Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
ManpowerGroup
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$92.22 60 $5,540
10-Q 2019-03-31 Quarter: 2019-03-31
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-30 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-06-30 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-03-31 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-30 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-06-30 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-03-31 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2019-07-19 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-06-26 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2019-05-10 Shareholder Vote, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-04-18 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-31 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-12 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-09 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-19 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-20 Officers
8-K 2018-08-03 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-03 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-20 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-18 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-20 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-15 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-02 Earnings, Exhibits
AGNC AGNC Investment 9,330
CC Chemours 4,460
AMID American Midstream Partners 282
ALLT Allot Communications 249
ARDX Ardelyx 202
PIH 1347 Property Insurance Holdings 30
MCEP Mid-Con Energy Partners 22
MPAC Micropac Industries 0
HQCL Hanwha Q Cells 0
ISG Mittal Steel 0
MAN 2019-03-31
Part I - Financial Information
Item 1 - Financial Statements (Unaudited)
Item 2 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 3 - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 4 - Controls and Procedures
Part II - Other Information
Item 2 - Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Item 5 - Other Information
Item 6 - Exhibits
EX-10.1 q12019exhibit101.htm
EX-10.2 q12019exhibit102.htm
EX-31.1 q12019exhibit311.htm
EX-31.2 q12019exhibit312.htm
EX-32.1 q12019exhibit321.htm
EX-32.2 q12019exhibit322.htm

ManpowerGroup Earnings 2019-03-31

MAN 10Q Quarterly Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-Q 1 man-033119x10q.htm FORM 10-Q Document
United States
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

x           Quarterly Report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the quarterly period ended:
March 31, 2019
or
¨           Transition Report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the transition period from: ______to______

Commission file number: 1-10686

MANPOWERGROUP INC.
 (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 
Wisconsin
39-1672779
 
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
 
100 Manpower Place
 
 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
53212
 
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:  (414) 961-1000

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  x No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  x No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  x
Accelerated filer   ¨
Non-accelerated filer   ¨
Smaller reporting company   ¨
Emerging growth company    ¨
 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No  x
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.01 par value
MAN
New York Stock Exchange

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
 
 
Shares Outstanding
Class
 
 
at May 7, 2019
Common Stock, $.01 par value
 
59,820,998




 
 
ManpowerGroup Inc.


INDEX










2



PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION


Item 1 – Financial Statements (unaudited)

ManpowerGroup Inc.

Consolidated Balance Sheets (Unaudited)
(in millions)

ASSETS

 
March 31,
 
December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
CURRENT ASSETS:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
566.3

 
$
591.9

Accounts receivable, less allowance for doubtful accounts of $114.9 and $115.7, respectively
5,186.3

 
5,276.1

Prepaid expenses and other assets
282.8

 
129.1

Total current assets
6,035.4

 
5,997.1

 
 
 
 
OTHER ASSETS:
 
 
 
Goodwill
1,293.6

 
1,297.1

Intangible assets, less accumulated amortization of $373.8 and $367.7, respectively
238.2

 
246.3

Operating lease right-of-use asset
434.0

 

Other assets
670.8

 
826.7

Total other assets
2,636.6

 
2,370.1

 
 
 
 
PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT:
 
 
 
Land, buildings, leasehold improvements and equipment
601.3

 
613.6

Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization
454.9

 
461.0

Net property and equipment
146.4

 
152.6

    Total assets
$
8,818.4

 
$
8,519.8


The accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these statements.



3


ManpowerGroup Inc.

Consolidated Balance Sheets (Unaudited)
(in millions, except share and per share data)

LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
March 31,
 
December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
CURRENT LIABILITIES:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
2,300.7

 
$
2,266.7

Employee compensation payable
185.9

 
209.7

Accrued liabilities
553.5

 
411.0

Accrued payroll taxes and insurance
633.7

 
729.8

Value added taxes payable
490.4

 
508.6

Short-term borrowings and current maturities of long-term debt
52.6

 
50.1

Total current liabilities
4,216.8

 
4,175.9

 
 
 
 
OTHER LIABILITIES:
 
 
 
Long-term debt
1,003.3

 
1,025.3

Long-term operating lease liability
319.5

 

Other long-term liabilities
628.9

 
620.1

               Total other liabilities
1,951.7

 
1,645.4

 
 
 
 
SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY:
 
 
 
ManpowerGroup shareholders' equity
 
 
 
   Preferred stock, $.01 par value, authorized 25,000,000 shares, none issued

 

Common stock, $.01 par value, authorized 125,000,000 shares, issued 117,043,224 and
116,795,899 shares, respectively
1.2

 
1.2

   Capital in excess of par value
3,343.0

 
3,337.5

   Retained earnings
3,211.2

 
3,157.7

   Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(401.8
)
 
(399.8
)
   Treasury stock at cost, 57,308,380 and 56,044,485 shares, respectively
(3,578.0
)
 
(3,471.7
)
        Total ManpowerGroup shareholders’ equity
2,575.6

 
2,624.9

Noncontrolling interests
74.3

 
73.6

               Total shareholders’ equity
2,649.9

 
2,698.5

     Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity
$
8,818.4

 
$
8,519.8


The accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these statements.


 




 



4



 
ManpowerGroup Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Operations (Unaudited)
(in millions, except per share data)

 
 
3 Months Ended
 
 
March 31,
 
 
2019
 
2018
Revenues from services
 
$
5,044.9

 
$
5,522.4

Cost of services
 
4,240.1

 
4,637.0

 Gross profit
 
804.8

 
885.4

Selling and administrative expenses
 
699.3

 
731.6

 Operating profit
 
105.5

 
153.8

Interest and other expenses
 
11.9

 
16.1

 Earnings before income taxes
 
93.6

 
137.7

Provision for income taxes
 
40.1

 
40.7

Net earnings
 
$
53.5

 
$
97.0

Net earnings per share – basic
 
$
0.88

 
$
1.46

Net earnings per share – diluted
 
$
0.88

 
$
1.45

Weighted average shares – basic
 
60.6

 
66.3

Weighted average shares – diluted
 
61.0

 
66.9




ManpowerGroup Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Unaudited)
(in millions)

 
3 Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Net earnings
$
53.5

 
$
97.0

Other comprehensive (loss) income:
 
 
 
 Foreign currency translation adjustments
(30.6
)
 
47.7

 Translation adjustments on net investment hedge, net of income taxes of $5.1 and $(4.8), respectively
17.4

 
(16.4
)
 Translation adjustments of long-term intercompany loans
11.0

 
7.6

 Defined benefit pension plans and retiree health care plan, net of income taxes of $0.1 and $0.2, respectively
0.2

 
0.5

Total other comprehensive (loss) income
(2.0
)
 
39.4

Comprehensive income
$
51.5

 
$
136.4


The accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these statements. 
 



5



 
ManpowerGroup Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)
(in millions)

 
3 Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
Net earnings
$
53.5

 
$
97.0

Adjustments to reconcile net earnings to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
19.4

 
21.7

Non-cash lease expense
30.0

 

Deferred income taxes
2.0

 
(11.9
)
Provision for doubtful accounts
4.3

 
5.1

Share-based compensation
4.6

 
7.5

Changes in operating assets and liabilities, excluding the impact of acquisitions:
 
 
 
 Accounts receivable
29.4

 
66.7

 Other assets
(19.4
)
 
(72.6
)
 Other liabilities
(21.9
)
 
(171.9
)
Cash provided by (used in) operating activities
101.9

 
(58.4
)
 
 
 
 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
Capital expenditures
(10.0
)
 
(12.7
)
Acquisitions of businesses, net of cash acquired

 
(8.2
)
Proceeds from the sale of investments, property and equipment
3.5

 
5.9

Cash used in investing activities
(6.5
)
 
(15.0
)
 
 
 
 
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
Net change in short-term borrowings
2.3

 
(4.3
)
Proceeds from long-term debt
0.4

 

Repayments of long-term debt
(0.1
)
 
(0.1
)
Payments of contingent consideration for acquisitions
(0.6
)
 
(8.7
)
Proceeds from share-based awards and other equity transactions
0.9

 
3.6

Payments to noncontrolling interests

 
(0.7
)
Other share-based award transactions
(5.4
)
 
(16.8
)
Repurchases of common stock
(101.0
)
 
(50.1
)
Cash used in financing activities
(103.5
)
 
(77.1
)
 
 
 
 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
(17.5
)
 
13.7

Change in cash and cash equivalents
(25.6
)
 
(136.8
)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year
591.9

 
689.0

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period
$
566.3

 
$
552.2

 
 
 
 
SUPPLEMENTAL CASH FLOW INFORMATION:
 
 
 
Interest paid
$
5.0

 
$
6.4

Income taxes paid, net
$
17.3

 
$
16.6

Non-cash operating activity:
     Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for new operating lease liabilities
$
14.4

 
$


The accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these statements. 

6


ManpowerGroup Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Shareholders' Equity (Unaudited)
(in millions, except share and per share data)

 
ManpowerGroup Shareholders
 
 
 
 
 
Common Stock
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shares Issued
 
Par Value
 
Capital in Excess of Par Value
 
Retained Earnings
 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
 
Treasury Stock
 
Non-Controlling Interests
 
Total
Balance, December 31, 2018
116,795,899

 
$
1.2

 
$
3,337.5

 
$
3,157.7

 
$
(399.8
)
 
$
(3,471.7
)
 
$
73.6

 
$
2,698.5

Net earnings


 


 


 
53.5

 


 


 


 
53.5

Other comprehensive loss


 


 


 


 
(2.0
)
 


 


 
(2.0
)
Issuances under equity plans
247,325

 


 
0.4

 


 


 
(5.3
)
 


 
(4.9
)
Share-based compensation expense


 


 
4.6

 


 


 


 


 
4.6

Repurchases of common stock


 


 


 


 


 
(101.0
)
 


 
(101.0
)
Noncontrolling interest transactions


 


 
0.5

 


 


 


 
0.7

 
1.2

Balance, March 31, 2019
117,043,224

 
$
1.2

 
$
3,343.0

 
$
3,211.2

 
$
(401.8
)
 
$
(3,578.0
)
 
$
74.3

 
$
2,649.9

 
ManpowerGroup Shareholders
 
 
 
 
 
Common Stock
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shares Issued
 
Par Value
 
Capital in Excess of Par Value
 
Retained Earnings
 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income
 
Treasury Stock
 
Non-Controlling Interests
 
Total
Balance, December 31, 2017
116,303,729

 
$
1.2

 
$
3,302.6

 
$
2,713.0

 
$
(288.2
)
 
$
(2,953.7
)
 
$
82.7

 
$
2,857.6

Unrealized gain reclassified due to new accounting guidance on investments


 


 


 
15.3

 
(15.3
)
 


 


 

Net earnings


 


 


 
97.0

 


 


 


 
97.0

Other comprehensive income


 


 


 


 
39.4

 


 


 
39.4

Issuances under equity plans
437,703

 


 
2.9

 


 


 
(16.7
)
 


 
(13.8
)
Share-based compensation expense


 


 
7.5

 


 


 


 


 
7.5

Repurchases of common stock


 


 


 


 


 
(50.1
)
 


 
(50.1
)
Noncontrolling interest transactions


 


 
0.3

 


 


 


 
1.1

 
1.4

Balance, March 31, 2018
116,741,432

 
$
1.2

 
$
3,313.3

 
$
2,825.3

 
$
(264.1
)
 
$
(3,020.5
)
 
$
83.8

 
$
2,939.0


The accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these statements. 


7


Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2019 and 2018
(in millions, except share and per share data)


(1) Basis of Presentation and Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation
 
Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP") have been condensed or omitted pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission, although we believe that the disclosures are adequate to make the information presented not misleading. These Consolidated Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements included in our 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
The information furnished reflects all adjustments that, in the opinion of management, were necessary for a fair statement of the Consolidated Financial Statements for the periods presented. Such adjustments were of a normal recurring nature, unless otherwise disclosed.

Leases

We determine whether a contract is or contains a lease at contract inception. Right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and long-term lease liabilities are presented as separate line items on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Current operating lease liabilities are included in accrued expenses on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.

ROU assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Lease liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of remaining lease payments over the lease term. As the rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable in most of our leases, we use our incremental borrowing rate. We determine our incremental borrowing rate at the commencement date using our unsecured borrowing rate, adjusted for collaterization, lease term, economic environment, currency and other factors. ROU assets are recognized at commencement date at the value of the related lease liabilities, adjusted for any prepayments, lease incentives received, and initial direct costs incurred. Our lease terms include options to renew or not terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option.

Lease expenses for operating leases are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and recorded in selling and administrative expenses on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.

Subsequent Events

On April 3, 2019, we acquired the remaining 51% controlling interest in our Swiss franchise (“Manpower Switzerland”) to obtain full ownership of the entity. Additionally, as part of the purchase agreement we acquired the remaining 20% interest in Experis AG. Manpower Switzerland provides contingent staffing services under our Manpower brand in the four main language regions in Switzerland. Both Manpower Switzerland and Experis AG are reported in our Southern Europe segment. The aggregate cash consideration paid was $212.7 and was funded through cash on hand. Of the total consideration paid, $58.3 was for the acquired interests and the remaining $154.4 was for cash and cash equivalents.

Our investment in Manpower Switzerland prior to the acquisition was accounted for under the equity method of accounting and we recorded our share of equity income or loss in interest and other expenses on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.

The acquisition of the remaining controlling interest in Manpower Switzerland will be accounted for as a business combination and the assets and liabilities of Manpower Switzerland will be included in the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of the acquisition date, and its performance will be included in the Consolidated Statements of Operations subsequent to the acquisition date. The major classes of assets and liabilities of Manpower Switzerland are expected to be cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, current and long-term liabilities, goodwill and other intangible assets (amortizable and non-amortizable) and the funded status of its defined benefit pension plan.

The acquisition of the remaining interest of Experis AG will be accounted for as the purchase of a noncontrolling interest as we previously consolidated the entity.


8


On April 11, 2019, we sold a portion of our French payroll tax credits earned in 2018 for net proceeds of $103.5 (€92.0). We derecognized these receivables and the additional interest upon the sale date as the terms of the agreement are such that the transaction qualifies for sale treatment according to the accounting guidance on the transfer and servicing of assets. The discount on the sale of these receivables was recorded in cost of services as a reduction of the payroll tax credits.

We have evaluated all other events and transactions occurring after the balance sheet date through our filing date and have accrued or disclosed, if appropriate.

(2) Recent Accounting Standards
 
Accounting Standards Effective as of January 1, 2019

In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued new accounting guidance on leases, ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which we adopted on January 1, 2019. The new guidance requires that a lessee recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for leases with lease terms longer than 12 months. The recognition, measurement and presentation of lease expenses and cash flows depend on the classification by the lessee as a finance or operating lease. We determined that no cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings was necessary upon adoption. As of the transition date, the ROU asset and total lease liability (current and long-term) were $458.1 and $458.7, respectively.

We elected the package of three practical expedients which lessened the transitional burden of implementing the new guidance. Accordingly, we did not reassess: 1) whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases; 2) the lease classification for any expired or existing leases; or 3) the initial direct costs for any existing leases. We have elected the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components.

In August 2017, the FASB issued new guidance on hedge accounting. The amendments in this guidance include the elimination of the concept of recognizing periodic hedge ineffectiveness for cash flow and net investment hedges, recognition and presentation of changes in the fair value of the hedging instrument, recognition and presentation of components excluded from an entity's hedge effectiveness assessment, addition of the ability to elect to perform subsequent effectiveness assessments qualitatively, and addition of new disclosure requirements. We adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2019. There was no impact of this adoption on our Consolidated Financial Statements. See Note 14 for the modified disclosures.

In February 2018, the FASB issued new guidance on reporting comprehensive income. The new guidance allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the United States Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 ("Tax Act"). The guidance was effective for us as of January 1, 2019. We elected not to adopt this optional reclassification.

In June 2018, the FASB issued new guidance on the accounting for share-based payment awards. The guidance makes the accounting for share-based payment awards issued to nonemployees largely consistent with the accounting for share-based payment awards issued to employees. We adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2019. There was no impact of this adoption on our Consolidated Financial Statements.

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

In August 2018, the FASB issued new guidance on disclosures related to fair value measurements. The guidance is intended to improve the effectiveness of the notes to financial statements by facilitating clearer communication, and it includes multiple new, eliminated and modified disclosure requirements. The guidance is effective for us in 2020. The adoption of this guidance will have no impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
  
In August 2018, the FASB issued new guidance on the accounting for internal-use software. The guidance aligns the accounting for costs incurred to implement a cloud computing arrangement that is a service arrangement with the guidance on capitalizing costs associated with developing or obtaining internal-use software. The guidance is effective for us in 2020. We are assessing the impact of the adoption of this guidance on our Consolidated Financial Statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued new guidance on disclosures related to defined benefit plans. The guidance amends the current disclosure requirements to add, remove and clarify disclosure requirements for defined benefit pension and other postretirement plans. The guidance is effective for us in 2021. The adoption of this guidance will have no impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.


9


(3) Revenue Recognition

For certain client contracts where we recognize revenues over time, we recognize the amount that we have the right to invoice, which corresponds directly to the value provided to the client of our performance to date.

We do not disclose the amount of unsatisfied performance obligations for client contracts with an original expected length of one year or less and those client contracts for which we recognize revenues at the amount to which we have the right to invoice for services performed. We have other contracts with revenues expected to be recognized subsequent to March 31, 2019 related to remaining performance obligations, which are not material.

We record accounts receivable when our right to consideration becomes unconditional. Contract assets primarily relate to our rights to consideration for services provided that they are conditional on satisfaction of future performance obligations. We record contract liabilities (deferred revenue) when payments are made or due prior to the related performance obligations being satisfied. The current portion of our contract liabilities is included in accrued liabilities in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. We do not have any material contract assets or long-term contract liabilities.

Our deferred revenue was $39.2 at March 31, 2019 and $42.8 at December 31, 2018. The decrease is due to $23.6 of revenues recognized related to amounts that were included in the December 31, 2018 balance, partially offset by payments or amounts due in advance of satisfying our performance obligations in the first three months of 2019.

In the following table, revenue is disaggregated by service types for each of our reportable segments. See Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in our 2018 Annual Report on Form10-K for descriptions of revenue service types:
 
3 Months Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
Staffing and Interim
Outcome-Based Solutions and Consulting
Permanent Recruitment
Other
Total
 
Staffing and Interim
Outcome-Based Solutions and Consulting
Permanent Recruitment
Other
Total
Americas:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
United States
$
528.7

$
31.0

$
22.9

$
21.0

$
603.6

 
$
543.2

$
29.3

$
21.8

$
22.0

$
616.3

Other Americas
385.4

11.7

5.8

0.8

403.7

 
388.2

11.2

6.0

0.9

406.3

 
914.1

42.7

28.7

21.8

1,007.3

 
931.4

40.5

27.8

22.9

1,022.6

Southern Europe:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
France
1,224.5

57.3

14.5

5.1

1,301.4

 
1,344.6

59.1

14.9

5.4

1,424.0

Italy
330.0

9.5

9.9

6.5

355.9

 
387.0

11.5

9.2

5.9

413.6

Other Southern Europe
347.0

80.1

14.2

3.6

444.9

 
378.7

77.7

14.5

3.5

474.4

 
1,901.5

146.9

38.6

15.2

2,102.2

 
2,110.3

148.3

38.6

14.8

2,312.0

Northern Europe
1,053.4

89.7

38.1

8.5

1,189.7

 
1,255.2

109.8

44.5

8.1

1,417.6

APME
583.4

69.4

43.7

3.4

699.9

 
599.2

68.4

49.0

3.6

720.2

Right Management

10.1


35.7

45.8

 

11.5


38.5

50.0

Total
$
4,452.4

$
358.8

$
149.1

$
84.6

$
5,044.9

 
$
4,896.1

$
378.5

$
159.9

$
87.9

$
5,522.4



10


In the following table, revenue is disaggregated by timing of revenue recognition for each of our reportable segments:
 
3 Months Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
Services transferred
over time
Services transferred
at a point in time
Total
 
Services transferred
over time
Services transferred at a point in time
Total
  Americas:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
United States
$
590.6

$
13.0

$
603.6

 
$
604.3

$
12.0

$
616.3

Other Americas
399.7

4.0

403.7

 
402.1

4.2

406.3

 
990.3

17.0

1,007.3

 
1,006.4

16.2

1,022.6

  Southern Europe:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
France
1,287.7

13.7

1,301.4

 
1,409.6

14.4

1,424.0

Italy
346.6

9.3

355.9

 
404.8

8.8

413.6

Other Southern Europe
433.1

11.8

444.9

 
462.1

12.3

474.4

 
2,067.4

34.8

2,102.2

 
2,276.5

35.5

2,312.0

  Northern Europe
1,156.6

33.1

1,189.7

 
1,379.2

38.4

1,417.6

  APME
671.4

28.5

699.9

 
688.9

31.3

720.2

  Right Management
45.8


45.8

 
50.0


50.0

  Consolidated
$
4,931.5

$
113.4

$
5,044.9

 
$
5,401.0

$
121.4

$
5,522.4


(4) Share-Based Compensation Plans

During the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, we recognized share-based compensation expense of $4.6 and $7.5, respectively. The expense relates to stock options, deferred stock, restricted stock and performance share units. We recognize share-based compensation expense in selling and administrative expenses on a straight-line basis over the service period of each award. Consideration received from share-based awards was $0.9 and $3.6 for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

Our annual grant of share-based compensation generally takes place during the first quarter of each fiscal year. The number of shares underlying grants to employees and members of our Board of Directors, and the weighted-average fair value per share for shares granted during the first quarter of 2019 and 2018 are presented in the table below:
 
3 Months Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
Shares Granted
 
Wtd.-Avg. Per Share
 
Shares Granted
 
Wtd.-Avg. Per Share
 
(thousands)
 
Fair Value
 
(thousands)
 
Fair Value
Stock Options
163

 
$
17.78

 
122

 
$
31.46

Deferred Stock Units
20

 
64.80

 
10

 
126.11

Restricted Stock Units
203

 
78.90

 
137

 
117.60

Performance Share Units
136

 
77.70

 
94

 
117.19

     Total Shares Granted
522

 
$
58.96

 
363

 
$
88.76


(5) Acquisitions

From time to time, we acquire and invest in companies throughout the world, including franchises. For the three months ended March 31, 2019, the total cash consideration paid for acquisitions, net of cash acquired, was $0.6, which represents contingent consideration payments related to previous acquisitions. For the three months ended March 31, 2018, the total cash consideration for acquisitions, net of cash acquired, was $41.0, the majority of which took place in the Netherlands. This balance includes initial acquisition payments of $8.2 and contingent consideration payments of $32.8 ($8.7 of which had been recognized as a liability at the acquisition date).

On April 26, 2017, the sellers of 7S Group GmbH, a company we acquired in 2015, formally disputed the contingent consideration related to the acquisition and are claiming an additional $23.3 (€20.8), plus interest. The dispute has been heard by an arbitration tribunal in Germany, which is expected to render its decision during 2019. We have vigorously defended these claims in the arbitration, and we believe no further amounts are due. We are not currently able to predict the outcome of the arbitration, and consequently, no amounts have been recorded in the Consolidated Financial Statements.


11


(6) Restructuring Costs

We recorded net restructuring costs of $39.8 and $24.0 during the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, in selling and administrative expenses, primarily related to severances and office closures and consolidations in multiple countries and territories. During the three months ended March 31, 2019, we made payments and reclassifications of $22.1 out of our restructuring reserve. We expect a majority of the remaining $33.2 reserve will be paid or utilized by the end of 2019.

Changes in the restructuring reserve by reportable segment and Corporate are shown below.
 
Americas(1)
 
Southern Europe(2)
 
Northern Europe
 
APME
 
Right
Management
 
Corporate
 
Total
Balance, December 31, 2018
$
0.3

 
$
1.7

 
$
13.1

 
$

 
$
0.4

 
$

 
$
15.5

Severance costs
3.8

 
5.3

 
16.5

 
3.5

 
0.2

 
1.5

 
30.8

Office closure costs and other
1.3

 
0.1

 
2.2

 
0.9

 
4.5

 

 
9.0

Costs paid, utilized or transferred out(3)
(3.5
)
 
(1.1
)
 
(11.2
)
 
(1.5
)
 
(4.8
)
 

 
(22.1
)
Balance, March 31, 2019
$
1.9

 
$
6.0

 
$
20.6

 
$
2.9

 
$
0.3

 
$
1.5

 
$
33.2

 
(1) Balances related to the United States were $0.3 and $1.3 as of December 31, 2018 and March 31, 2019, respectively.
(2) Balances related to France were $0.9 as of both December 31, 2018 and March 31, 2019. Balances related to Italy were $0.5 and $2.3 as of December 31, 2018 and March 31, 2019, respectively.
(3) Restructuring reserve of $7.6 was transferred to current operating lease liabilities during the three months ended March 31, 2019.

(7) Income Taxes

We recorded income tax expense at an effective rate of 42.8% for the three months ended March 31, 2019, as compared to an effective rate of 29.6% for the three months ended March 31, 2018. The 2019 rate was unfavorably impacted by the transition of the French CICE subsidy, which was non-taxable, to new French subsidies in January 2019 that are taxable, and the recognition of valuation allowances against certain tax losses. The 42.8% effective tax rate in the quarter was higher than the United States Federal statutory rate of 21% primarily due to the French business tax, restructuring costs recorded in the quarter, our overall mix of earnings and the recognition of valuation allowances against certain tax losses.

As of March 31, 2019, we had gross unrecognized tax benefits related to various tax jurisdictions, including interest and penalties, of $35.0 that would favorably impact the effective tax rate if recognized. As of December 31, 2018, we had gross unrecognized tax benefits related to various tax jurisdictions, including interest and penalties, of $34.2. We do not expect our unrecognized tax benefits to change significantly over the next 12 months.

We conduct business globally in various countries and territories. We are routinely audited by the tax authorities of the various tax jurisdictions in which we operate. Generally, the tax years that could be subject to examination are 2012 through 2019 for our major operations in France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. As of March 31, 2019, we are subject to tax audits in Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany and the United States. We believe that the resolution of these audits will not have a material impact on earnings.


12


(8) Net Earnings Per Share

The calculations of net earnings per share – basic and net earnings per share – diluted were as follows:
 
 
 
3 Months Ended
 
 
 
March 31,
 
 
 
2019
 
2018
Net earnings available to common shareholders
 
 
$
53.5

 
$
97.0

 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding (in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
   Weighted-average common shares outstanding - basic
 
 
60.6

 
66.3

        Effect of dilutive securities - stock options
 
 

 
0.2

        Effect of other share-based awards
 
 
0.4

 
0.4

   Weighted-average common shares outstanding - diluted
 
 
61.0

 
66.9

 
 
 
 
 
 
 Net earnings per share - basic
 
 
$
0.88

 
$
1.46

 Net earnings per share - diluted
 
 
$
0.88

 
$
1.45


There were 0.6 million and 0.1 million share-based awards excluded from the calculation of net earnings per share – diluted for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, because their impact was anti-dilutive.

(9) Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

We have goodwill, finite-lived intangible assets and indefinite-lived intangible assets as follows:
 
March 31, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
 
Gross
 
Accumulated
Amortization
 
Net
 
Gross
 
Accumulated
Amortization
 
Net
Goodwill(1)
$
1,293.6

 
$

 
$
1,293.6

 
$
1,297.1

 
$

 
$
1,297.1

Intangible assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Finite-lived:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      Customer relationships
$
443.1

 
$
357.5

 
$
85.6

 
$
444.8

 
$
351.7

 
$
93.1

      Other
18.1

 
16.3

 
1.8

 
18.5

 
16.0

 
2.5

 
461.2

 
373.8

 
87.4

 
463.3

 
367.7

 
95.6

   Indefinite-lived:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Tradenames(2)
52.0

 

 
52.0

 
52.0

 

 
52.0

       Reacquired franchise rights
98.8

 

 
98.8

 
98.7

 

 
98.7

 
150.8

 

 
150.8

 
150.7

 

 
150.7

Total intangible assets
$
612.0

 
$
373.8

 
$
238.2

 
$
614.0

 
$
367.7

 
$
246.3


(1) Balances were net of accumulated impairment loss of $513.4 as of both March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018.
(2) Balances were net of accumulated impairment loss of $139.5 as of both March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018.
 
Total consolidated amortization expense related to intangible assets for the remainder of 2019 is expected to be $21.6 and in each of the next five years is expected to be as follows: 2020 - $24.1, 2021 - $13.2, 2022 - $9.7, 2023 - $7.6 and 2024 - $6.3.


13


Changes in the carrying value of goodwill by reportable segment and Corporate were as follows:
 
Americas(1)
 
Southern Europe(2)
 
Northern Europe
 
APME
 
Right
Management
 
Corporate(3)
 
Total
Balance, December 31, 2018
$
519.9

 
$
112.2

 
$
435.4

 
$
102.0

 
$
62.1

 
$
65.5

 
$
1,297.1

Goodwill acquired
0.4

 

 

 

 

 

 
0.4

Currency and other impacts
0.8

 
(1.9
)
 
(2.8
)
 

 

 

 
(3.9
)
Balance, March 31, 2019
$
521.1

 
$
110.3

 
$
432.6

 
$
102.0

 
$
62.1

 
$
65.5

 
$
1,293.6

     
(1) Balances related to the United States were $476.5 as of both December 31, 2018 and March 31, 2019.
(2) Balances related to France were $68.9 and $67.4 as of December 31, 2018 and March 31, 2019, respectively. Balances related to Italy were $4.8 and $4.6 as of December 31, 2018 and March 31, 2019, respectively.
(3) The majority of the Corporate balance relates to goodwill attributable to our acquisition of Jefferson Wells ($55.5) which is now part of the United States reporting unit. For purposes of monitoring our total assets by segment, we do not allocate the Corporate balance to the respective reportable segments as this is commensurate with how we operate our business. We do, however, include these balances within the appropriate reporting units for our goodwill impairment testing. See table below for the breakout of goodwill balances by reporting unit.

Goodwill balances by reporting unit were as follows:
 
March 31,
 
December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
United States
$
532.0

 
$
532.0

Germany
126.9

 
129.2

Netherlands
109.6

 
112.0

United Kingdom
95.7

 
93.7

France
67.4

 
68.9

Right Management
62.1

 
62.1

Other reporting units
299.9

 
299.2

Total goodwill
$
1,293.6

 
$
1,297.1


(10) Retirement Plans

The components of the net periodic benefit cost for our plans were as follows:
 
 
3 Months Ended March 31,
 
 
Defined Benefit Pension Plans
 
Retiree Health Care Plan
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Service cost
 
$
2.5

 
$
2.8

 
$

 
$

Interest cost
 
3.1

 
3.0

 
0.1

 
0.1

Expected return on assets
 
(2.3
)
 
(2.8
)
 

 

Other
 
0.5

 
0.4

 
(0.2
)
 
(0.2
)
Total benefit cost (credit)
 
$
3.8

 
$
3.4

 
$
(0.1
)
 
$
(0.1
)

During the three months ended March 31, 2019, contributions made to our pension plans were $1.5 and contributions made to our retiree health care plan were $0.3. During 2019, we expect to make total contributions of approximately $7.9 to our pension plans and to fund our retiree health care payments as incurred.


14


(11) Shareholders’ Equity

The components of accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax, were as follows:
 
March 31,
 
December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Foreign currency translation
$
(253.8
)
 
$
(223.2
)
Translation gain (loss) on net investment hedge, net of income taxes of $(7.8) and $(12.9), respectively
12.7

 
(4.7
)
Translation loss on long-term intercompany loans
(126.2
)
 
(137.2
)
Defined benefit pension plans, net of income taxes of $(23.1) and $(23.2), respectively
(37.6
)
 
(37.9
)
Retiree health care plan, net of income taxes of $2.0 for both 2019 and 2018
3.1

 
3.2

 Accumulated other comprehensive loss
$
(401.8
)
 
$
(399.8
)

Noncontrolling Interests

Noncontrolling interests, included in total shareholders' equity in our Consolidated Balance Sheets, represent amounts related to majority-owned subsidiaries in which we have a controlling financial interest. Net earnings attributable to these noncontrolling interests are recorded in interest and other expenses in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. We recorded expenses of $1.0 and $1.2 for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

Share Repurchases    

In August 2018, the Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of 6.0 million shares of our common stock. This authorization is in addition to the July 2016 Board authorization to repurchase 6.0 million shares of our common stock. Share repurchases may be made from time to time through a variety of methods, including open market purchases, block transactions, privately negotiated transactions or similar facilities. During the first quarter of 2019, we repurchased a total of 1.2 million shares at a cost of $101.0 under the 2018 authorization. During the first quarter of 2018, we repurchased 0.4 million shares at a cost of $50.1 under the 2016 authorization. As of March 31, 2019, there were 1.9 million shares remaining authorized for repurchase under the 2018 authorization and no shares remaining authorized for repurchase under the 2016 authorization.
(12) Interest and Other Expenses

Interest and other expenses consisted of the following:

 
3 Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Interest expense
$
10.2

 
$
13.6

Interest income
(1.5
)
 
(1.2
)
Foreign exchange loss (gain)
2.9

 
(0.1
)
Miscellaneous expense, net
0.3

 
3.8

Interest and other expenses
$
11.9

 
$
16.1



15


(13) Derivative Financial Instruments and Fair Value Measurements

Derivative Financial Instruments

We are exposed to various market risks relating to our ongoing business operations. The primary market risks, which are managed through the use of derivative instruments, are foreign currency exchange rate risk and interest rate risk. In certain circumstances, we enter into foreign currency forward exchange contracts (“forward contracts”) to reduce the effects of fluctuating foreign currency exchange rates on our cash flows denominated in foreign currencies. Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our long-term debt obligations. We have historically managed interest rate risk through the use of a combination of fixed and variable rate borrowings.

The €400.0 ($446.9) notes due September 2022 and the €500.0 ($555.5) notes due June 2026 were designated as a hedge of our net investment in our foreign subsidiaries with a Euro-functional currency as of March 31, 2019. The gain or loss associated with foreign currency translation on these notes is recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss ("AOCI"), net of taxes. On occasion, forward contracts are also designated as a hedge of our net investment in our foreign subsidiaries. The effect of our net investment hedges on AOCI for the three months ended March 31 was as follows:
Instrument
 
Gain (Loss) Recognized in Other Comprehensive Income
 
 
2019
 
2018(1)
Euro Notes
 
$
22.4

 
$
(21.2
)
(1) The prior period amounts have been revised to conform with the current period presentation.

For our forward contracts that are not designated as hedges, any gain or loss resulting from the change in fair value is recognized in the current period earnings. These gains or losses are offset by the exposure related to receivables and payables with our foreign subsidiaries and to interest due on our Euro-denominated notes, which is paid annually in June and September. For both the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, there was no effect on the Consolidated Statements of Operations from our forward contracts that are not designated as hedging instruments.

The following tables present the fair value of derivative and non-derivative assets and liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31:
 
Assets
 
 
Balance Sheet Location
 
2019
 
2018
Instruments not designated as hedges:
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency forward contracts
Accounts receivable, net
 
$

 
$

Total instruments
 
 
$

 
$

 
Liabilities
 
 
Balance Sheet Location
 
2019
 
2018
Instruments designated as hedges:
 
 
 
 
 
Euro Notes
Long-term debt
 
1,050.3

 
819.2

Instruments not designated as hedges:
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency forward contracts
Accrued liabilities
 

 

Total instruments
 
 
$
1,050.3

 
$
819.2


Fair Value Measurements

The carrying value of long-term debt approximates fair value, except for the Euro-denominated notes. The fair value of the Euro-denominated notes, as observable at commonly quoted intervals (Level 2 inputs), was $1,050.3 and $1,052.9 as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively, compared to a carrying value of $1,002.4 and $1,024.6, respectively.

Our deferred compensation plan assets were $98.2 and $89.5 as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively. We determine the fair value of these assets, comprised of publicly traded securities, by using market quotes as of the last day of the period (Level 1 inputs).

We measure the fair value of the foreign currency forward contracts at the value based on either directly or indirectly observable inputs from third parties (Level 2 inputs).


16


(14) Leases

We have operating leases for real estate, vehicles, and equipment. Our leases have remaining lease terms of 1 month to 12 years. Our lease agreements may include renewal or termination options for varying periods that are generally at our discretion. In our lease term, we only include those periods related to renewal options we are reasonably certain to exercise. However, we generally do not include these renewal options as we are not reasonably certain to renew at the lease commencement date. This determination is based on our consideration of certain economic, strategic and other factors that we evaluate at lease commencement date and reevaluate throughout the lease term. Some leases also include options to terminate the leases and we only include those periods beyond the termination date if we are reasonably certain not to exercise the termination option.

Some leasing arrangements require variable payments that are dependent on usage or may vary for other reasons, such as payments for insurance and tax payments. The variable portion of lease payments is not included in our ROU assets or lease liabilities. Rather, variable payments, other than those dependent upon an index or rate, are expensed when the obligation for those payments is incurred and are included in lease expenses recorded in selling and administrative expenses on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.

We have lease agreements with both lease and non-lease components that are treated as a single lease component for all underlying asset classes. Accordingly, all expenses associated with a lease contract are accounted for as lease expenses.

We have elected to apply the short-term lease exception for all underlying asset classes. That is, leases with a term of 12 months or less are not recognized on the balance sheet, but rather expensed on a straight-line basis over the lease term. We do not include significant restrictions or covenants in our lease agreements, and residual value guarantees are generally not included within our operating leases. As of March 31, 2019, we did not have any material additional operating leases that have not yet commenced.

The components of lease expense were as follows:
 
3 Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2019
Operating lease expense
$
34.7

Short-term lease expense
6.1

Other lease expense(1)
$
5.1

Total lease expense
$
45.9

(1) Other lease expense includes immaterial variable lease expense and sublease income.

Other information related to leases was as follows:
 
3 Months Ended
 
March 31,
Supplemental Cash Flows Information
2019
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of operating lease liabilities
$
30.6

Operating ROU assets obtained in exchange for lease obligations
$
14.4


 
March 31,
Supplemental balance sheet information
2019
Operating Leases
 
Operating lease ROU assets
$
434.0

 

Operating lease liabilities - current(1)
$
117.8

Operating lease liabilities - long-term
$
319.5

Total operating lease liabilities
$
437.3

(1) Operating lease liabilities - current are included in accrued expenses on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.

Weighted Average Remaining Lease Term
 
Operating leases
5.7 years

Weighted Average Discount Rate
 
Operating leases
2.8
%


17


Maturities of operating lease liabilities as of March 31, 2019 were as follows:
(In millions)
 
Period Ending March 31, 2019
Operating Leases
2019 (excluding the three months ended March 31, 2019)
$
94.1

2020
106.6

2021
80.8

2022
60.9

2023
42.0

2024
30.7

Thereafter
71.7

Total future undiscounted lease payments
$
486.8

Less imputed interest
$
(49.5
)
Total operating lease liabilities
$
437.3


Maturities of operating leases accounted for under ASC 840 as of December 31, 2018 were as follows:
(In millions)
 
Period Ending December 31, 2018
Operating Leases
2019
$
151.4

2020
115.2

2021
85.5

2022
65.0

2023
44.1

Thereafter
105.6

Total minimum lease payments
$
566.8


(15) Segment Data
  
We are organized and managed primarily on a geographic basis, with Right Management currently operating as a separate global business unit. Each country and business unit generally has its own distinct operations and management team, providing services under our global brands, and maintains its own financial reports. We have an executive sponsor for each global brand who is responsible for ensuring the integrity and consistency of delivery locally. Each operation reports directly or indirectly through a regional manager, to a member of executive management. Given this reporting structure, we operate using the following reporting segments: Americas, which includes United States and Other Americas; Southern Europe, which includes France, Italy and Other Southern Europe; Northern Europe; APME; and Right Management.
 
The Americas, Southern Europe, Northern Europe and APME segments derive a significant majority of their revenues from our staffing and interim services. The remaining revenues within these segments are derived from our outcome-based solutions and consulting services, permanent recruitment services and other services. The Right Management segment revenues are derived from outplacement and talent management services. Segment revenues represent sales to external clients. We provide services to a wide variety of clients, none of which individually comprise a significant portion of revenues for us as a whole. Due to the nature of our business, we generally do not have export sales. 

18


 
3 Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Revenues from services:
 
 
 
  Americas:
 
 
 
    United States (a)
$
603.6

 
$
616.3

    Other Americas
403.7

 
406.3

 
1,007.3

 
1,022.6

  Southern Europe:
 
 
 
          France
1,301.4

 
1,424.0

           Italy
355.9

 
413.6

    Other Southern Europe
444.9

 
474.4

 
2,102.2

 
2,312.0

 
 
 
 
  Northern Europe
1,189.7

 
1,417.6

  APME
699.9

 
720.2

  Right Management
45.8

 
50.0

  Consolidated (b)
$
5,044.9

 
$
5,522.4

 
 
 
 
Operating unit profit: (c)
 
 
 
  Americas:
 
 
 
    United States
$
16.4

 
$
26.7

           Other Americas
14.8

 
16.2

 
31.2

 
42.9

  Southern Europe:
 
 
 
          France
55.5

 
57.7

           Italy
20.4

 
25.2

    Other Southern Europe
11.0

 
14.8

 
86.9

 
97.7

 
 
 
 
  Northern Europe
0.6

 
16.6

  APME
20.1

 
25.9

  Right Management
2.1

 
6.4

 
140.9

 
189.5

 Corporate expenses
(27.9
)
 
(26.8
)
 Intangible asset amortization expense
(7.5
)
 
(8.9
)
           Operating profit
105.5

 
153.8

 Interest and other expenses
(11.9
)
 
(16.1
)
  Earnings before income taxes
$
93.6

 
$
137.7


(a)
In the United States, revenues from services included fees received from the related franchise offices of $3.6 and $3.2 for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. These fees are primarily based on revenues generated by the franchise offices, which were $156.9 and $149.0 for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

(b)
Our consolidated revenues from services include fees received from our franchise offices of $5.6 and $5.2 for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. These fees are primarily based on revenues generated by the franchise offices, which were $243.0 and $236.8 for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

(c)
We evaluate segment performance based on operating unit profit (“OUP”), which is equal to segment revenues less cost of services and branch and national headquarters operating costs. This profit measure does not include goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges or amortization of intangibles related to acquisitions, corporate expenses, interest and other income and expense amounts or income taxes.


19


Item 2 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

See the financial measures section on page 25 for further information on the Non-GAAP financial measures of constant currency and organic constant currency.

Business Overview

Client demand for workforce solutions and services is dependent on the overall strength of the labor market and secular trends toward greater workforce flexibility within each of the segments where we operate. Improving economic growth typically results in increasing demand for labor, resulting in greater demand for our staffing services while demand for our outplacement services typically declines. During periods of increasing demand, we are generally able to improve our profitability and operating leverage as our cost base can support some increase in business without a similar increase in selling and administrative expenses. Whereas, during periods of decreased demand, as we experienced in the first quarter of 2019, our operating profit is generally impacted unfavorably as we experience a deleveraging of selling and administrative expenses which may not decline at the same pace as revenues.

During the first quarter of 2019, the United States dollar was stronger, on average, relative to the currencies in all of our markets, particularly those markets within Europe, having an unfavorable impact on our reported results. While our reported revenues from services decreased 8.6% in the first quarter of 2019 compared to the first quarter of 2018 and our reported operating profit decreased 31.4%, these results were partly impacted by the relative weakness of other currencies against the United States dollar compared to the same period in 2018, and generally may understate the performance of our underlying business. The changes in the foreign currency exchange rates had a 6.4% unfavorable impact on revenues from services, a 5.4% unfavorable impact on operating profit, and an approximately $0.12 per share unfavorable impact on net earnings per share – diluted in the quarter. Substantially all of our subsidiaries derive revenues from services and incur expenses within the same currency and generally do not have cross-currency transactions, and therefore, changes in foreign currency exchange rates primarily impact reported earnings and not our actual cash flow unless earnings are repatriated. To understand the performance of our underlying business, we utilize constant currency or organic constant currency variances for our consolidated and segment results.

In the three months ended March 31, 2019, we experienced constant currency revenue declines in most of our markets. Our consolidated revenues were down 2.2% in constant currency in the quarter, a deterioration from the 0.7% constant currency decline in the fourth quarter of 2018 due primarily to the differences in the number of billing days. After adjusting for billing days, our organic constant currency revenue decrease was 1.1% compared to a 2.5% decrease in the fourth quarter of 2018. Our first quarter results reflect a stabilization of the economic slowdown experienced in the second half of 2018 in certain markets within Southern and Northern Europe, which when combined represents approximately 65% of our total consolidated revenues. The revenue decrease in Northern Europe was primarily due to the decrease in Germany resulting from the continued challenges posed by new regulations, the implementation of new systems and actions taken to optimize our delivery channels that caused some client disruption during the third quarter of 2018, as well as softer demand from the manufacturing sector in that market. We experienced a revenue decline in Southern Europe due to the constant currency revenue decline in France, flat after adjusting for billing days, and constant currency revenue growth in certain markets within Other Southern Europe. In the Americas, revenues increased 3.0% in constant currency due to increased demand for our staffing/interim services in certain markets within Other Americas, a 5.3% constant currency increase in our permanent recruitment business, and an increase in our ManpowerGroup Solutions business. These increases were partially offset by 2.1% decrease in the United States primarily driven by a decline in demand for our staffing/interim services and the unfavorable impact of approximately one fewer billing day. In APME, revenues increased 1.9% in constant currency primarily due to an increase in our Manpower staffing revenues.

Our gross profit margin in the first quarter of 2019 was flat compared to 2018 as the increase in our permanent recruitment business contribution was offset by the decline in our staffing/interim gross profit margin due to business mix changes in various countries.

We recorded $39.8 million of restructuring costs in the first quarter of 2019, comprised of $5.1 million in the Americas, $5.4 million in Southern Europe, $18.7 million in Northern Europe, $4.4 million in APME, $4.7 million in Right Management, and $1.5 million in corporate expenses. The restructuring costs were primarily related to our delivery channel and other front-office centralization and back-office optimization activities, as well as adjusting our cost-base for the slower market environment in many of our European operations.

Our operating profit decreased in the first quarter of 2019 by 31.4% (-26.0% in constant currency) while our operating profit margin was down 70 basis points compared to the first quarter of 2018. Excluding the restructuring costs incurred in the first quarter of both 2019 and 2018, our operating profit was down 11.5% in constant currency while operating profit margin was down 30 basis points compared to the first quarter of 2018. We continue to monitor expenses closely to ensure we maintain the benefit of our efforts to optimize our organizational and cost structures, while investing appropriately to support the growth in the business and enhance our productivity and technology and digital capabilities.




20


Operating Results - Three Months Ended March 31, 2019 and 2018

The following table presents selected consolidated financial data for the three months ended March 31, 2019 as compared to 2018.

 
 
(in millions, except per share data)
2019
 
2018
 
Variance
 
Constant Currency Variance
Revenues from services
$
5,044.9

 
$
5,522.4

 
-8.6
 %
 
-2.2
%
Cost of services
4,240.1

 
4,637.0

 
-8.6

 
-2.0

    Gross profit
804.8

 
885.4

 
-9.1

 
-3.0

    Gross profit margin
16.0
%
 
16.0
%
 
 
 
 
Selling and administrative expenses
699.3

 
731.6

 
-4.4

 
1.9

    Operating profit
105.5

 
153.8

 
-31.4

 
-26.0

    Operating profit margin
2.1
%
 
2.8
%
 
 
 
 
Interest and other expenses
11.9

 
16.1

 
-26.6

 
 
    Earnings before income taxes
93.6

 
137.7

 
-32.0

 
-26.5

Provision for income taxes
40.1

 
40.7

 
-1.4

 
 
Effective income tax rate
42.8
%
 
29.6
%
 
 
 
 
    Net earnings
$
53.5

 
$
97.0

 
-44.8

 
-40.4

Net earnings per share – diluted
$
0.88

 
$
1.45

 
-39.3

 
-34.5

Weighted average shares – diluted
61.0

 
66.9

 
-8.9
 %
 
 

The year-over-year decrease in revenues from services of 8.6% (-2.2% in constant currency and -1.5% in organic constant currency) was attributed to:

a revenue decrease in Southern Europe of 9.1% (-1.6% in constant currency). This included a revenue decrease in France of 8.6% (-1.1% in constant currency) primarily due to the unfavorable impact of approximately one fewer billing day. The Southern Europe decrease also included a decrease in Italy of 14.0% (-6.9% in constant currency) due to decreased demand for our Manpower staffing services as a result of a challenging economic environment and the unfavorable impact of approximately one fewer billing day, partially offset by a 7.4% increase (16.3% in constant currency) in the permanent recruitment business;

decreased demand for services in several of our markets within Northern Europe, where revenues decreased 16.1% (-8.8% in constant currency and -8.2% in organic constant currency), primarily due to reduced demand for our Manpower staffing services. We experienced revenue declines in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, the United Kingdom, and the Nordics of 29.1%, 27.6%, 12.1%, 10.7%, and 6.1% (-23.2%, -21.7%, -4.9%, -4.7%, and an increase of 4.0%, respectively, in constant currency; -18.0% in organic constant currency in the Netherlands);

a revenue decrease in the United States of 2.1% primarily driven by a decline in demand for our staffing/interim services and the unfavorable impact of approximately one fewer billing day;

a revenue decrease in APME of 2.8% (increase of 1.9% in constant currency) due to the impact of changes in currency exchange rates, partially offset by an increase in our Manpower staffing revenues;

decreased demand for services at Right Management, where revenues decreased 8.4% (-4.5% in constant currency), including a 7.2% decrease (-3.5% in constant currency) in our outplacement services, as well as a 12.3% decrease (-7.9% in constant currency) in our talent management business;

our dispositions in Northern Europe and APME at the end of December 2018, which contributed approximately 0.7% of revenue decline to our consolidated results on a constant currency basis; and

6.4% decrease due to the impact of changes in currency exchange rates.

The gross profit margin remained flat year-over-year as a 10 basis point favorable impact due to a larger mix of services coming from our permanent recruitment business was offset by a 10 basis point unfavorable impact from the decline in our staffing/interim margin due to business mix changes in various countries as well as lower associate utilization and higher vacation and sickness rates in Germany.


21


The 4.4% decrease in selling and administrative expenses in the first quarter of 2019 (increase of 1.9% in constant currency and 2.2% in organic constant currency) was primarily attributed to:

a 9.8% decrease (-3.8% in constant currency; -3.5% in organic constant currency) in office-related costs primarily due to a decrease in the number of offices as a result of our delivery channel and other front-office centralization and back-office optimization activities, as well as adjusting our cost-base for the slower market environment in many of our European operations;

a $2.8 million decrease in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018 as a result of dispositions in December 2018 in Northern Europe and APME; and

a 6.3% decrease due to the impact of changes in currency exchange rates; partially offset by

restructuring costs of $39.8 million incurred in the first quarter of 2019 compared to $24.0 million incurred in the first quarter of 2018.
 
Selling and administrative expenses as a percent of revenues increased 70 basis points in the first quarter of 2019 compared to the first quarter of 2018 due to a 40 basis point unfavorable impact from the increase in restructuring costs, a 20 basis point unfavorable impact from expense deleveraging as we were unable to decrease expenses at the same rate as our revenue decline, and a 10 basis point unfavorable impact from changes in currency exchange rates.

Interest and other expenses are comprised of interest, foreign exchange gains and losses and other miscellaneous non-operating income and expenses, including noncontrolling interests. Interest and other expenses were $11.9 million in the first quarter of 2019 compared to $16.1 million in the first quarter of 2018. Net interest expense decreased $3.7 million in the first quarter of 2019 to $8.7 million from $12.4 million in the first quarter of 2018 due to the lower interest rate on our €500.0 million notes offered and sold in June 2018 compared to the interest rate on the €350.0 million notes due June 22, 2018 that were repaid in June 2018. Foreign exchange losses in the first quarter of 2019 were $2.9 million compared to income of $0.1 million in the first quarter of 2018. The increase in foreign exchange losses was primarily due to the $2.3 million translation loss in Argentina as a result of the highly-inflationary designation of its economy as of July 1, 2018. Miscellaneous expenses were $0.3 million in the first quarter of 2019 compared to $3.8 million in the first quarter of 2018. The decrease is primarily due to a decrease in expenses related to net earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests.

We recorded income tax expense at an effective rate of 42.8% for the three months ended March 31, 2019, as compared to an effective rate of 29.6% for the three months ended March 31, 2018. The 2019 rate was unfavorably impacted by the transition of the French CICE subsidy, which was non-taxable, to new French subsidies in January 2019 that are taxable, and the recognition of valuation allowances against certain tax losses. The 42.8% effective tax rate in the quarter was higher than the United States Federal statutory rate of 21% primarily due to the French business tax, restructuring costs recorded in the quarter, our overall mix of earnings and the recognition of valuation allowances against certain tax losses.

Net earnings per share - diluted was $0.88 and $1.45 in the first quarter of 2019 and 2018, respectively. Foreign currency exchange rates unfavorably impacted net earnings per share - diluted by approximately $0.12 per share in the first quarter of 2019. Restructuring costs recorded in the first quarter of 2019 and 2018 negatively impacted net earnings per share - diluted by approximately $0.51 and $0.27 per share, net of tax, in the first quarter of 2019 and 2018, respectively.

Weighted average shares - diluted decreased 8.9% to 61.0 million in the first quarter of 2019 from 66.9 million in the first quarter of 2018. This decrease was due to the impact of share repurchases completed since the first quarter of 2018, partially offset by shares issued as a result of exercises and vesting of share-based awards since the first quarter of 2018.
 
Segment Operating Results
    
Americas

In the Americas, revenues from services decreased 1.5% (increase of 3.0% in constant currency) in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018. In the United States, revenues from services decreased 2.1% in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018, primarily driven by a decline in demand for our staffing/interim services and the unfavorable impact of approximately one fewer billing day, partially offset by a 4.9% increase in our permanent recruitment business and an increase in our ManpowerGroup Solutions business, primarily within our MSP offering. In Other Americas, revenues from services decreased 0.6% (increase of 10.7% in constant currency) in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018. We experienced revenue growth in Mexico, Canada, Colombia, and Peru of 4.4%, 7.7%, 1.6%, and 10.5%, respectively (7.0%, 13.2%, 11.4%, and 13.4%, respectively, in constant currency). These increases were partially offset by decreases in Argentina and Brazil of 41.7% and 1.0%, respectively (increases of 15.5% and 14.8%, respectively, in constant currency). The constant currency increase in Argentina was primarily due to inflation. There has been a steady devaluation of the Argentine peso relative to the United States dollar in the last few years. As of July 1, 2018, the Argentina economy was designated as highly-inflationary and was treated as such for accounting purposes starting in the third quarter of 2018.

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Gross profit margin decreased in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018 due to business mix changes within our staffing/interim business, as a larger percentage of our revenues came from our lower-margin entities within Other Americas. This decrease was partially offset by an improved staffing/interim margin in the United States, due to pricing discipline and lower payroll tax and insurance costs, as well as an increase of 3.1% (5.3% in constant currency) in the permanent recruitment business.

In the first quarter of 2019, selling and administrative expenses increased 5.3% (9.6% in constant currency), due primarily to an increase in salary-related expenses, as a result of higher headcount related to growth initiatives, increased costs as a result of investment in certain technology and back-office and delivery channel optimization activities in the United States, and an increase in restructuring costs to $5.1 million in the first quarter of 2019 from $0.3 million in the first quarter of 2018.

Operating Unit Profit (“OUP”) margin in the Americas was 3.1% and 4.2% for the first quarter of 2019 and 2018, respectively. In the United States, OUP margin decreased to 2.7% in the first quarter of 2019 from 4.3% in 2018. The margin decrease in 2019 in the United States was primarily due to the restructuring costs incurred in the first quarter of 2019 and increased costs as a result of headcount increases for growth initiatives, investment in certain technology and back-office and delivery channel optimization activities. Other Americas OUP margin decreased to 3.7% in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 4.0% in 2018 due to the increase in restructuring costs.

Southern Europe
 
In Southern Europe, which includes operations in France and Italy, revenues from services decreased 9.1% (-1.6% in constant currency) in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018. In the first quarter of 2019, revenues from services decreased 8.6% (-1.1% in constant currency) in France (which represents 62% of Southern Europe’s revenues) and decreased 14.0% (-6.9% in constant currency) in Italy (which represents 17% of Southern Europe’s revenues). The decrease in France is primarily due to the unfavorable impact of changes in currency exchange rates and the unfavorable impact of approximately one fewer billing day, partially offset by a constant currency increase in our permanent recruitment business of 5.8% (-2.3% as reported). The decrease in Italy was due to decreased demand for our Manpower staffing services as a result of a challenging economic environment, partially offset by a 7.4% increase (16.3% in constant currency) in the permanent recruitment business. In Other Southern Europe, revenues from services decreased 6.2% (increase of 1.5% in constant currency) during the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018, due to the unfavorable impact of changes in currency exchange rates, partially offset by an increase in our ManpowerGroup Solutions business and the constant currency increase in our permanent recruitment business of 4.8% (-3.7% as reported).
 
Gross profit margin increased in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018 primarily due to the increase in France's staffing/interim margin as a result of favorable pricing actions, favorable direct costs adjustments and various initiatives to offset the unfavorable impact from transition of the CICE program to a new subsidy program. These increases were partially offset by the unfavorable impact of transition of the CICE program to a new subsidy program. The Southern Europe gross profit margin also increased due to growth in our higher-margin ManpowerGroup Solutions business and a 7.9% constant currency increase (-0.5% as reported) in the permanent recruitment business. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in Italy's Manpower staffing margin primarily due to the loss of certain subsidies.
 
Selling and administrative expenses decreased 5.7% (increase of 2.1% in constant currency) during the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018 due to the favorable impact of changes in currency exchange rates, partially offset by an increase in salary-related expenses, as a result of higher headcount, and an increase of restructuring costs to $5.4 million in the first quarter of 2019 from $3.1 million in the first quarter of 2018.

OUP margin in Southern Europe was 4.1% for the first quarter of 2019 compared to 4.2% for 2018. In France, the OUP margin increased to 4.3% for the first quarter of 2019 from 4.1% in 2018, primarily due to the improvement in the gross profit margin, partially offset by an increase in salary-related expenses. In Italy, the OUP margin decreased to 5.7% for the first quarter of 2019 from 6.1% for 2018, primarily due to the increase in restructuring costs, partially offset by an increase in the gross profit margin. Other Southern Europe’s OUP margin decreased to 2.5% for the first quarter of 2019 from 3.1% in 2018, due to a decline in the gross profit margin and the increase in restructuring costs.

Northern Europe

In Northern Europe, which includes operations in the United Kingdom, Germany, the Nordics, the Netherlands and Belgium (comprising 32%, 18%, 21%, 12%, and 8%, respectively, of Northern Europe’s revenues), revenues from services decreased 16.1% (-8.8% in constant currency) in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018. We experienced revenue declines in the United Kingdom, Germany, the Nordics, the Netherlands and Belgium of 10.7%, 29.1%, 6.1%, 27.6% and 12.1% (-4.7%, -23.2%, increase of 4.0%, -21.7% and -4.9%, respectively, in constant currency). The Northern Europe revenue decrease is primarily due to reduced demand for our Manpower staffing services, primarily because of the decrease in Germany resulting from lower production activity in the manufacturing sector in that market, decrease in the UK due to reduced production from one of our automotive clients, and reduced demand in the Netherlands. This decrease was also due to a decrease in our ManpowerGroup Solutions business from the disposition of our language translation business in the Netherlands at the end of December 2018 and the 14.5% decrease (-7.0% in constant currency) in the permanent recruitment business. These decreases were partially offset an

23


increased demand for our staffing/interim services in Norway as well as a constant currency increase in our Experis interim business primarily within the IT sector in the United Kingdom.

Gross profit margin decreased in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018 due to the decline in our staffing/interim margin, primarily as a result of business mix changes, lower associate utilization and higher vacation and sickness rates in Germany, and the decrease in our permanent recruitment business.

Selling and administrative expenses decreased 14.3% (-6.8% in constant currency; -6.2% in organic constant currency) in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018 due primarily to a decrease in organic salary-related expenses as a result of a reduction in headcount, a decrease in office-related expenses driven by a decrease in the number of offices, and a decrease in consulting costs related to certain technology projects, front-office centralization and back-office optimization activities incurred in the first quarter of 2018. The decrease is also due to the decrease of restructuring costs to $18.7 million in the first quarter of 2019 from $20.1 million in the first quarter of 2018. The 2019 restructuring costs related to delivery model and other front-office centralization activities as well as back-office optimization activities primarily in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Belgium.

OUP margin for Northern Europe for the first quarter of 2019 decreased to 0.1% compared to 1.2% in 2018. The decrease in the OUP margin was primarily due to a decrease in the gross profit margin, as well as deleveraging, as we were unable to reduce costs at the same rate as the revenue decline.

APME

Revenues from services decreased 2.8% (increase of 1.9% in constant currency and 5.9% in organic constant currency) in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018. In Japan (which represents 33% of APME’s revenues), revenues from services increased 0.9% (2.8% in constant currency) due to the increased demand for our staffing/interim services and a 11.5% increase (13.7% in constant currency) in our permanent recruitment business, partially offset by the unfavorable impact of one fewer billing day in the quarter. In Australia (which represents 18% of APME’s revenues), revenues from services decreased 13.3% (-4.4% in constant currency) as we chose to exit out of certain low-margin business to improve profitability, and due to the 13.0% decrease (-4.0% in constant currency) in our permanent recruitment business. The slight revenue decrease in the remaining markets in APME is due to the disposition of a low-margin business in Greater China at the end of December 2018, partially offset by increased demand for our Manpower staffing services, mostly in India, Greater China, Thailand, and Singapore.

Gross profit margin remained flat in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018 as the increase in our staffing/interim margin due to the Greater China business disposition in 2018 was offset by the decrease in our permanent recruitment business of 9.5% (-2.9% in constant currency).

Selling and administrative expenses increased 2.9% (8.4% in constant currency) in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018 due primarily to an increase in restructuring costs to $4.4 million, incurred in Australia and New Zealand, in first quarter of 2019 compared to no restructuring costs incurred in the first quarter of 2018, and the increase in organic salary-related costs due to higher headcount, which supported the constant currency increase in revenues. These increases were offset by a decrease in selling and administrative expenses as a result of the Greater China business disposition in 2018.

OUP margin for APME decreased to 2.9% in the first quarter of 2019 from 3.6% in 2018 due to the restructuring costs incurred in the first quarter of 2019.

Right Management

Revenues from services decreased 8.4% (-4.5% in constant currency) in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018. The decrease is primarily due to the 7.2% decrease (-3.5% in constant currency) in our outplacement services as we experienced softer demand in our Americas and European markets. Our talent management business decreased 12.3% (-7.9% in constant currency) in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018 due mostly to softening demand across all markets.

Gross profit margin decreased in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018 due to the decrease in both our outplacement and talent management businesses gross profit margins, partially offset by the change in business mix as the higher-margin outplacement business represented a higher percentage of the revenues mix.

Selling and administrative expenses increased 6.1% (9.9% in constant currency) in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 2018 primarily due to the increase of restructuring costs to $4.7 million in the first quarter of 2019 compared to $0.5 million in the first quarter of 2018, partially offset by a decrease in salary-related expenses as a result of a reduction in headcount and a decrease in office-related expenses related to a decrease in the number of offices.

OUP margin for Right Management decreased to 4.5% in the first quarter of 2019 from 12.9% in 2018 due to the increase in restructuring costs and the decline in the gross profit margin.


24


Financial Measures

Constant Currency and Organic Constant Currency Reconciliation

Changes in our financial results include the impact of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, acquisitions, and dispositions. We provide “constant currency” and “organic constant currency” calculations in this report to remove the impact of these items. We express year-over-year variances that are calculated in constant currency and organic constant currency as a percentage.

When we use the term “constant currency,” it means that we have translated financial data for a period into United States dollars using the same foreign currency exchange rates that we used to translate financial data for the previous period. We believe that this calculation is a useful measure, indicating the actual growth of our operations. We use constant currency results in our analysis of subsidiary or segment performance. We also use constant currency when analyzing our performance against that of our competitors. Substantially all of our subsidiaries derive revenues and incur expenses within a single country and, consequently, do not generally incur currency risks in connection with the conduct of their normal business operations. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates primarily impact reported earnings and not our actual cash flow unless earnings are repatriated.

When we use the term “organic constant currency,” it means that we have further removed the impact of acquisitions in the current period and dispositions from the prior period from our constant currency calculation. We believe that this calculation is useful because it allows us to show the actual growth of our ongoing business.
 
The constant currency and organic constant currency financial measures are used to supplement those measures that are in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”). These Non-GAAP financial measures may not provide information that is directly comparable to that provided by other companies in our industry, as other companies may calculate such financial results differently. These Non-GAAP financial measures are not measurements of financial performance under GAAP, and should not be considered as alternatives to measures presented in accordance with GAAP. 

Constant currency and organic constant currency percent variances, along with a reconciliation of these amounts to certain of our reported results, are provided below:
 
3 Months Ended March 31, 2019 Compared to 2018
 
Reported Amount(a)
 
Reported Variance
 
Impact of Currency
 
Constant Currency Variance
 
Impact of Acquisitions
and
Dispositions
(In Constant Currency)
 
Organic
Constant
Currency
Variance
Revenues from services:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Americas:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   United States
$
603.6

 
(2.1
)%
 
 %
 
(2.1
)%
 
 %
 
(2.1
)%
   Other Americas
403.7

 
(0.6
)
 
(11.3
)
 
10.7

 

 
10.7

 
1,007.3

 
(1.5
)
 
(4.5
)
 
3.0

 

 
3.0