Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Macatawa Bank
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$10.70 34 $364
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-30 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-06-30 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-03-31 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-30 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-06-30 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-03-31 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2019-04-18 Other Events
8-K 2019-03-21 Officers
8-K 2019-02-05 Officers
8-K 2019-01-24 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-24 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-29 Regulation FD, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-25 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-26 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-08 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-01-29 Regulation FD, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-25 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-09
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LBC Luther Burbank 610
WHF Whitehorse Finance 293
MLVF Malvern Bancorp 162
DXLG Destination Xl Group 112
SCX LS Starrett 50
MSN Emerson Radio 27
MBRX Moleculin Biotech 27
CAPC Capstone Companies 0
MCBC 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1: Business.
Item 1A: Risk Factors.
Item 1B: Unresolved Staff Comments.
Item 2: Properties.
Item 3: Legal Proceedings.
Item 4: Mine Safety Disclosures.
Part II
Item 5: Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Item 6: Selected Financial Data.
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Item 8: Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Note 1 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2 - Securities
Note 3 - Loans
Note 4 - Other Real Estate Owned
Note 5 - Fair Value
Note 6 - Premises and Equipment - Net
Note 7 - Deposits
Note 8 - Other Borrowed Funds
Note 9 - Long Term Debt
Note 10 - Related Party Transactions
Note 11 - Stock-Based Compensation
Note 12 - Employee Benefits
Note 13 - Earnings per Common Share
Note 14 - Federal Income Taxes
Note 15 - Commitments and Off Balance-Sheet Risk
Note 16 - Contingencies
Note 17 - Shareholders' Equity
Note 18 - Condensed Financial Statements (Parent Company Only)
Note 19 - Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited)
Item 9: Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
Item 9A: Controls and Procedures.
Item 9B: Other Information.
Part III
Item 10: Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
Item 11: Executive Compensation.
Item 12: Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
Item 13: Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
Item 14: Principal Accountant Fees and Services.
Part IV
Item 15: Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
Item 16: Form 10-K Summary.
EX-10.1 ex10_1.htm
EX-21 ex21.htm
EX-23.1 ex23_1.htm
EX-24 ex24.htm
EX-31.1 ex31_1.htm
EX-31.2 ex31_2.htm
EX-32.1 ex32_1.htm

Macatawa Bank Earnings 2018-12-31

MCBC 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 form10k.htm 10-K
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                to

Commission file number: 000-25927

MACATAWA BANK CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Michigan
 
38-3391345
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

10753 Macatawa Drive, Holland, Michigan 49424
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (616) 820-1444

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:

Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  ☐     No  ☒

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.  Yes  ☐    No ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant:  (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the past 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  ☒     No  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes ☒     No  ☐

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained in this form and no disclosure will be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendments to this Form 10K.   ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer ☐
Accelerated filer ☒
Non-accelerated filer ☐
Smaller reporting company ☒
Emerging growth company ☐

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected  not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes ☐    No ☒

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, as of June 30, 2018, was $377,429,000 based on the closing sale price of $12.14 as reported on the Nasdaq Stock Market.  There were 34,042,659 outstanding shares of the Company’s common stock as of February 14, 2019.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE: Portions of the Company’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held May 07, 2019 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.



MACATAWA BANK CORPORATION
FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT
TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART 1
 
Page
Item 1:
1
     
Item 1A:
12
     
Item 1B:
20
     
Item 2:
20
     
Item 3:
20
     
Item 4:
20
     
PART II
   
Item 5:
21
     
Item 6:
23
     
Item 7:
24
     
Item 7A:
41
     
Item 8:
43
     
Item 9:
84
     
Item 9A:
84
     
Item 9B:
86
     
PART III
   
Item 10:
86
     
Item 11:
86
     
Item 12:
86
     
Item 13:
86
     
Item 14:
86
     
PART IV
   
Item 15:
87
     
Item 16:
87
     
 
88


Forward-Looking Statements

This report contains forward-looking statements that are based on management’s beliefs, assumptions, current expectations, estimates and projections about the financial services industry, the economy, and Macatawa Bank Corporation. Forward-looking statements are identifiable by words or phrases such as “outlook”, “plan” or “strategy”; that an event or trend “could”, “may”, “should”, “will”, “is likely”, or is “possible” or “probable” to occur or “continue”, has “begun” or “is scheduled” or “on track” or that the Company or its management “anticipates”, “believes”, “estimates”, “plans”, “forecasts”, “intends”, “predicts”, “projects”, or “expects” a particular result, or is “committed”, “confident”, “optimistic” or has an “opinion” that an event will occur, or other words or phrases such as “ongoing”, “future”, “signs”, “efforts”, “tend”, “exploring”, “appearing”, “until”, “near term”, “concern”, “going forward”, “focus”, “starting”, “initiative,” “trend” and variations of such words and similar expressions. Such statements are based upon current beliefs and expectations and involve substantial risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These statements include, among others, those related to future levels of earning assets, future composition of our loan portfolio, trends in credit quality metrics, future capital levels and capital needs, including the impact of Basel III, real estate valuation, future levels of repossessed and foreclosed properties and nonperforming assets, future levels of losses and costs associated with the administration and disposition of repossessed and foreclosed properties and nonperforming assets, future levels of loan charge-offs, future levels of other real estate owned, future levels of provisions for loan losses and reserve recoveries, the rate of asset dispositions, future dividends, future growth and funding sources, future cost of funds, future liquidity levels, future profitability levels, future interest rate levels, future net interest margin levels, the effects on earnings of changes in interest rates, future economic conditions, future effects of new or changed accounting standards, future loss recoveries, loan demand and loan growth, future amounts of unrecognized tax benefits and the future level of other revenue sources. Management’s determination of the provision and allowance for loan losses, the appropriate carrying value of intangible assets (including deferred tax assets) and other real estate owned, and the fair value of investment securities (including whether any impairment on any investment security is temporary or other-than-temporary and the amount of any impairment) involves judgments that are inherently forward-looking. All statements with references to future time periods are forward-looking. All of the information concerning interest rate sensitivity is forward-looking. Our ability to sell other real estate owned at its carrying value or at all, successfully implement new programs and initiatives, increase efficiencies, maintain our current levels of deposits and other sources of funding, maintain liquidity, respond to declines in collateral values and credit quality, increase loan volume, originate high quality loans, maintain or improve mortgage banking income, realize the benefit of our deferred tax assets, continue payment of dividends and improve profitability is not entirely within our control and is not assured. The future effect of changes in the real estate, financial and credit markets and the national and regional economy on the banking industry, generally, and Macatawa Bank Corporation, specifically, are also inherently uncertain. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions (“risk factors”) that are difficult to predict with regard to timing, extent, likelihood and degree of occurrence. Therefore, actual results and outcomes may materially differ from what may be expressed or forecasted in such forward-looking statements. Macatawa Bank Corporation does not undertake to update forward-looking statements to reflect the impact of circumstances or events that may arise after the date of the forward-looking statements.

Risk factors include, but are not limited to, the risk factors described in “Item 1A - Risk Factors” of this report. These and other factors are representative of the risk factors that may emerge and could cause a difference between an ultimate actual outcome and preceding forward-looking statements.

PART I

ITEM 1:
Business.

As used in this report, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” ”Macatawa” and “Company” mean Macatawa Bank Corporation and its subsidiaries, unless the context indicates another meaning.  The term “Bank” means Macatawa Bank.

Macatawa Bank Corporation is a Michigan corporation, incorporated in 1997, and is a registered bank holding company. It wholly-owns Macatawa Bank, Macatawa Statutory Trust I and Macatawa Statutory Trust II. Macatawa Bank is a Michigan chartered bank with depository accounts insured by the FDIC. The Bank operates twenty-six branch offices and a lending and operational service facility, providing a full range of commercial and consumer banking and trust services in Kent County, Ottawa County, and northern Allegan County, Michigan. Macatawa Statutory Trusts I and II are grantor trusts and have issued $20.0 million each of pooled trust preferred securities. These trusts are not consolidated in our Consolidated Financial Statements. For further information regarding consolidation, see the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

At December 31, 2018, we had total assets of $1.98 billion, total loans of $1.41 billion, total deposits of $1.68 billion and shareholders’ equity of $190.9 million.  We recognized net income of $26.4 million in 2018 compared to net income of $16.3 million in 2017.  Earnings in 2017 were reduced by $2.5 million to record the impact of tax reform enacted in 2017 on the value of the Company’s net deferred tax assets.  Earnings before income tax in 2018 and 2017 improved over their respective previous years through growth in total revenue, primarily net interest income, while holding noninterest expenses flat.  As of December 31, 2018, the Company’s and the Bank’s risk-based regulatory capital ratios were significantly above those required under the regulatory standards and the Bank continued to be categorized as “well capitalized” at December 31, 2018.

On December 22, 2017, “H.R.1”, also known as the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act”, was signed into law.  This new tax law, among other items, reduces the federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018. This tax rate change reduced our federal income tax liability during 2018.  U.S. generally accepted accounting principles require companies to re-value their deferred tax assets and liabilities as of the date of enactment, with resulting tax effects accounted for in the reporting period of enactment.  Since the enactment took place in December 2017, we revalued our net deferred tax assets in the fourth quarter of 2017 resulting in a $2.5 million reduction to earnings in 2017.

The Company paid a cash dividend of $0.04 per share for the first and second quarters of 2017 and $0.05 per share for the third and fourth quarters of 2017.  The Company increased the dividend to $0.06 per share for the first, second and third quarters of 2018, and to $0.07 per share for the fourth quarter of 2018.

Over the past several years, much progress has been made at reducing our nonperforming assets.  The following table reflects period end balances of these nonperforming assets as well as total loan delinquencies.

   
December 31,
 
(Dollars in thousands)
 
2018
   
2017
   
2016
 
Nonperforming loans
 
$
1,304
   
$
395
   
$
300
 
Other repossessed assets
   
     
11
     
 
Other real estate owned
   
3,380
     
5,767
     
12,253
 
Total nonperforming assets
 
$
4,684
   
$
6,173
   
$
12,553
 
                         
Total delinquencies 30 days or greater past due
 
$
877
   
$
995
   
$
1,447
 

We recorded a provision for loan losses of $450,000 in 2018 due to loan portfolio growth and net charge-offs during the year.  Our earnings in 2017 and 2016 were favorably impacted by negative provisions for loan losses of $1.35 million and $1.35 million, respectively.  The negative provisions in these periods were impacted by recoveries from our collection efforts and a continual decline in our historical charge-off levels from prior years.

While we did experience net charge-offs in 2018, it came after we had experienced five consecutive full years of net recoveries.  The following table reflects the provision for loan losses for the past three years along with certain metrics that impact the determination of the level of the provision for loan losses.

   
For the Year Ended December 31,
 
(Dollars in thousands)
 
2018
   
2017
   
2016
   
Provision for loan losses
 
$
450
   
$
(1,350)

 
$
(1,350)

 
Net charge-offs (recoveries)
   
174
     
(988)

   
(1,231)

 
Net charge-offs (recoveries) to average loans
   
0.01
%
   
(0.08)
%    
(0.10)
%
Nonperforming loans to total loans
   
0.09
%
   
0.03
%    
0.02
%
Loans transferred to ORE to average loans
   
0.02
%
   
0.01
%    
0.03
%
Performing troubled debt restructurings (“TDRs”) to average loans
   
1.20
%
   
1.72
%    
2.45
%

Economic conditions in our market areas of Grand Rapids and Holland have been good during the past several years.  The state of Michigan’s unemployment rate at the end of 2018 was 3.9%.  The Grand Rapids and Holland area unemployment rate was 2.5% at the end of 2018.  Residential housing values and commercial real estate property values have increased in recent years.

It also appears that the housing market in our primary market area continues to be strong.  In the Grand Rapids market during 2018, living unit starts were consistent with levels experienced over the past five years.  The Holland-Grand Haven/Lakeshore region showed similar results.

We experienced strong commercial loan growth in recent years. Most of our emphasis has been on growing commercial and industrial loans.  These loans have increased steadily from $449.3 million at December 31, 2016 to $513.3 million at December 31, 2018.  Commercial real estate loans have increased from $518.0 million at December 31, 2016 to $568.7 million at December 31, 2018.  Consumer loans have increased from $313.5 million at December 31, 2016 to $323.6 million at December 31, 2018.  We believe we are positioned for continued loan growth in 2019.

We have no material foreign loans, assets or activities. No material part of our business is dependent on a single customer or very few customers.  Our loan portfolio is not concentrated in any one industry.

Our headquarters and administrative offices are located at 10753 Macatawa Drive, Holland, Michigan 49424, and our telephone number is (616) 820-1444.  Our internet website address is www.macatawabank.com.  We make available free of charge through this website our annual report on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and our current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after filing or furnishing such reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission.  The information on our website address is not incorporated by reference into this report, and the information on the website is not part of this report.

Products and Services

Loan Portfolio

We have historically offered a broad range of loan products to business customers, including commercial and industrial and commercial real estate loans, and to retail customers, including residential mortgage and consumer loans.  Select, well-managed loan renewal activity is taking place and we are seeing growth in our commercial and consumer loan portfolios and pipelines.  Following is a discussion of our various types of lending activities.

Commercial and Industrial Loans

Our commercial and industrial lending portfolio contains loans with a variety of purposes and security, including loans to finance operations and equipment. Generally, our commercial and industrial lending has been limited to borrowers headquartered, or doing business, in our primary market area.  These credit relationships typically require the satisfaction of appropriate loan covenants and debt formulas, and generally require that the Bank be the primary depository bank of the business.  These loan covenants and debt formulas are monitored through periodic, required reporting of accounts receivable aging schedules and financial statements, and in the case of larger business operations, reviews or audits by independent professional firms.

Commercial and industrial loans typically are made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from the cash flow of the borrower’s business.  As a result, the availability of funds for the repayment of commercial business loans may be substantially dependent on the success of the business itself and economic conditions.  Further, the collateral securing the loans may depreciate over time, may be difficult to appraise and may fluctuate in value based on the success of the business.

Commercial Real Estate Loans

Our commercial real estate loans consist primarily of construction and development loans and multi-family and other non-residential real estate loans.

Construction and Development Loans.   These consist of construction loans to commercial customers for the construction of their business facilities.  They also include construction loans to builders and developers for the construction of one- to four-family residences and the development of one- to four-family lots, residential subdivisions, condominium developments and other commercial developments.

This portfolio can be affected by job losses, declines in real estate value, declines in home sale volumes, and declines in new home building.  During the past several years, we made a significant effort to reduce exposure to residential land development and other construction and development loans.

Multi-Family and Other Non-Residential Real Estate Loans.   These are permanent loans secured by multi-family and other non-residential real estate and include loans secured by apartment buildings, condominiums, small office buildings, small business facilities, medical facilities and other non-residential building properties, substantially all of which are located within our primary market area.

Multi-family and other non-residential real estate loans generally present a higher level of risk than loans secured by owner occupied one- to four-family residences.  This greater risk is due to several factors, including the concentration of principal in a limited number of loans and borrowers, the effects of general economic conditions on income producing properties and the increased difficulty of evaluating and monitoring these types of loans.  Furthermore, the repayment of these loans is typically dependent upon the successful operation of the related real estate project.  For example, if leases are not obtained or renewed, or a bankruptcy court modifies a lease term, or a major tenant is unable to fulfill its lease obligations, cash flow from the project will be reduced.   If cash flow from the project is reduced, the borrower’s ability to repay the loan may be impaired.

Retail Loans

Our retail loans are loans to consumers and consist primarily of residential mortgage loans and consumer loans.

Residential Mortgage Loans.   We originate construction loans to individuals for the construction of their residences and owner-occupied residential mortgage loans, which are generally long-term with either fixed or adjustable interest rates.  Our general policy is to sell the majority of our fixed rate residential mortgage loans in the secondary market due primarily to the interest rate risk associated with these loans.  For 2018, we retained loans representing 66% of the total dollar volume originated, compared to 48% in 2017.

Our borrowers generally qualify and are underwritten using industry standards for quality residential mortgage loans.  We do not originate loans that are considered “sub-prime”.  Residential mortgage loan originations derive from a number of sources, including advertising, direct solicitation, real estate broker referrals, existing borrowers and depositors, builders and walk-in customers.  Loan applications are accepted at most of our offices and online. The substantial majority of these loans are secured by one-to-four family properties in our market area.

Consumer Loans.   We originate a variety of different types of consumer loans, including automobile loans, home equity lines of credit and installment loans, home improvement loans, deposit account loans and other loans for household and personal purposes.  We also originate home equity lines of credit utilizing the same underwriting standards as for home equity installment loans. Home equity lines of credit are revolving line of credit loans.  The majority of our existing home equity line of credit portfolio has variable rates with floors and ceilings, interest only payments and a maximum maturity of ten years.

The underwriting standards that we employ for consumer loans include a determination of the applicant’s payment history on other debts and ability to meet existing obligations and payments on the proposed loan.  Although creditworthiness of the applicant is of primary consideration, the underwriting process also includes a comparison of the value of the security, if any, in relation to the proposed loan amount.  Consumer loans may entail greater credit risk than do residential mortgage loans, particularly in the case of consumer loans which are unsecured or are secured by rapidly depreciable assets, such as automobiles.  In such cases, any repossessed collateral for a defaulted consumer loan may not provide an adequate source of repayment of the outstanding loan balance as a result of the greater likelihood of damage, loss or depreciation.  In addition, consumer loan collections are dependent on the borrower’s continuing financial stability, and are more likely to be affected by adverse personal circumstances.  Furthermore, the application of various federal and state laws, including bankruptcy and insolvency laws, may limit the amount which can be recovered on such loans.

Loan Portfolio Composition

The following table reflects the composition of our loan portfolio and the corresponding percentage of our total loans represented by each class of loans as of the dates indicated.

   
December 31
 
   
2018
   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
   
2014
 
(Dollars in thousands)
 
Amount
   
% of
Total
Loans
   
Amount
   
% of
Total
Loans
   
Amount
   
% of
Total
Loans
   
Amount
   
% of
Total
Loans
   
Amount
   
% of
Total
Loans
 
Real estate - construction (1)
 
$
81,963
     
6
%
 
$
78,487
     
6
%
 
$
64,968
     
5
%
 
$
90,039
     
7
%
 
$
77,564
     
7
%
Real estate - mortgage
   
486,748
     
35
     
463,448
     
35
     
453,013
     
35
     
418,633
     
35
     
412,967
     
37
 
Commercial and industrial
   
513,345
     
36
     
465,208
     
35
     
449,342
     
35
     
377,298
     
31
     
327,674
     
29
 
Total commercial
   
1,082,056
     
77
     
1,007,143
     
76
     
967,323
     
76
     
885,970
     
73
     
818,205
     
73
 
Residential mortgage
   
238,174
     
17
     
224,452
     
17
     
217,614
     
17
     
209,972
     
18
     
190,249
     
17
 
Consumer
   
85,428
     
6
     
88,714
     
7
     
95,875
     
7
     
101,990
     
9
     
110,029
     
10
 
Total loans
   
1,405,658
     
100
%
   
1,320,309
     
100
%
   
1,280,812
     
100
%
   
1,197,932
     
100
%
   
1,118,483
     
100
%
                                                                                 
Less: allowance for loan losses
   
(16,876
)
           
(16,600
)
           
(16,962
)
           
(17,081
)
           
(18,962
)
       
Total loans, net
 
$
1,388,782
           
$
1,303,709
           
$
1,263,850
           
$
1,180,851
           
$
1,099,521
         

(1)
Consists of construction and development loans.

At December 31, 2018, there was no concentration of loans exceeding 10% of total loans which were not otherwise disclosed as a category of loans in the table above.

Maturities and Sensitivities of Loans to Changes in Interest Rates

The following table shows the amount of total loans outstanding at December 31, 2018 which, based on remaining scheduled repayments of principal, are due in the periods indicated.

   
Maturing
 
(Dollars in thousands)
 
Within One
Year
   
After One,
But
Within Five
Years
   
After Five
Years
   
Total
 
Real estate - construction (1)
 
$
25,713
   
$
37,176
   
$
19,074
   
$
81,963
 
Real estate - mortgage
   
48,937
     
312,054
     
125,757
     
486,748
 
Commercial and industrial
   
293,866
     
195,223
     
24,256
     
513,345
 
Total commercial
   
368,516
     
544,453
     
169,087
     
1,082,056
 
Residential mortgage
   
184
     
5,331
     
232,659
     
238,174
 
Consumer
   
2,117
     
19,752
     
63,559
     
85,428
 
Total loans
 
$
370,817
   
$
569,536
   
$
465,305
   
$
1,405,658
 
                                 
   
Maturing or Repricing
 
Loans above:
                               
With predetermined interest rates
 
$
109,341
   
$
412,507
   
$
140,556
   
$
662,404
 
With floating or adjustable rates
   
619,207
     
69,048
     
53,695
     
741,950
 
Total (excluding nonaccrual loans)
 
$
728,548
   
$
481,555
   
$
194,251
     
1,404,354
 
Nonaccrual loans
                           
1,304
 
Total loans
                         
$
1,405,658
 

(1)
Consists of construction and development loans.

Nonperforming Assets

Interest income totaling $1.1 million was recorded in 2018 on loans that were on a non-accrual status or classified as restructured as of December 31, 2018.  Additional interest income of $211,000 would have been recorded during 2018 on these loans had they been current in accordance with their original terms.  More information about the levels of nonperforming loan balances in 2016 through 2018 and our policy for placing loans on non-accrual status may be found in Item 7 of this report under the heading “Portfolio Loans and Asset Quality” included in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition.”

Loans at December 31, 2018 that were classified as substandard or worse per our internal risk rating system that would cause management to have serious doubts as to the ability of such borrowers to comply with the present loan repayment terms are discussed in Item 7 of this report under the heading “Portfolio Loans and Asset Quality” included in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition.”  At December 31, 2018, there were no other interest-bearing assets that would be required to be disclosed under Industry Guide 3, Item III, C. 1. or 2. if such assets were loans.

Loan Loss Experience

A summary of our loan balances at the end of 2016 through 2018 and the daily average balances of these loans as well as changes in the allowance for loan losses arising from loans charged-off and recoveries on loans previously charged-off, and additions to the allowance which we have expensed is shown in Item 7 of this report under the heading “Loan Portfolio and Asset Quality” included in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition.”

Additional information about our allowance for loan losses, including a table showing the allocation of the allowance for loan losses at the end of 2016 through 2018 and the factors which influenced management’s judgment in determining the amount of the additions to the allowance charged to operating expense, may be found in Item 7 of this report under the heading “Allowance for Loan Losses” in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition.”

Deposit Portfolio

We offer a broad range of deposit services, including checking accounts, savings accounts and time deposits of various types.  Transaction accounts and savings and time certificates are tailored to the principal market area at rates competitive with those offered in the area.  All deposit accounts are insured by the FDIC up to the maximum amount permitted by law.

We solicit deposit services from individuals, businesses, associations, churches, nonprofit organizations, financial institutions and government authorities.  Deposits are gathered primarily from the communities we serve through our network of 26 branches.   We offer business and consumer checking accounts, regular and money market savings accounts, and certificates of deposit with many term options. We operate in a competitive environment, competing with other local banks similar in size and with significantly larger regional banks. We monitor rates at other financial institutions in the area to ascertain that our rates are competitive with the market.  We also attempt to offer a wide variety of products to meet the needs of our customers.  We set our deposit pricing to be competitive with other banks in our market area.

We may utilize alternative funding sources as needed, including short-term borrowings, advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Indianapolis or the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, securities sold under agreements to repurchase (“repo borrowings”) and brokered deposits.  We had no brokered deposits or repo borrowings at December 31, 2018 or 2017.

Deposit Portfolio Composition

The following table sets forth the average deposit balances and the weighted average rates paid.

   
December 31
 
   
2018
   
2017
   
2016
 
(Dollars in thousands)
 
Average
Amount
   
Average
Rate
   
Average
Amount
   
Average
Rate
   
Average
Amount
   
Average
Rate
 
Noninterest bearing demand
 
$
467,663
     
---
%
 
$
464,384
     
---
%
 
$
445,046
     
---
%
Interest bearing demand
   
406,694
     
0.3
     
341,384
     
0.1
     
321,825
     
0.1
 
Savings and money market accounts
   
602,676
     
0.6
     
557,703
     
0.3
     
521,857
     
0.2
 
Time
   
109,715
     
1.3
     
85,921
     
0.8
     
84,170
     
0.6
 
Total deposits
 
$
1,586,748
     
0.5
%
 
$
1,449,392
     
0.3
%
 
$
1,372,898
     
0.1
%

The following table summarizes time deposits in amounts of $100,000 or more by time remaining until maturity as of December 31, 2018 (dollars in thousands).

Three months or less
 
$
17,327
 
Over 3 months through 6 months
   
11,496
 
Over 6 months through 1 year
   
21,485
 
Over 1 year
   
20,797
 
   
$
71,105
 

As of the date of this report, the Bank had no material foreign deposits.

Securities Portfolio

Our securities portfolio is classified as either “available for sale” or “held to maturity.”  Securities classified as “available for sale” may be sold prior to maturity due to changes in interest rates, prepayment risks, and availability of alternative investments, or to meet our liquidity needs.

The primary objective of our investing activities is to provide for the safety of the principal invested. Our secondary considerations include the maximization of earnings, liquidity and to help decrease our overall exposure to changes in interest rates.  We have generally invested in bonds with lower credit risk, primarily those secured by government agencies or insured municipalities, to assist in the diversification of credit risk within our asset base.  The commercial bond component of this category decreased by $10.0 million in 2018.

These bonds represent financing provided to some of our non-profit commercial customers who qualified for borrowing on a tax-exempt basis.  We have not experienced any credit losses within our securities portfolio.

The following table reflects the composition of our securities portfolio as of the dates indicated (includes securities available for sale and held to maturity).

   
December 31,
 
(Dollars in thousands)
 
2018
   
2017
   
2016
 
U.S. Treasury and federal agency securities
 
$
95,398
   
$
101,964
   
$
84,350
 
U.S. Agency MBS and CMOs
   
32,890
     
23,385
     
11,817
 
Tax-exempt state and municipal bonds
   
115,461
     
127,884
     
108,565
 
Taxable state and municipal bonds
   
45,934
     
43,735
     
33,883
 
Corporate bonds
   
7,637
     
8,109
     
13,726
 
Other equity securities
   
     
1,470
     
1,470
 
Total
 
$
297,320
   
$
306,547
   
$
253,811
 

At December 31, 2018, other than our holdings in U.S. Treasury and U.S. Government Agency Securities, we had no investments in securities of any one issuer with an aggregate book value in excess of 10% of shareholders’ equity.  At December 31, 2018, we had no investment in securities of issuers outside of the United States.

Schedule of Maturities of Investment Securities and Weighted Average Yields

The following is a schedule of investment securities maturities and their weighted average yield by category at December 31, 2018.

   
Due Within One Year
   
One to Five Years
   
Five to Ten Years
   
After Ten Years
 
(Dollars in thousands)
 
Amount
   
Average
Yield
   
Amount
   
Average
Yield
   
Amount
   
Average
Yield
   
Amount
   
Average
Yield
 
U.S. Treasury and federal agency securities
 
$
14,647
     
1.44
%
 
$
77,774
     
1.92
%
 
$
2,978
     
2.77
%
 
$
     
%
U.S. Agency MBS and CMOs
   
     
     
267
     
2.28
     
1,774
     
2.73
     
30,849
     
2.64
 
Tax-exempt state and municipal bonds (1)
   
8,657
     
1.92
     
43,032
     
3.29
     
44,132
     
3.10
     
19,640
     
2.74
 
Taxable state and municipal bonds
   
5,962
     
2.04
     
32,958
     
2.28
     
5,928
     
2.92
     
1,086
     
2.25
 
Corporate bonds
   
3,064
     
2.05
     
4,572
     
1.35
     
     
     
     
 
Total (1)
 
$
32,330
     
1.73
%
 
$
158,603
     
2.37
%
 
$
54,812
     
3.05
%
 
$
51,575
     
2.62
%

(1)
Yields on tax-exempt securities are computed on a fully taxable-equivalent basis.

Trust Services

We offer trust services to further provide for the financial needs of our customers.  As of December 31, 2018, the Trust Department managed assets of approximately $820.8 million.  Our types of service include both personal trust and retirement plan services.

Our personal trust services include financial planning, investment management services, trust and estate administration and custodial services.  As of December 31, 2018, personal trust assets under management totaled approximately $458.6 million.  Our retirement plan services encompass all types of qualified retirement plans, including profit sharing, 401(k) and pension plans.  As of December 31, 2018, retirement plan assets under management totaled approximately $362.2 million.

Market Area

Our primary market area includes Ottawa, Kent and northern Allegan Counties, all located in western Michigan. This area includes two mid-sized cities, Grand Rapids and Holland, and rural areas. Grand Rapids is the second largest city in Michigan.  Holland is the largest city in Ottawa County. Both cities and surrounding areas have a solid and diverse economic base, which includes health and life sciences, tourism, office and home furniture, automotive components and assemblies, pharmaceutical, transportation, equipment, food and construction supplies.  Grand Valley State University, a 25,000-student regional university with nearly 2,000 employees, has its three main campuses in our market area.  GVSU and several smaller colleges and university affiliates located in our market area help stabilize the local economy because they are not as sensitive to the fluctuations of the broader economy.  Companies operating in the market area include the Van Andel Institute, Steelcase, Herman Miller, Amway, Gentex, Spectrum Health, Haworth, Wolverine World Wide, Johnson Controls, General Motors, Gerber, Magna, SpartanNash and Meijer.

Competition

There are many bank, thrift, credit union and other financial institution offices located within our market area.  Most are branches of larger financial institutions.  We also face competition from finance companies, insurance companies, mortgage companies, securities brokerage firms, money market funds and other providers of financial services.  Many of our competitors have been in business a number of years, have established customer bases, are larger and have higher lending limits than we do.  We compete for loans, deposits and other financial services based on our ability to communicate effectively with our customers, to understand and meet their needs and to provide high quality customer service.  Our management believes that our personal service philosophy, our local decision-making and diverse delivery channels enhances our ability to compete favorably in attracting individuals and small businesses.  We actively solicit customers by offering our customers personal attention, professional service, and competitive interest rates.

Employees

As of December 31, 2018, we had 334 full-time equivalent employees consisting of 292 full-time and 79 part-time employees.  We have assembled a staff of experienced, dedicated and qualified professionals whose goal is to meet the financial needs of our customers while providing outstanding service.  The majority of our management team has at least 10 years of banking experience, and several key personnel have more than 20 years of banking experience.  None of our employees are represented by collective bargaining agreements with us.

SUPERVISION AND REGULATION

The following is a summary of statutes and regulations affecting Macatawa Bank Corporation and Macatawa Bank.  A change in applicable laws or regulations may have a material effect on us and our business.

General

Financial institutions and their holding companies are extensively regulated under federal and state law. Consequently, our growth and earnings performance can be affected not only by management decisions and general economic conditions, but also by the statutes administered by, and the regulations and policies of, various governmental regulatory authorities.  Those authorities include, but are not limited to, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve Board”), the FDIC, the State of Michigan’s Department of Financial and Insurance Services (“DIFS”), the Internal Revenue Service, and state taxing authorities. The effect of such statutes, regulations and policies can be significant, and cannot be predicted with a high degree of certainty.

Federal and state laws and regulations generally applicable to financial institutions and their holding companies regulate, among other things, the scope of business, investments, reserves against deposits, capital levels relative to operations, lending activities and practices, the nature and amount of collateral for loans, the establishment of branches, mergers, consolidations and declaration and payment of dividends.  The system of supervision and regulation applicable to us and our bank establishes a comprehensive framework for our respective operations and is intended primarily for the protection of the FDIC’s deposit insurance fund, our depositors, and the public, rather than our shareholders.

Federal law and regulations establish supervisory standards applicable to our lending activities, including internal controls, credit underwriting, loan documentation and loan-to-value ratios for loans secured by real property.

Recent Developments

Tax Cuts and Jobs Act: On December 22, 2017, “H.R.1”, also known as the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act”, was signed into law.  This new tax law, among other items, reduces the federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018. This tax rate change reduced the Company’s federal income tax liability in 2018.  However, the new tax law impacted the Company’s 2017 operating results as well.  U.S. generally accepted accounting principles require companies to re-value their deferred tax assets and liabilities as of the date of enactment, with resulting tax effects accounted for in the reporting period of enactment.  Since the enactment took place in December 2017, the Company revalued its net deferred tax assets in the fourth quarter of 2017 resulting in a $2.5 million reduction to earnings in 2017.

Macatawa Bank Corporation

General.  Macatawa Bank Corporation is registered as a bank holding company with, and subject to regulation by, the Federal Reserve Board under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHCA”).  Under the BHCA, Macatawa Bank Corporation is subject to periodic examination by the Federal Reserve Board, and is required to file with the Federal Reserve Board periodic reports of our operations and such additional information as the Federal Reserve Board may require.

In accordance with Federal Reserve Board policy, Macatawa Bank Corporation is expected to act as a source of financial strength to the Bank and to commit resources to support the Bank.  In addition, if the DIFS deems the Bank’s capital to be impaired, the DIFS may require the Bank to restore its capital by a special assessment upon Macatawa Bank Corporation as the Bank’s sole shareholder.  If Macatawa Bank Corporation were to fail to pay any such assessment, the directors of the Bank would be required, under Michigan law, to sell all or part of the shares of the Bank’s stock owned by Macatawa Bank Corporation to the highest bidder at either a public or private auction and use the proceeds of the sale to restore the Bank’s capital.

Investments and Activities.  In general, any direct or indirect acquisition by us of any voting shares of any bank which would result in our direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of any class of voting shares of such bank, and any merger or consolidation between us and another financial holding company or bank holding company, will require the prior written approval of the Federal Reserve Board under the BHCA.

The merger or consolidation of the Bank with another bank, or the acquisition by the Bank of assets of another bank, or the assumption of liability by the Bank to pay any deposits of another bank, will require the prior written approval of the FDIC under the Bank Merger Act and DIFS under the Michigan Banking Code.  In addition, in certain such cases, an application to, and the prior approval of, the Federal Reserve Board under the BHCA may be required.

Capital Requirements.  The Federal Reserve Board uses capital adequacy guidelines in its examination and regulation of bank holding companies.  If capital falls below minimum guidelines, a bank holding company may, among other things, be denied approval to acquire or establish additional banks or non-bank businesses.

Additional information on our capital ratios may be found in Item 7 of this report under the heading “Capital Resources” included in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition” and in Item 8 of this report in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, and is here incorporated by reference.

Dividends.  Macatawa Bank Corporation is a corporation separate and distinct from the Bank.  Most of our revenues are dividends paid by the Bank.  Thus, Macatawa Bank Corporation’s ability to pay dividends to our shareholders is indirectly limited by restrictions on the Bank’s ability to pay dividends described below.  Further, in a policy statement, the Federal Reserve Board has expressed its view that a bank holding company should not pay cash dividends if its net income available to shareholders for the past four quarters, net of dividends paid during that period, is not sufficient to fully fund the dividends, its prospective rate of earnings retention is not consistent with capital needs and overall current and prospective financial condition, or it will not meet, or is in danger of not meeting, its minimum regulatory capital adequacy ratios.  The Federal Reserve Board also possesses enforcement powers over bank holding companies and their non-bank subsidiaries to prevent or remedy actions that represent unsafe or unsound practices or violations of applicable statutes and regulations.  Among these powers is the ability to proscribe the payment of dividends by banks and bank holding companies.  Similar enforcement powers over our Bank are possessed by the FDIC.  The “prompt corrective action” provisions of federal law and regulation authorizes the FDIC to restrict the payment of dividends to Macatawa Bank Corporation by our Bank if the Bank fails to meet specified capital levels.

In addition, the Michigan Business Corporation Act provides that dividends may be legally declared or paid only if after the distribution a corporation can pay its debts as they come due in the usual course of business and its total assets equal or exceed the sum of its liabilities plus the amount that would be needed to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of any holders of preferred stock whose preferential rights are superior to those receiving the distribution.

Additional information about restrictions on the payment of dividends by the Bank may be found in Item 8 of this report in Notes 1 and 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements and is here incorporated by reference.

Federal Securities Regulation.   Our common stock is registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).  We are subject to the information, proxy solicitation, insider trading and other restrictions and requirements of the SEC under the Exchange Act.  We are subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which imposes numerous reporting, accounting, corporate governance and business practices on companies, as well as financial and other professionals who have involvement with the U.S. public markets.  We are generally subject to these requirements and applicable SEC rules and regulations.

Macatawa Bank

General.  Macatawa Bank is a Michigan banking corporation, and its deposit accounts are insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund (the “DIF”) of the FDIC.  As a DIF-insured Michigan-chartered bank, the Bank is subject to the examination, supervision, reporting and enforcement requirements of the DIFS, as the chartering authority for Michigan banks, and the FDIC, as administrator of the DIF.  These agencies, and the federal and state laws applicable to the Bank and its operations, extensively regulate various aspects of the banking business, including, among other things, permissible types and amounts of loans, investments and other activities, capital adequacy, branching, interest rates on loans and on deposits, the maintenance of noninterest bearing reserves on deposit accounts, and the safety and soundness of banking practices.

Deposit Insurance.  As an FDIC-insured institution, the Bank is required to pay deposit insurance premium assessments to the FDIC.  The FDIC has adopted a risk-based assessment system under which all insured depository institutions are placed into one of four categories and assessed insurance premiums, based upon their respective levels of capital and results of supervisory evaluation.  Institutions categorized as well-capitalized (as defined by the FDIC) and considered healthy pay the lowest premium, while institutions that are categorized as less than adequately capitalized (as defined by the FDIC) and considered of substantial supervisory concern pay the highest premium.  Risk classification of all insured institutions is made by the FDIC for each semi-annual assessment period.

The FDIC’s deposit insurance assessment base methodology uses average consolidated total assets less average tangible equity as the assessment base.  Under this calculation, most well capitalized banks will pay 5 to 9 basis points annually, increasing up to 35 basis points for banks that pose significant supervisory concerns.  This base rate may be adjusted for the level of unsecured debt and brokered deposits, resulting in adjusted rates ranging from 2.5 to 9 basis points annually for most well capitalized banks to 30 to 45 basis points for banks that pose significant supervisory concerns.  We estimate our annual assessment rate to be 3 basis points in 2019.  The FDIC Deposit Insurance Fund exceeded its targeted reserve ratio of 1.35% and the FDIC sent the Bank a letter dated January 24, 2019 notifying the Bank that it would be apportioned a share of the excess in the form of credits to offset future assessments.  The preliminary assessment credit for the Bank was approximately $400,000.  Total FDIC assessment expense for 2018 was $518,000, so this will significantly reduce the Bank’s expense in 2019.

FICO Assessments.   The Bank, as a member of the DIF, is subject to assessments to cover the payments on outstanding obligations of the Financing Corporation (“FICO”).  From now until the maturity of the outstanding FICO obligations in 2019, DIF members will share the cost of the interest on the FICO bonds on a pro rata basis.  It is estimated that FICO assessments during this period will be less than 0.025% of deposits.

Capital Requirements.  The FDIC has established the following minimum capital standards for FDIC insured banks:  a leverage requirement consisting of a ratio of Tier 1 capital to total average assets and risk-based capital requirements consisting of a ratio of total capital to total risk-weighted assets, a ratio of Tier 1 capital to total risk-weighted assets, and a ratio of common equity Tier 1 (CET1) capital to risk weighted assets.  Tier 1 capital consists principally of shareholders’ equity.  Common equity Tier 1 capital excludes forms of stock that are not common stock.

Basel III. In July 2013, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Board and the FDIC approved the final rules implementing the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision’s capital guidelines for U.S. banks (commonly known as Basel III). Under the final rules, which began for the Company and the Bank on January 1, 2015 and are subject to a phase-in period through January 1, 2019, minimum requirements will increase for both the quantity and quality of capital held by the Company and the Bank. The rules include a new common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio (CET1 ratio) of 4.5% and a capital conservation buffer of 2.5% of risk-weighted assets, which when fully phased-in, effectively results in a minimum CET1 ratio of 7.0%. Basel III raises the minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets from 4.0% to 6.0% (which, with the capital conservation buffer, effectively results in a minimum Tier 1 capital ratio of 8.5% when fully phased-in), effectively results in a minimum total capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 10.5% (with the capital conservation buffer fully phased-in), and requires a minimum leverage ratio of 4.0%. Basel III also makes changes to risk weights for certain assets and off-balance-sheet exposures. We expect that the capital ratios for the Company and the Bank under Basel III will continue to exceed the well capitalized minimum capital requirements.

Federal regulations define these capital categories as follows:

   
CET1 Risk-Based
Capital Ratio
 
Tier 1 Risk-Based
Capital Ratio
 
Total Risk-Based
Capital Ratio
 
Leverage Ratio
Well capitalized
 
6.5% or above
 
8% or above
 
10% or above
 
5% or above
Adequately capitalized
 
4.5% or above
 
6% or above
 
8% or above
 
4% or above
Undercapitalized
 
Less than 4.5%
 
Less than 6%
 
Less than 8%
 
Less than 4%
Significantly undercapitalized
 
Less than 3%
 
Less than 4%
 
Less than 6%
 
Less than 3%
Critically undercapitalized
 
 
 
 
Ratio of tangible equity to total assets of 2% or less

Federal law provides the federal banking regulators with broad power to take prompt corrective action to resolve the problems of undercapitalized institutions.  Depending upon the capital category to which an institution is assigned, the regulators’ corrective powers include:  requiring the submission of a capital restoration plan; placing limits on asset growth and restrictions on activities; requiring the institution to issue additional capital stock (including additional voting stock) or to be acquired; restricting transactions with affiliates; restricting the interest rate the institution may pay on deposits; ordering a new election of directors of the institution; requiring that senior executive officers or directors be dismissed; prohibiting the institution from accepting deposits from correspondent banks; requiring the institution to divest certain subsidiaries; prohibiting the payment of principal or interest on subordinated debt; and ultimately, appointing a receiver for the institution.

In general, a depository institution may be reclassified to a lower category than is indicated by its capital levels if the appropriate federal depository institution regulatory agency determines the institution to be otherwise in an unsafe or unsound condition or to be engaged in an unsafe or unsound practice.  This could include a failure by the institution, following receipt of a less-than-satisfactory rating on its most recent examination report, to correct the deficiency.

As of December 31, 2018, the Bank was categorized as “well capitalized”.   Additional information on our capital ratios may be found in Item 8 of this report in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, and is here incorporated by reference.

Dividends.  Under Michigan law, the Bank is restricted as to the maximum amount of dividends it may pay on its common stock.  The Bank may not pay dividends except out of net income after deducting its losses and bad debts. A Michigan state bank may not declare or pay a dividend unless the bank will have surplus amounting to at least 20% of its capital after the payment of the dividend.

Federal law generally prohibits a depository institution from making any capital distribution (including payment of a dividend) or paying any management fee to its holding company if the depository institution would thereafter be undercapitalized.  The FDIC may prevent an insured bank from paying dividends if the bank is in default of payment of any assessment due to the FDIC.  In addition, the FDIC may prohibit the payment of dividends by the Bank, if such payment is determined to be an unsafe and unsound banking practice.

Additional information about restrictions on payment of dividends by the Bank may be found in Item 8 of this report in Notes 1 and 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, and is here incorporated by reference.

Insider Transactions.  The Bank is subject to certain restrictions imposed by federal law on any extensions of credit to Macatawa or any subsidiary of Macatawa, on investments in the stock or other securities of Macatawa or any subsidiary of Macatawa and the acceptance of the stock or other securities of Macatawa or any subsidiary of Macatawa as collateral for loans.  Certain limitations and reporting requirements are also placed on extensions of credit by the Bank to its directors and officers, to Macatawa’s directors and officers, to our principal shareholders and to “related interests” of such directors, officers and principal shareholders.  In addition, federal law and regulations may affect the terms upon which any person becoming a director or officer of our company or any subsidiary or a principal shareholder in our company may obtain credit from banks with which the Bank maintains a correspondent relationship.

Safety and Soundness Standards.  The federal banking agencies have adopted guidelines to promote the safety and soundness of federally insured depository institutions.  These guidelines establish standards for, among other things, internal controls, information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, compensation, fees and benefits, asset quality and earnings.

Investments and Other Activities.  Under federal law and FDIC regulations, FDIC insured state banks are prohibited, subject to certain exceptions, from making or retaining equity investments of a type, or in an amount, that are not permissible for a national bank.  Federal law, as implemented by FDIC regulations, also prohibits FDIC insured state banks and their subsidiaries, subject to certain exceptions, from engaging as principal in any activity that is not permitted for a national bank or its subsidiary, respectively, unless the bank meets, and continues to meet, its minimum regulatory capital requirements and the FDIC determines the activity would not pose a significant risk to the DIF.  Impermissible investments and activities must be divested or discontinued within certain time frames set by the FDIC in accordance with federal law.

Consumer Protection Laws.  The Bank’s business includes making a variety of types of loans to individuals. In making these loans, we are subject to state usury and regulatory laws and to various federal laws and regulations, including the privacy of consumer financial information provisions of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, and the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, which prohibit discrimination, specify disclosures to be made to borrowers regarding credit and settlement costs, and regulate the mortgage loan servicing activities of the Bank, including the maintenance and operation of escrow accounts and the transfer of mortgage loan servicing.  In receiving deposits, the Bank is subject to extensive regulation under state and federal law and regulations, including the Truth in Savings Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Act.  Violation of these laws could result in the imposition of significant damages and fines upon the Bank and its directors and officers.

Anti-Money Laundering and OFAC Regulation.  A major focus of governmental policy on financial institutions in recent years has been aimed at combating money laundering and terrorist financing.  The Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 (“BSA”) and subsequent laws and regulations require the Bank to take steps to prevent the use of the Bank or its systems from facilitating the flow of illegal or illicit money or terrorist funds.  Those requirements include ensuring effective Board and management oversight, establishing policies and procedures, performing comprehensive risk assessments, developing effective monitoring and reporting capabilities, ensuring adequate training and establishing a comprehensive independent audit of BSA compliance activities.

The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (“Patriot Act”) significantly expanded the anti-money laundering (“AML”) and financial transparency laws and regulations by imposing significant new compliance and due diligence obligations, creating new crimes and penalties and expanding the extra-territorial jurisdiction of the United States. Regulations promulgated under the Patriot Act impose various requirements on financial institutions, such as standards for verifying client identification at account opening and maintaining expanded records (including “Know Your Customer” and “Enhanced Due Diligence” practices) and other obligations to maintain appropriate policies, procedures and controls to aid the process of preventing, detecting, and reporting money laundering and terrorist financing. An institution subject to the Patriot Act must provide AML training to employees, designate an AML compliance officer and annually audit the AML program to assess its effectiveness. The FDIC continues to issue regulations and additional guidance with respect to the application and requirements of BSA and AML.

The United States has imposed economic sanctions that affect transactions with designated foreign countries, nationals and others. Based on their administration by the United States Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), these are typically known as the “OFAC” rules. The OFAC-administered sanctions targeting countries take many different forms. Generally, however, they contain one or more of the following elements: (i) restrictions on trade with or investment in a sanctioned country, including prohibitions against direct or indirect imports from and exports to a sanctioned country and prohibitions on “United States persons” engaging in financial transactions relating to making investments in, or providing investment-related advice or assistance to, a sanctioned country; and (ii) a blocking of assets in which the government or specially designated nationals of the sanctioned country have an interest, by prohibiting transfers of property subject to United States jurisdiction (including property in the possession or control of United States persons). Blocked assets (e.g., property and bank deposits) cannot be paid out, withdrawn, set off or transferred in any manner without a license from OFAC.

Failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate BSA, AML and OFAC programs, or to comply with all of the relevant laws or regulations, could have serious legal and reputational consequences for the institution and result in material fines and sanctions.

Branching Authority.   Michigan banks have the authority under Michigan law to establish branches anywhere in the State of Michigan, subject to receipt of all required regulatory approvals.  Banks may establish interstate branch networks through acquisitions of other banks.  The establishment of de novo interstate branches or the acquisition of individual branches of a bank in another state (rather than the acquisition of an out-of-state bank in its entirety) is allowed only if specifically authorized by state law.

Michigan law permits both U.S. and non-U.S. banks to establish branch offices in Michigan.  The Michigan Banking Code permits, in appropriate circumstances and with the approval of the DIFS, (1) acquisition of Michigan banks by FDIC-insured banks, savings banks or savings and loan associations located in other states, (2) sale by a Michigan bank of branches to an FDIC-insured bank, savings bank or savings and loan association located in a state in which a Michigan bank could purchase branches of the purchasing entity, (3) consolidation of Michigan banks and FDIC-insured banks, savings banks or savings and loan associations located in other states having laws permitting such consolidation, (4) establishment of branches in Michigan by FDIC-insured banks located in other states, the District of Columbia or U.S. territories or protectorates having laws permitting a Michigan bank to establish a branch in such jurisdiction, and (5) establishment by foreign banks of branches located in Michigan.  A Michigan bank holding company may acquire a non-Michigan bank and a non-Michigan bank holding company may acquire a Michigan bank.

ITEM 1A:
Risk Factors.

Risks related to the our Business

Earnings in recent years were supported, in part, by negative provisions for loan losses and non-recurring events, which will not necessarily be available in future years.

We were profitable in years 2016 through 2018. Earnings in these years were supported, in part, by negative provisions for loan losses and non-recurring events.  We have recorded negative provisions for loan losses of $1.35 million and $1.35 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, and 2016, respectively. We do not expect a similar level of negative provisions for loan losses in 2019, and non-recurring events with similar levels of positive impact on earnings are not likely to occur in 2019.

Our nonperforming assets and other problem loans could have an adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.

Our nonperforming assets (which includes non-accrual loans, foreclosed properties and other accruing loans past due 90 days or more) were approximately $4.7 million at December 31, 2018.  These assets could negatively impact operating results through higher loan losses, lost interest and higher costs to administer problem assets.

National, state and local economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.

The results of operations for financial institutions, including our Bank, may be materially and adversely affected by changes in prevailing national, state and local economic conditions. Our profitability is heavily influenced by the quality of the Company’s loan portfolio and the stability of the Company’s deposits. Unlike larger national or regional banks that are more geographically diversified, the Company provides banking and financial services to customers primarily in Ottawa, Kent and Allegan Counties of western Michigan. The local economic conditions in these areas have a significant impact on the demand for the Company’s products and services, and the ability of the Company’s customers to repay loans, the value of the collateral securing loans and the stability of the Company’s deposit funding sources. A significant decline in general economic conditions, caused by inflation, recession, acts of terrorism, outbreak of hostilities or other international or domestic occurrences, unemployment, changes in securities, financial, capital or credit markets or other factors, could impact national and local economic conditions and have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.

Our credit losses could increase and our allowance for loan losses may not be adequate to cover actual loan losses.

The risk of nonpayment of loans is inherent in all lending activities and nonpayment of loans may have a material adverse effect on our earnings and overall financial condition, and the value of our common stock. We make various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of our loan portfolio and provide an allowance for potential losses based on a number of factors. If our assumptions are wrong, our allowance for loan losses may not be sufficient to cover our losses, which could have an adverse effect on our operating results, and may cause us to increase the allowance in the future. The actual amount of future provisions for loan losses cannot now be determined and may exceed the amounts of past provisions for loan losses. Federal and state banking regulators, as an integral part of their supervisory function, periodically review our allowance for loan losses. These regulatory agencies may require us to increase our provision for loan losses or to recognize further loan charge-offs based upon their judgments, which may be different from ours. Any increase in the allowance for loan losses could have a negative effect on our regulatory capital ratios, net income, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to liquidity risk in our operations, which could adversely affect our ability to fund various obligations.

Liquidity risk is the possibility of being unable to meet obligations as they come due, pay deposits when withdrawn, and fund loan and investment opportunities as they arise because of an inability to liquidate assets or obtain adequate funding on a timely basis, at a reasonable cost and within acceptable risk tolerances. Liquidity is required to fund various obligations, including credit obligations to borrowers, mortgage originations, withdrawals by depositors, repayment of debt, operating expenses and capital expenditures. Liquidity of the Bank is derived primarily from retail deposit growth and retention, principal and interest payments on loans and investment securities, net cash provided from operations and access to other funding sources. Liquidity is essential to our business. We must maintain sufficient funds to respond to the needs of depositors and borrowers. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale or pledging as collateral of loans and other assets could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity.  An inability to retain the current level of deposits, including the loss of one or more of the Bank’s larger deposit relationships, could have a material adverse effect on the Bank’s liquidity.  Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance activities could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically or the financial services industry in general. Factors that could detrimentally impact our access to liquidity sources include a decrease in the level of the business activity due to a market down turn or regulatory action that limits or eliminates access to alternate funding sources, including brokered deposits discussed above. Our ability to borrow could also be impaired by factors that are nonspecific to the Company, such as severe disruption of the financial markets or negative expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry as a whole.

Our construction and development lending exposes us to significant risks.

Construction and development loans consist of loans to commercial customers for the construction of their business facilities.  They also include construction loans to builders and developers for the construction of one- to four-family residences and the development of one- to four-family lots, residential subdivisions, condominium developments and other commercial developments.  This portfolio may be particularly adversely affected by job losses, declines in real estate values, declines in home sale volumes, and declines in new home building. Declining real estate values may result in sharp increases in losses, particularly in the land development and construction loan portfolios to residential developers.  This type of lending is generally considered to have more complex credit risks than traditional single-family residential lending because the principal is concentrated in a limited number of loans with repayment dependent on the successful completion and sales of the related real estate project.  Consequently, these loans are often more sensitive to adverse conditions in the real estate market or the general economy than other real estate loans.  These loans are generally less predictable and more difficult to evaluate and monitor and collateral may be difficult to dispose of in a market decline. Additionally, we may experience significant construction loan losses if independent appraisers or project engineers inaccurately estimate the cost and value of construction loan projects.

We have significant exposure to risks associated with commercial and residential real estate.

A substantial portion of our loan portfolio consists of commercial and residential real estate-related loans, including real estate development, construction and residential and commercial mortgage loans.  As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately $568.7 million of commercial real estate loans outstanding, which represented approximately 40.5% of our loan portfolio.  As of that same date, we had approximately $238.2 million in residential real estate loans outstanding, or approximately 23.0% of our loan portfolio. Consequently, real estate-related credit risks are a significant concern for us. The adverse consequences from real estate-related credit risks tend to be cyclical and are often driven by national economic developments that are not controllable or entirely foreseeable by us or our borrowers.

Commercial loans may expose us to greater financial and credit risk than other loans.

Our commercial loan portfolio, including commercial mortgages, was approximately $1.1 billion at December 31, 2018, comprising approximately 77.0% of our total loan portfolio. Commercial loans generally carry larger loan balances and can involve a greater degree of financial and credit risk than other loans. Any significant failure to pay on time by our customers would hurt our earnings. The increased financial and credit risk associated with these types of loans are a result of several factors, including the concentration of principal in a limited number of loans and borrowers, the size of loan balances, the effects of general economic conditions on income-producing properties and the increased difficulty of evaluating and monitoring these types of loans. In addition, when underwriting a commercial or industrial loan, we may take a security interest in commercial real estate, and, in some instances upon a default by the borrower, we may foreclose on and take title to the property, which may lead to potential financial risks for us under applicable environmental laws. If hazardous substances were discovered on any of these properties, we may be liable to governmental agencies or third parties for the costs of remediation of the hazard, as well as for personal injury and property damage. Many environmental laws can impose liability regardless of whether we knew of, or were responsible for, the contamination.

Our loan portfolio has and will continue to be affected by the housing market.

Loans to residential developers involved in the development or sale of 1-4 family residential properties were approximately $35.3 million, $30.8 million and $26.0 million at December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. As we continue our on-going portfolio monitoring, we will make credit and reserve decisions based on the current conditions of the borrower or project combined with our expectations for the future. If the housing market deteriorates, we could experience higher charge-offs and delinquencies in this portfolio.

We may face pressure from historical purchasers of our residential mortgage loans to repurchase those loans or reimburse purchasers for losses related to those loans.

We generally sell the fixed rate long-term residential mortgage loans we originate on the secondary market and retain adjustable rate mortgage loans for our portfolios.  Purchasers of residential mortgage loans, such as government sponsored entities, may seek to require sellers of residential mortgage loans to either repurchase loans previously sold or reimburse purchasers for losses related to loans previously sold when losses are incurred on a loan previously sold due to actual or alleged failure to strictly conform to the purchaser’s purchase criteria.  We may face claims from historical purchasers of our residential mortgage loans to repurchase those loans or reimburse purchasers for losses related to those loans and we may face increasing expenses to defend against such claims.  If we are required in the future to repurchase loans previously sold, reimburse purchasers for losses related to loans previously sold, or if we incur increasing expenses to defend against such claims, our financial condition and results of operations would be negatively affected, and would lower our capital ratios as a result of increasing assets and lowering income through expenses and any loss incurred.

For the five-year period ended December 31, 2018, the Company has sold an aggregate of $379.7 million of residential mortgage loans on the secondary market.  As of December 31, 2018, the Company had no pending repurchase demands or claims related to residential mortgage loans sold on the secondary market during the five-year period ended December 31, 2018.

Changes in interest rates may negatively affect our earnings and the value of our assets.

Our earnings and cash flows depend substantially upon our net interest income.  Net interest income is the difference between interest income earned on interest-earning assets, such as loans and investment securities, and interest expense paid on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowed funds.  Interest rates are sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions, competition and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies and, in particular, the policies of the Federal Reserve Board.  Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence not only the interest we receive on loans and investment securities and the amount of interest we pay on deposits and borrowings, but such changes could also affect: (i) our ability to originate loans and obtain deposits; (ii) the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities, including our securities portfolio; and (iii) the average duration of our interest-earning assets.  This also includes the risk that interest-earning assets may be more responsive to changes in interest rates than interest-bearing liabilities, or vice versa (repricing risk), the risk that the individual interest rates or rates indices underlying various interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities may not change in the same degree over a given time period (basis risk), and the risk of changing interest rate relationships across the spectrum of interest-earning asset and interest-bearing liability maturities (yield curve risk), including a prolonged flat or inverted yield curve environment.  Any substantial, unexpected, prolonged change in market interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

For several years prior to December 2015, the Federal Open Market Committee (“FOMC”) kept the target federal funds between 0% and 0.25%.  In December 2015, the FOMC increased the target federal funds rate by 25 basis points, representing the first increase in nearly a decade.  Since then, the FOMC has increased the target federal funds rate by 25 basis points on eight separate occasions.  Based on comments made by the FOMC, we expect fewer increases during 2019, and the overall lower interest rate environment is expected to continue in 2019.  The extended lower interest rate environment has compressed our net interest spread and reduced our spread-based revenues, which has had an adverse impact on our revenue and results of operations.

We are subject to significant government regulation, and any regulatory changes may adversely affect us.

The banking industry is heavily regulated under both federal and state law.  These regulations are primarily intended to protect customers and the Deposit Insurance Fund, not our creditors or shareholders.  We are subject to extensive regulation by the Federal Reserve, the FDIC and the DIFS, in addition to other regulatory and self-regulatory organizations.  Future regulatory changes or accounting pronouncements may increase our regulatory capital requirements or adversely affect our regulatory capital levels.  Regulations affecting banks and financial services companies undergo continuous change, and we cannot predict the ultimate effect of such changes, which could have a material adverse effect on our profitability or financial condition.

The Company could be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions, including defaults by larger financial institutions.

The Company’s ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of credit, trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships between financial institutions. The Company has exposure to multiple counterparties, and the Company routinely executes transactions with counterparties in the financial industry. As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial services institutions, or the financial services industry generally, could lead to market-wide liquidity problems and losses or defaults by the Company or by other institutions. This is sometimes referred to as “systemic risk” and may adversely affect financial intermediaries, such as clearing agencies, clearing houses, banks, securities firms and exchanges, with which the Company interacts on a daily basis, and therefore could adversely affect the Company.

We rely heavily on our management and other key personnel, and the loss of any of them may adversely affect our operations.

We are and will continue to be dependent upon the services of our management team and other key personnel.  Losing the services of one or more key members of our management team could adversely affect our operations.

Our controls and procedures may fail or be circumvented.

Management regularly reviews and updates our internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures. Any system of controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met.  If we fail to identify and remediate control deficiencies, it is possible that a material misstatement of interim or annual financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.  In addition, any failure or circumvention of our other controls and procedures or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The Bank may be required to pay additional insurance premiums to the FDIC, which could negatively impact earnings.

Depending upon any future losses that the FDIC insurance fund may suffer, there can be no assurance that there will not be additional premium increases in order to replenish the fund. The FDIC may need to set a higher base rate schedule or impose special assessments due to future financial institution failures and updated failure and loss projections. Increased FDIC assessment rates could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.

If we cannot raise additional capital when needed, our ability to further expand our operations through organic growth and acquisitions could be materially impaired.

We are required by federal and state regulatory authorities to maintain specified levels of capital to support our operations.  We may need to raise additional capital to support our current level of assets or our growth.  Our ability to raise additional capital will depend on conditions in the capital markets at that time, which are outside our control, and on our financial performance.  We cannot assure that we will be able to raise additional capital in the future on terms acceptable to us or at all.  If we cannot raise additional capital when needed, our ability to expand our operations through organic growth or acquisitions could be materially limited.  Additional information on the capital requirements applicable to the Bank may be found under the heading “Regulatory Capital” in Note 17 in Item 8.

We may be a defendant in a variety of litigation and other actions, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We may be involved from time to time in a variety of litigation arising out of our business. Our insurance may not cover all claims that may be asserted against us, and any claims asserted against us, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, may harm our reputation or cause us to incur unexpected expenses, which could be material in amount. Should the ultimate expenses, judgments or settlements in any litigation exceed our insurance coverage, they could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we may not be able to obtain appropriate types or levels of insurance in the future, and we may not be able to obtain adequate replacement of our existing policies with acceptable terms, if at all.

Our future success is dependent on our ability to compete effectively in the highly competitive banking industry.

We face substantial competition in all phases of our operations from a variety of different competitors.  Our future growth and success will depend on our ability to compete effectively in this highly competitive environment.  We compete for deposits, loans and other financial services with numerous Michigan-based and out-of-state banks, thrifts, credit unions and other financial institutions as well as other entities which provide financial services, including technology-oriented financial services (FinTech) companies.  Some of the financial institutions and financial services organizations with which we compete are not subject to the same degree of regulation as we are.  Most of our competitors have been in business for many years, have established customer bases, are larger, and have substantially higher lending limits than we do.  The financial services industry is also likely to become more competitive as further technological advances enable more companies to provide financial services.  Competition for limited, high-quality lending opportunities and core deposits in an increasingly competitive marketplace may adversely affect our results of operations.

Evaluation of investment securities for other-than-temporary impairment involves subjective determinations and could materially impact our results of   operations and financial condition.

The evaluation of impairments is a quantitative and qualitative process, which is subject to risks and uncertainties and is intended to determine whether declines in the fair value of investments should be recognized in current period earnings. The risks and uncertainties include changes in general economic conditions, the issuer’s financial condition or future recovery prospects, the effects of changes in interest rates or credit spreads and the expected recovery period. Estimating future cash flows involves incorporating information received from third-party sources and making internal assumptions and judgments regarding the future performance of the underlying collateral and assessing the probability that an adverse change in future cash flows has occurred. The determination of the amount of other-than-temporary impairments is based upon our periodic evaluation and assessment of known and inherent risks associated with the respective asset class. Such evaluations and assessments are revised as conditions change and new information becomes available.  Our management considers a wide range of factors about the security issuer and uses reasonable judgment in evaluating the cause of the decline in the estimated fair value of the security and in assessing the prospects for recovery. Inherent in management’s evaluation of the security are assumptions and estimates about the operations of the issuer and its future earnings potential. Impairments to the carrying value of our investment securities may need to be taken in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

We depend upon the accuracy and completeness of information about customers.

In deciding whether to extend credit to customers, we rely on information provided to us by our customers, including financial statements and other financial information. We also rely on representations of customers as to the accuracy and completeness of that information and, with respect to financial statements, on reports of independent auditors. Our financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted to the extent that we extend credit in reliance on financial statements or other information provided by customers that is false, misleading or incomplete.

Unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential client or customer information, whether through a breach of computer systems or otherwise, or failure or interruption of the Company’s communication or information systems, could severely harm the Company’s business.

As part of its business, the Company collects, processes and retains sensitive and confidential client and customer information on behalf of the Company and other third parties. Despite the security measures the Company has in place for its facilities and systems, and the security measures of its third party service providers, the Company may be vulnerable to security breaches, acts of vandalism, computer viruses, misplaced or lost data, programming and/or human errors or other similar events.

The Company relies heavily on communications and information systems to conduct its business. Any failure or interruption of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in the Company’s customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit, loan and other systems.  In addition, customers could lose access to their accounts and be unable to conduct financial transactions during a period of failure or interruption of these systems.

Any security breach involving the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure of confidential customer information, whether such information is held by the Company or by its vendors, or failure or interruption of the Company’s communication or information systems, could severely damage the Company’s reputation, expose it to risks of regulatory scrutiny, litigation and liability, disrupt the Company’s operations, or result in a loss of customer business, the occurrence of any of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business.

Cybersecurity incidents could disrupt business operations, result in the loss of critical and confidential information, and adversely impact our reputation and results of operations.

Global cybersecurity threats and incidents can range from uncoordinated individual attempts to gain unauthorized access to information technology (IT) systems to sophisticated and targeted measures known as advanced persistent threats, directed at the Company and/or its third party service providers. While we have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, these types of threats and incidents, none of them to date have been material to the Company. Although we employ comprehensive measures to prevent, detect, address and mitigate these threats (including access controls, employee training, data encryption, vulnerability assessments, continuous monitoring of our IT networks and systems and maintenance of backup and protective systems), cybersecurity incidents, depending on their nature and scope, could potentially result in the misappropriation, destruction, corruption or unavailability of critical data and confidential or proprietary information (our own or that of third parties) and the disruption of business operations. The potential consequences of a material cybersecurity incident include reputational damage, litigation with third parties and increased cybersecurity protection and remediation costs, which in turn could materially adversely affect our results of operations.

We continually encounter technological change, and we may have fewer resources than our competitors to continue to invest in technological improvements.

The banking industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services.  In addition to better serving customers, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs.  Our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands for convenience as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations.  Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements.  There can be no assurance that we will be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing such products and services to our customers.

An “ownership change” for purposes of Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code could materially impair our ability to use our deferred tax assets.

At December 31, 2018, our gross deferred tax asset was $4.9 million. Our ability to use our deferred tax assets to offset future taxable income will be limited if we experience an “ownership change” as defined in Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code. In general, an ownership change will occur if there is a cumulative increase in our ownership by “5-percent shareholders” (as defined in the Code) that exceeds 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period. A corporation that experiences an ownership change will generally be subject to an annual limitation on the use of its pre-ownership change deferred tax assets equal to the equity value of the corporation immediately before the ownership change, multiplied by the long-term tax-exempt rate.

If an “ownership change” occurs, we could lose certain built-in losses that have not been recognized for tax purposes. The amount of the permanent loss would depend on the size of the annual limitation (which is in part a function of our market capitalization at the time of an “ownership change”) and the remaining carry forward period (U.S. federal net operating losses generally may be carried forward for a period of 20 years).

Our ability to maintain, attract and retain customer relationships is highly dependent on our reputation.

Our customers rely on us to deliver superior, personalized financial services with the highest standards of ethics, performance, professionalism and compliance. Damage to our reputation could undermine the confidence of our current customers and our ability to attract potential customers. Such damage could also impair the confidence of our counterparties and vendors and ultimately affect our ability to effect transactions. Maintenance of our reputation depends not only on our success in maintaining our service-focused culture and controlling and mitigating the various risks described herein, but also on our success in identifying and appropriately addressing issues that may arise in areas such as potential conflicts of interest, anti-money laundering, client personal information and privacy issues, employee, customer and other third party fraud, record-keeping, regulatory investigations and any litigation that may arise from the failure or perceived failure of us to comply with legal and regulatory requirements.

Employee misconduct could expose us to significant legal liability and reputational harm.

We are vulnerable to reputational harm because we operate in an industry in which integrity and the confidence of our customers are of critical importance. Our employees could engage in misconduct that adversely affects our customers and/or our business. For example, if an employee were to engage in fraudulent, illegal, wrongful or suspicious activities, and/or activities resulting in consumer harm, we could be subject to regulatory sanctions and/or penalties, and suffer serious harm to our reputation (as a consequence of the negative perception resulting from such activities), financial position, customer relationships and ability to attract new customers. Our business often requires that we deal with confidential information. If our employees were to improperly use or disclose this information, even if inadvertently, we could suffer serious harm to our reputation, financial position and current and future business relationships. It is not always possible to deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not always be effective. Misconduct by our employees, or even unsubstantiated allegations of misconduct, could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our operations could be interrupted if certain external vendors on which we rely experience difficulty, terminate their services or fail to comply with banking laws and regulations.

We depend to a significant extent on relationships with third party service providers. Specifically, we utilize third party core banking services and receive credit card and debit card services, branch capture services, Internet banking services and services complementary to our banking products from various third party service providers. If these third party service providers experience difficulties or terminate their services and we are unable to replace them with other service providers, our operations could be interrupted. It may be difficult for us to replace some of our third party vendors, particularly vendors providing our core banking, credit card and debit card services, in a timely manner if they were unwilling or unable to provide us with these services in the future for any reason. If an interruption were to continue for a significant period of time, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Even if we are able to replace them, it may be at higher cost to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Uncertainty relating to the LIBOR calculation process and potential phasing out of LIBOR may adversely affect our results of operations.

On July 27, 2017, the Chief Executive of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calibration of LIBOR to the administrator of LIBOR after 2021. The announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. It is impossible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide LIBOR submissions to the administrator of LIBOR or whether any additional reforms to LIBOR may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. At this time, no consensus exists as to what rate or rates may become acceptable alternatives to LIBOR and it is impossible to predict the effect of any such alternatives on the value of LIBOR-based securities and variable rate loans, subordinated debentures, or other securities or financial arrangements, given LIBOR’s role in determining market interest rates globally. Uncertainty as to the nature of alternative reference rates and as to potential changes or other reforms to LIBOR may adversely affect LIBOR rates and the value of LIBOR-based loans and securities in our portfolio, and may impact the availability and cost of hedging instruments and borrowings. If LIBOR rates are no longer available, and we are required to implement substitute indices for the calculation of interest rates under our loan agreements with our borrowers, we may incur significant expenses in effecting the transition, and may be subject to disputes or litigation with customers over the appropriateness or comparability to LIBOR of the substitute indices, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Risks Associated With the Company’s Stock

The market price of our common stock can be volatile, which may make it more difficult to resell our common stock at a desired time and price.

Stock price volatility may make it more difficult for a shareholder to resell our common stock when a shareholder wants to and at prices a shareholder finds attractive or at all.  Our stock price can fluctuate significantly in response to a variety of factors, regardless of operating results.  These factors include, among other things:


·
Variations in our anticipated or actual operating results or the results of our competitors;

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Changes in investors’ or analysts’ perceptions of the risks and conditions of our business;

·
The size of the public float of our common stock;

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Regulatory developments, including changes to regulatory capital levels, components of regulatory capital and how regulatory capital is calculated;

·
Interest rate changes or credit loss trends;

·
Trading volume in our common stock;

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Market conditions; and

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General economic conditions.

The Company may issue additional shares of its common stock in the future, which could dilute a shareholder’s ownership of common stock.

The Company’s articles of incorporation authorize its Board of Directors, without shareholder approval, to, among other things, issue additional shares of common or preferred stock. The issuance of any additional shares of common or preferred stock could be dilutive to a shareholder’s ownership of Company common stock.

To the extent that the Company issues options or warrants to purchase common stock in the future and the options or warrants are exercised, the Company’s shareholders may experience further dilution. Holders of shares of Company common stock have no preemptive rights that entitle holders to purchase their pro rata share of any offering of shares of any class or series and, therefore, shareholders may not be permitted to invest in future issuances of Company common or preferred stock.

Although publicly traded, our common stock has substantially less liquidity than the average liquidity of stocks listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market.

Although our common stock is listed for trading on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, our common stock has substantially less liquidity than the average liquidity for companies listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market.  A public trading market having the desired characteristics of depth, liquidity and orderliness depends on the presence in the marketplace of willing buyers and sellers of our common stock at any given time. This marketplace depends on the individual decisions of investors and general economic and market conditions over which we have no control. This limited market may affect a shareholder’s ability to sell their shares on short notice, and the sale of a large number of shares at one time could temporarily depress the market price of our common stock. For these reasons, our common stock should not be viewed as a short-term investment.

The Company’s common stock is not insured by any governmental entity.

Our common stock is not a deposit account or other obligation of any bank and is not insured by the FDIC or any other governmental entity.  Investment in Company common stock is subject to risk, including possible loss.

The Company may issue debt and equity securities that are senior to Company common stock as to distributions and in liquidation, which could negatively affect the value of Company common stock.

The Company has in the past and may in the future increase its capital by entering into debt or debt-like financing or issuing debt or equity securities, which could include issuances of senior notes, subordinated notes, preferred stock or common stock. In the event of the Company’s liquidation, its lenders and holders of its debt securities would receive a distribution of the Company’s available assets before distributions to the holders of Company common stock. The Company’s decision to incur debt and issue securities in future offerings will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond its control. The Company cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of its future offerings and debt financings. Future offerings could reduce the value of shares of Company common stock and dilute a shareholder’s interest in the Company.

Our articles of incorporation and bylaws and Michigan laws contain certain provisions that could make a takeover more difficult.

Our articles of incorporation and bylaws, and the laws of Michigan, include provisions which are designed to provide our Board of Directors with time to consider whether a hostile takeover offer is in our best interest and the best interests of our shareholders. These provisions could discourage potential acquisition proposals and could delay or prevent a change in control. The provisions also could diminish the opportunities for a holder of our common stock to participate in tender offers, including tender offers at a price above the then-current price for our common stock. These provisions could also prevent transactions in which our shareholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares over then current market prices, and may limit the ability of our shareholders to approve transactions that they may deem to be in their best interests.

The Michigan Business Corporation Act contains provisions intended to protect shareholders and prohibit or discourage certain types of hostile takeover activities. In addition to these provisions and the provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws, federal law requires the Federal Reserve Board’s approval prior to acquisition of “control” of a bank holding company. All of these provisions may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of the Company without action by our shareholders, and therefore, could adversely affect the price of our common stock.

If an entity holds as little as a 5% interest in our outstanding securities, that entity could, under certain circumstances, be subject to regulation as a “bank holding company.”

Any entity, including a “group” composed of natural persons, owning or controlling with the power to vote 25% or more of our outstanding securities, or 5% or more if the holder otherwise exercises a “controlling influence” over us, may be subject to regulation as a “bank holding company” in accordance with the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHC Act”).  In addition, any bank holding company or foreign bank with a U.S. presence may be required to obtain the approval of the Federal Reserve Board under the BHC Act to acquire or retain 5% or more of our outstanding securities.  Becoming a bank holding company imposes statutory and regulatory restrictions and obligations, such as providing managerial and financial strength for its bank subsidiaries.  Regulation as a bank holding company could require the holder to divest all or a portion of the holder’s investment in our securities or those nonbanking investments that may be deemed impermissible or incompatible with bank holding company status, such as a material investment in a company unrelated to banking.

Any person not defined as a company by the BHC Act may be required to obtain the approval of the Federal Reserve Board under the Change in Bank Control Act of 1978, as amended, to acquire or retain 10% or more of our outstanding securities.

Any person not otherwise defined as a company by the BHC Act and its implementing regulations may be required to obtain the approval of the Federal Reserve Board under the Change in Bank Control Act of 1978, as amended, to acquire or retain 10% or more of our outstanding securities.  Applying to obtain this approval could result in a person incurring substantial costs and time delays.  There can be no assurance that regulatory approval will be obtained.

ITEM 1B:
Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

ITEM 2:
Properties.

We own or lease facilities located in Ottawa County, Allegan County and Kent County, Michigan.  Our administrative offices are located at 10753 Macatawa Drive, Holland, Michigan  49424.  Our administrative offices are approximately 49,000 square feet and contain our administration, human resources, trust, loan underwriting and processing, and deposit operations. We believe our facilities are well-maintained and adequately insured.  We own each of the facilities except those identified in the “Use” column as “(Leased facility)”.  Our facilities as of February 14, 2019, were as follows:

Location of Facility
Use
10753 Macatawa Drive, Holland
Main Branch, Administrative, and Loan Processing Offices
815 E. Main Street, Zeeland
Branch Office
116 Ottawa Avenue N.W., Grand Rapids
Branch Office (Leased facility, lease expires August 2020)
126 Ottawa Avenue N.W., Grand Rapids
Loan Center (Leased facility, lease expires August 2020)
141 E. 8th Street, Holland
Branch Office
489 Butternut Dr., Holland
Branch Office
701 Maple Avenue, Holland
Branch Office
699 E. 16th Street, Holland
Branch Office
41 N. State Street, Zeeland
Branch Office
2020 Baldwin Street, Jenison
Branch Office
6299 Lake Michigan Dr., Allendale
Branch Office
132 South Washington, Douglas
Branch Office
4758 – 136th Street, Hamilton
Branch Office (Leased facility, lease expires December 2019)
3526 Chicago Drive, Hudsonville
Branch Office
20 E. Lakewood Blvd., Holland
Branch Office
3191 – 44th Street, S.W., Grandville
Branch Office
2261 Byron Center Avenue S.W., Byron Center
Branch Office
5271 Clyde Park Avenue, S.W., Wyoming
Branch Office and Loan Center
4590 Cascade Road, Grand Rapids
Branch Office
3177 Knapp Street, N.E., Grand Rapids
Branch Office and Loan Center
15135 Whittaker Way, Grand Haven
Branch Office
12415 Riley Street, Holland
Branch Office
2750 Walker N.W., Walker
Branch Office
1575 – 68th Street S.E., Grand Rapids
Branch Office
2820 – 10 Mile Road, Rockford
Branch Office
520 Baldwin Street, Jenison
Branch Office
2440 Burton Street, S.E., Grand Rapids
Branch Office
6330 28 th Street, S.E., Grand Rapids
Branch Office

ITEM 3:
Legal Proceedings.

As of the date of this report, there were no material pending legal proceedings, other than routine litigation incidental to the business of banking, to which Macatawa Bank Corporation or the Bank are a party or of which any of our properties are the subject.

ITEM 4:
Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

PART II

ITEM 5:
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Our common stock is quoted on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol MCBC.  High and low closing prices (as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market) of our common stock for each quarter for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 are set forth in the table below.

   
2018
   
2017
 
Quarter
 
High
   
Low
   
Dividends
Declared
   
High
   
Low
   
Dividends
Declared
 
First Quarter
 
$
10.63
   
$
9.75
   
$
0.06
   
$
10.31
   
$
9.61
   
$
0.04
 
Second Quarter
   
12.77
     
10.30
     
0.06
     
10.41
     
9.15
     
0.04
 
Third Quarter
   
12.77
     
11.64
     
0.06
     
10.40
     
9.14
     
0.05
 
Fourth Quarter
   
11.59
     
9.15
     
0.07
     
10.57
     
9.66
     
0.05
 

Information on restrictions on payments of dividends by us may be found in Item 1 of this report under the heading “Supervision and Regulation” and is here incorporated by reference.   Information regarding our equity compensation plans may be found in Item 12 of this report and is here incorporated by reference.

On February 14, 2019, there were approximately 724 owners of record and approximately 4,967 beneficial owners of our common stock.

Shareholder Return Performance Graph

The following graph shows the cumulative total shareholder return on an investment in the Company’s common stock compared to the Russell 2000 Index and the SNL Bank NASDAQ Index.  The comparison assumes a $100 investment on December 31, 2013 at the initial price of $5.00 per share (adjusted for all stock dividends and splits) and assumes that dividends are reinvested.  The comparisons in this table are set forth in response to Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) disclosure requirements and therefore are not intended to forecast or be indicative of future performance of the common stock.


   
Period Ending
 
Index
 
12/31/13
   
12/31/14
   
12/31/15
   
12/31/16
   
12/31/17
   
12/31/18
 
Macatawa Bank Corporation
   
100.00
     
110.52
     
125.49
     
219.59
     
214.94
     
211.56
 
Russell 2000
   
100.00
     
104.89
     
100.26
     
121.63
     
139.44
     
124.09
 
SNL Bank NASDAQ
   
100.00
     
103.57
     
111.80
     
155.02
     
163.20
     
137.56
 

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The following table provides information regarding the Company’s purchase of its own common stock during the fourth quarter of 2018.  All employee transactions are under stock compensation plans.  These include shares of Macatawa Bank Corporation common stock submitted for cancellation to satisfy tax withholding obligations that occur upon the vesting of restricted shares.  The value of the shares withheld is determined based on the closing price of Macatawa Bank Corporation common stock at the date of vesting.  The Company has no publicly announced repurchase plans or programs.

Macatawa Bank Corporation Purchases of Equity Securities
 
   
Total
Number of
Shares
Purchased
   
Average
Price Paid
Per Share
 
Period
           
October 1 - October 31, 2018
           
Employee Transactions
   
     
 
November 1 - November 30, 2018
               
Employee Transactions
   
9,685
   
$
10.36
 
December 1 - December 31, 2018
               
Employee Transactions
   
3,214
   
$
9.60
 
Total for Fourth Quarter ended December 31, 2018
               
Employee Transactions
   
12,899
   
$
10.17
 

ITEM 6:
Selected Financial Data.

The following unaudited table sets forth selected historical consolidated financial information as of and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014, which is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. You should read this information in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition” included elsewhere in this report.

   
As of and for the Year Ended December 31,
 
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)
 
2018
   
2017
   
2016
   
2015
   
2014
 
Financial Condition
                             
Total assets
 
$
1,975,124
   
$
1,890,232
   
$
1,741,013
   
$
1,729,643
   
$
1,583,846
 
Securities
   
297,320
     
306,547
     
253,811
     
218,671
     
193,459
 
Loans
   
1,405,658
     
1,320,309
     
1,280,812
     
1,197,932
     
1,118,483
 
Deposits
   
1,676,739
     
1,579,010
     
1,448,724
     
1,435,512
     
1,306,325
 
Long-term debt
   
41,238
     
41,238
     
41,238
     
41,238
     
41,238
 
Other borrowed funds
   
60,000
     
92,118
     
84,173
     
96,169
     
88,107
 
Shareholders’ equity
   
190,853
     
172,986
     
162,239
     
151,977
     
142,519
 
Share Information*
                                       
Basic earnings (loss) per common share
 
$
0.78
   
$
0.48
   
$
0.47
   
$
0.38
   
$
0.31
 
Diluted earnings (loss) per common share
   
0.78
     
0.48
     
0.47
     
0.38
     
0.31
 
Book value per common share
   
5.61
     
5.09
     
4.78
     
4.48
     
4.21
 
Tangible book value per common share
   
5.61
     
5.09
     
4.78
     
4.48
     
4.21
 
Dividends per common share
   
0.25
     
0.18
     
0.12
     
0.11
     
0.08
 
Dividend payout ratio
   
32.05
%
   
37.50
%
   
25.53
%
   
28.95
%
   
25.81
%
Average dilutive common shares outstanding
   
34,018,554
     
33,952,872
     
33,922,548
     
33,891,429
     
33,803,030
 
Common shares outstanding at period end
   
34,045,411
     
33,972,977
     
33,940,788
     
33,925,113
     
33,866,789
 
Operations
                                       
Interest income
 
$
69,037
   
$
57,676
   
$
52,499
   
$
49,386
   
$
46,988
 
Interest expense
   
9,411
     
5,732
     
4,959
     
5,306
     
5,596
 
Net interest income
   
59,626
     
51,944
     
47,540
     
44,080
     
41,392
 
Provision for loan losses
   
450
     
(1,350
)
   
(1,350
)
   
(3,500
)
   
(3,350
)
Net interest income after provision for loan losses
   
59,176
     
53,294
     
48,890
     
47,580
     
44,742
 
Total noninterest income
   
17,503
     
17,419
     
19,074
     
17,793
     
16,214
 
Total noninterest expense
   
44,329
     
43,688
     
45,782
     
46,953
     
45,910
 
Income before income tax
   
32,350
     
27,025
     
22,182
     
18,420
     
15,046
 
Federal income tax**
   
5,971
     
10,733
     
6,231
     
5,626
     
4,573
 
Net income attributable to common shares
   
26,379
     
16,292
     
15,951
     
12,794
     
10,473
 
Performance Ratios
                                       
Return on average equity
   
14.69
%
   
9.60
%
   
10.06
%
   
8.68
%
   
7.58
%
Return on average assets
   
1.40
     
0.93
     
0.95
     
0.79
     
0.70
 
Yield on average interest-earning assets
   
3.91
     
3.59
     
3.42
     
3.36
     
3.48
 
Cost on average interest-bearing liabilities
   
0.76
     
0.51
     
0.46
     
0.49
     
0.56
 
Average net interest spread
   
3.15
     
3.08
     
2.96
     
2.87
     
2.92
 
Average net interest margin
   
3.38
     
3.24
     
3.11
     
3.01
     
3.07
 
Efficiency ratio
   
57.47
     
62.98
     
68.73
     
75.89
     
79.70
 
Capital Ratios
                                       
Period-end equity to total assets
   
9.66
%
   
9.15
%
   
9.32
%
   
8.79
%
   
9.00
%
Average equity to average assets
   
9.51
     
9.69
     
9.47
     
9.10
     
9.25
 
Total risk-based capital ratio (consolidated)
   
15.54
     
14.99
     
14.88
     
14.80
     
15.55
 
Credit Quality Ratios
                                       
Allowance for loan losses to total loans
   
1.20
%
   
1.26
%
   
1.32
%
   
1.43
%
   
1.70
%
Nonperforming assets to total assets
   
0.24
     
0.33
     
0.72
     
1.06
     
2.32
 
Net charge-offs / (recoveries) to average loans
   
0.01
     
(0.08
)
   
(0.10
)
   
(0.14
)
   
(0.14
)

*Retroactively adjusted to reflect the effect of all stock splits and dividends
**2017 reflects the effect of “H.R.1”, also known as the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act”, on the value of the Company’s net deferred tax assets which increased federal income tax expense by $2,524,000.  2018 reflects the effect of the reduced corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% under H.R.1 effective as of January 1, 2018.

Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition.

Management’s discussion and analysis of results of operations and financial condition contains forward-looking statements.  Please refer to the discussion of forward-looking statements at the beginning of this report.

The following section presents additional information to assess our results of operations and financial condition.  This section should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the supplemental financial data contained elsewhere in this report.

OVERVIEW

Macatawa Bank Corporation is a Michigan corporation and a registered bank holding company. It wholly-owns Macatawa Bank, Macatawa Statutory Trust I and Macatawa Statutory Trust II. Macatawa Bank is a Michigan chartered bank with depository accounts insured by the FDIC. The Bank operates twenty-six branch offices and a lending and operational service facility, providing a full range of commercial and consumer banking and trust services in Kent County, Ottawa County, and northern Allegan County, Michigan. Macatawa Statutory Trusts I and II are grantor trusts and have issued $20.0 million each of pooled trust preferred securities. These trusts are not consolidated in our Consolidated Financial Statements. For further information regarding consolidation, see the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

At December 31, 2018, we had total assets of $1.98 billion, total loans of $1.41 billion, total deposits of $1.68 billion and shareholders’ equity of $190.9 million.  We recognized net income of $26.4 million in 2018 compared to net income of $16.3 million in 2017.  Earnings in 2017 were reduced by $2.5 million to record the impact of tax reform enacted in 2017 on the value of the Company’s net deferred tax assets.  Earnings before income tax in 2018 and 2017 improved over their respective previous years through growth in total revenue, primarily net interest income, while holding noninterest expenses stable.  As of December 31, 2018, the Company’s and the Bank’s risk-based regulatory capital ratios were significantly above those required under the regulatory standards and the Bank continued to be categorized as “well capitalized” at December 31, 2018.

The Company paid a cash dividend of $0.04 per share for the first and second quarters of 2017 and increased to $0.05 per share for the third and fourth quarters of 2017.  The Company increased the dividend to $0.06 per share for the first, second and third quarters of 2018, and to $0.07 per share for the fourth quarter of 2018.

Over the past several years, much progress has been made at reducing our nonperforming assets.  The following table reflects period end balances of these nonperforming assets as well as total loan delinquencies.

(Dollars in thousands)
 
December 31,
2018
   
December 31,
2017
   
December 31,
2016
 
Nonperforming loans
 
$
1,304
   
$
395
   
$
300
 
Other repossessed assets
   
     
11
     
 
Other real estate owned
   
3,380
     
5,767
     
12,253
 
Total nonperforming assets
 
$
4,684
   
$
6,173
   
$
12,553
 
                         
Total loan delinquencies 30 days or greater past due
 
$
877
   
$
995
   
$
1,447
 

We recorded a provision for loan losses of $450,000 in 2018 due to loan portfolio growth and net charge-offs during the year.  Our earnings in 2017 were favorably impacted by negative provision for loan losses of $1.35 million.  The negative provision in 2017 was impacted by recoveries from our collection efforts and a continual decline in our historical charge-off levels from prior years.

While we had net charge-offs in 2018, it followed five consecutive full years of net recoveries.  The following table reflects the provision for loan losses for the past five years along with certain metrics that impact the determination of the level of the provision for loan losses.

   
For the year ended December 31,
 
(Dollars in thousands)
 
2018
   
2017
   
2016
 
Provision for loan losses
 
$
450
   
$
(1,350
)
 
$
(1,350
)
Net charge-offs / (recoveries)
   
174
     
(988
)
   
(1,231
)
Net charge-offs to average loans
   
0.01
%
   
-0.08
%
   
-0.10
%
Nonperforming loans to total loans
   
0.09
%
   
0.03
%
   
0.02
%
Loans transferred to ORE to average loans
   
0.02
%
   
0.01
%
   
0.01
%
Performing troubled debt restructurings to average loans
   
1.20
%
   
1.72
%
   
2.45
%

Economic conditions in our market areas of Grand Rapids and Holland have been good during the past several years.  The state of Michigan’s unemployment rate at the end of 2018 was 3.9%.  The Grand Rapids and Holland area unemployment rate was 2.5% at the end of 2018.  Residential housing values and commercial real estate property values have increased in recent years.

It also appears that the housing market in our primary market area continues to be strong.  In the Grand Rapids market during 2018, living unit starts were consistent with levels experienced over the past five years.  The Holland-Grand Haven/Lakeshore region showed similar results.

We experienced strong commercial loan growth in recent years. Most of our emphasis has been on growing commercial and industrial loans.  These loans have increased steadily from $449.3 million at December 31, 2016 to $513.3 million at December 31, 2018.  Commercial real estate loans have increased from $449.3 million at December 31, 2016 to $568.7 million at December 31, 2018.  Consumer loans have increased from $313.5 million at December 31, 2016 to $323.6 million at December 31, 2018.  We believe we are positioned for continued loan growth in 2019.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Summary: Net income was $26.4 million ($32.4 million on a pretax basis) for 2018, compared to $16.3 million ($27.0 million on a pretax basis) for 2017.  Earnings per common share on a diluted basis was $0.78 for 2018 and $0.48 for 2017.

Generally, the improvement in Company earnings was the result of strong growth in revenue while expenses have increased at a much lower rate or have been reduced.  As discussed previously, the revaluation of our net deferred tax assets at December 31, 2017 resulting from enactment of tax reform at the end of 2017 caused a $2.5 million one-time increase in our federal income tax expense in 2017.  The strong increase in pretax earnings in 2018 compared to 2017 was due primarily to increased net interest income.  Net interest income increased to $59.6 million in 2018  compared to $51.9 million in 2017.  Total noninterest expense was $44.3 million in 2018 compared to $43.7 million in 2017.

We recorded a provision for loan losses of $450,000 in 2018 and a negative provision for loan losses of $1.35 million in 2017.  These provisions resulted from low levels of nonperforming loans, strong asset quality and the levels of net loan charge-offs/recoveries realized in each of these periods.  These items are discussed more fully below.

Net Interest Income: Net interest income totaled $59.6 million during 2018 compared to $51.9 million during 2017.

The increase in net interest income during 2018 compared to 2017 marked our fourth consecutive year with an increase in net interest income.  This increase was due to an increase in average earning assets of $146.3 million from $1.63 billion in 2017 to $1.77 billion in 2018 as well as improvement in yields on earning assets.  Average yield on securities, interest earning assets and net interest margin are presented on a fully taxable equivalent basis.  Our net interest income as a percentage of average interest-earning assets (i.e. “net interest margin” or “margin”) increased by 14 basis points in 2018 compared to 2017.

The yield on earning assets increased 32 basis points from 3.59% for 2017 to 3.91% for 2018.  The increase from 2017 to 2018 was generally due to increases in short-term interest rates including the federal funds rate, the prime rate and LIBOR.  Our margin in recent years has been negatively impacted by our decision to hold significant balances in liquid and short-term investments.

Net interest income for 2018 increased $7.7 million compared to 2017.  Of this increase, $3.4 million was due to changes in rates earned or paid, while $4.3 million was from changes in the volume of average interest earning assets and interest bearing liabilities.  The largest changes came in commercial loan interest income which increased by $6.7 million in 2018.  Of the $6.7 million increase in interest income on commercial loans, $4.4 million was due to increases in rates earned and $2.3 million was due to increases in average balances.

Average interest earning assets totaled $1.77 billion for 2018 compared to $1.63 billion in 2017.  Increases of $40.4 million in average securities balances and $65.3 million in average loan balances from 2017 to 2018 were the primary drivers of the increase in total earning assets.  Net interest margin was 3.38% for 2018 compared to 3.24% for 2017.  Yield on commercial loans increased from 4.08% in 2017 to 4.52% in 2018.  Yield on residential mortgage loans increased from 3.46% in 2017 to 3.57% in 2018, while yield on consumer loans increased from 4.20% in 2017 to 4.79% in 2018.  The increases in yields on commercial loans and consumer loans, in particular, were the result of the predominance of loans in these categories with variable rates of interest tied to prime and LIBOR which increased significantly from 2017 to 2018.

Our net interest margin for 2018 was negatively impacted from a 25 basis point increase in our cost of funds from 0.51% for 2017 to 0.76% for 2018. Average interest bearing liabilities increased from $1.11 billion in 2017 to $1.24 billion in 2018.  Increases in the rates paid on certain deposit account types in response to market rates and additional other borrowings caused the increase in our cost of funds.  These costs have increased at a much lower level than yields on our interest earning assets, allowing for the increase in our net interest margin in each period.  With the recent increases in the federal funds rate, we anticipate some additional increase in our funding costs, but again with a lesser impact than on our interest earning assets.

We are encouraged by the increase in higher yielding average earning assets in 2018 and expect these balances to continue to increase in 2019, which should continue to positively affect net interest income.

The following table shows an analysis of net interest margin for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 (dollars in thousands).

   
For the years ended December 31,
 
   
2018
   
2017
   
2016
 
   
Average
Balance
   
Interest
Earned
or Paid
   
Average
Yield
or Cost
   
Average
Balance
   
Interest
Earned
or Paid
   
Average
Yield
or Cost
   
Average
Balance
   
Interest
Earned
or Paid
   
Average
Yield
or Cost
 
Assets
                                                     
Taxable securities
 
$
180,787
   
$
3,716
     
2.06
%
 
$
158,805
   
$
2,869
     
1.81
%
 
$
136,051
   
$
2,322
     
1.71
%
Tax-exempt securities (1)
   
123,923
     
3,464
     
3.60
     
105,460
     
2,244
     
3.38
     
89,442
     
1,819
     
3.25
 
Commercial loans (2)
   
1,012,413
     
46,369
     
4.52
     
957,987
     
39,658
     
4.08
     
906,506
     
35,946
     
3.90
 
Residential mortgage loans
   
235,378
     
8,399
     
3.57
     
219,111
     
7,608
     
3.46
     
217,776
     
7,647
     
3.51
 
Consumer loans
   
85,175
     
4,084
     
4.79
     
90,565
     
3,802
     
4.20
     
96,616
     
3,806
     
3.94
 
Federal Home Loan Bank stock
   
11,558
     
578
     
4.94
     
11,558
     
491
     
4.19
     
11,558
     
491
     
4.18
 
Federal funds sold and other short-term investments
   
124,374
     
2,427
     
1.92
     
83,844
     
1,004
     
1.18
     
90,243
     
468
     
0.51
 
Total interest earning assets (1)
   
1,773,608
     
69,037
     
3.91
     
1,627,330
     
57,676
     
3.59
     
1,548,192
     
52,499
     
3.42
 
                                                                         
Noninterest earning assets:
                                                                       
Cash and due from banks
   
31,025
                     
29,077
                     
26,593
                 
Other
   
83,808
                     
95,896
                     
98,799
                 
Total assets
 
$
1,888,441
                   
$
1,752,303
                   
$
1,673,584
                 
                                                                         
Liabilities
                                                                       
Deposits:
                                                                       
Interest bearing demand
 
$
406,694
   
$
1,130
     
0.28
%
 
$
341,384
   
$
366
     
0.11
%
 
$
321,825
   
$
293
     
0.09
%
Savings and money market accounts
   
602,676
     
3,317
     
0.55
     
557,703
     
1,591
     
0.28
     
521,857
     
961
     
0.19
 
Time deposits
   
109,715
     
1,434
     
1.30
     
85,921
     
654
     
0.76
     
84,170
     
517
     
0.62
 
Borrowings:
                                                                       
Other borrowed funds
   
74,751
     
1,403
     
1.85
     
85,893
     
1,407
     
1.62
     
94,264
     
1,685
     
1.76
 
Long-term debt
   
41,238
     
2,127
     
5.09
     
41,238
     
1,714
     
4.10
     
41,238
     
1,503
     
3.59
 
Total interest bearing liabilities
   
1,235,074
     
9,411
     
0.76
     
1,112,139
     
5,732
     
0.51
     
1,063,354
     
4,959
     
0.46
 
                                                                         
Noninterest bearing liabilities:
                                                                       
Noninterest bearing demand accounts
   
467,663
                     
464,384
                     
445,046
                 
Other noninterest bearing liabilities
   
6,077
                     
6,004
                     
6,618
                 
Shareholders’ equity
   
179,627
                     
169,776
                     
158,566
                 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity
 
$
1,888,441
                   
$
1,752,303
                   
$
1,673,584
                 
                                                                         
Net interest income
         
$
59,626
                   
$
51,944
                   
$
47,540
         
                                                                         
Net interest spread (1)
                   
3.15
%
                   
3.08
%
                   
2.96
%
Net interest margin (1)
                   
3.38
%