10-Q 1 morf-20220331.htm 10-Q morf-20220331
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13, OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from           to
Commission file number: 001-38940
MORPHIC HOLDING, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
47-3878772
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
35 Gatehouse Drive, A2
Waltham, MA
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
02451
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (781996-0955
Not Applicable
Former Name, Former Address and Former Fiscal Year, if Changed Since Last Report
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:

Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareMORFThe Nasdaq Global Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 12b-2). Yes  No ☒
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock as of May 2, 2022 was 38,269,371.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
1

PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (Unaudited)
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
March 31,December 31,
20222021
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$119,842 $171,434 
Short-term marketable securities260,810 236,701 
Accounts receivable2,039 2,307 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets6,803 7,892 
Total current assets389,494 418,334 
Operating lease right-of-use assets4,490 4,806 
Property and equipment, net2,368 2,583 
Restricted cash560 560 
Other assets161 7 
Total assets$397,073 $426,290 
Liabilities
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$3,496 $4,798 
Accrued expenses9,988 12,838 
Deferred revenue, current portion30,308 20,628 
Total current liabilities43,792 38,264 
Long-term liabilities:
Operating lease liability, net of current portion3,478 3,838 
Deferred revenue, net of current portion36,435 47,489 
Total liabilities83,705 89,591 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 9)
Stockholders’ Equity
Preferred shares, $0.0001 par value, 10,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021
  
Common shares, $0.0001 par value, 400,000,000 shares authorized, 37,250,469 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and 37,085,397 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2021
4 4 
Additional paid‑in capital584,694 575,231 
Accumulated deficit(269,538)(238,054)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(1,792)(482)
Total stockholders’ equity313,368 336,699 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$397,073 $426,290 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
2

MORPHIC HOLDING, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS (Unaudited)
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Collaboration revenue$2,382 $3,265 
Operating expenses:
Research and development26,463 18,613 
General and administrative7,591 5,953 
Total operating expenses34,054 24,566 
Loss from operations(31,672)(21,301)
Other income:
Interest income, net187 29 
Other income (expense), net1 (12)
Total other income, net188 17 
Loss before provision for income taxes(31,484)(21,284)
Provision for income taxes  
Net loss$(31,484)$(21,284)
Net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.85)$(0.63)
Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted37,133,412 33,532,405 
Comprehensive loss:
Net loss$(31,484)$(21,284)
Other comprehensive (loss) income:
Unrealized holding (losses) gains on marketable securities, net of tax(1,310)5 
Total other comprehensive (loss) income(1,310)5 
Comprehensive loss$(32,794)$(21,279)








The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
3

MORPHIC HOLDING, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (Unaudited)
(In thousands, except share data)
Common SharesAdditional
Paid‑in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202137,085,397 $4 $575,231 $(238,054)$(482)$336,699 
Equity‑based compensation expense— — 6,765 — — 6,765 
Vesting of restricted shares1,990     — 
Issuance of common shares upon stock option exercises146,237 — 2,127 — — 2,127 
Issuance of common shares under the Employee Stock Purchase Plan16,845 — 571 — — 571 
Other comprehensive income— — — — (1,310)(1,310)
Net loss— — — (31,484)— (31,484)
Balance at March 31, 202237,250,469 $4 $584,694 $(269,538)$(1,792)$313,368 

Common SharesAdditional
Paid‑in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive Income
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202032,037,686 $3 $287,727 $(142,512)$(21)$145,197 
Equity-based compensation expense— — 4,442 — — 4,442 
Vesting of restricted shares46,893 — — — — — 
Issuance of common shares upon stock option exercises279,431 — 2,657 — — 2,657 
Issuance of common stock under the Employee Stock Purchase Plan26,561 — 613 — — 613 
Issuance of common shares through at-the-market offering, net of issuance costs of $0.2 million
240,704 — 7,231 — — 7,231 
Issuance of common shares in secondary offering, net of offering costs of $15.0 million
3,500,000 1 230,030 — — 230,031 
Other comprehensive income— — — — 5 5 
Net loss— — — (21,284)— (21,284)
Balance at March 31, 202136,131,275 $4 $532,700 $(163,796)$(16)$368,892 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
4

MORPHIC HOLDING, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Unaudited)
(In thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net loss$(31,484)$(21,284)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization263 255 
Premium amortization and discount accretion on marketable securities607 84 
Equity‑based compensation6,765 4,442 
Loss on disposal of equipment 3 
Change in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable268 4,555 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets1,157 (1,772)
Other assets(154)19 
Operating lease right-of-use assets316 251 
Accounts payable(1,302)(1,566)
Accrued expenses(2,975)(3,147)
Deferred revenue(1,374)(1,942)
Operating lease liabilities(235)(288)
Net cash used in operating activities(28,148)(20,390)
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of marketable securities(45,076)(12,200)
Proceeds from maturities of marketable securities19,050 86,000 
Purchase of property and equipment(48)(51)
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities(26,074)73,749 
Cash flows from financing activities:
Proceeds from issuance of common shares under Employee Stock Purchase Plan571 613 
Proceeds from at-the-market offering, net of issuance costs 7,231 
Proceeds from secondary offering, net of issuance costs 230,217 
Proceeds from issuance of common shares upon stock option exercises2,059 2,518 
Net cash provided by financing activities2,630 240,579 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(51,592)293,938 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of period171,994 102,322 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period120,402 $396,260 
Non-cash activities:
Purchases of property and equipment included in accounts payable and accrued expenses$ $5 
Amounts from exercise of stock options included in prepaid expenses and other current assets$68 $139 
Unpaid offering costs included in accrued expenses$ $186 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
5

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Unaudited)
1.Nature of the Business and Basis of Presentation
Organization and Liquidity
Morphic Holding, Inc. (the “Company”) was formed under the laws of the State of Delaware in August 2014. The Company is a biopharmaceutical company applying proprietary insights into integrin medicine to discover and develop first-in-class oral small molecule integrin therapeutics. Integrins are a validated target class with multiple approved drugs for the treatment of serious chronic diseases. Despite significant biopharmaceutical industry investment, no oral integrin therapies have been approved. The Company has created the Morphic integrin technology platform, or MInT Platform, by leveraging its unique understanding of integrin structure and biology, to develop a pipeline of novel product candidates designed to achieve potency, high selectivity, and the pharmaceutical properties required for oral administration.
The Company is subject to risks and uncertainties common to early-stage companies in the biotechnology industry, including, but not limited to, development by competitors of new technological innovations, dependence on key personnel, protection of proprietary technology, compliance with government regulations and the ability to secure additional capital to fund operations. Product candidates currently under development will require significant additional research and development efforts, including extensive preclinical and clinical testing and regulatory approval prior to commercialization. These efforts require significant amounts of additional capital, adequate personnel and infrastructure and extensive compliance-reporting capabilities. Even if the Company’s drug development efforts are successful, it is uncertain when, if ever, the Company will realize significant revenue from product sales. The Company expects to continue to incur losses from operations for the foreseeable future. The Company expects that its cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to fund its operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements through at least the next 12 months from the date these financial statements were issued.
In July 2020, the Company entered into an Open Market Sale Agreement (“the Original Agreement”) with Jefferies LLC (“Jefferies”) with respect to an at-the-market (“ATM”) offering program under which the Company may offer and sell, from time to time at its sole discretion, shares of our common stock, having an aggregate offering price of up to $75.0 million, referred to as Placement Shares, through Jefferies as its sales agent. The Company paid Jefferies a commission equal to 3.0% of the gross sales proceeds of any Placement Shares sold through Jefferies under the Original Agreement, and also has provided Jefferies with customary indemnification and contribution rights. On August 11, 2021, the Company entered into an Amendment No. 1 to the Open Market Sale Agreement with Jefferies, establishing a new at-the-market offering (“New ATM”) with an aggregate offering price of up to $150.0 million, also subject to a commission equal to 3.0% of gross sales proceeds from Placement Shares sold through Jefferies. Under the New ATM, the Company may offer and sell, from time to time at its sole discretion, shares of its common stock, referred to as Placement Shares, through Jefferies as its sales agent.
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company issued and sold no shares under the New ATM. As of March 31, 2022, the Company had approximately $137.8 million of common stock remaining available for sale under the ATM.
In March 2021, the Company completed an underwritten follow-on public offering of 3,500,000 shares of its common stock at a price to the public of $70.00 per share. Gross proceeds from the secondary offering were approximately $245.0 million, before deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and other offering expenses of approximately $15.0 million, paid by the Company, resulting in net proceeds of approximately $230.0 million.
On March 2, 2022, the Company incorporated Morphic Therapeutic UK, Ltd in London, United Kingdom (the "U.K."), to support Company functions outside of the United States.
2.Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Morphic Holding, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Morphic Therapeutic, Inc., Morphic Therapeutic UK, Ltd, and a Massachusetts Security Corporation, organized in December 2019. All intercompany balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited and have been prepared by the Company in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) as found in the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) and Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the Company’s annual financial statements have been condensed or omitted. These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements, in the opinion of management, reflect all normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial position and results of operations for the interim periods ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
6

The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be expected for the full year. These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021, and the notes thereto, which are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on February 24, 2022.
Use of Estimates and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that may affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the related reporting of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates of accounting reflected in these consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, estimates related to revenue recognition, accrued research and development expenses, the valuation of equity-based compensation, and income taxes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Significant accounting policies
The significant accounting policies used in preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2022 are consistent with those discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in the Company’s 2021 Annual Report on Form 10-K, except as described below.
As disclosed in Note 1, on March 2, 2022, the Company incorporated Morphic Therapeutic UK, Ltd in London, U.K., to support Company functions outside of the United States. The geographic location of all long-lived assets of the Company continues to be the United States.
The functional reporting currency of Morphic Therapeutic UK, Ltd is the United States Dollar. Foreign currency remeasurement is included in other income (expense) in the Company's consolidated statement of operations.
Reclassification
Certain amounts have been reclassified for the three months ended March 31, 2021 in the current Form 10-Q to conform with current year presentation. As disclosed in Note 2 to the Company's 2021 Annual Report on Form 10-K, in February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), with guidance regarding the accounting for and disclosure of leases. As the Company adopted Topic 842 in the annual period ended December 31, 2021 effective January 1, 2021, the Company reclassified certain amounts in the Company's cash flows from operating activities in the current Form 10-Q. Amounts for the three-months ended March 31, 2021 from the change in deferred rent were reclassified as changes in operating lease right-of-use assets and changes in operating lease liabilities. There were no changes to total cash flows or to cash flows from operating activities, investing activities or financing activities as a result of this reclassification.
3.Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities
The Company has certain financial assets and liabilities that are recorded at fair value which have been classified as Level 1, 2 or 3 within the fair value hierarchy as described in the accounting standards for fair value measurements:
Level 1 — Quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 — Inputs other than Level 1 inputs that are either directly or indirectly observable, such as quoted market prices, interest rates and yield curves.
Level 3 — Unobservable inputs developed using estimates of assumptions developed by the Company, which reflect those that a market participant would use.
At March 31, 2022, investments include U.S. Treasury securities and corporate debt securities, including corporate bonds and commercial paper, which are valued either based on recent trades of securities in inactive markets or based on quoted market prices of similar instruments and other significant inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data.

To the extent the valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair values requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by the Company in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized as Level 3. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
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The tables below present information about the Company’s financial assets that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 (in thousands) and indicate the level within the fair value hierarchy where each measurement is classified.
Fair Value Measurements at March 31, 2022
TotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
Assets:
Money market funds, included in cash and cash equivalents$119,560 $119,560 $ $ 
Marketable securities:
U.S. Treasury securities54,961  54,961  
Commercial paper91,943  91,943  
Corporate bonds113,906  113,906  
Total assets$380,370 $119,560 $260,810 $ 
Fair Value Measurements at December 31, 2021
TotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
Assets:
Money market funds, included in cash and cash equivalents$171,142 $171,142 $ $ 
Marketable securities:
U.S. Treasury securities16,212  16,212  
Commercial paper99,898  99,898  
Corporate bonds120,591  120,591  
Total assets$407,843 $171,142 $236,701 $ 
The money market funds included in the tables above invest in U.S. government securities that are valued using quoted market prices. Accordingly, money market funds are categorized as Level 1 as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021. Marketable securities included in the tables above consist of U.S. Treasury securities, corporate bonds and commercial paper, and these securities are categorized as Level 2 as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021. During the three months ended March 31, 2022, no assets were transferred between the fair value hierarchy categories. The Company had no liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021.
The Company believes that the carrying amounts of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial instruments, including prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued expenses approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of those instruments.
4.Marketable securities
The following tables summarize the Company’s investments in marketable securities classified as available for sale (in thousands):
As of March 31, 2022
MaturityAmortized
cost
Gross
unrealized
holding gains
Gross
unrealized
holding losses
Aggregate
estimated
fair value
Short-term marketable securities:
U.S. Treasury securitieswithin 2 years$55,246 $1 $(285)$54,962 
Commercial paperless than 1 year91,947  (4)91,943 
Corporate bondswithin 2 years115,384  (1,479)113,905 
Total marketable securities$262,577 $1 $(1,768)$260,810 




As of December 31, 2021
Maturity
Amortized
cost
Gross
unrealized
holding gains
Gross
unrealized
holding losses
Aggregate
estimated
fair value
Short-term marketable securities:
U.S. Treasury securitiesless than 1 year$16,224 $ $(12)$16,212 
Commercial paperless than 1 year99,900  (2)99,898 
Corporate bondswithin 2 years121,034  (443)120,591 
Total marketable securities$237,158 $ $(457)$236,701 

All of the Company’s investments are classified as available-for-sale and are carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss. The Company considers all available-for-sale securities, including those with maturity dates beyond 12 months, as available to support current operational liquidity needs and therefore classifies all securities as available for sale.
The Company determined that there was no material change in the credit risk of the above investments during the three months ended March 31, 2022. As such, an allowance for credit losses was not recognized. As of March 31, 2022, the Company does not intend to sell such securities and it is not more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the securities before recovery of its amortized cost basis.
Accrued interest receivable on the Company's available-for-sale debt securities totaled $0.7 million and $1.2 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
5.Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
Restricted cash consists of cash collateralizing a letter of credit in the amount of $560,000 issued to the landlord of the Company’s facility lease. The letter of credit and cash collateralizing it increased from $275,000 in August 2021 due to the operating lease extension. The terms of the letter of credit extend beyond one year. The following table reconciles cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash per the balance sheet to the statements of cash flows (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,March 31,December 31,
2022202120212020
Cash and cash equivalents$119,842 $171,434 $395,985 $102,047 
Restricted cash560 560 275 275 
Total cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$120,402 $171,994 $396,260 $102,322 
6.Accrued Expenses
At March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 accrued expenses consist of the following (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
20222021
Payroll and related expenses$2,204 $6,396 
Research and development activities5,508 4,268 
Current portion of operating lease liability1,336 1,211 
Other expenses940 963 
$9,988 $12,838 


7.Equity-Based Compensation
In connection with the Company’s initial public offering in July 2019, the Company adopted the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2019 Plan”) in June 2019, which replaced the 2018 Stock Incentive Plan. The 2019 Plan provides for the grant of stock options, restricted stock awards, stock bonus awards, cash awards, stock appreciation right, restricted stock units, and performance awards to directors, officers and employees of the Company, as well as consultants and advisors of the Company. As a result of the automatic increase provision of the 2019 Plan, the number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the 2019 Plan increased by 1.5 million shares in January 2022. As of March 31, 2022, there were a total of 1.8 million shares available for future award grants under the 2019 Plan.
The Company recognized equity-based compensation expense in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, by award type, as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Stock options$5,960 $4,139 
Restricted common stock5 81 
Restricted stock units689 63 
ESPP111 159 
Total$6,765 $4,442 
The following table summarizes the allocation of equity-based compensation expense in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, by expense category (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Research and development expense$3,472 $2,266 
General and administrative expense3,293 2,176 
Total$6,765 $4,442 
Stock Options
The following table summarizes the Company’s stock option activity during the three months ended March 31, 2022:
Number of
Shares
Weighted
Average
Exercise Price
Outstanding as of December 31, 20214,781,565 $20.03 
Granted1,124,018 44.37 
Exercised(146,237)14.55 
Forfeited(274,198)23.93 
Outstanding as of March 31, 20225,485,148 $24.50 
Options exercisable as of March 31, 20222,176,809 $14.85 
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Restricted Stock Units
The following table summarizes the restricted stock units activity during the three months ended March 31, 2022:
Number of SharesWeighted
Average Fair
Value per Share
at Issuance
Unvested restricted stock units as of December 31, 20217,000 $57.73 
Granted283,120 44.63 
Vested  
Forfeited(19,840)44.75 
Unvested restricted stock units as of March 31, 2022270,280 $44.96 
8. Income Taxes
Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are recognized based on temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities using statutory rates. A valuation allowance is recorded against deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company’s ability to use its operating loss carryforwards and tax credits to offset future taxable income is subject to restrictions under Sections 382 and 383 of the United States Internal Revenue Code, or the Internal Revenue Code. Net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards may become subject to an annual limitation in the event of certain cumulative changes in the ownership interest of significant stockholders over a three-year period in excess of 50 percent, as defined under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code. Such changes would limit the Company’s use of its operating loss carryforwards and tax credits. In such a situation, the Company may be required to pay income taxes, even though significant operating loss carryforwards and tax credits exist.
The Company records a provision or benefit for income taxes on ordinary pre-tax income or loss based on its estimated effective tax rate for the year. As of March 31, 2022, the Company forecasts an ordinary pre-tax loss for the year ended December 31, 2022 and, since it maintains a full valuation allowance on its deferred tax assets, the Company did not record an income tax benefit in 2022.
9.Commitments and Contingencies
Guarantees and Indemnifications
The Company entered, and intends to continue to enter, into separate indemnification agreements with directors, officers, and certain of key employees, in addition to the indemnification provided for in the restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws. These agreements, among other things, require the Company to indemnify directors, officers, and key employees for certain expenses, including attorneys' fees, judgments, penalties, fines, and settlement amounts actually incurred by these individuals in any action or proceeding arising out of their service to the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any other company or enterprise to which these individuals provide services at the Company’s request. Subject to certain limitations, the indemnification agreements also require the Company to advance expenses incurred by directors, officers, and key employees for the defense of any action for which indemnification is required or permitted.
The Company has standard indemnification arrangements in its leases for laboratory and office space that require it to indemnify the landlord against any liability for injury, loss, accident, or damage from any claims, actions, proceedings, or costs resulting from certain acts, breaches, violations, or non-performance under the Company’s lease.
Through March 31, 2022, the Company had not experienced any losses related to these indemnification obligations, and no material claims were outstanding. The Company does not expect significant claims related to these indemnification obligations and, consequently, concluded that the fair value of these obligations is negligible, and no related reserves were established.
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, there were no material changes to our contractual obligations and commitments previously disclosed in Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements appearing in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on February 24, 2022.
Legal Proceedings
The Company is not currently a party to any material legal proceedings.
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10.Option and License Agreements
A detailed description of contractual terms and the Company’s accounting for agreements described below were included in the Company’s audited financial statements and notes in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the SEC on February 24, 2022.
AbbVie Agreement
During the three months ended March 31, 2022 the Company continued to perform under its agreement with AbbVie, (the “AbbVie Agreement”) pursuant to which the Company recognizes revenues in proportion to the costs incurred. As a result, the Company recognizes as revenue the $100.0 million up-front payment as research and development services are performed, which is expected to be completed through 2023. The following table summarizes research and development costs incurred and revenue recognized in connection with Company's performance under the AbbVie Agreement during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Revenue recognized$809 $1,497 
Costs incurred413 1,321 
In August 2020, pursuant to the AbbVie Agreement, AbbVie exercised its option to exclusively license and control further development and commercialization of the Company's αvβ6–specific integrin program for the treatment of fibrotic diseases including IPF and additional fibrosis-related indications. In connection with the exercise of the option, AbbVie paid the Company $20.0 million. Under this license, AbbVie controls and is responsible for the development and commercialization of this program. AbbVie has informed the Company that it does not intend to advance any of its selective oral αvβ6-specific integrin inhibitors due to a suspected on-target / αvβ6-mediated safety signal that has been observed in pre-clinical testing. Details about these observations are planned to be released in an upcoming scientific publication. As a result, the Company does not expect to receive additional payments for this program under the AbbVie Agreement.
As of March 31, 2022, the Company had $59.7 million of deferred revenue, which is classified as either current or long-term deferred revenue in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets based on the period over which the revenue is expected to be recognized. This deferred revenue balance represents the aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to the performance obligations that are partially unsatisfied as of March 31, 2022.
As the Company progresses towards satisfaction of performance obligations under the AbbVie Agreement, the estimated costs associated with the remaining effort required to complete the performance obligations may change, which may materially impact revenue recognition. In Q4 2021, based on scientific results, the amount of future expected cost estimates was decreased based on a change in originally expected effort and based on the timing of the research services, which have reduced what research services can be reasonably completed by the end of the AbbVie Agreement, which expires in Q4 2023. There was additional revenue recognized in Q4 2021 as a result of this change. The Company regularly evaluates and, when necessary, updates the costs associated with the remaining effort pursuant to each performance obligation under the AbbVie Agreement. Accordingly, revenue may fluctuate from period to period due to significant revisions to estimated costs, resulting in a change in the measure of progress for a performance obligation. Any changes in research services that could be reasonably completed prior to the end of the AbbVie Agreement may result in a decrease in the Company's cost estimates and would result in an increase to revenue recognition. Such changes could occur in the near term and can also impact the allocation of deferred revenue between current and long term based on changes in expected timing of the satisfaction of performance obligations.
Janssen Agreement
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company continued to perform under its agreement with Janssen (the "Janssen Agreement"), pursuant to which the Company recognizes revenue in proportion to the costs incurred to date.
Under the terms of the Janssen Agreement, Janssen paid the Company an upfront fee of $10.0 million for the first two research programs in 2019 and in December 2020 the Company reached an agreement with Janssen to commence work on the third research program, and Janssen paid the Company $5.0 million for the third research program commencement fee in February 2021. The Company expects to provide research services and recognize revenue through 2024.
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In December 2021, Janssen informed the Company that they had decided not to exercise its options on the first two integrin targets, thus also discontinuing those two research programs. The Company has focused efforts on the third integrin research program which includes the potential development of integrin antibody activators.
The following table summarizes research and development costs incurred and revenue recognized in connection with Company's performance under the Janssen Agreement during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Reimbursement revenue$1,008 $1,325 
Upfront payment revenue565 444 
Total revenue recognized$1,573 $1,769 
Costs incurred$855 $1,323 
The Company had $2.0 million and $2.3 million due from Janssen included in accounts receivable on the condensed consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
As of March 31, 2022, $7.1 million of deferred revenue is classified as either current or long-term deferred revenue in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet based on the period over which the revenue is expected to be recognized. This deferred revenue balance represents the portion of the upfront payment received allocated to the performance obligations that are partially unsatisfied as of March 31, 2022.
11.Net Loss per Share
Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss allocable to common stockholders by the weighted-average common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration of common stock equivalents.
For periods with net income, diluted net income per share is calculated by adjusting the weighted-average shares outstanding for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents, including stock options and restricted common stock and stock units outstanding for the period as determined using the treasury stock method.
For purposes of the diluted net loss per share calculation, common stock equivalents are excluded from the calculation if their effect would be anti-dilutive. As such, basic and diluted net loss per share applicable to common stockholders are the same for periods with a net loss.
The following table illustrates the determination of basic and diluted loss per share for each period presented (in thousands, except share data):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Net loss$(31,484)$(21,284)
Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted37,133,412 33,532,405 
Net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.85)$(0.63)

The following table sets forth the outstanding common stock equivalents, presented based on amounts outstanding at each period end, that have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share for the periods indicated because their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive (in common stock equivalent shares, as applicable):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Restricted common stock181 73,360 
Restricted stock units270,280 44,473 
Stock options5,485,148 5,345,280 
5,755,609 5,463,113 
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In addition to the securities listed in the table above, as of March 31, 2022 the Company had reserved 1,155,630 shares of common stock for sale under the ESPP, which, if issued, would be anti-dilutive if included in calculation of diluted net loss per share for the three months ended March 31, 2022.
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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included as part of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on February 24, 2022.
In addition to historical financial information, this discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties, such as statements of our plans, objectives, expectations, intentions and belief. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth in the section titled “Risk Factors” under Part II, Item 1A below. These forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, our business strategy, market size, potential growth opportunities, our preclinical and clinical development activities, the efficacy and safety profile of our product candidates, use of net proceeds from our offerings, our ability to maintain and recognize the benefits of certain designations received by product candidates, the timing and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials, commercial collaborations with third parties and the receipt and timing of potential regulatory designations, approvals and commercialization of product candidates. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “potentially,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “predict,” “target,” “intend,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “project,” “plan,” “expect,” and similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.
These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
Overview
We are a biopharmaceutical company applying our proprietary insights into integrins to discover and develop a pipeline of potentially first-in-class oral small molecule integrin therapeutics. Integrins are a target class with multiple approved injectable blockbuster drugs for the treatment of serious chronic diseases, including autoimmune, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, fibrosis and cancer. To date, no oral small molecule integrin therapies have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA. Despite this, we believe our unique platform can unlock the potential to reliably generate high-quality oral molecules against specific integrin targets. The Morphic integrin technology platform, or MInT Platform, was created leveraging our unique understanding of integrin structure and function to develop novel product candidates designed to achieve the potency, high selectivity, and pharmaceutical properties required for oral administration. We are advancing our pipeline, including our lead product candidate, MORF-057, an α4β7-specific integrin inhibitor affecting inflammation, into clinical development for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, or IBD. We submitted an investigational new drug application, or IND, for MORF-057 in July 2020, and the FDA permitted the study submitted under the IND to proceed in August 2020. In September 2020, we initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial of MORF-057 in healthy volunteers comprised of single-ascending dose, or SAD, food effect, or FE, and multiple-ascending dose, or MAD, cohorts to establish our clinical program and select doses for our Phase 2 program in IBD with an initial focus on ulcerative colitis, or UC.
The MORF-057 Phase 1 study included SAD, MAD, and FE cohorts evaluating MORF-057 safety, pharmacokinetics, or PK, and pharmacodynamics, or PD. Healthy subjects were randomized 3:1 to receive a single dose of MORF-057 at 25, 50, 100, 150 and 400 mg or matching placebo in the SAD cohorts; or twice daily (BID) doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg MORF-057 or matching placebo for a total of 14 days in the MAD cohorts. A total of 67 eligible healthy subjects were enrolled into the studies, with 36 in the SAD, nine in the FE and 22 in the MAD cohorts. 66 subjects completed study treatment and one from the 50 mg BID MAD cohort withdrew consent for personal reasons.
MORF-057 was well tolerated in all cohorts and no safety signals were identified. MORF-057 demonstrated a favorable PK profile, where target engagement was confirmed, and a clear PK and PD relationship was established. MORF-057 was rapidly absorbed and systemic exposure was confirmed to increase approximately dose proportionally. A slight reduction in exposure without effect on trough concentrations was observed upon administration with a high fat meal in the FE study. The results suggest food intake has no impact on trough MORF-057 levels and that MORF-057 can be administered without regard to food in planned studies in patients.
α4β7 receptor occupancy increased with dose and study day, achieving saturation (>99% RO) in individual patients from all cohorts above 25 mg by day 14. In the 100 mg BID cohort, MORF-057 saturated the α4β7 receptor (mean RO >99%). Dose-and time-dependent changes in biomarkers including specific α4β7 high expressing immune cell populations were observed, adding to evidence of proof of biology for MORF-057. These changes were consistent with those reported with other integrin inhibitors including the antibody drug vedolizumab which is approved for the treatment of IBD.
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Based on the results from the Phase 1 studies, we have initiated a Phase 2 clinical trial of MORF-057 in March 2022. EMERALD-1 (MORF-057-201), which is an open-label multi-center Phase 2a trial designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of MORF-057 in adults with moderate to severe UC, opened sites for enrollment in March 2022. The EMERALD-1 study is planned to enroll up to 35 patients with moderate to severe UC who will be treated with 100 mg BID (twice daily) at sites in the United States and Poland. The primary endpoint of the trial is the change in Robarts Histopathology Index (RHI), a validated instrument that measures histological disease activity in ulcerative colitis at 12 weeks compared to baseline. Patients will then continue for an additional 40 weeks of maintenance therapy followed by a 52-week assessment. Secondary and additional outcome measures in the EMERALD-1 study include change in the modified Mayo clinic score, safety, PK parameters and key PD measures including α4β7 receptor occupancy and lymphocyte subset trafficking. EMERALD-2 (MORF-057-202) which is a global Phase 2b randomized controlled trial of MORF-057 is expected to begin in the third quarter of 2022 and then will run in parallel with EMERALD-1.
In August 2020, AbbVie exercised its option to license certain product candidates and now controls and is responsible for the development and commercialization of our αvβ6-specific integrin inhibitor program. In connection with the option exercise, AbbVie made a one-time $20.0 million payment to us. Under this license, AbbVie controls and is responsible for the development and commercialization of this program. AbbVie has informed us that it does not intend to advance any of our selective oral αvβ6-specific integrin inhibitors due to a suspected on-target/ αvβ6-mediated safety signal that has been observed in pre-clinical testing. Details about these observations are planned to be released in an upcoming scientific publication. As a result, we do not expect to receive additional payments for this program under the AbbVie Agreement. We continue to advance additional discovery programs with AbbVie as a part of this collaboration.
In February 2019, we entered into an agreement with Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Janssen, to develop novel integrin therapeutics, or the Janssen Agreement. In February 2021 Janssen paid us $5.0 million to commence work on a third research program. We are entitled to additional payments upon the achievement of certain milestones and royalties in accordance with the Janssen Agreement. In December 2021, Janssen informed us that they have decided not to exercise the options on the first two integrin targets. We have focused efforts on the third integrin research program which includes the potential development of integrin antibody activators. The first two integrin targets have been returned to us due to a lack of target validation in the specific disease of Janssen's interest.
Beyond these lead targets, we are using our MInT Platform to advance a broad pipeline of preclinical programs across a variety of therapeutic areas, all of which aim to harness the potential of inhibition or activation of an integrin receptor. Additional wholly-owned programs have advanced near to or into lead optimization phase of discovery. We presented positive preclinical data from our αvβ8 program at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting in April 2021, demonstrating anti-tumor activity in checkpoint refractory cancer models and continue our focus on advancing our avb8 program in oncology.
In March 2021, we announced an upsized underwritten public offering of 3,500,000 shares of our common stock at a price to the public of $70.00 per share, resulting in net proceeds of approximately $230.0 million, after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and other offering expenses paid by us.
In July 2020, we entered into an Open Market Sale Agreement, or the Original Agreement, with Jefferies LLC, or Jefferies, with respect to an at-the-market offering program, or the Previous ATM, under which we may offer and sell, from time to time at our sole discretion, shares of our common stock, having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000, referred to as Placement Shares, through Jefferies as sales agent. In August 2021, we entered into Amendment No. 1 to the Original Agreement with Jefferies with respect to an at-the-market offering program, or the New ATM, increasing the amount of Placement Shares, under the Original Agreement, which we may offer and sell, from time to time at its sole discretion, through Jefferies as sales agent, up to an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000. We refer to the Previous ATM and the New ATM, collectively, as the ATM. No shares were issued or amounts received under our ATM during the three months ended March 31, 2022. As of March 31, 2022, we had approximately $137.8 million of common stock remaining available for sale under the ATM. We may not sell any Placement Shares under the Previous ATM.
Since inception, our operations have focused on organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, establishing our intellectual property portfolio, and performing research to discover and develop oral small-molecule integrin therapeutics. Revenue generation activities to date have been limited to payments received from our collaboration agreements with AbbVie and Janssen, discussed further in Note 10 of the accompanying consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. We do not have any products approved for sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales to date. From inception through March 31, 2022, we raised an aggregate of approximately $700.0 million of gross proceeds primarily through the issuance of equity, including our convertible preferred equity securities, our initial public offering, our underwritten public offering in March 2021, and sales of shares of our common stock pursuant to the ATM, along with payments received under our collaboration agreements.
Since inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. As of March 31, 2022, we had an accumulated deficit of $269.5 million. We expect to continue to incur significant and increasing expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future, as
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we advance our current and future product candidates through preclinical and clinical development, seek regulatory approval for them, maintain and expand our intellectual property portfolio, hire additional research and development and business personnel, and operate as a public company.
We will not generate revenue from product sales unless and until we successfully complete clinical development and obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates. In addition, if we obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates and do not enter into a third-party commercialization partnership, we expect to incur significant expenses related to developing our commercialization capability to support product sales, marketing, manufacturing, and distribution activities.
As a result, we will need substantial additional funding to support our continuing operations and pursue our growth strategy. Until we can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, we expect to finance our operations through a combination of public or private equity offerings and debt financings or other sources, such as additional collaboration agreements. We may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into such other agreements or arrangements when needed on acceptable terms, or at all. Our failure to raise capital or enter into such agreements as, and when, needed, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
As of March 31, 2022, we had cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities of $380.7 million. We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements until the end of 2024.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
The current COVID-19 pandemic continues to present a substantial public health and economic challenge around the world and is affecting our employees, patients, communities and business operations, as well as the U.S. economy and financial markets. The extent of the ongoing impact of the novel strain of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, or COVID-19, on our operational and financial performance will depend on certain developments, including the duration and spread of the outbreak, the rise of variants that may be less responsive to existing vaccines, the impact on our clinical and preclinical studies, employee or industry events, and the effect on our suppliers and manufacturers, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. Although we currently have not experienced much of an impact on our business, excluding minor changes to our development timelines, if there are closures or other restrictions in places where we or our vendors work or transport supply that may result in constrained supply of our product candidates or delays in our clinical and preclinical studies or planned clinical trials, our business, results of operations and overall financial performance in future periods could be materially adversely impacted. In addition, we have experienced impacts from changes in how we and companies worldwide conduct business due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including but not limited to restrictions on travel and in-person meetings, delays in future site activations and future enrollment of clinical trials, prioritization of hospital resources toward the COVID-19 pandemic effort, and delays in review by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory agencies. As of the filing date of this Form 10-Q, the extent to which COVID-19 may impact our financial condition, results of operations or guidance is uncertain. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic will not be fully reflected in our results of operations and overall financial performance until future periods. See “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for further discussion of the possible impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business.
Financial Operations Overview
Collaboration Revenue
We do not have any products approved for sale, and as a result, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of products in the foreseeable future.
To date, all of our collaboration revenue has been derived from our agreements with AbbVie and Janssen. We expect that our revenue, until we have a marketed product, will be derived primarily from payments under our collaboration and option agreements with AbbVie and Janssen or other collaboration and license agreements that we may enter into in the future, if any.
Collaboration Revenue — AbbVie
In October 2018, we entered into a collaboration with AbbVie, an investor that held approximately 5% of our common stock at the time of the agreement, designed to advance a number of our oral integrin therapeutics for fibrosis-related indications. Under the terms of the AbbVie Agreement, AbbVie paid us an upfront payment of $100.0 million for research and development activities, and we provided to AbbVie exclusive license options on product candidates directed at multiple targets. In August 2020, AbbVie exercised its option to license the selective αvβ6-specific integrin inhibitors program and paid us a one-time payment of $20.0 million.
For each lead compound against a target under the AbbVie Agreement, we conduct research and development activities through the completion of IND-enabling studies, at which point AbbVie may pay a license fee of $20.0 million, on a target-by-target
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basis, to exercise its exclusive license option and assume responsibility for global development and commercialization. We are also eligible for clinical and commercial milestone payments and tiered royalties from high single digit to low teens on worldwide net sales for each licensed product. AbbVie has informed us that it does not intend to advance any of our selective oral αvβ6-specific integrin inhibitors due to a suspected on-target/ αvβ6-mediated safety signal that has been observed in pre-clinical testing. Details about these observations are planned to be released in an upcoming scientific publication. As a result, we do not expect to receive additional payments for this program under the AbbVie Agreement. In addition, for certain compounds for which we have completed IND-enabling studies and which meet certain advancement criteria for a liver indication, we have the option to commit to share development costs in exchange for an increased fixed royalty rate. We may exercise this option following completion of the first Phase 2b clinical trial for the relevant product.
Collaboration Revenue — Janssen
In February 2019, we entered into the Janssen Agreement to discover and develop novel integrin therapeutics for patients with conditions not adequately addressed by current therapies. The Janssen Agreement focuses on three integrin targets, each target the subject of a research program, with the ability to substitute up to two integrin targets not explored by us. Upon completing IND-enabling studies, on a research program-by-research program basis, Janssen may exercise an exclusive option to obtain an exclusive license with respect to the target that is the subject of the research program, including all licensed compounds that are the subject of the applicable research program, and then Janssen will be responsible for global clinical development and commercialization. In consideration of the rights granted, during 2019, Janssen paid us an upfront fee of $10.0 million for each of the first two research programs, and in December 2020 we agreed with Janssen to commence work on the third research program, and in February 2021 Janssen paid us $5.0 million for the third research program commencement fee. Janssen also funds research activities at agreed upon rates, pursuant to the terms of the agreement, and we are also eligible to receive additional milestone and royalty payments. In December 2021, Janssen informed us that they have decided not to exercise the options on the first two integrin targets which resulted in a reduction in scope of our responsibilities under the Janssen Agreement.
Expenses
Research and Development
Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research and development activities, including our product candidate discovery efforts and preclinical studies under our research programs, which include:
employee-related expenses, including salaries, benefits, and equity-based compensation expense for our research and development personnel;
costs of funding research performed by third parties that conduct research and development and preclinical activities on our behalf;
costs of manufacturing clinical supply related to any of our current or future product candidates;
expenses incurred under agreements with contract research organizations and investigative sites that conduct our clinical trials;
costs of conducting preclinical studies of any of our current or future product candidates;
consulting and professional fees related to research and development activities, including equity-based compensation to non-employees;
costs of purchasing laboratory supplies and non-capital equipment used in our preclinical studies;
costs related to compliance with clinical regulatory requirements;
facility costs and other allocated expenses, which include expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities, insurance, depreciation and other supplies; and
fees for maintaining licenses and other amounts due under our third-party licensing agreements.
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Costs for certain activities are recognized based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using data such as information provided to us by our vendors and analyzing the progress of our preclinical studies or other services performed. Significant judgment and estimates are made in determining the accrued expense balances at the end of any reporting period. Non-refundable advance payments for research and development goods or services to be received in the future from third parties are capitalized and expensed as the related goods are delivered or the services are performed.
The successful development of our product candidates is highly uncertain. As such, at this time, we cannot reasonably estimate or know the nature, timing, and costs of the efforts that will be necessary to complete our future product candidates. We are also
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unable to predict when, if ever, material net cash inflows will commence from the sale of our product candidates, if approved. This is due to the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing product candidates, including the uncertainty of:
the scope, rate of progress, and expenses of our ongoing research activities as well as any additional preclinical studies and clinical trials and other research and development activities;
establishing an appropriate safety profile;
successful enrollment in and completion of clinical trials;
whether our product candidates show safety and efficacy in our clinical trials;
receipt of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities, if any;
establishing commercial manufacturing capabilities or making arrangements with third-party manufacturers;
obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for our product candidates;
commercializing the product candidates, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others; and
continued acceptable safety profile of the products following any regulatory approval.
A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of our current and future product candidates would significantly change the costs and timing associated with the development of those product candidates.
Research and development activities are central to our business model. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. We expect research and development costs to increase significantly for the foreseeable future as we continue the development of our product candidates. However, we do not believe that it is possible at this time to accurately project total program-specific expenses through commercialization. There are numerous factors associated with the successful commercialization of any of our product candidates, including future trial design and various regulatory requirements, many of which cannot be determined with accuracy at this time based on our stage of development. Additionally, future commercial and regulatory factors beyond our control will impact our clinical development programs and plans.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses, including salaries, benefits, and equity-based compensation expenses for personnel in executive, finance, accounting, business development, legal, and human resources functions. Other significant general and administrative expenses include facility costs not otherwise included in research and development expenses, legal fees relating to patent and corporate matters, and fees for accounting and consulting services.
We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future as our business expands to support expected growth in research and development activities, including our future clinical programs. These increases will likely include increased costs related to the hiring of additional personnel and fees to outside consultants, among other expenses. We also incur expenses associated with being a public company, including costs for audit, legal, regulatory, and tax-related services related to compliance with the rules and regulations of the SEC, and listing standards applicable to companies listed on Nasdaq, director and officer compensation and insurance premiums, and investor relations costs. In addition, if we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates and do not enter into a third-party commercialization collaboration, we expect to incur significant general and administrative expenses related to supporting product sales, marketing and distribution activities.
Interest Income, Net
Interest income, net consists primarily of interest income earned on our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities.
Results of Operations
Comparison of the three months ended March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2021
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2021:
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Three Months Ended March 31,Change
20222021$%
(in thousands, except percentages)
Collaboration revenue$2,382 $3,265 $(883)(27)%
Operating expenses:
Research and development26,463 18,613 7,850 42 %
General and administrative7,591 5,953 1,638 28 %
Total operating expenses34,054 24,566 9,488 39 %
Loss from operations(31,672)(21,301)(10,371)49 %
Other income:
Interest income, net187 29 158 545 %
Other income (expense)(12)13 (108)%
Total other income, net188 17 171 1,006 %
Loss before provision for income taxes(31,484)(21,284)(10,200)48 %
Provision for income taxes— — — *
Net loss$(31,484)$(21,284)$(10,200)48 %

*Percentage not meaningful

Collaboration Revenue
The decrease in collaboration revenue of $0.9 million is attributable to a decrease in activity under the AbbVie Agreement and the Janssen Agreement. In Q4 2021, we decreased our estimates to complete the remaining performance obligations under the AbbVie Agreement based on changes in expected effort and the timing of the research services. Commencing after Janssen informed us in December 2021 that they have decided not to exercise the options on the first two integrin targets we focused efforts on the third integrin research program. The revenue for our collaborations fluctuates based on the timing and magnitude of costs incurred under the collaboration programs, as well as changes to our estimates to complete the remaining performance obligations.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expense increased by $7.9 million, or 42% from $18.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 to $26.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022. A significant portion of our research and development costs have been external clinical and preclinical contract research organization (“CRO”) costs, which we track on a program-by-program basis related to a clinical product candidate, once the candidate has been identified. Our internal research and development costs are primarily personnel-related costs, depreciation, and other indirect costs. The following table summarizes our research and development expense for three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021:
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Three Months Ended March 31,Change
20222021$%
(in thousands, except percentages)
External costs by program:
MORF-057$8,348 $5,222 $3,126 60 %
AbbVie Agreement programs110 699 (589)(84)%
Janssen Agreement programs454 418 36 %
αvβ8 Program3,821 1,463 2,358 161 %
Other early development candidates and unallocated costs2,387 2,037 350 17 %
Total external costs15,120 9,839 5,281 54 %
Internal costs:
Employee compensation and benefits10,257 7,705 2,552 33 %
Facility and other1,086 1,069 17 %
Total internal costs11,343 8,774 2,569 29 %
Total research and development expense$26,463 $18,613 $7,850 42 %
The changes in research and development expense were primarily attributable to the following:
The $5.3 million increase in external costs from the three months ended March 31, 2021 to the three months ended March 31, 2022 primarily related to manufacturing costs and other development activities to support Phase 2 clinical studies for MORF-057, as well as other external research costs to support our early development candidates, including αvβ8. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in expenditures associated with the decreases in activity regarding the programs with AbbVie.
The $2.6 million increase in internal costs from the three months ended March 31, 2021 to the three months ended March 31, 2022 was primarily driven by an increase in headcount to support the ongoing clinical activity for MORF-057 as well as our early-stage pipeline candidates.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expense increased by $1.6 million, or 28%, from $6.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 to $7.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022. The increase in general and administrative expense was primarily attributable to a $1.1 million increase in non-cash stock-based compensation expense, a $0.2 million increase in personnel costs, and a $0.2 million increase in personnel related state and local taxes.
Interest Income, Net
Interest income increased by $0.2 million due to an increase in invested marketable securities during the three months ended March 31, 2022 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2021.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity
From inception through March 31, 2022, we raised an aggregate of approximately $700.0 million of gross proceeds primarily through the issuance of equity, including our convertible preferred equity securities, our initial public offering and follow-on equity offering, and sales of shares of our common stock under the ATM, along with payments received under our collaboration agreements.
The following table provides information regarding our total cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities, each of which are stated at their respective fair values as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021:
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March 31,
2022
December 31, 2021
(in thousands)
Cash and cash equivalents$282 $292 
Money market funds (included in cash equivalents)119,560 171,142
Marketable securities260,810236,701
Total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities$380,652 $408,135 
Cash Flows
The following table provides information regarding our cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
(in thousands)
Net cash used in operating activities$(28,148)$(20,390)
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities(26,074)73,749 
Net cash provided by financing activities2,630 240,579 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$(51,592)$293,938 
Net Cash Used in Operating Activities
The use of cash in all periods resulted primarily from our net losses adjusted for non-cash charges and changes in components of working capital. Net cash used in operating activities was $28.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 compared to $20.4 million in cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2021. The increase in cash used in operating activities was primarily driven by an $10.2 million increase in net loss, partially offset by a $2.3 million increase in equity-based compensation. The increase in net loss was primarily attributable to a $9.5 million increase in operating expenses in 2022.
Net Cash (Used In) Provided by Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $26.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 compared to $73.7 million provided by investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2021. The change in cash used in investing activities is primarily based on the timing of purchases or maturities in marketable securities in the period. During the three months ended March 31, 2022, cash used in investing activities primarily resulted from purchases of marketable securities exceeding maturities of marketable securities. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, cash provided by investing activities primarily resulted from proceeds from maturities of marketable securities exceeding purchases of marketable securities.
Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities of $2.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 resulted from proceeds received from the issuance of common shares under ESPP and stock option exercises. Net cash provided by financing activities during the three months ended March 31, 2021 of $240.6 million primarily resulted from $230.2 million in net proceeds received from the underwritten public offering completed in March 2021, $7.2 million in net proceeds received from sales of shares of common stock under the ATM Agreement, and $3.1 million in proceeds received from issuance of common shares under ESPP and stock option exercises.
Funding Requirements
We expect our expenses to increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we continue research and development, conduct clinical trials, and seek marketing approval for our current and any of our future product candidates. In addition, if we obtain marketing approval for any of our current or our future product candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution, which costs we might offset through entry into collaboration agreements with third parties. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on acceptable terms, including, but not limited to, as a result of COVID-19, we would be forced to delay, reduce, or eliminate our research and
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development programs or future commercialization efforts. We expect our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements until the end of 2024.
We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we may use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:
the costs of conducting additional clinical and preclinical studies and future clinical trials;
the costs of future manufacturing;
the scope, progress, results and costs of discovery, preclinical development, laboratory testing, and clinical trials for other potential product candidates we may develop, if any;
the costs, timing, and outcome of regulatory review of our product candidates;
our ability to establish and maintain collaborations on favorable terms, if at all;
the achievement of milestones or occurrence of other developments that trigger payments under any collaboration agreements we might have at such time;
the costs and timing of future commercialization activities, including product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution, for any of our product candidates for which we receive marketing approval;
the amount of revenue, if any, received from commercial sales of our product candidates, should any of our product candidates receive marketing approval;
the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, obtaining, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights, and defending intellectual property-related claims;
our ability to file and prosecute patent applications, obtain, maintain, and enforce our intellectual property rights, and defend intellectual property-related claims in certain countries that are subject to economic sanctions and/or hostile to U.S. and international companies;
our headcount growth and associated costs as we expand our business operations and research and development activities;
the potential delays in our preclinical studies, our development programs and our current and planned clinical trials due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic or geo-political actions, including war (such as the current armed conflict in Ukraine); and
the cost of operating as a public company.
Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements.
Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Estimates
Our critical accounting policies are those policies which require the most significant judgments and estimates in the preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements.
During the quarter ended March 31, 2022, there were no material changes to our critical accounting policies as detailed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, which was filed with the SEC on February 24, 2022.
For detailed information regarding recently issued accounting pronouncements and the actual and expected impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements, see Note 2 in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Contractual Obligations
In August 2021, the Company exercised its one-time extension right for its existing lease for 32,405 square feet of office and laboratory space through May 2025, as provided for under the terms of the lease, and with future rent payments of $5.4 million. As of March 31, 2022, our contractual obligations remain consistent with those disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on February 24, 2022.

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Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
There were no material changes in our exposure to market risk from December 31, 2021 to March 31, 2022.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Management’s Evaluation of our Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer (our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, respectively), we evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under Exchange Act as of March 31, 2022. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the company’s management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on our management’s evaluation (with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer), as of the end of the period covered by this report, our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) of the Exchange Act) during the quarter ended March 31, 2022 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
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PART II—OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we may be involved in legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not presently a party to any legal proceedings that, in the opinion of management, would have a material adverse effect on our business. Regardless of outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us due to defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources, negative publicity and reputational harm, and other factors.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making your decision to invest in shares of our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks described below, together with the other information contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including our financial statements and the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that affect us. We cannot assure you that any of the events discussed below will not occur. These events could have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. If that were to happen, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Summary of Risk Factors
The below summary risks provide an overview of many of the risks we are exposed to in the normal course of our business activities. As a result, the below summary risks do not contain all of the information that may be important to you, and you should read the summary risks together with the more detailed discussion of risks set forth following this section under the heading “Risk Factors,” as well as elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Additional risks, beyond those summarized below or discussed in “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” may apply to our activities or operations as currently conducted or as we may conduct them in the future or in the markets in which we operate or may in the future operate. Consistent with the foregoing, we are exposed to a variety of risks, including risks associated with:
We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history, no product candidates approved for commercial sale, and a history of significant losses. We expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future and we may never achieve profitability.
We will require substantial additional funding to pursue our business objectives. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on terms acceptable to us, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our research or drug development programs or any future commercialization efforts or other operations.
Raising additional equity capital may cause dilution to our stockholders.
Obtaining debt financing may restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.
Our product candidates are in early-stages of development. We and our partners may not obtain regulatory approvals for or successfully commercialize our product candidates, including our lead product candidate MORF-057.
Our ongoing and future clinical trials may reveal significant adverse events not seen in our preclinical studies, and there is no guarantee that successful results in preclinical studies will lead to successful results in clinical trials. In addition, significant adverse events or other side effects may lead to difficulty in recruiting patients to our clinical trials, and we may be required to abandon our development efforts of our product candidates, which will adversely affect our business and financial condition.
We currently have collaborations with AbbVie and Janssen, from which we have derived a substantial portion of our revenue and such revenue may decrease in the future.
Our product candidates are subject to extensive governmental regulations, and we and/or our collaborators may be unable to obtain, or may be delayed in obtaining, U.S. or foreign regulatory approval. If we do not receive regulatory approval, we may be unable to commercialize our product candidates. We do not have prior experience in managing the clinical trials necessary to obtain such regulatory approvals.
If we are not able to obtain, maintain and enforce patent protection for our technologies or our product candidates, the development and commercialization of our product candidates may be adversely affected.
Our success largely depends on the continued service of our key management, advisors and other specialized technical personnel involved with the crystallization of integrins.
A sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock, including under our “at-the-market” offering with Jefferies LLC, or Jefferies, or other equity or debt offering of our securities, may cause the price of our common stock to decline.
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Our executive officers, directors and certain of our stockholders and their affiliates beneficially own approximately 51% of our outstanding voting stock. As a result, these stockholders have substantial control over our company and their interests may not be aligned with the interests of our other stockholders.
We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.
The COVID-19 pandemic could adversely impact our business, including our clinical trials and clinical trial operations.
Delaware law and provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws could make a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest difficult, thereby depressing the market price of our common stock.
The exclusive forum provision in our organizational documents may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims.
Risks Relating to our Business and Operations
The outbreak of COVID-19, or a similar pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease in the United States or elsewhere, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations, including the execution of our preclinical studies and clinical trials and the use and sufficiency of our existing cash.
The extent to which the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business and operating results will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning COVID-19 and its variants, the continued effectiveness of available vaccines, and the actions taken to contain the virus or treat its impact, among others. Many countries around the world continue to impose quarantines and restrictions on travel and mass gatherings to slow the spread of the virus.
The spread of an infectious disease, including COVID-19, may also result in the inability of our suppliers to deliver supplies to us on a timely basis. We currently utilize third parties to, among other things, manufacture components of our product candidates and, in the future, intend to utilize third parties to conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials. If either we or any third-party parties in the supply chain for materials used in the production of our product candidates are adversely impacted by restrictions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, our supply chain may be disrupted, limiting our ability to manufacture our product candidates for our preclinical studies and clinical trials.
The COVID-19 pandemic has in the past affected the business of the FDA, EMA and other health authorities, and if these impacts are ongoing or recur, they could result in delays in meetings related to current and planned clinical trials and ultimately of reviews and approvals of our product candidates. Infections and deaths related to COVID-19 are disrupting certain healthcare and healthcare regulatory systems worldwide. The ongoing effects of COVID-19 may also slow potential enrollment of current and planned clinical trials, reduce the number of eligible patients for our current and planned clinical trials, create difficulties in recruiting clinical site investigators and staff, divert healthcare resources away from the conduct of clinical trials, delay receiving approval from local authorities to initiate our current and planned clinical trials, delay necessary interactions with local regulators, ethics committees and other important agencies and contractors due to limitations in employee resources or forced furlough of government employees, interrupt key clinical trial activities (like site monitoring) due to travel limitations imposed by authorities, and create difficulties in data collection and analysis, among other things. It is unknown how long these disruptions could continue, were they to occur. Any elongation or de-prioritization of our preclinical or clinical studies or delay in regulatory review resulting from such disruptions could materially affect the development and study of our product candidates. Any delays to our current and planned timelines could also impact the use and sufficiency of our existing cash reserves, and we may be required to raise additional capital earlier than we had previously planned. We may be unable to raise additional capital if and when needed, which may result in further delays or suspension of our development plans. If we are able to raise additional capital, challenging and uncertain economic conditions can make capital raising costly and dilutive.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, during 2020, 2021 and part of 2022 we limited our office access to only those employees completing laboratory-based tasks essential to the development efforts, and allowed other employees to work outside of our office with certain precautions in place that we believe will ensure our employees’ safety and well being. In early 2022, we reopened our office to all employees.
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"Essential" employees that are unable to telework continue to work at our facilities, and we have implemented appropriate safety measures, including increased sanitation standards. We have also suspended any requirement for an employee to obtain a doctor’s note to be absent from or return to the workplace, and are following guidance from the Center for Disease Control and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regarding suspension of nonessential travel, self-isolation recommendations for employees returning from certain geographic areas, confirmed reports of any COVID-19 diagnosis among our employees, and the return of such employees to our workplace. Pursuant to updated guidance from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, we are engaging in limited and appropriate inquiries of employees regarding potential COVID-19 exposure, based on the direct threat that such exposure may present to our workforce. We continue to address other unique situations that arise among our workforce due to the COVID-19 pandemic on a case-by-case basis. While we believe that we have taken appropriate measures to ensure the health and well-being of our employees, there can be no assurances that our measures will be sufficient to protect our employees in our workplace or that they may otherwise be exposed to COVID-19 outside of our workplace. If a number of our "essential" employees become ill, incapacitated or are otherwise unable to continue working during the current or any future epidemic, our operations may be adversely impacted.
In the event of shelter-in-place orders or other mandated local travel restrictions or quarantines, and in particular if there are additional reclosures in locations where we do business, including with our collaborators, partners and contractors, our collaborators, partners and contractors conducting preclinical, clinical, research or manufacturing activities may not be able to access laboratory or manufacturing space, and our core activities may be significantly limited or curtailed, possibly for an extended period of time. In the first quarter of 2022, some of our partners and contractors operating in China have faced temporary closures in compliance with local containment measures enacted in response to local COVID-19 resurgences. Furthermore, to the extent the pandemic is ongoing and there are outbreaks in the laboratory space or office space, we may be subject to risk of liability should any employee allege we failed to adequately mitigate the risk of exposure to COVID-19. The spread of COVID-19, which has caused a broad impact globally, including restrictions on travel and quarantine policies put into place by businesses and governments, may have a material economic effect on our business. While the potential economic impact brought by and the duration of the pandemic may be difficult to assess or predict, it has already caused, and is likely to result in further, significant disruption of global financial markets and the trading prices for our common stock and other biopharmaceutical companies have been highly volatile as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, which may reduce our ability to access capital either at all or on favorable terms. In addition, a recession, depression or other sustained adverse market event resulting from the global effort to control COVID-19 infections could materially and adversely affect our business and the value of our common stock.
The COVID-19 pandemic and mitigation measures also have had, and may continue to have, an adverse impact on global economic conditions which could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition, including impairing our ability to raise capital when needed. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business and operations will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning the severity of the virus and the actions to contain its impact.
Such events may result in a period of business disruption, and in reduced operations, any of which could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We do not yet know the full extent of potential delays or impacts on our business, our preclinical studies and clinical trials, healthcare systems or the global economy as a whole. However, these effects could have a material impact on our operations, and we will continue to monitor the situation closely, although, as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, we do not expect any material impact on our long-term activity. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our business will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19 and the actions to contain COVID-19 or treat its impact, among others.
We will need to grow our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing our growth and expanding our operations, which could adversely affect our business.
As of March 31, 2022, we had 100 full time employees. As our development and commercialization plans and strategies develop, we expect to expand our employee base for managerial, operational, financial and other resources. In addition, we have limited experience in product development. As our product candidates enter and advance through preclinical studies and clinical trials, we will need to expand our development and regulatory capabilities and contract with other organizations to provide manufacturing and other capabilities for us. In the future, we expect to have to manage additional relationships with collaborators or partners, suppliers and other
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organizations. Our ability to manage our operations and future growth will require us to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures. We may not be able to implement improvements to our management information and control systems in an efficient or timely manner and may discover deficiencies in existing systems and controls. Our inability to successfully manage our growth and expand our operations could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Any inability to attract and retain qualified key management and technical personnel would impair our ability to implement our business plan.
Our success largely depends on the continued service of Praveen P. Tipirneni, M.D., our chief executive officer, as well as other members of our management team, other key employees and advisors. We currently do not maintain key person insurance on these individuals. The loss of one or more members of our management team or other key employees or advisors, including due to illness resulting from COVID-19, could delay our research and development programs and have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The relationships that our key managers have cultivated within our industry make us particularly dependent upon their continued employment with us. We are dependent on the continued service of our technical personnel, in particular, personnel involved with crystallization of integrins, because of the highly technical nature of our product candidates and technologies related to our MInT Platform, and the specialized nature of the regulatory approval process. Because our management team and key employees are not obligated to provide us with continued service, they could terminate their employment with us at any time without penalty.
We conduct our operations at our facility in Waltham, Massachusetts. This region is headquarters to many other biopharmaceutical companies and many academic and research institutions. Competition for skilled personnel in our market is intense and may limit our ability to hire and retain highly qualified personnel on acceptable terms or at all. We also face competition for personnel from other companies, universities, public and private research institutions, government entities and other organizations. Our future success will depend in large part on our continued ability to attract and retain other highly qualified scientific, technical and management personnel, as well as personnel with expertise in clinical testing, manufacturing, governmental regulation and commercialization. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain high-quality personnel, the rate and success at which we can discover and develop product candidates will be limited which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our future growth may depend, in part, on our ability to operate in foreign markets, where we would be subject to additional regulatory burdens and other risks and uncertainties.
Our future growth may depend, in part, on our ability to develop and commercialize and/or promote our product candidates in foreign markets for which we may rely on collaboration with third parties. We are not permitted to market or promote any of our product candidates in a foreign market before we receive regulatory approval from the applicable regulatory authority in that foreign market, and may never receive such regulatory approval for any of our product candidates. To obtain separate regulatory approval in many other countries, we must comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of such countries regarding safety and efficacy and governing, among other things, clinical trials and commercial sales, pricing and distribution of our product candidates, and we cannot predict success in these jurisdictions. If we fail to comply with the regulatory requirements in international markets and receive applicable marketing approvals, our target market will be reduced and our ability to realize the full market potential of our product candidates will be harmed and our business will be adversely affected. We may not obtain foreign regulatory approvals on a timely basis, if at all. Our failure to obtain approval of any of our product candidates by regulatory authorities in another country may significantly diminish the commercial prospects of that product candidate and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. Moreover, even if we obtain approval of our product candidates and ultimately commercialize our product candidates in foreign markets, we would be subject to the risks and uncertainties, including the burden of complying with complex and changing foreign regulatory, tax, accounting and legal requirements and reduced protection of intellectual property rights in some foreign countries.
Our business entails a significant risk of product liability and our ability to obtain sufficient insurance coverage could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
When we conduct clinical trials of our product candidates, we may be exposed to significant product liability risks inherent in the development, testing, manufacturing and marketing of therapeutic treatments. Product liability claims
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could delay or prevent completion of our development programs. If we succeed in marketing products, such claims could result in an FDA investigation of the safety and effectiveness of our products, our manufacturing processes and facilities or our marketing programs and potentially a recall of our products or more serious enforcement action, limitations on the approved indications for which they may be used or suspension or withdrawal of approvals. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may also result in decreased demand for our products, termination of clinical trial sites or entire trial programs, withdrawal of clinical trial participants, injury to our reputation and significant negative media attention, significant costs to defend the related litigation, a diversion of management’s time and our resources from our business operations, substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients, loss of revenue, the inability to commercialize and products that we may develop, and a decline in our stock price. We currently maintain general liability insurance with coverage up to $10.0 million. We may, however, need to obtain higher levels of product liability insurance for later stages of clinical development or marketing any of our product candidates. Any insurance we have or may obtain may not provide sufficient coverage against potential liabilities. Furthermore, clinical trial and product liability insurance is becoming increasingly expensive. As a result, we may be unable to obtain sufficient insurance at a reasonable cost to protect us against losses caused by product liability claims that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial partners and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements.
We are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other illegal activity by our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial partners and vendors. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless and/or negligent conduct that fails to comply with FDA regulations, provide true, complete and accurate information to the FDA and other similar foreign regulatory bodies, comply with manufacturing standards we may establish, comply with healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. If we obtain FDA approval of any of our product candidates and begin commercializing those products in the United States, our potential exposure under these laws will increase significantly, and our costs associated with compliance with these laws are likely to increase. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Employee misconduct could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. Additionally, we are subject to the risk that a person could allege such fraud or other misconduct, even if none occurred. It is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with such laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, including the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, loss of eligibility to obtain approvals from the FDA, exclusion from participation in government contracting, healthcare reimbursement or other government programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, integrity oversight and reporting obligations, or reputational harm.
We depend on our information technology systems, and any failure of these systems, or those of our CROs or other contractors or consultants we may utilize, could harm our business. Security breaches, cyber-attacks, loss of data, and other disruptions could compromise sensitive information related to our business or prevent us from accessing critical information and expose us to liability, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
We collect and maintain information in digital form that is necessary to conduct our business, and we are increasingly dependent on information technology systems and infrastructure to operate our business. In the ordinary course of our business, we collect, store and transmit large amounts of confidential information, including intellectual property, proprietary business information and personal data. It is critical that we do so in a secure manner to maintain the confidentiality and integrity of such confidential information. We have established physical, electronic and organizational measures to safeguard and secure our systems to prevent a data compromise, and rely on commercially available systems, software, tools, and monitoring to provide security for our information technology systems and the processing, transmission and storage of digital information. We have also outsourced
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elements of our information technology infrastructure, and as a result a number of third-party vendors may or could have access to our confidential information. Our internal information technology systems and infrastructure, and those of our current and any future collaborators, contractors and consultants and other third parties on which we rely, are vulnerable to damage from cyber incidents such as third parties getting access to employee accounts using stolen or inferred credentials, computer viruses, phishing attacks, spamming, malware, cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusions over the Internet, attachments to emails, persons inside our organization, or persons with access to systems inside our organization, and attempts to gain unauthorized access to computer systems and networks. Our internal information technology systems and infrastructure is also vulnerable to damage from natural disasters, terrorism, war, telecommunication and electrical failures. System failures or outages, including any potential disruptions due to significantly increased global demand on certain cloud-based systems during the COVID-19 pandemic, could compromise our ability to perform these functions in a timely manner, which could harm our ability to conduct business or delay our financial reporting. Such failures could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
The risk of a security breach or disruption or data loss, particularly through cyber-attacks or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. The occurrence of these and other more sophisticated or state-supported attack campaigns may increase as geopolitical tensions and intermittent warfare continue or escalate outside of the U.S., including, for example, due to the Russia-Ukraine conflict. In addition, the prevalent use of mobile devices that access confidential information increases the risk of data security breaches, which could lead to the loss of confidential information or other intellectual property. The costs to us to mitigate network security problems, bugs, viruses, worms, malicious software programs and security vulnerabilities could be significant, and while we have implemented security measures to protect our data security and information technology systems, our efforts to address these problems may not be successful, and these problems could result in unexpected interruptions, delays, cessation of service and other harm to our business and our competitive position. If such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our product development programs. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or ongoing or planned clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Moreover, if a computer security breach affects our systems or results in the unauthorized release of personally identifiable information, our reputation could be materially damaged. In addition, such a breach may require notification to governmental agencies, the media or individuals pursuant to various federal and state privacy and security laws, if applicable, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, or HITECH, and its implementing rules and regulations, as well as regulations promulgated by the Federal Trade Commission and state breach notification laws. In addition, such cyber-attacks, data breaches or destruction or loss of data could result in violation of applicable international privacy, data protection and other laws, resulting in exposure to material civil and/or criminal liability. Further, our general liability insurance and corporate risk program may not cover all potential claims to which we are exposed and may not be adequate to indemnify us for all liability that may be imposed; and could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. In addition, we may suffer reputational harm or face litigation or adverse regulatory action as a result of cyber-attacks or other data security breaches and may incur significant additional expense to implement further data protection measures.
If we do not comply with laws regulating the protection of the environment and health and human safety, our business could be affected adversely.
Our research and development activities include the use of hazardous chemicals and materials, including radioactive materials. We maintain quantities of various flammable and toxic chemicals in our facilities in Waltham, Massachusetts that are required for our research and development activities. We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these hazardous chemicals and materials. We believe our procedures for storing, handling and disposing these materials in our facilities comply with the relevant guidelines of Middlesex County, Massachusetts. Although we believe that our safety procedures for handling and disposing of these materials comply with the standards mandated by applicable regulations, the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials cannot be eliminated. If an accident occurs, we could be held liable for resulting damages, which could be substantial. We are also subject to numerous environmental, health and workplace safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures, exposure to blood-borne pathogens and the handling of animals and biohazardous materials. Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses, we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of these materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. We may incur substantial costs to comply with, and substantial fines or penalties if we violate, any of these laws or regulations.
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Our current operations are concentrated in one location, and we or the third parties upon whom we depend may be adversely affected by a heavy snowstorm or other natural disasters and our business continuity and disaster recovery plans may not adequately protect us from a serious disaster.
Our current operations are located in our facilities in Waltham, Massachusetts. Any unplanned event, such as flood, fire, explosion, earthquake, extreme weather condition, medical epidemic, including the COVID-19 pandemic, power shortage, telecommunication failure or other natural or manmade accidents or incidents that result in us being unable to fully utilize our facilities, or the manufacturing facilities of our third-party contract manufacturers, may have a material and adverse effect on our ability to operate our business, particularly on a daily basis, and have significant negative consequences on our financial and operating conditions. For example, our operations are concentrated primarily on the east coast of the United States, and any adverse weather event or natural disaster, such as a hurricane or heavy snowstorm, could have a material adverse effect on a substantial portion of our operations. Loss of access to these facilities may result in increased costs, delays in the development of our product candidates or interruption of our business operations. Extreme weather conditions or other natural disasters could further disrupt our operations, and have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. If a natural disaster, power outage or other event occurred that prevented us from using all or a significant portion of our headquarters, that damaged critical infrastructure, such as our research facilities or the manufacturing facilities of our third-party contract manufacturers, or that otherwise disrupted operations, it may be difficult or, in certain cases, impossible, for us to continue our business for a substantial period of time. The disaster recovery and business continuity plans we have in place may prove inadequate in the event of a serious disaster or similar event. We may incur substantial expenses as a result of the limited nature of our disaster recovery and business continuity plans, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, the long-term effects of climate change on general economic conditions and the pharmaceutical industry in particular are unclear and may heighten or intensify existing risk of natural disasters. As part of our risk management policy, we maintain insurance coverage at levels that we believe are appropriate for our business. However, in the event of an accident or incident at these facilities, we cannot assure you that the amounts of insurance will be sufficient to satisfy any damages and losses. If our facilities, or the manufacturing facilities of our third-party contract manufacturers, are unable to operate because of an accident or incident or for any other reason, even for a short period of time, any or all of our research and development programs may be harmed. Any business interruption could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We are subject to complex tax rules relating to our business, and any audits, investigations or tax proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to income and non-income taxes in the United States. Income tax accounting often involves complex issues, and judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities. We may operate in other non-United States jurisdictions in the future. We could become subject to income and non-income taxes in non-United States jurisdictions as well. In addition, many jurisdictions have detailed transfer pricing rules, which require that all transactions with non-resident related parties be priced using arm’s length pricing principles within the meaning of such rules. The application of withholding tax, goods and services tax, sales taxes and other non-income taxes is not always clear and we may be subject to tax audits relating to such withholding or non-income taxes. We believe that our tax positions are reasonable. We are currently not subject to any tax audits. However, the Internal Revenue Service or other taxing authorities may disagree with our positions. If the Internal Revenue Service or any other tax authorities were successful in challenging our positions, we may be liable for additional tax and penalties and interest related thereto or other taxes, as applicable, in excess of any reserves established therefor, which may have a significant impact on our results and operations and future cash flow.
Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
As of December 31, 2021, we had net operating loss, or NOL, carryforwards for federal and state income tax purposes of $159.6 million and $170.2 million, respectively, which begin to expire in 2037. As of December 31, 2021, we also had available tax credit carryforwards for federal and state income tax purposes of $8.6 million and $2.8 million, respectively, which begin to expire in 2034. To the extent that our taxable income exceeds any current year operating losses, we plan to use our carryforwards to offset income that would otherwise be taxable. However, utilization of carryforwards generated in tax years beginning after December 31, 2018 is limited to a maximum of 80% of the taxable income for such year determined without regard to such carryforwards. In addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code, changes in our ownership may limit the amount of our net operating loss carryforwards and tax credit carryforwards that could be utilized annually to offset our future taxable income, if any. This limitation would generally apply in the event of a cumulative change in ownership of our company of more than 50% within a three-year period. We have not performed an analysis to determine whether there has been an ownership change pursuant to Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code. Any such limitation may significantly reduce our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and tax credit carryforwards before they expire.
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Private placements, our IPO and other transactions that have occurred since our inception may trigger such an ownership change pursuant to Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code. Any such limitation, whether as the result of our IPO, prior private placements, sales of our common stock by our existing stockholders or additional sales of our common stock by us, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations in future years. There is also a risk that due to regulatory changes, such as suspensions on the use of NOLs, or other unforeseen reasons, our existing NOLs could expire or otherwise be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (“CARES Act”), was signed into law. The CARES Act changes certain provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (“Tax Act”).

Under the Tax Act, as modified by the CARES Act, NOLs from tax years that began after December 31, 2017 may offset no more than 80% of current taxable income annually for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020. Accordingly, if we generate NOLs after the tax year ended December 31, 2017, we might have to pay more federal income taxes in a subsequent year as a result of the 80% taxable income limitation than we would have had to pay under the law in effect before the Tax Act as modified by the CARES Act.

We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes that could negatively impact our financial condition.

The rules dealing with U.S. federal, state and local income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury Department. Changes to tax laws (which changes may have retroactive application) could adversely affect our stockholders or us. We assess the impact of various tax reform proposals and modifications to existing tax treaties in all jurisdictions where we have operations to determine the potential effect on our business and any assumptions we have made about our future taxable income. We cannot predict whether any specific proposals will be enacted, the terms of any such proposals or what effect, if any, such proposals would have on our business if they were to be enacted. Beginning in 2022, the Tax Act eliminates the currently available option to deduct research and development expenditures and requires taxpayers to amortize them over five years. The U.S. Congress is considering legislation that would defer the amortization requirement to future periods, however, we have no assurance that the provision will be repealed or otherwise modified.
Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Capital
We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history and no products approved for commercial sale. We have a history of significant losses and expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future.
We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history. Biopharmaceutical product development is a highly speculative undertaking because it entails substantial upfront capital expenditures and significant risk that any potential product candidate will fail to demonstrate adequate effect or an acceptable safety profile, gain regulatory approval or become commercially viable.
Our lead product candidate, MORF-057, has completed a Phase 1 clinical trial in healthy volunteers and we have initiated a Phase 2 program initially in ulcerative colitis. We have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue from commercial product sales, and we will continue to incur significant research and development and other expenses related to our clinical development and ongoing operations. For the three months ended March 31, 2022, we reported a net loss of $31.5 million. As of March 31, 2022, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $269.5 million. Substantially all of our losses have resulted from expenses incurred in connection with our research and development programs and from general and administrative costs associated with our operations. We expect to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future, and we expect these losses to increase as we continue our research and development of our product candidates.
We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially if, and as, we:
conduct clinical trials for our current and any future product candidates;
discover and develop new product candidates, and conduct research and development activities, preclinical studies and clinical trials;
manufacture, or have manufactured, preclinical, clinical and commercial supplies of our product candidates;
seek regulatory approvals for our product candidates or any future product candidates;
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commercialize our current product candidates or any future product candidates, if approved;
attempt to transition from a company with a research focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities, including establishing sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure;
hire additional clinical, scientific and management personnel;
add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including international operations;
identify additional compounds or product candidates and acquire rights from third parties to those compounds or product candidates through licenses; and
experience any delays in our preclinical or clinical studies and regulatory approval for our product candidates due to the impacts of COVID-19 or supply chain disruptions (whether as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the ongoing conflict in the Ukraine, or otherwise).
Even if we succeed in commercializing one or more product candidates, we may continue to incur substantial research and development and other expenditures to develop and market additional product candidates. We may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors that may adversely affect our business. The size of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of future growth of our expenses and our ability to generate revenue. Our prior losses and expected future losses have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital.
We have never generated revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.
Our ability to become and remain profitable depends on our ability to generate revenue. We do not expect to generate significant revenue, unless and until we, either alone or with a collaborator, are able to obtain regulatory approval for, and successfully commercialize, our lead product candidate for our α4β7 program, or any other product candidates we may develop. Successful commercialization will require achievement of many key milestones, including demonstrating safety and efficacy in clinical trials, obtaining regulatory, including marketing, approval for these product candidates, manufacturing, marketing and selling those products for which we, or any of our current or future collaborators, may obtain regulatory approval, satisfying any post-marketing requirements and obtaining reimbursement for our products from private insurance or government payors. Because of the uncertainties and risks associated with these activities, we are unable to accurately and precisely predict the timing and amount of revenues, the extent of any further losses or if or when we might achieve profitability. We and any current or future collaborators may never succeed in these activities and, even if we do, or any collaborators do, we may never generate revenues that are large enough for us to achieve profitability. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.
Our failure to become and remain profitable may depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business or continue our operations. If we continue to suffer losses as we have in the past, investors may not receive any return on their investment and may lose their entire investment.
We will need substantial additional funds to advance development of our product candidates, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed may force us to delay, limit or terminate our product development programs, commercialization efforts or other operations.
The development of biopharmaceutical product candidates is capital-intensive. If our product candidates enter and advance through preclinical studies and clinical trials, we will need substantial additional funds to expand or create our development, regulatory, manufacturing, marketing and sales capabilities. We have used substantial funds to develop our technology and product candidates and will require significant funds to conduct further research and development and preclinical testing and clinical trials of our product candidates, to seek regulatory approvals for our product candidates and to manufacture and market products, if any, which are approved for commercial sale. In addition, we expect to incur increased costs associated with operating as a public company.
Since our inception, we have invested a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources in research and development activities. As of March 31, 2022, we had $380.7 million in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. Based on our current operating plan, we believe that our available cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements until the end of 2024. However, our future capital requirements and the period for which we expect our existing resources to support our operations, fund expansion, develop new or enhanced products, or otherwise respond to competitive pressures, may vary significantly from what we expect and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned. Because
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the length of time and activities associated with successful research and development of our product candidates is highly uncertain, we are unable to estimate the actual funds we will require for development and any marketing and commercialization activities for approved products. Our future funding requirements, both near and long-term, will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:
the timing, cost and progress of preclinical and clinical development activities;
the number and scope of preclinical and clinical programs we decide to pursue;
the progress of the development efforts of parties with whom we have entered or may in the future enter into collaborations and/or research and development agreements;
the timing and amount of milestone and other payments we may receive or make under our collaboration agreements;
our ability to maintain our current licenses and research and development programs and to establish new collaboration arrangements;
the costs involved in prosecuting and enforcing patent and other intellectual property claims;
the costs of manufacturing our product candidates by third parties;
the cost of regulatory submissions and timing of regulatory approvals;
the cost of commercialization activities if our product candidates or any future product candidates are approved for sale, including marketing, sales and distribution costs;
our efforts to enhance operational systems and hire additional personnel, including personnel to support development of our product candidates; and
our need to implement additional internal systems and infrastructure, including financial and reporting systems to satisfy our obligations as a public company.
Our ability to raise additional funds may be adversely impacted by potential worsening global economic conditions and disruptions to and volatility in the credit and financial markets in the United States and worldwide, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, increase in inflation, disruptions to global supply chains, and the ongoing conflict in the Ukraine and the global sanctions imposed in response thereto. If we are unable to obtain funding on a timely basis or on acceptable terms, we may have to delay, reduce or terminate our research and development programs and preclinical studies or clinical trials, limit strategic opportunities or undergo reductions in our workforce or other corporate restructuring activities. To date, we have primarily financed our operations through payments received under our collaboration agreements, the sale of equity securities and debt financing.
We will be required to seek additional funding in the future and currently intend to do so through public or private equity offerings or debt financings, additional collaborations and/or licensing agreements, credit or loan facilities, or a combination of one or more of these funding sources. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, including pursuant to our currently effective registration statement on Form S-3, our stockholders will suffer dilution and the terms of any financing may adversely affect the rights of our stockholders.
In addition, as a condition to providing additional funds to us, future investors may demand, and may be granted, rights superior to those of existing stockholders. Our future debt financings, if any, are likely to involve restrictive covenants limiting our flexibility in conducting future business activities, and, in the event of insolvency, debt holders would be repaid before holders of our equity securities received any distribution of our corporate assets. If we raise additional funds through licensing or collaboration arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our product candidates, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. We also could be required to seek collaborators for product candidates at an earlier stage than otherwise would be desirable or relinquish our rights to product candidates or technologies that we otherwise would seek to develop or commercialize ourselves. Failure to obtain capital when needed on acceptable terms may force us to delay, limit or terminate our product development and commercialization of our current or future product candidates, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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Risks Related to Discovery, Development and Commercialization
Our business is heavily dependent on the success of our current and future product candidates, including our lead product candidate for our α4β7 program. Existing and future preclinical studies and clinical trials of these product candidates may not be successful, and if we are unable to commercialize these product candidates or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.
We have invested a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources in the development of our α4β7- specific integrin inhibitors program. Our ability to generate commercial product revenues, which we do not expect will occur for many years, if ever, will depend heavily on the successful development and eventual commercialization of our lead product candidate for our α4β7 program. We have not previously submitted a new drug application, or NDA, to the FDA, or similar regulatory approval filings to comparable foreign authorities, for any product candidate, and we cannot be certain that our product candidates will be successful in clinical trials or receive regulatory approval. Further, our product candidates may not receive regulatory approval even if they are successful in clinical trials. In addition, regulatory authorities may not complete their review processes in a timely manner, or additional delays may result if an FDA Advisory Committee or other regulatory authority recommends non-approval or restrictions on approval. In addition, we may experience delays or rejections based upon additional government regulation from future legislation or administrative action, or changes in regulatory authority policy during the period of product development, clinical trials and the review process. Regulatory authorities also may approve a product candidate for more limited indications than requested or with labeling that includes warnings, contraindications or precautions with respect to conditions of use. Regulatory authorities may also require Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies, or REMS, or the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials. If we do not receive regulatory approvals for our product candidates, we may not be able to continue our operations. Even if we successfully obtain regulatory approvals to market our product candidates, our revenues will be dependent, in part, upon the size of the markets in the territories for which we gain regulatory approval and have commercial rights. If the markets for patient subsets that we are targeting are not as significant as we estimate, we may not generate significant revenues from sales of such products, if approved.
We plan to seek regulatory approval to commercialize our product candidates both in the United States and in selected foreign countries. In order to obtain separate regulatory approvals in other countries, we must comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of such countries regarding safety and efficacy. Other countries also have their own regulations governing, among other things, clinical trials and commercial sales, as well as pricing and distribution of our product candidates, and we may be required to expend significant resources to obtain regulatory approval, which may not be successful, and to comply with ongoing regulations in these jurisdictions.
The success of our current and future product candidates will depend on many factors, including the following actions to be taken by us or our collaborators, as applicable:
successful completion of necessary preclinical studies to enable the initiation of clinical trials;
successful enrollment of patients in, and the completion of, our clinical trials with favorable results;
receiving required regulatory authorizations for the development and approvals for the commercialization of our product candidates;
establishing and maintaining arrangements with third-party manufacturers;
obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and non-patent exclusivity for our product candidates and their components;
enforcing and defending our intellectual property rights and claims;
achieving desirable therapeutic properties for our product candidates’ intended indications;
launching commercial sales of our product candidates, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with third parties;
acceptance of our product candidates, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;
effectively competing with other therapies; and
maintaining an acceptable safety profile of our product candidates through clinical trials and following regulatory approval.
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If we do not achieve one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully commercialize our product candidates, which would materially harm our business.
Our product candidates are in early stages of development and may fail in development or suffer delays that materially adversely affect their commercial viability. If we or our collaborators are unable to complete development of, or commercialize, our product candidates or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.
We have no products on the market and all of our product candidates are in early stages of development. Additionally, we have a portfolio of targets and programs that are in earlier stages of discovery and preclinical development and may never advance to clinical-stage development. Our ability to achieve and sustain profitability depends on obtaining regulatory approvals for, and successfully commercializing our product candidates, either alone or with third parties, and we cannot guarantee you that we will ever obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates. We have limited experience in conducting and managing the clinical trials necessary to obtain regulatory approvals, including approval by the FDA. Before obtaining regulatory approval for the commercial distribution of our product candidates, we or an existing or future collaborator must conduct extensive preclinical tests and clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy in humans of our product candidates.
We may not have the financial resources to continue development of, or to modify existing or enter into new collaborations for, a product candidate if we experience any issues that delay or prevent regulatory approval of, or our ability to commercialize, product candidates, including:
preclinical study results may show the product candidate to be less effective than desired or to have harmful or problematic side effects;
preclinical studies conducted outside of the United States may be affected by tariffs or import/export restrictions imposed by the United States or other governments;
negative or inconclusive results from our clinical trials or the clinical trials of others for product candidates similar to ours, leading to a decision or requirement to conduct additional preclinical testing or clinical trials or abandon a program;
product-related side effects experienced by patients in our clinical trials or by individuals using drugs or therapeutic biologics similar to our product candidates;
our third-party manufacturers’ inability to successfully manufacture our products;
inability of any third-party contract manufacturer to scale up manufacturing of our product candidates and those of our collaborators to supply the needs of clinical trials or commercial sales;
delays in submitting INDs or comparable foreign applications or delays or failures in obtaining the necessary approvals from regulators to commence a clinical trial, or a suspension or termination of a clinical trial once commenced;
conditions imposed by the FDA or comparable foreign authorities regarding the scope or design of our clinical trials;
delays in enrolling patients in our clinical trials;
high drop-out rates of our clinical trial patients;
inadequate supply or quality of product candidate components or materials or other supplies necessary for the conduct of our clinical trials;
inability to obtain alternative sources of supply for which we have a single source for product candidate components or materials;
harmful side effects or inability of our product candidates to meet efficacy endpoints during clinical trials;
failure to demonstrate a benefit-risk profile acceptable to the FDA or other regulatory agencies;
unfavorable FDA or other regulatory agency inspection and review of one or more clinical trial sites or manufacturing facilities used in the testing and manufacture of any of our product candidates;
failure of our third-party contractors or investigators to comply with regulatory requirements or otherwise meet their contractual obligations in a timely manner, or at all;
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delays and changes in regulatory requirements, policy and guidelines, including the imposition of additional regulatory oversight around clinical testing generally or with respect to our technology in particular or as a result of the impacts of COVID-19; or
varying interpretations of our data by the FDA and similar foreign regulatory agencies.
We or our collaborators’ inability to complete development of, or commercialize our product candidates, or significant delays in doing so due to one or more of these factors, could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
If we do not achieve our projected development goals in the time frames we announce and expect, the commercialization of our products may be delayed and, as a result, our stock price may decline.
From time to time, we estimate the timing of the anticipated accomplishment of various scientific, clinical, regulatory and other product development goals, which we sometimes refer to as milestones. These milestones may include the commencement or completion of scientific studies and clinical trials and the submission of regulatory filings. From time to time, we may publicly announce the expected timing of some of these milestones. All of these milestones are and will be based on numerous assumptions. The actual timing of these milestones can vary dramatically compared to our estimates, in some cases for reasons beyond our control. If we do not meet these milestones as publicly announced, or at all, the commercialization of our products may be delayed or never achieved and, as a result, our stock price may decline.
Our approach to the discovery and development of our therapeutic treatments is based on novel technologies that are unproven and may not result in marketable products.
We are developing a pipeline of product candidates using our MInT Platform. Historically, dozens of integrin-targeted oral small molecule candidates of other companies that entered late-stage clinical trials have failed to result in FDA or EMA approved medicines. Development efforts and clinical results of other companies exploring oral approaches to integrins may be unsuccessful, resulting in a negative perception of oral integrins and negatively impacting the regulatory approval process of our product candidates, which would have a material and adverse effect on our business. We believe that product candidates identified with our MInT Platform may offer an optimized therapeutic approach by taking advantage of conformational targeting next-generation physics-based technologies augmented with machine learning and artificial intelligence, which allow us to design, iterate and optimize leads in our discovery process. However, the scientific research that forms the basis of our efforts to develop product candidates using our MInT Platform is ongoing and may not result in viable product candidates.
We may ultimately discover that our MInT Platform and any product candidates resulting therefrom do not possess certain properties required for therapeutic effectiveness, including the ability to lock specific integrin conformations. Our product candidates may also be unable to remain stable in the human body for the period of time required for the drug to reach the target tissue or they may trigger immune responses that inhibit the ability of the product candidate to reach the target tissue or that cause adverse side effects in humans. In addition, product candidates based on our MInT Platform may demonstrate different chemical and pharmacological properties in patients than they do in laboratory studies. Our MInT Platform and any product candidates resulting therefrom may not demonstrate the same chemical and pharmacological properties in humans and may interact with human biological systems in unforeseen, ineffective or harmful ways. For example, AbbVie has informed the Company that it does not intend to advance any of its selective oral αvβ6-specific integrin inhibitors due to a suspected on-target / αvβ6-mediated safety signal that has been observed in pre-clinical testing.
The regulatory approval process for novel product candidates such as ours can be more expensive and take longer than for other, better known or extensively studied product candidates. To our knowledge, no regulatory authority has granted approval for an oral small-molecule integrin inhibitor. We believe the FDA has limited experience with integrin-based therapeutics, which may increase the complexity, uncertainty and length of the regulatory approval process for our product candidates. We and our existing or future collaborators may never receive approval to market and commercialize any product candidate. Even if we or an existing or future collaborator obtains regulatory approval, the approval may be for targets, disease indications or patient populations that are not as broad as we intended or desired or may require labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings. We or an existing or future collaborator may be required to perform additional or unanticipated clinical trials to obtain approval or be subject to post-marketing testing requirements to maintain regulatory approval. If the products resulting from our MInT Platform and research programs prove to be ineffective, unsafe or commercially unviable, our MInT Platform and pipeline would have little, if any, value, which would have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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Preclinical and clinical development involve a lengthy and expensive process, with an uncertain outcome, and results of earlier studies and trials may not be predictive of future trial results. We may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of our current product candidates or any future product candidates.
All of our product candidates are in preclinical or clinical development, and the risk of failure is high for all programs. It is impossible to predict accurately when or if any of our product candidates will receive regulatory approval. To obtain the requisite regulatory approvals to commercialize any product candidates, we must demonstrate through extensive preclinical studies and lengthy, complex and expensive clinical trials that our product candidates are safe and effective in humans. Clinical testing can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process. The results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials of our product candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials. We may be unable to establish clinical endpoints that applicable regulatory authorities would consider clinically meaningful, and a cli