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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______
Commission File No. 1-6571
Merck & Co., Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
New Jersey22-1918501
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
126 East Lincoln Avenue
RahwayNew Jersey07065
(Address of principal executive offices) (zip code)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code) (908) 740-4000
Not Applicable
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report.)
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock ($0.50 par value)MRKNew York Stock Exchange
0.500% Notes due 2024MRK 24New York Stock Exchange
1.875% Notes due 2026MRK/26New York Stock Exchange
2.500% Notes due 2034MRK/34New York Stock Exchange
1.375% Notes due 2036MRK 36ANew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No 
The number of shares of common stock outstanding as of the close of business on April 30, 2024: 2,532,806,307





Table of Contents





Part I - Financial Information
Item 1. Financial Statements
MERCK & CO., INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF INCOME
(Unaudited, $ in millions except per share amounts)
 
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20242023
Sales$15,775 $14,487 
Costs, Expenses and Other
Cost of sales3,540 3,926 
Selling, general and administrative2,483 2,479 
Research and development3,992 4,276 
Restructuring costs123 67 
Other (income) expense, net(33)89 
 10,105 10,837 
Income Before Taxes5,670 3,650 
Taxes on Income
903 825 
Net Income4,767 2,825 
Less: Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests5 4 
Net Income Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.$4,762 $2,821 
Basic Earnings per Common Share Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. Common Shareholders$1.88 $1.11 
Earnings per Common Share Assuming Dilution Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. Common Shareholders$1.87 $1.11 
 
MERCK & CO., INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Unaudited, $ in millions)
 
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20242023
Net Income Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.$4,762 $2,821 
Other Comprehensive Loss Net of Taxes:
Net unrealized gain (loss) on derivatives, net of reclassifications
130 (133)
Benefit plan net (loss) gain and prior service (cost) credit, net of amortization(5)(50)
Cumulative translation adjustment(238)68 
 (113)(115)
Comprehensive Income Attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.$4,649 $2,706 
 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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MERCK & CO., INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET
(Unaudited, $ in millions except per share amounts)
 
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Assets
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$5,579 $6,841 
Short-term investments40 252 
Accounts receivable (net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $80 in 2024
 and $88 in 2023)
11,366 10,349 
Inventories (excludes inventories of $3,413 in 2024 and $3,348 in 2023
classified in Other assets - see Note 6)
6,510 6,358 
Other current assets7,950 8,368 
Total current assets31,445 32,168 
Investments280 252 
Property, Plant and Equipment, at cost, net of accumulated depreciation of $18,620
in 2024 and $18,266 in 2023
23,045 23,051 
Goodwill21,181 21,197 
Other Intangibles, Net17,572 18,011 
Other Assets12,326 11,996 
 $105,849 $106,675 
Liabilities and Equity
Current Liabilities
Loans payable and current portion of long-term debt$3,077 $1,372 
Trade accounts payable3,514 3,922 
Accrued and other current liabilities14,102 15,766 
Income taxes payable2,398 2,649 
Dividends payable2,008 1,985 
Total current liabilities25,099 25,694 
Long-Term Debt31,142 33,683 
Deferred Income Taxes922 871 
Other Noncurrent Liabilities8,262 8,792 
Merck & Co., Inc. Stockholders’ Equity
Common stock, $0.50 par value
Authorized - 6,500,000,000 shares
Issued - 3,577,103,522 shares in 2024 and 2023
1,788 1,788 
Other paid-in capital44,598 44,509 
Retained earnings56,697 53,895 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(5,274)(5,161)
97,809 95,031 
Less treasury stock, at cost:
1,044,402,655 shares in 2024 and 1,045,470,249 shares in 2023
57,445 57,450 
Total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity40,364 37,581 
Noncontrolling Interests60 54 
Total equity40,424 37,635 
 $105,849 $106,675 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of this condensed consolidated financial statement.
- 4 -



MERCK & CO., INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited, $ in millions)
 
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20242023
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Net income
$4,767 $2,825 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Amortization473 543 
Depreciation511 448 
Income from investments in equity securities, net
(143)(450)
Charge for the acquisition of Harpoon Therapeutics, Inc.
656  
Charge for the acquisition of Imago BioSciences, Inc. 1,192 
Deferred income taxes(51)(277)
Share-based compensation176 145 
Other83 (197)
Net changes in assets and liabilities(3,382)(2,890)
Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities 3,090 1,339 
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
Capital expenditures(861)(1,007)
Purchases of securities and other investments(15)(562)
Proceeds from sales of securities and other investments260 500 
Acquisition of Harpoon Therapeutics, Inc., net of cash acquired
(746) 
Acquisition of Imago BioSciences, Inc., net of cash acquired (1,327)
Other(14)37 
Net Cash Used in Investing Activities (1,376)(2,359)
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
Payments on debt(751)(1)
Dividends paid to stockholders(1,950)(1,853)
Purchases of treasury stock(122)(149)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options87 30 
Other(78)(81)
Net Cash Used in Financing Activities
(2,814)(2,054)
Effect of Exchange Rate Changes on Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash(138)87 
Net Decrease in Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
(1,238)(2,987)
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash at Beginning of Year (includes restricted cash of
$68 and $79 at January 1, 2024 and 2023, respectively, included in Other current assets)
6,909 12,773 
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash at End of Period (includes restricted cash of $92
and $79 at March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, included in Other current assets)
$5,671 $9,786 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of this condensed consolidated financial statement.
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Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)

1. Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of Merck & Co., Inc. (Merck or the Company) have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations for reporting on Form 10-Q. Accordingly, certain information and disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (U.S.) for complete consolidated financial statements are not included herein. These interim statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes thereto included in Merck’s Form 10-K filed on February 26, 2024.
The results of operations of any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations for the full year. In the Company’s opinion, all adjustments necessary for a fair statement of these interim statements have been included and are of a normal and recurring nature. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year amounts to conform to the current year presentation.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
In August 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued amended guidance that requires a newly formed joint venture to recognize and initially measure its assets and liabilities at fair value upon formation. The amended guidance includes exceptions to fair value measurement that are consistent with the accounting for business combinations guidance. The amended guidance is effective prospectively for all joint ventures with a formation date on or after January 1, 2025, however existing joint ventures have the option to apply the guidance retrospectively. Early adoption is permitted for both interim and annual periods. The Company anticipates there will be no impact to its consolidated financial statements upon adoption.
In November 2023, the FASB issued guidance intended to improve reportable segment disclosure requirements, primarily through expanded disclosures for significant segment expenses. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning in 2024, and interim periods beginning in 2025. The guidance will result in incremental disclosures within the footnotes to the Company’s financial statements.
In December 2023, the FASB issued guidance intended to improve the transparency of income tax disclosures by requiring consistent categories and disaggregation of information in the effective income tax rate reconciliation and income taxes paid disclosures by jurisdiction. The guidance also includes other amendments to improve the effectiveness of income tax disclosures by removing certain previously required disclosures. The guidance is effective for 2025 annual reporting. Early adoption is permitted. The guidance will result in incremental disclosures within the footnotes to the Company’s financial statements.
2.    Acquisitions, Divestitures, Research Collaborations and Licensing Agreements
The Company continues to pursue acquisitions and the establishment of external alliances such as research collaborations and licensing agreements to complement its internal research capabilities. These arrangements often include upfront payments; expense reimbursements or payments to the third party; milestone, royalty or profit share arrangements contingent upon the occurrence of certain future events linked to the success of the asset in development; and can also include option and continuation payments. The Company also reviews its marketed products and pipeline to examine candidates which may provide more value through out-licensing and, as part of its portfolio assessment process, may also divest certain assets. Pro forma financial information for acquired businesses is not presented if the historical financial results of the acquired entity are not significant when compared with the Company’s financial results.
2024 Transactions
In March 2024, Merck acquired Harpoon Therapeutics, Inc. (Harpoon), a clinical-stage immunotherapy company developing a novel class of T-cell engagers designed to harness the power of the body’s immune system to treat patients suffering from cancer and other diseases, for $765 million and also incurred $56 million of transaction costs. Harpoon’s lead candidate, MK-6070 (formerly HPN328), is a T-cell engager targeting delta-like ligand 3 (DLL3), an inhibitory canonical Notch ligand that is expressed at high levels in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and neuroendocrine tumors. MK-6070 is currently being evaluated as monotherapy in a Phase 1/2 clinical trial in certain patients with advanced cancers associated with expression of DLL3. The study is also evaluating MK-6070 in combination with atezolizumab in certain patients with SCLC. The transaction was accounted for as an asset acquisition since MK-6070 represented substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired (excluding cash and deferred income taxes). Merck recorded net assets of $165 million, as well as a charge of $656 million to Research and development expenses in the first quarter of 2024 related to the transaction. There are no future contingent payments associated with the acquisition.
In February 2024, Merck entered into a definitive agreement to acquire the aqua business of Elanco Animal Health Incorporated (Elanco) for $1.3 billion in cash. The Elanco aqua business to be acquired consists of an innovative portfolio of medicines and vaccines, nutritionals and supplements for aquatic species; two related aqua manufacturing facilities in Canada and Vietnam; as well as a research facility in Chile. Upon closing, the acquisition will broaden Animal Health’s aqua portfolio with products, such as Clynav, a new generation DNA-based vaccine that protects Atlantic salmon against pancreas disease, and Imvixa, an anti-parasitic sea lice treatment. This acquisition also brings a portfolio of water treatment products for warm water production, complementing Animal Health’s warm water vaccine portfolio. In addition to these products, the DNA-based vaccine
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Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
technology that is a part of the business has the potential to accelerate the development of novel vaccines to address the unmet needs of the aqua industry. The acquisition is expected to be completed by mid-2024, subject to approvals from regulatory authorities and other customary closing conditions. The transaction will be accounted for as a business combination.
2023 Transactions
In February 2023, Merck and Kelun-Biotech (a holding subsidiary of Sichuan Kelun Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.) closed a license and collaboration agreement expanding their relationship in which Merck gained exclusive rights for the research, development, manufacture and commercialization of up to seven investigational preclinical antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) for the treatment of cancer. Kelun-Biotech retained the right to research, develop, manufacture and commercialize certain licensed and option ADCs for Chinese mainland, Hong Kong and Macau. Merck made an upfront payment of $175 million, which was recorded as a charge to Research and development expenses in the first quarter of 2023. In October 2023, Merck notified Kelun-Biotech it was terminating two of the seven candidates under the agreement. Subsequently, in April 2024, Merck notified Kelun-Biotech it was terminating an additional candidate under the agreement. Kelun-Biotech remains eligible to receive future contingent payments aggregating up to $600 million in development-related payments, $1.6 billion in regulatory milestones, and $3.1 billion in sales-based milestones if Kelun-Biotech does not retain Chinese mainland, Hong Kong and Macau rights for the option ADCs and all remaining candidates achieve regulatory approval. In addition, Kelun-Biotech is eligible to receive tiered royalties ranging from a mid-single-digit rate to a low-double-digit rate on future net sales for any commercialized ADC product. Also, in connection with the agreement, Merck invested $100 million in Kelun-Biotech shares in January 2023.
In January 2023, Merck acquired Imago BioSciences, Inc. (Imago), a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company developing new medicines for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms and other bone marrow diseases, for $1.35 billion (including payments to settle share-based equity awards) and also incurred approximately $60 million of transaction costs. Imago’s lead candidate, bomedemstat MK-3543 (formerly IMG-7289), is an investigational orally available lysine-specific demethylase 1 inhibitor currently being evaluated in multiple clinical trials for the treatment of essential thrombocythemia, myelofibrosis, and polycythemia vera, in addition to other indications. A Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating bomedemstat for the treatment of certain patients with essential thrombocythemia is underway. The transaction was accounted for as an acquisition of an asset since bomedemstat represented substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired (excluding cash and deferred income taxes). Merck recorded net assets of $219 million, as well as a charge of $1.2 billion to Research and development expenses in the first quarter of 2023 related to the transaction. There are no future contingent payments associated with the acquisition.
Spin-Off of Organon & Co.
In connection with the 2021 spin-off of Organon & Co. (Organon), Merck and Organon entered into a series of interim operating agreements pursuant to which in various jurisdictions where Merck held licenses, permits and other rights in connection with marketing, import and/or distribution of Organon products prior to the separation, Merck continued to market, import and distribute such products on behalf of Organon until such time as the relevant licenses and permits transferred to Organon, with Organon receiving all of the economic benefits and burdens of such activities. As of March 31, 2024, only one jurisdiction remains under an interim operating agreement. Additionally, Merck and Organon entered into a number of manufacturing and supply agreements (MSAs) with terms ranging from four years to ten years. The amounts included in the condensed consolidated statement of income for the above MSAs include sales of $107 million and $94 million and related cost of sales of $110 million and $107 million for the first quarter of 2024 and 2023, respectively. The amounts due from Organon for all spin-off related agreements were $462 million and $632 million at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, and are reflected in Other current assets. The amounts due to Organon under these agreements were $193 million and $598 million at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, and are included in Accrued and other current liabilities.
3.    Collaborative Arrangements
Merck has entered into collaborative arrangements that provide the Company with varying rights to develop, produce and market products together with its collaborative partners. Both parties in these arrangements are active participants and exposed to significant risks and rewards dependent on the commercial success of the activities of the collaboration. Merck’s more significant collaborative arrangements are discussed below.
AstraZeneca PLC
In 2017, Merck and AstraZeneca PLC (AstraZeneca) entered into a global strategic oncology collaboration to co-develop and co-commercialize AstraZeneca’s Lynparza (olaparib) for multiple cancer types. Independently, Merck and AstraZeneca are developing and commercializing Lynparza in combinations with their respective PD-1 and PD-L1 medicines, Keytruda (pembrolizumab) and Imfinzi. The companies are also jointly developing and commercializing AstraZeneca’s Koselugo (selumetinib) for multiple indications. Under the terms of the agreement, AstraZeneca and Merck share the development and commercialization costs for Lynparza and Koselugo monotherapy and non-PD-L1/PD-1 combination therapy opportunities.
Profits from Lynparza and Koselugo product sales generated through monotherapies or combination therapies are shared equally. AstraZeneca is the principal on Lynparza and Koselugo sales transactions. Merck records its share of Lynparza and Koselugo product sales, net of cost of sales and commercialization costs, as alliance revenue, and its share of development costs associated with the collaboration as part of Research and development expenses. Reimbursements received from AstraZeneca for research and development expenses are recognized as reductions to Research and development costs.
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Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
As part of the agreement, Merck made an upfront payment to AstraZeneca and also made payments over a multi-year period for certain license options. In addition, the agreement provides for contingent payments from Merck to AstraZeneca related to the successful achievement of sales-based and regulatory milestones.
In 2022, Merck determined it was probable that sales of Lynparza in the future would trigger a $600 million sales-based milestone payment from Merck to AstraZeneca. Accordingly, Merck recorded a $600 million liability (which remained accrued at March 31, 2024) and a corresponding increase to the intangible asset related to Lynparza. Potential future sales-based milestone payments of $2.1 billion have not yet been accrued as they are not deemed by the Company to be probable at this time. Lynparza received regulatory approvals triggering capitalized milestone payments from Merck to AstraZeneca of $245 million and $105 million in the first quarter of 2024 and 2023, respectively (each of which had been previously accrued for). Potential future regulatory milestone payments of $650 million remain under the agreement.
The intangible asset balance related to Lynparza (which includes capitalized sales-based and regulatory milestone payments) was $1.4 billion at March 31, 2024 and is included in Other Intangibles, Net. The amount is being amortized over its estimated useful life through 2028 as supported by projected future cash flows, subject to impairment testing.
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
($ in millions)20242023
Alliance revenue - Lynparza$292 $275 
Alliance revenue - Koselugo38 23 
Total alliance revenue$330 $298 
Cost of sales (1)
82 70 
Selling, general and administrative39 47 
Research and development20 21 
($ in millions)March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Receivables from AstraZeneca included in Other current assets
$334 $341 
Payables to AstraZeneca included in Accrued and other current liabilities (2)
617 256 
Payables to AstraZeneca included in Other Noncurrent Liabilities (2)
 600 
(1)    Represents amortization of capitalized milestone payments.
(2)    Includes accrued milestone payments.
Eisai Co., Ltd.
In 2018, Merck and Eisai Co., Ltd. (Eisai) announced a strategic collaboration for the worldwide co-development and co-commercialization of Lenvima (lenvatinib), an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovered by Eisai. Under the agreement, Merck and Eisai are developing and commercializing Lenvima jointly, both as monotherapy and in combination with Keytruda. Eisai records Lenvima product sales globally (Eisai is the principal on Lenvima sales transactions) and Merck and Eisai share applicable profits equally. Merck records its share of Lenvima product sales, net of cost of sales and commercialization costs, as alliance revenue. Expenses incurred during co-development are shared by the two companies in accordance with the collaboration agreement and reflected in Research and development expenses. Certain expenses incurred solely by Merck or Eisai are not shareable under the collaboration agreement, including costs incurred in excess of agreed upon caps and costs related to certain combination studies of Keytruda and Lenvima.
Under the agreement, Merck made an upfront payment to Eisai and also made payments over a multi-year period for certain option rights. In addition, the agreement provides for contingent payments from Merck to Eisai related to the successful achievement of sales-based and regulatory milestones.
In the first quarter of 2023, Merck determined it was probable that sales of Lenvima in the future would trigger a $125 million sales-based milestone payment from Merck to Eisai. Similarly, in the third quarter of 2023 an additional $125 million sales-based milestone payment to Eisai was deemed by the Company to be probable of payment. Accordingly, Merck recorded $250 million of liabilities for these payments (of which $125 million was subsequently paid in the second quarter of 2023 and $125 million remained accrued at March 31, 2024) and corresponding increases to the intangible asset related to Lenvima. Merck also recognized $72 million and $81 million of cumulative amortization catch-up expense related to the recognition of these milestones in the first and third quarters of 2023, respectively. Potential future sales-based milestone payments of $2.3 billion have not yet been accrued as they are not deemed by the Company to be probable at this time. There are no regulatory milestone payments remaining under the agreement.
The intangible asset balance related to Lenvima (which includes capitalized sales-based and regulatory milestone payments) was $623 million at March 31, 2024 and is included in Other Intangibles, Net. The amount is being amortized over its estimated useful life through 2026 as supported by projected future cash flows, subject to impairment testing.

- 8 -

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
($ in millions)20242023
Alliance revenue - Lenvima$255 $232 
Cost of sales (1)
60 126 
Selling, general and administrative39 51 
Research and development8 39 
($ in millions)March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Receivables from Eisai included in Other current assets
$255 $226 
Payables to Eisai included in Accrued and other current liabilities (2)
125 125 
(1)    Represents amortization of capitalized milestone payments. Amount in the first quarter of 2023 includes $72 million of cumulative amortization catch-up expense as noted above.
(2)    Represents an accrued milestone payment.
Bayer AG
In 2014, the Company entered into a worldwide clinical development collaboration with Bayer AG (Bayer) to market and develop soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) modulators including Bayer’s Adempas (riociguat) and Verquvo (vericiguat). The two companies have implemented a joint development and commercialization strategy. Under the agreement, Bayer commercializes Adempas in the Americas, while Merck commercializes in the rest of the world. For Verquvo, Merck commercializes in the U.S. and Bayer commercializes in the rest of the world. Both companies share in development costs and profits on sales. Merck records sales of Adempas and Verquvo in its marketing territories, as well as alliance revenue. Alliance revenue represents Merck’s share of profits from sales of Adempas and Verquvo in Bayer’s marketing territories, which are product sales net of cost of sales and commercialization costs. Cost of sales includes Bayer’s share of profits from sales in Merck’s marketing territories.
In addition, the agreement provided for contingent payments from Merck to Bayer related to the successful achievement of sales-based milestones. There are no sales-based milestone payments remaining under this collaboration.
The intangible asset balances related to Adempas (which includes the acquired intangible asset balance, as well as capitalized sales-based milestone payments attributed to Adempas) and Verquvo (which reflects the portion of the final sales-based milestone payment that was attributed to Verquvo) were $483 million and $49 million, respectively, at March 31, 2024 and are included in Other Intangibles, Net. The assets are being amortized over their estimated useful lives (through 2027 for Adempas and through 2031 for Verquvo) as supported by projected future cash flows, subject to impairment testing.
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
($ in millions)20242023
Alliance revenue - Adempas/Verquvo$98 $99 
Net sales of Adempas recorded by Merck70 59 
Net sales of Verquvo recorded by Merck5 7 
Total sales$173 $165 
Cost of sales (1)
62 57 
Selling, general and administrative33 33 
Research and development28 25 
($ in millions)March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Receivables from Bayer included in Other current assets
$155 $156 
Payables to Bayer included in Accrued and other current liabilities
74 80 
(1)    Includes amortization of intangible assets, cost of products sold by Merck, as well as Bayer’s share of profits from sales in Merck’s marketing territories.
Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP
In 2020, Merck and Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP (Ridgeback), a closely held biotechnology company, entered into a collaboration agreement to develop Lagevrio (molnupiravir), an investigational orally available antiviral candidate for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Merck gained exclusive worldwide rights to develop and commercialize Lagevrio and related molecules. Following initial authorizations in certain markets in the fourth quarter of 2021, Lagevrio has since received multiple additional authorizations.
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Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
Under the terms of the agreement, Ridgeback received an upfront payment and is eligible to receive future contingent payments dependent upon the achievement of certain developmental and regulatory approval milestones. The agreement also provides for Merck to reimburse Ridgeback for a portion of certain third-party contingent milestone payments and royalties on net sales, which is part of the profit-sharing calculation. Merck is the principal on sales transactions, recognizing sales and related costs, with profit-sharing amounts recorded within Cost of sales. Profits from the collaboration are split equally between the partners. Reimbursements from Ridgeback for its share of research and development costs (deducted from Ridgeback’s share of profits) are reflected as decreases to Research and development expenses.
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
($ in millions)20242023
Net sales of Lagevrio recorded by Merck
$350 $392 
Cost of sales (1)
191 221 
Selling, general and administrative
16 27 
Research and development
(5)16 
($ in millions)March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Payables to Ridgeback included in Accrued and other current liabilities (2)
$160 $113 
(1)    Includes cost of products sold by Merck, Ridgeback’s share of profits, royalty expense, amortization of capitalized milestone payments and inventory reserves.
(2)    Includes accrued royalties.
Daiichi Sankyo
In October 2023, Merck and Daiichi Sankyo entered into a global development and commercialization agreement for three of Daiichi Sankyo’s DXd ADC candidates: patritumab deruxtecan (HER3-DXd) (MK-1022), ifinatamab deruxtecan (I-DXd) (MK-2400) and raludotatug deruxtecan (R-DXd) (MK-5909). All three potentially first-in-class DXd ADCs are in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of multiple solid tumors both as monotherapy and/or in combination with other treatments. The companies will jointly develop and potentially commercialize these ADC candidates worldwide, except in Japan where Daiichi Sankyo will maintain exclusive rights. Daiichi Sankyo will be solely responsible for manufacturing and supply.
Under the terms of the agreement, Merck made payments to Daiichi Sankyo totaling $4.0 billion in 2023. These payments included $1.0 billion ($500 million each for patritumab deruxtecan and ifinatamab deruxtecan) which may be refundable on a pro-rated basis in the event of early termination of development with respect to either program. In addition, the agreement provides for a continuation payment of $750 million related to patritumab deruxtecan due from Merck in October 2024 and a continuation payment of $750 million related to raludotatug deruxtecan due from Merck in October 2025. If Merck does not make the continuation payments on the dates noted for either patritumab deruxtecan and/or raludotatug deruxtecan, the rights for the applicable program will revert to Daiichi Sankyo and the non-refundable upfront payments already paid will be retained by Daiichi Sankyo. The agreement also provides for contingent payments from Merck to Daiichi Sankyo of up to an additional $5.5 billion for each DXd ADC upon the successful achievement of certain sales-based milestones. In conjunction with this transaction, Merck recorded an aggregate pretax charge of $5.5 billion to Research and development expenses in the fourth quarter of 2023 for the $4.0 billion of upfront payments and the $1.5 billion of continuation payments.
Merck and Daiichi Sankyo will equally share research and development costs, except for raludotatug deruxtecan, where Merck will be responsible for 75% of the first $2.0 billion of research and development expenses. Merck includes its share of development costs associated with the collaboration as part of Research and development expenses. Following regulatory approval, Daiichi Sankyo will generally record sales worldwide (Daiichi Sankyo will be the principal on sales transactions) and the companies will equally share expenses as well as profits worldwide except for Japan where Daiichi Sankyo retains exclusive rights and Merck will receive a 5% sales-based royalty. Merck will record its share of product sales, net of cost of sales and commercialization costs, as alliance revenue.

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Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
($ in millions)20242023
Selling, general and administrative $3 $ 
Research and development
69  
($ in millions)March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Payables to Daiichi Sankyo included in Accrued and other current liabilities
$817 $800 
Payables to Daiichi Sankyo included in Other Noncurrent Liabilities
750 750 
Moderna, Inc.
In 2022, Merck exercised its option to jointly develop and commercialize V940 (mRNA-4157), an investigational individualized neoantigen therapy, pursuant to the terms of an existing collaboration and license agreement with Moderna, Inc. (Moderna). V940 (mRNA-4157) is currently being evaluated in combination with Keytruda in multiple Phase 3 clinical trials. Merck and Moderna will share costs and any profits equally under this worldwide collaboration. Merck records its share of development costs associated with the collaboration as part of Research and development expenses. Any reimbursements received from Moderna for research and development expenses are recognized as reductions to Research and development costs. Merck has also capitalized certain of the shared costs, which aggregated $110 million at March 31, 2024 and will be amortized over the assets’ estimated useful lives.
Summarized financial information related to this collaboration is as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
($ in millions)20242023
Selling, general and administrative $2 $1 
Research and development
69 26 
($ in millions)March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Payables to Moderna included in Accrued and other current liabilities
$72 $63 
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
Reblozyl (luspatercept-aamt) is a first-in-class erythroid maturation recombinant fusion protein that is being commercialized through a global collaboration with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMS). Reblozyl is approved in the U.S., Europe and certain other markets for the treatment of anemia in certain rare blood disorders and is also being evaluated for additional indications for hematology therapies. BMS is the principal on sales transactions for Reblozyl; however, Merck co-promotes Reblozyl (and will co-promote all future products approved under this collaboration) in North America, which is reimbursed by BMS. Merck receives tiered royalties ranging from 20% to 24% based on sales levels. This royalty will be reduced by 50% upon the earlier of patent expiry or generic entry on an indication-by-indication basis in each market. Additionally, Merck is eligible to receive future contingent sales-based milestone payments of up to $80 million. Alliance revenue related to this collaboration, consisting of royalties (recorded within Sales) was $71 million and $43 million in the first quarter of 2024 and 2023, respectively.
4.    Restructuring
In January 2024, the Company approved a new restructuring program (2024 Restructuring Program) intended to continue the optimization of the Company’s Human Health global manufacturing network as the future pipeline shifts to new modalities and also optimize the Animal Health global manufacturing network to improve supply reliability and increase efficiency. The actions contemplated under the 2024 Restructuring Program are expected to be substantially completed by the end of 2031, with the cumulative pretax costs to be incurred by the Company to implement the program estimated to be approximately $4.0 billion. Approximately 60% of the cumulative pretax costs will be non-cash, relating primarily to the accelerated depreciation of facilities to be closed or divested. The remainder of the costs will result in cash outlays, relating primarily to facility shut-down costs. The Company recorded total pretax costs of $246 million in the first quarter of 2024 related to the 2024 Restructuring Program, bringing total cumulative pretax costs incurred through March 31, 2024 to $436 million.
In 2019, Merck approved a global restructuring program (2019 Restructuring Program) as part of a worldwide initiative focused on optimizing the Company’s manufacturing and supply network, as well as reducing its global real estate footprint. The Company recorded total pretax costs of $97 million in the first quarter of 2023 related to the 2019 Restructuring Program. The actions under the 2019 Restructuring Program were substantially complete at the end of 2023 and, as of January 1, 2024, any remaining activities are now being accounted for as part of the 2024 Restructuring Program.
For segment reporting, restructuring charges are unallocated expenses.
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Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
The following tables summarize the charges related to the restructuring programs by type of cost:
 Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
($ in millions)
Accelerated Depreciation
Separation Costs
Other Exit Costs
Total
2024 Restructuring Program
Cost of sales$65 $ $51 $116 
Selling, general and administrative  5 5 
Research and development  2 2 
Restructuring costs 92 31 123 
$65 $92 $89 $246 
 Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
($ in millions)
Accelerated Depreciation
Separation Costs
Other Exit Costs
Total
2019 Restructuring Program
Cost of sales$21 $ $8 $29 
Selling, general and administrative  1 1 
Restructuring costs 41 26 67 
$21 $41 $35 $97 
Accelerated depreciation costs primarily relate to manufacturing, research and administrative facilities and equipment to be sold or closed as part of the programs. Accelerated depreciation costs represent the difference between the depreciation expense to be recognized over the revised useful life of the asset, based upon the anticipated date the site will be closed or divested or the equipment disposed of, and depreciation expense as determined utilizing the useful life prior to the restructuring actions. All the sites will continue to operate up through the respective closure dates and, since future undiscounted cash flows are sufficient to recover the respective book values, Merck is recording accelerated depreciation over the revised useful life of the site assets. Anticipated site closure dates, particularly related to manufacturing locations, have been and may continue to be adjusted to reflect changes resulting from regulatory or other factors.
Separation costs are associated with actual headcount reductions, as well as involuntary headcount reductions which were probable and could be reasonably estimated.
Other exit costs in 2024 and 2023 include asset abandonment, facility shut-down and other related costs, as well as pretax gains and losses resulting from the sales of facilities and related assets. Additionally, other activity includes certain employee-related costs associated with pension and other postretirement benefit plans (see Note 9) and share-based compensation.
The following table summarizes the charges and spending relating to restructuring program activities for the three months ended March 31, 2024:
($ in millions)
Accelerated Depreciation
Separation
Costs
Other Exit Costs
Total
Restructuring reserves January 1, 2024
$ $681 $31 $712 
Expenses65 92 89 246 
(Payments) receipts, net (67)(32)(99)
Non-cash activity(65) (58)(123)
Restructuring reserves March 31, 2024
$ $706 $30 $736 
5.    Financial Instruments
Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities
The Company manages the impact of foreign exchange rate movements and interest rate movements on its earnings, cash flows and fair values of assets and liabilities through operational means and through the use of various financial instruments, including derivative instruments.
A significant portion of the Company’s revenues and earnings in foreign affiliates is exposed to changes in foreign exchange rates. The objectives of and accounting related to the Company’s foreign currency risk management program, as well as its interest rate risk management activities are discussed below.
Foreign Currency Risk Management
The Company has established revenue hedging, balance sheet risk management and net investment hedging programs to protect against volatility of future foreign currency cash flows and changes in fair value caused by changes in foreign exchange rates.
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Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
The objective of the revenue hedging program is to reduce the variability caused by changes in foreign exchange rates that would affect the U.S. dollar value of future cash flows derived from foreign currency denominated sales, primarily the euro, Japanese yen and Chinese renminbi. To achieve this objective, the Company will hedge a portion of its forecasted foreign currency denominated third-party and intercompany distributor entity sales (forecasted sales) that are expected to occur over its planning cycle, typically no more than two years into the future. The Company will layer in hedges over time, increasing the portion of forecasted sales hedged as it gets closer to the expected date of the forecasted sales. The portion of forecasted sales hedged is based on assessments of cost-benefit profiles that consider natural offsetting exposures, revenue and foreign exchange rate volatilities and correlations, and the cost of hedging instruments. The Company manages its anticipated transaction exposure principally with purchased local currency put options, forward contracts, and purchased collar options.
The fair values of these derivative contracts are recorded as either assets (gain positions) or liabilities (loss positions) in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. Changes in the fair value of derivative contracts are recorded each period in either current earnings or Other comprehensive income (OCI), depending on whether the derivative is designated as part of a hedge transaction and, if so, the type of hedge transaction. For derivatives that are designated as cash flow hedges, the unrealized gains or losses on these contracts are recorded in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss (AOCL) and reclassified into Sales when the hedged anticipated revenue is recognized. For those derivatives which are not designated as cash flow hedges, but serve as economic hedges of forecasted sales, unrealized gains or losses are recorded in Sales each period. The cash flows from both designated and non-designated contracts are reported as operating activities in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows. The Company does not enter into derivatives for trading or speculative purposes.
The Company manages operating activities and net asset positions at each local subsidiary in order to mitigate the effects of foreign exchange on monetary assets and liabilities. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of a given subsidiary are remeasured at spot rates in effect on the balance sheet date with the effects of changes in spot rates reported in Other (income) expense, net. The Company also uses a balance sheet risk management program to mitigate the exposure of such assets and liabilities from the effects of volatility in foreign exchange. Merck principally utilizes forward exchange contracts to offset the effects of foreign exchange on exposures when it is deemed economical to do so based on a cost-benefit analysis that considers the magnitude of the exposure, the volatility of the foreign exchange rate and the cost of the hedging instrument (primarily the euro, Swiss franc, Japanese yen, and Chinese renminbi). The forward contracts are not designated as hedges and are marked to market through Other (income) expense, net. Accordingly, fair value changes in the forward contracts help mitigate the changes in the value of the remeasured assets and liabilities attributable to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, except to the extent of the spot-forward differences. These differences are not significant due to the short-term nature of the contracts, which typically have average maturities at inception of less than six months. The cash flows from these contracts are reported as operating activities in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows.
The Company also uses forward exchange contracts to hedge a portion of its net investment in foreign operations against movements in foreign exchange rates. The forward contracts are designated as hedges of the net investment in a foreign operation. The unrealized gains or losses on these contracts are recorded in foreign currency translation adjustment within OCI and remain in AOCL until either the sale or complete or substantially complete liquidation of the subsidiary. The Company excludes certain portions of the change in fair value of its derivative instruments from the assessment of hedge effectiveness (excluded components). Changes in fair value of the excluded components are recognized in OCI. The Company recognizes in earnings the initial value of the excluded components on a straight-line basis over the life of the derivative instrument, rather than using the mark-to-market approach. The cash flows from these contracts are reported as investing activities in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows.
Foreign exchange risk is also managed through the use of foreign currency debt. The Company’s senior unsecured euro-denominated notes have been designated as, and are effective as, economic hedges of the net investment in a foreign operation. Accordingly, foreign currency transaction gains or losses due to spot rate fluctuations on the euro-denominated debt instruments are included in foreign currency translation adjustment within OCI.
The effects of the Company’s net investment hedges on OCI and the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Income are shown below:
Amount of Pretax (Gain) Loss Recognized in Other Comprehensive Income (1)
Amount of Pretax Loss Recognized in Other (income) expense, net for Amounts Excluded from Effectiveness Testing
Three Months Ended March 31,Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in millions)2024202320242023
Net Investment Hedging Relationships
Foreign exchange contracts$(2)$1 $ $1 
Euro-denominated notes(62)52   
(1)    No amounts were reclassified from AOCL into income related to the sale of a subsidiary.
Interest Rate Risk Management
The Company may use interest rate swap contracts on certain investing and borrowing transactions to manage its net exposure to interest rate changes and to reduce its overall cost of borrowing. The Company does not use leveraged swaps and, in general, does not leverage any of its investment activities that would put principal at risk.
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Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
At March 31, 2024, the Company was a party to four pay-floating, receive-fixed interest rate swap contracts designated as fair value hedges of a portion of fixed-rate notes as detailed in the table below.
March 31, 2024
($ in millions)
Par Value of Debt
Number of Interest Rate Swaps Held
Total Swap Notional Amount
4.50% notes due 2033
$1,500 4 $1,000 
The interest rate swap contracts are designated hedges of the fair value changes in the notes attributable to changes in the benchmark Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) swap rate. The fair value changes in the notes attributable to changes in the SOFR swap rate are recorded in interest expense along with the offsetting fair value changes in the swap contracts. The cash flows from these contracts are reported as operating activities in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows. In April 2024, the Company entered into two additional interest rate swaps with notional amounts of $250 million each also related to its 4.50% notes due 2033.
The table below presents the location of amounts recorded in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet related to cumulative basis adjustments for fair value hedges:
Carrying Amount of Hedged Liabilities
Cumulative Amount of Fair Value Hedging Adjustment Increase Included in the Carrying Amount
($ in millions)
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Balance Sheet Caption
Long-Term Debt
$1,026 $1,056 $26 $56 
Presented in the table below is the fair value of derivatives on a gross basis segregated between those derivatives that are designated as hedging instruments and those that are not designated as hedging instruments:
  March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
  Fair Value of DerivativeU.S. Dollar
Notional
Fair Value of DerivativeU.S. Dollar
Notional
($ in millions)AssetLiabilityAssetLiability
Derivatives Designated as Hedging InstrumentsBalance Sheet Caption
Interest rate swap contracts
Other Assets
$27 $— $1,000 $57 $— $1,000 
Foreign exchange contractsOther current assets175 — 9,082 106 — 6,138 
Foreign exchange contractsOther Assets32 — 2,062 26 — 1,929 
Foreign exchange contractsAccrued and other current liabilities— 10 1,076 — 76 3,680 
Foreign exchange contractsOther Noncurrent Liabilities— 1 204 — 1 7 
  234 11 13,424 189 77 12,754 
Derivatives Not Designated as Hedging InstrumentsBalance Sheet Caption      
Foreign exchange contractsOther current assets121 — 9,428 153 — 9,693 
Foreign exchange contractsOther Assets2 — 43  —  
Foreign exchange contractsAccrued and other current liabilities— 154 9,282 — 162 8,104 
Foreign exchange contractsOther Noncurrent Liabilities— 2 43 —   
  123 156 18,796 153 162 17,797 
  $357 $167 $32,220 $342 $239 $30,551 
As noted above, the Company records its derivatives on a gross basis in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. The Company has master netting agreements with several of its financial institution counterparties (see Concentrations of Credit Risk below). The following table provides information on the Company’s derivative positions subject to these master netting arrangements as if they were presented on a net basis, allowing for the right of offset by counterparty and cash collateral exchanged per the master agreements and related credit support annexes:
 March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
($ in millions)AssetLiabilityAssetLiability
Gross amounts recognized in the condensed consolidated balance sheet$357 $167 $342 $239 
Gross amounts subject to offset in master netting arrangements not offset in the condensed consolidated balance sheet(111)(111)(215)(215)
Cash collateral received
(58) (3) 
Net amounts$188 $56 $124 $24 

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Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
The table below provides information regarding the location and amount of pretax gains and losses of derivatives designated in fair value or cash flow hedging relationships:
Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in millions)202420232024202320242023
Financial Statement Caption in which Effects of Fair Value or Cash Flow
Hedges are Recorded
Sales
Other (income) expense, net (1)
Other comprehensive income (loss)
$15,775 $14,487 $(33)$89 $(113)$(115)
(Gain) loss on fair value hedging relationships:
Interest rate swap contracts
Hedged items— — (30) — — 
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments— — 30  — — 
Impact of cash flow hedging relationships:
Foreign exchange contracts
Amount of gain (loss) recognized in OCI on derivatives
— — — — 209 (66)
Increase in Sales as a result of AOCL reclassifications
44 101 — — (44)(101)
Interest rate contracts
Amount of gain recognized in Other (income) expense, net on derivatives
— —  (1)— — 
Amount of loss recognized in OCI on derivatives
— — — —  (1)
(1)    Interest expense is a component of Other (income) expense, net.
The table below provides information regarding the income statement effects of derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:
Amount of Derivative Pretax (Gain) Loss Recognized in Income
Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in millions)20242023
Derivatives Not Designated as Hedging InstrumentsIncome Statement Caption
Foreign exchange contracts (1)
Other (income) expense, net$65 $13 
Foreign exchange contracts (2)
Sales(10)2 
(1)    These derivative contracts primarily mitigate changes in the value of remeasured foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities attributable to changes in foreign currency exchange rates.
(2)    These derivative contracts serve as economic hedges of forecasted transactions.
At March 31, 2024, the Company estimates $113 million of pretax net unrealized gains on derivatives maturing within the next 12 months that hedge foreign currency denominated sales over that same period will be reclassified from AOCL to Sales. The amount ultimately reclassified to Sales may differ as foreign exchange rates change. Realized gains and losses are ultimately determined by actual foreign exchange rates at maturity.
Investments in Debt and Equity Securities
Information on investments in debt and equity securities is as follows:
 March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
 Amortized
Cost
Gross UnrealizedFair
Value
Amortized
Cost
Gross UnrealizedFair
Value
($ in millions)GainsLossesGainsLosses
Commercial paper$40 $ $ $40 $252 $ $ $252 
U.S. government and agency securities77   77 72   72 
Corporate notes and bonds    13   13 
Total debt securities$117 $ $ $117 $337 $ $ $337 
Publicly traded equity securities (1)
908 764 
Total debt and publicly traded equity securities$1,025 $1,101 
(1)    Unrealized net gains of $143 million were recorded in Other (income) expense, net in the first quarter of 2024 on equity securities still held at March 31, 2024. Unrealized net gains of $338 million were recorded in Other (income) expense, net in the first quarter of 2023 on equity securities still held at March 31, 2023.
At March 31, 2024 and March 31, 2023, the Company also had $851 million and $942 million, respectively, of equity investments without readily determinable fair values included in Other Assets. The Company records unrealized gains on these equity investments based on favorable observable price changes from transactions involving similar investments of the same investee and records unrealized losses based on unfavorable observable price changes, which are included in Other (income) expense, net. During the first quarter of 2024, the Company recorded unrealized gains of $4 million and unrealized losses of $5 million related to certain of these equity investments still held at March 31, 2024. During the first quarter of 2023, the Company recorded unrealized gains of $1 million and unrealized losses of $21 million related to certain of these equity investments still held at March 31, 2023. Cumulative unrealized gains and cumulative unrealized losses based on observable
- 15 -

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited) (continued)
price changes for investments in equity investments without readily determinable fair values still held at March 31, 2024 were $297 million and $69 million, respectively.
At March 31, 2024 and March 31, 2023, the Company also had $396 million and $725 million, respectively, recorded in Other Assets for equity securities held through ownership interests in investment funds. Losses (gains) recorded in Other (income) expense, net relating to these investment funds were $2 million and $(132) million for the first quarter of 2024 and 2023, respectively.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Company uses a fair value hierarchy which maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. There are three levels of inputs used to measure fair value with Level 1 having the highest priority and Level 3 having the lowest:
Level 1 - Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity. Level 3 assets or liabilities are those whose values are determined using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies, or similar techniques with significant unobservable inputs, as well as assets or liabilities for which the determination of fair value requires significant judgment or estimation.
If the inputs used to measure the financial assets and liabilities fall within more than one level described above, the categorization is based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement of the instrument.
Financial Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
Financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis are summarized below:
Fair Value Measurements UsingFair Value Measurements Using
 Level 1Level 2Level 3TotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3Total
($ in millions)March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Assets
Investments
Commercial paper$ $40 $ $40 $ $252 $ $252 
Publicly traded equity securities280   280 252   252 
 280 40  320 252 252  504 
Other assets (1)
U.S. government and agency securities77   77 72   72 
Corporate notes and bonds    13   13 
Publicly traded equity securities (2)
628   628 512   512 
705   705 597   597 
Derivative assets (3)
Forward exchange contracts 204  204  202  202 
Purchased currency options 126  126  83  83 
Interest rate swaps