10-Q 1 mcd-20240331.htm 10-Q mcd-20240331
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
FORM 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended
March 31, 2024
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to            
    
Commission File Number 1-5231
McDONALD’S CORPORATION
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware 36-2361282
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
110 North Carpenter Street 60607
Chicago,Illinois
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
(630) 623-3000
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par valueMCDNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
Accelerated Filer
Non-accelerated Filer
Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes    No  
720,681,656
(Number of shares of common stock
outstanding as of March 31, 2024)


McDONALD’S CORPORATION
___________________________
INDEX
_______
 
 
 Page Reference
Item 1A – Risk Factors
Item 6 – Exhibits
All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners and are used with permission.
2

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET
(unaudited)
In millions, except per share dataMarch 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Assets
Current assets
Cash and equivalents$838 $4,579 
Accounts and notes receivable2,238 2,488 
Inventories, at cost, not in excess of market46 53 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets935 866 
Total current assets4,057 7,986 
Other assets
Investments in and advances to affiliates2,883 1,080 
Goodwill3,028 3,040 
Miscellaneous5,586 5,618 
Total other assets11,497 9,738 
Lease right-of-use asset, net13,277 13,514 
Property and equipment
Property and equipment, at cost43,432 43,570 
Accumulated depreciation and amortization(18,750)(18,662)
Net property and equipment24,682 24,908 
Total assets$53,513 $56,147 
Liabilities and shareholders’ equity
Current liabilities
Short-term borrowings and current maturities of long-term debt$604 $2,192 
Accounts payable936 1,103 
Lease liability 685 688 
Income taxes873 705 
Other taxes279 268 
Accrued interest372 469 
Accrued payroll and other liabilities1,136 1,434 
Total current liabilities4,886 6,859 
Long-term debt36,764 37,153 
Long-term lease liability12,828 13,058 
Long-term income taxes361 363 
Deferred revenues - initial franchise fees784 790 
Other long-term liabilities927 950 
Deferred income taxes1,796 1,681 
Shareholders’ equity (deficit)
Preferred stock, no par value; authorized – 165.0 million shares; issued – none
  
Common stock, $0.01 par value; authorized – 3.5 billion shares; issued – 1,660.6 million shares
17 17 
Additional paid-in capital9,001 8,893 
Retained earnings64,203 63,480 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)(2,533)(2,456)
Common stock in treasury, at cost; 939.9 and 937.9 million shares
(75,520)(74,640)
Total shareholders’ equity (deficit)(4,833)(4,707)
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity (deficit)$53,513 $56,147 
See Notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
3

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF INCOME (UNAUDITED)
Quarters Ended
 March 31,
In millions, except per share data20242023
Revenues
Sales by Company-owned and operated restaurants$2,355 $2,224 
Revenues from franchised restaurants3,723 3,588 
Other revenues91 86 
Total revenues6,169 5,898 
Operating costs and expenses
Company-owned and operated restaurant expenses2,035 1,923 
Franchised restaurants-occupancy expenses627 598 
Other restaurant expenses68 63 
Selling, general & administrative expenses
Depreciation and amortization99 99 
Other622 553 
Other operating (income) expense, net(17)129 
Total operating costs and expenses3,433 3,365 
Operating income2,736 2,532 
Interest expense372 330 
Nonoperating (income) expense, net(45)(64)
Income before provision for income taxes2,409 2,267 
Provision for income taxes479 465 
Net income$1,929 $1,802 
Earnings per common share-basic$2.67 $2.47 
Earnings per common share-diluted$2.66 $2.45 
Dividends declared per common share$1.67 $1.52 
Weighted-average shares outstanding-basic721.8 730.9 
Weighted-average shares outstanding-diluted725.9 735.5 
See Notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
4

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (UNAUDITED)
Quarters Ended
March 31,
In millions20242023
Net income$1,929 $1,802 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
Foreign currency translation adjustments:
Gain (loss) recognized in accumulated other comprehensive
income ("AOCI"), including net investment hedges
(115)15 
Reclassification of (gain) loss to net income  
Foreign currency translation adjustments-net of tax
benefit (expense) of $(93) and $36
(115)15 
Cash flow hedges:
Gain (loss) recognized in AOCI36 (9)
Reclassification of (gain) loss to net income1 (8)
Cash flow hedges-net of tax benefit (expense) of $(12) and $5
37 (17)
Defined benefit pension plans:
Gain (loss) recognized in AOCI11 8 
Reclassification of (gain) loss to net income(10)(9)
Defined benefit pension plans-net of tax benefit (expense)
of $1 and $1
1 (1)
Total other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax(77)(3)
Comprehensive income$1,852 $1,799 
See Notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
5

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS (UNAUDITED)
Quarters Ended
 March 31,
In millions20242023
Operating activities
Net income$1,929 $1,802 
Adjustments to reconcile to cash provided by operations
Charges and credits:
Depreciation and amortization510 490 
Deferred income taxes(138)(86)
Share-based compensation50 50 
Other(31)(31)
Changes in working capital items70 195 
Cash provided by operations2,390 2,420 
Investing activities
Capital expenditures(547)(503)
Purchases of restaurant businesses(52)(98)
Purchases of equity method investments(1,820)— 
Sales of restaurant businesses42 21 
Sales of property8 18 
Other(124)(179)
Cash used for investing activities(2,493)(741)
Financing activities
Net short-term borrowings(339)13 
Long-term financing issuances 1,054 
Long-term financing repayments(1,285) 
Treasury stock purchases(918)(578)
Common stock dividends(1,206)(1,111)
Proceeds from stock option exercises99 74 
Other(12)(10)
Cash used for financing activities(3,661)(558)
Effect of exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents21 3 
Cash and equivalents increase (decrease)(3,742)1,124 
Cash and equivalents at beginning of period4,579 2,584 
Cash and equivalents at end of period$838 $3,708 
See Notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
6

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY (UNAUDITED)
For the quarter ended March 31, 2023
 Common stock
issued
 Accumulated other
comprehensive income (loss)
Common stock in
treasury
Total
shareholders’
equity (deficit)
Additional
paid-in
capital
Retained
earnings
PensionsCash flow
hedges
Foreign
currency
translation
In millions, except per share dataSharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 20221,660.6 $17 $8,547 $59,544 $(298)$31 $(2,219)(929.3)$(71,624)$(6,003)
Net income1,802 1,802 
Other comprehensive income (loss),
    net of tax
(1)(17)15 (3)
Comprehensive income1,799 
Common stock cash dividends
    ($1.52 per share)
(1,111)(1,111)
Treasury stock purchases(2.2)(585)(585)
Share-based compensation50 50 
Stock option exercises and other39 1.0 35 74 
Balance at March 31, 20231,660.6 $17 $8,636 $60,235 $(299)$14 $(2,204)(930.5)$(72,174)$(5,776)

For the quarter ended March 31, 2024
 Common stock
issued
 Accumulated other
comprehensive income (loss)
Common stock in
treasury
Total
shareholders’
equity (deficit)
Additional
paid-in
capital
Retained
earnings
PensionsCash flow
hedges
Foreign
currency
translation
In millions, except per share dataSharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 20231,660.6 $17 $8,893 $63,480 $(367)$(6)$(2,083)(937.9)$(74,640)$(4,707)
Net income1,929 1,929 
Other comprehensive income (loss),
    net of tax
1 37 (115)(77)
Comprehensive income1,852 
Common stock cash dividends
    ($1.67 per share)
(1,206)(1,206)
Treasury stock purchases(3.2)(921)(921)
Share-based compensation5050
Stock option exercises and other58 1.2 41 99 
Balance at March 31, 20241,660.6 $17 $9,001 $64,203 $(367)$32 $(2,198)(939.9)$(75,520)$(4,833)

See Notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.




7

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)

McDonald’s Corporation, the registrant, together with its subsidiaries, is referred to herein as the "Company." The Company, its franchisees and suppliers, are referred to herein as the "System."
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Company’s December 31, 2023 Annual Report on Form 10-K. In the opinion of management, all normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair presentation have been included. The results for the quarter ended March 31, 2024 do not necessarily indicate the results that may be expected for the full year.
Change in Presentation
In the first quarter of 2024, the Company changed its rounding presentation to the nearest whole number in millions of reported amounts, except per share data or as otherwise designated. The change in rounding presentation has been applied to all prior year amounts presented. In certain circumstances, this change adjusted previously reported balances, however, these changes were not significant, and no other changes were made to previously reported financial information. Additionally, certain columns and rows within the financial statements and tables presented may not add due to rounding. Percentages have been calculated from the underlying whole-dollar amounts for all periods presented.

Restaurant Information
The following table presents restaurant information by ownership type:
Restaurants at March 31,20242023
Conventional franchised21,841 21,701 
Developmental licensed8,741 8,289 
Foreign affiliated9,283 8,427 
Total Franchised39,865 38,417 
Company-owned and operated2,153 2,118 
Total Systemwide restaurants42,018 40,535 
The results of operations of restaurant businesses purchased and sold in transactions with franchisees were not material either individually or in the aggregate to the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements for the periods prior to purchase and sale.

Per Common Share Information
Diluted earnings per common share is calculated as net income divided by diluted weighted-average shares. Diluted weighted-average shares include weighted-average shares outstanding plus the dilutive effect of share-based compensation, calculated using the treasury stock method, of 4.1 million shares and 4.6 million shares for the quarters 2024 and 2023, respectively. Share-based compensation awards that would have been antidilutive, and therefore were not included in the calculation of diluted weighted-average shares, totaled 2.1 million shares and 2.3 million shares for the quarters 2024 and 2023, respectively.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
Segment Reporting
In November 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the "FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2023-07, "Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures" ("ASU 2023-07"). The pronouncement expands annual and interim disclosure requirements for reportable segments, primarily through enhanced disclosures about significant segment expenses. ASU 2023-07 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and for interim periods beginning after December 15, 2024. We are currently in the process of determining the impact that ASU 2023-07 will have on the Company's consolidated financial statement disclosures.
Income Taxes
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-09, "Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures" ("ASU 2023-09"). The pronouncement expands the disclosure requirements for income taxes, specifically related to the rate reconciliation and income taxes paid. ASU 2023-09 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. We are currently in the process of determining the impact that ASU 2023-09 will have on the Company's consolidated financial statement disclosures.

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Accelerating the Organization
In January 2023, the Company announced an evolution of its successful Accelerating the Arches strategy. Enhancements to the strategy included the addition of Restaurant Development to the Company’s growth pillars and an internal effort to modernize ways of working, Accelerating the Organization, both of which are aimed at elevating the Company’s performance. Accelerating the Organization is designed to unlock further growth as the Company focuses on becoming faster, more innovative and more efficient for its customers and people.
The Company incurred $44 million of charges related to Accelerating the Organization in the three months ended March 31, 2024. These charges were recorded in the Other operating (income) expense, net line within the consolidated statement of income, and primarily recorded within the Corporate segment. For the period presented, restructuring charges primarily consisted of professional services and consulting activities. There were no significant non-cash impairment charges included in the amounts listed in the table below.
The following table summarizes the balance of accrued expenses related to this strategic initiative (in millions):
Employee Termination BenefitsCosts to Terminate ContractsOther Related CostsTotal
2024
Accrued Balance at Beginning of Year$41 $11 $7 59
Restructuring Costs Incurred  44 44 
Cash Payments(14)(5)(44)(63)
Other Non-Cash Items  (1)(1)
Accrued Balance at March 31, 2024$27 $6 $6 $39 

The Company continues to evolve its ways of working by driving efficiency and effectiveness across the organization, primarily led by its Global Business Services organization. Transformation efforts under Accelerating the Organization will continue to result in various restructuring charges as the strategy progresses through its anticipated end date of 2027. The Company expects to incur up to $250 million of restructuring charges in 2024, primarily related to consulting activities.

9

Equity Method Investments
The Company has various investments accounted for using the equity method. Under the equity method of accounting, the Company records our proportionate share of the net income or loss of each equity method investee, with a corresponding change to the carrying value of the investment. The carrying value of the investment is also adjusted for any dividends received and the effect of foreign exchange. The Company records its proportionate share of net income or loss within the Other operating (income) expense, net line on the consolidated statement of net income. The carrying value of the investments are recorded within the Miscellaneous other assets line on the consolidated balance sheet.
The Company’s primary equity method investments include partial ownership in Grand Foods Holding, an entity that operates and manages McDonald's business in mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau, and partial ownership in McDonald’s Japan Holdings Co., Ltd, an entity that operates and manages McDonald’s business in Japan. The Company has granted these entities the right to operate the McDonald's business as part of a Master Franchise Agreement. Revenue related to these agreements are accounted for in a manner consistent with the Company’s other franchise arrangements.
The following table summarizes the amounts related to the Company’s primary equity method investees during the periods presented.
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
In MillionsPercentage OwnershipFair Value (Level 1)Carrying AmountPercentage OwnershipFair Value (Level 1)Carrying Amount
Grand Foods Holding48 %N/A$2,092 20 %N/A$238 
McDonald's Japan Holdings Co., Ltd35 %$2,128 $563 35 %$2,034 $597 

On January 30, 2024, the Company acquired an additional 28% ownership stake in Grand Foods Holding from the global investment firm Carlyle in exchange for $1.8 billion in cash. The acquisition increased the Company's equity ownership to 48%, but did not result in control of the entity. As such, the Company remains a minority partner and will continue to account for the investment under the equity method.
As of March 31, 2024, the aggregate carrying amount of our investments in these equity method investees exceeded our proportionate share of the net assets of these equity method investees by $1,448 million. This difference is not amortized. Management has concluded that there are no indicators of impairment related to these investments.
The following table summarizes the amounts recorded related to the Company's primary equity method investments during the periods presented.
Quarters Ended March 31,
In Millions20242023
Revenue$134 $122 
Equity in Earnings$34 $27 
Accounts Receivable$112 $114 
Dividends Received$13 $14 















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Income Taxes
The effective income tax rate was 19.9% and 20.5% for the quarters ended 2024 and 2023, respectively.

Fair Value Measurements
The Company measures certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value. Fair value disclosures are reflected in a three-level hierarchy, maximizing the use of observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs. The valuation hierarchy is based upon the transparency of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability on the measurement date and are defined as follows:
Level 1 – inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices (unadjusted) for an identical asset or liability in an active market.
Level 2 – inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for a similar asset or liability in an active market or model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs are observable for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3 – inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement of the asset or liability.
There were no significant changes to the valuation techniques used to measure fair value as described in the Company's December 31, 2023 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
At March 31, 2024, the fair value of the Company’s debt obligations was estimated at $35.7 billion, compared to a carrying amount of $37.4 billion. The fair value of debt obligations is based upon quoted market prices, classified as Level 2 within the valuation hierarchy. The carrying amount of cash and equivalents and notes receivable approximate fair value.
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Financial Instruments and Hedging Activities
The Company is exposed to global market risks, including the effect of changes in interest rates and foreign currency fluctuations. The Company uses foreign currency denominated debt and derivative instruments to mitigate the impact of these changes. The Company does not hold or issue derivatives for trading purposes.
The following table presents the fair values of derivative instruments included on the condensed consolidated balance sheet:
  Derivative AssetsDerivative Liabilities
In millionsBalance Sheet ClassificationMarch 31, 2024December 31, 2023Balance Sheet ClassificationMarch 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments
Foreign currencyPrepaid expenses and other current assets$35 $9 Accrued payroll and other liabilities$(10)$(37)
Interest ratePrepaid expenses and other current assets$ $4 Accrued payroll and other liabilities$(2)$(4)
Foreign currencyMiscellaneous other assets$18 $2 Other long-term liabilities$(1)$(14)
Interest rateMiscellaneous other assets
$ $ Other long-term liabilities$(62)$(58)
Total derivatives designated as hedging instruments$53 $15  $(75)$(113)
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments
EquityPrepaid expenses and other current assets

$ $ Accrued payroll and other liabilities$ $ 
Foreign currencyPrepaid expenses and other current assets

$ $6 Accrued payroll and other liabilities$ $(5)
EquityMiscellaneous other assets$180 $189   
Total derivatives not designated as hedging instruments$180 $195  $ $(5)
Total derivatives$233 $210  $(75)$(118)
The following table presents the pre-tax amounts from derivative instruments affecting income and AOCI for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively:
Location of gain or loss
recognized in income on
derivative
Gain (loss)
recognized in AOCI
Gain (loss)
reclassified into income from AOCI
Gain (loss) recognized in
income on derivative
In millions202420232024202320242023
Foreign currencyNonoperating income/expense$43 $(9)$(2)$10 
Interest rateInterest expense$4 $(2)$ $ 
Cash flow hedges$47 $(11)$(2)$10 
Foreign currency denominated debtNonoperating income/expense$349 $(163)
Foreign currency derivativesNonoperating income/expense$37 $8 
Foreign currency derivatives(1)
Interest expense$7 $6 
Net investment hedges$386 $(155)$ $7 $6 
Foreign currencyNonoperating income/expense$1 $2 
EquitySelling, general & administrative expenses$(9)$16 
Undesignated derivatives$(8)$18 
(1)The amount of gain (loss) recognized in income related to components excluded from effectiveness testing.





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Fair Value Hedges
The Company enters into fair value hedges to reduce the exposure to changes in fair values of certain liabilities. The Company enters into fair value hedges that convert a portion of its fixed rate debt into floating rate debt by use of interest rate swaps. At March 31, 2024, the carrying amount of fixed-rate debt that was effectively converted was an equivalent notional amount of $1.0 billion, which included a decrease of $64 million of cumulative hedging adjustments. For the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company recognized a $2 million loss on the fair value of interest rate swaps, and a corresponding gain on the fair value of the related hedged debt instrument to interest expense.
Cash Flow Hedges
The Company enters into cash flow hedges to reduce the exposure to variability in certain expected future cash flows. To protect against the reduction in value of forecasted foreign currency cash flows (such as royalties denominated in foreign currencies), the Company uses foreign currency forwards to hedge a portion of anticipated exposures. The hedges cover up to the next 18 months for certain exposures and are denominated in various currencies. As of March 31, 2024, the Company had derivatives outstanding with an equivalent notional amount of $1.9 billion that hedged a portion of forecasted foreign currency denominated cash flows.
Based on market conditions at March 31, 2024, the $32 million in cumulative cash flow hedging gains, after tax, is not expected to have a significant effect on the Company's earnings over the next 12 months.
Net Investment Hedges
The Company uses foreign currency denominated debt (third-party and intercompany) and foreign currency derivatives to hedge its investments in certain foreign subsidiaries and affiliates. Realized and unrealized translation adjustments from these hedges are included in shareholders' equity in the foreign currency translation component of Other comprehensive income ("OCI") and offset translation adjustments on the underlying net assets of foreign subsidiaries and affiliates, which also are recorded in OCI. As of March 31, 2024, $13.1 billion of the Company's third-party foreign currency denominated debt, $542 million of the Company's intercompany foreign currency denominated debt and $565 million of foreign currency derivatives were designated to hedge investments in certain foreign subsidiaries and affiliates.
Undesignated Derivatives
The Company enters into certain derivatives that are not designated for hedge accounting. Therefore, the changes in the fair value of these derivatives are recognized immediately in earnings together with the gain or loss from the hedged balance sheet position. As an example, the Company enters into equity derivative contracts, including total return swaps, to hedge market-driven changes in certain of its supplemental benefit plan liabilities. The Company may also use certain investments to hedge changes in these liabilities. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives or investments are recorded in Selling, general & administrative expenses together with the changes in the supplemental benefit plan liabilities. In addition, the Company uses foreign currency forwards to mitigate the change in fair value of certain foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities. The changes in the fair value of these derivatives are recognized in Nonoperating (income) expense, net, along with the currency gain or loss from the hedged balance sheet position.
Credit Risk
The Company is exposed to credit-related losses in the event of non-performance by its derivative counterparties. The Company did not have significant exposure to any individual counterparty at March 31, 2024 and has master agreements that contain netting arrangements. For financial reporting purposes, the Company presents gross derivative balances in its financial statements and supplementary data, including for counterparties subject to netting arrangements. Some of these agreements also require each party to post collateral if credit ratings fall below, or aggregate exposures exceed, certain contractual limits. At March 31, 2024, the Company was required to post $78 million of collateral due to the negative fair value of certain derivative positions. The Company's counterparties were not required to post collateral on any derivative position, other than on certain hedges of the Company’s supplemental benefit plan liabilities where the counterparties were required to post collateral on their liability positions.
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Franchise Arrangements
Revenues from franchised restaurants consisted of:
Quarters Ended
March 31,
In millions20242023
Rents$2,381 $2,270 
Royalties1,326 1,303 
Initial fees15 15 
Revenues from franchised restaurants$3,723 $3,588 

Segment Information
The Company operates under an organizational structure with the following global business segments reflecting how management reviews and evaluates operating performance:
U.S. - the Company's largest market. The segment is 95% franchised as of March 31, 2024.
International Operated Markets - comprised of markets or countries in which the Company owns and operates and franchises restaurants, including Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the U.K. The segment is 89% franchised as of March 31, 2024.
International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate - comprised primarily of developmental licensee and affiliate markets in the McDonald’s System, including equity method investments in China and Japan. Corporate activities are also reported in this segment. The segment is 98% franchised as of March 31, 2024.
The following table presents the Company’s revenues and operating income by segment:
Quarters Ended
  
March 31,
In millions20242023
Revenues
U.S.$2,560 $2,488 
International Operated Markets2,987 2,795 
International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate621 615 
Total revenues$6,169 $5,898 
Operating Income
U.S.$1,395 $1,295 
International Operated Markets1,365 1,193 
International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate(25)45 
Total operating income$2,736 $2,532 


Subsequent Events
The Company evaluated subsequent events through the date the financial statements were issued and filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). There were no subsequent events that required recognition or disclosure.
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Item  2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Basis of Presentation
This Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) should be read in conjunction with the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto, and the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our 2023 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
In the first quarter of 2024, the Company changed its rounding presentation to the nearest whole number in millions of reported amounts, except per share data or as otherwise designated. The change in rounding presentation has been applied to all prior year amounts presented. In certain circumstances, this change adjusted previously reported balances, however, these changes were not significant, and no other changes were made to previously reported financial information. Additionally, certain columns and rows in financial tables within management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations may not add due to rounding. Percentages have been calculated from the underlying whole-dollar amounts for all periods presented.
Overview
The Company franchises and owns and operates McDonald’s restaurants, which serve a locally relevant menu of quality food and beverages in communities across more than 100 countries. Of the 42,018 McDonald's restaurants at March 31, 2024, approximately 95% were franchised.
The Company’s reporting segments are aligned with its strategic priorities and reflect how management reviews and evaluates operating performance. Significant reportable segments include the United States ("U.S.") and International Operated Markets. In addition, there is the International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate segment, which includes the results of over 75 countries, as well as Corporate activities.
McDonald’s franchised restaurants are owned and operated under one of the following structures - conventional franchise, developmental license or affiliate. The optimal ownership structure for an individual restaurant, trading area or market (country) is based on a variety of factors, including the availability of individuals with entrepreneurial experience and financial resources, as well as the local legal and regulatory environment in critical areas such as property ownership and franchising. The business relationship between the Company and its independent franchisees is supported by adhering to standards and policies, including McDonald's Global Brand Standards, and is of fundamental importance to overall performance and to protecting the McDonald’s brand.
The Company is primarily a franchisor and believes franchising is paramount to delivering great-tasting food, locally relevant customer experiences and driving profitability. Franchising enables an individual to be their own employer and maintain control over all employment related matters, marketing and pricing decisions, while also benefiting from the strength of McDonald’s global brand, operating system and financial resources.
Directly operating McDonald’s restaurants contributes significantly to the Company's ability to act as a credible franchisor. One of the strengths of the franchising model is that the expertise from Company-owned and operated restaurants allows McDonald’s to improve the operations and success of all restaurants while innovations from franchisees can be tested and, when viable, efficiently implemented across relevant restaurants. Having Company-owned and operated restaurants provides Company personnel with a venue for restaurant operations training experience. In addition, in our Company-owned and operated restaurants, and in collaboration with franchisees, the Company is able to further develop and refine operating standards, marketing concepts and product and pricing strategies that will ultimately benefit McDonald’s restaurants.
The Company’s revenues consist of sales by Company-owned and operated restaurants and fees from franchised restaurants owned and operated by conventional franchisees, developmental licensees and affiliates. Fees vary by type of site, amount of Company investment, if any, and local business conditions. These fees, along with occupancy and operating rights, are stipulated in franchise/license agreements that generally have 20-year terms. The Company’s Other revenues are comprised of fees paid by franchisees to recover a portion of costs incurred by the Company for various technology platforms, and revenues from brand licensing arrangements to market and sell consumer packaged goods using the McDonald’s brand.
Conventional Franchise
Under a conventional franchise arrangement, the Company generally owns or secures a long-term lease on the land and building for the restaurant location and the franchisee pays for equipment, signs, seating and décor. The Company believes that ownership of real estate, combined with the co-investment by franchisees, enables it to achieve restaurant performance levels that are among the highest in the industry.
Franchisees are responsible for reinvesting capital in their businesses over time. In addition, to accelerate implementation of certain initiatives, the Company may co-invest with franchisees to fund improvements to their restaurants or operating systems. These investments, developed in collaboration with franchisees, are designed to cater to consumer preferences, improve local business performance and increase the value of the McDonald's brand through the development of modernized, more attractive and higher revenue generating restaurants.
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The Company requires franchisees to meet rigorous standards and generally does not work with passive investors. The business relationship with franchisees is designed to facilitate consistency and high quality at all McDonald’s restaurants. Conventional franchisees contribute to the Company’s revenue, primarily through the payment of rent and royalties based upon a percent of sales, with specified minimum rent payments, along with initial fees paid upon the opening of a new restaurant or grant of a new franchise. The Company's heavily franchised business model is designed to generate stable and predictable revenue, which is largely a function of franchisee sales, and resulting cash flow streams.
Developmental License or Affiliate
Under a developmental license or affiliate arrangement, licensees are responsible for operating and managing their businesses, providing capital (including the real estate interest) and developing and opening new restaurants. The Company generally does not invest any capital under a developmental license or affiliate arrangement, and it receives a royalty based on a percent of sales, and generally receives initial fees upon the opening of a new restaurant or grant of a new license.
While developmental license and affiliate arrangements are largely the same, affiliate arrangements are used in a limited number of foreign markets (primarily China and Japan) within the International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate segment as well as a limited number of individual restaurants within the International Operated Markets segment, where the Company also has an equity investment and records its share of net results in equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates.
Strategic Direction
The Company’s Accelerating the Arches growth strategy (the “Strategy”) encompasses all aspects of McDonald’s business as the leading global omni-channel restaurant brand. The Strategy reflects the Company’s purpose, mission and values, as well as growth pillars that build on the Company’s competitive advantages.
Purpose, Mission and Values
The following purpose, mission and values underpin the Company’s success and are at the heart of the Strategy.
Through its size and scale, the Company embraces and prioritizes its role and commitment to the communities in which it operates through its purpose to feed and foster communities, and its mission to make delicious feel-good moments easy for everyone. The Company is guided by five core values that define who it is and how it runs its business across the three-legged stool of McDonald’s franchisees, suppliers and employees:
1.Serve - We put our customers and people first;
2.Inclusion - We open our doors to everyone;
3.Integrity - We do the right thing;
4.Community - We are good neighbors; and
5.Family - We get better together.
The Company believes that its people, all around the world, set it apart and bring these values to life daily.
Growth Pillars
The following growth pillars, M-C-D, build on historic strengths and articulate areas of further opportunity. Under the Strategy, the Company will:
Maximize our Marketing by investing in new, culturally relevant approaches, grounded in fan truths, to effectively communicate the story of our brand, food and purpose. The Company continues to build relevance with customers through emotional connections and world class creative, which are central to the brand’s “Feel-Good Marketing” approach. This is exemplified by campaigns that elevate the entire brand and continue to be scaled around the globe to connect with customers in authentic and relatable ways. Another way McDonald’s connects with its customers is through personalized value and digital offers available in our mobile app. The Company is committed to a marketing strategy that highlights value at every tier of the menu, as affordability remains a cornerstone of the McDonald’s brand.
Commit to the Core menu by tapping into customer demand for the familiar and focusing on serving our iconic products that are beloved by customers around the world such as our World Famous Fries, Big Mac, Quarter Pounder and Chicken McNuggets, which are some of our seventeen unique billion-dollar brands. Building on its foundational strength with burgers, the Company will continue to evolve and innovate its longest-standing menu item with plans to implement “Best Burger”; a series of operational and formulation changes designed to deliver hotter, juicier, tastier burgers to nearly all markets by the end of 2026. Further, the Company is focused on continuing to gain share in the rapidly growing chicken category, as we continue to aggressively expand our chicken brands. This includes plans to offer McCrispy in nearly all markets by the end of 2025 and to extend the McCrispy brand into wraps and tenders in several markets. These planned innovations and new menu offerings reflect the Company’s ability to test and scale quickly to meet evolving customer preferences. The Company also continues to see a
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significant opportunity with coffee, demonstrated by markets leveraging the McCafé brand, customer experience, value and quality to drive long-term growth.
Double Down on the 4D's: Digital, Delivery, Drive Thru and Restaurant Development by continuing to leverage competitive strengths and building a powerful digital experience growth engine to deliver a personalized and convenient customer experience. To unlock further growth, the Company plans to continue to accelerate the pace of restaurant openings and technology innovation so that whenever and however customers choose to interact with McDonald’s, they can enjoy a fast, easy experience that meets their needs.
Digital: The Company’s digital experience is transforming how customers order, pay and receive their food. Through digital tools, customers can access personalized offers, participate in a loyalty program, order through our mobile app and receive McDonald's food through the channel of their choice. In the U.S., we are providing increased convenience to customers through “Ready on Arrival”: a digital enhancement that enables crew to begin assembling a customer’s mobile order prior to arrival at the restaurant to expedite service and elevate customer satisfaction. The Company plans to deploy this initiative across its top six markets by the end of 2025. The Company has successful loyalty programs in approximately 50 markets, including its top six markets. McDonald’s loyalty customers have proven to be highly engaged, and the Company plans to increase its 90-day active users to 250 million by 2027. Further, the Company plans to grow its annual Systemwide sales to loyalty members to $45 billion by 2027.
Delivery: The Company offers delivery in over 36,000 restaurants across approximately 100 markets, representing over 85% of McDonald’s restaurants. The Company is continuing to build on and enhance the delivery experience for customers, including adding the ability to place a delivery order in our mobile app (a feature that is available in five of the Company’s top markets). The Company continues to scale this capability and expects to increase the percentage of Systemwide delivery sales originating from our mobile app to 30% by 2027. The Company also has long-term strategic partnerships with delivery providers that continue to benefit the Company, customers and franchisees by optimizing operational efficiencies and creating a seamless customer experience.
Drive Thru: The Company has the most drive thru locations worldwide, with more than 27,000 drive thru locations globally, including nearly 95% of the approximately 13,500 locations in the U.S. This channel remains a competitive advantage in meeting customers’ demand for flexibility and choice. McDonald’s network currently provides unmatched scale and convenience for customers, while also offering significant growth opportunities, such as adding additional drive thru lanes to increase capacity and improve speed and efficiency. The Company continues to build on its drive thru advantage, as the vast majority of new restaurant openings in the U.S. and International Operated Markets will include a drive thru.
Restaurant Development: The Company will continue to accelerate the pace of restaurant openings to attempt to fully capture the increased demand being driven through the Strategy in many of its largest markets. In 2024, the Company plans to open more than 2,100 new restaurants across the globe, which will contribute to nearly 4% new unit growth (net of closures). Further, the Company continues to build on its industry-leading development progress by targeting expansion to 50,000 restaurants by the end of 2027, which would make it the fastest period of growth in Company history.
Foundation
Foundational to the Strategy is keeping the customer and restaurant crew at the center of everything the Company does, along with a relentless focus on running great restaurants, empowering its people and continuing to modernize our ways of working through Accelerating the Organization. Further, as the Company plans for long term growth and solidifying McDonald’s leadership position, the Company will develop three technology-enabled platforms designed to build our competitive advantages, cement our place in culture and stay one step ahead of the next generation of customers. Together, our foundation and platforms will extend the Company’s leadership position and unlock new growth opportunities and efficiencies for our business over the long-term.
Our platforms are:
Consumer: The Company is creating one of the world’s largest consumer platforms to fuel engagement, which will bring together the best of our brand and utilize our physical and digital competitive advantages. The consumer platform will enable the Company to accelerate growth in our loyalty program and drive valuable loyalty customers to visit more frequently.
Restaurant: The Company is building the easiest and most efficient restaurant operating platform that will enable franchisees to run restaurants more efficiently and utilize the latest cloud-based technology to make the crew’s jobs to deliver exceptional customer service easier. The Company will deploy new, universal software that all McDonald’s restaurants will run on, enabling restaurants to roll out innovation even faster, with less complexity and more stability; and customers will enjoy a more familiar, consistent experience.
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Company: The Company is building a modern company platform that unlocks speed and innovation throughout the organization, to enable further growth as it modernizes the way it works by focusing on becoming faster, more innovative and more efficient at solving problems for its customers and people.
Developing these platforms includes continued investments in digital, innovation and the Global Business Services organization.
The Strategy is aligned with the Company’s capital allocation philosophy of investing in opportunities to grow the business and drive strong returns, for example through new restaurants and reinvesting in existing restaurants, and returning free cash flow to shareholders over time through dividends and share repurchases.
The Company believes the Strategy builds on its inherent strengths by harnessing its competitive advantages while leveraging its size, scale, agility and the power of the McDonald's brand to adapt and adjust to an uncertain macroenvironment to meet customer demands. The Strategy is supported by a strong global senior leadership team aimed at executing against the MCD growth pillars and accelerating the Company’s broad-based business momentum.

First Quarter 2024 Financial Performance
Global comparable sales increased 1.9%, reflecting positive comparable sales in the U.S. and International Operated Markets segment. Comparable sales in the International Developmental Licensed Markets segment were slightly negative as the segment continued to be impacted by the war in the Middle East:
U.S. comparable sales increased 2.5%. Comparable sales results benefited from average check growth driven by strategic menu price increases. Successful restaurant level execution, effective marketing campaigns featuring the core menu and continued digital and delivery growth contributed to positive comparable sales results.
International Operated Markets increased 2.7%. Segment performance was driven by positive comparable sales in most markets, led by the U.K. and Germany, partly offset by negative comparable sales in France.
International Developmental Licensed Markets decreased 0.2%. The continued impact of the war in the Middle East more than offset positive comparable sales in Japan, Latin America and Europe.
In addition to the comparable sales results, the Company had the following financial results:
Consolidated revenues increased 5% (4% in constant currencies).
Systemwide sales increased 3% (3% in constant currencies).
Consolidated operating income increased 8% (8% in constant currencies). Results reflected pre-tax charges of $35 million and $180 million for the current year and prior year, respectively, primarily related to restructuring charges associated with Accelerating the Organization. Excluding these current and prior year charges, consolidated operating income increased 2% (2% in constant currencies).
Diluted earnings per share was $2.66, an increase of 9% (9% in constant currencies). Excluding the current year charges described above of $0.04 per share, diluted earnings per share was $2.70, an increase of 2% (2% in constant currencies) when also excluding prior year charges.
Management reviews and analyzes business results excluding the effect of foreign currency translation, impairment and other strategic charges and gains, as well as material regulatory and other income tax impacts, and bases incentive compensation plans on these results because the Company believes this better represents underlying business trends.    













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The Following Definitions Apply to these Terms as Used Throughout this Report:
Constant currency results exclude the effects of foreign currency translation and are calculated by translating current year results at prior year average exchange rates. Management reviews and analyzes business results excluding the effect of foreign currency translation, impairment and other charges and gains, as well as material regulatory and other income tax impacts, and bases incentive compensation plans on these results because the Company believes this better represents underlying business trends.
Comparable sales and comparable guest counts are compared to the same period in the prior year and represent sales and transactions, respectively, at all restaurants, whether owned and operated by the Company or by franchisees, in operation at least thirteen months including those temporarily closed. Some of the reasons restaurants may be temporarily closed include reimaging or remodeling, rebuilding, road construction, natural disasters, pandemics and acts of war, terrorism or other hostilities. Comparable sales exclude the impact of currency translation and the sales of any market considered hyperinflationary (generally identified as those markets whose cumulative inflation rate over a three-year period exceeds 100%), which management believes more accurately reflects the underlying business trends. Comparable sales are driven by changes in guest counts and average check, the latter of which is affected by changes in pricing and product mix.
Systemwide sales include sales at all restaurants, whether owned and operated by the Company or by franchisees. Systemwide sales to loyalty members is comprised of all sales to customers who self-identify as a loyalty member when transacting with both Company-owned and operated and franchised restaurants. Systemwide sales to loyalty members are measured across approximately 50 markets with loyalty programs. Systemwide sales to loyalty members represents an aggregation of the prior four quarters of sales to loyalty members active in the last 90 days. While franchised sales are not recorded as revenues by the Company, management believes the information is important in understanding the Company's financial performance because these sales are the basis on which the Company calculates and records franchised revenues and are indicative of the financial health of the franchisee base. The Company's revenues consist of sales by Company-owned and operated restaurants and fees from franchised restaurants operated by conventional franchisees, developmental licensees and affiliates. Changes in Systemwide sales are primarily driven by comparable sales and net restaurant unit expansion.
Free cash flow, defined as cash provided by operations less capital expenditures, and free cash flow conversion rate, defined as free cash flow divided by net income, are measures reviewed by management in order to evaluate the Company’s ability to convert net profits into cash resources, after reinvesting in the core business, that can be used to pursue opportunities to enhance shareholder value.

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CONSOLIDATED OPERATING RESULTS
Quarter Ended
Dollars in millions, except per share dataMarch 31, 2024
 AmountIncrease/
(Decrease)
Revenues
Sales by Company-owned and operated restaurants$2,355 %
Revenues from franchised restaurants3,723 
Other revenues91 
Total revenues6,169 
Operating costs and expenses
Company-owned and operated restaurant expenses2,035 
Franchised restaurants-occupancy expenses627 
Other restaurant expenses68 
Selling, general & administrative expenses
Depreciation and amortization99 — 
Other622 12 
Other operating (income) expense, net(17)n/m
Total operating costs and expenses3,433 
Operating income2,736 
Interest expense372 13 
Nonoperating (income) expense, net(45)(30)
Income before provision for income taxes2,409 
Provision for income taxes479 
Net income$1,929 %
Earnings per common share-basic$2.67 %
Earnings per common share-diluted$2.66 %
n/m Not meaningful
20

Impact of the War in the Middle East
The Company’s Systemwide sales and revenue have continued to be negatively impacted by the war in the Middle East, primarily in the International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate segment, where the majority of restaurants are under a developmental license or affiliate arrangement. The Company is monitoring the evolving situation, which it expects to continue to have a negative impact on Systemwide sales and revenue as long as the war continues. The Company generally does not invest any capital under a developmental license or affiliate arrangement, and it receives a royalty based on a percent of sales, and generally receives initial fees upon the opening of a new restaurant or grant of a new license.
Impact of Foreign Currency Translation
Foreign currency translation did not have a significant impact on consolidated operating results for the quarter.
While changes in foreign currency exchange rates affect reported results, McDonald's mitigates exposures, where practical, by purchasing goods and services in local currencies, financing in local currencies and hedging certain foreign-denominated cash flows. Results excluding the effect of foreign currency translation (referred to as constant currency) are calculated by translating current year results at prior year average exchange rates.
IMPACT OF FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSLATION   
Dollars in millions, except per share data   
Currency
Translation
Benefit/ (Cost)
Quarters Ended March 31,202420232024
Revenues$6,169 $5,898 $19 
Company-owned and operated margins320 301 1 
Franchised margins3,096 2,990 8 
Selling, general & administrative expenses720 653 (1)
Operating income2,736 2,532 4 
Net income1,929 1,802 (3)
Earnings per share-diluted$2.66 $2.45 $ 
Net Income and Diluted Earnings per Share
Net income increased 7% (7% in constant currencies) to $1,929 million, and diluted earnings per share increased 9% (9% constant currencies) to $2.66. Foreign currency translation had no impact on diluted earnings per share.
Results included pre-tax charges of $35 million, or $0.04 per share, for the three months ended 2024 and $180 million, or $0.18 per share, for the three months ended 2023, primarily related to restructuring charges associated with the Company's internal effort to modernize ways of working (Accelerating the Organization).
Excluding the above items, results reflected positive operating performance driven primarily by higher sales-driven Franchised margins, partly offset by higher Selling, general, and administrative expenses.
During the quarter, the Company paid a quarterly dividend of $1.67 per share, or $1.2 billion. Additionally, the Company repurchased 3.2 million shares of stock for $921 million.

NET INCOME AND EARNINGS PER SHARE-DILUTED RECONCILIATION
Dollars in millions, except per share data
Quarters Ended March 31,
Net IncomeEarnings per share - diluted
20242023Inc/ (Dec)Inc/ (Dec)
Excluding
Currency
Translation
20242023Inc/ (Dec)Inc/ (Dec)
Excluding
Currency
Translation
GAAP$1,929 $1,802 %%$2.66 $2.45 %%
(Gains)/charges27 134 0.04 0.18 
Non-GAAP$1,957 $1,936 %%$2.70 $2.63 %%




21

Revenues
The Company's revenues consist of sales by Company-owned and operated restaurants and fees from restaurants owned and operated by franchisees, developmental licensees and affiliates. Revenues from conventional franchised restaurants include rent and royalties based on a percent of sales with minimum rent payments, and initial fees. Revenues from restaurants licensed to developmental licensees and affiliates include a royalty based on a percent of sales, and generally include initial fees. The Company’s Other revenues are comprised of fees paid by franchisees to recover a portion of costs incurred by the Company for various technology platforms and revenues from brand licensing arrangements to market and sell consumer packaged goods using the McDonald’s brand.
Franchised restaurants represented 95% of McDonald's restaurants worldwide at March 31, 2024. The Company's heavily franchised business model is designed to generate stable and predictable revenue, which is largely a function of franchisee sales, and resulting cash flow streams. In the first quarter of 2024, the Company provided an insignificant amount of assistance, including royalty relief and/or deferral of cash collection for certain franchisees impacted by the war in the Middle East in the International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate segment. This assistance may continue as long as the war continues.
REVENUES    
Dollars in millions    
Quarters Ended March 31,20242023Inc/ (Dec)Inc/ (Dec)
Excluding
Currency
Translation
Company-owned and operated sales    
U.S.$781 $761 %%
International Operated Markets1,362 1,270 
International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate212 193 10 15 
Total$2,355 $2,224 %%
Franchised revenues   
U.S.$1,728 $1,679 %%
International Operated Markets1,585 1,486 
International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate409 423 (3)(1)
Total$3,723 $3,588 %%
Total Company-owned and operated sales and Franchised revenues   
U.S.$2,509 $2,440 %%
International Operated Markets2,947 2,756 
International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate621 616 
Total$6,078 $5,812 %%
Total Other revenues$91 $86 %%
Total Revenues$6,169 $5,898 %%
Total Company-owned and operated sales and franchised revenues increased 5% (4% in constant currencies), benefiting from positive sales performance in the International Operated Markets segment and the U.S. Revenue growth in the International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate segment continued to be impacted by the war in the Middle East, which began in October 2023.











22

Comparable Sales
The following table presents the percent change in comparable sales for the quarters ended March 31, 2024 and 2023:
Increase/(Decrease)
Quarters Ended March 31,
20242023
U.S.2.5 %12.6 %
International Operated Markets2.7 12.6 
International Developmental Licensed Markets(0.2)12.6 
Total 1.9 %12.6 %

Systemwide Sales and Franchised Sales
The following table presents the percent change in Systemwide sales for the quarter ended March 31, 2024:
SYSTEMWIDE SALES*
Quarter Ended March 31, 2024
Inc/ (Dec)Inc/ (Dec)
Excluding
Currency
Translation
U.S.%%
International Operated Markets
International Developmental Licensed Markets(1)
Total%%
*Unlike comparable sales, the Company has not excluded sales from hyperinflationary markets from Systemwide sales as these sales are the basis on which the Company calculates and records revenues.
Franchised sales are not recorded as revenues by the Company, but are the basis on which the Company calculates and records franchised revenues and are indicative of the financial health of the franchisee base. The following table presents Franchised sales and the related increases/(decreases) for the quarters ended March 31, 2024 and 2023:

FRANCHISED SALES
Dollars in millions
Quarters Ended March 31,20242023Inc/ (Dec)Inc/ (Dec)
Excluding
Currency
Translation
U.S.$12,086 $11,742 %%
International Operated Markets9,166 8,669 
International Developmental Licensed Markets7,565 7,640 (1)
Total$28,816 $28,051 %%
Ownership type
Conventional franchised$21,165 $20,346 %%
Developmental licensed4,611 4,720 (2)(2)
Foreign affiliated3,040 2,985 
Total$28,816 $28,051 %%
23

Restaurant Margins
Franchised restaurant margins are measured as revenues from franchised restaurants less franchised restaurant occupancy costs. Franchised revenues include rent and royalties based on a percent of sales, and initial fees. Franchised restaurant occupancy costs include lease expense and depreciation, as the Company generally owns or secures a long-term lease on the land and building for the restaurant location.
Company-owned and operated restaurant margins are measured as sales from Company-owned and operated restaurants less costs for food & paper, payroll & employee benefits and occupancy & other operating expenses necessary to run an individual restaurant. Company-owned and operated margins exclude costs that are not allocated to individual restaurants, primarily payroll & employee benefit costs of non-restaurant support staff, which are included in Selling, general and administrative expenses.

RESTAURANT MARGINS
Dollars in millions
AmountInc/ (Dec)Inc/ (Dec)
Excluding
Currency
Translation
Quarters Ended March 31,20242023
Franchised  
U.S.$1,405 $1,362 %%
International Operated Markets1,287 1,209 
International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate405 418 (3)(1)
Total$3,096 $2,990 %%
Company-owned and operated   
U.S.$107 $109 (2)%(2)%
International Operated Markets203 192 
International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporaten/mn/mn/mn/m
Total$320 $301 %%
Total restaurant margins
U.S.$1,512 $1,471 %%
International Operated Markets1,490 1,401 
International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporaten/mn/mn/mn/m
Total$3,416 $3,291 %%
n/m Not meaningful
Results in the U.S. and International Operated Markets segment reflected sales-driven growth in Franchised margins. Franchised margins represented approximately 90% of restaurant margin dollars.
Company-owned and operated margins in the International Operated Markets segment reflected positive sales performance. Both the U.S. and the International Operated Markets segment were impacted by ongoing inflationary cost pressures.
Total restaurant margins included depreciation and amortization expense of $411 million.

Selling, General & Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $67 million, or 10% (10% in constant currencies). Results primarily reflect investments in digital and technology, as well as transformation efforts, under our Accelerating the Arches strategy and costs related to the 2024 Worldwide Owner/Operator convention.
Selling, general and administrative expenses as a percent of Systemwide sales were 2.3% and 2.2% for the quarters ended 2024 and 2023, respectively.






24

Other Operating (Income) Expense, Net
OTHER OPERATING (INCOME) EXPENSE, NET
Dollars in millions
Quarters Ended
March 31,
20242023
Gains on sales of restaurant businesses$(9)$(13)
Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates(45)(39)
Asset dispositions and other (income) expense, net2 — 
Impairment and other charges (gains), net35 180 
Total$(17)$129 
Impairment and other charges (gains), net reflected pre-tax charges of $35 million and $180 million for the three months ended 2024 and 2023, respectively, primarily related to restructuring charges associated with Accelerating the Organization.

Operating Income
OPERATING INCOME & OPERATING MARGIN
Dollars in millions
Quarters Ended March 31,20242023Inc/ (Dec)Inc/ (Dec)
Excluding
Currency
Translation
U.S.$1,395 $1,295 %%
International Operated Markets1,365 1,193 14 13 
International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate(25)45 n/mn/m
Total $2,736 $2,532 %%
Operating margin44.3 %42.9 %
Operating Income: Operating income increased $204 million, or 8% (8% in constant currencies). Results reflected pre-tax charges of $35 million and $180 million for the three months ended 2024 and 2023, respectively, primarily related to restructuring charges associated with Accelerating the Organization.

OPERATING INCOME & OPERATING MARGIN RECONCILIATION*
Dollars in millions
Quarters Ended March 31,
20242023Inc/ (Dec)Inc/ (Dec)
Excluding
Currency
Translation
GAAP operating income$2,736$2,532%%
(Gains)/charges35180
Non-GAAP operating income$2,771$2,713%%
Non-GAAP operating margin44.9 %46.0 %
*Refer to the Impairment and other charges (gains), net line within the Other Operating (Income) Expense, Net section above for details of the charges in this table.

Excluding the charges for the three months ended 2024 and 2023 shown in the table above, operating income increased 2% (2% in constant currencies). Positive operating results in the U.S. and International Operated Markets segment were primarily due to sales-driven growth in Franchised margins, partly offset by higher Selling, general, and administrative expenses.
Operating Margin: Operating margin is defined as operating income as a percent of total revenues. The contributions to operating margin differ by segment due to each segment's ownership structure, primarily due to the relative percentage of franchised versus Company-owned and operated restaurants. Additionally, temporary restaurant closures, which vary by segment, impact the contribution of each segment to the consolidated operating margin.
The decrease in non-GAAP operating margin was primarily due to ongoing inflationary cost pressures as well as higher Selling, general and administrative expenses.

25

Interest Expense
Interest expense increased 13% (12% in constant currencies), primarily due to higher average interest rates as well as higher average debt balances.
Nonoperating (Income) Expense, Net
NONOPERATING (INCOME) EXPENSE, NET
Dollars in millions
Quarters Ended
March 31,
20242023
Interest income$(47)$(38)
Foreign currency and hedging activity5 (13)
Other (income) expense, net(3)(13)
Total$(45)$(64)
Foreign currency and hedging activity includes net gains or losses on certain hedges that reduce the exposure to variability on certain intercompany foreign currency cash flow streams.

Income Taxes
The effective income tax rate was 19.9% and 20.5% for the quarters ended 2024 and 2023, respectively.

Cash Flows
The Company has a long history of generating significant cash from operations and has substantial credit capacity to fund operating and discretionary spending to invest in opportunities to grow the business, such as restaurant development, in addition to funding debt service payments, dividends and share repurchases.
Cash provided by operations totaled $2.4 billion and exceeded capital expenditures by $1.8 billion. Cash provided by operations was relatively flat compared to the prior year as changes in working capital offset improved operating results.
Cash used for investing activities totaled $2.5 billion, an increase of $1.7 billion primarily due to the Company's increased ownership stake in McDonald's China business.
Cash used for financing activities totaled $3.7 billion, a increase of $3.1 billion. The increase was primarily due to $1.6 billion of debt repayments in the current year compared to $1.1 billion of debt issuances in the prior year.
26

Outlook
Based on current conditions, the following is provided to assist in forecasting the Company's future results for 2024.
The Company expects net restaurant unit expansion will contribute nearly 2% to 2024 Systemwide sales growth, in constant currencies.
The Company expects full year 2024 Selling, general and administrative expenses of about 2.2% of Systemwide sales.
The Company expects 2024 operating margin percent to be in the mid-to-high 40% range.
Based on current interest and foreign currency exchange rates, the Company expects interest expense for the full year 2024 to increase between 9% and 11% driven primarily by higher average interest rates and a higher average debt balance.
The Company expects the effective income tax rate for the full year 2024 to be in the 20% to 22% range. Some volatility may result in a quarterly tax rate outside of the annual range.
The Company expects 2024 capital expenditures to be between $2.5 and $2.7 billion, more than half of which will be directed towards new restaurant unit expansion across the U.S. and International Operated Markets. Globally, the Company expects to open more than 2,100 restaurants. The Company will open about 500 restaurants in the U.S. and International Operated Markets segments, and developmental licensees and affiliates will contribute capital towards more than 1,600 restaurant openings in their respective markets. The Company expects over 1,600 net restaurant additions in 2024.
The Company expects to achieve a free cash flow conversion rate in the 90% range.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent accounting pronouncements are discussed in the "Recent Accounting Pronouncements" section in Part I, Item 1 of this report.
27

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
The information in this report contains forward-looking statements about future events and circumstances and their effects upon revenues, expenses and business opportunities. Generally speaking, any statement in this report not based upon historical fact is a forward-looking statement. Forward-looking statements can also be identified by the use of forward-looking or conditional words, such as “could,” “should,” “can,” “continue,” “estimate,” “forecast,” “intend,” “look,” “may,” “will,” “expect,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “remain,” “confident,” “commit” and “potential” or similar expressions. In particular, statements regarding our plans, strategies, prospects and expectations regarding our business and industry are forward-looking statements. They reflect our expectations, are not guarantees of performance and speak only as of the dates the statements are made. Except as required by law, we do not undertake to update such forward-looking statements. You should not rely unduly on forward-looking statements.
Risk Factors
Our business results are subject to a variety of risks, including those that are described below and elsewhere in our filings with the
SEC. The risks described below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also significantly adversely affect our business. If any of these risks were to materialize or intensify, our expectations (or the underlying assumptions) may change and our performance may be adversely affected.
STRATEGY AND BRAND
If we do not successfully evolve and execute against our business strategies, we may not be able to drive business growth.
To drive Systemwide sales, operating income and free cash flow growth, our business strategies – including the components of our Accelerating the Arches growth strategy – must be effective in maintaining and strengthening customer appeal and capturing additional market share. Whether these strategies are successful depends mainly on our System’s continued ability to:
capitalize on our global scale, iconic brand and local market presence to build upon our historic strengths and competitive advantages, including by maximizing our marketing, committing to our core menu items, and doubling down on digital, delivery, drive thru and restaurant development;
innovate and differentiate the McDonald’s experience, including by preparing and serving our food in a way that balances value and convenience to our customers with profitability;
build upon our investments to transform and enhance the customer experience;
run great restaurants by driving efficiencies and expanding capacities while prioritizing health and safety;
accelerate our existing strategies, including through growth opportunities; and
evolve and adjust our strategies in response to, among other things, changing consumer behavior, and other events impacting our results of operations and liquidity.
If we are delayed or unsuccessful in evolving or executing against our strategies, if the execution of our strategies proves to be more difficult, costly or time consuming than expected, or if our strategies do not yield the desired results, our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.
Failure to preserve the value or relevance of our brand could have an adverse impact on our financial results.
To continue to be successful in the future, we believe we must preserve, enhance and leverage the value and relevance of our brand, including our corporate purpose, mission and values. Brand value is based in part on consumer perceptions, which are affected by a variety of factors, including the nutritional content and preparation of our food, the ingredients we use, the manner in which we source commodities and general business practices across the System, including the people practices at McDonald’s restaurants. Consumer acceptance of our offerings is subject to change for a variety of reasons, and some changes can occur rapidly. For example, nutritional, health, environmental and other scientific studies and conclusions, which continuously evolve and may have contradictory implications, drive popular opinion, litigation and regulation (including initiatives intended to drive consumer behavior) in ways that affect the “informal eating out” (“IEO”) segment or perceptions of our brand, generally or relative to available alternatives. Our business could also be impacted by business incidents or practices, whether actual or perceived, particularly if they receive considerable publicity or result in litigation, as well as by our position or perceived lack of position on environmental, social responsibility, public policy, geopolitical and similar matters. In addition, we cannot ensure that franchisees or business partners will not take actions that adversely affect the value and relevance of our brand. Consumer perceptions may also be affected by adverse commentary from third parties, including through social media or conventional media outlets, regarding the quick-service category of the IEO segment or our brand, culture, operations, suppliers or franchisees. If we are unsuccessful in addressing adverse commentary or perceptions, whether or not accurate, our brand and financial results may suffer.
If we do not anticipate and address industry trends and evolving consumer preferences and effectively execute our pricing, promotional and marketing plans, our business could suffer.
Our continued success depends on our System’s ability to build upon our historic strengths and competitive advantages. In order to do so, we need to anticipate and respond effectively to continuously shifting consumer demographics and industry trends in food sourcing,
28

food preparation, food offerings, and consumer behavior and preferences, including with respect to the use of digital channels and environmental and social responsibility matters. If we are not able to predict, or quickly and effectively respond to, these changes, or if our competitors are able to do so more effectively, our financial results could be adversely impacted.
Our ability to build upon our strengths and advantages also depends on the impact of pricing, promotional and marketing plans across the System, and the ability to adjust these plans to respond quickly and effectively to evolving customer behavior and preferences, as well as shifting economic and competitive conditions. Existing or future pricing strategies and marketing plans, as well as the value proposition they represent, are expected to continue to be important components of our business strategy. However, they may not be successful, or may not be as successful as the efforts of our competitors, which could negatively impact sales, guest counts and market share.
Additionally, we operate in a complex and costly advertising environment. Our marketing and advertising programs may not be successful in reaching consumers in the way we intend. Our success depends in part on whether the allocation of our advertising and marketing resources across different channels, including digital, allows us to reach consumers effectively, efficiently and in ways that are meaningful to them. If our advertising and marketing programs are not successful, or are not as successful as those of our competitors, our sales, guest counts and market share could decrease.
Our investments to transform and enhance the customer experience, including through technology, may not generate the expected results.
Our long-term business objectives depend on the successful Systemwide execution of our strategies. We continue to build upon our investments in restaurant development, technology, digital engagement and delivery in order to transform and enhance the customer experience. As part of these investments, we are continuing to place emphasis on improving our service model and strengthening relationships with customers, in part through digital channels and loyalty initiatives, mobile ordering and payment systems, and enhancing our drive thru technologies, which efforts may not generate expected results. We also continue to expand and refine our delivery initiatives, including through integrating delivery and mobile ordering. Utilizing a third-party delivery service may not have the same level of profitability as a non-delivery transaction, and may introduce additional food quality, food safety and customer satisfaction risks. If these customer experience initiatives are not successfully executed, or if we do not fully realize the intended benefits of these significant investments, our business results may suffer.
We face intense competition in our markets, which could hurt our business.
We compete primarily in the IEO segment, which is highly competitive. We also face sustained, intense competition from traditional, fast casual and other competitors, which may include many non-traditional market participants such as convenience stores, grocery stores, coffee shops and online retailers. We expect our environment to continue to be highly competitive, and our results in any particular reporting period may be impacted by a contracting IEO segment or by new or continuing actions, product offerings, technologies or consolidation of our competitors and third-party partners, which may have a short- or long-term impact on our results.
We compete primarily on the basis of product choice, quality, affordability, service and location. In particular, we believe our ability to compete successfully in the current market environment depends on our ability to improve existing products, successfully develop and introduce new products, price our products appropriately, deliver a relevant customer experience, manage the complexity of our restaurant operations, manage our investments in restaurant development, technology, digital engagement and delivery, and respond effectively to our competitors’ actions or offerings or to unforeseen disruptive actions. There can be no assurance these strategies will be effective, and some strategies may be effective at improving some metrics while adversely affecting others, which could have the overall effect of harming our business.
We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property or adequately ensure that we are not infringing the intellectual property of others, which could harm the value of the McDonald’s brand and our business.
Our success depends on our continued ability to use our existing trademarks and service marks in order to increase brand awareness and further develop our branded products in both domestic and international markets. We rely on a combination of trademarks, copyrights, service marks, trade secrets, patents and other intellectual property rights to protect our brand and branded products.
We have registered certain trademarks and have other trademark registrations pending in the U.S. and certain foreign jurisdictions. The trademarks that we currently use have not been, and may never be, registered in all of the countries outside of the U.S. in which we do business or may do business in the future. It may be costly and time consuming to protect our intellectual property, particularly in rapidly evolving areas, and the steps we have taken to do so in the U.S. and foreign countries may not be adequate. In addition, the steps we have taken may not adequately ensure that we do not infringe the intellectual property of others, and third parties may claim infringement by us in the future. In particular, we may be involved in intellectual property claims, including often aggressive or opportunistic attempts to enforce patents used in information technology systems, which might affect our operations and results. Any claim of infringement, whether or not it has merit, could, particularly in rapidly evolving areas, be time consuming, or result in costly litigation and could also have an adverse impact on our business.
In addition, we cannot ensure that franchisees and other third parties who hold licenses to our intellectual property will not take actions that adversely affect the value of our intellectual property.
29

OPERATIONS
The global scope of our business subjects us to risks that could negatively affect our business.
We encounter differing cultural, regulatory, geopolitical and economic environments within and among the more than 100 countries where McDonald’s restaurants operate, and our ability to achieve our business objectives depends on the System’s success in these environments. Meeting customer expectations is complicated by the risks inherent in our global operating environment, and our global success is partially dependent on our System’s ability to leverage operating successes across markets and brand perceptions. Planned initiatives may not have appeal across multiple markets with McDonald’s customers and could drive unanticipated changes in customer perceptions and market share.
Disruptions in operations or price volatility in a market can also result from governmental actions, such as price, foreign exchange or trade-related tariffs or controls, trade policies and regulations, sanctions and counter sanctions, government-mandated closure of our, our franchisees’ or our suppliers’ operations, and asset seizures. Such disruptions or volatility can also result from acts of war, terrorism or other hostilities. For example, the war between Russia and Ukraine resulted in volatile and unpredictable conditions throughout the region, exacerbated volatile macroeconomic conditions and increased pressure on our supply chain and the availability and costs of commodities, including energy. The broader impact of acts of war and related sanctions, including on macroeconomic conditions, geopolitical tensions, consumer demand and the ability of us and our franchisees to operate in certain geographic areas, may also have an adverse impact on our business and financial results.
While we may face challenges and uncertainties in any of the markets in which we operate, such challenges and uncertainties are often heightened in developing markets, which may entail a relatively higher risk of political instability, economic volatility, crime, corruption and social and ethnic unrest. In many cases, such challenges may be exacerbated by the lack of an independent and experienced judiciary and uncertainty in how local law is applied and enforced, including in areas most relevant to commercial transactions and foreign investment. An inability to manage effectively the risks associated with our international operations could adversely affect our business and financial results.
Supply chain interruptions may increase costs or reduce revenues.
We depend on the effectiveness of our supply chain management to assure a reliable and sufficient supply of quality products, equipment and other materials on favorable terms. Although many of these items are sourced from a wide variety of suppliers in countries around the world, certain items have limited suppliers, which may increase our reliance on those suppliers. Supply chain interruptions and related price increases have in the past and may in the future adversely affect us as well as our suppliers and franchisees, whose performance may have a significant impact on our results. Such interruptions and price increases could be caused by shortages, inflationary pressures, unexpected increases in demand, transportation-related issues, labor-related issues, technology-related issues, weather-related events, natural disasters, acts of war, terrorism or other hostilities, or other factors beyond the control of us or our suppliers or franchisees. Interruptions in our System’s supply chain or ineffective contingency planning can increase our costs and/or limit the availability of products, equipment and other materials that are critical to our System’s operations or to restaurant development.
Our franchise business model presents a number of risks.
Our success as a heavily franchised business relies to a large degree on the financial success and cooperation of our franchisees, including our developmental licensees and affiliates. Our restaurant margins arise from two sources: fees from franchised restaurants (e.g., rent and royalties based on a percentage of sales) and, to a lesser degree, sales from Company-owned and operated restaurants. Our franchisees and developmental licensees manage their businesses independently and therefore are responsible for the day-to-day operation of their restaurants. The revenues we realize from franchised restaurants are largely dependent on the ability of our franchisees to grow their sales. Business risks affecting our operations also affect our franchisees. If franchisee sales trends worsen, or any of such risks materialize or intensify, our financial results could be negatively affected, which may be material.
Our success also relies on the willingness and ability of our independent franchisees and affiliates to implement major initiatives, which may include financial investment, and to remain aligned with us on operating, value/promotional and capital-intensive reinvestment plans. The ability of franchisees to contribute to the achievement of our plans is dependent in large part on the availability to them of funding at reasonable interest rates and may be negatively impacted by the financial markets in general, by their or our creditworthiness or by banks’ lending practices. If our franchisees are unwilling or unable to invest in major initiatives or are unable to obtain financing at commercially reasonable rates, or at all, our future growth and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our operating performance could also be negatively affected if our franchisees experience food safety or other operational problems or project an image inconsistent with our brand and values, particularly if our contractual and other rights and remedies are limited, costly to exercise or subjected to litigation and potential delays. If franchisees do not successfully operate restaurants in a manner consistent with our required standards, our brand’s image and reputation could be harmed, which in turn could hurt our business and operating results.
Our ownership mix also affects our results and financial condition. The decision to own restaurants or to operate under franchise or license agreements is driven by many factors whose interrelationship is complex. The benefits of our more heavily franchised structure depend on various factors, including whether we have effectively selected franchisees, licensees and/or affiliates that meet our rigorous standards, whether we are able to successfully integrate them into our structure and whether their performance and the resulting ownership mix supports our brand and financial objectives.
30

Continued challenges with respect to labor, including availability and cost, could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
Our success depends in part on our System’s ability to effectively attract, recruit, develop, motivate and retain qualified individuals to work in McDonald’s restaurants and to maintain appropriately-staffed restaurants in an intensely competitive labor market. We and our franchisees have experienced and may continue to experience challenges in adequately staffing certain McDonald’s restaurants, which can negatively impact operations, including speed of service to customers, and customer satisfaction levels. The System’s ability to meet its labor needs as they evolve is generally subject to a variety of factors, including the availability of sufficient workforce, unemployment levels and prevailing wages in the markets in which we operate.
Further, our System has experienced increased costs and competition associated with attracting, recruiting, developing, motivating and retaining qualified employees, as well as with promoting awareness of the opportunities of working at McDonald’s restaurants. We and our franchisees also continue to be impacted by increasingly complex U.S. and international laws and regulations affecting our respective workforces. These laws and regulations are increasingly focused on, and in certain cases impose requirements with respect to, employment matters such as wages and hours, healthcare, immigration, retirement and other employee benefits and workplace practices. Such laws and regulations can expose us and our franchisees to increased costs and other effects of compliance, including potential liability, and all such labor and compliance costs could have a negative impact on our Company-owned and operated margins and franchisee profitability.
Our potential exposure to reputational and other harm regarding our workplace practices or conditions or those of our independent franchisees or suppliers, including those giving rise to claims of harassment or discrimination (or perceptions thereof) or workplace safety, could have a negative impact on consumer perceptions of us and our business. Additionally, economic action, such as boycotts, protests, work stoppages or campaigns by labor organizations, could adversely affect us (including our ability to attract, recruit, develop, motivate and retain talent) or our franchisees and suppliers, whose performance may have a significant impact on our results.
Effective succession planning is important to our continued success.
Effective succession planning for management is important to our long-term success. Failure to effectively attract, recruit, develop, motivate and retain qualified key personnel, or to execute smooth personnel transitions, could disrupt our business and adversely affect our results.
Food safety concerns may have an adverse effect on our business.
Our ability to increase sales and profits depends on our System’s ability to meet expectations for safe food and on our ability to manage the potential impact on McDonald’s of food-borne illnesses and food or product safety issues that may arise in the future, including in the supply chain, restaurants or delivery. Food safety is a top priority, and we dedicate substantial resources aimed at ensuring that our customers enjoy safe food products, including as our menu and service model evolve. However, food safety events, including instances of food-borne illness, occur within the food industry and our System from time to time and could occur in the future. Instances of food tampering, food contamination or food-borne illness, whether actual or perceived, could adversely affect our brand, reputation and financial results.
If we do not effectively manage our real estate portfolio, our operating results may be negatively impacted.
We have significant real estate operations, primarily in connection with our restaurant business. We generally own or secure a long-term lease on the land and building for conventional franchised and Company-owned and operated restaurant sites. We seek to identify and develop restaurant locations that offer convenience to customers and long-term sales and profit potential. As we generally secure long-term real estate interests for our restaurants, we have limited flexibility to quickly alter our real estate portfolio. The competitive business landscape continues to evolve in light of changing business trends, consumer preferences, trade area demographics, consumer use of digital, delivery and drive thru, local competitive positions and other economic factors. If our restaurants are not located in desirable locations, or if we do not evolve in response to these factors, it could adversely affect Systemwide sales and profitability.
Our real estate values and the costs associated with our real estate operations are also impacted by a variety of other factors, including governmental regulations, insurance, zoning, tax and eminent domain laws, interest rate levels, the cost of financing, natural disasters, acts of war, terrorism or other hostilities, or other factors beyond our control. A significant change in real estate values, or an increase in costs as a result of any of these factors, could adversely affect our operating results.
Information technology system failures or interruptions, or breaches of network security, may impact our operations or cause reputational harm.
We are increasingly reliant upon technology systems, such as point-of-sale, that support our business operations, including our digital and delivery solutions, and technologies that facilitate communication and collaboration with affiliated entities, customers, employees, franchisees, suppliers, service providers or other independent third parties to conduct our business, whether developed and maintained by us or provided by third parties. Any failure or interruption of these systems could significantly impact our or our franchisees’ operations, or our customers’ experiences and perceptions. In addition, the artificial intelligence tools we are incorporating into certain aspects of our restaurant operations may not generate the intended efficiencies and may impact our business results.
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Security breaches or incidents have from time to time occurred and may in the future occur involving our systems, the systems of the parties with whom we communicate or collaborate (including franchisees) or the systems of third-party providers. These may include such things as unauthorized access, phishing attacks, account takeovers, denial of service, computer viruses, deepfakes and other malicious uses of artificial intelligence, introduction of malware or ransomware, other disruptive problems caused by hackers or unintentional events. Certain of these technology systems contain personal, confidential, financial and other information of our customers, employees, franchisees and their employees, suppliers and other third parties, as well as financial, proprietary and other confidential information related to our business. Despite response procedures and measures in place in the event an incident occurs, it could result in disruptions, shutdowns, or the theft or unauthorized disclosure of certain of the above-described information. The actual or alleged occurrence of any of these types of incidents could result in mitigation costs, reputational damage, adverse publicity, loss of consumer confidence, reduced sales and profits, complications in executing our growth initiatives and regulatory and legal risk, including administrative fines, criminal or civil penalties or civil liabilities.
Despite the implementation of business continuity measures, any of these technology systems could become vulnerable to damage, disability or failures due to fire, power loss, telecommunications failure or other catastrophic events. Certain technology systems may also become vulnerable, unreliable or inefficient in cases where technology vendors limit or terminate product support and/or maintenance. Our increasing reliance on third-party systems also subjects us to risks faced by those third-party businesses, including operational, security and credit risks. Further, the technology systems of third parties upon which we rely to conduct our business could be compromised in a manner that adversely affects us and our technology systems and business continuity. If technology systems were to fail or otherwise be unavailable, or if business continuity or disaster recovery plans were not effective, and we were unable to recover in a timely manner, we could experience an interruption in our or our franchisees’ operations. While we maintain insurance coverage designed to address certain aspects of cybersecurity risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise.
LEGAL AND REGULATORY
Increasing regulatory and legal complexity may adversely affect our business and financial results.
Our regulatory and legal environment worldwide exposes us to complex compliance, litigation and similar risks that could affect our operations and results in material ways. Many of our markets are subject to increasing, conflicting and highly prescriptive regulations involving, among other matters, restaurant operations, product packaging, marketing, use of information technology systems, the nutritional and allergen content and safety of our food and other products, labeling and other disclosure practices. Compliance efforts with those regulations may be affected by ordinary variations in food preparation among our own restaurants and the need to rely on the accuracy and completeness of information from third-party suppliers. We also are subject to increasing public focus, including by governmental and non-governmental organizations, on environmental, social responsibility and corporate governance matters. Our success depends in part on our ability to manage the impact of regulations and other initiatives that can affect our business plans and operations, which have increased and may continue to increase our costs of doing business and exposure to litigation, governmental investigations or other proceedings.
We are also subject to legal proceedings that may adversely affect our business, including, but not limited to, class actions, administrative proceedings, government investigations and proceedings, shareholder proceedings, employment and personal injury claims, landlord/tenant disputes, supplier-related disputes, and claims by current or former franchisees. Regardless of whether claims against us are valid or whether we are found to be liable, claims may be expensive to defend and may divert management’s attention away from operations.
Litigation, legislative and regulatory action concerning our relationship with franchisees and the legal distinction between our franchisees and us for employment law or other purposes, if determined adversely, could challenge our franchise business model, increase costs, negatively impact our business operations and the business prospects of our franchisees and subject us to incremental liability for their actions. Similarly, although our commercial relationships with our suppliers remain independent, there may be attempts to challenge that independence, which, if determined adversely, could also increase costs, negatively impact the business prospects of our suppliers, and subject us to incremental liability for their actions.
Our results could also be affected by the following:
the relative level of our defense costs, which vary from period to period depending on the number, nature and procedural status of pending proceedings;
the cost and other effects of settlements, judgments or consent decrees, which may require us to make disclosures or take other actions that may affect perceptions of our brand and products; and
adverse results of pending or future litigation, including litigation challenging the composition and preparation of our products, or the appropriateness or accuracy of our marketing or other communication practices.
A judgment significantly in excess of any applicable insurance coverage or third-party indemnity could materially adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations. Further, adverse publicity resulting from claims may hurt our business. If we are unable to effectively manage the risks associated with our complex regulatory and legal environment, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

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Changes in tax laws and unanticipated tax liabilities could adversely affect the taxes we pay and our profitability.
We are subject to income and other taxes in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions, and our operations, plans and results are affected by tax and other initiatives around the world. In particular, we are affected by the impact of changes to tax laws or policy or related authoritative interpretations. We are also impacted by settlements of pending or any future adjustments proposed by taxing and governmental authorities inside and outside of the U.S. in connection with our tax audits, all of which will depend on their timing, nature and scope. Any significant increases in income tax rates, changes in income tax laws or unfavorable resolution of tax matters could have a material adverse impact on our financial results.
Changes in accounting standards or the recognition of impairment or other charges may adversely affect our future operations and results.
New accounting standards or changes in financial reporting requirements, accounting principles or practices, including with respect to our critical accounting estimates, could adversely affect our future results. We may also be affected by the nature and timing of decisions about underperforming markets or assets, including decisions that result in impairment or other charges that reduce our earnings.
In assessing the recoverability of our long-lived assets, we consider changes in economic conditions and make assumptions regarding estimated future cash flows and other factors. These estimates are highly subjective and can be significantly impacted by many factors such as global and local business and economic conditions, operating costs, inflation, interest rate levels, competition, consumer and demographic trends and our restructuring activities. If our estimates or underlying assumptions change in the future, we may be required to record impairment charges. Any such changes could have a significant adverse effect on our reported results for the affected periods.
If we fail to comply with privacy and data protection laws, we could be subject to legal proceedings and penalties, which could negatively affect our financial results or brand perceptions.
We are subject to legal and compliance risks and associated liability related to privacy and data protection requirements, including those associated with our technology-related services and platforms made available to business partners, customers, employees, franchisees or other third parties. An increasing number of our markets have enacted new privacy and data protection requirements (including the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation and various U.S. state-level laws), and further requirements are likely to be proposed or enacted in the future. Failure to comply with these privacy and data protection laws could result in legal proceedings and substantial administrative fines, criminal or civil penalties or civil liabilities and materially adversely impact our financial results or brand perceptions.
MACROECONOMIC AND MARKET CONDITIONS
Unfavorable general economic conditions could adversely affect our business and financial results.
Our results of operations are substantially affected by economic conditions, including inflationary pressures, which can vary significantly by market and can impact consumer disposable income levels and spending habits. Economic conditions can be impacted by a variety of factors, including hostilities, epidemics, pandemics and actions taken by governments to manage national and international economic matters, whether through austerity, stimulus measures or trade measures, and initiatives intended to control wages, unemployment, credit availability, inflation, taxation and other economic drivers. Sustained adverse economic conditions or periodic adverse changes in economic conditions put pressure on our operating performance and business continuity disruption planning, and our business and financial results may suffer as a result.
Our results of operations are also affected by fluctuations in currency exchange rates, and unfavorable currency fluctuations could adversely affect reported earnings.
Health epidemics or pandemics could adversely affect our business and financial results.
Health epidemics or pandemics have in the past and may in the future impact macroeconomic conditions, consumer behavior, labor availability and supply chain management, as well as local operations in impacted markets, all of which can adversely affect our business, financial results and outlook. Governmental responses to health epidemics or pandemics, including operational restrictions, can also affect the foregoing items and adversely affect our business and financial results. The duration and scope of a health epidemic or pandemic can be difficult to predict and depends on many factors, including the emergence of new variants and the availability, acceptance and effectiveness of preventative measures. A health epidemic or pandemic may also heighten other risks disclosed in these Risk Factors, including, but not limited to, those related to the availability and costs of labor and commodities, supply chain interruptions, consumer behavior, and consumer perceptions of our brand and industry.
Changes in commodity and other operating costs could adversely affect our results of operations.
The profitability of our Company-owned and operated restaurants depends in part on our ability to anticipate and react to changes in commodity costs, including food, paper, supplies, fuel and utilities, as well as distribution and other operating costs, including labor. Volatility in certain commodity prices and fluctuations in labor costs have adversely affected and in the future could adversely affect our operating results by impacting restaurant profitability. The commodity markets for some of the ingredients we use, such as beef, chicken and pork, are particularly volatile due to factors such as seasonal shifts, climate conditions, industry demand and other macroeconomic conditions, international commodity markets, food safety concerns, product recalls, government regulation, and acts of war, terrorism or
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other hostilities, all of which are beyond our control and, in many instances, unpredictable. Our System can only partially address future price risk through hedging and other activities, and therefore increases in commodity costs could have an adverse impact on our profitability.
A decrease in our credit ratings or an increase in our funding costs could adversely affect our profitability.
Our credit ratings may be negatively affected by our results of operations or changes in our debt levels. As a result, our interest expense, the availability of acceptable counterparties, our ability to obtain funding on favorable terms, our collateral requirements and our operating or financial flexibility could all be negatively affected, especially if lenders were to impose new operating or financial covenants.
Our operations may also be impacted by regulations affecting capital flows, financial markets or financial institutions, which can limit our ability to manage and deploy our liquidity or increase our funding costs. Any such events could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
The trading volatility and price of our common stock may be adversely affected by many factors.
Many factors affect the trading volatility and price of our common stock in addition to our operating results and prospects. These factors, many of which are beyond our control, include the following:
the unpredictable nature of global economic and market conditions;
governmental action or inaction in light of key indicators of economic activity or events that can significantly influence financial markets, particularly in the U.S., which is the principal trading market for our common stock, and media reports and commentary about economic, trade or other matters, even when the matter in question does not directly relate to our business;
trading activity in our common stock, in derivative instruments with respect to our common stock or in our debt securities, which can be affected by: market commentary (including commentary that may be unreliable or incomplete); unauthorized disclosures about our performance, plans or expectations about our business; our actual performance and creditworthiness; investor confidence, driven in part by expectations about our performance; actions by shareholders and others seeking to influence our business strategies; portfolio transactions in our common stock by significant shareholders; and trading activity that results from the ordinary course rebalancing of stock indices in which McDonald’s may be included, such as the S&P 500 Index and the Dow Jones Industrial Average;
the impact of our stock repurchase program or dividend rate; and
the impact of corporate actions, including changes to our corporate structure, and market and third-party perceptions and assessments of such actions, including those we may take from time to time as we implement our business strategies in light of changing business, legal and tax considerations.
Our business is subject to an increasing focus on environmental and social impact matters.
In recent years, there has been an increasing focus by stakeholders – including employees, franchisees, customers, suppliers, governmental and non-governmental organizations and investors – on environmental and social impact matters. A failure, whether real or perceived, to address environmental and social impact matters or to achieve progress on our environmental and social impact initiatives on the anticipated timing or at all, could adversely affect our business, including by heightening other risks disclosed in these Risk Factors, such as those related to consumer behavior, consumer perceptions of our brand, labor availability and costs, supply chain interruptions, commodity costs, and legal and regulatory complexity. Conversely, our taking a position, whether real or perceived, on environmental and social impact, public policy, geopolitical and similar matters could also adversely impact our business.
The standards we set for ourselves regarding environmental and social impact matters, and our ability to meet such standards, may also impact our business. For example, we are working to manage risks and costs to our System related to climate change, greenhouse gases, and diminishing energy and water resources, and we have announced initiatives relating to, among other things, climate action, sustainability, and responsible sourcing. In addition, we are engaging in social impact initiatives, including community engagement and philanthropy; as well as diversity, equity and inclusion efforts. We have faced increased scrutiny related to reporting on and achieving these initiatives, as well as continued public focus on similar matters, such as packaging and waste, animal health and welfare, deforestation and land use. We have also experienced increased pressure from stakeholders to provide expanded disclosure and establish additional commitments, targets or goals, and take actions to meet them, which could expose us to additional market, operational, execution and reputational costs and risks. Moreover, addressing environmental and social impact matters requires Systemwide as well as third party coordination and alignment, over which we do not have complete control and which may be unpredictable. The standards by which certain environmental and social impact matters are measured are also evolving and subject to assumptions that could change over time.
Events such as severe weather conditions, natural disasters, hostilities