Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Note 1: Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2: Acquisition
Note 3: Revenue Recognition
Note 4: Fair Value Measurements
Note 5: Stock-Based Compensation
Note 6: Restructuring Activities
Note 7: Other Income and Expense
Note 8: Income Taxes
Note 9: Earnings per Share
Note 10: Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
Note 11: Inventories
Note 12: Property, Plant and Equipment
Note 13: Investment in Affiliate
Note 14: Intangible Assets
Note 15: Goodwill
Note 16: Product Warranties, Operating Leases, and Other Commitments
Note 17: Indebtedness
Note 18: Pension and Employee Benefit Plans
Note 19: Derivative Instruments
Note 20: Contingencies and Litigation
Note 21: Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
Note 22: Segment and Geographic Information
Note 23: Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited)
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.
Item 9B. Other Information.
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
Item 11. Executive Compensation.
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services.
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary.
Modine Manufacturing Earnings 2019-03-31
MOD 10K Annual Report
10-K 1 form10k.htm 10-K
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D. C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____________ to ____________
Commission file number 1-1373
MODINE MANUFACTURING COMPANY
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1500 DeKoven Avenue, Racine, Wisconsin
(Address of principal executive offices)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (262) 636‑1200
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.625 par value
New York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes ☐ No ☑
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes ☐ No ☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large Accelerated Filer ☑
Accelerated Filer ☐
Non-accelerated Filer ☐
Smaller reporting company ☐
Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by checkmark if the registrant has not elected to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes ☐ No ☑
Approximately 97 percent of the outstanding shares are held by non-affiliates. The aggregate market value of these shares was approximately $733 million based upon the market price of $14.90 per share on September 28, 2018, the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Shares of common stock held by each executive officer and director and by each person known to beneficially own more than 10 percent of the outstanding common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. The determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock, $0.625 par value, was 50,726,269 at May 17, 2019.
An Exhibit Index appears at pages 81-83 herein.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the following documents are incorporated by reference into the parts of this Form 10‑K designated to the right of the document listed.
Modine Manufacturing Company specializes in providing innovative thermal management solutions to diversified global markets and customers. We are a leading provider of engineered heat transfer systems and high-quality heat transfer components for use in on- and off-highway original equipment manufacturer (“OEM”) vehicular applications. In addition, we are a global leader in thermal management technology and solutions for sale into a wide array of commercial, industrial, and building heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and refrigeration (“HVAC&R”) markets. Our primary product groups include i) powertrain cooling and engine cooling; ii) coils, coolers, and coatings; and iii) heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Our primary customers across the globe include:
Automobile, truck, bus, and specialty vehicle OEMs;
Agricultural, industrial and construction equipment OEMs;
Commercial and industrial equipment OEMs;
Heating, ventilation and cooling OEMs;
Construction architects and contractors; and
Wholesalers of heating equipment.
We focus our development efforts on solutions that meet the ever-increasing heat transfer needs of OEMs and other customers within the automobile, commercial vehicle, construction, agricultural, industrial and HVAC&R industries. Our products and systems are aimed at solving complex heat transfer challenges requiring effective thermal management. Typical customer and market demands include products and systems that are lighter weight, more compact, more efficient and more durable to meet customer standards as they work to ensure compliance with increasingly stringent global emissions, fuel economy and energy efficiency requirements. Our heritage provides a depth and breadth of expertise in thermal management, which, when combined with our global manufacturing presence, standardized processes, and state-of-the-art technical resources, enables us to rapidly bring highly-valued, customized solutions to our customers.
Modine was incorporated under the laws of the State of Wisconsin on June 23, 1916 by its founder, Arthur B. Modine. Mr. Modine’s “Turbotube” radiators became standard equipment on the famous Ford Motor Company Model T. When he died at the age of 95, A.B. Modine had personally been granted more than 120 U.S. patents for his heat transfer innovations. The standard of innovation exemplified by A.B. Modine remains the cornerstone of Modine today.
Terms and Year References
When we use the terms “Modine,” “we,” “us,” the “Company,” or “our” in this report, unless the context otherwise requires, we are referring to Modine Manufacturing Company. Our fiscal year ends on March 31 and, accordingly, all references to a particular year mean the fiscal year ended March 31 of that year, unless indicated otherwise.
Business Strategy and Results
Modine pursues market leadership by being a customer-focused, global company delivering exceptional quality, innovation and value. We will grow our core business of thermal management with superior technical solutions in systems, products and services – coupled with a cost competitive structure.
During fiscal 2019, we continued to employ our Strengthen, Diversify and Grow (“SDG”) strategy in order to transform Modine into a more diversified industrial thermal-management company. We launched our SDG strategy over three years ago to establish a more global, product-based organizational structure and a strategic framework for our company. Both our Commercial and Industrial Solutions (“CIS”) and Building HVAC Systems (“BHVAC”) segments experienced significant sales and earnings growth this year, which we directly attribute to our SDG initiatives to further diversify and grow these higher margin business segments. In addition, in January 2019, we announced our strategic review of alternatives for our automotive business within our Vehicular Thermal Solutions (“VTS”) segment. Since this announcement, we have made significant progress in our evaluation and, while we are continuing to explore various alternatives, we currently believe that a sale of the automotive business is the most likely path forward to optimize the VTS segment’s profitability and reprioritize capital investments across all of our businesses. We believe our SDG strategy will continue to keep us grounded, thriving, and transforming to optimize the value we offer our customers and to provide the highest returns for our shareholders.
Our top five customers are in four different markets – automotive, commercial vehicle, off-highway, and data center cooling – and our ten largest customers accounted for 50 percent of our fiscal 2019 sales. In fiscal 2019, 58 percent of our total sales were generated from customers outside of the U.S., with 52 percent of total sales generated by foreign operations and 6 percent generated by exports from the U.S. In fiscal 2018, 61 percent of our total sales were generated from customers outside of the U.S., with 56 percent of total sales generated by foreign operations and 5 percent generated by exports from the U.S. In fiscal 2017, 62 percent of our total sales were generated from customers outside of the U.S., with 55 percent of total sales generated by foreign operations and 7 percent generated by exports from the U.S.
During fiscal 2019, our consolidated net sales were $2.21 billion, a 5 percent increase from $2.10 billion in fiscal 2018. This increase was primarily due to higher sales in each of our operating segments. Our operating income of $110 million in fiscal 2019 increased $18 million compared with the prior year, primarily due to higher earnings in the CIS and BHVAC segments, partially offset by lower earnings in the VTS segment.
In continued support of our SDG initiatives and in an effort to optimize our cost structure and improve the efficiency of our operations, we have engaged in various restructuring activities. As a result, we recorded $10 million of restructuring expenses during fiscal 2019, primarily related to severance expenses resulting from targeted headcount reductions in Europe and the Americas within the VTS segment.
We sell products to multiple end markets. The following is a summary of our primary end markets, categorized as a percentage of our net sales:
Data center cooling
We compete with many manufacturers of heat transfer and HVAC&R products, some of which are divisions of larger companies. The markets for our products continue to be very dynamic. Our traditional OEM customers are faced with dramatically increased international competition and have expanded their global manufacturing footprints to compete in local markets. In addition, consolidation within the supply base and vertical integration has introduced new or restructured competitors to our markets. Some of these market changes have caused us to experience competition from suppliers in other parts of the world that enjoy economic advantages such as lower labor costs, lower healthcare costs, and lower tax rates. As a result, we have expanded and continue to expand our geographic footprint, in part to provide more flexibility to serve our customers around the globe. Many of our customers also continue to ask us, as well as their other primary suppliers, to provide research and development (“R&D”), design, and validation support for new potential projects. This combined work effort often results in stronger customer relationships and more partnership opportunities for us.
Each of our operating segments is managed by a vice president and has separate financial results reviewed by our chief operating decision maker. These results are used by management in evaluating the performance of each business segment and in making decisions on the allocation of resources amongst our various businesses. Effective April 1, 2018, we formed the VTS segment by combining our Americas, Europe, and Asia operations to enable us to operate as a more global, product-based organization. We also merged our Americas coils business into the CIS segment to accelerate operational improvements and organizational efficiencies.
The continued globalization of our vehicular customer base requires us to manage our strategic approach, product offerings and the competitive environment on a global basis. This trend offers significant opportunities for us with our market positioning, including our presence in key vehicular markets (U.S., Mexico, Brazil, Europe, India, China, South Korea, and Japan) and a global organization with the expertise to solve technical challenges. We are recognized for having strong technical support in all regions, an extensive product portfolio, and the ability to provide global standard designs for our customers. Many vehicular OEMs continue to expect cost reductions from suppliers while requiring a consistent level of quality. In addition, these OEMs seek new technology solutions at low prices for their thermal management needs. In general, this creates challenges for us and the entire supply base, but also provides an opportunity for suppliers, like Modine, who develop innovative solutions at a competitive cost.
Each of our main vehicular competitors, AKG Group, BorgWarner, Dana Corporation, Denso Corporation, Mahle, Tata Toyo, TitanX, T. Rad Co. Ltd., UFI Filters, Valeo SA, Hanon Systems, and Zhejiang Yinlun Machinery Co. Ltd., have a multi-regional or worldwide presence. Increasingly, we face heightened competition as these competitors expand their product offerings and manufacturing footprints through expansion into lower-cost countries or lower-cost sourcing initiatives. In addition, competitors from some lower-cost regions are beginning to expand into new geographical markets.
The following summarizes the primary markets served by our VTS segment:
Market Overview – The automotive market declined during fiscal 2019. In fiscal 2020, we expect the global automotive markets will be relatively flat. We expect longer-term growth of this market to be supported by changes in global fuel efficiency standards, in-vehicle technology enhancements and growth in emerging markets. We are seeing increased activity in the automotive market on electric and hybrid powertrains. Global automotive OEMs and their powertrain suppliers are engaged in significant development activities for these alternative powertrains. In addition, a number of start-up companies specializing in electric vehicles are working to establish themselves in the marketplace, which creates new business dynamics and opportunities. We are actively involved in developing and manufacturing solutions for these alternative powertrains with several traditional and start-up OEMs. At the same time, we remain focused on programs for traditional internal combustion engines which will remain as the primary automotive powertrain for years to come. We expect our global automotive production to increase in fiscal 2020, particularly driven by maturing program volumes in China and new program launches in North America, Europe, and Asia.
Products – Powertrain cooling (engine cooling assemblies, radiators, condensers and charge air coolers); auxiliary cooling (power steering coolers and transmission oil coolers); component assemblies; radiators for special applications; on-engine cooling (exhaust gas recirculation (“EGR”) coolers, engine oil coolers, fuel coolers, charge air coolers and intake air coolers); chillers and cooling plates for battery thermal management.
Customers – Automobile, light truck, motorcycle, and power sports vehicle and engine manufacturers.
Market Overview – During fiscal 2019, the North American commercial vehicle market experienced substantial growth, particularly within the heavy-duty truck market. In fiscal 2020, however, we expect both medium-duty and heavy-duty truck markets will decline. In South America, the commercial vehicle market continued to recover in fiscal 2019; we expect this market will remain strong, particularly for heavy-duty trucks, during fiscal 2020. In Europe, the commercial vehicle market experienced modest growth in fiscal 2019; we expect this market will experience slight declines in fiscal 2020. We expect the commercial vehicle market in India will be flat or slightly down in fiscal 2020, compared with fiscal 2019.
Trends influencing the commercial and specialty vehicle markets include a desire by global commercial vehicle manufacturers to standardize U.S., Canadian, and Eurozone emissions regulations and the adoption of higher standards, which are more comparable to Euro 6, in China and India. Global standardization would lead to further development opportunities for Modine. Additionally, truck and bus manufacturers are evaluating alternative powertrains and fuels, including electrification, waste heat recovery, and other technologies aimed at improving vehicle efficiency, all of which could present opportunities for us. These trends are driving the advancement of product development worldwide and are creating demand for incremental improvements to thermal transfer products. We are active in these developments with several customers, and believe we are well positioned to support these changes.
Products – Powertrain cooling (engine cooling modules, radiators, charge air coolers, condensers, oil coolers, fan shrouds, and surge tanks); on-engine cooling (EGR coolers, engine oil coolers, fuel coolers, charge air coolers and intake air coolers); and auxiliary cooling (transmission and retarder oil coolers and power steering coolers); battery thermal management systems.
Customers – Commercial, medium- and heavy-duty truck and engine manufacturers; and bus and specialty vehicle manufacturers.
Primary Competitors – Mahle; TitanX; T. Rad Co. Ltd.; BorgWarner; and Tata Toyo.
Market Overview – The global off-highway markets experienced moderate growth during fiscal 2019 and we expect this trend to continue during fiscal 2020. Production of U.S. agricultural, construction, and mining machinery increased in fiscal 2019 compared with the prior year. We expect modest growth in the North American off-highway markets in fiscal 2020. The European construction and agricultural equipment markets experienced modest growth in fiscal 2019; we expect modest growth in these markets again during fiscal 2020. In South America, the off-highway markets experienced strong growth in fiscal 2019 and we expect moderate growth in fiscal 2020. In Asia, the construction market experienced moderate growth during fiscal 2019, and we expect further growth in the China and Korea excavator markets in fiscal 2020.
Products – Powertrain cooling (engine cooling modules, radiators, condensers, charge air coolers, fuel coolers and oil coolers); auxiliary cooling (power steering coolers and transmission oil coolers); and on-engine cooling (EGR coolers, engine oil coolers, fuel coolers, charge air coolers and intake air coolers).
Customers – Construction, agricultural, and mining equipment and engine manufacturers, and industrial manufacturers of material handling equipment, generator sets and compressors.
Primary Competitors – Adams Thermal Systems Inc.; AKG Group; Denso Corporation; Zhejiang Yinlun Machinery Co., Ltd.; ThermaSys Corp.; Doowon; Donghwan; T. Rad Co. Ltd.; Mahle Industrial Thermal Systems; KALE OTO RADYATÖR; and RAAL.
Our Industrial Businesses
Commercial and Industrial Solutions Segment
Market Overview – The primary HVAC&R markets served by our CIS segment experienced moderate growth during fiscal 2019 and we expect continued growth during fiscal 2020. We anticipate growth in the global commercial and residential air conditioning markets driven by an expansion of reliable energy sources and increases in income levels in China, India, and other developing countries. Demand for efficient HVAC&R systems is driven by more stringent energy efficiency regulations and the need for higher-efficiency buildings. Also in regard to the commercial air conditioning markets, we expect growth in the global precision air conditioning market driven by increasing heat density in data centers resulting from rising levels of data traffic and storage requirements, coupled with the overall expansion of the underlying data center market. In addition, regulatory bodies are imposing stricter guidelines aimed to reduce carbon footprint, which is driving data centers to adopt the latest precision cooling solutions. We expect growth in the global refrigeration markets, particularly in China and India. We also expect increasing urbanization, changing food consumption trends and increasing global trade will drive investments in refrigeration infrastructure. The global industrial power sector is characterized by the continuing demand for electricity as a preferred source of energy, climate change initiatives to minimize environmental impacts, growth and industrialization in emerging markets, and grid upgrades and refurbishments in more mature markets.
Products – Coils (heat-exchanger and microchannel); coolers (unit coolers, remote condensers, fluid coolers, transformer oil coolers and brine coolers); and coatings to protect against corrosion.
Customers – Commercial and industrial equipment manufacturers; distributors, contractors, and consumers in a variety of commercial and industrial applications, including commercial and mobile air conditioning, refrigeration, and precision and industrial cooling.
Primary Competitors – Kelvion Holding GmbH; Alfa-Laval AB; LU-VE S.p.A; Lennox International, Inc.; Super Radiator Coils; DunAn Precision Manufacturing, Inc.; and Guntner GmbH & Co. KG.
Building HVAC Systems Segment
Market Overview –The North American heating market expanded in fiscal 2019 due to overall positive economic conditions, but was also supported by the increased length of the winter season in our key geographic markets. We are planning for modest improvement in the North American heating market in fiscal 2020. We also anticipate increased market demand for ventilation products in fiscal 2020, as we expand our product offering in this market. In addition to North America, we also serve heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (“HVAC”) markets in the United Kingdom, mainland Europe, the Middle East, Far East and Africa. We expect improvement in commercial investment, construction market activity, and energy efficiency legislation to drive increased demand for our ventilation and air conditioning products. We anticipate that recent European legislation, designed to increase equipment efficiency and reduce the use of high global warming potential refrigerants, will result in customer buying pattern shifts over the next couple years, and may increase market volatility in the short-term, as HVAC equipment providers shift products towards more efficient and environmentally-friendly alternatives. With regard to Brexit, we are committed to being as prepared as possible to ensure continuity of service and supply to our customers.
Products – Unit heaters (gas-fired, hydronic, electric and oil-fired); duct furnaces (indoor and outdoor); infrared units (high- and low-intensity); hydronic products (commercial fin-tube radiation, cabinet unit heaters, and convectors); roof-mounted direct- and indirect-fired makeup air units; commercial packaged rooftop ventilation units; unit ventilators; single packaged vertical units; precision air conditioning units for data center applications; air-handling units; chillers; ceiling cassettes; hybrid fan coils; and condensing units. Aftersales includes spare parts, maintenance service and control solutions from existing plant equipment and new building management controls and systems.
Customers – Mechanical contractors; HVAC wholesalers; installers; and end users in a variety of commercial and industrial applications, including banking and finance, data center management, education, hospitality, telecommunications, entertainment arenas, hotels, restaurants, hospitals, warehousing, manufacturing, and food and beverage processing.
Primary Competitors – Lennox International Inc.; Reznor (Nortek Global HVAC); Sterling (Mestek Inc.); Vertiv (formerly Emerson Electric Company (Liebert)); Stulz; Schneider Electric (APC / Uniflair); Johnson Controls, Inc. (York); Daikin (McQuay International); System Air (ChangeAir); Ingersoll Rand Inc. (Trane); Bard Manufacturing; and Aaon, Inc.
We maintain administrative organizations in all key geographical regions to facilitate customer support, development and testing, and other administrative functions. We operate in the following countries:
United Arab Emirates
Our non-U.S. subsidiaries and affiliates manufacture and sell a number of vehicular and commercial, industrial and building HVAC&R products similar to those produced in the U.S.
Export sales from the U.S. to foreign countries, as a percentage of consolidated net sales, were 6 percent, 5 percent and 7 percent in fiscal 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
We believe our international presence positions us to share profitably in the anticipated long-term growth of the global vehicular and commercial, industrial and building HVAC&R markets. We are committed to increasing our involvement and investment in international markets in the years ahead.
Our ten largest customers, certain of which are conglomerates or otherwise affiliated, accounted for 50 percent of our consolidated net sales in fiscal 2019. In fiscal 2019, 2018, 2017, Daimler AG and Volkswagen AG each accounted for 10 percent or more of our sales.
Our top customers operate primarily in the automotive, commercial vehicle, off-highway, data center cooling and commercial air conditioning markets. Our top customers, listed alphabetically, include: Carrier, Caterpillar; Daimler AG (including Daimler Trucks, Detroit Diesel, Mercedes-Benz, and Western Star Trucks); Deere & Company; FCA N.V. (including Chrysler, CNH, Fiat, Iveco, and VM Motori); Ingersoll Rand Inc. (Trane); Navistar (including MWM International); Volkswagen AG (including Audi, MAN, Porsche, and Scania); and AB Volvo (including Mack Trucks and Renault Trucks). In addition, our CIS segment includes significant sales generated from a single global technology customer (14 percent of CIS segment sales in fiscal 2019) with which we are party to confidentiality agreements. Generally, we supply products to our customers on the basis of individual purchase orders received from them. When it is in the mutual interest of Modine and our customers, we utilize long-term sales agreements to minimize investment risks and provide the customer with a proven source of competitively-priced products. These contracts are typically three to five years in duration.
Backlog of Orders
Our operating segments maintain their own inventories and production schedules. We believe that our current production capacity is capable of handling the sales volume expected in fiscal 2020 and beyond.
We purchase aluminum, nickel and steel from several domestic and foreign suppliers. In general, we do not rely on any one supplier for these materials, which are, for the most part, available from numerous sources in quantities required by us. The supply of copper and brass material is concentrated between two global suppliers, with other suppliers qualified and supplying lesser amounts to mitigate risk. We typically do not experience raw material shortages and believe that our suppliers’ production of these metals will be adequate throughout the next fiscal year. We typically adjust metals pricing with our raw material suppliers on a monthly basis and our major fabricated component suppliers on a quarterly basis. When possible, we have included provisions within our long-term customer contracts which allow us to adjust customer prices, on a prospective basis, based upon increases and decreases in the cost of key raw materials. When applicable, however, these contract provisions are typically limited to the underlying cost of the material based upon the London Metal Exchange, and do not include related premiums or fabrication costs. In addition, there can often be a three-month to one-year lag until the time that we adjust the price with our customer.
We own or license numerous patents related to our products and operations. These patents and licenses have been obtained over a period of years and expire at various times. Because we have many product lines, we believe that our business as a whole is not materially dependent upon any particular patent or license, or any particular group of patents or licenses. We consider each of our patents, trademarks and licenses to be of value and aggressively defend our rights throughout the world against infringement. We have been granted and/or acquired more than 2,500 patents worldwide over the life of our company.
Research and Development
We remain committed to our vision of creating value through technology and innovation. We focus our engineering and R&D efforts on solutions that meet challenging heat transfer needs of OEMs and other customers within the automotive, powersports, commercial vehicle, construction, agricultural, and commercial, industrial, and building HVAC&R markets. Our products and systems are often aimed at solving difficult and complex heat transfer challenges requiring advanced thermal management. Typical market demands are for products and systems that are lighter weight, more compact, more efficient and more durable to meet customer standards as customers work to ensure compliance with increasingly stringent global emissions and energy efficiency requirements. Our heritage includes a depth and breadth of expertise in thermal management that, combined with our global manufacturing presence, standardized processes, and state-of-the-art technical resources, enables us to rapidly bring customized solutions to our customers.
R&D expenditures, including certain application engineering costs for specific customer solutions, totaled $70 million, $66 million, and $64 million in fiscal 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively. Over the last three years, R&D expenditures have been between 3 and 5 percent of our consolidated net sales. This level of investment reflects our continued commitment to R&D in an ever-changing marketplace. To achieve efficiencies and lower development costs, our R&D groups work closely with our customers on special projects and system designs. Projects include EGR technology, oil coolers, charge air coolers, refrigerant heat exchangers, and battery thermal management systems for the automotive, commercial vehicle, agriculture, construction, and residential and commercial energy storage markets, which enable our customers to meet more stringent emission and energy efficiency standards. Most of our current R&D activities are focused on internal development in the areas of powertrain cooling, engine cooling, building HVAC, and commercial and industrial thermal management products. We also collaborate with several industry, university, and government-sponsored research organizations that conduct research and provide data on practical applications in the markets we serve. We continue to identify, evaluate and engage in external research projects that complement our strategic internal research initiatives in order to further leverage our significant thermal technology expertise and capabilities.
Globally, we drive quality improvement by maintaining the Global Modine Management System, applying the Modine Operating System, and executing the Modine Quality Strategy.
Through our integrated and process-oriented Global Modine Management System, the majority of our manufacturing facilities and administrative offices are registered to ISO 9001:20015 or IATF 16949:2016 standards, helping to ensure that our customers receive high quality products and services. While customer expectations for performance, quality and service continue to rise, our Global Modine Management System has allowed us to drive improvements in quality performance and has enabled the ongoing delivery of products, service and value that meet or exceed customer expectations.
Our Global Modine Management System operates within the context of our Modine Operating System, which focuses on well-defined improvement principles and leadership behaviors to engage our teams in facilitating rapid improvements.
We drive sustainable and systematic continuous improvement throughout our company by utilizing the principles, processes and behaviors that are core to these systems.
To ensure future quality, we established the Modine Quality Strategy, which focuses on people, process, performance, tools and methods and the Global Modine Management System.
Environmental, Health and Safety Matters
We are committed to preventing pollution, eliminating waste and reducing environmental risks and we have established specific environmental improvement targets and objectives for fiscal 2020. The majority of our facilities maintain Environmental Management System (“EMS”) certification to the international ISO14001 standard through independent third-party audits.
During fiscal 2018, we launched a global initiative to reduce both our energy and water usage by 5 percent by fiscal 2020. Each of our facilities around the world is actively engaged in support of this initiative, and we are currently on pace to meet our energy and water usage goals in fiscal 2020. Examples of steps being taken to meet these goals include the installation of more efficient LED lighting systems, the replacement of inefficient boilers and air compressors, improved building HVAC management systems, increased industrial water recycling, and the installation of water-saving faucets.
Our product portfolio reflects our sense of environmental responsibility. We continue to develop and refine environmentally-friendly product lines, including oil, fuel, and EGR coolers for gas and diesel applications, light-weight and high-performance powertrain cooling heat exchangers for both combustion and electric vehicle, air cooled refrigerant and liquid heat exchangers used in residential, commercial, and industrial applications, and our advanced cooling system technology. These products provide increased fuel economies, enable combustion technologies that reduce harmful gas emissions for vehicles, and provide energy efficient solutions for building and stationary applications. In our CIS segment, we are moving towards smaller diameter tubing across many of our product lines, which has not only made our products more energy efficient, but has enabled our customers to use less refrigerants in order to reduce their global warming potential. Our BHVAC segment offerings include the EffinityTM, a condensing gas-fired unit heater with industry-leading efficiencies; the AtherionTM Commercial Packaged Ventilation System; the Airedale SchoolMate® with a water source heat pump; and the Airedale Chiller product line-up, ecodesign compliant with European standards. These products are helping commercial, industrial and residential users achieve high energy efficiencies and reduce utility costs.
Obligations for remedial activities may arise at our facilities due to past practices, or as a result of a property purchase or sale. These expenditures most often relate to sites where past operations followed practices that were considered acceptable under then-existing regulations, but now require investigative and/or remedial work to ensure appropriate environmental protection or where we are a successor to the obligations of prior owners and current laws and regulations require investigative and/or remedial work to ensure sufficient environmental compliance. Environmental liabilities for investigative work and remediation at sites in the U.S. and abroad totaled $19 million at March 31, 2019.
We have consistently out-performed the private-industry Recordable Incident Rate (“RIR” as defined by OSHA) average for the manufacturing sector, which was 3.5 in 2017. During fiscal 2019, we recorded an RIR of 1.29, which was lower than our prior year rate of 1.42. Since our acquisition of the Luvata HTS business in fiscal 2017, we have been implementing our behavior-based safety program at CIS segment locations. We believe our safety program, now in place at all CIS segment locations, has contributed to the decrease in the RIR in fiscal 2019. Our behavior-based safety program proactively seeks to correct at-risk behaviors while positively reinforcing safe behaviors. Our focus on behavior-based safety and process stream safety are part of our long-term commitment to strengthen our safety culture.
We employed approximately 12,200 persons worldwide as of March 31, 2019.
Seasonal Nature of Business
Our overall operating performance is generally not subject to a significant degree of seasonality, as sales to OEM customers are dependent upon market demand for new vehicles. However, our second fiscal quarter production schedules are typically impacted by customer summer shut downs and our third fiscal quarter is affected by holiday schedules. Additionally, our CIS and BHVAC segments experience some seasonality, as demand for HVAC&R products can be affected by heating and cooling seasons, weather patterns, construction, and other factors. We expect sales volume within our CIS segment to be higher during our first two fiscal quarters due to the construction seasons in the northern hemisphere. Sales volume within the BHVAC segment is generally stronger in our second and third fiscal quarters, corresponding with demand for heating products.
We manufacture products for the majority of customers in our VTS and CIS segments on an as-ordered basis, which makes large inventories of finished products unnecessary. In Brazil, within our VTS segment, we maintain aftermarket product inventory in order to timely meet customer needs in the Brazilian automotive and commercial vehicle aftermarkets. In our BHVAC segment, we maintain varying levels of finished goods inventory due to seasonal demand and certain sales programs. We have not experienced a significant number of returned products within any of our operating segments.
Through our website, www.modine.com (Investors link), we make available, free of charge, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, other Securities Exchange Act reports and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Our reports are also available free of charge on the SEC’s website, www.sec.gov. Also available free of charge on our website are the following corporate governance documents, among others:
Code of Conduct, which is applicable to all Modine directors and employees, including the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer, and the principal accounting officer;
Corporate Governance Guidelines;
Audit Committee Charter;
Officer Nomination and Compensation Committee Charter;
Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee Charter; and
Technology Committee Charter.
All of the reports and corporate governance documents referenced above and other materials relating to corporate governance may also be obtained without charge by contacting Corporate Secretary, Modine Manufacturing Company, 1500 DeKoven Avenue, Racine, Wisconsin 53403-2552. We do not intend to incorporate our internet website and the information contained therein or incorporated therein into this annual report on Form 10-K.
In the ordinary course of our business, we face various market, operational, strategic, and financial risks. These risks could have an impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Our most significant risks are set forth below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our Enterprise Risk Management process seeks to identify and address significant risks. We believe that risk-taking is an inherent aspect of operating a global business and, in particular, one focused on growth and cost-competitiveness. Our goal is to proactively manage risks in a structured approach in conjunction with strategic planning, with the intent to preserve and enhance shareowner value. However, the risks set forth below and elsewhere in this report, as well as other risks currently unknown or deemed immaterial at the date of this report, could adversely affect us and cause our financial results to vary materially from recent or anticipated future results.
Our vehicular customers continually seek price reductions from us. These price reductions adversely affect our results of operations.
We face continuous price-reduction pressure from our vehicular OEM customers. Virtually all of these OEMs impose aggressive price-reduction initiatives upon their suppliers, even if contrary to contractual terms, and we expect such actions to continue in the future. In response, we must continually reduce our operating costs in order to maintain profit margins that are acceptable to us. We have taken, and will continue to take, steps to reduce our operating costs to offset customer price reductions; however, price reductions adversely affect our profit margins and are expected to do so in the future. In addition, we must balance our ongoing need to reduce operating costs against any potential compromise in the high quality of our products and our ability to provide the highest standard of service to our customers. If we are unable to avoid price reductions for our customers, or if we are unable to offset price reductions through improved operating efficiencies and manufacturing processes, sourcing alternatives, technology enhancements and other cost reduction initiatives, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Fluctuations in costs of materials (including aluminum, copper, steel and stainless steel (nickel), other raw materials, purchased component inventory and energy) could place significant pressure on our results of operations.
Increases in the costs of raw materials and other purchased component inventory, which may be impacted by a variety of factors, including changes in trade laws and tariffs, could have a significant adverse effect on our results of operations. We have sought to alleviate this risk by including provisions within our long-term customer contracts which allow us to adjust customer prices, on a prospective basis, based upon increases and decreases in the cost of key raw materials. However, where these contract provisions are applicable, there can often be a three-month to one-year lag until the time of the price adjustment. To further mitigate our exposure, from time to time we enter into forward contracts to hedge a portion of our forecasted aluminum and copper purchases. However, these hedges may only partially offset increases in material costs, and significant increases could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
We could be adversely affected if we experience shortages of components or materials from our suppliers.
In an effort to manage and reduce our cost of purchased goods and services, we, like many suppliers and customers, have been consolidating our supply base. As a result, we are dependent upon limited sources of supply for certain components used in the manufacture of our products. We select our suppliers based upon total value (including price, delivery and quality), taking into consideration their production capacities, financial condition and willingness and ability to meet our demand. In some cases, it can take several months or longer to find a supplier due to qualification requirements. However, strong demand, the potential effects of trade laws and tariffs, capacity constraints, financial instability, or other circumstances experienced by our suppliers could result in shortages or delays in their supply of product to us, or a significant price increase resulting in our need to resource. If we were to experience a significant or prolonged shortage of critical components or materials from any of our suppliers and could not procure the components or materials from other sources, we would be unable to meet our production schedules and we would miss product delivery dates, which would adversely affect our sales, results of operations and customer relationships.
Our net sales and profitability could be adversely affected from business losses or declines with major customers.
Deterioration of a business relationship with a major customer could cause our sales and profitability to suffer. Generally speaking, this risk is highest in our vehicular business segments, where a large portion of sales are attributable to a relatively small number of customers. We principally compete for new vehicular business both during the initial development of new models and upon the redesign of existing models by our major customers. New model development generally begins two to five years prior to marketing such models to the public. The failure to obtain new business on new models or to retain or increase business on redesigned existing models could adversely affect our business and financial results. In addition, as a result of the relatively long lead times required for many of our complex vehicular components, it may be difficult in the short term for us to obtain new sales to replace any unexpected decline in sales of existing products. We may incur significant expense in preparing to meet anticipated customer requirements that may not be recovered. The loss of a major customer, the loss of business with respect to one or more of the vehicle models that use our vehicular products, or a significant decline in the production levels of such vehicles could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our CIS segment includes significant sales generated from a single global technology customer (14 percent of CIS segment sales) with which we are party to confidentiality agreements. Sales to this customer have historically fluctuated significantly from one quarter or fiscal year to the next. While we expect to be able to manage troughs and take advantage of peaks in these sales levels, to the extent we are unable to predict and mitigate lower sales levels or respond in a timely fashion to higher sales levels, the results of operations for the CIS segment could be adversely affected.
We are dependent upon the health of the customers and markets we serve.
We are highly susceptible to unfavorable trends in the markets we serve as our customers’ sales and production levels are affected by general economic conditions, including access to credit, the price of fuel and electricity, employment levels and trends, interest rates, labor relations issues, regulatory requirements, trade agreements and other market factors, as well as by customer-specific issues. Any significant decline in production levels for current and future customers could result in asset impairment charges and a reduction in our sales, thereby adversely impacting our results of operations and financial condition.
Continual customer pressure to absorb costs adversely affects our profitability.
Customers often request that we pay for design, engineering and tooling costs that are incurred prior to the start of production and recover these costs through amortization in the piece price of the product. Some of these costs cannot be capitalized, which adversely affects our profitability until the programs for which they have been incurred are launched. If a given program is not launched, or is launched with significantly lower volumes than planned, we may not be able to recover the design, engineering and tooling costs from our customers, further adversely affecting our results of operations.
We face strong competition.
The competitive environment continues to be dynamic as many of our customers, faced with intense international competition, have expanded their sourcing of components. As a result, we experience competition from suppliers in other parts of the world that enjoy economic advantages, such as lower labor costs, lower health care costs, lower tax rates, lower costs associated with legal compliance, and, in some cases, export or raw materials subsidies. In addition, consolidation and vertical integration within the supply base have introduced new or restructured competitors to our markets. Increased competition could adversely affect our business and our results of operations.
Exposure to Foreign Currencies
As a global company, we are subject to foreign currency rate fluctuations, which affect our financial results.
Although our financial results are reported in U.S. dollars, a significant portion of our sales and operating costs are realized in foreign currencies. Our sales and profitability are affected by movements of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies in which we generate sales and incur expenses. To the extent that we are unable to match sales in foreign currencies with costs paid in the same currency, exchange rate fluctuations in any such currency could have an adverse effect on our financial results. During times of a strengthening U.S. dollar, our reported sales and earnings from our international operations will be lower because the applicable local currency will be translated into fewer U.S. dollars. In certain instances, currency rate fluctuations may create pricing pressure relative to competitors quoting in different currencies, which could result in our products becoming less competitive. Significant long-term fluctuations in relative currency values could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Challenges of Maintaining a Competitive Cost Structure
We may be unable to maintain competitive cost structures within our business.
We have engaged in various restructuring activities in our VTS, CIS and BHVAC segments in order to optimize our manufacturing footprint and cost structure. These restructuring activities have included targeted headcount reductions that support our objective of reducing operational and SG&A cost structures and the consolidation and/or closure of manufacturing facilities in North America and Europe. In addition, we continue to focus on reducing costs for materials and services through targeted adjustments and negotiations with our supply base. Our successful execution of these initiatives, and our ability to identify and execute future opportunities to optimize our cost structures, is critical to enable us to establish a cost environment that will increase and sustain our long-term competitiveness. Any failure to do so could, in turn, adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Challenges of Program Launches
We continue to launch a significant number of new programs at our facilities across the world. The success of these launches is critical to our business.
We design technologically advanced products, and the processes required to produce these products can be difficult and complex. We commit significant time and financial resources to ensure the successful launch of new products and programs. Due to our high level of launch activity, particularly within our VTS segment, we must appropriately manage these launches and deploy our operational and administrative resources to take advantage of the resulting increase in our business. If we do not successfully launch new products and programs, we may lose market share or damage relationships with our customers, which could negatively affect our business. In addition, any failure in our manufacturing strategy for these new products or programs could result in operating inefficiencies or asset impairment charges.
Complexities of Global Presence
We are subject to risks related to our international operations.
We have manufacturing and technical facilities located in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. In fiscal 2019, 53 percent of our sales were generated from non-U.S. operations. Consequently, our global operations are subject to complex international laws and regulations and numerous risks and uncertainties, including changes in monetary and fiscal policies, including those related to tax and trade, cross-border trade restrictions or prohibitions, import or other charges or taxes, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange and interest rates, changing economic conditions, unreliable intellectual property protection and legal systems, insufficient infrastructures, social unrest, political instability and disputes (including, for example, the uncertainty related to the proposed withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union, commonly referred to as “Brexit”), incompatible business practices, and international terrorism. Changes in policies or laws governing the terms of foreign trade, and in particular increased trade restrictions, tariffs or taxes on imports from countries where we either manufacture products, such as Mexico, or buy raw materials, such as China, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, compliance with multiple and often conflicting laws and regulations of various countries is burdensome and expensive.
Embargoes or sanctions imposed by the U.S. government or those abroad that restrict or prohibit sales to or purchases from specific persons or countries or based upon product classification may expose us to potential criminal and civil sanctions to the extent that we are alleged or found to be in violation, whether intentional or unintentional. We cannot predict future regulatory requirements to which our business operations may be subject or the manner in which existing laws might be administered or interpreted.
In addition, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and other similar anti-corruption laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making payments to improperly influence foreign government officials or other persons for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the global enforcement of anti-corruption laws. In the event that we believe our employees or agents may have violated applicable anti-corruption laws, or if we are subject to allegations of any such violations, we may have to expend significant time and financial resources towards the investigation and remediation of the matter, which could disrupt our business and result in a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and reputation.
If we cannot differentiate ourselves from our competitors with our technology, our existing and potential customers may seek lower prices and our sales and earnings may be adversely affected.
Price, quality, delivery, technological innovation, and application engineering development are the primary elements of competition in our markets. If we fail to keep pace with technological changes and cannot differentiate ourselves from our competitors with our technology or fail to provide high quality, innovative products and services that both meet or exceed customer expectations and address their ever-evolving needs, we may experience price erosion, lower sales, and lower profit margins. Significant technological developments by our competitors or others also could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Developments or assertions by or against us relating to intellectual property rights could adversely affect our business.
We own significant intellectual property, including a large number of patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets. Our intellectual property plays an important role in maintaining our competitive position in a number of the markets we serve. As we expand our operations in jurisdictions where the enforcement of intellectual property rights is less robust, the risk of others duplicating our proprietary technologies increases, despite our efforts to protect them. Developments or assertions by or against us relating to intellectual property rights could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Information Technology (IT) Systems
We may be adversely affected by any substantial disruption in, or material breach of, our IT systems.
We are dependent upon our IT infrastructure, including network, hardware, and software systems, to conduct our business. Despite network and other cybersecurity measures we have in place, our IT systems could be disrupted or we could experience a security breach from computer viruses, break-ins or similar disruptions. A substantial disruption in our IT systems for a prolonged time period, or a material breach of our IT systems, could result in delays in receiving inventory and supplies or filling customer orders, and/or the release of otherwise confidential information, including personal information that is protected by the General Data Protection Regulation, adversely affecting our customer service and relationships as well as our reputation, and could lead to significant remediation expenses and litigation risks. Our systems, and the systems of our service providers or others, could be breached, damaged or interrupted by cyber-attacks or other man-made intentional or unintentional events, or by natural disasters or occurrences, many of which may, despite our best efforts, be beyond our ability to effectively detect, anticipate or control. Any such events and the related delays, problems or costs could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation.
Environmental, Health and Safety Regulations
We could be adversely impacted by the costs of environmental, health and safety regulations.
Our operations are subject to various federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations governing, among other things, emissions to air, discharge to waters and the generation, handling, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste and other materials. The operation of our manufacturing facilities entails risks in these areas and there can be no assurance we will avoid material costs or liabilities relating to such matters. Our financial responsibility to clean up contaminated property may extend to previously-owned or used property, properties owned by unrelated companies, as well as properties we currently own and use, regardless of whether the contamination is attributable to prior owners. In addition, potentially significant expenditures could be required in order to comply with evolving environmental, health and safety laws, regulations or other requirements that may be adopted or imposed in the future.
We may incur material losses and costs as a result of warranty and product liability claims and litigation or other legal proceedings.
In the event our products fail to perform as expected, we are exposed to warranty and product liability claims and may be required to participate in a recall or other field campaign of such products. Many of our vehicular customers offer extended warranty protection for their vehicles and put pressure on their supply base to extend warranty coverage as well. If our customers demand higher warranty-related cost recoveries, or if our products fail to perform as expected, it could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition. We are also involved in various legal proceedings from time to time incidental to our business. If any such proceeding has a negative result, it could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Attracting and Retaining Talent
Our continued success is dependent on being able to attract, develop and retain qualified personnel.
Our ability to sustain and grow our business requires us to hire, develop, and retain skilled and diverse personnel in managerial, leadership and administrative functions. We depend significantly on the engagement of our employees and their skills, experience and industry knowledge to support our objectives and initiatives. Difficulty attracting, developing, and retaining qualified personnel, particularly in light of tightening global labor markets, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Strategic Business Evaluation
The optimization of our VTS segment’s future profitability depends, in part, upon the success of our evaluation of strategic alternatives for our automotive business.
As previously disclosed, we are evaluating strategic alternatives for our automotive business within our VTS segment. The goal of this evaluation is to identify the most successful path forward for the automotive business to optimize the value we offer customers and also provide the highest return for our shareholders. We currently believe a sale of the automotive business is the most likely path forward. There can be no assurance that the evaluation of any strategic alternative, including the potential sale of or continued investment in our automotive business, will result in a consummated transaction or the consummation of another alternative. If our evaluation process does not result in the successful consummation of a strategic alternative, or if we are otherwise unable through such consummation to realize our goal for the automotive business, we may not be able to optimize the profitability of our VTS segment, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Inability to identify and execute on growth opportunities may adversely impact our business and operating results.
We expect to continue to pursue acquisitions in “industrial” markets. There can be no assurance we will be able to identify attractive acquisition targets and/or organic growth opportunities. If we are unable to successfully complete such transactions and execute on organic opportunities in the future, our growth may be limited. In addition, future acquisitions will require integration of operations, sales and marketing, information technology, finance, and administrative functions. If we are unable to successfully integrate acquisitions and operate these businesses profitably, we may not achieve the financial or operational success expected from the acquisitions.
Our indebtedness may limit our use of cash flow to support operating, development and investment activities, and failure to comply with our debt covenants could adversely affect our liquidity and financial results.
As of March 31, 2019, we had total outstanding indebtedness of $450 million. Our indebtedness and related debt service obligations i) require that significant cash flow from operations be used for principal and interest payments, which reduces the funds we have available for other business purposes; ii) limit our flexibility in planning for or reacting to changes in our business and market conditions; and iii) expose us to interest rate risk, since the majority of our debt obligations carry variable interest rates. If we are unable to maintain our leverage ratio (net debt divided by Adjusted EBITDA, as defined in our credit agreements) within our target range of 1.5 to 2.5, or if we are unable to move cash globally to enable debt repayments in a tax-efficient manner, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
The proposed phase out of the London Interbank Offer Rate (“LIBOR”) could have an adverse effect on our business
Our revolving credit facility and current term loans utilize LIBOR to set the interest rate on outstanding borrowings. In July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority, a regulator of financial service firms in the U.K., announced that it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. Currently, there is no definitive information or consensus regarding the future utilization of LIBOR or of any particular alternative reference rates. As a result, it is not possible to predict the effect of these changes, other reforms, or the establishment of alternative reference rates, but the potential phase out of LIBOR could adversely affect our access to the capital markets and cost of funding.
Market trends and regulatory requirements may require additional funding for our pension plans.
We have several defined benefit pension plans in the U.S., all of which are frozen to new participants. Our funding policy for these plans is to contribute annually, at a minimum, the amount necessary on an actuarial basis to provide for benefits in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Our domestic plans have an unfunded liability of $67 million. During fiscal 2020, we anticipate making funding contributions totaling $3 million related to these domestic plans. Funding requirements for our defined benefit plans are dependent upon, among other things, interest rates, underlying asset returns, mortality rate tables, and the impact of legislative or regulatory changes. Should changes in actuarial assumptions or other factors result in the requirement of significant additional funding contributions, our financial condition could be adversely affected.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Our balance sheet includes significant amounts of goodwill and intangible assets. An impairment of a significant portion of these assets would adversely affect our financial results.
Our balance sheet includes goodwill and intangible assets totaling $285 million at March 31, 2019. We perform goodwill impairment tests annually, as of March 31, or more frequently if appropriate. In addition, we review intangible assets for impairment whenever business conditions or other events indicate that the assets may be impaired. If we determine the carrying value of an asset is impaired, we write down the asset to fair value and record an impairment charge to current operations. An impairment of a significant portion of goodwill or intangible assets could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
We may be subject to additional income tax expense or become subject to additional tax exposure.
Unfavorable changes in the financial outlook of our operations in certain jurisdictions could lead to adverse changes in our valuation allowance assertions for our deferred tax assets. Additionally, the subjectivity of or changes in tax laws and regulations in jurisdictions where we have significant operations could materially affect our results of operations. In addition, we are subject to tax audits in each jurisdiction in which we operate. Unfavorable or unexpected outcomes from one or more tax audits could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”). The Tax Act includes broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code, including, but not limited to (i) a reduction in the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent effective January 1, 2018, and (ii) a transition tax on certain unrepatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries. We completed our accounting for the Tax Act during fiscal 2019; see Note 8 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more information. Additional impacts from the Tax Act could result if there are changes in interpretations or applications of the Tax Act’s provisions or if supplementary regulatory guidance is issued.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
We operate manufacturing facilities in the U.S. and multiple foreign countries. Our world headquarters, including general offices and laboratory, experimental and tooling facilities, is located in Racine, Wisconsin. We have additional technical support functions located in Grenada, Mississippi; Guadalajara, Spain; Bonlanden, Germany; Söderköping, Sweden; Pocenia, Italy; Sao Paulo, Brazil; Leeds, United Kingdom; Changzhou, China; and Chennai, India.
The following table sets forth information regarding our principal properties as of March 31, 2019. Properties with less than 20,000 square feet of building space have been omitted from this table.
We consider our plants and equipment to be well maintained and suitable for their purposes. We review our manufacturing capacity periodically and make the determination as to our need to expand or, conversely, rationalize our facilities as necessary to meet changing market conditions and our needs.
The information required hereunder is incorporated by reference from Note 20 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
The following sets forth the name, age (as of March 31, 2019), recent business experience and certain other information relative to each executive officer of the Company.
Brian J. Agen
Vice President, Human Resources (October 2012 – Present).
Dennis P. Appel
Vice President, Commercial and Industrial Solutions (December 2016 – Present). Prior to joining Modine, Mr. Appel held a variety of leadership positions with Luvata HTS in the U.S., Europe and Asia, including most recently, President of Luvata HTS.
Scott L. Bowser
Vice President, Chief Operating Officer (January 2019 – Present); previously Vice President, Global Operations and Vice President of Asia and Global Procurement for the Company.
Thomas A. Burke
President and Chief Executive Officer (April 2008 – Present).
Joel T. Casterton
Vice President, Vehicular Thermal Solutions (January 2018 – Present); previously Director – Global Program Management & Quality for the Company.
Vice President, Strategic Planning and Development (November 2017 – Present); previously Vice President, Luvata HTS Integration for the Company and Vice President, Building HVAC for the Company.
Scott A. Miller
Vice President, Building HVAC (September 2016 – Present); previously Managing Director – Global Operations and Operations Director of the Building HVAC and North America business units for the Company.
Sylvia A. Stein
Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary (January 2018 – Present). Prior to joining Modine, Ms. Stein served as the Associate General Counsel, Marketing & Regulatory at the Kraft Heinz Foods Company and was Chief Counsel, Cheese & Dairy and Grocery Business Units for Kraft Foods Group, Inc. / Kraft Foods Global, Inc.
Scott D. Wollenberg
Vice President – Chief Technology Officer (July 2016 – Present); previously Regional Vice President – Americas for the Company.
Executive Officer positions are designated in our Bylaws and the persons holding these positions are elected annually by the Board, generally at its first meeting after the annual meeting of shareholders in July of each year. In addition, the Officer Nomination and Compensation Committee of the Board may recommend and the Board of Directors may approve promotions and other actions with regard to executive officers at any time during the fiscal year.
There are no family relationships among the executive officers and directors. All of the executive officers of Modine have been employed by us in various capacities during the last five years with the exception of Mr. Appel, who joined in December 2016 and Ms. Stein, who joined in January 2018, whose business experience during the last five years is provided above.
There are no arrangements or understandings between any of the executive officers and any other person pursuant to which he or she was elected an officer of Modine.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Our trading symbol is MOD. As of March 31, 2019, shareholders of record numbered 2,338.
We did not pay dividends during fiscal 2019 or 2018. Under our debt agreements, we are permitted to pay dividends on our common stock, subject to certain restrictions based upon the calculation of debt covenants, as further described under “Liquidity and Capital Resources” under Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. We currently do not intend to pay dividends in fiscal 2020.
We did not purchase shares of common stock during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2019.
The following graph compares the cumulative five-year total return on our common stock with similar returns on the Russell 2000 Index and the Standard & Poor’s (S&P) MidCap 400 Industrials Index. The graph assumes a $100 investment and reinvestment of dividends.
The following data should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this report.
Years ended March 31,
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Net earnings (loss)
Long-term debt - excluding current portion
Net cash provided by operating activities
Expenditures for property, plant and equipment
Net earnings (loss) per share attributable to Modine shareholders:
The following factors impact the comparability of the selected financial data presented above:
On November 30, 2016, we acquired Luvata HTS for total consideration of $388 million, net of cash acquired. Since the date of acquisition, we’ve consolidated financial results from this business within our CIS segment. During fiscal 2019, 2018 and 2017, CIS segment net sales were $708 million, $676 million, and $232 million, respectively. This transaction and the related debt financing also resulted in increases in total assets and long-term debt. During fiscal 2018 and 2017, we recorded $4 million and $15 million, respectively, of costs directly related to the acquisition and integration of Luvata HTS. See Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding this acquisition.
During fiscal 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, and 2015, we incurred $10 million, $16 million, $11 million, $17 million, and $5 million, respectively, of restructuring expenses. See Note 6 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
During fiscal 2018, 2016, and 2015, we recorded impairment charges of $3 million, $10 million, and $8 million, respectively. See Notes 6 and 14 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
During fiscal 2018, we recorded provisional income tax charges totaling $38 million as a result of U.S. tax legislation enacted in December 2017 commonly referred to as the Tax Act. During fiscal 2019, we recorded income tax benefits totaling $22 million related to the Tax Act and the recognition of foreign tax credits. See Note 8 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
During fiscal 2016, we recorded $42 million of non-cash pension settlement losses associated with a voluntary lump-sum payout program offered to certain eligible former employees and a $10 million gain related to an insurance settlement for equipment losses associated with a fire at our Airedale manufacturing facility in the U.K in September 2013.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
Founded in 1916, Modine Manufacturing Company is a global leader in thermal management systems and components, bringing heating and cooling technology and solutions to diversified global markets. We operate on five continents, in 19 countries, and employ approximately 12,200 persons worldwide.
Our primary product groups include i) powertrain cooling and engine cooling; ii) coils, coolers, and coatings; and iii) heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Our products are used in on- and off-highway original-equipment vehicular applications. In addition, we provide our thermal management technology and solutions to a wide array of commercial, industrial, and building heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and refrigeration markets.
We launched our SDG strategy over three years ago to establish a more global, product-based organizational structure and a strategic framework for our company. We’re proud of our achievements to date under SDG’s core guiding principles. We’ve successfully acquired and integrated the Luvata HTS business, now operating within our CIS segment. The CIS segment has propelled our organization forward toward our vision of becoming a leading global diversified industrial thermal management company. This acquisition succeeded in better diversifying our product portfolio and improving our cash flow. We’ve also taken actions to strengthen our business and lower our operating and SG&A cost structures, including restructuring actions, which have encompassed plant consolidation activities, targeted headcount reductions, and product line transfers, and global procurement initiatives to reduce costs for materials and services. Reflecting on these achievements, we believe that Modine is stronger than ever.
As we look ahead, we aim to build upon our SDG strategy by pursuing opportunities that best align with our vision for the future and secure our position as a global diversified industrial thermal management company. We have made significant progress in executing our multi-year strategy to establish meaningful positions in markets where we can deliver consistent, profitable growth. We regularly review our product portfolio and the end markets we serve to ensure we have the right mix of business to build and move Modine forward. We recently announced that we are evaluating strategic alternatives for our automotive business within our VTS segment in order to optimize the segment’s profitability and reprioritize capital investments across all of our businesses. We believe our SDG strategy will continue to keep us grounded, thriving, and transforming to optimize the value we offer our customers and to provide the highest returns for our shareholders.
Development of New Products and Technology
Our ability to develop new products and technologies based upon our building block strategy for new and emerging markets is one of our competitive strengths. Under this strategy, we focus on creating core technologies that form the basis for multiple products and product lines across multiple business segments. Each of our business segments have a strong heritage of new product development, and our entire global technology organization benefits from mutual strengths. We own four global, state-of-the-art technology centers, dedicated to the development and testing of products and technologies. The centers are located in Racine, Wisconsin, Grenada, Mississippi, Pocenia, Italy and Bonlanden, Germany. Our reputation for providing high quality products and technologies has been a Company strength valued by our customers.
We continue to benefit from relationships with customers that recognize the value of having us participate directly in product design, development and validation processes. This has resulted, and we expect it to continue to result, in strong, long-term customer relationships with companies that value partnerships with their suppliers.
We employ both short-term (one-to-three year) and longer-term (five-to-seven year) strategic planning processes, which enable us to continually assess our opportunities, competitive threats, and economic market challenges.
We devote significant resources to global strategic planning and development activities to strengthen our competitive position. We expect to continue to pursue organic- and external-growth opportunities, particularly to grow our global, market leading positions in our industrial businesses and continue to build on the momentum and success recently experienced by our CIS and BHVAC segments.
Operational and Financial Discipline
We operate in a dynamic, global marketplace; therefore, we manage our business with a disciplined focus on increasing productivity and reducing waste. The nature of the global marketplace requires us to move toward a greater manufacturing scale in order to create a more competitive cost base. In order to optimize our cost structure and improve efficiency of our operations, we have executed restructuring activities in our VTS and CIS segments during recent years. In addition, as costs for materials and purchased parts may rise from time to time due to increases in commodity markets, we seek low-cost sourcing, when appropriate, and enter into contracts with some of our customers that provide for commodity price adjustments, on a lag basis.
We follow a rigorous financial process for investment and returns, intended to enable increased profitability and cash flows over the long term. We place particular emphasis on working capital improvement and prioritization of our capital investments.
Our executive management incentive compensation (annual cash incentive) plan for fiscal 2019 was based upon consolidated operating income growth and a cash flow margin metric. These performance goals drive alignment of management and shareholders’ interests in both our earnings growth and cash flow targets. In addition, we provide a long-term incentive compensation plan for officers and certain key employees to attract, retain, and motivate employees who directly impact the long-term performance of our company. The plan is comprised of stock awards, stock options, and performance-based stock awards. The performance-based stock awards for the fiscal 2019 through 2021 performance period are based upon a target three-year average annual revenue growth and a target three-year average consolidated cash flow return on invested capital.
Segment Information – Strategy, Market Conditions and Trends
Each of our operating segments is managed by a vice president and has separate strategic and financial plans, and financial results, all of which are reviewed by our chief operating decision maker. These plans and results are used by management to evaluate the performance of each segment and to make decisions on the allocation of resources. Effective April 1, 2018, we merged our Americas coils business into the CIS segment to accelerate operational improvements and organizational efficiencies and formed the VTS segment by combining our Americas, Europe, and Asia operations to enable us to operate as a more global, product-based organization.
Vehicular Thermal Solutions (59 percent of fiscal 2019 net sales)
Our VTS segment provides powertrain and engine cooling products, including, but not limited to, radiators, charge air coolers, condensers, oil coolers, EGR coolers, and fuel coolers, to OEMs in the automotive, commercial vehicle, and off-highway markets in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. In addition, our VTS segment also serves Brazil’s automotive and commercial vehicle aftermarkets.
Sales volume in the VTS segment increased during fiscal 2019, as compared with the prior year, primarily due to higher sales to certain key end markets in North America and Asia. In North America, we benefited from a substantial recovery in the off-highway market and experienced sales volume increases to automotive customers, despite a relatively flat automotive market. The North American commercial vehicle market experienced significant growth during the year; however, our sales growth to commercial vehicle customers lagged behind the overall market trend, primarily due to the planned wind-down of certain commercial vehicle programs. In Asia, we benefited from growth of the off-highway markets in China and Korea and maturing automotive program volumes in China. In order to meet growing regional demand, we expanded our manufacturing capacity in Changzhou, China during fiscal 2019. Tariffs unfavorably impacted our VTS segment’s financial results during fiscal 2019, both directly and indirectly. Impacts of tariffs on our raw material costs included the direct cost of tariffs on certain imported items from China; rising prices from domestic sources, as certain suppliers leveraged tariffs to impose cost increases; and resourcing costs, as certain domestic suppliers have chosen to exit supplying certain products altogether due to capacity constraints resulting from increased demand. The unfavorable impacts of tariffs were partially offset by the implementation of strict cost control in other areas.
Looking forward to fiscal 2020, we anticipate varied levels of growth in our key end markets. To meet increased demand in Asia, we will complete our expansion of manufacturing capacity in our locations near Chennai, India and Yangzhou, China. We expect the global automotive markets will be relatively flat. In regard to the global commercial vehicle markets, we expect a decline in North America, Europe and Asia and growth in South America. We expect our commercial vehicle sales will decrease compared with fiscal 2019, primarily due to the planned wind-downs of certain programs in Europe and North America. However, we expect growth in our commercial vehicle business in China, primarily due to increasing production of Euro 6 engines that have additional Modine content. In regard to global off-highway markets, we anticipate modest growth in the majority of both construction and agricultural markets.
As recently announced, we are evaluating strategic alternatives for our automotive business. A primary objective of our evaluation is optimizing our VTS segment’s profitability profile. The automotive market exhibits different industry dynamics, growth trajectories, and strategic opportunities, as compared with the commercial vehicle and off-highway markets we serve, and generally requires higher capital investment from its supply base. While we are continuing to explore various alternatives to best serve our customers and provide the greatest return for our shareholders, we currently believe a sale of the automotive business is the most likely path forward. We remain firmly committed to the commercial vehicle and off-highway markets and making the necessary investments to ensure our global business is successful.
Commercial and Industrial Solutions (32 percent of fiscal 2019 net sales)
Our CIS segment provides a broad offering of thermal management products to the HVAC&R markets, including solutions tailored to indoor and mobile climates, food storage and transport-refrigeration, and industrial processes. CIS’s primary product groups include coils, coolers, and coatings. Our coils products include custom-designed condensers, evaporators, round-tube solutions, as well as steam and water/fluid coils. Our coolers include commercial refrigeration units, which are used across the food supply chain as well as for precision climate control for other applications such as data centers, and other types such as carbon dioxide and ammonia unit coolers, remote condensers, transformer oil coolers, and brine coolers. In addition, we offer proprietary coating solutions for corrosion protection, prolonging the life of heat-transfer equipment.
During fiscal 2019, CIS experienced above-market sales growth, primarily driven by strong market dynamics. The data center cooling and commercial refrigeration markets both yielded stronger than expected demand. In order to meet growing and regional demand, we expanded our manufacturing capacity in both Serbia and Mexico. We expect modest growth in each of the CIS markets we serve during fiscal 2020.
Looking forward, we will continue to work on manufacturing strategies to ensure we are offering competitive solutions and operating in regions with the most cost-effective footprint. Additionally, we aim to capitalize on opportunities arising from energy and environmental regulations; we believe we are well-positioned to be the partner of choice to provide our customers innovative commercial and industrial thermal management solutions.
Building HVAC Systems (9 percent of fiscal 2019 net sales)
Our BHVAC segment manufactures and distributes a variety of original equipment and aftersales HVAC products, primarily for commercial buildings and related applications in North America, the United Kingdom, mainland Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. We sell and distribute our heating, ventilation and cooling products through wholesalers, distributors, consulting engineers, contractors and building owners for applications such as warehouses, repair garages, greenhouses, residential garages, schools, data centers, manufacturing facilities, hotels, hospitals, restaurants, stadiums, and retail stores. Our heating products include gas (natural and propane), electric, oil and hydronic unit heaters, low- and high-intensity infrared, and large roof-mounted direct- and indirect-fired makeup air units. Our ventilation products include single-packaged vertical units and unit ventilators used in school room applications, air-handling equipment, and rooftop packaged ventilation units used in a variety of commercial building applications. Our cooling products include precision air conditioning units used primarily for data center cooling applications, air- and water-cooled chillers, and ceiling cassettes, which are also used in a variety of commercial building applications.
Economic conditions, such as demand for new commercial construction, building renovations, including HVAC replacement, growth in data centers and school renovations, and higher efficiency requirements, are growth drivers for our building HVAC products. During fiscal 2019, sales improved across all of our North America product platforms, including heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and aftersales. Our U.K. business experienced sales volume improvements in air conditioning equipment and aftersales. In fiscal 2019, we made the strategic decision to sell our business in South Africa and, as a result, recorded a $2 million loss on the sale.
We expect continued growth in each of the HVAC markets we serve during fiscal 2020. The markets we serve are heavily impacted by construction activity, building regulations, and owner/occupant comfort requirements. Growth rates in these markets have recently shown some strength, as manufacturing, housing, and business investment continue to increase. In fiscal 2020, we expect sales growth in our BHVAC segment through the introduction of new and unique products for the markets we serve and focused market share gains.
Consolidated Results of Operations
On November 30, 2016, we acquired Luvata HTS for consideration totaling $415.6 million ($388.2 million, net of cash acquired). This business is a leading global supplier of coils, coolers and coatings to the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration industry. We’ve consolidated financial results from this business within our CIS segment since the acquisition date; accordingly, fiscal 2017 included four months of financial results from the acquired business.
On January 29, 2019, we announced that we are evaluating strategic alternatives for our automotive business within our VTS segment. Our primary objectives include optimizing the VTS segment’s profitability and reprioritizing capital investments across all of our businesses. While we are continuing to explore various alternatives, we currently believe a sale of the automotive business is the most likely path forward. We expect to complete our evaluation in fiscal 2020 to determine what actions we may take as a result, if any.
Fiscal 2019 net sales increased $110 million, or 5 percent, from the prior year, primarily due to higher sales in each of our operating segments. Gross profit increased $9 million, yet gross margin declined 50 basis points to 16.5 percent, as the benefit from higher sales volume was more than offset by unfavorable material costs, including the impacts of tariffs, and temporary operating inefficiencies largely resulting from increased volumes and new program launches at certain facilities. SG&A expenses decreased $2 million, or 70 basis points as a percentage of sales. During fiscal 2019, we recorded $10 million of restructuring expenses, primarily related to targeted headcount reductions within the VTS segment. Fiscal 2019 operating income increased $18 million to $110 million. The impacts of our accounting for the Tax Act significantly impacted our $5 million income tax benefit in fiscal 2019, as compared with an income tax provision of $40 million in the prior year. As a result of the higher operating income and the impact of income taxes, our fiscal 2019 net earnings of $86 million improved $62 million compared with the prior year.
Fiscal 2018 net sales increased $600 million, or 40 percent, from the prior year, primarily due to $444 million of additional sales from our CIS segment and higher sales in our other operating segments. We owned the Luvata HTS business (CIS segment) for four months in fiscal 2017. Gross profit increased $103 million, including $66 million of additional contribution from our CIS segment. SG&A expenses increased $43 million, primarily due to a $39 million increase in SG&A expenses in our CIS segment. During fiscal 2018, we recorded $16 million of restructuring expenses, primarily related to a facility closure in our CIS segment and targeted headcount reductions in our VTS segment. Fiscal 2018 operating income increased $50 million to $92 million. Our fiscal 2018 net earnings of $24 million increased $9 million compared with the prior year, primarily due to the $50 million increase in operating income, partially offset by $38 million of provisional income tax charges associated with the Tax Act and higher interest expense.
The following table presents our consolidated financial results on a comparative basis for fiscal years 2019, 2018, and 2017.
Years ended March 31,
% of sales
% of sales
% of sales
Cost of sales
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Loss (gain) on sale of assets
Other expense - net
Earnings before income taxes
Benefit (provision) for income taxes
Year Ended March 31, 2019 Compared with Year Ended March 31, 2018:
Fiscal 2019 net sales increased $110 million, or 5 percent, from the prior year, primarily due to higher sales in each of our operating segments, partially offset by a $28 million unfavorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes.
Fiscal 2019 gross profit increased $9 million from the prior year, yet gross margin declined 50 basis points to 16.5 percent. The decline in gross margin was primarily due to unfavorable material costs, including the direct and indirect impacts of tariffs, and temporary operating inefficiencies largely related to increased volumes and multiple new program launches in our VTS segment, partially offset by higher sales volume. In addition, gross profit was unfavorably impacted by $4 million from foreign currency exchange rate changes.
Fiscal 2019 SG&A expenses of $244 million decreased $2 million, or 70 basis points as a percentage of sales, from the prior year. The decrease in SG&A expenses was primarily due to lower integration costs associated with our November 2016 acquisition of the Luvata HTS business and a $3 million favorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes, partially offset by higher third-party strategic advisory costs recorded at Corporate and higher environmental charges within our VTS segment. During fiscal 2019, we recorded $7 million of costs, primarily consisting of third-party consulting fees, related to our evaluation of strategic alternatives for our VTS segment’s automotive business.
Fiscal 2019 restructuring expenses of $10 million decreased $6 million compared with the prior year, primarily due to lower severance-related expenses associated with the fiscal 2018 closure of a manufacturing facility in Gailtal, Austria within the CIS segment.
During fiscal 2019, we sold our South African business within the BHVAC segment and, as a result, recorded a loss of $2 million.
Operating income of $110 million in fiscal 2019 increased $18 million compared with the prior year, primarily due to higher earnings in the CIS and BHVAC segments, partially offset by lower earnings in the VTS segment.
The benefit for income taxes was $5 million in fiscal 2019, compared with a provision for income taxes of $40 million in fiscal 2018. The $45 million change was primarily due to our accounting for the impacts of the Tax Act. As a result of the Tax Act, we recorded provisional income tax charges totaling $38 million in the prior year, compared with income tax benefits totaling $8 million in the current year. In addition, we recorded income tax benefits totaling $17 million in the current year resulting from the recognition of tax assets for foreign tax credits and other attributes, partially offset by the absence of a $9 million benefit from a development tax credit in Hungary recorded in the prior year and changes in the mix of operating earnings. See Note 8 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Year Ended March 31, 2018 Compared with Year Ended March 31, 2017:
Fiscal 2018 net sales increased $600 million, or 40 percent, from the prior year, primarily due to $444 million of additional sales from our CIS segment, which included sales from the acquired Luvata HTS business that we owned for four months of fiscal 2017, higher sales in each of our other operating segments, and a $55 million favorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes.
Fiscal 2018 gross profit of $357 million increased $103 million from the prior year, primarily due to $66 million of additional gross profit from our CIS segment and higher gross profit in our VTS and BHVAC segments. Gross profit was favorably impacted by $9 million from foreign currency exchange rate changes. Gross margin improved 10 basis points to 17.0 percent, primarily due to higher sales volume, savings resulting from cost-reduction initiatives, improved operating efficiencies, and the absence of a $4 million inventory purchase accounting adjustment recorded in the prior year, partially offset by unfavorable material costs and incremental depreciation and amortization expense resulting from purchase accounting for Luvata HTS.
Fiscal 2018 SG&A expenses of $246 million increased $43 million from the prior year, primarily due to a $39 million increase in SG&A expenses in our CIS segment, $4 million of strategy consulting fees incurred during fiscal 2018, higher compensation-related expenses, and a $4 million unfavorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes, partially offset by lower costs incurred related to the acquisition of Luvata HTS. SG&A expenses, as a percentage of net sales, decreased 180 basis points compared with the prior year.
Restructuring expenses of $16 million in fiscal 2018 increased $5 million compared with the prior year, primarily due to severance-related expenses in the CIS segment related to the closure of a manufacturing facility in Austria.
During fiscal 2018, we recorded impairment charges totaling $3 million related to the closure of the CIS manufacturing facility in Austria and the discontinuance of a product line in our BHVAC segment.
During fiscal 2017, we sold three manufacturing facilities within our VTS segment, two of which were previously closed, and recognized net gains totaling $2 million.
Operating income of $92 million in fiscal 2018 increased $50 million compared with the prior year, primarily due to $18 million of additional operating income contributed by our CIS segment and higher earnings in the VTS and BHVAC segments.
Fiscal 2018 interest expense increased $9 million compared with the prior year, primarily due to debt issued to finance a significant portion of our acquisition of Luvata HTS.
The provision for income taxes was $40 million and $6 million in fiscal 2018 and 2017, respectively. The $34 million increase was primarily due to $38 million of provisional charges recorded in fiscal 2018 related to the Tax Act and increased operating earnings, partially offset by income tax benefits totaling $14 million resulting from i) a development tax credit in Hungary ($9 million); ii) the reversal of a portion of the valuation allowance in a foreign jurisdiction ($3 million); and iii) a reduction of unrecognized tax benefits resulting from a lapse in statutes of limitations ($2 million), and the absence of a $2 million provision recorded in the prior year to establish a valuation allowance in a separate foreign jurisdiction.
Since the date we acquired Luvata HTS (November 30, 2016), we have included financial results of this acquired business within our CIS segment. Effective April 1, 2018, we merged our Americas coils business into the CIS segment to accelerate operational improvements and organizational efficiencies and formed the VTS segment by combining our Americas, Europe, and Asia operations to enable us to operate as a more global, product-based organization. We began reporting financial results for our new segments beginning in fiscal 2019. Segment financial information for fiscal 2018 and 2017 has been recast to conform to the fiscal 2019 presentation.
Years ended March 31,
% of sales
% of sales
% of sales
Cost of sales
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Gain on sale of assets
Year Ended March 31, 2019 Compared with Year Ended March 31, 2018:
VTS net sales increased $56 million, or 4 percent, in fiscal 2019 compared with the prior year, primarily due to higher sales volume to off-highway and automotive customers in North America and Asia, partially offset by lower sales volume to customers in Europe and a $21 million unfavorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes. Gross profit decreased $14 million and gross margin declined 170 basis points to 13.8 percent. The decline in gross margin was primarily due to unfavorable material costs, including the impacts of tariffs, and temporary operating inefficiencies largely related to increased volumes and new program launches at certain manufacturing facilities, partially offset by higher sales volume. In addition, foreign currency exchange rate changes had an unfavorable $3 million impact on gross profit. SG&A expenses increased $3 million compared with the prior year, yet decreased 10 basis points as a percentage of sales. The increase in SG&A expenses primarily resulted from higher environmental charges related to previously-owned manufacturing facilities in the U.S. and higher compensation-related expenses, partially offset by a $2 million favorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes. Restructuring expenses increased $2 million, primarily due to higher severance expenses. Operating income decreased $19 million to $65 million, primarily due to lower gross profit and higher SG&A and restructuring expenses.
Year Ended March 31, 2018 Compared with Year Ended March 31, 2017:
VTS net sales increased $144 million, or 12 percent, in fiscal 2018 compared with the prior year, primarily due to higher sales volume to off-highway and automotive customers and a $42 million favorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes. Gross profit increased $19 million, primarily due to higher sales volume. Gross margin declined 30 basis points, primarily due to unfavorable material costs, the absence of favorable customer pricing settlements recorded in the prior year, and higher depreciation expense resulting from recent production capacity investments, partially offset by improved operating efficiencies. In addition, foreign currency exchange rate changes had a favorable $7 million impact on gross profit. SG&A expenses increased $4 million compared with the prior year, primarily due to a $3 million unfavorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes, higher compensation-related expenses, and higher environmental charges related to a previously-owned manufacturing facility in the U.S., partially offset by the absence of a $2 million charge recorded in the prior year related to a legal matter in Brazil, which has since been settled and paid. As a percentage of sales, SG&A expenses decreased 80 basis points to 8.4 percent. Restructuring expenses decreased $3 million, primarily due to lower plant consolidation and equipment transfer costs. In fiscal 2017, we sold three manufacturing facilities and, as a result, recognized gains totaling $2 million.
Year Ended March 31, 2019 Compared with Year Ended March 31, 2018:
CIS net sales increased $32 million, or 5 percent, in fiscal 2019 compared with the prior year, primarily due to higher sales volume to data center and commercial HVAC&R customers, partially offset by lower sales volume to industrial customers and a $5 million unfavorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes. Gross profit increased $17 million and gross margin improved 170 basis points to 16.2 percent, primarily due to higher sales volume and favorable sales mix. SG&A expenses increased $1 million, yet decreased 20 basis points as a percentage of sales. The $1 million increase in SG&A expenses was primarily due to higher compensation-related expenses, including higher commission costs, partially offset by a $1 million favorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes. Restructuring expenses decreased $8 million, primarily due to the absence of severance-related expenses recorded in the prior year related to the closure of a manufacturing facility in Austria. In fiscal 2018, we recorded a $1 million impairment charge related to the closure of the Austrian facility. In fiscal 2019, we recorded an additional impairment charge of less than $1 million related to this facility. Operating income of $53 million increased $24 million, primarily due to higher gross profit and lower restructuring expenses.
Year Ended March 31, 2018 Compared with Year Ended March 31, 2017:
CIS financial results for fiscal 2017 primarily include four months of results from the acquired Luvata HTS business. These financial results are not comparable to fiscal 2018, which included a full year of Luvata HTS results.
Years ended March 31,
% of sales
% of sales
% of sales
Cost of sales
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Loss on sale of assets
Year Ended March 31, 2019 Compared with Year Ended March 31, 2018:
BHVAC net sales increased $21 million, or 11 percent, in fiscal 2019 compared with the prior year, primarily due to higher sales of air conditioning products and parts and controls in the U.K. and heating products in North America, partially offset by a $1 million unfavorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes. Gross profit increased $5 million, yet gross margin declined 40 basis points to 29.9 percent. This slight decline in gross margin primarily resulted from unfavorable material costs and sales mix, partially offset by higher sales volume. SG&A expenses decreased $1 million compared with the prior year and decreased 240 basis points as a percentage of sales, primarily due to cost-control initiatives. During fiscal 2019, we completed the sale of our business in South Africa, and, as a result, recorded a loss of $2 million. Operating income of $27 million increased $7 million, primarily due to higher gross profit.
Year Ended March 31, 2018 Compared with Year Ended March 31, 2017:
BHVAC net sales increased $19 million, or 11 percent, in fiscal 2018 compared with the prior year, primarily due to higher heating and ventilation product sales in North America and a $1 million favorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes. Gross profit increased $10 million and gross margin improved 250 basis points to 30.3 percent, primarily due to higher sales volume and improved operating efficiencies in the U.K. SG&A expenses increased $2 million, primarily due to higher commission costs resulting from higher sales. As a percentage of sales, SG&A expenses decreased 90 basis points. Restructuring expenses decreased $1 million, primarily due to the absence of severance expenses recorded in the prior year. During fiscal 2018, we discontinued a geothermal product line and, as a result, recorded a $1 million impairment charge for intangible assets we no longer use. Operating income of $20 million increased $7 million, primarily due to higher gross profit.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our primary sources of liquidity are cash flow from operating activities, our cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2019 of $42 million, and an available borrowing capacity of $124 million under our revolving credit facility. Given our extensive international operations, approximately $35 million of our cash and cash equivalents are held by our non-U.S. subsidiaries. Amounts held by non-U.S. subsidiaries are available for general corporate use; however, these funds may be subject to foreign withholding taxes if repatriated. We have not encountered, and do not expect to encounter, any difficulty meeting the liquidity requirements of our global operations.
Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities in fiscal 2019 was $103 million, a decrease of $21 million from $124 million in the prior year. This decrease in operating cash flow primarily resulted from unfavorable changes in working capital, partially offset by the favorable impact of stronger earnings. The unfavorable changes in working capital, as compared with the prior year, included higher incentive compensation and other employee benefit payments and higher inventory levels associated with higher sales levels.
Net cash provided by operating activities in fiscal 2018 was $124 million, an increase of $82 million from $42 million in fiscal 2017. This increase in operating cash flow primarily resulted from an increase in operating earnings, including additional contributions from our CIS segment, lower payments for costs associated with the acquisition and integration of Luvata HTS and restructuring expenses in the current year, and favorable net changes in working capital.
Capital expenditures of $74 million during fiscal 2019 increased $3 million compared with fiscal 2018, primarily due to higher capital expenditures in our CIS segment, including investments to expand manufacturing capacity in Serbia and Mexico. Similar to prior years, our capital spending in fiscal 2019 primarily occurred in the VTS segment, which totaled $56 million, and included tooling and equipment purchases in conjunction with new and renewal programs with customers, as well as investments to expand manufacturing capacity in China and Hungary. At March 31, 2019, our capital expenditure commitments totaled $24 million. Significant commitments included tooling and equipment expenditures for new and renewal programs with customers in Asia, North America, and Europe within the VTS segment.
Our total debt outstanding decreased $30 million to $450 million at March 31, 2019 compared with the prior year, primarily due to repayments of debt during fiscal 2019. See Note 17 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding our credit agreements.
Our debt agreements require us to maintain compliance with various covenants. As defined in the credit agreement, the term loans may require prepayments in the event our annual excess cash flow exceeds defined levels, depending upon our leverage ratio, or in the event of certain asset sales. In addition, under our primary debt agreements in the U.S., we are subject to leverage ratio covenants, the most restrictive of which requires us to limit our consolidated indebtedness, less a portion of our cash balance, both as defined by the credit agreement, to no more than three and one-quarter times consolidated net earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, and certain other adjustments (“Adjusted EBITDA”). We are also subject to an interest expense coverage ratio covenant, which requires us to maintain Adjusted EBITDA of at least three times consolidated interest expense. As of March 31, 2019, our leverage ratio and interest coverage ratio were 2.1 and 9.0, respectively. We were in compliance with our debt covenants as of March 31, 2019 and expect to remain in compliance during fiscal 2020 and beyond.
Includes capital lease obligations and other long-term obligations.
Our liabilities for pensions, postretirement benefits, and uncertain tax positions totaled $119 million as of March 31, 2019. We are unable to determine the ultimate timing of payments for these liabilities; therefore, we have excluded these amounts from the contractual obligations table above. We expect to contribute $3 million to our U.S. pension plans during fiscal 2020.
Critical Accounting Policies
The following critical accounting policies reflect the more significant judgments and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements. Application of these policies results in accounting estimates that have the greatest potential for a significant impact on our financial statements. The following discussion of these judgments and estimates is intended to supplement the significant accounting policies presented in Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. In addition, recently issued accounting pronouncements that could significantly impact our financial statement are disclosed in Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
In fiscal 2019, we adopted new revenue recognition accounting guidance. See Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. In accordance with this new accounting guidance, we recognize revenue based upon consideration specified in a contract and as we satisfy performance obligations by transferring control over our products to our customers, which may be at a point in time or over time. The majority of our revenue is recognized at a point in time, based upon shipment terms. A limited number of our customer contracts provide an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date. For these contracts, we recognize revenue over time based upon our estimated progress towards the satisfaction of the contract’s performance obligations. We record an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated uncollectible receivables and we accrue for estimated warranty costs at the time of sale. We base these estimates upon historical experience, current business trends, and current economic conditions.
From time to time, we make strategic acquisitions that have a material impact on our consolidated results of operations or financial position. We allocate the purchase price of acquired businesses to the identifiable tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the transaction based upon their estimated fair values as of the acquisition date. We determine the estimated fair values using information available to us and engage third-party valuation specialists when necessary. The estimates we use to determine the fair value of long-lived assets, such as intangible assets, can be complex and require significant judgments. While we use our best estimates and assumptions, our estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, we record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to our consolidated statement of operations. We also estimate the useful lives of intangible assets to determine the amount of amortization expense to record in future periods. We periodically review the estimated useful lives assigned to our intangible assets to determine whether such estimated useful lives continue to be appropriate.
We perform impairment evaluations of long-lived assets, including property, plant and equipment, intangible assets and equity investments, whenever business conditions or events indicate that those assets may be impaired. We consider factors such as operating losses, declining financial outlooks and market conditions, when evaluating the necessity for an impairment analysis. When the net asset values exceed undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the assets, or the decline in value is considered to be “other than temporary,” we write down the assets to fair value and record an impairment charge to current operations. We estimate fair value in various ways depending on the nature of the underlying assets. Fair value is generally based upon appraised value, estimated salvage value, or selling prices under negotiation, as applicable.
The most significant long-lived assets we evaluated for impairment indicators were property, plant and equipment and intangible assets, which totaled $485 million and $116 million, respectively, at March 31, 2019. Within property, plant and equipment, the most significant assets evaluated are buildings and improvements and machinery and equipment. Our most significant intangible assets evaluated are customer relationships, trade names, and acquired technology, the majority of which are related to our CIS segment. We evaluate impairment at the lowest level of separately identifiable cash flows, which is generally at the manufacturing plant level. We monitor manufacturing plant financial performance to determine whether indicators exist that would require an impairment evaluation for the facility. This includes significant adverse changes in plant profitability metrics; substantial changes in the mix of customer products manufactured in the plant; changes in manufacturing strategy; and the shifting of programs to other facilities under a manufacturing realignment strategy. When such indicators are present, we perform an impairment evaluation.
Impairment of Goodwill
We perform goodwill impairment tests annually, as of March 31, unless business events or other conditions exist that require a more frequent evaluation. We consider factors such as operating losses, declining financial and market outlooks, and market capitalization when evaluating the necessity for an interim impairment analysis. We test goodwill for impairment at a reporting unit level. Reporting units resulting from recent acquisitions generally represent the highest risk of impairment, which typically decreases as the businesses are integrated into the Company and positioned for future operating and financial performance. We test goodwill for impairment by comparing the fair value of each reporting unit with its carrying value. We determine the fair value of a reporting unit based upon the present value of estimated future cash flows. If the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds the carrying value of the reporting unit’s net assets, goodwill is not impaired. However, if the carrying value of the reporting unit’s net assets exceeds its fair value, we would conclude goodwill is impaired and would record an impairment charge equal to the amount that the reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its fair value. Determining the fair value of a reporting unit involves judgment and the use of significant estimates and assumptions, which include assumptions regarding the revenue growth rates and operating profit margins used to calculate estimated future cash flows, the risk-adjusted discount rate, business trends and market conditions. We determine the expected future revenue growth rates and operating profit margins after consideration of our historical revenue growth rates and earnings levels, our assessment of future market potential and our expectations of future business performance. The discount rate used in determining discounted cash flows is a rate corresponding to our cost of capital, adjusted for country-specific risks where appropriate.
At March 31, 2019, our goodwill totaled $169 million, primarily related to our CIS and BHVAC segments. Each of these segments is comprised of two reporting units. We conducted annual goodwill impairment tests during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2019 by applying a fair value-based test and determined the fair value of each of our reporting units exceeded the respective book value.
We estimate costs related to product warranties and accrue for such costs at the time of the sale, within cost of sales. We estimate warranty costs based upon the best information available, which includes statistical and analytical analysis of both historical and current claim data. We adjust our warranty accruals, which totaled $9 million at March 31, 2019, if it is probable that expected claims will differ from previous estimates.
Our calculation of the expense and liabilities of our pension plans is dependent upon various assumptions. At March 31, 2019, our pension liabilities totaled $104 million. The most significant assumptions include the discount rate, long-term expected return on plan assets, and mortality rate tables. We base our selection of assumptions on historical trends and economic and market conditions at the time of valuation. In accordance with U.S. GAAP, actual results that differ from these assumptions are accumulated and amortized over future periods. These differences impact future pension expenses. Currently, participants in our domestic pension plans are not accruing benefits based upon their current service as the plans do not include increases in annual earnings or for future service in calculating the average annual earnings and years of credited service under the pension plan formula.
For the following discussion regarding sensitivity of assumptions, all amounts presented are in reference to our domestic pension plans, since our domestic plans comprise all of our benefit plan assets and the large majority of our pension plan expense.
To determine the expected rate of return on pension plan assets, we consider such factors as (a) the actual return earned on plan assets, (b) historical rates of return on the various asset classes in the plan portfolio, (c) projections of returns on those asset classes, (d) the amount of active management of the assets, (e) capital market conditions and economic forecasts, and (f) administrative expenses paid with the plan assets. The long-term rate of return utilized in both fiscal 2019 and 2018 was 7.5 percent. For fiscal 2020, we have also assumed a rate of 7.5 percent. A change of 25 basis points in the expected rate of return on assets would impact our fiscal 2020 pension expense by $0.4 million.
The discount rate reflects rates available on long-term, high-quality fixed-income corporate bonds on the measurement date of March 31. For fiscal 2019 and 2018, for purposes of determining pension expense, we used a discount rate of 4.0 and 4.1 percent, respectively. We determined these rates based upon a yield curve that was created following an analysis of the projected cash flows from our plans. See Note 18 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. A change in the assumed discount rate of 25 basis points would impact our fiscal 2020 pension expense by less than $1 million.
We operate in numerous taxing jurisdictions; therefore, we are subject to regular examinations by federal, state and non-U.S. taxing authorities. Due to the application of complex and sometimes ambiguous tax laws and rulings in the jurisdictions in which we do business, there is an inherent level of uncertainty within our worldwide tax provisions. Despite our belief that our tax return positions are consistent with applicable tax laws, it is possible that taxing authorities could challenge certain positions.
The Tax Act was enacted in December 2017 and included numerous changes to existing U.S. tax regulations, including U.S. corporate tax rates, business deductions, and taxes on income in foreign jurisdictions. We completed our accounting for the impacts of the Tax Act during fiscal 2019. Additional impacts from the Tax Act could result if there are changes in interpretations or applications of the Tax Act’s provisions or if supplementary regulatory guidance is issued.
Our deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect temporary differences between the amount of assets and liabilities for financial and tax reporting purposes. We adjust these amounts to reflect changes in tax rates expected to be in effect when the temporary differences reverse. We record a valuation allowance if we determine it is more likely than not that the net deferred tax assets in a particular jurisdiction will not be realized. This determination involves significant judgment. In performing this assessment on a jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction basis, we consider historical and projected financial results along with other pertinent information.
See Note 8 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding income taxes.
We maintain liabilities and reserves for a number of other loss exposures, such as environmental remediation costs, self-insurance reserves, uncollectible accounts receivable, regulatory compliance matters, and litigation. Establishing loss reserves for these exposures requires the use of estimates and judgment to determine the risk exposure and ultimate potential liability. We estimate these reserve requirements by using consistent and suitable methodologies for the particular type of loss reserve being calculated. See Note 20 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding contingencies and litigation.
This report, including, but not limited to, the discussion under Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, contains statements, including information about future financial performance, accompanied by phrases such as “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “intends,” and other similar “forward-looking” statements, as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Modine’s actual results, performance or achievements may differ materially from those expressed or implied in these statements, because of certain risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those described under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A. in Part I. of this report and identified in our other public filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Other risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:
Economic, social and political conditions, changes, challenges and unrest, particularly in the geographic, product and financial markets where we and our customers operate and compete, including, in particular, foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, tariffs (and any potential trade war resulting from tariffs or retaliatory actions), inflation, changes in interest rates, recession and recovery therefrom, restrictions and uncertainty associated with cross-border trade, and the general uncertainties about the impact of regulatory and/or policy changes, including those related to tax and trade, that have been or may be implemented in the United States or by its trade partners, as well as continuing uncertainty regarding the timing and the short- and long-term implications of “Brexit”;
The impact of potential price increases associated with raw materials, including aluminum, copper, steel and stainless steel (nickel), and other purchased component inventory including, but not limited to, increases in the underlying material cost based upon the London Metal Exchange and related premiums or fabrication costs. These prices may be impacted by a variety of factors, including changes in trade laws and tariffs and the behavior of our suppliers. This risk includes our ability to successfully manage our exposure and our ability to adjust product pricing in response to price increases, whether through our quotation process or through contract provisions for prospective price adjustments, as well as the inherent lag in timing of such contract provisions; and
The impact of current and future environmental laws and regulations on our business and the businesses of our customers, including our ability to take advantage of opportunities to supply alternative new technologies to meet environmental and/or energy standards and objectives.
The overall health and continually increasing price-down focus of our vehicular customers in light of economic and market-specific factors, and the potential impact on us from any deterioration in the stability or performance of any of our major customers;
Unanticipated problems with suppliers meeting our time, quantity, quality and price demands, and the overall health of our suppliers, including their ability and willingness to supply our volume demands if their production capacity becomes constrained;
Our ability to maintain current customer programs and compete effectively for new business, including our ability to offset or otherwise address increasing pricing pressures from competitors and price reduction and overall service pressures from customers, particularly in the face of macro-economic instability;
Unanticipated product or manufacturing difficulties or operating inefficiencies, including unanticipated program launch and product transfer challenges and warranty claims;
Unanticipated delays or modifications initiated by major customers with respect to program launches, product applications or requirements;
Our ability to consistently structure our operations in order to develop and maintain a competitive cost base with appropriately skilled and stable labor, while also positioning ourselves geographically, so that we can continue to support our customers with the technical expertise and market-leading products they demand and expect from Modine;
Our ability to effectively and efficiently complete restructuring activities and realize the anticipated benefits of those activities;
Costs and other effects of the investigation and remediation of environmental contamination; particularly when related to the actions or inactions of others and/or facilities over which we have no control;
Our ability to recruit and maintain talent, including personnel in managerial, leadership and administrative functions, in light of tightening global labor markets;
Our ability to protect our proprietary information and intellectual property from theft or attack by internal or external sources;
The impact of any substantial disruption or material breach of our information technology systems, and any related delays, problems or costs;
Increasingly complex and restrictive laws and regulations, including those associated with being a U.S. public company and others present in various jurisdictions in which we operate, and the costs associated with compliance therewith;
Work stoppages or interference at our facilities or those of our major customers and/or suppliers;
The constant and increasing pressures associated with healthcare and associated insurance costs; and
Costs and other effects of unanticipated litigation, claims, or other obligations.
Our ability to successfully take advantage of our increased presence in the “industrial” markets, with our CIS and BHVAC businesses, while maintaining appropriate focus on the market opportunities presented by our VTS business;
The success of our evaluation of strategic alternatives for our automotive business within our VTS segment in optimizing the segment’s future profitability;
Our ability to identify and execute additional growth and diversification opportunities in order to position us for long-term success; and
The potential expense, disruption or other impacts that could result from unanticipated actions by activist shareholders.
Our ability to fund our global liquidity requirements efficiently for Modine’s current operations and meet our long-term commitments in the event of an unexpected disruption in or tightening of the credit markets or extended recessionary conditions in the global economy;
The impact of potential increases in interest rates, particularly in LIBOR and the Euro Interbank Offered Rate (“EURIBOR”) in relation to our variable-rate debt obligations, and of the continued uncertainty around the utilization of LIBOR or alternative reference rates;
Our ability to maintain our leverage ratio (net debt divided by Adjusted EBITDA, as defined in our credit agreements) in our target range of 1.5 to 2.5 in an efficient manner;
The potential unfavorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations on our financial results; and
Our ability to effectively realize the benefits of deferred tax assets in various jurisdictions in which we operate.
Forward-looking statements are as of the date of this report; we do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.
In the normal course of business, we are subject to market exposure from changes in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates, commodity prices, credit risk and economic conditions.
Foreign Currency Risk
We are subject to the risk of changes in foreign currency exchange rates due to our operations in foreign countries. We have manufacturing facilities in Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and throughout Europe. We also have joint ventures in China, Japan and South Korea. We sell and distribute products throughout the world and also purchase raw materials from suppliers in foreign countries. As a result, our financial results are affected by changes in foreign currency exchange rates and economic conditions in the foreign markets in which we do business. Whenever possible, we attempt to mitigate foreign currency risks on transactions with customers and suppliers in foreign countries by entering into contracts that are denominated in the functional currency of the entity engaging in the transaction. In addition, for certain transactions that are denominated in a currency other than the engaging entity’s functional currency, we may enter into foreign currency derivative contracts to further manage our foreign currency risk. In fiscal 2019, we recorded a net loss of $1 million within our statement of operations related to foreign currency derivative contracts. In addition, our consolidated financial results are impacted by the translation of revenue and expenses in foreign currencies into U.S. dollars. These translation impacts are primarily affected by changes in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and European currencies, primarily the euro, and changes between the U.S. dollar and the Brazilian real. In fiscal 2019, more than 50 percent of our sales were generated in countries outside the U.S. A change in foreign currency exchange rates will positively or negatively affect our sales; however, this impact will be offset, usually to a large degree, with a corresponding effect on our cost of sales and other expenses. In fiscal 2019, changes in foreign currency exchange rates unfavorably impacted our sales by $28 million; however, the impact on our operating income was less than $1 million. Foreign currency exchange rate risk can be estimated by measuring the impact of a near-term adverse movement of 10 percent in foreign currency exchange rates. If these rates were 10 percent higher or lower during fiscal 2019, there would not have been a material impact on our fiscal 2019 earnings.
We maintain foreign currency-denominated debt obligations and intercompany loans that are subject to foreign currency exchange risk. We seek to mitigate this risk through maintaining offsetting positions between external and intercompany loans; however, from time to time, we also enter into foreign currency derivative contracts to manage the currency exchange rate exposure. These derivative instruments are typically not accounted for as hedges, and accordingly, gains or losses on the derivatives are recorded in other income and expense in the consolidated statements of operations and typically offset the foreign currency changes on the outstanding loans.
Interest Rate Risk
We seek to reduce the potential volatility of earnings that could arise from changes in interest rates. We generally utilize a mixture of debt maturities and both fixed-rate and variable-rate debt to manage exposure to changes in interest rates. Interest on both our term loans and borrowings under our primary multi-currency revolving credit facility is based upon a variable interest rate, primarily either LIBOR or EURIBOR, plus 137.5 to 250 basis points, depending on our leverage ratio. We are subject to risk of fluctuations in LIBOR and EURIBOR and changes in our leverage ratio, which would affect the variable interest rate on our term loans and revolving credit facility and could create variability in interest expense. As of March 31, 2019, our outstanding borrowings on variable-rate term loans and the revolving credit facility totaled $238 million and $47 million, respectively. Based upon our outstanding debt with variable interest rates at March 31, 2019, a 100 basis point increase in interest rates would increase our annual interest expense in fiscal 2020 by approximately $3 million.
We are dependent upon the supply of raw materials and supplies in our production processes and, from time to time, enter into firm purchase commitments for aluminum, copper, nickel, and natural gas. Commodity price risk is most prevalent to our vehicular businesses, which provide customized production and service parts to customers under multi-year programs. In order to mitigate commodity price risk specific to these long-term sales programs, we maintain contract provisions with certain customers that allow us to prospectively adjust prices based upon raw material price fluctuations. These prospective price adjustments generally lag behind the actual raw material price fluctuations by three months or longer, and typically the contract provisions are limited to the underlying material cost based upon the London Metal Exchange and exclude additional cost elements, such as related premiums and fabrication. For our industrial businesses, we predominantly seek to mitigate commodity price risk by adjusting product pricing in response to any applicable price increases.
Credit risk represents the possibility of loss from a customer failing to make payment according to contract terms. Our principal credit risk consists of outstanding trade accounts receivable. At March 31, 2019, 38 percent of our trade accounts receivable balance was concentrated with our top ten customers. These customers operate primarily in the automotive, commercial vehicle, off-highway, data center cooling and commercial air conditioning markets and are influenced by similar market and general economic factors. In the past, credit losses from our customers have not been significant.
We manage credit risk through a focus on the following:
Cash and investments – We review cash deposits and short-term investments to ensure banks have acceptable credit ratings, and short-term investments are maintained in secured or guaranteed instruments. We consider our holdings in cash and investments to be stable and secure at March 31, 2019;
Trade accounts receivable – Prior to granting credit, we evaluate each customer, taking into consideration the customer’s financial condition, payment experience and credit information. After credit is granted, we actively monitor the customer’s financial condition and applicable business news;
Pension assets – We have retained outside advisors to assist in the management of the assets in our pension plans. In making investment decisions, we utilize an established risk management protocol that focuses on protection of the plan assets against downside risk. We ensure that investments within these plans provide appropriate diversification, the investments are monitored by investment teams, and portfolio managers adhere to the established investment policies. We believe the plan assets are subject to appropriate investment policies and controls; and
Insurance – We monitor our insurance providers to ensure they maintain financial ratings that are acceptable to us. We have not identified any concerns in this regard based upon our reviews.
Economic risk represents the possibility of loss resulting from economic instability in certain areas of the world or downturns in markets in which we operate. We sell a broad range of products that provide thermal solutions to customers operating primarily in the automotive, commercial vehicle, off-highway, and commercial, industrial, and building HVAC&R markets. We operate in diversified markets as a strategy for offsetting the risk associated with a downturn in any of the markets we serve. However, risk associated with market downturns is still present.
We monitor economic conditions in the U.S. and abroad. As we expand our global presence, we also encounter risks imposed by potential trade restrictions, including tariffs, embargoes, and the like. We continue to pursue non-speculative opportunities to mitigate these economic risks, and capitalize, when possible, on changing market conditions.
We pursue new market opportunities after careful consideration of the potential associated risks and benefits. Successes in new markets are dependent upon our ability to commercialize our investments. Current examples of new and emerging markets for us include those related to electric vehicles, coils and coolers in certain markets, and coatings. Our investment in these areas is subject to the risks associated with technological success, customer and market acceptance, and our ability to meet the demands of our customers as these markets grow.
In an effort to manage and reduce our costs, we have been consolidating our supply base. As a result, we are dependent upon limited sources of supply for certain components used in the manufacture of our products, including aluminum, copper, steel and stainless steel (nickel). We are exposed to the risk of suppliers of certain raw materials not being able or willing to meet strong customer demand (including the potential effects of trade laws and tariffs), as they may not increase their output capacity as quickly as customers increase their orders, and of increased prices being charged by raw material suppliers.
In addition, we purchase parts from suppliers that use our tooling to create the parts. In most instances, and for financial reasons, we do not have duplicate tooling for the manufacture of the purchased parts. As a result, we are exposed to the risk of a supplier being unable to provide the quantity or quality of parts that we require. Even in situations where suppliers are manufacturing parts without the use of our tooling, we face the challenge of obtaining consistently high-quality parts from suppliers that are financially stable. We utilize a supplier risk management program that leverages internal and third-party tools to identify and mitigate higher-risk supplier situations.
In addition to the above risks on the supply side, we are also exposed to risks associated with demands by our customers for decreases in the price of our products. We attempt to offset this risk with firm agreements with our customers whenever possible, but these agreements sometimes contain provisions for future price reductions.
Hedging and Foreign Currency Forward Contracts
We use derivative financial instruments as a tool to manage certain financial risks. We prohibit the use of leveraged derivatives.
Commodity derivatives: From time to time, we enter into over-the-counter forward contracts related to forecasted purchases of aluminum and copper. Our strategy is to reduce our exposure to changing market prices of these commodities. In fiscal 2019 and 2018, we designated certain commodity forward contracts as cash flow hedges for accounting purposes. Accordingly, for these designated hedges, we record unrealized gains and losses related to the change in the fair value of the contracts in other comprehensive income (loss) within shareholders’ equity and subsequently recognize the gains and losses within cost of sales as the underlying inventory is sold. In fiscal 2017, we did not designate commodity forward contracts for hedge accounting. Accordingly, unrealized gains and losses on these contracts were recorded within cost of sales. In fiscal 2019, 2018, and 2017, net gains and losses related to commodity forward contracts were less than $1 million in each year.
Foreign currency forward contracts: We use derivative financial instruments in a limited way to mitigate foreign currency exchange risk. We periodically enter into foreign currency forward contracts to hedge specific foreign currency-denominated assets and liabilities as well as forecasted transactions. We have designated certain hedges of forecasted transactions as cash flow hedges for accounting purposes. Accordingly, for these designated hedges, we record unrealized gains and losses related to the change in the fair value of the contracts in other comprehensive income (loss) within shareholders’ equity and subsequently recognize the gains and losses as a component of earnings at the same time and in the same financial statement line that the underlying transactions impact earnings. We have not designated forward contracts related to foreign currency-denominated assets and liabilities as hedges. Accordingly, for these non-designated contracts, we record unrealized gains and losses related to the change in the fair value of the contracts in other income and expense. Gains and losses on these non-designated foreign currency forward contracts are offset by foreign currency gains and losses associated with the related assets and liabilities.
Counterparty risks: We manage counterparty risks by ensuring that counterparties to derivative instruments maintain credit ratings acceptable to us. At March 31, 2019, all counterparties had a sufficient long-term credit rating.