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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                  to                

Commission file number: 001-39815

908 DEVICES INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

45-4524096

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

645 Summer Street, Boston, MA

02210

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (857) 254-1500

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange

on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

MASS

The Nasdaq Global Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.   Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

 

Smaller reporting company 

 

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes     No 

The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023, the last business day of the most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $165.5 million. This calculation does not reflect a determination that certain persons are affiliates of the registrant for any other purpose.

As of March 5, 2024, the registrant had 32,909,929 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which the registrant intends to file with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, are incorporated by reference into Part II and Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

908 Devices Inc.

Table of Contents

 

 

Page

PART I

Item 1.

Business

5

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

28

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

63

Item 1C.

Cybersecurity

63

Item 2.

Properties

64

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

64

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

64

 

 

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

65

Item 6.

Reserved

65

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

66

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

85

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

85

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

122

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

123

Item 9B.

Other Information

124

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

124

 

 

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

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Item 11.

Executive Compensation

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Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

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Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

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Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

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PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibit and Financial Statement Schedules

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Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

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SIGNATURES

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We own various trademark registrations and applications, and unregistered trademarks, including MX908, Rebel, ZipChip, Maverick, Maven, 908 Devices and our corporate logo. All other trade names, trademarks and service marks of other companies appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are the property of their respective holders. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may be referred to without the ®,™ or RTM symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend to use or display other companies’ trademarks and trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us, by any other companies.

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements, which reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, our operations and financial performance. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy and plans and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements, and are made under the safe harbor provisions of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect,” “should,” “could,” “target,” “predict,” “seek” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short- and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in the “Summary of Risk Factors”, Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment and new risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are made only as of the date of this report. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. Moreover, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations.

The market data and certain other statistical information used throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based on independent industry publications, governmental publications, reports by market research firms or other independent sources that we believe to be reliable sources. Some data are also based on our good faith estimates. Industry publications and third party research, surveys and studies generally indicate that their information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. We are responsible for all of the disclosure contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and we believe these industry publications and third party research, surveys and studies are reliable. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding any third party information presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, their estimates, in particular, as they relate to projections, involve numerous assumptions, are subject to risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those described in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Investors and others should note that we may announce material business and financial information to our investors using our investor relations website (ir.908devices.com), our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, webcasts, press releases, and conference calls. We use these mediums, including our website, to communicate with investors and the general public about our company, our products, and other issues. It is possible that the information that we make available on our website may be deemed to be material information. We therefore encourage investors and others interested in our company to review the information that we make available on our website.

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SUMMARY OF RISK FACTORS

The following is a summary of the principal risks described below in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We believe that the risks described in the “Risk Factors” section are material to investors, but other factors not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also adversely affect us. The following summary should not be considered an exhaustive summary of the material risks facing us, and it should be read in conjunction with the “Risk Factors” section and the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Risks related to macroeconomic conditions

Uncertainties in global economic conditions or a decline in economic conditions, such as recession, economic downturn, and/or inflationary conditions in the U.S. and other regions of the world in which we do business could impact customer spending patterns and materially and adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease in the United States such as the COVID 19 pandemic may adversely affect our business.

Risks related to our business and industry

We have a history of net losses and may not be able to achieve profitability for any period in the future or sustain cash flow from operating activities.
Our operating results may fluctuate significantly from period-to-period and may fall below expectations in any particular period, which could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
We have experienced growth of our business in recent years, and our inability to manage this growth could have a material adverse effect on our business, the quality of our products and services and our ability to retain key personnel.
We must develop new products, as well as enhancements to existing products, and adapt to rapid and significant technological change to remain competitive.
We need to continue to build and develop our sales, marketing and customer service organization, and to engage with domestic and international channel partners to support our planned growth.
We face intense and growing competition from leading technology companies as well as from emerging companies. Our inability to compete effectively with any or all of these competitors could affect our ability to achieve our anticipated market penetration and achieve or sustain profitability.
Currently, we derive the majority of our revenue from our handheld products in the field forensics market, and are seeking to grow the revenue we derive from our desktop products in the life science market. If we fail to maintain significant market acceptance in existing markets or fail to successfully increase our penetration in new and expanding markets, we will not generate expected revenue growth and our prospects may be harmed.
Our sales cycles can be long and unpredictable, and our sales efforts require considerable time and expense, which contribute to the unpredictability and variability of our financial performance and may adversely affect our profitability.
We may need additional capital in the future, which may not be available to us, and if it is available, may dilute your ownership of our common stock and have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
If we experience a significant disruption in our information technology systems or breaches of data security, our business could be adversely affected.

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Risks related to sales of products to the U.S. Government

A significant portion of our business depends on sales to the public sector, and our failure to receive and maintain government contracts or changes in the contracting or fiscal policies of the public sector could have a material adverse effect on our business.
U.S. government programs are limited by budgetary constraints and political considerations and are subject to uncertain future funding levels that could result in the termination of programs.

Risks related to litigation and our intellectual property

We rely on in-bound licenses granted to us from third parties. If we lose these rights, our business may be materially adversely affected, our ability to develop improvements to our existing products and to develop new products may be negatively and substantially impacted, and if disputes arise, we may be subjected to future litigation as well as the potential loss of or limitations on our ability to develop and commercialize products and technology covered by these license agreements.

Risks related to ownership of our common stock

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they issue unfavorable commentary or downgrade our common stock, the price of our common stock could decline.
The market price of our common stock has been volatile and could continue to be volatile.
Our actual operating results may differ significantly from any operating guidance we may provide.
Sales of a significant number of shares of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock.

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PART I

Except where the context otherwise requires or where otherwise indicated, the terms “908 Devices,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company,” “the company,” and “our business” refer to 908 Devices Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

Item 1. Business.

Analysis at the Speed of Life

We are making revolutionizing chemical and biochemical analysis simple, smart and speedy with our purpose-built handheld and desktop devices that empower people to take swift action in life-altering applications.

Company Overview

We have developed an innovative suite of purpose-built handheld and desktop devices for the point-of-need chemical and biochemical analysis. Leveraging our proprietary mass spectrometry, or Mass Spec, microfluidics, and analytics and machine learning technologies, we make devices that are significantly smaller and more accessible than conventional laboratory instruments. Our devices are used at the point-of-need to interrogate unknown and invisible materials and provide quick, actionable answers to directly address some of the most critical problems in life sciences research, bioprocessing, pharma/biopharma, forensics and adjacent markets. The term “products” or “devices” used in this “Business” section each refer to the MX908, Rebel, ZipChip Interface, Maverick, and Maven and related sampling devices.

We create simplified measurement devices that our customers can use as accurate tools where-and-when their work needs to be done, rather than overly complex and centralized analytical instrumentation. We believe the insights and answers our devices provide accelerate workflows, reduce costs, and offer transformational opportunities for our end users.

Since the launch of our first device, we have sold more than 2,800 handheld and desktop devices to over 700 customers in 56 countries, including all 20 of the top 20 pharmaceutical companies by revenue, as well as numerous domestic and foreign government agencies and leading academic institutions.

Our current products are available for both battery-powered handheld and desktop applications.

Front-line workers rely upon our handheld devices to combat the opioid crisis and detect counterfeit pharmaceuticals and illicit materials in the air or on surfaces at levels 1,000 times below their lethal dose. Our desktop devices are accelerating development and production of biotherapeutics by identifying and quantifying extracellular species in bioprocessing critical to cell health and productivity. They sit alongside or are directly connected to bioreactors and fermenters producing drug candidates, functional proteins, cell and gene therapies, and synthetic biology derived products. We believe the insights and answers our devices provide accelerate workflows, reduce costs, and offer transformational opportunities for our end users.

Mass Spec is the gold-standard analytical technology for laboratory-based molecular analysis and can identify and quantify sample components via molecular weight measurements. Mass Spec is highly regarded for its ability to provide an extraordinarily detailed analysis of a wide variety of samples -- from small molecules to large complex proteins. While Mass Spec is an extremely powerful analytical tool, conventional Mass Spec instruments are very large, expensive, and highly complex, which has profoundly bottlenecked market opportunities and relegated them to the equivalent of mainframe computers in central facilities. We are reimagining where Mass Spec technology can be used if it is sufficiently small in size, low in cost, and simple to operate.

Our proprietary Mass Spec platform relies on extreme miniaturization of the core of Mass Spec -- the ion trap and its vacuum system. Using semiconductor microfabrication techniques, we design and produce components that are more than a thousand-fold smaller in volume when compared with most laboratory Mass Spec instruments and costs only

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dollars to manufacture. The vacuum system alone in a typical laboratory instrument weighs hundreds of pounds and requires several hundred watts of power, 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Our miniaturized vacuum system weighs less than a pound, and our Mass Spec in total requires less power than a 20-watt LED light bulb. These landmark proprietary advances have enabled the first truly handheld Mass Spec devices and compact desktops.

Sample preparation and separation can be a painfully slow hours-long process, and we have invested heavily in the development of microfluidic sample preparation and microscale separation technologies to reduce preparation and separation time from hours to minutes. The size of a business card, our microfluidic capillary-electrophoresis, or CE, chip has demonstrated world-class performance and speed in separating everything from small molecules such as metabolites and drugs, to biopharmaceutical proteins, antibodies, and oligonucleotides.

With our acquisition of Trace Analytics GmbH, renamed 908 Devices GmbH, in August 2022, we obtained microfluidic aseptic sampling technology that enables on-line automated monitoring and control in bioprocess applications. This validated technology provides cell-free and sterile bioreactor sampling with no volume or prep required. We expect this technology to serve as the interface for future on-line devices, those directly connected to a bioreactor.

Lastly, it is imperative that a point-of-need solution is operable by the widest possible user base. We have an industry-leading software automation and machine learning team comprised of eleven members, each with advanced scientific degrees, who have collective experience working on 30 commercial product launches and have won numerous research and innovation awards. They have applied advanced software automation and machine learning techniques to both control the hardware in our devices and interpret the incredibly rich and complex data streaming off of them. Our team can provide answers immediately to maximize value to the customer in critical-to-life applications where minutes matter.

Our team applied its deep expertise in data analytics, machine learning and optical spectroscopy to develop a proprietary modeling approach that automatically processes Raman spectra from a wide variety of mammalian cell culture media types and cell lines. This proprietary modeling approach powers our Maverick desktop device. Introduced in 2023, Maverick offers bioprocess scientists easy-to-integrate in-line analysis and control without the need for substantial expert configuration or setup.

We fundamentally believe that the technology platform we have built and the investments we are making will allow people to answer chemical and biochemical questions in times and places that were previously inconceivable. Given the market opportunity, we expect to face substantial competition from large established manufacturers of laboratory-based instruments and from new entrants; however, our proprietary advances have enabled us to manufacture the first truly handheld Mass Spec devices and compact desktops and we believe we are well-positioned to face future competition.

We believe our technology platform can expand in future opportunities far beyond the conventional central laboratory market for Mass Spec and associated front-end separations. We estimate our total addressable market, or TAM, for our devices was $5.7 billion in 2022 and is growing to an estimated $27 billion by 2027. The TAM for our handhelds was estimated to be $1.3 billion in 2022 with expansion to over $3.9 billion with software application extensions for GxP cleaning validation, and other related quality control assays by 2027. Our desktop devices supporting bioprocess development represented an estimated TAM of $0.8 billion in 2022 expanding significantly to approximately $15 billion with execution of our roadmap and the rapid growth of cell therapy by 2027. We see additional opportunity to service the estimated TAM of $3.6 billion in 2022 across the research chromatography market space growing to more than $8.1 billion with further market growth and roadmap expansion into complex metabolomics and proteomics by 2027. Our estimates of our TAM are based on potential customer research and development spending, addressable aspects of potential customers’ end product development process, and potential platform usage. We also utilize estimated penetration and placement rates for our platform with potential customers in our target markets and historical patterns for consumables usage.

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Our Strengths

We believe the following competitive strengths provide us the ability to address point-of-need applications in forensics, life sciences research, bioprocessing, quality assurance/quality control, and synthetic biology:

Our proprietary microscale Mass Spec platform leverages well established, gold-standard technology. Mass Spec is already ubiquitous in the laboratory. Users do not need to take a risk on a completely unknown technology. We bring laboratory-grade capability to handhelds and desktops. We have developed a proprietary Mass Spec platform and approach that allow us to move the capabilities of conventional Mass Spec beyond the central laboratory. Our proprietary High-Pressure Mass Spec, or HPMS, technology enables us to produce significantly smaller, purpose-built Mass Spec devices that are better suited for use in point-of-need settings, in contrast to conventional mainframe Mass Spec solutions. The combination of HPMS, our proprietary microfluidic sampling and separation technology, and our data analytics, and machine-learning technology provides the foundations of an adaptable platform that can serve a growing number of new and adjacent applications and markets.
Point-of-need technologies disrupting Mass Spec and creating new product categories. Leveraging our Mass Spec platform, we have developed a portfolio of desktop and handheld devices that are reinventing the Mass Spec industry by accessing a variety of point-of-need market segments that were historically considered impossible for conventional Mass Spec manufacturers. Our products are small, purpose-built devices that avoid the typical size and complexity issues related to conventional Mass Spec while also offering real-time, actionable answers to new classes of users. As we continue to expand the capabilities of our Mass Spec platform, we believe our devices will continue to penetrate new and adjacent opportunities in life sciences, quality assurance and control, diagnostics and applied markets.
Highly attractive business model validated by rapidly growing installed base of devices.We have over 700 customers, including all 20 of the top 20 pharmaceutical companies by revenue, academic and major government institutions, including the Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Army and the U.S. Air Force and other international, federal and state agencies. These customers have validated our platform through the collective purchase of more than 2,800 devices, with more than 14,000 users trained on our devices. As we continue to grow our installed base, we expect to increase our recurring revenue derived from the sale of consumables and support services.
Talented team with significant domain expertise. We are a technology driven company that has built vertically integrated capabilities to design, manufacture, and commercialize our products. We are led by a dedicated and highly experienced senior management team with significant industry experience and proven ability to deliver novel products. Each member of our senior management team has more than 20 years of relevant experience. Members of our technical team have been collectively responsible for numerous commercial product launches prior to joining the company, in varying markets such as point-of-care clinical diagnostics, handheld pharmaceutical inspection devices, high-throughput cell culture control systems, autonomous warehouse logistics, motion capture animation, high-volume telecom transmitters and receivers, and consumer wearables. The team possesses deep expertise in Mass Spec, system design and engineering, usability and ergonomics, thermal and mechanical engineering, software development, artificial intelligence, and optical spectroscopy, as well as microfluidics and separations science. We had 71 full-time employees dedicated to research and development as of December 31, 2023. Of these, approximately 40% have advanced degrees in science and engineering.

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Our Growth Strategy

We are making chemical and biochemical analysis simple, smart and speedy by incorporating our microscale Mass Spec, microfluidics, and analytics and machine learning technology platform into handheld and desktop devices that provide users with robust answers at the point of need. Our growth strategy includes the following key elements:

A continued focus on simplicity, speed, convenience and cost increases measurement consumption. We are a technology-driven company with significant core expertise in engineering, hard sciences and data analytics and a proven track record of delivering products that delight our customers by making things easy. We believe a relentless focus on these fundamentals drives consumption of consumables.
Drive enterprise adoption in our seeded accounts. We intend to continue to aggressively invest in and support our field applications team to accelerate the development of post-sale partnerships with customers and to drive broader adoption across the organization. We will focus on building upon our track record of leveraging our customers’ success in trials and pilots into enterprise-wide adoption of both devices and consumables. As an example, for our handheld device, it is typical for government organizations to conduct a one week or longer trial prior to purchase to test our technology in their real-world setting. A trial generally results in budgeting for a pilot that can range in size from ten to more than 50 units. During the pilot, we support our customers closely to ensure their success. Data is compiled throughout to assist our customer in making a larger enterprise-wide justification, purchase and deployment. It is our belief that investment pre- and post-sale with prospects that have the potential for enterprise adoption creates a predictable pipeline of opportunity for our devices and their entrenchment as they become the organizational standard for our customers. Enterprise customers range from large government organizations with full fielding potential of more than 1,000 handheld devices to leading biopharma companies with capacity for ten or more desktop devices per site.
Grow the installed base through expansion of commercial channels. Since the commercial launch of our first handheld, the installed base of our handheld and desktop devices has grown to more than 2,800 devices in 56 countries. With our handheld and desktop device installations now taking root in the United States, we will focus on expanding our commercial channels to better serve the forensics, life sciences research, bioprocessing, quality assurance/quality control, and synthetic biology markets. We look to expand both our direct channel in the United States and our international reach. We anticipate growing our network of international channel partners focused in regions with a concentrated and rapidly expanding life sciences presence, specifically, Europe, China, Japan, India, and South Korea. We look to have local application and support specialists and sales managers supporting our channel partners.
Deepen our footprint in the bioprocessing market. Our desktop devices are designed to accelerate development and enhance production by identifying and quantifying extracellular species critical to cell health and productivity. They sit alongside or are directly connected to bioreactors and fermenters producing drug candidates, functional proteins, cell and gene therapies, and synthetic biology derived products. We look to expand our product line with additional panels, for example focused extracellular panels, and intracellular analysis, such as cellular flux, and pathway analysis. We believe our technology platform can serve as the cornerstone of an integrated “bioprocess brain” by monitoring and managing the comprehensive extracellular environment.
Expand our customer-driven pipeline of new point-of-need applications. We will continue to leverage our integrated sample preparation and microfluidic separations platform to expand our pipeline of new, customer-driven point-of-need applications that can be addressed by both our handheld and desktop devices. As our customers continue to prove out new applications in areas such as diagnostics, metabolomics, and proteomics, we will look to incorporate select assays investigated by these customers into our handheld and desktop devices where those form factors can accelerate usage. We have already incorporated a number of customer-driven assays into both MX908 and Rebel and will continue to do so as we believe this will provide us with an expanding list of new point-of-need applications and market opportunities within forensics, life sciences research, bioprocessing, quality assurance/quality control and synthetic biology. In addition, we continue to

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make advancements in our core technologies to drive the evolution of our product portfolio beyond current applications and needs to enter new markets.

Our Technology

Our Technology Platform

We have developed a core technology platform designed to bring Mass Spec out of the confines of central laboratories and to the point-of-need with high-fidelity handheld and desktop devices. We believe that providing simple, smart, and speedy devices that provide robust answers when and where people need them gives rise to:

an expanded and more diverse set of users;
more frequent measurements; and
new use cases that were previously untenable.

These results are possible as our handheld and desktop devices are designed for extreme convenience and speed, requiring minimal training and maintenance. Our platform is centered around using proprietary microscale Mass Spec and microfluidic technologies to prepare, separate, and characterize species at the molecular level, with integrated machine learning and analytics to automatically provide answers regarding identity, purity, and quantity. The core elements of our technology platform include:

Our High-Pressure Mass Spec, or HPMS, approach, which enables Mass Spec at the point-of-need;
microfluidics enable convenient sample preparations, fast separations, and aseptic sampling; and
analytics and machine learning technology, which provides actionable answers versus raw data.

HPMS Approach Enables Mass Spec at the Point-of-Need

Mass Spec is the gold-standard analytical technique for molecular analysis. This technology is highly regarded for its ability to provide an extraordinarily detailed analysis of a wide variety of molecular samples -- from small molecule chemicals to large complex proteins. Mass Spec instruments identify the components of samples via highly detailed mass-to-charge (m/z) measurements, and in some cases, can quantify those components. Together with its associated front-end separation technologies, Mass Spec can resolve and analyze the most complex of samples with high fidelity.

However, while Mass Spec is an extremely powerful analytical technique, the capabilities of conventional Mass Spec instruments are largely relegated to centralized laboratory settings due to their size, complexity, and high price. Given the inherent limitations of conventional mainframe Mass Spec instruments, we believe there is a compelling opportunity for handheld and compact desktop Mass Spec devices.

A key component of our technology is our proprietary microscale ion trap, which we estimate is 1,000 times smaller than those in conventional laboratory Mass Spec instruments. These microfabricated traps are able to operate a million times closer to atmospheric pressures than conventional Mass Spec instruments. This HPMS approach results in devices with dramatically smaller size and lower cost-of-goods through a reduction of vacuum pump requirements and power consumption, and an overall simplification of the hardware topology.

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GraphicGraphic

Conventional laboratory Mass Spec

Our Mass Spec

HPMS allows us to build ultracompact, high-fidelity measurement devices that are purpose-built for specific applications and deployable at the point-of-need. HPMS allows us to circumvent the complexities associated with the conventional and much larger, general-purpose, central laboratory Mass Spec instruments.

Our technology operates at size and cost scales that are multiple orders of magnitude smaller than conventional mainframe laboratory instruments. And while large, expensive, high maintenance vacuum systems have been a historical requirement for Mass Spec, our HPMS approach is capable of running with extreme efficiency on very small, robust, low-cost scroll pumps of our own proprietary designs. Our technology requires significantly less power than a 20-watt light bulb, allowing for up to 100x lower power consumption when compared to a competing product. The flexibility afforded by our approach provides access to existing and new market segments that were previously inconceivable for conventional Mass Spec instruments. We believe the insights and answers our devices provide will accelerate workflows, reduce costs and offer transformational opportunities for our end users.

Microfluidics Enable Convenient Sampling and Fast Separations

Today, most central laboratory Mass Spec instruments are paired with large, complex solid and liquid handling systems for sample preparation and separation. Common examples include liquid chromatography stacks and robotic sample preparation systems. These systems are engineered for general applications and require large quantities of solvents, high level of maintenance, and expertly trained users, leading to higher operating costs.

Our approach integrates proprietary microfluidic sample preparation, separation, and ionization technologies on a single chip that can be produced efficiently at scale using semiconductor microfabrication techniques. These microfluidic chips can be paired with our microscale Mass Spec technology to create devices with extraordinary performance that are accessible and usable at the point-of-need by non-experts.

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Graphic

Our integrated microfluidics—sample injection, preparation, separation and electrospray simplified

Our integrated microfluidic chip brings the benefits of:

highly controlled small sample injections at the nanoliter, or nL, scale;
integrated preparation such as desalting;
extractions and preconcentration by physical and chemical properties;
capillary electrophoresis, or CE, for extremely high-resolution separations of complex samples; and
integrated nanoscale electrospray ionization.

The integrated microfluidic CE can perform extremely high-performance separations of a wide range of molecular species from small molecule metabolites, amino acids, and vitamins, to intact antibodies and other proteins. Importantly for our platform, microfluidic CE is electrically driven and requires no bulky liquid pumping and valving systems. The microfluidic chip consumes only 100-200 nL of electrolyte per minute making it remarkably efficient with source and waste fluids. Microfluidic CE separations can be an order of magnitude or faster than similar chromatography separations. This allows for highly complex separations with high resolution to be completed in minutes.

In 2022, we strengthened our core microfluidic technology with the acquisition of Trace Analytics GmbH, which enables us to provide on-line aseptic sampling technology used in bioprocess monitoring and control. Aseptic sampling allows for highly precise, on-line monitoring without any loss of bioreactor volume. A reusable or single-use probe that incorporates a diffusion membrane is inserted in the bioreactor, preserving precious media and product in cell culture and fermentation processes.

Complementing our mass spec analysis, Trace Analytics GmbH also brings to us an enzyme-based electrochemical biosensor technology that generates an electrical signal proportional to concentration of targeted analytes enabling real-time monitoring and control of additional analytes, some of which are difficult to measure with mass spec (e.g., glucose and lactate).

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Graphic

Aseptic sampling enables on-line automated monitoring and control of bioprocesses.

Aseptic sampling provides many benefits, including cell-free, sterile and safe sampling with no loss of volume or prep required, thereby saving operator time and reducing lab costs. We expect our microfluidic aseptic sampling to serve as the interface for future on-line mass spec based devices.

Analytics and Machine Learning Technology Provide Actionable Answers, Not Just Raw Data

The third crucial element of our technology platform is holistic device design with embedded analytics and machine learning. Our development team designs devices for a specific purpose, rather than for a wide scope of often disparate needs. Conventional Mass Spec manufacturers focus their attention on canonical analytical specifications such as “instrument resolution” or “detection limit” or “data rate” in the hopes of appealing to a wide range of laboratory specialist needs. Our devices are designed to do a job quickly, easily, and cost effectively. Achieving that aim requires very sophisticated autonomous and adaptive control systems and the machine learning engine to interpret the data and produce a clear, accurate result.

Graphic

Our devices are designed to provide fast, statistically rigorous answers by providing autonomous control systems and applying rigorous machine learning methods.

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Control/optimization: Conventional Mass Spec configuration and tuning is highly complex. Our devices need to manage themselves autonomously for maximum value to the customer. They can manage themselves by adapting to environmental factors like elevation, humidity, temperature, and vibration, and by optimizing themselves for the analytical objectives of the user, such as looking for traces of potent drug substances or sniffing for airborne hazards. This ability to automatically control the system reduces or eliminates the user’s responsibility and opportunity for error in set up, optimization, and troubleshooting. Our product’s screen shown above right looks very simple, but the embedded analytics and machine learning system controls and optimizes more than a hundred parameters continuously in real-time.

Machine learning/embedded analytics: The integrated analysis of our platform’s data is also critical to our customers’ success. Conventional platforms may give the user basic tools to view data, and some limited analysis functionality, but they fall far short of completing the analysis loop. “Out of the box” machine and statistical learning methods are not really applicable to complex analytical sensor data and real-life molecular systems. Our data team has a commercial track record of embedding a “scientist in the box” with highly customized statistical and machine learning methods for our platforms to complete the customer experience. Several examples of these elements are highlighted below in the “Our Products” section.

Our Products

We were founded on a vision to deliver high quality Mass Spec to a broad set of users at the point-of-need. We offer handheld and desktop devices, each of which are capable of providing quick, high-fidelity and actionable results. These aspects are important to our customers, who previously have had to choose between a slow and thorough analysis by Mass Spec in a laboratory or a point-of-need result that may have been more timely, but provided only a partial measurement picture prone to false-positives. For instance, forensics customers who do not have access to laboratory-based Mass Spec instruments have at best had access to the field techniques of Ion-mobility spectrometry and Raman/FTIR spectroscopy, each with its own limitation of specificity (ability to distinguish one chemical from another) and sensitivity (ability to detect minute amounts), respectively. Our bioprocess customers have likewise only had access to a cropped measurement picture by largely relying on simple enzymatic and electrochemical sensors that can measure just a few simple gases and other analytes with poor accuracy. Our devices are changing this paradigm and providing laboratory-like results at the point-of-need.

Graphic

The 908 Devices suite of devices includes (from left to right): MX908, ZipChip, Rebel, Maven and Maverick.

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MX908

Launched in June 2017, MX908 is a handheld, battery-powered, Mass Spec device designed for rapid analysis of solid, liquid, vapor and aerosol materials of unknown identity. It is an agile, multi-purpose device utilized by a wide spectrum of user segments for a variety of forensic field applications such as chemical, explosive, priority drug and HazMat operations, detecting materials at the trace level.

We have sold 2,422 MX908s into every U.S. state, in 56 countries and across five continents. More than 10,000 operators, including in numerous domestic and foreign government agencies, have been trained to use the MX908.

When a civilian or military first responder, customs agent, or front-line worker is presented with residue on a package, a powder in the emergency room, pills at a border crossing, an apparent overdosing individual, or a mass casualty event, immediate actionable information is needed. The U.S. opioid crisis in particular is driving demand for broadly capable point-of-need measurement devices that can detect a multitude of hazards at trace quantities.

The MX908 detects trace quantities of more than 160 named dangerous materials, including fentanyl and its many derivatives, explosives, and hazardous chemical agents with sensitivity comparable to existing field-based technologies, but with much higher specificity. This allows users to conduct rapid field analysis for a broad range of unknown substances at trace levels that would typically lead to confusion and false positives in other instruments. The device is also able to identify a far greater number of substances than other trace technologies and with one million times the dynamic range of those other handheld or mobile technologies. Compared to a leading transportable Mass Spec product, the MX908 is up to 15x faster, up to 10x smaller and up to 2x cheaper. The MX908 is able to start up in less than a minute, completing analysis of gas and vapor materials in less than ten seconds, and solids, liquids, and aerosols in less than a minute.

The MX908 was designed to operate in harsh outdoor environments such as pervasive rain and dust, and scorching to freezing temperatures in a nimble 4.3 kg (approximately 10 lb) handheld form factor. Our systems also undergo extensive mechanical shock, drop, vibration, and environmental testing as part of the development and certification process.

Designed with the non-technical user in mind, the user interface on the MX908 requires no Mass Spec knowledge for navigation, operation or interpretation of results. The MX908 user interface is very mission driven. These mission modes provide a categorization of functionality, allow the device to guide operators through proper procedures with visual cues, and present results in a manner most relevant for that operational intent. The mission modes also allow the software to optimize the hardware operation of the MX908 to maximize sensitivity and specificity for a given class of chemicals, much as a laboratory chemist would do by changing the settings on their conventional Mass Spec.

The MX908’s machine-learning software, enabled by our proprietary technology platform, serves as a critical element of the device. For example, one of the challenges associated with analyzing fentanyl derivatives is that there are potentially thousands of pharmacologically-active variants for this same compound. However, MX908 is pre-programmed to evaluate against the dozen most common fentanyl variants and is then able to utilize a machine learning classifier to look for characteristic mass fragment loss patterns that are suggestive of the more than 2,000 fentanyl analogs.

Since introducing the MX908, we have continued to expand the device’s capability through mission add-ons such as offering an Aerosol Module accessory to detect and identify aerosolized chemical hazards, adding targets to allow responders to identify additional priority drug substances, and providing a Bluetooth capability that enables seamless data transfer and accelerates support in the field. We recently added the MX908 Beacon accessory, which is a remote area monitoring system secured in a rugged case that can detect and identify aerosolized and vapor threats. The MX908 Beacon accessory leverages the MX908 and Aerosol Module combined with a cloud-based solution to enable remote identification of toxic chemical hazards. All these added capabilities are aimed to address gaps in responders’ workflows, increase engagement, and drive utilization.

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We have a roadmap to continue to expand the MX908’s mission add-ons to support the detection of adulterated and counterfeit pharmaceuticals and to develop applications in quality control and quality assurance, including GxP cleaning validation.

Rebel

The Rebel is a small desktop analyzer providing real-time information on the extracellular environment in bioprocesses. Compared to a traditional central laboratory high-performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC, Mass Spec assay, Rebel’s price per sample is up to 10 times lower, at approximately one-third of the capital cost, and delivers answers up to 2,000 times faster. Rebel provides results within seven minutes, enabling critical on-the-spot decisions regarding bioprocess media optimization, accelerating process-development cycles and maximizing bioreactor efficiency. Customers are using Rebel in environments subject to U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and other regulatory guidelines regarding biological and pharmaceutical product quality, or GxP environments, to evaluate fresh media for conformity to standards, track the extracellular environment and metabolic flux during growth cycles, monitor performance during stress experiments, and characterize spent media.

Since the launch of the Rebel in November 2019, we have sold 165 units and 52 of those units have been placed with the top-20 pharmaceutical companies by revenue and 25 organizations have purchased multiple units. Our focus has been on increasing U.S. placements, but we also have a meaningful international opportunity and have sold Rebels in China, Japan, South Korea and Europe.

Cells have been harnessed to serve as microscopic factories producing myriad molecular species large and small. The markets for cellular-derived products include therapeutics, including cell therapy and personalized medicine, new and sustainable foods and beverages, and industrial materials. Many of these products, such as protein-based therapeutics, can only be economically produced by cells in a bioreactor. Making these products in an efficient and reproducible way remains a challenge to our customers in bioprocessing. Cell culture media forms the critical growth environment for the cell. Our customers’ measurement of this extracellular environment in bioprocesses is critical to their development and operational efficiency.

However, it is rare that researchers conducting these types of experiments have analytical tools for extracellular media characterization on their local bench, which means samples need to be frozen, packaged, and transported to core laboratories for analysis with large HPLC Mass Spec instruments. This adds substantial delays and cost and typically takes three to six weeks to produce lab reports equivalent to those produced by the Rebel in only 15 minutes.

Rebel is currently configured to report concentrations of 33 critical extracellular metabolites in cell culture media, such as amino acids, vitamins, and biogenic amines, which are known to substantially affect the growth profile and properties of the resulting biological entities and their expressed materials. Incorporating our microfluidic sample handling and CE technology, as well as our microscale Mass Spec technology, Rebel’s internal autosampler is capable of queueing approximately 96 such samples for unattended analysis and delivering reported concentrations for each sample.

A fit-for-purpose at-line system, the Rebel is designed to be located within the same laboratory as a bioreactor, enabling more frequent monitoring of key cell media parameters. To run this analysis, the Rebel requires as little as one microliter of cell culture media with little sample preparation. This allows customers to run more tests while preserving precious cell culture media, which is extremely valuable for small batches as used in cell therapy and personalized medicine.

The Rebel, using its onboard algorithms, eliminates the need for manual calibration and delivers processed and actionable results in real-time. As runs are completed, users can access the report either as a PDF print out or a laboratory information system compatible file exported to the network. The Rebel software is compliant for operation in GxP environments.

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Maverick

The Maverick, launched in September 2023 to complement our Mass Spec technology, is an optical in-line analyzer that provides real-time monitoring and control of multiple bioprocess parameters, including glucose, lactate and total biomass, in mammalian cell cultures. The device also provides rich process fingerprint data to support large-scale efforts in predictive bioprocess modeling.

The Maverick utilizes Raman spectroscopy, a largely non-invasive and non-destructive technology that provides rich, chemical data. The use of Raman spectroscopy for characterizing critical process parameters, or CPPs, and critical quality attributes, or CQAs, in bioprocessing has grown considerably during the last 10 years.

Unlike conventional spectroscopic methods that utilize a multivariate empirical calibration approach requiring expert configuration, Maverick requires no complex modeling and can be set up in minutes. We have developed a proprietary approach that we refer to as the de novo model, which means “from the beginning.” Maverick’s purpose-built de novo model automatically processes Raman spectra from a wide variety of cell culture media types and cell lines, thereby delivering actionable process parameters or direct process control actions. We also provide open access to the raw spectral data enabling spectroscopic experts to extend the device’s capabilities for more advanced predictive control of CPPs and CQAs.

The Maverick hub can monitor up to six bioreactor models simultaneously, with independent analog/digital control of feed systems for each. Remote, real-time web access to bioreactor status and settings is also supported through the Maverick hub. As a spectroscopic-based device, Maverick is extensible to other analytes and parameters.

Maverick enables biopharmaceutical process development scientists and manufacturers to enhance understanding of their process and implement dynamic control strategies more quickly and easily, which can accelerate workflows and improve process efficiency.

Maven and Trace C2

The Maven, launched in January 2023, to complement our Mass Spec technology, is our first on-line device for bioprocess monitoring and control. Connecting directly to a single bioreactor, Maven provides real-time continuous monitoring and control of glucose and lactate in cell culture and fermentation processes. Glucose and lactate are critical parameters that biopharmaceutical process development scientists must monitor to ensure optimal cell viability and to improve product yield, quality, efficacy and safety. Taking measurements as frequently as every two minutes, Maven operates without having to manually draw samples out of the bioreactor due to its aseptic sampling probe. This approach preserves precious media and product and reduces the risk of cell culture contamination. Maven precisely monitors nutrient and metabolite concentrations at low levels—0.01 g/L of glucose and 0.05 g/L of lactate. This is especially beneficial in cell therapy applications where tight control of cell culture conditions is vital.

In addition to providing real-time measurements, Maven comes with integrated proportional-integral-derivative, or PID, and on/off controllers that enable out-of-the-box feeding automation. The Maven is Good Manufacturing Practices, or GMP, compliant, takes up a small footprint, and in keeping with our focus on simplicity, is easy to use. Maven can be used in concert with our at-line Rebel device, which quantitates over 30 analytes, to improve and optimize cell culture feeding strategies.

The Trace C2 provides on-line monitoring of methanol or ethanol and control of substrate feeding in fermentation processes. Integrated into the device is an aseptic sampling probe that enables sampling with no loss of bioreactor volume and no increased risk of process contamination. The device includes a dedicated on-board peristaltic pump and an integrated PID controller that can be used for feeding substrates without any additional auxiliary equipment. The Trace C2 and related sampling products were developed by Trace Analytics GmbH, which we acquired in August of 2022.

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ZipChip

Our ZipChip solution is a plug-and-play, high-resolution separation platform that optimizes Mass Spec sample analysis. Our ZipChip platform consists of a ZipChip Interface, which is installed into a conventional Mass Spec instrument, and consumable microfluidic chips, or ZipChips. We designed this technology to be compatible with third party Mass Spec instruments. Powered by our integrated microfluidic technology, the ZipChip platform allows researchers to consolidate a host of time-consuming biotherapeutic, metabolomic, and proteomic applications typically run on multiple instruments or configurations onto a single platform. With ZipChip, researchers can switch applications in minutes, instead of hours typical with an alternative such as liquid chromatography.

Since launch of the ZipChip platform in March 2016, we have sold 234 ZipChip Interfaces and have established 28 multi-unit accounts in leading, global pharmaceutical organizations and academic institutions. Our ZipChip platform is compatible with market-leading conventional Mass Spec instruments found in laboratories worldwide.

As an open-access discovery platform that can interface with more than 10,000 conventional Mass Spec instruments, ZipChip provides us the ability to leverage the growing list of newly established applications and publications from customers who have incorporated the device into their projects. By incorporating select assays investigated on the ZipChip by customers into our MX908 and Rebel devices, we can create an evolving pipeline of new customer-driven, point-of-need Mass Spec applications as the scope of analytes our devices can detect and analyze will continue to expand. We have already incorporated a number of the customer-driven assays in our MX908 and Rebel devices, and we are investigating several more for our future product pipeline.

Consumables and Services

Handheld Device

Our MX908 comes with a standard warranty for up to one year from purchase. Our customers also can purchase extended warranty service plans, which include hardware repair and replacement coverage, technical support, and software updates. We designed the MX908 to be intuitive and easy-to-use, as it is critical to our customers to know that the MX908 is operating as intended. The annual and extended warranty service plans provide the customer the ability to contact us to assist in validating their results given the severity and context of the situations in which our devices operate. Our technical support, also known as our Reachback program, allows any participating MX908 user to email, text, or call a 908 Devices Scientific Support Team member to receive support 24 hours per day, 365 days per year to ensure the MX908 is working as intended. The Scientific Support Team is staffed by M.Sc. and Ph.D. chemists and forensic scientists expert in the operation of the MX908 and other field analytical technologies. Our extended warranty service plans are sold with multiyear commitments, which allows us to deepen our relationship with customers and provides us with an upfront payment, a predictable recurring revenue stream, and an opportunity to offer additional future services.

For simplicity and convenience, we also sell single-use swab samplers for the analysis of liquid and solid materials. These swab samplers are most heavily used today by customers who are evaluating drug substances. However, we designed the MX908 so that it does not require swab samplers or any other consumables for a number of other applications. Our customers value the low-logistics tail of our MX908.

Desktop Devices

Annual and extended warranty and service plans are available for the Rebel, Maven, Maverick, ZipChip Interface, and Trace C2 devices.

Rebel’s operation requires a consumable kit that includes a microfluidic and separation chip, electrolytes, and performance qualification and calibration standards. Currently, customers of Rebel who are actively utilizing the device are consuming on average approximately half of a 200-sample kit per month. With continuous operation, the Rebel is capable of consuming approximately one 200-sample kit a day.

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We also offer an annual certification kit for the Rebel. The certification kit is shipped to the customer, who loads the provided samples, and executes a certification protocol. The system is remotely qualified and certified based on the data acquired meeting factory specifications.

Calibration kits are required for the Maverick.

We offer a variety of kits for the ZipChip Interface that include microfluidic ZipChips and different reagents optimized for a wide scope of applications. These kits include intact antibody, charge variance, metabolomics, peptide and oligonucleotides.

Consumable sets of buffers, probes and biosensors are required for the Maven, Trace C2 and related sampling devices.

Market Opportunities

We have developed ultracompact, high-fidelity Mass Spec devices to interrogate the unknown and invisible and provide actionable results in life-altering point-of-need applications. Our first products are purpose-built handheld and desktop Mass Spec devices that currently address a range of applications and markets. We estimate our TAM for our devices was $5.7 billion in 2022, and is growing to an estimated $27 billion by 2027. The TAM for our handhelds was estimated to be $1.3 billion in 2022 with expansion to over $3.9 billion with software application extensions for GxP cleaning validation, and other related quality control assays by 2027. Our desktop devices supporting bioprocess development represented a TAM of $0.8 billion in 2022 expanding significantly to approximately $15 billion with execution of our roadmap and the rapid growth of cell therapy by 2027. We see additional future opportunity to service an estimated TAM of $3.6 billion in 2022 across the laboratory chromatography market space growing to more than $8.1 billion with further market growth and roadmap expansion into metabolomics and complex proteomics by 2027. Our estimates of our TAM are based on potential customer research and development spending, addressable aspects of potential customers’ end product development process, and potential platform usage. We also utilize estimated penetration and placement rates for our platform with potential customers in our target markets and historical patterns for consumables usage.

Graphic

Our TAM for all device placements in 2022 and expanding in 2027 with product roadmap and market growth

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Our Initial Market—Field Forensics

Forensic labs have historically used conventional Mass Spec instruments to chemically analyze a diverse array of submitted samples. Testing for controlled substances is one of the major drivers for the use of Mass Spec in the field forensics setting.

In the field forensics setting, high accuracy and fidelity can be just as important at the point-of-need as it is in the laboratory. Simple and inexpensive colorimetric tests are being abandoned in many jurisdictions due to their extremely narrow and poor performance capabilities, in favor of handheld technologies with broad lab-like capabilities. This is creating an expanded market of individual users that is a multiple of the centralized laboratory Mass Spec instrument market.

The need for such field technologies is acute for controlled substances and identification of other priority chemicals and hazards at trace levels. The toxicity of fentanyl and its analogs is 100 to 10,000 times the potency of morphine, creating an opioid crisis of unprecedented scale and breadth.

Fentanyl is considered to be the deadliest drug threat facing the United States today, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, or DEA. The DEA also seized more than 77 million fentanyl-laced fake prescription pills in 2023, up from 50.6 million such pills in 2021. DEA laboratory testing also showed that seven out of ten pills tested contained a potentially deadly dose of fentanyl, an increase from four out of ten pills in 2021 and six out of ten pills in 2022. In addition, in March 2023, the DEA issued its third public safety alert in just three years warning the American public of a sharp increase in pills containing fentanyl mixed with xylazine, a powerful sedative that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved for veterinary use. The alert noted that xylazine and fentanyl drug mixtures place users at a higher risk of suffering a fatal drug poisoning.

The potency and diversity of these emerging classes pose a major challenge for point-of-need measurements. Near invisible quantities of opioids can be fatal, and street drugs are often heavily obscured with filler materials, making trace detection with high-fidelity technologies an imperative for success. The diversity of the problem also drives the need for agility with devices that can be rapidly updated in the field with new machine learning updates. There are thousands of variants of these highly potent opioids, and other emerging classes such as cathinones and cannabinoids that will further exacerbate the problem.

In addition to controlled substances, point-of-need Mass Spec instruments can address a wide variety of other use cases, including:

first responders and local, state, and federal law enforcement;
U.S. and international defense and homeland security;
forensic laboratories’ case management and triage;
package inspection for postal services, couriers, customs agencies, and corporate mail rooms;
facility safety for hotels, local, state and federal government facilities, and private enterprises; and
quality assurance and control.

We estimate that the TAM for our handhelds was $1.3 billion per year in 2022 for trace detection of drugs, explosives, priority chemicals, and other hazards on surfaces and in the air. Our TAM expands to $3.9 billion with software application extensions for GxP cleaning validation, and other related quality control assays.

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Life Sciences

Mass Spec addresses a significant number of applications along the life sciences research and biopharma value chain. It is integral in research and discovery, drug development, product validation and quality control. Biologic therapeutic modalities and all cell-based products more broadly, use bioreactors to manufacture product in two stages – process development and clinical and GxP manufacturing.

Within a cell, thousands of intertwined processes govern the cells ability to produce various proteins, its ability to perform a specific function, and its energy and waste expenditure. But efficient intracellular operations are also highly reliant on the extracellular environment – the cell culture media. In bioreactors, the timely influx of raw materials, environmental controls, and management of waste can be not only essential to efficiency, but literally to the life or death of the cells. The worldwide cell culture media market itself was estimated to be a $6.2 billion business in 2023. Regardless of how carefully the starting cell culture media has been designed and selected, bioprocessing is by definition a dynamic and inhomogeneous process. Cellular biology is complicated and unpredictable.

Due to issues with both the existing point-of-need solutions and alternative laboratory-based workflows, development scientists currently lack an ideal solution to accurately analyze the extracellular environment during or after the growth cycle without having to compromise between timing or completeness.

High-pressure Mass Spec combined with microfluidic sampling and separations will allow for significant efficiencies and new applications for these technologies within life sciences. With real-time access to comprehensive media profiles, bioprocess development scientists can:

accelerate their product development cycles with feedback in minutes rather than weeks;
improve process yield and lower costs throughout their value chain;
enable a broad range of complex therapeutic modalities in biopharmaceuticals; and
increase the probability of successfully developing cell-based products.

We believe these efficiencies will lead to substantial growth opportunities in biologic-based therapeutics where a better understanding of the extracellular environment is a crucial element of bioprocessing.

For antibody therapeutics, a key requirement is that monoclonal production cell lines not only produce high titers of antibody but with acceptable Critical Quality Attributes, or CQAs. The extracellular media properties can greatly impact both the titer and the CQAs of the produced antibody. Likewise, for cell and gene therapeutics, management of the complex mammalian cell culture system and measurement and control of the extracellular environment is crucial. Historically, bioprocessing has been focused on large-scale batched production of monoclonal antibodies, or mAbs, using genetically stable clones, whose production has largely been optimized over many years of refinement. Today, newer advanced modalities, like cell and gene therapies, are fueling growth in the market while introducing variability of input materials (e.g., patient or donor cells, transient transfected cell lines), higher cost of goods sold, and the necessity for small-batched production – driven by smaller patient populations and the need to scale out. This change is driving manufacturers toward increased monitoring and optimization at a level of intensity beyond what is seen historically.

While mAbs are forecasted to continue to dominate end-product sales over the near term, it is estimated that by 2027 the pipeline of cell and gene therapies will be approximately 7,000 assets, representing more than 50% of the total biologics pipeline. A massive retooling of global bioprocessing capabilities is underway to accommodate the needed small batched production – one per patient in some cases. We estimated our bioprocessing TAM to be $0.8 billion in 2022, across approximately 1,800 sites and 175,000 batches to support process development, and this is expected to expand to approximately $15 billion TAM by 2027 with the execution of our roadmap and the rapid growth of cell therapy.

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Our product development roadmap for the Rebel platform includes the extension of current capabilities and move to an on-line and, ultimately, a real-time “bioreactor brain”. In process development today, smaller scale bioreactors are outfitted with a variety of disconnected multi-party simple sensors and controllers. With the increasing trend toward highly parallelized systems with many small-scale bioreactors running simultaneously, manual sampling becomes a significant bottleneck. The roadmap expansion of Rebel’s analyte panel to address core culture kinetics (e.g., glucose, lactate, ammonium, pH, dissolved oxygen) and attributes like cell count, and viable cell density means that this future on-line Rebel+ system could have a uniquely comprehensive assessment of the present state and trajectory of the extracellular environment. Historical data profiles across parallel bioreactors and designed experiments form an excellent basis for machine learning and multivariable predictive control to optimize experimental variables to maximize yield, minimize risk of loss, and improve kinetics – the “bioreactor brain”. An outsize portion of this opportunity is driven by testing in autologous cell therapies and is commensurate with the total expected cell batches produced.

Customers

We sell our products worldwide through an experienced direct sales force as well as through domestic and international channel partners. Our customers are primarily in the pharmaceutical and biotech market, the government market and to a lesser extent, the academic market. Primary users of our handheld device include law enforcement, military and civilian first responders, and customs and border protection personnel. Primary users of our desktop devices include process development scientists, process engineers, and research scientists.

Manufacturing and Supply

Our manufacturing strategy has two components: to outsource subassemblies or assemblies to domestic contract manufacturers where it is cost and capital favorable, and to use our internal manufacturing facilities for the balance of our production needs. Our primary in-house manufacturing facilities are located at our headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts. These facilities are ISO 9001:2015 certified and include approximately 5,100 square feet of configurable production assembly floor, 1,800 square feet of advanced machining space, and 2,000 square feet of configurable cleanroom. Inventory is held in our Boston facilities in a 700 square foot controlled-access cage. As a result of the acquisition of Trace Analytics GmbH, we also have in-house manufacturing facilities in Braunschweig, Germany.

Devices

The MX908, Rebel, Maverick and ZipChip Interface are manufactured, tested and shipped from our Boston facility. The Maven and related sampling devices are manufactured, tested and shipped from our Braunschweig facility. Several custom components are fabricated by third party suppliers, including printed circuit boards and cables, and metal and plastic mechanical components. The assembly of technology-sensitive components such as our proprietary vacuum pumps and ion trap/ionization module is completed in-house.

Currently, our Boston manufacturing facility is capable of supporting the production of approximately 2,000 MX908, Rebel, Maverick and ZipChip Interface units combined per year. When our annual sales exceed 2,000 units, we expect that we would need to either expand our in-house production operations, or transfer some or all aspects of assembly to contract manufacturers, to accommodate larger run-rates. We believe there are numerous domestic and international contract manufacturers that could be qualified to produce the MX908, Rebel, Maverick and/or ZipChip Interface when third party demand for our products outpace our current manufacturing capacity. The autosampler subassembly of the Rebel and ZipChip are supplied by a single supplier. The Raman spectrometer, and optical probe and fiber assemblies, for Maverick are supplied by a single supplier. The Maven device subassembly is supplied by a single supplier under a contract manufacturing arrangement.

We are continuously evaluating and updating our supply chain to ensure our ability to respond to customer demand for our products. For example, we have relationships with a number of machine shops and electronics suppliers that can provide components for our devices, including components currently provided by a single source. We plan to continue the diversification of our supply chain as we scale. We use our annual demand planning to assess initial device needs for

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each year, and we update and reassess those estimates as needed, including with respect to the levels of inventory that we believe will be required to support anticipated customer demand.

Consumables

The MX908 incorporates a number of non-proprietary consumables that are commercial-off-the-shelf available and sourced from a number of reputable suppliers. Sampling swabs that are used for the analysis of liquid and solid materials in the MX908 are currently single-sourced. While we believe that alternatives are available, it would take time to identify and validate replacement swab samples, which could compromise our ability to supply these to our MX908 customers on a timely basis.

Consumable kits for the Rebel and ZipChip Interface include electrolytes, standards, and microfluidic chips. All assay kits and standards are assembled in our Boston cleanroom facilities. Component reagents and standards are widely available from multiple suppliers. Our microfluidic chips are produced and assembled in our Boston cleanroom facilities. The substrate is supplied by a single supplier. While we believe that alternative suppliers would be available, it would take time to identify and qualify alternate suppliers and transfer design requirements to them, which could negatively affect our ability to supply these chips to our Rebel and ZipChip customers on a timely basis.

Sales and Marketing

We distribute our devices and consumables via direct field sales and support organizations located in North America and through a combination of our own sales force and more than 42 third party channel partners in domestic and international markets which include Australia, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Turkey, and the United Kingdom, or UK. In North America, we use channel partners to provide our products to end customers where a contract vehicle is required. Since the commercial launch of our first handheld, the installed base of our devices has grown to more than 2,800 devices across more than 56 countries.

Our domestic sales force and international partners inform our current and potential customers of current product offerings, new target applications, and advances in our technologies and products. As our primary point of contact in the marketplace, our sales force focuses on delivering a consistent marketing message and high level of customer service, while also attempting to help us better understand the evolving market and customer needs.

As of December 31, 2023, we had 70 people employed in sales, sales support and marketing. This staff is primarily located in the United States, but we have also hired internationally at our facility in Braunschweig, Germany, and in other countries using a professional employment organization, to support our sales and applications efforts. We intend to expand our sales, support, and marketing efforts in regions with a concentrated life sciences presence, including large pharmaceutical and biopharma companies. For example, in 2023, we established a direct sales footprint in Europe for our desktop products, and have developed a sales, training and support network in China. Additionally, we believe that there is significant opportunity in other Asia-Pacific countries such as India and South Korea as well as other areas such as Australia and South America. We plan to continue to expand into these regions via initial penetration with channel partners and then subsequent support with direct sales and support personnel.

Our business model is focused on driving the adoption of our products and maximizing use across our customers’ value chains. This is enabled through customer trials and partnerships that allows us to further understand the critical applications for our technology and inform our future developments and market expansion.

Our MX908 devices often are sold to governmental institutions and other customers that require participation in a tender process that involves preparation of extensive documentation and a lengthy review process. As a result of these factors, and the budget cycles of our customers, our sales cycle can often be six to twelve months, or longer. Our Rebel and Maverick devices are relatively new to the life science marketplace and require a capital investment by our customers. The sales process typically involves numerous interactions and demonstrations with multiple people within an organization. Some potential customers conduct in-depth evaluations of the system, including running experiments at our Boston headquarters and comparing results from alternative systems and technologies.

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Service and Support

We offer warranty and extended warranty service plans, as well as on-site training, in order to improve customer adoption of our products. Support under warranty and extended service contracts include the following:

Technical support. Customers can call a hot-line number 24 hours per day, 365 days per year for support on issues ranging from questions on proper usage of the device, to assistance in interpretation of chemical spectra to ensure the device is working as intended. We refer to this support as our Reachback program.
Software updates and library updates. We periodically release updates to the embedded software in our products. These updates will ensure the ongoing functionality of our products and repair defects in the software. We also release updates and additions to our library of spectral images enabling identification of additional chemicals.
Warranty. Our Maven, Maverick, MX908 and ZipChip Interface devices are covered under a return-to-factory warranty model for repairs. Depending on availability, loaner units are made available to minimize downtime with our customers.

We provide training at the customer’s location with the initial purchase of our devices. Each training event is between four to six hours and covers device functionality and hands-on training with the device. At the conclusion of the training, certificates are issued for all attendees. Additional training days are available on a per diem basis. For our desktop devices, we offer an advanced training and applications training to assist customers in implementing their required applications with our device.

Research and Development

Investment in research and development is at the core of our business strategy. Our research and development team is responsible for designing, developing and enhancing our products, as well as performing product testing and quality assurance activities. Members of our research and development team specialize in many functional areas including algorithms, machine learning, electrical and mechanical engineering as well as software development.

As of December 31, 2023, we had 71 full-time employees dedicated to research and development. Of these, approximately 40% have advanced degrees in engineering or the sciences. We have made substantial investments in product and technology development since our inception. We expect our research and development expense to be maintained at this level as we balance resources to enhance our existing products, develop new products for our current markets and introduce new products in new markets.

We consider the holistic nature of our internal product development teams critical to our products’ success. Accordingly, our research and development team possesses functional expertise in critical areas such as:

chemistry, biochemistry, physics of Mass Spec and separations and sample processing;
embedded, desktop and mobile software engineering;
machine learning, high-speed digital signal processing, multivariate statistical learning, algorithms and decision theory;
user experience design and user interface design;
mechanical engineering and industrial design;
analog, digital and mixed signal electronics engineering;

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ultra-efficient pumping and pneumatics engineering; and
microfluidic design, and volume fabrication at the micro- and meso-scale.

The majority of our research and development operations are conducted in our Boston facility. We also conduct additional research and development operations out of our facility in Morrisville, North Carolina to support assay development for Rebel, Maverick and ZipChip, and out of our facility in Braunschweig, Germany to support assay development of our Maven and related products and aseptic sampling development.

Our R&D and marketing teams also receive input from two Scientific Advisory Boards, each an SAB, one SAB with deep expertise in bioprocess development, and cell and gene therapy processes and production, and the other SAB board made up of thought leaders in proteomics who will be invaluable to the continued advancement of our platform mass spec and microfluidic technology and its application to contemporary problems in proteomics-oriented life science research.

Competition

We have a range of competitors extending from small, privately held companies with single-point solutions to large, publicly-held corporations, including those with a portfolio of Mass Spec products, such as Agilent, Bruker, Danaher, Inficon, Teledyne, Endress & Hauser, PerkinElmer, Shimadzu, Thermo Fisher Scientific, and Waters Corp. Many of these companies have greater resources and market presence than we do.

We expect the markets for our products to remain highly competitive and dynamic and to reflect rapid technological evolution and continually evolving customer requirements. Our ability to compete successfully will depend on a number of factors including our ability to:

offer differentiated point-of-need Mass Spec devices;
translate market requirements into an engineering roadmap of new software and hardware features to remain competitive;
demonstrate the value of employing our products at the point-of-need through accelerated workflows; and
provide pro-active support and service that delights our customers.

Intellectual Property

Protection of our intellectual property is fundamental to the long-term success of our business. We believe that our continued success depends in large part on our proprietary technology, the skills of our employees and the ability of our employees to continue to innovate and incorporate advances into our products. We regard our products and the internally developed software embedded in our products as proprietary.

We rely primarily on a combination of trade secret, patent, copyright and trademark laws, as well as contractual provisions with employees and third parties, to establish and protect our intellectual property rights. Our patent strategy is to seek broad protection on fundamental enabling technologies, and layer on additional patents on specific implementations or methods of operation critical to our present and anticipated products, and to prevent competitive operation. While our expertise in signal processing and machine learning is critical to our success, we typically keep these inventions as trade secrets to avoid public disclosure. Some high value consumables have been engineered with clandestine product integrity features to inhibit duplication or counterfeiting efforts of our intellectual property. We provide our products to customers pursuant to terms and conditions that impose restrictions on use and disclosure. We also seek to avoid disclosure of our intellectual property using contractual obligations, by requiring employees, consultants and contractors with access to our proprietary information to execute nondisclosure, non-competition and

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assignment of intellectual property agreements. In addition, we generally control access to our proprietary and confidential information through the use of internal and external controls.

Our foundational technology in the area of miniature Mass Spec originated as an effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratories led by our Scientific Founder J. Michael Ramsey, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry at the University of North Carolina.

As of December 31, 2023, our owned patent assets included approximately 19 U.S. patents, no pending U.S. patent applications, 45 foreign patents and four pending foreign patent applications in various foreign jurisdictions, including Australia, Austria, Canada, China, France, Germany, the European Union, or EU, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Switzerland and Taiwan. The subject matter covered by our owned patent assets includes core aspects of compact Mass Spec technology, a design for a handheld Mass Spec device, a design for a modular Mass Spec chamber, patents for multiple ionization modes and adaptive pressure operation within survey period, the determination of preferred ionization mode, adaptive resolution control, adaptive operation to reduce power consumption, and the detection of positive and negative ions.

As of December 31, 2023, our in-licensed patent assets included approximately 29 U.S. patents, one pending U.S. patent application, 22 foreign patents, and two pending foreign patent applications. The subject matter covered by our in-licensed patent assets includes a microfabricated ionization source and a microfabricated ionizer chip, microscale Mass Spec systems, devices and related methods, a miniature charged particle trap with an elongated trapping region for Mass Spec, high pressure Mass Spec signal enhancement by means of convective transport, electrospray ionization interface to high pressure Mass Spec, a method of sample injection for chemical separations in microfluidic devices, integrated sample processing for electrospray ionization devices, and microchips with integrated multiple electrospray ionization emitters and related methods, systems and devices. Excluding any patent term extension, the currently issued 908 Devices-owned patents are expected to expire between 2032 to 2038. The currently issued in-licensed patents are expected to expire from 2023 to 2039.

We also seek to protect our brand through procurement of trademark rights. As of December 31, 2023, we owned six registered trademarks in the United States, 17 registered foreign trademarks, three U.S. pending trademark applications, and two pending foreign trademark applications. Our registered trademarks and pending trademark applications include trademarks for 908 Devices, Rebel, MX908, ZipChip, Maven, Maverick, and our logo. In order to supplement protection of our brand, we have also registered several internet domain names.

Licensed IP

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

In June 2012, we entered into a license agreement, which was subsequently amended in April 2013 and August 2014, and then amended and restated in May 2015, which we refer to in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as the UNC Agreements, with the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, or UNC, pursuant to which UNC granted us an exclusive, sublicensable, worldwide license to develop, manufacture, use, and commercialize products, services and methods, covered by certain patent rights owned by UNC, including patents related to a microfabricated ionization source and a microfabricated ionizer chip.

We issued an aggregate of 110,626 shares of our common stock to UNC, which had an aggregate fair value at the time of issuance of approximately $37,800. Additionally, we must pay UNC a low single digit percentage royalty on our net sales of any products that are covered by a valid claim of the licensed patents, subject to an annual minimum royalty payment of $30,000. We are also obligated to pay UNC a low double-digit percentage of certain royalty income received from our sublicensees. To date, we have not issued any sublicenses under the UNC Agreements.

We are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop, manufacture and commercialize the Licensed Products and achieve defined milestones within the UNC Agreements. There are no future milestone payments to be made by the Company under the UNC Agreements.

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We are responsible for all reasonable, documented patent expenses incurred during the life of the UNC Agreements and associated costs associated with the preparation, filing, prosecuting, issuance and maintenance of all patent applications and patents included within the patent rights covered by the UNC Agreements. In addition, we have the option to exclusively license UNC rights in improvements to the license patents and related portfolio, by paying $10,000 per improvement.

The UNC Agreement will continue until the expiration of the last to expire patent or last to be abandoned patent application that is licensed to us, unless terminated earlier in accordance with the terms of the UNC Agreements. There are current patent applications pending under the UNC Agreements so we expect the UNC Agreements will continue through at least 2039. We may terminate the UNC Agreements by providing advance written notice of 60 days as specified therein. UNC may terminate the UNC Agreements if we violate or fail to perform any terms of the UNC Agreements and we fail to cure such violation or failure within 90 days of notice thereof from UNC.

Regulations

Chemical detection, identification, and authentication technologies are of value to military, governmental, and law enforcement organizations worldwide. As a result, our products and technologies are subject to export control laws and regulations, which are imposed to ensure that sensitive technologies are withheld from unfriendly governments, terrorists or criminal organizations.

Our current products are dual-use items with both military and civilian applications. These products are subject to the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, or EAR. The EAR imposes various documentation, recordkeeping and transaction screening requirements and may impose licensing requirements for certain countries, customers, or end-use applications of our products. Applicable U.S. export regulations will continue to apply to our products and technologies even after they are exported to non-U.S. customers or to any non-U.S. subsidiaries or affiliates.

Articles, services and technologies that have certain military applications or that are designed, developed, modified or adapted specifically for military applications may be subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, or ITAR. When ITAR requirements apply, they apply in place of EAR. ITAR imposes registration requirements and broader, more stringent export licensing requirements than EAR. We must determine whether ITAR or EAR governs each of our products, services, and technologies. We may assume the risk of making these determinations on our own, or we may decide to request formal governmental jurisdictional rulings.

Prior to 2023, none of our products were subject to ITAR registration or other related requirements. With the commencement of the initial production phase of our Aerosol and Vapor Chemical Agent Detector, or AVCAD, program to support safety missions for the U.S. military and Coast Guard, we determined that certain spectral databases, algorithms, libraries and alarm set point levels built into our AVCAD software were subject to ITAR, and we registered as a manufacturer with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, or DDTC, of the Department of State.

Under generally applicable U.S. trade regulations administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, we are generally prohibited from engaging in transactions involving sanctioned countries, as well as certain persons and entities that have been designated for targeted sanctions by OFAC. EAR and ITAR also impose export restrictions targeted at identified persons and entities, and we are required to comply with these restrictions as well.

Violations of the ITAR, EAR, and OFAC requirements can result in significant fines, penalties, denial of export privileges, and even terms of imprisonment for the individuals involved.

In addition, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, regulates, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacturing, clearance, approval, labeling, storage, recordkeeping, advertising, promotion, marketing, distribution, post-market monitoring and reporting, and import and export of medical devices. Our products are currently marketed as research use only, or RUO. Products such as ours that are marketed for RUO are not intended for use in a clinical investigation or for clinical diagnostic use outside an investigation and must be labeled “For

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Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.” Products that are intended for RUO and are properly labeled as RUO are exempt from compliance with the FDA’s requirements applicable to medical devices more generally, including the requirements for clearance or approval and compliance with manufacturing requirements known as the Quality System Regulation.

A product labeled RUO but intended to be used diagnostically may be viewed by the FDA as adulterated and misbranded under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act and subject to FDA enforcement activities. RUO products cannot make any claims related to safety, effectiveness or diagnostic utility and they cannot be intended for human clinical diagnostic use. The FDA will also evaluate the totality of the circumstances to determine if the product is intended for diagnostic purposes. If the FDA were to determine, based on the totality of circumstances, that our products labeled and marketed for RUO are intended for diagnostic purposes, they would be considered medical devices that will require clearance or approval prior to commercialization.

Although we currently market our products as RUO, we may in the future make the decision to market them for clinical or diagnostic purposes, or may develop other different products intended for clinical or diagnostic purposes, which would result in the application of a more onerous set of regulatory requirements.

Human Capital

As of December 31, 2023, we had 230 full-time employees, of which 70 work in sales, sales support and marketing, 71 work in engineering and research and development, 56 work in manufacturing, operations and service and 33 work in general and administrative. As of December 31, 2023, a substantial majority of our employees were located in the United States. None of our employees is represented by a labor union or is subject to a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good. Our human capital resources objectives include, as applicable, identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and additional employees. The principal purposes of our equity incentive plans are to attract, retain and motivate selected employees, consultants and directors through the granting of stock-based compensation awards and cash-based performance bonus awards. The health and safety of our employees, customers and communities are of primary concern.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware in 2012 as 908 Devices Inc. Our offices are located at 645 Summer Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02210. Our telephone number is (857) 254-1500.

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. As a result, we are permitted to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other companies that are not emerging growth companies. For so long as we are an emerging growth company, we will not be required to (i) engage an independent registered public accounting firm to report on our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, (ii) submit certain executive compensation matters to stockholder advisory votes, or (iii) disclose certain executive compensation related items.

We may continue to be an “emerging growth company” until December 31, 2025, though we may cease to be an “emerging growth company” earlier under certain circumstances, including if (i) we have more than $1.235 billion in annual gross revenue in any fiscal year, (ii) we become a “large accelerated filer” as a result of the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates being greater than or equal to $700 million as of any June 30, or (iii) we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period.

Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period, provided in Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. In other words, an emerging growth company can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards until the earlier of the date we (i) are no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. As a

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result, our financial statements and the reported results of operations contained therein may not be directly comparable to those of other public companies.

We are also a “smaller reporting company,” as defined in Regulation S-K. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company if either (i) market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250 million as of the last business day of our second fiscal quarter or (ii) our annual revenue is less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million as of the last business day of our second fiscal quarter. If we are a smaller reporting company at the time, we cease to be an emerging growth company, we may continue to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are available to smaller reporting companies. Specifically, as a smaller reporting company we may choose to present only the two most recent fiscal years of audited financial statements in our Annual Report on Form 10-K and, similar to emerging growth companies, smaller reporting companies have reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation.

Available Information

Our Internet address is www.908devices.com. Our website and the information contained on, or that can be accessed through, the website will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference in, and are not considered part of, this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, including exhibits, proxy and information statements and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a), 14, and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, are available through the “Investors” portion of our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, our filings with the SEC may be accessed through the SEC’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval system at http://www.sec.gov. All statements made in any of our securities filings, including all forward-looking statements or information, are made as of the date of the document in which the statement is included, and we do not assume or undertake any obligation to update any of those statements or documents unless we are required to do so by law.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

An investment in our common stock involves risks. You should carefully consider the following risks and all of the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K before investing in our common stock. The risks described below are those that we believe are the material risks that we face. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could suffer materially, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also adversely affect our business. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Risks related to macroeconomic conditions

Uncertainties in global economic conditions or a decline in economic conditions, such as recession, economic downturn, and/or inflationary conditions in the U.S. and other regions of the world in which we do business could impact customer spending patterns and materially and adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

Uncertainties in global economic conditions that are beyond our control have in the past impacted our business and may in the future materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and stock price. These adverse economic conditions include inflation, slower growth or recession, new or increased tariffs and other changes to fiscal and monetary policy, higher interest rates, high unemployment, decreased consumer confidence in the economy, armed hostilities, such as the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the ongoing hostilities in Israel and the Gaza Strip, foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, and other matters that influence consumer spending and preferences.

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As a result of these economic conditions, our customers may face their own financial difficulties and the demand and sale of our products to end users and the quantity of products our customers decide to purchase from us (or the mix of products demanded) could be adversely affected, and it may become more challenging to forecast our operating results and make business decisions. Our results of operations are sensitive to changes in macroeconomic conditions that impact discretionary spending. Some of the factors adversely affecting consumer spending include impacts of inflation and actions taken by central banks to counter inflation, levels of unemployment, consumer debt levels, changes in net worth based on market changes and uncertainty, fluctuating interest rates, credit availability, government actions, fluctuating fuel and other energy costs, fluctuating commodity prices and general uncertainty regarding the overall future economic environment. Adverse economic changes in any of the regions in which we sell our products could reduce consumer confidence and could negatively affect net revenue and have a material adverse effect on our operating results.

Our global supply chain is large and complex. As a result, our operations and performance depend significantly on global and regional economic conditions. In addition to an adverse impact on demand for our products, uncertainty about, or a decline in, global or regional economic conditions can have a significant impact on our suppliers, manufacturers, logistics providers, channel partners, and other partners. Potential effects include financial instability; inability to obtain credit to finance operations; and insolvency.

A downturn in the economic environment can also lead to increased credit and collectability risk on our receivables; the failure of derivative counterparties and other financial institutions; limitations on our ability to issue new debt; reduced liquidity; and declines in the fair value of our financial instruments. These and other economic factors can materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and stock price.

A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease such as the COVID-19 pandemic may adversely affect our business.

Our global operations expose us to risks associated with public health crises and epidemics or pandemics, such as COVID-19. Such risks include significant volatility, uncertainty and worldwide economic disruption which may result in an economic slowdown of potentially extended duration that could impact our operations and supply chain. Future outbreaks of infectious disease, such as COVID 19, and any future variants or subvariants that may emerge, may disrupt operations of our customers and prospective customers including as a result of travel restrictions and/or business shutdowns, uncertainty in the financial markets or other harm to their business and financial results. These disruptions could reduce capital spend by our existing customers and potential new customers, and could result in further reductions to capital expenditure budgets, delayed purchasing decisions, longer sales cycles, extended payment terms or missed payments, and postponed or canceled projects, any of which would negatively impact our business and operating results, including sales and cash flows. Federal customers may divert funds to address their own supply chain or other challenges, which could delay the progression of customer trials and pilots of our products into larger enterprise-wide adoption, and could delay the purchase and deployment of both of our devices and consumables. In addition, the strain on certain domestic and international supply chains from public health crises and epidemics or pandemics, such as COVID-19, could result in production slowdowns, longer lead times and negative impacts on pricing for certain of our critical components, including, among other things, electronic and plastic components necessary to manufacture our products. Our suppliers may have to temporarily close a facility, face staffing shortages, production slowdowns and stoppages, be overwhelmed by unexpected demand or face disruptions in delivery systems which may require suppliers to locate shipping routes that avoid delivery bottlenecks, all of which could cause delays in delivery. If our suppliers are unable to deliver the components and subassemblies we require on a timely basis, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to locate alternative sources of supply for our products on acceptable terms, or at all. The long-term effects to the global economy and to us are difficult to assess or predict and may lead to a decline in the market prices of our products, risks to employee health and safety, risks to our ability to manufacture and distribute our products and services and reduced sales in geographic locations impacted.

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Risks related to our business and industry

We have a history of net losses and may not be able to achieve profitability for any period in the future or sustain cash flow from operating activities.

We have had a history of net losses since our inception in 2012, and we may never achieve or maintain profitability. We cannot make any assurances that we will be able to increase our revenue to sustain cash flow from operating activities or reach profitability.

As we continue to expand and develop our business, we expect to incur significant additional expenditures in the areas of sales, marketing, research and development, and customer service and support. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen issues that require us to incur additional costs. We will have to generate and sustain increased revenue to achieve profitability and positive cash flow as a result of these increased expenditures. Accordingly, if we are not able to achieve or maintain profitability and we incur significant losses in the future, the market price of our common stock may decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.

Our operating results may fluctuate significantly from period-to-period and may fall below expectations in any particular period, which could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

Our quarterly results of operations may fluctuate significantly from period-to-period. Accordingly, the results of any one quarter should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of investors or any securities analysts that follow our company in any period, the price of our common stock would likely decline. Each of the risks described in this section, as well as other factors, may affect our operating results. For example, factors that may cause our operating results to fluctuate include:

our dependence on a limited number of large orders from U.S. government agencies for a substantial portion of our revenue in any quarterly period, whereby the loss of or delay in a customer order, including as a result of delays in Federal budget approval, or any delay in our fulfillment of deliverables under a customer order, could significantly reduce our revenue for that quarter;
market volatility or downturns caused by outbreaks, epidemics, pandemics, geopolitical tensions or conflicts, or other macroeconomic dynamics;
the addition of new customers or the loss of existing customers;
the rates at which customers purchase additional products or consumables from us;
our ability to enhance our products with new and better functionality that meets customer requirements;
the length and unpredictability of our product sales cycle;
the productivity and growth of our sales force and customer service team;
the effectiveness of our channel partners in securing new orders and fulfilling existing orders;
service interruptions with any of our single source suppliers or subassembly manufacturers;
our ability to attain and maintain production volumes and quality levels for our products, and to accurately forecast customer demand for our products and consumables;
the timing of our product releases or upgrades or related announcements by us or our competitors;
the possibility of seasonality in demand for our products;
changes in pricing by us or our competitors;
the timing of investments in research and development related to new product releases or upgrades;
our ability to control costs, including operating expenses and the costs of the components used in our products;
future accounting pronouncements and changes in accounting policies;
costs related to the acquisition and integration of companies, assets, or technologies; and
general economic, political, or stock market conditions.

Our operating expenses are heavily based on our anticipated product revenue growth, especially as we continue to invest significant resources in building out our sales and marketing channels and the development of future products. As a result, any shortfall in product revenue in relation to our expectations could cause significant changes in our operating

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results from period-to-period and could result in negative cash flow from operations and a decrease in the price of our common stock.

We have experienced growth of our business in recent years, and our inability to manage this growth could have a material adverse effect on our business, the quality of our products and services and our ability to retain key personnel.

We have experienced growth of our business in recent years. Our growth has placed increased demands on our management and other resources and will continue to do so in the future. We may not be able to maintain or accelerate our current growth rate, manage our expanding operations effectively or achieve planned growth on a timely or profitable basis. Managing our growth effectively will involve, among other things:

continuing to retain, motivate, and manage our existing employees and attract and integrate new employees, particularly qualified sales personnel;
continuing to provide a high level of service to an increasing number of customers;
maintaining the quality of product and services offerings while controlling our expenses;
meeting end-user requirements for functional performance and product robustness;
growing our direct sales force and channel partners; and
developing, implementing, and improving our operational, financial, accounting, and other internal systems and controls on a timely basis.

If demand for our products increases rapidly, we will need to expand internal production capacity or implement additional outsourcing of components and/or our assembled products. Success in developing, manufacturing and supporting products manufactured in small volumes does not guarantee comparable success in operations conducted on a larger scale. Modifying and reconfiguring our facility to increase production capacity may delay delivery of our products. In addition, component costs as well as additional production, financial, and management control costs may rise. If we are unable to meet the demand of our customers and deliver products quickly and cost effectively, customers may turn to our competitors. The costs associated with implementing new manufacturing technologies, methods and processes, including the purchase of new equipment, and any resulting delays, inefficiencies, and loss of sales, could harm our results of operations.

As we grow, we will also need to make corresponding improvements to other operational functions, such as our customer service and billing systems, compliance programs and our internal quality assurance programs. We will also need additional equipment, manufacturing and warehouse space and trained personnel to process higher volumes of products. We cannot assure you that any increases in scale, related improvements and quality assurance will be successfully implemented or that equipment, manufacturing and warehouse space and appropriate personnel will be available. As we develop additional products, we may need to bring new equipment on-line, implement new systems, technology, controls and procedures and hire personnel with different qualifications.

If we are unable to manage our growth effectively, there could be a material adverse effect on our ability to maintain or increase revenue and profitability, the quality of our products and services and our ability to retain key personnel. These factors could adversely affect our reputation in the market and our ability to generate future sales from new or existing customers.

We must develop new products, as well as enhancements to existing products, and adapt to rapid and significant technological change to remain competitive.

We sell our products in industries that are characterized by significant product enhancements and evolving industry standards. As a result, our customers’ needs are rapidly evolving. If we do not appropriately innovate and invest in new technologies, our offerings may become less desirable in the markets we serve, and our customers could move to new technologies offered by our competitors or make products themselves. To achieve market acceptance for our products, we must effectively anticipate customer requirements, and we must offer products that meet changing customer demands in a timely manner. Customers may require product features and capabilities that our current products do not have. Any of the current plans we have for future developments or enhancements are strategic in nature and not commitments to

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develop such capabilities for our customers. If we fail to develop products that satisfy customer requirements, our ability to create or increase demand for our products will be harmed.

Without the timely introduction of new products, services and enhancements, our offerings will likely become less competitive over time, in which case our competitive position and operating results could suffer. Accordingly, we focus significant efforts and resources on the development and identification of new technologies, products and markets to further broaden our offerings. In addition, the development cycle for our products and technologies can take multiple years and require significant investment, including substantial research and development, development of different engineering and manufacturing workflows, and adjustments to our data and analytics infrastructure. Even if these efforts are successful, the product or enhancement may not perform as expected. The ultimate success of our new products depends, in large part, on the accuracy of our assessments of the long-term needs of the industries and markets we serve, and it is difficult to quickly change the design or function of a planned new product if the market need does not develop as anticipated. As a result, to the extent we fail to accurately forecast the needs of our customers and timely introduce new and innovative products or services, or fail to obtain desired levels of market acceptance, our business may suffer and our operating results could be adversely affected. The challenge of identifying market trends and customer needs is even more demanding for markets that we have recently entered, such as the bioprocessing market, or that we intend to enter in the future, such as the GxP quality assurance market. There is no certainty that we will effectively identify these trends and needs or introduce products that are successful.

We need to continue to build and develop our sales, marketing and customer service organization, and to engage with domestic and international channel partners to support our planned growth.

We may not be able to market, sell or distribute our current and future products effectively enough to support our planned growth. Currently, we sell our products through a combination of direct sales efforts and partnerships with channel partners across all of our key markets. During 2023, our channel partners accounted for a significant portion of our total revenue. We are in the process of broadening and diversifying our sales channels across all markets. In the future, if we fail to maintain good relationships with, or fail to successfully motivate any of our large channel partners, our revenue may decline. If we do not diversify our sales channels and effectively utilize our direct sales force, we will continue to be susceptible to risks associated with having a large percentage of revenue concentrated with a limited number of channel partners.

Competition for employees capable of selling expensive instruments within the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries is intense. We may not be able to attract and retain personnel or be able to build an efficient and effective sales organization, which could negatively impact sales and market acceptance of our products and limit our revenue growth and potential profitability.

In addition, the time and cost of maintaining a specialized sales, marketing and customer service force for a particular product or service may be difficult to justify in light of the revenue projected to be generated by such additional personnel and resources. We also intend to add additional channel partners in the life science market, and if we are unable to do so successfully, it will adversely impact our ability to increase the revenue from our Maverick, Rebel, ZipChip Interface and Maven and related sampling products.

We rely on channel partners for the sale of our products in certain countries outside of the United States, and to access certain end customers in the United States. We intend to continue to grow our business internationally and to do so we must attract additional channel partners and retain existing channel partners to maximize the commercial opportunity for our products. We exert limited control over existing channel partners under our agreements with them, and if their sales and marketing efforts for our products in their particular region are not successful, our business would be materially and adversely affected. Locating, qualifying and engaging additional channel partners with local industry experience and knowledge will be necessary in at least the short to mid-term to effectively market and sell our platform in certain countries outside the United States. We may not be successful in finding, attracting and retaining channel partners, or we may not be able to enter into such arrangements on favorable terms.

Most of our channel partner relationships are non-exclusive and permit such channel partners to distribute competing products. As such, our channel partners may not commit the necessary resources to market our products to

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the level of our expectations or may choose to favor marketing the products of our competitors. If current or future channel partners do not perform adequately or we are unable to enter into effective arrangements with channel partners in particular geographic areas, we may not realize long-term international revenue growth.

We face intense and growing competition from leading technology companies as well as from emerging companies. Our inability to compete effectively with any or all of these competitors could affect our ability to achieve our anticipated market penetration and achieve or sustain profitability.

The markets we serve are highly competitive, and we expect competition to intensify in the future. This competition may make it more difficult for us to sell our products, and may result in increased pricing pressure, reduced profit margins, increased sales and marketing expenses and failure to increase, or the loss of, market share, any of which would likely seriously harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

We face substantial competition from very large and experienced enterprises, both public and privately held, including Agilent Technologies, Bruker Corporation, Danaher Corporation, Inficon, Teledyne, Endress & Hauser, PerkinElmer, Shimadzu Corporation, Thermo Fisher Scientific, and Waters Corp. Our competitors also include many smaller companies, including companies established to pursue new and emerging technologies. We also expect additional competition in the future from new and existing companies with whom we do not currently compete directly. As our industry evolves, our current and potential competitors may establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties, including companies with whom we have partnerships and whose products interoperate with our own, that could acquire significant market share, which could adversely affect our business. Any of these competitive threats, alone or in combination with others, could seriously harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

Many of our competitors have greater market presence, longer operating histories, stronger name recognition, larger customer bases and significantly greater financial, technical, sales and marketing, manufacturing, distribution and other resources than we have. In addition, many of our competitors have broader product offerings than we do. These companies may attempt to use their greater resources to better position themselves in the market, including by pricing their products at a discount or bundling them with other products and services in an attempt to rapidly gain market share. Moreover, many of our competitors have more extensive customer and partner relationships than we do, and may therefore be in a better position to identify and respond to market developments or changes in customer demands, including successfully developing technologies that outperform our technologies. Potential customers may also prefer to purchase from their existing suppliers rather than a new supplier regardless of product performance or features. Our larger competitors may be able to better manage large or complex contracts and maintain a broader geographic presence. Our smaller competitors typically focus on one or a few products, and they are often well entrenched in their chosen markets. Any of these competitors may respond more quickly to new technology, market developments or pursue new sales opportunities more effectively than we can. We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully against existing or new competitors. Accordingly, our business may not grow as expected and our business may suffer.

Currently, we derive the majority of our revenue from our handheld products in the field forensics market, and are seeking to grow the revenue we derive from our desktop products in the life science market. If we fail to maintain significant market acceptance in existing markets or fail to successfully increase our penetration in new and expanding markets, we will not generate expected revenue and our prospects may be harmed.

In 2023, a majority of our product and service revenue was derived from sales of our handheld products, mainly the MX908. Today, this market consists primarily of first responders, firefighters, local, state and federal law enforcement, as well as military, customs and homeland security customers. Continued market acceptance of the products we sell to these organizations is critical to our future success, and the adoption of our products by these organizations worldwide is a key part of our growth strategy. If market demand for our MX908 product declines, if our products fail to maintain or achieve greater market acceptance, or if we fail to execute on our sales and customer service efforts in the field forensics market, we will not be able to grow our revenue sufficiently to achieve or maintain profitability.

We also are seeking to grow and derive a significant portion of our revenue from our desktop devices in the life science market, specifically the antibody therapeutics, cell and gene therapy and synthetic biology markets, including sales to biopharmaceutical companies and research institutions. We recently introduced our Maverick and Maven

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product lines and our future success will partially depend on our ability to successfully commercialize these product lines. The life sciences scientific community is comprised of a small number of early adopters and key opinion leaders who significantly influence the rest of the community. The success of life sciences products is due, in large part, to acceptance by the scientific community and their adoption of certain products as best practice in the applicable field of research.

The sizes of the markets for our solutions may be smaller than estimated and new market opportunities may not develop as quickly as we expect, or at all, limiting our ability to successfully sell our products.

The markets for our innovative new class of products are rapidly evolving, making it difficult to predict with any accuracy the sizes of the markets for our current and future solutions. Our estimates of the annual total addressable market for our current and future solutions are based on a number of internal and third party estimates and assumptions. In addition, our growth strategy involves launching new solutions and expanding sales of existing solutions into new markets in which we have limited or no experience. Sales of new or existing solutions into new market opportunities may take several years to develop and mature, and we cannot be certain that these market opportunities will develop as we expect. For example, new life sciences technology is often not adopted by the relevant market until a sufficient amount of research conducted using such technology has been published in peer-reviewed publications. While we believe our assumptions and the data underlying our estimates of the total annual addressable market for our solutions are reasonable, these assumptions and estimates may not be correct and the conditions supporting our assumptions or estimates, or those underlying the third party data we have used, may change at any time, thereby reducing the accuracy of our estimates. As a result, our estimates of the annual total addressable market for our solutions may be incorrect.

Our sales cycles can be long and unpredictable, and our sales efforts require considerable time and expense, which contribute to the unpredictability and variability of our financial performance and may adversely affect our profitability.

The timing of our revenue is difficult to predict as we experience extended sales cycles, due in part to our need to educate our customers about our products, the significant purchase price of our products, the desire of some of our customers to do extended product testing and evaluations, including pilot studies, and our customers’ willingness to replace their existing solutions and supplier relationships. Product purchases by our customers are often subject to a variety of other considerations that may extend the length of our sales cycle, including timing of their budget cycles and approval processes, budget constraints, extended negotiations, user surveys, administrative processing and other delays. In particular, government departments and agencies, both in the U.S. and in other countries, generally evaluate our products for critical, strategic applications. As a result, the piloting, testing and evaluation process can be extensive, and orders are often dependent on the availability of sufficient budgeted funds. The procurement processes for orders by government agencies may involve complex and time-consuming competitive bidding processes. Bid specifications and contract awards are subject to challenge by competitors, which can further extend the sales cycle. Furthermore, U.S. state and local hazardous material, emergency management and police organizations must often apply for grants to obtain the funds needed to procure our products, a process which is lengthy and unpredictable, particularly as to when and whether a grant will be awarded. As a result, our sales cycle ranges from several months to over a year, and it is difficult to predict when or if a sale to a potential customer will occur. All of these factors can contribute to fluctuations in our quarterly financial performance and increase the likelihood that our operating results in a particular quarter will fall below investor expectations. If we are unsuccessful in closing sales after expending significant resources, or if we experience delays for any of the reasons discussed above, our future revenue and operating expenses may be materially adversely affected.

Due to the significant resources required to enable access in new markets, we must make strategic and operational decisions to prioritize certain markets, technology offerings or partnerships and there can be no assurance that we will expend our resources in a way that results in meaningful revenue or capitalizes on potential new markets.

We believe our platform has potential applications across a wide range of markets and we have targeted certain markets in which we believe we have a higher probability of success or revenue opportunity or for which the path to commercialize products and realizing or achieving revenue is shorter. For example, we have entered into agreements regarding a specific government program opportunity to develop an aerosol vapor detector, and several engagements

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related to the evaluation of our products within the cell therapy and gene therapy markets. We seek to continue to prioritize opportunities and allocate our resources among our programs to maintain a balance between advancing near-term opportunities and exploring additional markets for our technology. However, due to the significant resources required for the development of workflows for new markets, we must make decisions regarding which markets to pursue and the amount of resources to allocate to each. Our decisions concerning the allocation of research, development, collaboration, management and financial resources toward particular markets or workflows may not lead to the development of any viable product and may divert resources away from better opportunities. Similarly, our potential decisions to delay, terminate or collaborate with third parties in respect of certain markets may subsequently also prove to be suboptimal and could cause us to miss valuable opportunities. In particular, if we are unable to develop additional relevant products and applications for markets such as antibody therapeutics, cell therapy or the synthetic biology market, it could slow or stop our business growth and negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

If we market our products for clinical or diagnostic purposes, our products could become subject to onerous regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, or other regulatory agencies in the future, which could increase our costs and delay or prevent commercialization of our products, thereby materially and adversely affecting our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

We make our platform and devices, including our Maven, Maverick, MX908, Rebel and ZipChip Interface, available to customers as research-use-only, or RUO, products. Products that are labeled as RUO are exempt from compliance with most FDA requirements, including premarket clearance or approval, manufacturing requirements, and others. A product labeled RUO but which is actually intended for clinical diagnostic use may be viewed by the FDA as adulterated and misbranded under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, and subject to FDA enforcement action. The FDA has indicated that when determining the intended use of a product labeled RUO, the FDA will consider the totality of the circumstances surrounding distribution and use of the product, including how the product is marketed and to whom. The FDA could disagree with our assessment that our products are properly marketed as RUOs, or could conclude that products labeled as RUO are actually intended for clinical diagnostic use, and could take enforcement action against us, including requiring us to stop distribution of our products until we are in compliance with applicable regulations, which would reduce our revenue, increase our costs and adversely affect our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition. In the event that the FDA requires us to obtain marketing authorization of our RUO products in the future, there can be no assurance that the FDA will grant any clearance or approval requested by us in a timely manner, or at all. Furthermore, although we currently market our products as RUO, we may in the future make the decision to market them for clinical or diagnostic purposes, or may develop other different products intended for clinical or diagnostic purposes, which would result in the application of a more onerous set of regulatory requirements.

We depend on our key personnel and other highly qualified personnel, and if we are unable to recruit, train and retain our personnel, we may not achieve our goals.

Our future success depends on our ability to recruit, train, retain and motivate key personnel, including our senior management, research and development, manufacturing and sales, customer service and marketing personnel. In particular, Dr. Knopp, our Chief Executive Officer and one of our co-founders, and Dr. Brown, our Chief Product Officer and one of our co-founders, are critical to our vision, strategic direction, culture and products. Each of our employees may terminate his or her relationship with us at any time and the loss of the services of such persons could have an adverse effect on our business. We rely on our senior management to manage our existing business operations and to identify and pursue new growth opportunities. The loss of any member of senior management could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives and their replacement would likely involve significant time and expense.

As we continue to scale our business, we may find that certain of our products, certain customers or certain markets, including the biopharmaceutical market, may require a dedicated sales force or sales personnel with different experience than those whom we currently employ. Our continued growth will depend, in part, on attracting, retaining and motivating highly-trained sales personnel with the necessary scientific background and technical ability to understand

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our systems and effectively identify and sell to potential new customers. Identifying, recruiting and training additional qualified personnel will require significant time, expense and attention. In addition, the continued development of complementary software tools, such as our analysis tools and visualization software, requires us to compete for highly trained software engineers in the Boston area and for highly trained customer service personnel globally.

We do not have fixed term employment contracts with any of our employees. As a result, our employees could leave our company with little or no prior notice and would be free to work for a competitor, subject to the terms of their confidentiality, non-solicitation and intellectual property assignment agreements. Because of the complex and technical nature of our products and the dynamic market in which we compete, any failure to attract, train, retain and motivate qualified personnel could materially harm our operating results and growth prospects.

We may be unable to consistently manufacture our devices and consumables to the necessary specifications or in quantities necessary to meet demand at an acceptable cost or at an acceptable performance level.

Our products are integrated solutions with many different components that work together. As such, a quality defect in a single component can compromise the performance of the entire solution. As we continue to grow and introduce new products, and as our products incorporate increasingly sophisticated technology, it will be increasingly difficult to ensure our products are produced in the necessary quantities without sacrificing quality. There is no assurance that we or our third party manufacturers will be able to continue to manufacture our products so that they consistently achieve the product specifications and quality that our customers expect. Any future design issues, unforeseen manufacturing problems, such as contamination of our or such third party facilities, equipment malfunctions, aging components, quality issues with components and materials sourced from third party suppliers, or failures to strictly follow procedures or meet specifications, may have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, financial condition and operating results and could result in us or our third party manufacturers losing International Organization for Standardization, or ISO, quality management certifications. If we or our third party manufacturers fail to maintain ISO quality management certifications, our customers might choose not to purchase products from us. Furthermore, we or our third party manufacturers may not be able to increase manufacturing to meet anticipated demand or may experience downtime.

In order to meet our customers’ needs, we attempt to forecast demand for our products and components used for the manufacture of our products. If we fail to accurately forecast this demand, we could incur additional costs or experience manufacturing delays and may experience lost sales or significant inventory carrying costs.

The risk of manufacturing defects or quality control issues is generally higher for new products, whether produced by us or a third party manufacturer, products that are transitioned from one manufacturer to another, particularly if manufacturing is transitioned or initiated with a manufacturer we have not worked with in the past, and products that are transferred from one manufacturing facility to another. We cannot assure investors that we and our third party manufacturers will be able to launch new products on time, transition manufacturing of existing products to new manufacturers, transition our manufacturing capabilities to a new location or transition manufacturing of any additional consumables in-house without manufacturing defects. An inability to manufacture products and components that consistently meet specifications, in necessary quantities and at commercially acceptable costs will have a negative impact and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We depend on a continued supply of components and raw materials for our products from third party suppliers, and if shortages of these components or raw materials arise, we may not be able to secure enough components to build new products to meet customer demand or we may be forced to pay higher prices for these components.

We rely on a limited number of suppliers for several key components utilized in the assembly of our products, and in some cases, such as the glass in our microfluidic chips, swab samplers, and sensors within our products, we rely on a single supplier for a particular component, subassembly or consumable. Although in many cases we use standard components for our products, in some cases, components may only be purchased from a limited number of suppliers. In particular, we are dependent on single suppliers for our Rebel and ZipChip autosampler subassemblies, our MX908 consumables, the Raman spectrometer and optical probe and fiber assemblies for Maverick, and our device subassembly for Maven. If, for any reason, our access to these products is limited or delayed, we would need to quickly identify and qualify an alternate source of products. Identifying and qualifying an alternate source may take time and involve

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additional expense, and there is no guarantee that the alternate source will perform as expected. If our customers experienced a shortage or delay in consumables, such as swab samplers, microfluidic chips, or assay kits, or if these consumables do not perform at the levels our customers expect, our business could be materially and adversely impacted.

In addition, we maintain relatively low inventory and acquire components based upon anticipated annual demand. Neither we nor our contract manufacturers enter into long-term supply contracts for these components, and none of our third party suppliers is obligated to supply products to us for any specific period or in any specific quantities, except as may be provided in a particular purchase order. We are not a major customer of many of our suppliers, and these suppliers may therefore give other customers’ needs higher priority than ours. Our industry has experienced component shortages and delivery delays in the past, and we may experience shortages or delays of critical components in the future as a result of strong demand in the industry or other factors. Many of the other components required to build our systems are also occasionally in short supply. Therefore, if shortages or delays arise, we may not be able to secure enough components at reasonable prices or of acceptable quality to build new products, resulting in an inability to meet customer demand or our own operating goals, which could adversely affect our customer relationships, business, operating results and financial condition.

Additionally, damage to a manufacturing facility or other property of any of our suppliers, due to fire, flood or other natural disaster or casualty event may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our current research and development efforts may not produce significant revenue for several years, if at all.

Developing our products is expensive, and the investment in product development may involve a long payback cycle. Our investment in research and development may not result in marketable products or may result in products that take longer to generate revenue, or generate less revenue, than we anticipate. Our future plans include significant investments in research and development of product opportunities for expansion of our handheld products and new application areas for our desktop products. We believe that we must continue to dedicate a significant amount of resources to our research and development efforts to maintain our competitive position. However, we may not receive significant revenue from these investments for several years, if at all.

Undetected errors or defects in our products, or errors made by the end users of our products, could harm our reputation and decrease market acceptance of our products.

Our devices and consumables, as well as the software that accompanies them, may contain undetected errors or defects when first introduced or as new versions are released. Disruptions or other performance problems with our products or software may adversely impact our customers’ research or business, harm our reputation and result in reduced revenue or increased costs associated with product repairs or replacements. Further, in the event that an end user makes an error or fails to analyze a particular substance correctly, our product may be associated with a failure to identify a substance that ultimately turns out to be harmful, or, conversely, be associated with a false alarm raised over a substance that turns out to be benign. We also provide customer support services, such as in connection with our “Reachback” program described in the “Business” section of our Annual Report on Form 10-K. It is possible that incorrect or inaccurate information may be delivered to a customer in the context of one or more support consultations. If any such errors or mistakes occur, we may also incur significant costs, the attention of our key personnel could be diverted or other significant customer relations problems may arise. We may also be subject to unwanted media attention, warranty claims or breach of contract for damages related to errors or defects in our products and solutions.

If we experience a significant disruption in our information technology systems and infrastructure, or breaches or compromises of data security, our business could be adversely affected.

We rely on information technology systems to keep financial records, facilitate our research and development initiatives, manage our manufacturing operations, maintain quality control, fulfill customer orders, maintain corporate records, communicate with staff and external parties and operate other critical functions. Our information technology systems and infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to breakdown or damage or interruption or otherwise may sustain damage from malicious intrusion and computer viruses, data breaches, phishing attacks, cybercriminals, system

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malfunction, natural disasters and catastrophes (including hurricanes and earthquakes), terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures, or other disruptive events. Cyberattacks and other malicious internet-based activity continue to increase and cloud-based platform providers of services have been and are expected to continue to be targeted. In addition to traditional computer hackers, malicious code (such as viruses and worms), phishing attacks and social engineering, business email compromise, employee theft or misuse, denial-of-service attacks and sophisticated nation-state and nation-state supported actors now engage in attacks (including advanced persistent threat intrusions). Because the techniques used by threat actors who may attempt to penetrate and sabotage our computer systems or those of our vendors or partners change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques. Therefore, despite significant efforts to create security barriers to such threats, it is virtually impossible for us to entirely mitigate these risks. If our security measures or those of our vendors and partners are meaningfully compromised as a result of third party action, employee or customer error, malfeasance, stolen or fraudulently obtained log-in credentials, hostile foreign governments, industrial espionage, wire fraud or otherwise, our reputation and customer trust could be damaged, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be harmed and we could incur significant liability. If we were to experience a prolonged system disruption in our information technology systems and infrastructure or those of certain of our vendors, it could negatively impact our ability to serve our customers, which could adversely impact our business. If operations at our facilities were disrupted, it may cause a material disruption in our business if we are not capable of restoring functionality on an acceptable timeframe. In addition, our information technology systems (and those of our vendors and partners) are potentially vulnerable to data security compromises or breaches, whether by internal bad actors (e.g., employees) or external bad actors (attacks of which are becoming increasingly sophisticated, including social engineering and phishing scams), which could lead to the exposure of personal data, sensitive data and confidential information to unauthorized persons. Further, it is possible that unauthorized access to our data may be obtained through inadequate use of security controls by suppliers or other vendors. We rely on such third parties to implement effective security measures and identify and correct for any failures, deficiencies or breaches. Such data security compromises or breaches to our data, whether stored on our systems or on those of third parties, could lead to the loss of trade secrets or other intellectual property, or could lead to the exposure of personal information (including sensitive personal information) of our employees, customers and others, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, any such access, disclosure or other loss or unauthorized use of information or data could result in legal claims or proceedings, regulatory investigations or actions, and other types of liability under laws that protect the privacy and security of personal information, including federal, state and foreign data protection and privacy regulations, violations of which could result in significant penalties and fines. In addition, although we seek to detect and investigate all data security incidents, breaches or compromises, these events can be difficult to detect and any delay in identifying such breaches, incidents or compromises may lead to increased harm and legal exposure of the type described above.

The cost of investigating, mitigating and responding to potential data security breaches or compromises and complying with applicable breach notification obligations to individuals, regulators, partners and others can be significant. Our insurance policies may not be adequate to compensate us for the potential costs and other losses arising from such disruptions, failures or security breaches. In addition, such insurance may not be available to us in the future on economically reasonable terms, or at all. Further, defending a suit, regardless of its merit, could be costly, divert management attention and harm our reputation.

We are subject to various and evolving laws and regulations governing the privacy and security of personal data, and our failure to comply could result in fines or criminal penalties and damage our reputation and result in the loss of business.

Privacy and data security are significant issues in the United States, Europe and many other jurisdictions where we operate or collect personal information. We are subject to data privacy and security laws and regulations in various jurisdictions that apply to the collection, storage, use, sharing and security of personal data, including health information, and impose significant compliance obligations. In addition, numerous other federal and state laws, including state security breach notification laws, state health information privacy laws and federal and state consumer protection and privacy laws, govern the collection, use, disclosure and security of personal information.

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For example, in California, the California Consumer Protection Act, or CCPA, which went into effect on January 1, 2020, established a comprehensive privacy framework for covered businesses by creating an expanded definition of personal information, establishing new data privacy rights for consumers in the State of California, imposing special rules on the collection of consumer data from minors, and creating a new and potentially severe statutory damages framework for violations of the CCPA and for businesses that fail to implement reasonable security procedures and practices to prevent data breaches. In addition, a ballot initiative, the California Privacy Rights Act, or CPRA, has been in effect since January 1, 2023 and has imposed additional obligations on companies covered by the legislation. The CPRA significantly modified the CCPA, including by expanding consumers’ rights with respect to certain sensitive personal information.

Similar laws have been passed in numerous other states and other states have proposed similar new privacy laws. Such proposed legislation, if enacted, may add additional complexity, variation in requirements, restrictions and potential legal risk, require additional investment of resources in compliance programs, impact strategies and the availability of previously useful data and could result in increased compliance costs and/or changes in business practices and policies. The existence of comprehensive privacy laws in different states in the country would make our compliance obligations more complex and costly and may increase the likelihood that we may be subject to enforcement actions or otherwise incur liability for noncompliance. In addition, other states have proposed and/or passed legislation that regulates the privacy and/or security of certain specific types of information. For example, a small number of states have passed laws that regulate biometric data specifically. These various privacy and security laws may impact our business activities, including our identification of research subjects, relationships with business partners and ultimately the marketing and distribution of our products. State laws are changing rapidly and there is discussion in the U.S. Congress of a new comprehensive federal data privacy law to which we may likely become subject, if enacted.

For Europe, we are subject to the EU General Data Protection Regulation, or EU GDPR, and the UK equivalent of the same, the UK GDPR (collectively referred to as the GDPR), as well as other national data protection legislation in force in relevant European Economic Area, or EEA, Member States and the UK (including the UK Data Protection Act 2018) with respect to any collecting or processing of personal data (i) regarding individuals in the EEA and UK , and/or (ii) carried out in the context of the activities of an establishment in the EEA and UK. The GDPR places strict obligations on companies relating to their processing of personal data (for example, informing individuals of how their personal data is handled and how they can exercise their rights, ensuring a valid lawful basis for processing, mandatory data breach notification requirements, maintaining internal records, entering into data processing agreements with third parties, implementing appropriate security and data retention requirements). The GDPR also imposes strict rules on the transfer of personal data outside of the EEA and UK to countries that do not ensure an adequate level of protection, like the United States in certain circumstances unless valid GDPR transfer mechanisms and transfer impact assessments are put in place. Any inability to transfer personal data from the EEA and UK to the United States in compliance with data protection laws may impede our business operations and adversely affect our business and financial position.

Failure to comply with the GDPR, and any supplemental EEA Member State or UK national data protection laws may result in substantial penalties for us, including potential fines of up to the greater of €20 million (£17.5 million under the UK GDPR) or 4% of our total worldwide annual turnover. The GDPR also confers a private right of action on data subjects and consumer associations to lodge complaints with supervisory authorities, seek judicial remedies, and obtain compensation for damages resulting from violations of the GDPR.

The UK’s data protection regime is independent from but aligned to the EU’s data protection regime. However, following the UK’s exit from the EU, or Brexit, there will be increasing scope for divergence in application, interpretation and enforcement of the data protection laws between these territories. For example, the UK Government has introduced a Data Protection and Digital Information Bill, or Data Reform Bill into the UK legislative process to reform the UK’s data protection regime following Brexit, which may have the effect of further altering the similarities between the UK and EEA data protection regimes. The respective provisions and enforcement of the EU GDPR and UK GDPR may further diverge in the future and create additional regulatory challenges and uncertainties. This lack of clarity on future UK laws and regulations and their interaction with EU laws and regulations could add legal risk, complexity and cost to our handling of European personal data and our privacy and data security compliance programs, and could require us to implement different compliance measures for the UK and the EEA.

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All of these evolving compliance and operational requirements impose significant costs, such as costs related to organizational changes, implementing additional protection technologies, training employees and engaging consultants and legal advisors, which are likely to increase over time. In addition, such requirements may require us to modify our data processing practices and policies, utilize management’s time and/or divert resources from other initiatives and projects. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with any applicable federal, state or foreign laws and regulations relating to data privacy and security could result in damage to our reputation, as well as proceedings or litigation by governmental agencies or other third parties, including class action privacy litigation in certain jurisdictions, which would subject us to significant fines, sanctions, awards, injunctions, penalties or judgments. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Artificial intelligence presents risks and challenges that can impact our business including by posing security risks to our confidential information, proprietary information, and personal data.

Issues in the development and use of artificial intelligence, combined with an uncertain regulatory environment, may result in reputational harm, liability, or other adverse consequences to our business operations. As with many technological innovations, artificial intelligence presents risks and challenges that could impact our business. We may adopt and integrate generative artificial intelligence tools into our systems for specific use cases reviewed by legal and information security. Our vendors may incorporate generative artificial intelligence tools into their offerings without disclosing this use to us, and the providers of these generative artificial intelligence tools may not meet existing or rapidly evolving regulatory or industry standards with respect to privacy and data protection and may inhibit our or our vendors’ ability to maintain an adequate level of service and experience. If we, our vendors, or our third-party partners experience an actual or perceived breach or privacy or security incident because of the use of generative artificial intelligence, we may lose valuable intellectual property and confidential information and our reputation and the public perception of the effectiveness of our security measures could be harmed. Further, bad actors around the world use increasingly sophisticated methods, including the use of artificial intelligence, to engage in illegal activities involving the theft and misuse of personal information, confidential information, and intellectual property. Any of these outcomes could damage our reputation, result in the loss of valuable property and information, and adversely impact our business.

Our international operations may raise additional risks, which could have an adverse effect on our operating results.

We expect our international revenue and operations will continue to expand in the future. Our international operations are subject to a variety of risks that we do not face in the United States, including:

adverse or uncertain macroeconomic conditions, including a global economic downturn or recession;
global impacts of inflation and actions taken by central banks to counter inflation;
the rising cost of labor in the foreign countries in which we and our suppliers operate, resulting in increases in our costs of doing business internationally;
geopolitical conditions, including changes in a specific country's or region's political or economic conditions, including the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, and the ongoing hostilities in Israel and the Gaza Strip, and the threat that such conflicts could spread to other parts of Europe and the Middle East;
the difficulty of increased travel, infrastructure and legal compliance costs associated with developing international revenue;
difficulties in enforcing contracts, collecting accounts receivable and longer payment cycles, especially in emerging markets;
many, if not most, foreign governments are investing less in safety and security and in technology to detect dangerous chemicals than the U.S. government;
additional withholding taxes or other taxes on our foreign income, and tariffs or other restrictions on foreign trade or investment;
compliance with privacy and data security requirements in foreign jurisdictions in which we operate;
imposition of, or unexpected adverse changes in, foreign laws or regulatory requirements, many of which differ from those in the United States;
costs and delays associated with developing products or technology in multiple languages, such as the software embedded in our products and the products’ built-in library of chemical substances;

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compliance with foreign technical standards;
increased length of time for shipping and acceptance of our products;
increased exposure to foreign currency exchange rate risk;
reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries; and
political unrest, war, incidents of terrorism, natural disasters, and public health concerns or epidemics, or responses to such events.

As we continue to expand our business globally, our success will depend, in large part, on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these and other risks associated with our international operations.

Our overall success in international markets depends, in part, on our ability to succeed in differing legal, regulatory, economic, social and political conditions. We may not be successful in developing and implementing policies and strategies that will be effective in managing these risks in each country where we do business. Our failure to manage these risks successfully could harm our international operations, reduce our international sales and increase our costs, thus adversely affecting our business, operating results and financial condition.

Our loan and security agreement contains covenants, which restrict our operating activities, and we may be required to repay the outstanding indebtedness in an event of default, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

On August 4, 2023, we entered into a Default Waiver and First Amendment to Loan and Security Agreement, or the Amended 2022 Revolver, with Silicon Valley Bank, or the Lender, pursuant to which the Lender waived certain of its rights and remedies against us in connection with covenants requiring us to maintain all of our operating accounts, depository accounts and excess cash with the Lender, and pursuant to which the our Loan and Security Agreement with the Lender dated November 2, 2022 was amended. The Amended 2022 Revolver subjects us to various customary covenants, including requirements as to financial reporting and financial covenants (including a requirement that the amount of unrestricted and unencumbered cash minus advances under the Amended 2022 Revolver, is not less than the amount equal to the greater of (i) $10.0 million or (ii) nine (9) months of cash burn), and restrictions on our ability to change the principal nature of our business, dispose of our business or property, engage in any change of control transaction, merge or consolidate with any other entity or to acquire all or substantially all the capital stock or property of another entity, incur additional indebtedness or liens, pay dividends or make other distributions on capital stock, redeem our capital stock, engage in transactions with affiliates or otherwise encumber our intellectual property, in each case, subject to customary exceptions.

We are permitted to make interest-only payments on the revolving line of credit through November 3, 2025, at which time all outstanding indebtedness shall be immediately due and payable. However, we may be required to repay the outstanding indebtedness under the revolving line of credit if an event of default occurs under the Amended 2022 Revolver. An event of default will occur if, among other things, we fail to make required payments under the Amended 2022 Revolver; we breach any of our covenants under the Amended 2022 Revolver, subject to specified cure periods with respect to certain breaches; the Lender determines that a material adverse change (as defined in the Amended 2022 Revolver) has occurred; we or our assets become subject to certain legal proceedings, such as bankruptcy proceedings; we are unable to pay our debts as they become due; or we default on contracts with third parties which would permit the third party to accelerate the maturity of such indebtedness above certain thresholds or that could have a material adverse effect on our business or operations. We may not have enough available cash or be able to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings to repay such indebtedness at the time any such event of default occurs. In such a case, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or operations or grant to others rights to develop and market products that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves. The Lender could also exercise its rights as secured lender to take possession of and to dispose of the collateral securing the revolving line of credit, which collateral includes substantially all of our property (excluding intellectual property, which is subject to a negative pledge). Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could be materially adversely affected as a result of any of these events.

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The majority of our operations are currently conducted at a single location and any disruption at our facility could negatively impact our operations and increase our expenses.

Our headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts contains nearly all of our corporate and administrative functions, the majority of our research, and substantially all of our in-house manufacturing. A natural or other disaster, such as a fire or flood, could cause substantial delays in our operations, damage or destroy our manufacturing equipment or inventory, and cause us to incur additional expenses. The insurance we maintain against fires, floods and other natural disasters may not be adequate to cover our losses in any particular case. With or without insurance, damage to our manufacturing facility or our other property, or to any of our suppliers, due to fire, flood or other natural disaster or casualty event may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks related to sales of products to the U.S. Government

A significant percentage of our product and service revenues are generated from agencies and departments of the U.S. government. In addition, substantially all of our revenue from license and contracts revenue are derived from contracts or sub-contracts related to the U.S. government. We expect significant revenue from U.S. government contracts for the foreseeable future. There is considerable risk associated with deriving a material portion of our revenue from sales to the U.S. government, including the risks described below.

A significant portion of our business depends on sales to the public sector, and our failure to receive and maintain government contracts or changes in the contracting or fiscal policies of the public sector could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We derive a significant portion of our revenue from contracts that we have, either directly or through channel partners, with federal, state, local and foreign governments and government agencies, and we believe that the success and growth of our business will continue to depend on our successful procurement of government contracts. For example, we have historically derived, and expect to continue to derive, a significant portion of our revenue from sales to agencies of the U.S. federal government, either directly by us or through other channel partners.

Sales to such government agencies are subject to a number of challenges and risks. Selling to government agencies can be highly competitive, expensive and time-consuming, often requiring significant upfront time and expense, without any assurance that these efforts will generate a sale. We also must comply with laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration and performance of contracts, which provide public sector customers certain rights that are not typically found in commercial contracts.

Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may be adversely affected by certain events or activities, including, but not limited to:

changes in fiscal or contracting policies or decrease in available government funding;
changes in government programs or applicable requirements;
changes in the political environment, including before or after a change to the leadership within the government administration, and any resulting uncertainty or changes in policy or priorities and resultant funding;
appeals, disputes or litigation relating to government procurement, including but not limited to bid protests by unsuccessful bidders on potential or actual awards of contracts to us or our partners by the government;
the adoption of new laws or regulations or changes to existing laws or regulations;
budgetary constraints, including automatic reductions as a result of “sequestration” or similar measures and constraints imposed by lapses in appropriations for the federal government or certain of its departments and agencies;
influence by, or competition from, third parties with respect to pending, new or existing contracts with government customers;
potential delays or changes in the government appropriations or procurement processes, including as a result of events such as war, incidents of terrorism, natural disasters, and public health concerns or epidemics; and
increased or unexpected costs or unanticipated delays caused by other factors outside of our control, such as performance failures of our partners and subcontractors.

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Any such event or activity, among others, could cause governments and governmental agencies to delay or refrain from purchasing our products and services in the future, reduce the size or payment amounts of purchases from existing or new government customers, or otherwise have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

U.S. government programs are limited by budgetary constraints and political considerations and are subject to uncertain future funding levels that could result in the termination of programs.

U.S. government agency and department purchases are often strategic in nature and large in size. Therefore, reductions in federal funding levels that impact our customers could negatively affect the size of our customers’ orders or lead to cancellation of orders. Government contracts are often subject to more extensive scrutiny and publicity than commercial contracts. The number and terms of new government contracts signed can be affected significantly by political and economic factors, such as pending elections and revisions to government tax policies. Negative publicity related to our government contracts, regardless of its accuracy, may damage our business by affecting our ability to compete for new contracts. A decline in security-related government spending for any reason, or a shift away from programs that we address, could hurt our sales, put pressure on our prices and reduce our revenue and margins.

A multi-year U.S. government program may be implemented through the award of many different individual contracts, grants, cooperative agreements and subcontracts or other subawards. For U.S. government programs, program funding is subject to Congressional appropriations. Congress generally appropriates funds on a fiscal year basis even though a program may continue for several years. Government programs are often only partially funded initially, and additional funds are committed only as Congress makes further appropriations. The termination of a program or failure to commit funds to a program would result in a loss of anticipated future revenue attributable to that program, which could materially harm our business.

Our contracts with the U.S. government may impose requirements that may be unfavorable to us and that may have a material adverse effect on our growth prospects and operating results.

There are inherent risks in contracting with the U.S. government. The U.S. government can typically terminate, reduce orders under or otherwise modify any of its contracts with us for its convenience (i.e., without cause) whether or not we have failed to perform under the terms of the applicable contract. In such case, the government would not be required to pay us for the lost profits for the unperformed work. A termination arising out of our default could expose us to liability and harm our ability to compete for future contracts and orders. In addition to unfavorable termination provisions, our U.S. government contracts and related regulations contain provisions that allow the U.S. government to unilaterally suspend us from receiving new contracts pending resolution of alleged violations of procurement laws or regulations, reduce the value of existing contracts, issue modifications to a contract and potentially restrict exports of our products, services and associated materials.

Our contracts with government agencies may subject us to other risks and give the government additional rights and remedies not typically found in commercial contracts, including rights that allow the government to, for example:

obtain detailed cost or pricing information;
receive “most favored customer” pricing;
perform routine audits;
impose equal employment and hiring standards;
require products to be manufactured in specified countries;
restrict non-U.S. ownership or investment in our company; and/or
pursue administrative, civil or criminal remedies for contractual violations.

These rights and remedies have the potential to limit our sales to, and increase our costs of, doing business with both government and commercial customers, which could materially adversely affect our growth prospects and operating results.

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We are subject to audits by the U.S. government which could adversely affect our business.

U.S. government agencies routinely audit and investigate government contractors to monitor performance, cost allocations, cost accounting and compliance with applicable laws, regulations and standards. Since some of our contracts provide for cost reimbursement, the U.S. government has the right to audit our costs even after job completion and after we have billed and recognized the corresponding revenue. The U.S. government also may review the adequacy of, and a contractor’s compliance with, its internal control systems and policies, including the contractor’s purchasing, property, estimating, compensation and management information systems. Any costs found to be improperly allowed or improperly allocated to a specific contract will not be reimbursed, and any such costs that have already been reimbursed must be refunded, which would affect associated revenue that had already been recognized. While we intend to implement uniform procurement and compliance programs for all of our business, we may be subject to more risks from these audits until we are able to implement such a program effectively.

Responding to governmental audits, inquiries or investigations may involve significant expense and divert the attention of our management. If a government review or investigation uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, damages, fines and suspension or debarment from doing business with U.S. government agencies. In addition, our reputation could be seriously harmed by allegations of impropriety, even if unfounded. Our internal controls may not prevent or detect all improper or illegal activities.

Our business is subject to laws and regulations that are more restrictive because we are a contractor and subcontractor to the U.S. government.

As a contractor and subcontractor to the U.S. government, we are subject to various laws and regulations that are more restrictive than those applicable to non-government contractors, including the Federal Acquisition Regulations and its supplements, which comprehensively regulate the formation, administration and performance of U.S. government contracts, and the Truth in Negotiations Act and various other laws, which require certain certifications and disclosures.

These laws and regulations, among other things:

require that we obtain and maintain material governmental authorizations and approvals to conduct our business as it is currently conducted;
require certification and disclosure of cost and pricing data in connection with certain contract negotiations;
impose rules that define allowable and unallowable costs and otherwise govern our right to reimbursement under certain cost-based U.S. government contracts;
restrict the use and dissemination of information classified for national security purposes and the export of certain products and technical data; and
impose requirements relating to ethics and business practices, which carry penalties for noncompliance ranging from monetary fines and damages to loss of the ability to do business with the U.S. government as a prime contractor or subcontractor.

In addition, we may be subject to industrial security regulations of the U.S. Department of Defense and other federal agencies that are designed to safeguard against unauthorized access by foreigners and others to classified and other sensitive U.S. government information. If we were to come under foreign ownership, control or influence, our U.S. government customers could terminate, or decide not to renew, our contracts, or we may be subjected to burdensome industrial security compliance measures. Such a situation could impair our ability to obtain new contracts and subcontracts. The government may also change its procurement practices or adopt new contracting rules and regulations that could be costly to satisfy or that could impair our ability to obtain new contracts.

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Risks related to litigation and our intellectual property

We rely on in-bound licenses granted to us from third parties. If we lose these rights, our business may be materially adversely affected, our ability to develop improvements to our existing products and to develop new products may be negatively and substantially impacted, and if disputes arise, we may be subjected to future litigation as well as the potential loss of or limitations on our ability to develop and commercialize products and technology covered by these license agreements.

We are party to royalty-bearing license agreements and we may need to obtain additional licenses from others to advance our research, development and commercialization activities. Our current license agreements impose, and we expect that any future exclusive in-bound license agreements will impose, various development, diligence, commercialization and other obligations on us. We have also entered into engagements in the past, and may enter into engagements in the future, with other partners and customers under which we obtain certain intellectual property rights relating to our platform and technology. These engagements take the form of exclusive licenses, non-exclusive licenses, or assignment of actual ownership of intellectual property rights or technology from third parties. Our rights to use the technology we license are subject to the continuation of and compliance with the terms of those agreements. In some cases, we may not control the prosecution, maintenance or filing of the patents and patent applications to which we hold licenses, or the enforcement of those patents against third parties.

Moreover, disputes may arise with respect to our licensing or other upstream agreements, including:

the scope of rights granted under the agreements and other interpretation-related issues;
the extent to which our systems and consumables, technology and processes infringe on intellectual property rights of the licensor that are not licensed under the licensing agreement;
the sublicensing of patent and other rights under our collaborative development relationships;
our diligence obligations under the license agreements and what activities satisfy those diligence obligations;
the inventorship and ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us and our partners; and
the priority of invention of patented technology.

In spite of our efforts to comply with our obligations under our in-bound license agreements, our licensors might conclude that we have materially breached our obligations under our license agreements and might therefore, including in connection with any aforementioned disputes, terminate the relevant license agreement, thereby removing or limiting our ability to develop and commercialize products and technology covered by these license agreements. If any such in-bound license is terminated, or if the licensed patents fail to provide the scope of exclusivity expected, competitors or other third parties might have the freedom to market, develop, or commercialize products similar to ours. In addition, absent the rights granted to us under such license agreements, we may infringe the intellectual property rights that are the subject of those agreements, we may be subject to litigation by the licensor, and if such litigation by the licensor is successful we may be required to pay damages to our licensor, or we may be required to cease our development and commercialization activities which are deemed infringing, and in such event we may ultimately need to modify our activities or products to design around such infringement, which may be time- and resource-consuming, and which may not be ultimately successful. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

In addition, our rights to certain technologies are licensed to us on a non-exclusive basis. The owners of these non-exclusively licensed technologies are therefore free to license them to third parties, including our competitors, on terms that may be superior to those offered to us, which could place us at a competitive disadvantage. Moreover, our licensors may own or control intellectual property that has not been licensed to us and, as a result, we may be subject to claims, regardless of their merit, that we are infringing or otherwise violating the licensor’s rights. In addition, certain of our agreements with third parties may provide that intellectual property arising under these agreements, such as data that could be valuable to our business, will be owned by the counterparty, in which case, we may not have adequate rights to use such data or have exclusivity with respect to the use of such data, which could result in third parties, including our competitors, being able to use such data to compete with us.

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Patent terms may be inadequate to protect our competitive position on our products for an adequate amount of time.

Patents have a limited lifespan. In the United States, if all maintenance fees are timely paid, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years from its earliest U.S. non-provisional filing date. Various extensions may be available, but the life of a patent, and the protection it affords, is limited. Even if patents covering our products are obtained, once the patent life has expired, we may be open to competition from competitive products. If one of our products requires extended development, testing, regulatory review and/or examination by a patent granting authority, patents protecting such products might expire before or shortly after such products are commercialized. As a result, our owned and licensed patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours.

Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various required procedures, document submissions, fee payments and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees and various other governmental fees on patents and/or applications will be due to be paid to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or the USPTO, and various governmental patent agencies outside of the United States at several stages over the lifetime of the patents and/or applications. We have systems in place to remind us to pay these fees, and we engage an outside service and rely on our outside counsel to pay these fees due to non-U.S. patent agencies. The USPTO and various non-U.S. governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. We employ reputable law firms and other professionals to help us comply, and in some cases, an inadvertent lapse can be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules. However, there are situations in which non-compliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. In such an event, our competitors may be able to enter the market without infringing our patents and this circumstance may have a material adverse effect on our business.

Changes in patent law in the United States and other jurisdictions could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our products.

Changes in either the patent laws or in interpretations of patent laws in the United States or other countries or regions may diminish the value of our intellectual property. We cannot predict the breadth of claims that may be allowed or enforced in our patents or in third party patents. We may not develop additional proprietary products, methods and technologies that are patentable.

Assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, prior to March 16, 2013, in the United States, the first to invent the claimed invention was entitled to the patent, while outside the United States, the first to file a patent application was entitled to the patent. On or after March 16, 2013, under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the America Invents Act, enacted in September 16, 2011, the United States transitioned to a first inventor to file system in which, assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, the first inventor to file a patent application will be entitled to the patent on an invention regardless of whether a third party was the first to invent the claimed invention. A third party that files a patent application in the USPTO on or after March 16, 2013, but before us could therefore be awarded a patent covering an invention of ours, even if we had made the invention before it was made by such third party. This requires us to be cognizant of the time from invention to filing of a patent application. Since patent applications in the United States and most other countries are confidential for a period of time after filing or until issuance, we cannot be certain that we or our licensors were the first to either (i) file any patent application related to our products or (ii) invent any of the inventions claimed in our or our licensor’s patents or patent applications.

The America Invents Act also includes a number of significant changes that affect the way patent applications are prosecuted and also affects patent litigation. These include allowing third party submission of prior art to the USPTO during patent prosecution and additional procedures to attack the validity of a patent by USPTO administered post-grant proceedings, including post-grant review, inter partes review and derivation proceedings. Because of a lower evidentiary standard in USPTO proceedings compared to the evidentiary standard in United States federal courts necessary to

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invalidate a patent claim, a third party could potentially provide evidence in a USPTO proceeding sufficient for the USPTO to hold a claim invalid, even though the same evidence would be insufficient to invalidate the claim if first presented in a district court action. Accordingly, a third party may attempt to use the USPTO procedures to invalidate our patent claims that would not have been invalidated if first challenged by the third party as a defendant in a district court action. Therefore, the America Invents Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our owned or in-bound licensed patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our owned or in-bound licensed issued patents, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

In addition, the patent position of companies in the biotechnology field is particularly uncertain. Various courts, including the United States Supreme Court have rendered decisions that affect the scope of patentability of certain inventions or discoveries relating to biotechnology. These decisions state, among other things, that a patent claim that recites an abstract idea, natural phenomenon or law of nature are not themselves patentable. Precisely what constitutes a law of nature or abstract idea is uncertain, and it is possible that certain aspects of our technology could be considered natural laws. Accordingly, the evolving case law in the United States may adversely affect our ability to obtain patents and may facilitate third party challenges to any owned or licensed patents.

Our ability to compete and the success of our business could be jeopardized if we are unable to protect our intellectual property adequately.

Our success depends to a degree upon the protection of our proprietary technology and obtaining, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We rely on a combination of trade secrets, patents, copyrights, trademarks and contractual provisions with employees, contract manufacturers, consultants, customers and other third parties to establish and protect our intellectual property rights, all of which offer only limited protection. Other parties may not comply with the terms of their agreements with us, and we may not be able to enforce our rights adequately against these parties.

Although we enter into confidentiality, assignments of proprietary rights and license agreements, as appropriate, with our employees and third parties, including our contract manufacturers, contract engineering firms, and generally control access to and distribution of our technologies, documentation and other proprietary information, we cannot be certain that the steps we take to prevent unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights are sufficient to prevent their misappropriation, particularly in foreign countries where laws or law enforcement practices may not protect our intellectual property rights as fully as in the United States. In addition, we rely on trade secrets to protect certain of our technologies, especially where we do not believe patent protection is appropriate or obtainable. However, trade secrets are difficult to protect. Although we use reasonable efforts to protect our trade secrets, our employees and third parties to whom our trade secrets are disclosed may unintentionally or willfully disclose our information to competitors. Enforcing a claim that a third party entity illegally obtained and is using any of our trade secrets is expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, courts outside the U.S. are sometimes less willing to protect trade secrets. Moreover, our competitors may independently develop equivalent knowledge, methods and know-how.

If competitors are able to use our technology, our ability to compete effectively could be harmed. For example, if a competitor were to gain use of certain of our proprietary technology, it might be able to develop and manufacture similarly designed solutions at a reduced cost, which would result in a decrease in demand for our products.

Furthermore, we have adopted a strategy of seeking limited patent protection both in the United States and in foreign countries with respect to the technologies used in or relating to our products. We do not know whether any of our pending patent applications will result in the issuance of patents or whether the examination process will require us to narrow our claims, and even if patents are issued, they may be contested, circumvented or invalidated over the course of our business. Moreover, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with proprietary protection or competitive advantages, and, as with any technology, competitors may be able to develop and obtain patents for technologies that are similar to or superior to our technologies. If that happens, we may need to license these technologies and we may not be able to obtain licenses on reasonable terms, if at all, thereby causing great harm to our business. Additionally, the determination that a patent application or patent claim meets all of the requirements for patentability is a subjective determination based on the application of law and jurisprudence. The ultimate determination

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by the USPTO or by a court or other trier of fact in the U.S., or corresponding foreign national patent offices or courts, on whether a claim meets all requirements of patentability cannot be assured. Accordingly, we cannot predict the breadth of claims that may be allowed or enforced in our patents or patent applications, in our licensed patents or patent applications or in third party patents.

Even in those instances where we have determined that another party is breaching our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, enforcing our legal rights with respect to such breach may be expensive and difficult. We may need to engage in litigation to enforce or defend our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of management resources. Further, many of our current and potential competitors are substantially larger than we are and have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to defending any claims by us that they have breached our intellectual property rights.

Failure to protect our intellectual property could affect our ability to secure additional contracts or preserve market advantages when we commercialize our products.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on our products in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and our intellectual property rights in some countries outside the United States can be less extensive than those in the United States. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and we may encounter difficulties in protecting and defending such rights in foreign jurisdictions. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in some or all countries outside the United States, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in and into the United States or other jurisdictions. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and may also export infringing products to territories where we have patent protection, but enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our products. Our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing. In addition, certain countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to other parties. Furthermore, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against other parties, including government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of any patents.

Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of many other countries do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biotechnology, which could make it difficult for us to stop the misappropriation or other violations of our intellectual property rights including infringement of our patents in such countries. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial cost and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing, and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate, or that are initiated against us, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. In addition, changes in the law and legal decisions by courts in the United States and foreign countries may affect our ability to obtain adequate protection for our products, services and other technologies and the enforcement of intellectual property. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.

We may be obligated to disclose our proprietary technology to our customers, which may limit our ability to protect our intellectual property.

Certain customer agreements contain provisions permitting the customer to become a party to, or a beneficiary of, a technology escrow agreement under which we place proprietary know-how and source code for our products in escrow with a third party. Under these escrow agreements, the know-how and source code to the applicable product may be released to the customer, typically for its use to further develop, maintain, modify and enhance the product, upon the occurrence of specified events, such as our filing for bankruptcy and breaching our representations, warranties or

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covenants of our agreements with our customers. Disclosing this know-how and source code may limit the intellectual property protection we can obtain or maintain for that know-how or source code or the products embodying or containing that know-how or source code, and may facilitate intellectual property infringement claims against us. Each of these could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Issued patents covering our products could be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged.

Although patents granted by the USPTO or other patent granting authority are generally entitled to a presumption of validity and enforceability, a granted patent’s scope, validity or enforceability can still be challenged. Some of our patents or patent applications (including in-bound licensed patents) have been or may be challenged at a future point in time in opposition, derivation, reexamination, inter partes review, post-grant review or interference. Any successful third party challenge to our patents in this or any other proceeding could result in the unenforceability or invalidity of such patents, which may lead to increased competition to our business, which could harm our business. In addition, in patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity or unenforceability are commonplace. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability during patent litigation is unpredictable. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on certain aspects of our platform technologies. In addition, if the breadth or strength of protection provided by our patents and patent applications is threatened, regardless of the outcome, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to license, develop, or commercialize current or future products.

We may not be aware of all third party intellectual property rights potentially relating to our products. Publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions are typically not published until approximately 18 months after filing or, in some cases, not until such patent applications issue as patents. Moreover, we may not search for or identify all relevant third party patents or we may incorrectly interpret the relevance, scope or expiration of a third party patent of which we are aware. We might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by each of our pending patent applications and we might not have been the first to file patent applications for these inventions. To determine the priority of these inventions, we may have to participate in interference proceedings, derivation proceedings or other post-grant proceedings declared by the USPTO that could result in substantial cost to us. The outcome of such proceedings is uncertain. No assurance can be given that other patent applications will not have priority over our patent applications. In addition, changes to the patent laws of the United States allow for various post-grant opposition proceedings that have not been extensively tested, and their outcome is therefore uncertain. Furthermore, if third parties bring these proceedings against our patents, we could experience significant costs and management distraction.

Claims by other parties that we infringe or misuse their proprietary technology could subject us to significant liability and could force us to redesign our products or to incur significant costs.

Our competitors protect their intellectual property rights by means such as trade secrets, patents, copyrights and trademarks. Although we have not been involved in any litigation related to intellectual property rights of others, from time to time we receive letters from other parties alleging, or inquiring about, breaches of their intellectual property rights. Any party asserting that our products infringe their proprietary rights would force us to defend ourselves, and possibly our customers, against the alleged infringement. These claims and any resulting lawsuit, if successful, could subject us to significant liability for damages and invalidation of our proprietary rights. The risk of such a lawsuit will likely increase as our size and the number and scope of our products increase, as our geographic presence and market share expand and as the number of competitors in our market increases. Any such claims or litigation could:

be time-consuming and expensive to defend, whether meritorious or not;
require us to stop selling, incorporating or using our products that use the other party’s intellectual property;
divert the attention of our technical and managerial resources;
require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements with third parties, which may not be available on terms that we deem acceptable, if at all;
prevent us from operating all or a portion of our business or force us to redesign our products, which could be difficult and expensive and may degrade performance of our products, or withdraw one or more of our products altogether;

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subject us to significant liability for damages or result in significant settlement payments;
require us to indemnify our customers, channel partners or suppliers; and
refund deposits and other amounts received for allegedly infringing technology or products.

Intellectual property litigation can be costly. Even if we prevail, the cost of such litigation could deplete our financial resources. Litigation is also time-consuming and could divert management’s attention and resources away from our business. Furthermore, during the course of litigation, confidential information may be disclosed in the form of documents or testimony in connection with discovery requests, depositions or trial testimony. Disclosure of our confidential information and our involvement in intellectual property litigation could materially adversely affect our business. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of complex intellectual property litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. In addition, any uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of any litigation could significantly limit our ability to continue our operations. Any of the foregoing could disrupt our business and have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

In the future we may be involved in litigation related to intellectual property, which could be time-intensive and costly and may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

In recent years, there has been significant litigation in the United States involving intellectual property rights. We may in the future be, involved with litigation or actions at the USPTO or a foreign patent office with various third parties that claim we or our partners or customers using our solutions and services have misappropriated or misused other parties’ intellectual property rights. We expect that the number of such claims may increase as the number of our systems, workflows, consumables and kits, and the level of competition in our industry segments, grow. Any infringement claim, regardless of its validity, could harm our business by, among other things, resulting in time-consuming and costly litigation, diverting management’s time and attention from the development of the business, requiring the payment of monetary damages (including treble damages, attorneys’ fees, costs and expenses) or royalty payments, or result in potential or existing customers delaying purchases of our products or entering into engagements with us pending resolution of the dispute.

As we move into new markets and applications for our products, incumbent participants in such markets may assert their patents and other proprietary rights against us as a means of slowing our entry into such markets or as a means to extract substantial license and royalty payments from us. Our competitors and others may now and in the future have significantly larger and more mature patent portfolios than we currently have. In addition, future litigation may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product or service revenue and against whom our own patents may provide little or no deterrence or protection. Therefore, our commercial success may depend in part on our non-infringement of the patents or proprietary rights of third parties, or the invalidity of such patents or proprietary rights.

Our research, development and commercialization activities may in the future be subject to claims that we infringe or otherwise violate patents or other intellectual property rights owned or controlled by third parties. There is a substantial amount of litigation and other patent challenges, both within and outside the United States, involving patent and other intellectual property rights in the biotechnology industry, including patent infringement lawsuits, interferences, oppositions and inter partes review proceedings before the USPTO, and corresponding foreign patent offices. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications, which are owned by third parties, exist in the fields in which we are developing products. As the biotechnology industry expands and more patents are issued, the risk increases that our products may be subject to claims of infringement of the patent rights of third parties. Numerous significant intellectual property issues have been litigated, are being litigated and will likely continue to be litigated, between existing and new participants in our existing and targeted markets, and one or more third parties may assert that our products or services infringe their intellectual property rights as part of a business strategy to impede our successful entry into or growth in those markets.

There can be no assurance that we will prevail in any suit initiated against us by third parties, successfully settle or otherwise resolve patent infringement claims. Third parties making claims against us may be able to obtain injunctive or other relief, which could block our ability to develop, commercialize and sell products or services, and could result in the

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award of substantial damages against us, including treble damages, attorneys’ fees, costs and expenses if we are found to have willfully infringed. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may be required to pay damages and ongoing royalties, and obtain one or more licenses from third parties, or be prohibited from selling certain products or services. We may not be able to obtain these licenses on acceptable or commercially reasonable terms, if at all, or these licenses may be non-exclusive, which could result in our competitors gaining access to the same intellectual property. In addition, we could encounter delays and incur significant costs, in product or service introductions while we attempt to develop alternative products or services, or redesign our products or services, to avoid infringing third party patents or proprietary rights. Defense of any lawsuit or failure to obtain any of these licenses or to develop a workaround could prevent us from commercializing products or services, and the prohibition of sale or the threat of the prohibition of sale of any of our products or services could materially affect our business and our ability to gain market acceptance for our products or services.

In addition, our agreements with some of our customers, suppliers or other entities with whom we do business require us to defend or indemnify these parties to the extent they become involved in infringement claims, including the types of claims described above. We could also voluntarily agree to defend or indemnify third parties in instances where we are not obligated to do so if we determine it would be important to our business relationships. If we are required or agree to defend or indemnify third parties in connection with any infringement claims, we could incur significant costs and expenses that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

Our use of open source software could compromise our ability to offer our services and subject us to possible litigation.

We use open source software in connection with our products and services. Companies that incorporate open source software into their products have, from time to time, faced claims challenging their use of open source software and compliance with open source license terms. As a result, we could be subject to lawsuits and other allegations by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or claiming noncompliance with open source licensing terms. Some open source software licenses require users who distribute software containing open source software to publicly disclose all or part of the source code to the licensee’s software that incorporates, links or uses such open source software, and make available to third parties for no cost, any derivative works of the open source code created by the licensee, which could include the licensee’s own valuable proprietary code. While we monitor our use of open source software and try to ensure that none is used in a manner that would require us to disclose our proprietary source code or that would otherwise breach the terms of an open source agreement, such use could inadvertently occur, or could be claimed to have occurred, in part because open source license terms can be ambiguous. Legal precedent in this area is not well established and any actual or claimed requirement to disclose our proprietary source code or pay damages for breach of contract could harm our business and could help third parties, including our competitors, develop products and services that are similar to or better than ours. Any of the foregoing could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

Risks related to ownership of our common stock

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they issue unfavorable commentary or downgrade our common stock, the price of our common stock could decline.

The trading market for our common stock relies in part on the research and reports that equity research analysts publish about us and our business. The price of our stock could decline if one or more equity analysts downgrade our stock or if those analysts issue other unfavorable commentary or cease publishing reports about us or our business.

The trading market for our common stock depends in part on research reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not control these analysts. If securities or industry analysts fail to maintain coverage of our company, the trading price for our stock may be negatively affected. In the event one or more of these analysts downgrade our stock or publish unfavorable reports about our business, our stock price will likely decline. In addition, if any securities or industry analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which could cause our stock price to decline.

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The market price of our common stock has been volatile and could continue to be volatile.

Since the shares were sold in our initial public offering in December 2020, the price per share of our common stock has experienced significant fluctuations. Some of the factors that may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate, many of which may be beyond our control, include:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;
fluctuations in our revenue as a result of our revenue recognition policy, even during periods of significant sales activity;
the financial guidance that we may provide to the public, any changes in such guidance, or our failure to meet such guidance;
changes in financial estimates by securities analysts, our failure to meet such estimates, or failure of analysts to initiate or maintain coverage of our stock;
the public’s response to our press releases or other public announcements by us, including our filings with the SEC;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant technical innovations, products, contracts, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;
failure of any of our products to achieve or maintain market acceptance;
introduction of technologies or product enhancements that reduce the need for our products;
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of debt;
regulatory developments in the United States, foreign countries or both;
litigation involving our company, our general industry or both;
additions or departures of senior management or key personnel;
changes in market valuations of similar companies in reaction to industry events, even if these events do not directly affect us;
investors’ general perception of us;
market volatility or downturns caused by outbreaks, epidemics, pandemics, geopolitical tensions or conflicts, or other macroeconomic dynamics;
the sustainability of an active trading market for our common stock; and
future sales of our common stock by our officers, directors or affiliates.

In addition, if the market for technology stocks or the stock market in general experiences a loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, financial condition or results of operations. If any of the foregoing occurs, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to class action lawsuits that, even if unsuccessful, could be costly to defend and divert management’s attention and resources.

Our actual operating results may differ significantly from any operating guidance we may provide.

From time to time, we may release guidance in our quarterly or annual earnings conference calls, quarterly or annual earnings releases, or otherwise, regarding our future performance that represents our management’s estimates as of the date of release. This guidance, which will include forward-looking statements, will be based on projections prepared by our management. These projections may not be prepared with a view toward compliance with published guidelines of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, or AICPA, and neither our independent registered public accounting firm nor any other independent expert or outside party compiles or examines the projections. Accordingly, no such person will express any opinion or any other form of assurance with respect to the projections.

Projections are based upon a number of assumptions and estimates that, while presented with numerical specificity, are inherently subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control and are based upon specific assumptions with respect to future business decisions, some of which will change. The principal reason that we may release guidance is to provide a basis for our management to discuss our business outlook with analysts and investors. We do not accept any responsibility for any projections or reports published by any such third parties.

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Guidance is necessarily speculative in nature, and it can be expected that some or all of the assumptions underlying the guidance furnished by us will not materialize or will vary significantly from actual results. Accordingly, our guidance is only an estimate of what management believes is realizable as of the date of release. Actual results may vary from our guidance and the variations may be material. Any failure to successfully implement our operating strategy or the occurrence of any of the events or circumstances set forth in this “Risk Factors” section could result in actual operating results being different from our guidance, and the differences may be adverse and material.

Sales of a significant number of shares of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares of common stock intend to sell shares, could depress the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of our common stock would have on the market price of our common stock.

Certain holders of our common stock have rights, subject to conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. We also filed a registration statement on Form S-8 registering the issuance of shares of common stock issued or reserved for future issuance under our equity compensation plans. Shares registered under such registration statement on Form S-8 can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance and once vested, subject to volume limitations applicable to affiliates and the lock-up agreements described above. If any of these additional shares are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the market price of our common stock could decline.

We do not currently intend to pay dividends on our common stock and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock and we do not currently expect to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Our credit agreements with our lenders contain provisions prohibiting us from paying any dividends during the term of the agreements without our lenders’ prior written consent. We intend to use our future earnings, if any, in the operation and expansion of our business. Accordingly, you are not likely to receive any dividends on your common stock for the foreseeable future, and your ability to achieve a return on your investment will, therefore, depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.

We are incurring significant increased costs to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls, and our management is required to devote substantial time to public company compliance initiatives. If we are unable to absorb these increased costs or maintain management focus on development and sales of our product offerings and services, we may not be able to achieve our business plan.

We are incurring significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and Nasdaq, impose a variety of corporate governance requirements on public companies. Our management and other personnel devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations are increasing our legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, these rules and regulations have made it more difficult and expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we are incurring substantial costs to maintain the same or similar coverage.

In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. In particular, we must perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management and, after we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” our independent registered public accounting firm to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or Section 404. Our testing, or the subsequent testing by our independent registered public accounting firm, may reveal deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses. Our compliance with Section 404 requires that we incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management efforts, including hiring additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting

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knowledge. Moreover, if we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm identifies deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by Nasdaq, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.

The increased costs associated with operating as a public company may decrease our net income or increase our net loss and may require us to reduce costs in other areas of our business or increase the prices of our products or services. Additionally, if these requirements divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

We are an “emerging growth company” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to “emerging growth companies” may make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions and relief from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies.” In particular, while we are an “emerging growth company,” we will not be required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act; we will be subject to reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements; and we will not be required to hold nonbinding advisory votes on executive compensation or stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected not to “opt out” of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we will adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard and will do so until such time that we either (i) irrevocably elect to “opt out” of such extended transition period or (ii) no longer qualify as an emerging growth company.

We may be an “emerging growth company” until December 31, 2025, though we may cease to be an “emerging growth company” earlier under certain circumstances, including if (i) we have more than $1.235 billion in annual revenue in any fiscal year, (ii) we become a “large accelerated filer” as a result of the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates being greater than or equal to $700 million as of any June 30, or (iii) we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period.

The exact implications of the JOBS Act are subject to interpretation and guidance by the SEC and other regulatory agencies, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to take advantage of all of the benefits of the JOBS Act. In addition, investors may find our common stock less attractive to the extent we rely on the exemptions and relief granted by the JOBS Act. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may decline or become more volatile.

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation, our by-laws or Delaware law might discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.

Provisions of our certificate of incorporation, our by-laws or Delaware law may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which you might otherwise receive a premium for your shares of our common stock. These provisions may also prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management. These provisions:

establish a classified board of directors so that not all members of our board are elected at one time;
place limitations on the removal of directors;
eliminate the ability of our stockholders to call special meetings of stockholders;

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prohibit stockholder action by written consent, which has the effect of requiring all stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of stockholders;
establish advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings; and
enable our board of directors to designate the terms of and issue new series of preferred stock without stockholder approval, which could be used to institute a rights plan, or a poison pill, that would work to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer, likely preventing acquisitions that have not been approved by our board of directors.

In addition, Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company by prohibiting stockholders owning in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us during a specified period unless certain approvals are obtained.

The existence of the foregoing provisions and anti-takeover measures could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. They could also deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you could receive a premium for your common stock in an acquisition.

Our sixth amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for certain disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation specifies that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for most legal actions involving actions brought against us by stockholders; provided that, if and only if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware dismisses any such action for lack of subject matter jurisdiction, such action may be brought in another state or federal court sitting in the State of Delaware. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation also provides that the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action against us or any of our directors, officers, employees or agents and arising under the Securities Act. We believe these provisions may benefit us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law and federal securities laws by chancellors and judges, as applicable, particularly experienced in resolving corporate disputes, efficient administration of cases on a more expedited schedule relative to other forums and protection against the burdens of multi-forum litigation. However, these provisions may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers. The choice of forum provision requiring that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware be the exclusive forum for certain actions would not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act.

There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provisions, and the enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ charter documents has been challenged in legal proceedings. While the Delaware courts have determined that such choice of forum provisions are facially valid, a stockholder may nevertheless seek to bring a claim in a venue other than those designated in the exclusive forum provisions, and there can be no assurance that such provisions will be enforced by a court in those other jurisdictions. If a court were to find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable, and if a court were to find the exclusive forum provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, which could materially adversely affect our business.

Our fourth amended and restated bylaws designate specific courts in Delaware as the exclusive forum for certain litigation that may be initiated by the Company’s stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us.

Pursuant to our fourth amended and restated bylaws, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for state law claims for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, or other employees to us or our stockholders; (3) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or our sixth amended and restated certificate

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of incorporation or fourth amended and restated bylaws; (4) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or bylaws; or (5) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, or the Delaware Forum Provision. The Delaware Forum Provision would not apply to any causes of action arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. Our amended and restated bylaws further provide that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts shall be the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act, or the Federal Forum Provision, as our headquarters are located in Boston, Massachusetts. In addition, our amended and restated bylaws provide that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock is deemed to have notice of and consented to the Delaware Forum Provision and the Federal Forum Provision; provided, however, that stockholders cannot and will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.

The Delaware Forum Provision and the Federal Forum Provision in our bylaws may impose additional litigation costs on stockholders in pursuing any such claims. Additionally, these forum selection clauses may limit our stockholders’ ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that they find favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees, which may discourage the filing of lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees, even though an action, if successful, might benefit our stockholders. In addition, while the Delaware Supreme Court ruled in March 2020 that federal forum selection provisions purporting to require claims under the Securities Act be brought in federal court are “facially valid” under Delaware law, there is uncertainty as to whether other courts will enforce our Federal Forum Provision. If the Federal Forum Provision is found to be unenforceable, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters. The Federal Forum Provision may also impose additional litigation costs on stockholders who assert that the provision is not enforceable or invalid. The Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts may also reach different judgments or results than would other courts, including courts where a stockholder considering an action may be located or would otherwise choose to bring the action, and such judgments may be more or less favorable to us than to our stockholders.

General Risk Factors

If we fail to offer high quality customer service, our business and reputation could suffer.

We differentiate ourselves from our competition through our commitment to an exceptional customer experience. Accordingly, high quality customer service is important for the growth of our business and any failure to maintain such standards of customer service, or a related market perception, could affect our ability to sell products to existing and prospective customers. The number of our customers has grown significantly and such growth, as well as any future growth, will put additional pressure on our customer service organization. We may be unable to hire qualified staff quickly enough or to the extent necessary to accommodate increases in demand. Providing an exceptional customer experience requires significant time and resources from our customer service team. Therefore, failure to scale our customer service organization adequately may adversely impact our business results and financial condition.

Customers utilize our service teams and online content for help with a variety of topics, including how to use our products efficiently, how to integrate our products into existing workflows, and how to resolve technical, analysis, and operational issues if and when they arise. While we have developed significant resources for remote training, including an extensive library of online videos, we may need to rely more on these resources for future customer training, or we may experience increased expenses to enhance our online and remote solutions. If our customers do not adopt these resources, we may be required to increase the staffing of our customer service team, which would increase our costs. Also, as our business scales, we may need to engage third party customer service providers, which could increase our costs and negatively impact the quality of the customer experience if such third parties are unable to provide service levels equivalent to ours.

In addition, as we continue to grow our operations and reach a global customer base, we need to be able to provide efficient customer service that meets our customers’ needs globally at scale. In geographies where we sell through channel partners, we rely on those channel partners to provide customer service. If these third party channel partners do not provide a high quality customer experience, our business operations and reputation may suffer.

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If we were to be sued for product liability, we could face substantial liabilities that exceed our resources.

The marketing, sale and use of our products could lead to the filing of product liability claims were someone to allege that our products identified inaccurate or incomplete information regarding the cells analyzed or otherwise failed to perform as designed. We may also be subject to liability for errors in, a misunderstanding of or inappropriate reliance upon, the information we provide in the ordinary course of our business activities. A product liability claim could result in substantial damages and be costly and time-consuming for us to defend. We maintain product liability insurance, but this insurance may not fully protect us from the financial impact of defending against product liability claims. Any product liability claim brought against us, with or without merit, could increase our insurance rates or prevent us from securing insurance coverage in the future. Additionally, any product liability lawsuit could damage our reputation, or cause current customers to terminate existing agreements and potential clinical partners to seek other partners, any of which could impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

Repair or replacement costs due to warranties we provide on our products and consumables could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We provide a one-year assurance-type warranty on our products and consumables. Existing and future warranties place us at the risk of incurring future repair and/or replacement costs. At the time revenue is recognized, we establish an accrual for estimated warranty expenses based on historical data and trends. We exercise judgment in estimating the expected product warranty costs, using data such as the actual and projected product failure rates, estimated repair costs, freight, material, labor and overhead costs. While we believe that historical experience provides a reliable basis for estimating such warranty costs, unforeseen quality issues or component failure rates could result in future costs in excess of such estimates, or alternatively, improved quality and reliability in our products and consumables could result in actual expenses that are below those currently estimated. Substantial amounts of warranty claims could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our business has inherent operational risks that cannot be adequately covered by insurance or indemnity.

We may face unanticipated risks of legal liability for damages caused by the actual or alleged failure of our products. Our products may be deployed in response to an emergency or terrorist attack, which may increase our exposure to third party claims. While we have attempted to secure business liability insurance coverage at appropriate cost, it is impossible to insure against all risks inherent in our industry, nor can we assure you that our insurers will pay a particular claim, or that we will be able to maintain coverage at reasonable rates in the future. Our insurance policies also contain deductibles, limitations and exclusions, which increase our costs in the event of a claim. Substantial claims resulting from an accident in excess of or not otherwise covered by indemnity or insurance could harm our financial condition and operating results.

We may be subject to governmental export controls that could impair our ability to compete in international markets.

We are subject to governmental export controls that could impair our ability to compete in international markets.

Our products are or may be subject to U.S. export controls, including the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, or ITAR, the Export Administration Regulations, or EAR, the Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, and other similar laws and regulations of our products and associated technology. Obtaining export licenses can be a costly and time-consuming process, often three to six months in duration. In addition, in some cases, a license might not be granted for shipment to a particular customer in a particular country. Further, ascertaining the proper export classifications for our products is time-consuming and may lead to unpredictable results. A product’s export classification may be very broad with export licenses required for only a small number of countries or very restrictive with licenses required for many countries. It is also possible that a competitor may obtain a less restrictive classification than we do for a competitive product, giving them a significant competitive advantage in international markets. Changes in our products or changes in export regulations may require reclassification and create delays in the introduction and sale of our products in international markets, prevent our customers with international operations from deploying our products throughout their global systems or, in some cases, constrain in some way the export of our products to additional countries. Any change in export regulations or related legislation, shift in approach to the enforcement or scope of existing regulations or change in the countries, persons or technologies targeted by these regulations could result in

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decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products to, existing or potential customers with international operations.

We may also be required to obtain licenses from the U.S. government before we can work with foreign entities on the development of our products.

Export control laws may also inhibit the free interchange of technical discussions among our employees. Absent license authorization from the appropriate agency, some technical information related to our products and technologies cannot be discussed with or otherwise disclosed to our foreign national employees, or with our foreign channel partners. Export licensing requirements may delay product development and other engineering activities.

Violations of export control requirements are subject to criminal, civil and administrative penalties. Export control agencies are authorized to impose monetary penalties or even to suspend export privileges. While such actions have not been taken against our company to date, such risks exist in this highly regulated field, and we cannot entirely eliminate the possibility that such agency action may occur in the future.

We could be adversely affected by violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA, and the anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws of the United States or other countries.

We are subject to the FCPA, which among other things prohibits companies and their intermediaries from making payments in violation of law to non-U.S. government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or securing any other improper advantage. We have engaged independent channel partners in the past and currently use independent channel partners to sell our products outside of the United States. Our reliance on independent channel partners to sell our products internationally demands a high degree of vigilance in maintaining our policy against participation in corrupt activity, because these channel partners could be deemed to be our agents and we could be held responsible for their actions. Other U.S. companies in our markets have faced criminal penalties under the FCPA for allowing their agents to deviate from appropriate practices in doing business with these individuals. We are also subject to similar anti-bribery laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate, including the United Kingdom’s Bribery Act of 2010, which also prohibits commercial bribery and makes it a crime for companies to fail to prevent bribery, and the People’s Republic of China anti-bribery laws, including the PRC Anti-Unfair Competition Law amended in 2017 and the PRC Criminal Law amended in 2017. These laws are complex and far-reaching in nature, and, as a result, we cannot assure you that we would not be required in the future to alter one or more of our practices to be in compliance with these laws or any changes in these laws or the interpretation thereof. Any violations of these laws, or allegations of such violations, could disrupt our operations, involve significant management distraction, involve significant costs and expenses, including legal fees, and could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. We could also suffer severe penalties, including criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement, and other remedial measures.

Our employees, consultants, channel partners and commercial partners may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements, and insider trading.

We are exposed to the risk of fraud or other misconduct by our employees, consultants, channel partners, and commercial partners. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional failures to comply with the applicable laws and regulations in the United States and abroad, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, and other business arrangements. Such misconduct could result in legal or regulatory sanctions and cause serious harm to our reputation. It is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and any other precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses, or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could result in the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, which could have a significant impact on our business. Whether or not we are successful in defending against such actions or investigations, we could incur substantial costs, including legal fees, and divert the attention of management in defending ourselves against any of these claims or investigations.

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Our business is subject to environmental regulation and regulations relating to the protection of health and safety matters that could result in compliance costs. Any violation or liability under environmental laws or health and safety regulations could harm our business.

We are subject to environmental and safety laws and regulations governing the use, storage and disposal of hazardous substances or wastes and imposing liability for the cleanup of contamination from these substances. We handle hazardous substances in our manufacturing processes and in the compilation of our chemical library, and we could be liable for any improper use, storage, or disposal of such substances. We cannot completely eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from hazardous substances or wastes, and, in the event of such an incident, we could be held liable for any damages that result. In addition, we may be required to incur significant additional costs to comply with environmental laws and regulations in the future.

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, or OSHA, establishes certain employer responsibilities, including maintenance of a workplace free of recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious injury, compliance with standards promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and various record keeping, disclosure and procedural requirements. Various OSHA standards may apply to our operations. We have incurred, and will continue to incur, capital and operating expenditures and other costs in the ordinary course of our business in complying with OSHA and other state and local laws and regulations.

The failure to comply with these regulations could result in fines by government authorities and payment of damages to private litigants, which could harm our business.

If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and effective disclosure controls and procedures, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results in a timely manner or prevent fraud, which may adversely affect investor confidence in our company.

We are required to comply with the SEC’s rules implementing Sections 302 and 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which require management to certify financial and other information in our quarterly and annual reports and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of controls over financial reporting. We are required to disclose changes made in our internal controls and procedures on a quarterly basis to provide our annual management assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404. As an emerging growth company, our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 until the later of the year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC or the date we are no longer an emerging growth company. At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating.

To comply with the requirements of being a public company, we may need to undertake actions, such as implementing new internal controls and procedures and hiring additional accounting or internal audit staff. Testing and maintaining internal control can divert our management’s attention from other matters that are important to the operation of our business. In addition, when evaluating our internal control over financial reporting, we may identify material weaknesses that we may not be able to remediate in time to meet the applicable deadline imposed upon us for compliance with the requirements of Section 404. If we identify any material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting, including in connection with any past or future acquisitions, or we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting once we are no longer an emerging growth company, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports. As a result, the market price of our common stock could be materially adversely affected.

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We may need additional capital in the future, which may not be available to us, and if it is available, may dilute your ownership of our common stock and have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

We may need to raise additional funds in the future, through public or private debt or equity financings, if we are presented with unforeseen circumstances or opportunities in order to, among other things:

develop or enhance our products;
support additional capital expenditures;
respond to competitive pressures;
fund operating losses in future periods; or
take advantage of acquisition or expansion opportunities.

We, and indirectly, our stockholders, will bear the cost of issuing and servicing such securities if required to raise additional funds. Because our decision to issue debt or equity securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, or nature of any future offerings. Our decision to issue debt or equity securities will also depend on contractual, legal, and other restrictions that may limit our ability to raise additional capital and may require us to obtain stockholder approval, which we may not be able to obtain.

Any required additional financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all. For instance, debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants and could reduce our operational flexibility or profitability, and any new or refinanced debt may be subject to substantially higher interest rates, which could adversely affect our financial condition and impact our business. Recent quantitative tightening by the U.S. Federal Reserve, along with other central banks around the world, may further negatively affect our short-term ability or desire to incur debt. A failure to obtain additional funding could prevent us from making expenditures that may be required to grow or maintain our operations.

Current capital market conditions, including the impact of inflation, have increased borrowing rates and can be expected to significantly increase our cost of capital as compared to prior periods should we seek additional funding. Moreover, global capital markets have undergone periods of significant volatility and uncertainty in the past, and there can be no assurance that such financing alternatives will be available to us on favorable terms or at all, should we determine it necessary or advisable to seek additional capital.

If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, you may experience significant dilution of your ownership interest, and the newly-issued securities may have rights senior to those of the holders of our common stock. If we raise additional funds by obtaining loans from third parties, the terms of those financing arrangements may include negative covenants or other restrictions on our business that could impair our operational flexibility and would also require us to fund additional interest expense, which could harm our profitability. Holders of debt would also have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock.

We may engage in future acquisitions that could disrupt our business, cause dilution to our stockholders and harm our financial condition and operating results.

On August 3, 2022, we entered into a share purchase and transfer agreement and completed our acquisition of 100% of the registered share capital of Trace Analytics GmbH, a German limited liability company located in Braunschweig, Germany, for total potential purchase price consideration of $17.3 million, comprised of (i) a $14.4 million initial cash payment plus (ii) up to $2.0 million contingent cash consideration upon achievement of certain milestones over a twenty four month period and (iii) $0.9 million contingent pension liability holdback to be released upon discharging or transferring of such liability from Trace Analytics GmbH.

In the future, we may acquire additional companies, assets or technologies in an effort to complement our existing offerings or enhance our market position. We currently have no plans, proposals or arrangements with respect to any acquisition. We may not be able to find additional suitable acquisition candidates and we may not be able to complete

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additional acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. Any prior acquisitions we have made or future acquisitions we make could subject us to a number of risks, including:

the purchase price we pay could significantly deplete our cash reserves, impair our future operating flexibility or result in dilution to our existing stockholders;
we may find that the acquired company, assets or technology does not further improve our financial and strategic position as planned;
we may find that we overpaid for the company, asset or technology, or that the economic conditions underlying our acquisition have changed;
we may have difficulty integrating the operations and personnel of the acquired company;
we may have difficulty retaining the employees with the technical skills needed to enhance and provide services with respect to the acquired assets or technologies;
the acquisition may be viewed negatively by customers, financial markets, or investors;
we may have difficulty incorporating the acquired technologies or products with our existing products;
we may encounter difficulty entering and competing in new product or geographic markets;
we may encounter a competitive response, including price competition or intellectual property litigation;
we may have product liability, customer liability or intellectual property liability associated with the sale of the acquired company’s products;
we may be subject to litigation by terminated employees or third parties;
we may be subject to additional liabilities that are not possible to be known at the time of the acquisition;
we may incur debt and restructuring charges;
we may acquire goodwill and other intangible assets that are subject to impairment tests, which could result in future impairment charges;
our ongoing business and management’s attention may be disrupted or diverted by transition or integration issues and the complexity of managing geographically or culturally diverse enterprises; and
our due diligence process may fail to identify significant existing issues with the target company’s product quality, product architecture, financial disclosures, accounting practices, internal controls, legal contingencies, intellectual property and other matters.

Any acquisitions of businesses, technologies, products or services may not generate sufficient revenue to offset the associated costs of the acquisitions or may result in other adverse effects, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.

In addition, negotiations for acquisitions or investments that are not ultimately consummated could result in significant diversion of management time, as well as substantial out-of-pocket costs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

We may face exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuation.

Our results of operations and cash flows are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, particularly changes in the Euro, the GBP and the Chinese Yuan. We expect our non-U.S. operations to continue to grow in the near term and we are continually monitoring our foreign currency exposure to determine if we should consider a hedging program. Today, our non-U.S. contracts are denominated in either U.S. dollars or local currency, while our non-U.S. operating expenses are often denominated in local currencies. Additionally, as we expand our non-U.S. operations, a larger portion of our operating expenses may be denominated in local currencies. Therefore, increases in the value of the U.S. dollar and decreases in the value of foreign currencies could result in the dollar equivalent of our revenue being lower.

We generally recognize revenue from extended warranty and service contracts over the contract term, and changes in sales of such contracts may not be immediately reflected in our operating results.

We offer our customers the option to purchase extended warranty and service for regular system maintenance and system optimization on a fixed fee basis. We generally recognize revenue from our extended warranty and service plans ratably over the contract terms, which typically range from one additional year to four additional years and could in

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some cases be subject to an early termination right. A portion of the revenue we report in each quarter is derived from the recognition of deferred revenue relating to extended warranty and service contracts entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed extended warranty and service contracts by our customers in any one quarter may not be immediately reflected in our revenue for that quarter. Such a decline, however, will negatively affect our revenue in future quarters. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in sales and market acceptance of our services and potential changes in our rate of renewals may not be fully reflected in our operating results until future periods.

Our ability to use our net operating losses and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

Under legislation enacted in 2017, informally titled the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, as modified by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, or CARES Act, unused federal net operating losses, or NOLs, generated in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, will not expire and may be carried forward indefinitely, and generally may not be carried back to prior taxable years, except that under the CARES Act, net operating losses generated in 2018, 2019 and 2020 may be carried back five taxable years. Additionally, the deductibility of such federal NOLs in tax years beginning after December 31, 2020, is limited to 80% of taxable income. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the CARES Act. In addition, under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” generally defined as a cumulative change of more than 50 percentage points (by value) in its equity ownership by certain stockholders over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change NOL carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes (such as research tax credits) to offset its post-change income or taxes may be limited. We may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of shifts in our stock ownership (some of which may be outside our control). As a result, if we earn net taxable income, our ability to use our pre-change NOL carryforwards to offset such taxable income may be subject to limitations. Similar provisions of state tax law may also apply to limit our use of accumulated state tax attributes. For example, California recently imposed limits on the usability of California state NOLs to offset taxable income in tax years beginning after 2019 and before 2023. As a result, even if we attain profitability, we may be unable to use a material portion of our NOL carryforwards and other tax attributes, which could adversely affect our future cash flows.

Changes in tax laws or regulations that are applied adversely to us or our customers may have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flow, financial condition or results of operations.

New income, sales, use or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be enacted at any time, which could affect the tax treatment of our domestic and foreign earnings. Any new taxes could adversely affect our domestic and international business operations and our business and financial performance. Further, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to us. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act significantly revised the Code. Future guidance from the Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities with respect to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act may affect us, and certain aspects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act could be repealed or modified in future legislation. For example, the CARES Act modified certain provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. In addition, it is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, the CARES Act, or any newly enacted federal tax legislation. Changes in corporate tax rates, the realization of net deferred tax assets relating to our operations, the taxation of foreign earnings, and the deductibility of expenses under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act or future tax reform legislation could have a material impact on the value of our deferred tax assets, could result in significant one-time charges, and could increase our future U.S. tax expense.

We are subject to risks related to taxation in the United States.

Significant judgments based on interpretations of existing tax laws or regulations are required in determining our provision for income taxes. Our effective income tax rate could be adversely affected by various factors, including, but not limited to, changes in the mix of earnings in tax jurisdictions with different statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in existing tax policies, laws, regulations or rates, changes in the level of non-deductible expenses (including share-based compensation), changes in the location of our operations, changes in our future levels of research and development spending, mergers and acquisitions or the result of examinations by various tax authorities. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, if the United States

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Internal Revenue Service or other taxing authority disagrees with the positions taken on our tax returns, we could have additional tax liability, including interest and penalties. If material, payment of such additional amounts upon final adjudication of any disputes could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position.

Future interpretations of existing accounting standards could adversely affect our operating results.

Generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”), are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, or AICPA, the SEC and various other bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and they could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 1C. Cybersecurity.

Governance Related to Cybersecurity Risks

Our board of directors, as a whole and through its committees, holds overall oversight responsibility for our risk management processes, including in relation to risks from cybersecurity threats. Our board of directors exercises its oversight function through the audit committee, which oversees the management of risk exposure across various areas, including cybersecurity risks, in accordance with its charter. The audit committee receives quarterly reports from our Director of Information Technology on the status of our cybersecurity program, including measures implemented to monitor and address cybersecurity risks and threats, as appropriate. The Chair of the audit committee provides a quarterly report to the board of directors, which includes any key updates on cybersecurity matters, as applicable.

Our Director of Information Technology is responsible for the day-to-day administration and management of our cybersecurity program, under the direct supervision of our Chief Product Officer (formerly our Chief Technology Officer). Currently, the Director of Information Technology role is held by an individual who has approximately 19 years of information technology experience and 10 years of cybersecurity experience. We also work with external security service providers to support our security monitoring and threat detection capabilities and have implemented a process to report relevant findings to the Director of Information Technology and up to the Chief Product Officer and other members of executive management, where appropriate.

Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy

We maintain a cybersecurity program, which is informed by industry standards, that includes processes for identification, assessment, and management of cybersecurity risks. We conduct periodic risk assessments, including with support from external vendors, to assess our cyber program, identify potential areas of enhancement, and develop strategies for the mitigation of cyber risks. We also conduct regular security testing and have established a vulnerability management process, supported by security testing, that is designed to address the treatment of identified security risks based on severity.

As part of our cybersecurity risk management program, we have a process to assess and review the cybersecurity practices of major third-party vendors and service providers that access, process, collect, share, create, store, transmit or destroy our information or have access to our systems, including through review of applicable certifications, and security reports, and contractual requirements, as appropriate.

We have implemented a process to periodically conduct security awareness training for employees and simulated phishing campaigns. We also conduct specific training and tabletop exercises for key personnel involved in cybersecurity risk management.

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Our Director of Information Technology and his team are informed about and monitor the prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity risks through various means, including by leveraging a managed security service provider and other third-party security software and technology services. In addition, we use various internal and external processes and technologies, including third-party security solutions, monitoring, and alerting tools and resources, designed to monitor, identify, and address risks from cybersecurity threats. We also have implemented processes and technologies for network monitoring and data loss prevention procedures.

We have adopted an incident response plan to guide us in responding to cybersecurity incidents and maintain processes to inform and update executive management and the audit committee about security incidents that may pose a significant risk for our business, as applicable.

We have not identified any cybersecurity incidents or threats that have materially affected us or are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition; however, like other companies in our industry, we and our third-party vendors may, from time to time, experience threats and security incidents relating to our and our third-party vendors’ information systems. See Item 1A “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10 K for more information.

Item 2. Properties.

Our corporate headquarter is located in Boston, Massachusetts, where we lease and occupy approximately 37,500 square feet of space for office, research and development laboratories, assembly, high tech manufacturing and light manufacturing uses. The lease for this facility expires on October 7, 2025. Our Europe headquarter is located in Braunschweig, Germany, where we lease and occupy approximately 7,500 square feet of space for office, research and development laboratories, assembly, high tech manufacturing and light manufacturing uses. The lease for this facility expires on January 5, 2028. We have an approximately 13,300 square foot facility in Morrisville, North Carolina to expand the Company’s research and development activities focused on its desktop offerings, and to serve as an additional manufacturing site for the Company as needed. The lease for this facility expires in July 2030. We believe that our current facilities meet our anticipated needs for the foreseeable future.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

We are not currently subject to any material legal proceedings. From time to time, we may be involved in legal proceedings or investigations, which could have an adverse impact on our reputation, business and financial condition and divert the attention of our management from the operation of our business.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Certain Information Regarding the Trading of Our Common Stock

Our common stock trades under the symbol “MASS” on the Nasdaq Global Market. Trading of our common stock commenced on December 18, 2020 in connection with our initial public offering, or IPO. Prior to that time, there was no established public market for our common stock.

Holders of Our Common Stock

As of March 5, 2024, there were approximately 22 holders of record of our common stock. The actual number of holders of our common stock is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners, but whose shares are held in “street name” by brokers or held by other “nominees.” The number of holders of record also does not include stockholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

Information about our equity compensation plans will be included in our definitive proxy statement to be filed with the SEC with respect to our 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities

We did not issue or grant any equity securities during the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K that were not registered under the Securities Act.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

We did not purchase any of our registered equity securities during the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Dividends

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock or any other securities. We anticipate that we will retain all available funds and any future earnings, if any, for use in the operation of our business and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Our ability to pay cash dividends is currently restricted by the terms of our Amended 2022 Revolver with Silicon Valley Bank. In addition, the terms of any future debt instruments may also materially restrict our ability to pay dividends on our common stock. Payment of future cash dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of the board of directors after taking into account various factors, including our financial condition, operating results, current and anticipated cash needs, the requirements of current or then-existing debt instruments and other factors the board of directors deems relevant.

Item 6. Reserved.

Not applicable.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. As a result of many factors, including those factors set forth in the ‘‘Risk Factors’’ section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our actual results could differ materially from the results described in, or implied by, the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.

Overview

We have developed an innovative suite of purpose-built handheld and desktop devices for point-of-need chemical and biochemical analysis. Leveraging our proprietary mass spectrometry, or Mass Spec, microfluidics, and analytics and machine learning technologies, we make devices that are significantly smaller and more accessible than conventional laboratory instruments. Our devices are used at the point-of-need to interrogate unknown and invisible materials and provide quick, actionable answers to directly address some of the most critical problems in life sciences research, bioprocessing, pharma/biopharma, forensics and adjacent markets. The term “products” as used in this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” refers to the Maverick, MX908, Rebel, ZipChip Interface, and Maven and related sampling devices.

We create simplified measurement devices that our customers can use as accurate tools where and when their work needs to be done, rather than overly complex and centralized analytical instrumentation. We believe the insights and answers our devices provide will accelerate workflows, reduce costs, and offer transformational opportunities for our end users.

Front-line workers rely upon our handheld devices to combat the opioid crisis and detect counterfeit pharmaceuticals and illicit materials in the air or on surfaces at levels 1,000 times below their lethal dose. Our desktop devices are accelerating development and production of biotherapeutics by identifying and quantifying extracellular species in bioprocessing critical to cell health and productivity. They sit alongside or are directly connected to bioreactors and fermenters producing drug candidates, functional proteins, cell and gene therapies, and synthetic biology derived products. We believe the insights and answers our devices provide accelerate workflows, reduce costs, and offer transformational opportunities for our end users.

On August 3, 2022, we completed our acquisition of 100% of the registered share capital of Trace Analytics GmbH, renamed 908 Devices GmbH, pursuant to a share purchase and transfer agreement, for a total purchase price consideration of $17.3 million, comprised of (i) a $14.4 million initial cash payment, (ii) up to $2.0 million contingent cash consideration upon achievement of certain milestones over a twenty-four-month period and (iii) $0.9 million contingent pension liability holdback to be released upon discharging or transferring of such liability from 908 Devices GmbH. 908 Devices GmbH is a leading provider of online analysis systems for biotech applications in research, development and production. 908 Devices GmbH’s products are used for monitoring and control of complex processes in industrial pharmaceutical productions under continuous measurement conditions. We expect to integrate acquired sampling technology within future product offerings.

Since our inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. Our ability to generate revenue sufficient to achieve profitability will depend on the successful further development and commercialization of our products. We generated revenue of $50.2 million and $46.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and incurred net losses of $36.4 million and $33.6 million for those same years. As of December 31, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit of $170.6 million. We expect to continue to incur net losses as we focus on growing commercial sales of our products in both the United States and international markets, including growing our sales teams, scaling our manufacturing operations, continuing research and development efforts to develop new products and further enhance our existing products. Further, we expect to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company. As a

66

result, we may need additional funding for expenses related to our operating activities, including selling, general and administrative expenses and research and development expenses.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with product development and commercialization, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when, or if, we will be able to achieve or maintain profitability. Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial revenue sufficient to achieve profitability, we expect to finance our operations through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings and strategic alliances. We may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into such other agreements or arrangements when needed on favorable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise capital or enter into such agreements as, and when, needed, we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the further development and commercialization efforts of one or more of our products, or may be forced to reduce or terminate our operations.

We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, will enable us to fund our operating expenses, capital expenditure requirements and debt service payments for at least the next 12 months. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could exhaust our available capital resources sooner than we expect. See “Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

Global Economic Conditions

We are continuing to closely monitor macroeconomic factors, including, but not limited to, continued inflationary and interest rate pressures, challenging capital market conditions and the limited availability of financing alternatives, which may have an impact on our business, results of operations and financial results.

We are closely monitoring continued economic uncertainty in the United States and abroad, including volatility in the global markets and the rise and fluctuations in inflation and interest rates. These developments and the potential worsening of other macro-economic conditions present risks for us, and our suppliers and customers. For example, general inflation in the United States, EMEA and other geographies has recently been at levels not experienced in recent decades, which has led to higher prices for our raw materials and other inputs, as well as higher salaries and travel expenses, which could continue to negatively impact our business by increasing our cost of sales and operating expenses. General inflation could also negatively impact our business if it leads to spending pressure and decreased available capital for our customers to deploy to purchase our products and services.

In addition, the United States Federal Reserve has raised, and may again raise, interest rates in response to concerns about inflation. Inflation, together with increased interest rates, may cause our customers to reduce or delay orders for our goods and services thereby causing a decrease in or change in timing of sales of our products and services. The impact of future inflation and interest rate fluctuations on the results of our operations cannot be accurately predicted.

Challenging capital market conditions and the limited availability of financing alternatives , together with inflationary and interest rates pressures, may contribute to more cautious spending by our customers. Certain of our pharmaceutical and biotechnology customers, including bioprocessing customers, may evaluate their inventory levels, cash on hand and path to profitability, and institute cost controls and take other actions to reduce or delay purchases of our products and services. We cannot accurately predict the full impact of current macroeconomic factors on the budgets and capital expenditures of our customers, or the timing of the normalization of customer purchasing patterns.

We are closely monitoring the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, and the ongoing hostilities in Israel and the Gaza Strip. Although we do not directly source any material products or supplies from Russia, Ukraine, Israel or the Gaza Strip, our customers in Europe and the Middle East could be impacted by extended conflicts or an escalation of these conflicts into neighboring countries.

While it is difficult to predict all of the impacts these global economic events and continued inflationary and interest rate pressures will have on our business and to predict the effects of these factors on our customers’ spending in the near term, we believe the long-term opportunity that we see for our products and services remain unchanged.

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Additional information regarding these global impacts on our business is set forth within this Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Factors affecting our performance

We believe that our financial performance has been and in the foreseeable future will continue to be primarily driven by the following factors. While each of these factors presents significant opportunities for our business, they also pose important challenges that we must successfully address in order to sustain our growth and improve our results of operations. Our ability to successfully address the factors below is subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those described under the heading “Risk Factors.

Device sales

Our financial performance has largely been driven by, and in the future will continue to be impacted by, the rate of sales of our handheld and desktop devices. Management focuses on device sales as an indicator of current business success and a leading indicator of likely future recurring revenue from consumables and services. We expect our device sales to continue to grow as we increase penetration in our existing markets and expand into, or offer new features and solutions that appeal to, new markets.

We plan to grow our device sales in the coming years through multiple strategies including expanding our sales efforts domestically and globally and continuing to enhance the underlying technology and applications for life sciences research related to our Maverick, Rebel, ZipChip Interface, and Maven and related sampling devices. We regularly solicit feedback from our customers and focus our research and development efforts on enhancing our devices and enabling our customers to use additional applications that address their needs, which we believe in turn helps to drive additional sales of our devices and consumables.

Our sales process varies considerably depending upon the type of customer to whom we are selling. Our handheld device orders relate to our MX908 as well as components for the Aerosol and Vapor Chemical Agent Detectors (“AVCAD”) sold to our channel partner. Historically, our handheld devices have been used by state, federal and foreign governments and governmental agencies. Our sales process with government customers is often long and involves multiple levels of approvals, testing and, in some cases, trials. Device orders from a government customer are typically large orders and can be impacted by the timing of their capital budgets. As a result, the revenue for our handheld devices can vary significantly from period-to-period and has been and may continue to be concentrated in a small number of customers in any given period.

Our desktop devices are typically used by the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and academia markets. Our sales cycles within these markets tend to vary based on the size of the customer and the number of devices they purchase. Our shortest sales cycles are typically for small laboratories and individual researchers where, in some cases, we receive purchase orders from these customers within three months. Our sales process with other institutions can be longer with most customers submitting purchase orders within six to twelve months. Given the variability of our sales cycle, we have in the past experienced, and likely will in the future experience, fluctuations in our desktop device sales on a period-to-period basis.

Recurring revenue

We regularly assess trends relating to recurring revenue which includes consumables and services based on our product offerings, our customer base and our understanding of how our customers use our products. Recurring revenue was 33% and 35% of total product and service revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Our recurring revenue as a percentage of total product and service revenue will vary based upon new device placements in the period. As our device installed base expands, recurring revenue on an absolute basis is expected to increase and over time should be an increasingly important contributor to our revenue.

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Revenue from the sales of consumables will vary by type of device. We expect that recurring revenue as a percentage of the original device price to be higher for our desktop devices (Rebel, ZipChip Interface, Maverick, Maven and related sampling devices) than for our handheld device (MX908). While we sell single-use swab samplers for MX908 to be used in liquid and solid materials analysis, there are a number of other applications that the MX908 can be used for that do not require consumables. Rebel and ZipChip Interface require consumables kits for all areas of operations. Currently, Rebel customers, who are actively utilizing the device, are consuming on average approximately half a 200-sample kit per month; however, Rebel is a relatively new product and purchasing patterns related to our consumables kits are evolving. We expect that the number of kits sold per month will vary over the short term. In time, we expect Rebel consumables kits sales to become more consistent as our installed base grows and our customers establish usage patterns. At maximum potential capacity, with continuous operation, the Rebel can consume approximately one 200-sample kit per day. Maverick devices require consumables, probes and standards for all areas of operations. Maven and related sampling devices require consumable sets of buffers, probes and biosensors for all areas of operations.

Revenue mix and gross margin

Our revenue is derived from sales of our devices, consumables and services. There will be fluctuations in mix between devices and consumables from period-to-period. Over time, as our device installed base grows and we see adoption of Rebel, we expect consumables revenue to constitute a larger percentage of product and service revenue. However, the percentage will be subject to fluctuation based upon our handheld sales in a period. In addition, our selling price and, consequently, our margins, are higher for those devices and consumables that we sell directly to customers as compared to those that we sell through channel partners. While we expect the mix of direct sales as compared to sales through channel partners to remain relatively constant in the near term, we are currently evaluating increasing our direct sales capabilities in certain geographies.

Future device and consumable selling prices and gross margins may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including the introduction by others of competing products and solutions. We aim to mitigate downward pressure on our average selling prices by increasing the value proposition offered by our devices and consumables, primarily by expanding the applications for our devices and increasing the quantity and quality of data that can be obtained using our consumables.

Product adoption

We monitor our customers’ stage of adoption of our products to provide insight into the timing of future potential sales and to help us formulate financial projections. Typical stages of adoption include testing, trials, pilot and deployment as follows:

Testing—a customer is actively engaged with internal or external testing of our products. This may include an onsite or virtual demonstration with a salesperson, a customer submitting samples for testing in one of our facilities or testing by a third party.
Trials—a customer has committed to a trial of one of our products, which may include a defined period to assess functionality of the device in their operational environment (in the field or onsite within the customer’s facility).
Pilot—a customer commits to the purchase of an initial quantity of devices to deploy in their operational environment to assess a broader opportunity that may grow to tens or hundreds of devices.
Deployment—a customer has completed testing, a trial, and/or a pilot and intends to roll out the technology across their enterprise (either at a site or throughout the entire organization).

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Key Business Metrics

We regularly review the number of product placements and cumulative product placement as key metrics to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate financial projections, and make strategic decisions. We believe that these metrics are representative of our current business; however, we anticipate these will change or may be substituted for additional or different metrics as our business grows.

During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, our product placements (units recognized as revenue) were as follows:

Year Ended December 31, 

2023

    

2022

Product s:

  

  

Handheld

 

402

 

370

Desktop

 

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80

The number of product placements vary considerably from period-to-period due to the type and size of our customers and concentrations among larger government customers as described above. We expect continued fluctuations in our period-to-period number of product placements.

Our cumulative product placements consist of the following number of devices:

December 31, 

2023

    

2022

Cumulative Product Placements:

  

  

Handheld

 

2,422

 

2,020

Desktop

 

431

 

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Components of Our Results of Operations

Revenue

Product and Service Revenue

We generate product and service revenue from the sale of our devices and recurring revenue from the sale of consumables and services. Device sales accounted for 67% and 65% of our product and service revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Consumables and service revenue accounted for 33% and 35% of our product and service revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

Our current device offerings include:

Handheld devices—MX908 and AVCAD components; and
Desktop devices—Rebel, ZipChip Interface, Maverick, and Maven and related sampling devices.

We sell our devices directly to customers and through channel partners. Each of our device sales drives various streams of recurring revenue comprised of consumable product sales and service revenue.

Our consumables consist of:

MX908—accessories and swabs;
Rebel—consumables kit with a microfluidic chip and standards;
ZipChip Interface—microfluidic chip, reagent and assay kits;
Maverick—calibration kits and accessories; and
Maven and related sampling devices—probes, tubing sets and accessories.

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Rebel and ZipChip Interface consumables can only be used with our devices and there are no alternative after-market options that can be used as a substitute. Each chip is used for a defined number of samples (or runs). We recognize revenue from the sale of consumables as the consumable products are shipped.

We also offer our customers extended warranty and service plans. Our extended warranty and service plans are offered for periods beyond the standard one-year warranty that all of our customers receive. These extended warranty and service plans generally have fixed fees and terms ranging from one additional year to four additional years. We recognize revenue from the sale of extended warranty and service plans over the respective coverage period, which approximates the service effort provided by us.

We expect consumables and service revenue to increase in future periods as our installed base grows and we are able to generate recurring sales.

Contract revenue

Contract agreements are arrangements whereby we provide engineering services for the development of our technology platform for specific programs or new and expanding applications of our technologies for future commercial endeavors. Our contract agreements are with the U.S. government and commercial entities (who may be contracting with the government). Contracts typically include compensation for labor effort and materials incurred related to the deliverables under the contract. Our license and contract revenue was primarily related to one customer during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.

During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, our revenue was comprised of revenue from the following sources (in thousands):

Year Ended December 31, 

2023

    

2022

Product and service revenue:

  

  

Device sales revenue

$

33,379

$

28,757

Consumables and service revenue

 

16,480

 

15,718

Total product and service revenue

 

49,859

 

44,475

Contract revenue

 

370

 

2,377

Total revenue

$

50,229

$

46,852

Our product and service revenue is comprised of sales of our handheld and desktop devices and related consumables and service contracts to end-users in the government, pharmaceuticals/biotechnology and academia markets as follows (in thousands):

Year Ended December 31, 

2023

    

2022

Government

$

37,862

$

29,964

Pharmaceutical/Biotechnology

11,340

 

14,241

Academia and other

657

 

270

Total product and service revenue

$

49,859

$

44,475

We sell our products primarily in the United States; however, we are continuing to expand our global sales efforts as we see traction in our products and assess global market needs. The majority of our international sales are through channel partners and to a lesser extent, starting in 2023, through our 908 Devices GmbH subsidiary for our desktop sales in Europe and the United Kingdom.

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Cost of Revenue, Gross Profit and Gross Margin

Product cost of revenue primarily consists of costs for raw material parts and associated freight, shipping and handling costs, royalties, contract manufacturer costs, salaries and other personnel costs, overhead, amortization of intangibles and other direct costs related to those sales recognized as product revenue in the period.

Cost of revenue for services primarily consists of salaries and other personnel costs, travel related to services provided, facility costs associated with training, warranties and other costs of servicing equipment on a return-to-factory basis and at customer sites. Contract cost of revenue primarily consists of salaries and other personnel costs, materials, travel and other direct costs related to the revenue recognized in the period. The contract cost of revenue will vary based upon the type of contract, including whether it is primarily for development services or for both materials and development services.

We expect that our cost of revenue will increase or decrease to the extent that our revenue increases and decreases and depending on how many contracts we have ongoing at any given point in time and the stage of those contracts.

Gross profit is calculated as revenue less cost of revenue. Gross profit margin is gross profit expressed as a percentage of revenue. Our gross profit in future periods will depend on a variety of factors, including: market conditions that may impact our pricing, sales mix among devices, sales mix changes among consumables, excess and obsolete inventories, our cost structure for manufacturing operations relative to volume, and product warranty obligations. Our gross profit in future periods will vary based upon our channel mix and may decrease based upon our distribution channels and the potential to establish original equipment manufacturing channels for certain components of our technology platform which would have a lower gross margin.

We expect that our gross profit margin for product and service will increase over the long term as our sales and production volumes increase and our cost per unit decreases due to efficiencies of scale. We intend to use our design, engineering and manufacturing capabilities to further advance and improve the efficiency of our manufacturing, which we believe will reduce costs and increase our gross margin. We expect that our gross profit margin for contract will remain consistent for our contracts that are cost reimbursement contracts.

Operating Expenses

Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, product development, hardware and software engineering and consultant services and other costs associated with our technology platform and products, which include:

employee-related expenses, including salaries, related benefits and stock-based compensation expense for employees engaged in research and hardware and software development functions;
the cost of maintaining and improving our product designs, including third party development costs for new products and materials for prototypes;
research materials and supplies; and
facilities, depreciation and other expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and insurance.

We believe that our continued investment in research and development is essential to our long-term competitive position and expect these expenses to increase in future periods.

Selling, general and administrative expenses

Selling, general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other personnel costs, and stock-based compensation for our sales and marketing, finance, legal, human resources and general management, as well as

72

professional services, such as legal, audit and accounting services. We expect selling, general and administrative expenses, amortization of customer relationship and tradename intangibles to increase in future periods as the number of sales, sales application specialists and marketing and administrative personnel grows and we continue to introduce new products, invest in demonstration equipment, broaden our customer base and grow our business. We also anticipate that we will incur increased accounting, audit, legal, regulatory, compliance and director and officer insurance costs as well as investor and public relations expenses associated with operating as a public company.

Other Income (Expense)

Interest income

Interest income consists of interest earned on our invested cash balances.

Interest expense

Interest expense consists of interest expense associated with outstanding borrowings under our loan and security agreements and the amortization of deferred financing costs and debt discounts associated with such arrangements.

Other income (expense), net

Other income (expense), net consists of interest income from our cash and cash equivalents, miscellaneous other income and expense unrelated to our core operations.

Provision for Income Taxes

We have not recorded any U.S. federal or state income tax benefits for the net operating losses we have incurred in each year or for the research and development tax credits we generated in the United States and have recorded a full valuation allowance against our net deferred assets, as we believe, based upon the weight of available evidence, that it is more likely than not that all of our net operating loss carryforwards and tax credits will not be realized.

We recognized an income tax benefit of $0.2 million and $0 during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The income tax benefit recognized during the year ended December 31, 2023 primarily resulted from a reduction in the deferred tax liabilities recorded as part of our acquisition of 908 Devices GmbH.

As of December 31, 2023, we had gross federal and state operating loss carryforwards of $108.2 million and $77.4 million, respectively, which may be available to offset future taxable income and begin to expire in 2032 and 2025, respectively, of which $73.8 million of federal gross operating losses do not expire. As of December 31, 2023, we also had U.S. federal and state research and development tax credit carryforwards of $7.2 million and $3.4 million, respectively, which may be available to offset future tax liabilities and begin to expire in 2032 and 2030, respectively.

Results of Operations

The results of operations presented below should be reviewed in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented:

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Comparison of the Years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022:

Year Ended December 31, 

    

2023

    

2022

    

Change

(in thousands)

Revenue:

  

  

  

Product revenue

$

40,214

$

37,499

$

2,715

Service revenue

9,645

6,976

2,669

Contract revenue

 

370

 

2,377

 

(2,007)

Total revenue

 

50,229

 

46,852

 

3,377

Cost of revenue:

 

  

 

  

 

  

Product cost of revenue

 

18,428

 

16,010

 

2,418

Service cost of revenue

6,380

4,420

1,960

Contract cost of revenue

 

99

 

399

 

(300)

Total cost of revenue

 

24,907

 

20,829

 

4,078

Gross profit

 

25,322

 

26,023

 

(701)

Operating expenses:

 

  

 

  

 

  

Research and development

 

21,904

 

17,526

 

4,378

Selling, general and administrative

 

46,176

 

43,879

 

2,297

Total operating expenses

 

68,080

 

61,405

 

6,675

Loss from operations

 

(42,758)

 

(35,382)

 

(7,376)

Other income, net:

 

  

 

  

 

  

Interest income

6,480

2,031

4,449

Interest expense

 

(201)

 

(129)

 

(72)

Other expense, net

(131)

 

(83)

 

(48)

Total other income, net

 

6,148

 

1,819

 

4,329

Loss from operations before income taxes

(36,610)

(33,563)

(3,047)

Benefit for income taxes

211

211

Net loss

$

(36,399)

$

(33,563)

$

(2,836)

Revenue, Cost of revenue and Gross profit

Product

Our product revenue is comprised of revenue from sales of devices and related accessories and consumables and service as follows:

Year Ended December 31, 

Change

    

2023

    

2022

    

Amount

    

%

(dollars in thousands)

 

Product revenue

$

40,214

$

37,499

$

2,715

 

7

%

Product cost of revenue

 

18,428

 

16,010

 

2,418

 

15

%

Gross profit

$

21,786

$

21,489

$

297

 

1

%

Gross profit margin

 

54

%

 

57

%

 

(3)

%  

  

Product revenue increased by $2.7 million, or 7%, for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily related to an increase in handheld sales of $5.8 million, which was due to an increase of $7.9 million in handheld device sales, primarily related to a 32 unit increase in MX908 device placements and shipments of AVCAD components under our subcontract agreement with a commercial entity that holds a U.S. government prime contract, offset in part by a $2.2 million decrease in consumables and accessories, primarily related to Aero module shipments, an accessory for the MX908, to the US Army in the year ended December 31, 2022

74

that were not repeated in 2023. The increase in handheld revenue was offset in part by a decrease of $4.1 million in desktop sales for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, which was primarily related to a decrease of $3.4 million in desktop device revenue, offset in part by an increase in desktop consumables and accessories for the year ended December 31, 2023. The decrease in device revenue was driven by a 35 unit decrease in Rebel device placements and an 11 unit decrease in ZipChip Interface placements compared to 2022, offset in part by new product shipments for Maven and Maverick.

Product cost of revenue increased by $2.4 million, or 15%, for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in product cost of revenue was primarily related to additional volume and material costs for product shipped of approximately $0.9 million, as well as $0.5 million in higher materials and supplies consumed in warranty obligations related primarily to part replacements, $0.3 million in intangibles amortization, and $0.3 million in higher provisions for excess and obsolete materials.

Product gross profit increased by $0.3 million, or 1%, and gross profit margin decreased by 3% for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in product gross profit was, primarily due to the increased volume in sales. The decrease in product gross profit margin percentage of 3% is driven primarily by three factors. These factors, each of which resulted in an approximate 1% decrease in product gross profit margin, were: an increase in materials and supplies used in warranty obligations, an increase in the provision for excess and obsolete materials, and higher non-cash charges for intangible amortization.

Service

Our service revenue is comprised of revenue from sales of extended warranty and service plans and customer training as follows:

Year Ended December 31, 

Change

    

2023

    

2022

    

Amount

    

%

(dollars in thousands)

 

Service revenue

$

9,645

$

6,976

$

2,669

 

38

%

Service cost of revenue

 

6,380

 

4,420

 

1,960

 

44

%

Gross profit

$

3,265

$

2,556

$

709

 

28

%

Gross profit margin

 

34

%

 

37

%

 

(3)

%  

  

Service revenue increased by $2.7 million, or 38%, for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily related to an increase in handheld service revenues related to extended service contracts for MX908 devices and to a lesser extent increases in handheld training revenue and revenue from desktop service arrangements.

Service cost of revenue increased by $2.0 million, or 44%, for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in service cost of revenue was primarily related to a $0.5 million increase in fees paid to contract trainers used to support the higher handheld training revenue, a $0.4 million increase in materials related to servicing the installed base, a $0.2 million increase in stock based compensation and an increase in personnel costs to support the increase in service revenue.

Service gross profit increased by $0.7 million, or 28%, and gross profit margin decreased by 3% for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to the increase in materials shipped under service arrangements and an increase in the use of independent contract trainers versus internal resources to meet the increased demand for handheld training.

75

Contract

Year Ended December 31, 

Change

    

2023

    

2022

    

Amount

    

%

(dollars in thousands)

 

Contract revenue

$

370

$

2,377

$

(2,007)

 

(84)

%

Contract cost of revenue

 

99

 

399

 

(300)

 

(75)

%

Gross profit

$

271

$

1,978

$

(1,707)

 

(86)

%

Gross profit margin

 

73

%

83

%

(10)

%  

  

Contract revenue decreased by $2.0 million, or 84%, for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. The majority of contract revenue, for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, was related to activities under our subcontract agreement with a commercial entity that holds a U.S. government prime contract, which was concluded in the second quarter of 2023 and represented a decrease of $1.3 million in contract revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023. The decrease in contract revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 is also related to the completion of work in 2022 related to a prime contract directly with the U.S. government and a subcontract agreement with a commercial entity that holds a U.K. government prime contract.

Contract cost of revenue decreased by $0.3 million, or 75% for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was primarily due to lower material costs with the subcontract agreement with a commercial entity that holds a U.S. government prime contract compared to the contract deliverables for the prime contract held directly with the U.S. government and a subcontract agreement with a commercial entity that holds a U.K. government prime contract for the year ended December 31, 2022.

Contract gross profit decreased by $1.7 million and gross profit margin decreased by 10% for the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to the mix in contract deliverables, including a mix of materials with lower costs during the year ended December 31, 2022, which resulted in a higher gross profit margin for that period, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2023.

Operating Expenses

Research and development

Year Ended December 31, 

Change

    

2023

    

2022

    

Amount

    

%

(dollars in thousands)

 

Research and development expenses

$

21,904

$

17,526

$

4,378

 

25

%

Percentage of total revenue

 

44

%  

 

37

%  

 

  

 

  

Our research and development expenses were $21.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, an increase of $4.4 million from research and development expenses of $17.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was due primarily to a $2.2 million increase in salaries and related costs from growing our headcount in 2023, a $1.0 million increase in stock-based compensation, and a $1.0 million increase in occupancy related expenses, mainly related to our new facility in North Carolina.

Selling, general and administrative expenses

Year Ended December 31, 

Change

    

2023

    

2022

    

Amount

    

%

(dollars in thousands)

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses

$

46,176

$

43,879

$

2,297

 

5

%

Percentage of total revenue

 

93

%

 

94

%

 

  

 

  

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Our selling, general and administrative expenses were $46.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, an increase of $2.3 million from selling, general and administrative expenses of $43.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was due primarily to a $1.1 million increase in salaries and related costs from growing our headcount in 2023, a $1.3 million increase in stock-based compensation, a $1.1 million increase in commissions earned, primarily related to handheld device sales, a $0.4 million increase related to software subscriptions and dues, a $0.4 million increase in provision for credit losses and a $0.2 million increase in acquisition-related costs for intangible amortization and accretion and valuation of contingent milestones. These increases were partially offset by a $1.3 million decrease in insurance costs, primarily related to our director and officers insurance premiums that decreased with market rates for 2023 and a $1.0 million decrease in professional fees for legal, audit, tax and other related costs, partly related to costs incurred with our acquisition of Trace Analytics GmbH during the year ended December 31, 2022.

Other Income (Expense)

Interest income

Interest income increased by $4.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $2.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was due primarily to higher interest rates on our interest bearing accounts and interest earned on our marketable securities, which were purchase during the year ended December 31, 2023.

Interest expense

Interest expense increased by $0.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $0.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily due to costs incurred in March 2023 related to the write-off of deferred financing costs on our 2022 Revolver, which was in default and later amended in August 2023.