% of the outstanding shares are not tendered in the tender offer, all the shares that the acquirer offered to purchase will be transferred to the acquirer.  If more than 5% of the outstanding shares are not tendered in the tender offer, then the acquirer may not acquire shares in the tender offer that will cause his shareholding to exceed 90% of the outstanding shares.  The Israeli Companies Law provides for appraisal rights if any shareholder files a request in court within six months following the consummation of a full tender offer.  However, in the event of a full tender offer, the offeror may determine that any shareholder who accepts the offer will not be entitled to appraisal rights.  Such determination will be effective only if the offeror or the company has timely published all the information that is required to be published in connection with such full tender offer pursuant to all applicable laws.

Exculpation, Indemnification and Insurance of Directors and Officers

Exculpation of Office Holders.  The Israeli Companies Law provides that an Israeli company cannot exculpate an office holder from liability with respect to a breach of his or her fiduciary duty.  If permitted by its articles of association, a company may exculpate in advance an office holder from his or her liability to the company, in whole or in part, with respect to a breach of his or her duty of care.  However, a company may not exculpate in advance a director from his or her liability to the company with respect to a breach of his duty of care in the event of distributions.
 
Office Holders’ Insurance.  Israeli law provides that a company may, if permitted by its articles of association, enter into a contract to insure its office holders for liabilities incurred by the office holder with a respect to an act performed in his or her capacity as an office holder, as a result of: (i) a breach of the office holder’s duty of care to the company or another person; (ii) a breach of the office holder’s fiduciary duty to the company, provided that the office holder acted in good faith and had reasonable cause to assume that the act would not prejudice the company’s interests; and (iii) a financial liability imposed upon the office holder in favor of another person.
 
Indemnification of Office Holders.  Under Israeli law a company may, if permitted by its articles of association, indemnify an office holder for acts performed by the office holder in such capacity for (i) a monetary liability imposed upon the office holder in favor of another person by any court judgment, including a settlement or an arbitration award approved by a court; (ii) reasonable litigation expenses, including attorney’s fees, actually incurred by the office holder as a result of an investigation or proceeding instituted against him by a competent authority, provided that such investigation or proceeding concluded without the filing of an indictment against the office holder or the imposition of any monetary liability in lieu of criminal proceedings, or concluded without the filing of an indictment against the office holder and a monetary liability was imposed on him or her in lieu of criminal proceedings with respect to a criminal offense that does not require proof of criminal intent; and (iii) reasonable litigation expenses, including attorneys’ fees, actually incurred by the office holder or imposed upon the office holder by a court: in an action, suit or proceeding brought against the office holder by or on behalf of the company or another person, or in connection with a criminal action in which the office holder was acquitted, or in connection with a criminal action in which the office holder was convicted of a criminal offence that does not require proof of criminal intent.
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Israeli law provides that a company’s articles of association may permit the company to (a) indemnify an office holder retroactively, following a determination to this effect made by the company after the occurrence of the event in respect of which the office holder will be indemnified; and (b) undertake in advance to indemnify an office holder, except that with respect to a monetary liability imposed on the office holder by any judgment, settlement or court-approved arbitration award, the undertaking must be limited to types of occurrences, which, in the opinion of the company’s board of directors, are, at the time of the undertaking, foreseeable due to the company’s activities and to an amount or standard that the board of directors has determined is reasonable under the circumstances.
 
Limitations on Exculpation, Insurance and Indemnification.  The Israeli Companies Law provides that neither a provision of the articles of association permitting the company to enter into a contract to insure the liability of an office holder, nor a provision in the articles of association or a resolution of the board of directors permitting the indemnification of an office holder, nor a provision in the articles of association exculpating an office holder from duty to the company shall be valid, where such insurance, indemnification or exculpation relates to any of the following: (i) a breach by the office holder of his fiduciary duty unless, with respect to insurance coverage or indemnification, the office holder acted in good faith and had a reasonable basis to believe that the act would not prejudice the company; (ii) a breach by the office holder of his duty of care if such breach was committed intentionally or recklessly, unless the breach was committed only negligently; (iii) any act or omission done with the intent to unlawfully yield a personal benefit; or (iv) any fine or forfeiture imposed on the office holder.
 
Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, exculpation of, procurement of insurance coverage for, and an undertaking to indemnify or indemnification of, our office holders must be approved by our audit committee and board of directors and, if the office holder is a director, also by our shareholders.
 
Our articles of association allow us to insure, indemnify and exempt our office holders to the fullest extent permitted by Israeli law.  We maintain a directors’ and officers’ liability insurance policy with a per claim and aggregate coverage limit of $20 million, including legal costs incurred in Israel.  In addition, our audit committee, board of directors and shareholders resolved to indemnify our office holders, pursuant to a standard indemnification agreement that provides for indemnification of office holders up to an aggregate amount of 25% the company's equity, according to our latest consolidated financial statements prior to the date that the indemnity was given.  To date, we have provided letters of indemnification to all of our officers and directors.
 
D.           Employees
 
We consider our employees the most valuable asset of our company. We offer competitive compensation and comprehensive benefits to attract and retain our employees. The remuneration and rewards include retention through share-based compensation and performance-based bonuses.

We believe that an engaged workforce is key to maintaining our ability to innovate. We have steadily increased our workforce and have been successful in integrating our new employees and keeping our employees engaged. Investing in our employees’ career growth and development is an important focus for us. We offer learning opportunities and training programs including workshops, guest speakers and various conferences to enable our employees to advance in their chosen professional paths.
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We are committed to providing a safe work environment for our employees. We have taken necessary precautions in response to the recent COVID-19  outbreak, including offering employees flexibility to work from home, mandatory social distancing requirements in the workplace (such as adding more space between work spaces) and health monitoring for our employees, daily office disinfection and sanitization, provision of hand sanitizer and face masks to all employees, and improvement and optimization of our telecommuting system to support remote work arrangements.

As of December 31, 2020, we employed 394 full-time employees, of whom 57 were employed in general management and administration, 77 were employed in selling and marketing, 17 were employed in projects management, 181 were employed in production, installation and maintenance, and 62 were employed in engineering and research and development.  Of such full-time employees, 157 were located in Israel, 116 were in Canada, 24 were in the United States and 97 were in various other countries.
 
As of December 31, 2019, we employed 421 full-time employees, of whom 59 were employed in general management and administration, 80 were employed in selling and marketing, 18 were employed in projects management, 195 were employed in production, installation and maintenance, and 69  were employed in engineering and research and development.  Of such full-time employees, 161 were located in Israel, 123 were in Canada, 25 were in the United States and 112 were in various other countries.
 
As of December 31, 2018, we employed 411 full-time employees, of whom 55 were employed in general management and administration, 79 were employed in selling and marketing, 18 were employed in projects management, 194 were employed in production, installation and maintenance, and 65 were employed in engineering and research and development.  Of such full-time employees, 158 were located in Israel, 29 were in the United States, 119 were in Canada and 105 were in various other countries.
 
Our relationships with our employees in Israel are governed by Israeli labor legislation and regulations, extension orders of the Israeli Ministry of Labor and personal employment agreements. We are subject to various Israeli labor laws, collective bargaining agreements entered into from time to time between the Manufacturers Association and the New General Federation of Workers (the Histadrut), as well as collective bargaining arrangement entered between the Company and the Histadrut on April 17, 2019. Such laws, agreements and arrangements cover a wide range of areas, including minimum employment standards, such as working hours, minimum wages, vacation, procedures for dismissing employees, severance pay and pension plans and special issues, such as equal pay for equal work, equal opportunity in employment and employment of youth and army veterans. We are currently engaged in negotiations with the Histadrut in relation to a collective agreement which will apply to our employees in Israel. Israeli law requires severance pay upon certain circumstances, including upon the retirement or death of an employee or termination of employment without due cause.  Furthermore, Israeli employees and employers are required to pay predetermined sums to the National Insurance Institute, which is similar to the U.S. Social Security Administration, which amounts also include payments for national health insurance.  In addition, certain of our employees are parties to individual employment agreements.  We generally provide our employees with benefits and working conditions beyond the required minimums.  Each of our subsidiaries provides a benefits package and working conditions which we believe are competitive with other companies in their field of operations.
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E.           Share Ownership.
 
The following table sets forth certain information regarding the ownership of our ordinary shares by our directors and executive officers as of April 23, 2021.
 
Name
 
Number of Ordinary Shares Owned (1)
 
Percentage of Outstanding Ordinary Shares (2)
Gillon Beck (3)          
 
-
 
-
Ron Ben-Haim (3)          
 
-
 
-
Jacob Berman          
 
13,750
 
*
Avraham Bigger          
 
-
 
-
Limor Steklov          
 
-
 
-
Moshe Tsabari          
 
-
 
-
Dror Sharon (4)          
 
120,000
 
*
Yaacov Vinokur (5)          
 
32,667
 
*
Brian Rich (6)          
 
8,334
 
*
Doron Kerbel (7)          
 
16,000
 
*
Arnon Bram          
 
-
 
-
Fabien Haubert (8)          
 
16,000
 
*
All directors and executive officers as          a group (12 persons) (9)
 
206,751
 
*
_______________
* Less than 1%

(1)
Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules of the SEC and generally includes voting or investment power with respect to securities.  Ordinary shares relating to options or convertible debenture notes currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of the date of this table are deemed outstanding for computing the percentage of the person holding such securities but are not deemed outstanding for computing the percentage of any other person.  Except as indicated by footnote, the persons named in the table above have sole voting and investment power with respect to all shares shown as beneficially owned by them.
 
(2)
The percentages shown are based on 23,163,985 ordinary shares issued and outstanding as of April 23, 2021.
 
(3)
Does not include any ordinary shares held by the FIMI Funds.
 
(4)
Includes 120,000 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of currently exercisable options.
 
(5)
Includes 32,667 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of currently exercisable options.
 
(6)
Includes 8,334 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of currently exercisable options.
 
(7)
Includes 16,000 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of currently exercisable options.
 
(8)
Includes 16,000 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of currently exercisable options.
 
(9)
Includes 193,001 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of currently exercisable options.
 
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Share Option Plans
 
2010 Israeli Share Option Plan
 
In June 2010, we adopted our 2010 Israeli Share Option Plan, or the 2010 Plan.  Under the 2010 Plan, stock options to purchase 510,575 ordinary shares may be granted to our employees, officers, directors and consultants of our company and subsidiaries.  In addition, an aggregate 498,384 ordinary shares that remained available for future option grants under the 2003 Plan and any ordinary shares that become available in the future under the 2003 Plan as a result of expiration, cancellation or relinquishment of any option were rolled over to the 2010 Plan. In June 2013, our shareholders approved an increase to the number of ordinary shares available for issuance under the 2010 Plan by additional 500,000 shares. The 2010 Plan had an original term of ten years, which was extended in August 2020 for an additional 5 years, on which date our board of directors had also increased and set the number of ordinary shares available for issuance under the 2010 Plan to 1,200,000.
 
The 2010 Plan is designed to allow the grantees to benefit from the tax benefits under Section 102 of the Israeli Income Tax Ordinance [New Version], 1961.  Our Board of Directors has resolved that all options that will be granted to Israeli residents under the 2010 Plan will be taxable under the “capital gains route.”  Pursuant to this route, the profit realized by an employee is taxed as a capital gain (25%) if the options or underlying shares are held by a trustee for at least 24 months from their date of the grant or issuance.  Any difference between the exercise price of the options and the average price of the company’s shares during the 30 trading days before the date of grant of the options will be treated as ordinary income and will be taxed according to the employee’s marginal tax rates plus social contribution.  If the underlying shares are sold before the elapse of such period, the profit is re-characterized as ordinary income. As of December 31, 2020, options to purchase 760,667 ordinary shares were outstanding under the 2010 Plan, exercisable at an average exercise price of $4.683 per share. During 2020, 95,000 options were awarded under the 2010 Plan. Options to purchase 10,000 ordinary shares were exercised during 2020.
 
ITEM 7.
Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
 
A.           Major Shareholders
 
The following table sets forth certain information as of April 23, 2021 regarding the beneficial ownership of our ordinary shares, by each person or entity known to us to own beneficially 5% or more of our ordinary shares.
 
Name
 
Number of
Ordinary Shares
Beneficially Owned (1)
   
Percentage of
Outstanding
Ordinary Shares (2)
 
FIMI Opportunity Five (Delaware), Limited Partnership (3)
   
4,646,924
     
20.1
%
FIMI Israel Opportunity Five, Limited Partnership (3)
   
5,207,235
     
22.5
%
Grace & White, Inc. (4).          
   
1,141,243
     
4.9
%
____________________

(1)
Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules of the SEC and generally includes voting or investment power with respect to securities.  Ordinary shares relating to options or convertible notes currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of the date of this table are deemed outstanding for computing the percentage of the person holding such securities but are not deemed outstanding for computing the percentage of any other person.  Except as indicated by footnote, the persons named in the table above have sole voting and investment power with respect to all shares shown as beneficially owned by them.
 

(2)
The percentages shown are based on 23,163,985 ordinary shares issued and outstanding as of April 23, 2021.
 

(3)
Based on Schedule 13D/A filed with the SEC on October 11, 2016 and other information available to us.  The address of FIMI Opportunity Five (Delaware), Limited Partnership and FIMI Israel Opportunity Five, Limited Partnership is c/o FIMI FIVE 2012 Ltd., Electra Tower, 98 Yigal Alon St., Tel-Aviv 6789141, Israel.
 

(4)
Based upon a Schedule 13G/A filed with the SEC on March 4, 2021 by Grace & White, Inc. The Schedule 13G/A indicates that Grace & White, Inc. is a registered investment adviser.  The address of Grace & White, Inc. is 515 Madison Avenue, Suite 1700, New York, NY 10022.
 
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Significant Changes in the Ownership of Major Shareholders
 
On February 1, 2018, Grace & White, Inc. filed an amendment to its Schedule 13G reflecting beneficial ownership of 1,415,703, or 6.15%, of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares. On January 29, 2019, Grace & White, Inc. filed an amendment to its Schedule 13G reflecting beneficial ownership of 1,409,399, or 6.12%, of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares. On February 3, 2020, Grace & White, Inc. filed an amendment to its Schedule 13G reflecting beneficial ownership of 1,426,582, or 6.2%, of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares. On January 29, 2021, Grace & White, Inc. filed an amendment to its Schedule 13G reflecting beneficial ownership of 1,187,763, or 5.13%, of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares. On March 4, 2021, Grace & White, Inc. filed an amendment to its Schedule 13G reflecting beneficial ownership of 1,141,243, or 4.93%, of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares.
 
Major Shareholders Voting Rights
 
The voting rights of our major shareholders do not differ from the voting rights of other holders of our ordinary shares.
 
Record Holders

              Based on a review of the information provided to us by our transfer agent, as of April 23, 2021, there were 27 holders of record of our ordinary shares, of which 24 record holders holding approximately 91.23% of our ordinary shares had registered addresses in the United States. These numbers are not representative of the number of beneficial holders of our shares nor is it representative of where such beneficial holders reside since many of these ordinary shares were held of record by brokers or other nominees, including CEDE & Co., the nominee for the Depositary Trust Company (the central depositary for the U.S. brokerage community), which held approximately 91.21 % of our outstanding ordinary shares as of such date.
 
B.           Related Party Transactions.
 
None
 
C.           Interests of Experts and Counsel.
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 8.
Financial Information
 
A.           Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information.
 
Consolidated Financial Statements
 
See the consolidated financial statements included under Item 18, “Financial Statements.”
 
Export Sales
 
In the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, our operations based outside of Israel generated income to customers outside of Israel of approximately $67.4 million, $51.4 million and $43.9 million, respectively, or 72.8%, 59.2% and 53.9% of our total revenues, respectively.  In the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, the total amount of our export revenues generated by our Israeli facilities to countries outside of Israel was approximately $11.7 million, $16.4 million and $16.7 million, respectively, or 12.6%, 18.9% and 20.5%, of our total revenues, respectively.
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Legal Proceedings
 
We are subject to legal proceedings arising in the normal course of business.  Based on the advice of our legal counsel, management believes that these proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.
 
Dividend Distribution Policy
 
While we have historically retained our earnings to finance operations and expand our business, on December 7, 2020, we announced a cash distribution in the amount of US$1.079 per share (approximately US$ 25 million in the aggregate) which was paid on December 28, 2020. Future dividend distributions are subject to the discretion of our board of directors and approval of our shareholders and will depend on a number of factors, including our operating results, future capital resources available for distribution, capital requirements, financial condition, the tax implications of dividend distributions on our income, future prospects and any other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.
 
The distribution of dividends also may be limited by Israeli law, which permits the distribution of dividends only out of profits (as defined by the Israeli Companies Law) or otherwise upon the permission of the court, and only if the Board of Directors determines that such distribution will not jeopardize the ability of the company to repay its debts on the due date thereof.  “Profits’’ are defined in the Israeli Companies Law as the balance of surpluses, or the surpluses accumulated over the past two years, whichever is the greater, in accordance with the latest adjusted financial statements, audited or reviewed, prepared by the company, provided that the date in respect of which the statements were prepared is no earlier than six months prior to the date of distribution.  ‘‘Surplus’’ means sums included in a company’s shareholders’ equity originating from the net profit of the company, as determined according to generally accepted accounting principles, and sums other than share capital or premiums that are included in shareholders’ equity under generally accepted accounting principles and that the Minister of Justice has prescribed to be considered surplus.
 
B.           Significant Changes.
 
On February 7, 2021 we entered into an agreement  with Aeronautics Ltd. (a subsidiary of Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd.) to sell our Integrated Solutions (Project) Division in consideration of $35 million in cash, on a cash-free debt-free basis subject to post-closing working capital and other customary adjustments. As part of the acquisition, Aeronautics is also acquiring our facility in Yehud, Israel. The share and asset purchase agreement contains customary representations, warranties, covenants and indemnification provisions and is subject to regulatory approvals and the satisfaction of customary closing conditions. We expect the acquisition to close during the second quarter of 2021.
 
ITEM 9.
The Offer and Listing
 
A.           Offer and Listing Details.
 
Our ordinary shares are traded on the NASDAQ Global Market.  Our ticker symbol is “MAGS.”
 
B.           Plan of Distribution.
 
Not applicable.
 
C.           Markets.
 
Our ordinary shares have traded on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “MAGS” since our initial public offering in 1993.
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D.           Selling Shareholders.
 
Not applicable.
 
E.           Dilution.
 
Not applicable.
 
F.           Expenses of the Issue.
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 10.
Additional Information
 
A.           Share Capital.
 
Not applicable.
 
B.           Memorandum and Articles of Association.
 
Purposes and Objects of the Company
 
We are a public company registered with the Israeli Companies Registrar and have been assigned company number 52‑003892‑8.  Under our memorandum of association, we were established for the purposes of acquiring a plant from Israel Aircraft Industries known as the Magal Plant, which was engaged in the development, manufacture, sale and support of alarm devices and dealing in the development, manufacturing and support of security alarm devices and other similar products.  In addition, the purpose of our Company is to be eligible to perform and act in connection with any right or obligation of whatever kind or nature permissible under Israeli law.
 
Board of Directors
 
The strategic management of our business (as distinguished from the daily management of our business affairs) is vested in our board of directors, which may exercise all such powers and do all such acts as our company is authorized to exercise and do, and which are not required to be exercised by a resolution of the general meeting of our shareholders.  The board of directors may, subject to the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law, delegate some of its powers to committees, each consisting of one or more directors, provided that at least one member of such committee is an external director.
 
According to the Israeli Companies Law, we may stipulate in our articles of association that the general meeting of shareholders is authorized to assume the responsibilities of the board of directors.  In the event the board of directors is unable to act or exercise its powers, the general meeting of shareholders is authorized to exercise the powers of the board of directors, even if the articles of association do not stipulate so.  Our board of directors has the power to assume the responsibilities of our chief executive officer if he is unable to act or exercise his powers or if he fails to fulfill the instructions of the board of directors with respect to a specific matter.
 
Our articles of association do not impose any mandatory retirement or age limit requirements on our directors and our directors are not required to own shares in our company in order to qualify to serve as directors.
 
The authority of our directors to enter into borrowing arrangements on our behalf is not limited, except in the same manner as any other transaction by us.
 
For a discussion of Israeli law concerning a director’s fiduciary duties and the approval of transactions with office holders, see Item 6.C. “Directors, Senior Management and Employees – Board Practices – Approval of Related Party Transactions under Israeli Law.”
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General Meetings of Shareholders
 
Under the Israeli Companies Law, a company must convene an annual meeting of shareholders at least once every calendar year and within 15 months of the last annual meeting.  Depending on the matter to be voted upon, notice of at least 21 days or 35 days prior to the date of the meeting is required.  Our board of directors may, in its discretion, convene additional meetings as “special general meetings.”  In addition, the board must convene a special general meeting upon the demand of two of the directors, 25% of the nominated directors, one or more shareholders having at least 5% of the outstanding share capital and at least 1% of the voting power in the company, or one or more shareholders having at least 5% of the voting power in the company.
 
A shareholder present, in person or by proxy, at the commencement of a general meeting of shareholders may not seek the cancellation of any proceedings or resolutions adopted at such general meeting of shareholders on account of any defect in the notice of such meeting relating to the time or the place thereof.  Shareholders who are registered in our register of shareholders at the record date may vote at the general meeting of shareholders.  The record date is set in the resolution to convene the general meeting of shareholders, provided, however, that such record date must be between 14 to 21 days or, in the event of a vote by ballots, between 28 to 40 days prior the date the general meeting of shareholders is held.
 
The quorum required for a general meeting of shareholders consists of at least two record shareholders, present in person or by proxy, who hold, in the aggregate, at least one third of the voting power of our outstanding shares.  A general meeting of shareholders will be adjourned for lack of a quorum after half an hour from the time appointed for such meeting to the same day in the following week at the same time and place or any other time and place as the board of directors designates in a notice to the shareholders.  At such reconvened meeting, if a quorum is not present within half an hour from the time appointed for such meeting, two or more shareholders, present in person or by proxy, will constitute a quorum.  The only business that may be considered at an adjourned general meeting of shareholders is the business that might have been lawfully considered at the general meeting of shareholders originally convened and the only resolutions that may be adopted are the resolutions that could have been adopted at the general meeting of shareholders originally convened.
 
Please refer to Exhibit 2.5 for Items 10.B.3, B.4, B.6, B.7, B.8, B.9 and B.10.
 
C.
Material Contracts.

On February 7, 2021 we signed a share and asset purchase agreement with Aeronautics Ltd. to sell our Integrated Solutions (Project) Division in consideration of $35 million in cash, on a cash-free debt-free basis subject to post-closing working capital and other customary adjustments. The agreement is subject to regulatory approvals and the satisfaction of customary closing conditions.  As part of the acquisition, Aeronautics is also acquiring our facility in Yehud, Israel. We expect that  the transaction will close during the second quarter of 2021.
 
D.
Exchange Controls.
 
Israeli law and regulations do not impose any material foreign exchange restrictions on non‑Israeli holders of our ordinary shares.
 
E.
Taxation.
 
The following is a discussion of Israeli and United States tax consequences material to us and to our shareholders.  To the extent that the discussion is based on new tax legislation which has not been subject to judicial or administrative interpretation, the views expressed in the discussion might not be accepted by the tax authorities in question.  The discussion is not intended, and should not be construed, as legal or professional tax advice and does not exhaust all possible tax considerations.
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Holders of our ordinary shares should consult their own tax advisors as to the United States, Israeli or other tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of ordinary shares, including, in particular, the effect of any foreign, state or local taxes.
 
Israeli Tax Considerations
 
The following is a summary of the material Israeli tax laws applicable to us, and some Israeli Government programs benefiting us.  This section also contains a discussion of material Israeli tax consequences concerning the ownership of and disposition of our ordinary shares.  This summary does not discuss all the acts of Israeli tax law that may be relevant to a particular investor in light of his or her personal investment circumstances or to some types of investors subject to special treatment under Israeli law. Examples of this kind of investor include residents of Israel or traders in securities who are subject to special tax regimes not covered in this discussion.  Since some parts of this discussion are based on new tax legislation that has not yet been subject to judicial or administrative interpretation, we cannot assure you that the appropriate tax authorities or the courts will accept the views expressed in this discussion.
 
The discussion below should not be construed as legal or professional tax advice and does not cover all possible tax considerations. Potential investors are urged to consult their own tax advisors as to the Israeli or other tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares, including in particular, the effect of any foreign, state or local taxes.
 
General Corporate Tax Structure
 
Generally, Israeli companies are subject to corporate tax on their taxable income. Since January 2018, the corporate tax rate is 23%. However, the effective tax rate payable by a company that generates income from an Benefited Enterprise or a Preferred Enterprise, as further discussed below, may be considerably lower.  In addition, Israeli companies are currently subject to regular corporate tax rate on their capital gains.
 
Israeli Transfer Pricing Regulations
 
On November 29, 2006, Income Tax Regulations (Determination of Market Terms), 2006, promulgated under Section 85A of the Israeli Tax Ordinance, came into effect, or the TP Regs.  Section 85A of the Tax Ordinance and the TP Regs generally require that all cross-border transactions carried out between related parties be conducted on an arm’s length principle basis and will be taxed accordingly.  The TP Regs are not expected to have a material effect on us.
 
Tax Benefits for Research and Development
 
Israeli tax law allows, under specified conditions, a tax deduction for expenditures, including capital expenditures, in the year incurred relating to scientific research and development projects, if the expenditures are approved by the relevant Israeli Government ministry, determined by the field of research, and the research and development is for the promotion of the company and is carried out by or on behalf of the company seeking such deduction.  However, the amount of such deductible expenses shall be reduced by the sum of any funds received through government grants for the finance of such scientific research and development projects.  Expenditures that were not approved (as described above) are deductible over a three-year period.
 
Encouragement of Capital Investments Law, 1959
 
2005 Amendment to the Investments Law
 
An amendment to the Investments Law, which was published on April 1, 2005, or the Amendment, has changed certain provisions of the Investments Law.  As a result of the Amendment, a company is no longer obliged to acquire approved enterprise status in order to receive the tax benefits previously available under the alternative benefits provisions, and therefore generally there is no need to apply to the Investment Center for this purpose (approved enterprise status remains mandatory for companies seeking grants).  Rather, a company may claim the tax benefits offered by the Investments Law directly in its tax returns, provided that its facilities meet the criteria for tax benefits set out by the Amendment.  A company is also granted a right to approach the Israeli Tax Authority for a pre-ruling regarding their eligibility for benefits under the Amendment.
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Tax benefits are available under the Amendment to production facilities (or other eligible facilities), which are generally required to derive more than 25% of their business income from export, referred to as a “Benefited Enterprise.”  In order to receive the tax benefits, the Amendment states that the company must make an investment in the Benefited Enterprise exceeding a certain percentage or a minimum amount specified in the Investments Law.  Such investment may be made over a period of no more than three years ending at the end of the year in which the company requested to have the tax benefits apply to the Benefited Enterprise, referred to as the Year of Election.  Where the company requests to have the tax benefits apply to an expansion of existing facilities, then only the expansion will be considered a Benefited Enterprise and the company’s effective tax rate will be the result of a weighted combination of the applicable rates.  In this case, the minimum investment required in order to qualify as a Benefited Enterprise is required to exceed a certain percentage or a minimum amount of the company’s production assets before the expansion.
 
The duration of tax benefits is subject to a limitation of the earlier of seven to ten years from the commencement year, or 12 years from the first day of the Year of Election.  The tax benefits granted to a Benefited Enterprise are determined, as applicable to its geographic location within Israel, according to one of the following new tax routes, which may be applicable to us:
 

Similar to the currently available alternative route, exemption from corporate tax on undistributed income for a period of two to ten years, depending on the geographic location of the Benefited Enterprise within Israel, and a reduced corporate tax rate of 10% to 25% for the remainder of the benefits period, depending on the level of foreign investment in each year.  Benefits may be granted for a term of seven to ten years, depending on the level of foreign investment in the company.  If the company pays a dividend out of income derived from the Benefited Enterprise during the tax exemption period, such income will be subject to corporate tax at the applicable rate (10%-25%) with respect to the gross amount of dividend distributed.  The company is required to withhold tax at the source at a rate of 15% from any dividends distributed from income derived from the Benefited Enterprise; and
 

A special tax route, which enables companies owning facilities in certain geographical locations in Israel to pay corporate tax at the rate of 11.5% on income of the Benefited Enterprise.  The benefits period is ten years.  Upon payment of dividends, the company is required to withhold tax at source at a rate of 15% for Israeli residents and at a rate of 4% for foreign residents.
 
Generally, a company that is “Abundant in Foreign Investment,” as defined in the Investments Law, is entitled to an extension of the benefits period by an additional five years, depending on the rate of its income that is derived in foreign currency.
 
The Amendment changes the definition of “foreign investment” in the Investments Law so that the definition now requires a minimal investment of NIS 5 million by foreign investors.  Furthermore, such definition now also includes the purchase of shares of a company from another shareholder, provided that the company’s outstanding and paid-up share capital exceeds NIS 5 million.  Such changes to the aforementioned definition are retroactive from 2003.
 
The Amendment applies to approved enterprise programs in which the year of election under the Investments Law is 2004 or later, unless such programs received “Approved Enterprise” approval from the Investment Center on or prior to December 31, 2004, in which case the Amendment provides that terms and benefits included in any certificate of approval already granted will remain subject to the provisions of the Investments Law as they were on the date of such approval.
 
Should we elect to utilize tax benefits under the Amendment to the Investments Law, any such tax exempt profits might be subject to future taxation on the corporate level upon distribution to shareholders by a way of dividend or liquidation. Accordingly, we may be required to recognize a tax liability with respect to such tax exempt profits.
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In March 2007, we received a pre-ruling from the Israeli Tax Authority for our request for a Beneficiary Enterprise for the elected tax year 2005 ("the 2005 program"), regarding eligibility for benefits under the Amendment. We have not obtained any tax benefits from this program. The benefit period of this program terminated on December 31, 2016.

Amendment to the Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, 1959 (Amendment 68):

An additional amendment to the Investment Law became effective in January 2011, or the 2011 Amendment. Under the 2011 Amendment, income derived by ‘Preferred Companies’ from ‘Preferred Enterprises’ (both as defined in the 2011 Amendment) would be subject to a uniform rate of corporate tax as opposed to the incentives prior to the 2011 Amendment that were limited to income from Approved or Benefiting Enterprises during their benefits period. According to the 2011 Amendment, the uniform tax rate on such income, referred to as ‘Preferred Income’, would be 10% in areas in Israel that are designated as Development Zone A and 15% elsewhere in Israel during 2011-2012, 7% and 12.5%, respectively, in 2013-2014, and 6% and 12%, respectively, thereafter. Income derived by a Preferred Company from a ‘Special Preferred Enterprise’ (as defined in the Investment Law) would enjoy further reduced tax rates for a period of ten years of 5% in Zone A and 8% elsewhere. As with dividends distributed from taxable income derived from an Approved Enterprise or Benefiting Enterprise during the applicable benefits period, dividends distributed from Preferred Income would be subject to a 15% tax (or lower, if so provided under an applicable tax treaty), which would generally be withheld by the distributing company, provided however that dividends distributed from ‘Preferred Income’ from one Israeli corporation to another, would not be subject to tax. While a company may incur additional tax liability in the event of distribution of dividends from tax exempt income generated from its Approved and Benefiting Enterprises, no additional tax liability will be incurred by in the event of distribution of dividends from income taxed in accordance with the 2011 Amendment. Under the transitional provisions of the 2011 Amendment, we could have elected whether to irrevocably implement the 2011 Amendment with respect to our existing Approved and Benefiting Enterprises while waiving benefits provided under the legislation prior to the 2011 Amendment or keep implementing the legislation prior to the 2011 Amendment during the next years. The 2011 Amendment had no material effect on the tax payable in respect of our operations and therefore, we did not elect to implement the 2011 Amendment.
 
In November 2012, the Knesset passed Amendment No. 69 to the Investment Law, or the Trapped Earnings Law, which provides a temporary, partial, relief from taxation on a distribution from exempt income for companies which elect the relief through November 2013. The Trapped Earnings Law allows companies to qualify a portion of its exempt income, or Elected Earnings, for a reduced tax rate ranging between 17.5% and 6%. While the reduced tax is payable within 30 days of election, an electing company is not required to actually distribute the Elected Earnings within a certain period of time. The applicable rate is based on a linear formula involving the portion of Elected Earnings to exempt income and the applicable tax rate prescribed in the Investment Law. A company electing to qualify its exempt income must undertake to make designated investments in productive fixed assets, research and development, or wages of new employees.  The amount of such designated investments is defined by a formula which considers the portion of Elected Earnings to the exempt income and the applicable tax rate prescribed by the Investment Law.
 
In addition to the reduced tax rate a distribution of Elected Earnings would be subject to a 15% withholding tax. The Trapped Earnings Law provides an exemption from the 15% withholding tax for a distribution to an Israeli resident company from companies which have elected the Privileged Enterprise status and waived their Approved Enterprise and privileged Enterprise Status through June 2015.
 
Amendment to the Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, 1959 (Amendment 71):
 
On August 5, 2013, the “Knesset” issued the Law for Changing National Priorities (Legislative Amendments for Achieving Budget Targets for 2013 and 2014), 2013 which consists of Amendment 71 to the Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments (“the Amendment”). According to the Amendment, the tax rate on preferred income from a preferred enterprise in 2014 and thereafter is 16% (in development area A - 9%). As for changes in tax rates resulting from the enactment of Amendment 73 to the Law, see below.

The Amendment also prescribes that any dividends distributed to individuals or foreign residents from the preferred enterprise’s earnings as above will be subject to tax at a rate of 20%.
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Encouragement of Industry (Taxes) Law, 5729-1969
 
Under the Encouragement of Industry (Taxes) Law, 5729-1969, or the Industry Encouragement Law, “Industrial Companies” are entitled to certain corporate tax benefits, including, among others:
 

Amortization, under certain conditions, of purchases of know‑how and patents and of rights to use a patent and know‑how which are used for the development or advancement of the company, over an eight‑year period for tax purposes;
 

Right to elect, under specified conditions, to file a consolidated tax return with additional related Israeli industrial companies; and
 

Accelerated depreciation rates on equipment and buildings; and
 

Deductions over a three-year period of expenses in connection with the issuance and listing of shares on a recognized stock market.
 
Eligibility for benefits under the Industry Encouragement Law is not subject to the prior approval of any governmental authority.  Under the Industry Encouragement Law, an “Industrial Company” is a company resident in Israel, at least 90% of the income of which, in any tax year, determined in Israeli currency, exclusive of income from government loans, capital gains, interest and dividends, is derived from an “Industrial Enterprise” owned by it.  An “Industrial Enterprise” is an enterprise owned by an Industrial Company, whose major activity in a given tax year is industrial production activity.
 
We believe that we currently qualify as an industrial company as defined by the Industry Encouragement Law.  We cannot assure you that we will continue to qualify as an industrial company or that the benefits described above will be available to us in the future.
 
Encouragement of Industrial Research and Development Law, 5744-1984
 
Under the Encouragement of Industrial Research and Development Law, 5744-1984, or the Research Law, research and development programs that meet specified criteria and are approved by a governmental committee of the Innovation Authority (formerly the Office of the Chief Scientist), are eligible for grants between 20%-50% of certain of the project’s expenditures, as determined by the research committee of the Innovation Authority.  In exchange, the recipient of such grants is required to pay the Innovation Authority royalties from the revenues derived from products incorporating technology developed within the framework of the approved research and development program or derived from such program (including ancillary services in connection with such program), usually up to 100% of the U.S. dollar-linked value of the total grants received in respect of such program, plus LIBOR interest.
 
The terms of the Israeli government participation also require a declaration regarding the location of manufacturing of supported products by the recipients of the grants.  Under regulations promulgated under the Research Law, upon the approval of the Innovation Authority, some of the manufacturing volume may be transferred outside of Israel, beyond the aforementioned declared rate of production abroad, provided that the grant recipient pays royalties at an increased rate and in addition may incur an increased payment cap of up to 300% of the received grant, depending on the percentage of manufacturing being transferred abroad.  The Research Law also provides that know-how developed under an approved research and development program and any derivatives of this know-how may not be transferred to third parties in Israel without the prior approval of the research committee of the Innovation Authority.  The Research Law further provides that the know-how developed under an approved research and development program may not be transferred to any third parties outside Israel.  No approval is required for the sale or export of any products resulting from such research and development.
 
In June 2005, an amendment to the Research Law became effective, which amendment was intended to make the Research Law more compatible with the global business environment by, among other things, relaxing restrictions on the transfer of manufacturing rights outside Israel and on the transfer of Innovation Authority funded know-how outside of Israel.  The amendment permits the Innovation Authority, among other things, to approve the transfer of manufacturing rights outside Israel in exchange for an import of different manufacturing into Israel as a substitute, in lieu of demanding the recipient to pay increased royalties as described above.  The amendment further permits, under certain circumstances and subject to the Innovation Authority’s prior approval, the transfer outside Israel of know-how that has been funded by Innovation Authority, generally in the following cases: (a) the grant recipient pays to the Innovation Authority a portion of the consideration paid for such funded know-how (according to certain formulas), (b) the grant recipient receives know-how from a third party in exchange for its funded know-how, or (c) such transfer of funded know-how arises in connection with certain types of cooperation in research and development activities under agreements of cooperation programs between Israel and an additional country.
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The Research Law imposes reporting requirements with respect to certain changes in the ownership of a grant recipient.  The law requires the grant recipient and its controlling shareholders and interested parties to notify the Innovation Authority on any change in control of the recipient or a change in the holdings of the means of control of the recipient and obtaining the approval of the Innovation Authority in case such a change results in a foreign resident becoming an interested party directly in the recipient and requires the new interested party to undertake to the Innovation Authority to comply with the Research Law.  In addition, the rules of the Innovation Authority may require prior approval of the Innovation Authority or additional information or representations in respect of certain of such events. For this purpose, “control” is defined as the ability to direct the activities of a company other than any ability arising solely from serving as an officer or director of the company.  A person is presumed to have control if such person holds 50% or more of the means of control of a company.  “Means of control” refers to voting rights or the right to appoint directors or the chief executive officer.  An “interested party” of a company includes a holder of 5% or more of its outstanding share capital or voting rights, its chief executive officer and directors, someone who has the right to appoint its chief executive officer or at least one director, and a company with respect to which any of the foregoing interested parties owns 25% or more of the outstanding share capital or voting rights or has the right to appoint 25% or more of the directors.  Accordingly, any foreign resident who acquires 5% or more of our ordinary shares will be required to notify the Innovation Authority that it has become an interested party and to sign an undertaking to comply with the Research Law.
 
The Israeli authorities have indicated that the government may reduce or abolish grants from the Innovation Authority in the future.  Even if these grants are maintained, we cannot assure you that we will receive Innovation Authority grants in the future.  In addition, each application to the Innovation Authority is reviewed separately, and grants are based on the program approved by the research committee.  Generally, expenditures supported under other incentive programs of the State of Israel are not eligible for grants from the Innovation Authority.
 
Taxation under Inflationary Conditions
 
In February 2008, the “Knesset” (Israeli parliament) passed an amendment to the Income Tax (Inflationary Adjustments) Law, 1985, which limits the scope of the law starting 2008 and thereafter. Since 2008, the results for tax purposes are measured in nominal values, excluding certain adjustments for changes in the Israeli CPI carried out in the period up to December 31, 2007. Adjustments relating to capital gains such as for sale of property (betterment) and securities continue to apply until disposal. Since 2008, the amendment to the law includes, among others, the cancellation of the inflationary additions and deductions and the additional deduction for depreciation (in respect of depreciable assets purchased after the 2007 tax year).
 
Capital Gains Tax on Sales of Our Ordinary Shares by Foreign Holders
 
Israeli law generally imposes a capital gains tax on the sale of any capital assets by residents of Israel, as defined for Israeli tax purposes, and on the sale of assets located in Israel, including shares in Israeli companies, by non-residents of Israel, unless a specific exemption is available or unless a tax treaty between Israel and the shareholder’s country of residence provides otherwise.  The law distinguishes between real gain and inflationary surplus.  The inflationary surplus is a portion of the total capital gain which is equivalent to the increase of the relevant asset’s purchase price which is attributable to the increase in the CPI or, in certain circumstances, a foreign currency exchange rate, between the date of purchase and the date of sale. The real gain is the excess of the total capital gain over the inflationary surplus.
 
Generally, as of January 1, 2012, the tax rate applicable to capital gains derived from the sale of shares, whether listed on a stock market or not, is 25% for Israeli individuals, unless such shareholder claims a deduction for financing expenses in connection with such shares, in which case the gain will generally be taxed at a rate of 30%. Additionally, if such shareholder is considered a “significant shareholder” at any time during the 12-month period preceding such sale, i.e., such shareholder holds directly or indirectly, including with others, at least 10% of any means of control in the company, the tax rate shall be 30%. However, the foregoing tax rates do not apply to: (i) dealers in securities; and (ii) shareholders who acquired their shares prior to an initial public offering (that may be subject to a different tax arrangement). Israeli companies are subject to the Corporate Tax rate on capital gains derived from the sale of listed shares.
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The tax basis of our ordinary shares acquired prior to January 1, 2003 will generally be determined in accordance with the average closing share price in the three trading days preceding January 1, 2003. However, a request may be made to the tax authorities to consider the actual adjusted cost of the shares as the tax basis if it is higher than such average price.
 
Non-Israeli residents are exempt from Israeli capital gains tax on any gains derived from the sale of shares of Israeli companies publicly traded on a recognized stock exchange or regulated market outside of Israel, provided however that such capital gains are not derived from a permanent establishment in Israel and such shareholders did not acquire their shares prior to an initial public offering. However, non-Israeli corporations will not be entitled to such exemption if Israeli residents (i) have a controlling interest of 25% or more in such non-Israeli corporation, or (ii) are the beneficiaries or are entitled to 25% or more of the revenues or profits of such non-Israeli corporation, whether directly or indirectly.
 
In some instances, where our shareholders may be liable to Israeli tax on the sale of their ordinary shares, the payment of the consideration may be subject to the withholding of Israeli tax at the source.
 
Pursuant to the Convention Between the government of the United States of America and the government of Israel with Respect to Taxes on Income, as amended, or the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, the sale, exchange or disposition of ordinary shares by a person who (i) holds the ordinary shares as a capital asset, (ii) qualifies as a resident of the United States within the meaning of the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, or a Treaty U.S. Resident, and (iii) is entitled to claim the benefits afforded to such person by the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, generally, will not be subject to the Israeli capital gains tax. Such exemption will not apply if (i) such Treaty U.S. Resident holds, directly or indirectly, shares representing 10% or more of our voting power during any part of the 12-month period preceding such sale, exchange or disposition, subject to certain conditions, or (ii) the capital gains from such sale, exchange or disposition can be allocated to a permanent establishment in Israel.  In such case, the sale, exchange or disposition of ordinary shares would be subject to Israeli tax, to the extent applicable; however, under the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, such Treaty U.S. Resident would be permitted to claim a credit for such taxes against the U.S. federal income tax imposed with respect to such sale, exchange or disposition, subject to the limitations in U.S. laws applicable to foreign tax credits. The U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty does not relate to U.S. state or local taxes.
 
Taxation of Dividends paid to Non-Resident Holders of Shares
 
Non-residents of Israel are subject to income tax on income accrued or derived from sources in Israel.  Such sources of income include passive income such as dividends.  On distributions of dividends other than bonus shares or stock dividends, income tax is applicable at the rate of 25%, or 30% for a shareholder that is considered a “significant shareholder” at any time during the 12-month period preceding such distribution, unless a different rate is provided in a treaty between Israel and the shareholder’s country of residence.  However, under the Investments Law, dividends generated by an Approved Enterprise (or Benefited Enterprise) are taxed at the rate of 15%-20%.
 
 Under the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, the maximum tax on dividends paid to a holder of ordinary shares who is a Treaty U.S. Resident is 25%. However, if the income out of which the dividend is paid is not generated by an Approved Enterprise (or Benefited Enterprise), and not more than 25% of our gross income consists of interest or dividends, dividends paid to a U.S. corporation holding at least 10% of our issued voting power during the part of the tax year which precedes the date of payment of the dividend and during the whole of its prior tax year, are generally taxed at a rate of 12.5%. Dividends generated by an Approved Enterprise (or Benefited Enterprise and Preferred Enterprise) are taxed at the rate of 15% under the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty. With respect to the December 2020 cash distribution to the Company's shareholders performed as a tax reduction for legal purposes,, the Company has approached the ITA for a tax ruling regulating the withholding tax from the distribution as well as determining whether the said distribution should be treated as a capital reduction (and taxed as a capital gain) or dividend for Israeli tax purposes or which portion should be considered as such. A determination with respect to the withholding tax from the distribution was received from the IT. The final tax ruling with respect to the redetermination of the portion of capital reduction and dividend was not received yet.
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United States Federal Income Tax Considerations

The following is a description of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares. This description addresses only the U.S. federal income tax considerations that are relevant to U.S. Holders (as defined below) who hold our ordinary shares as capital assets. This summary is based on the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder, judicial and administrative interpretations thereof, and the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, or the Treaty, all as in effect on the date hereof and all of which are subject to change either prospectively or retroactively.

There can be no assurance that the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, will not take a different position concerning the tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares or that such a position would not be sustained. This description does not address all tax considerations that may be relevant with respect to an investment in our ordinary shares. In addition, this description does not account for the specific circumstances of any particular investor, such as:


broker-dealers;

financial institutions;

certain insurance companies;

investors liable for alternative minimum tax;

regulated investment companies, real estate investment trusts, or grantor trusts;

dealers or traders in securities, commodities or currencies;

tax-exempt organizations;

non-resident aliens of the United States or taxpayers whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

persons who hold the ordinary shares through partnerships or other pass-through entities;

persons who acquire their ordinary shares through the exercise or cancellation of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation for services;