Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Merck
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$77.56 2,583 $200,340
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-30 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-06-30 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-03-31 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-30 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-06-30 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-03-31 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2019-02-01 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-29 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-10 Officers
8-K 2018-10-25 Earnings, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-02 Officers
8-K 2018-09-25 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-27 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-24 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-05-01 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-21 Officers
8-K 2018-02-02 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-23 Officers, Exhibits
AVB Avalonbay Communities 27,450
PNW Pinnacle West Capital 10,580
CLF Cleveland-Cliffs 2,780
GTY Getty Realty 1,300
WASH Washington Trust Bancorp 864
DMLP Dorchester Minerals 669
PACQ Pure Acquisition 519
SPWH Sportsman's Warehouse Holdings 209
EEI Ecology & Environment 46
AMIH American International Holdings 0
MRK 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
Item 2. Properties.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.
Item 9B. Other Information.
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
Item 11. Executive Compensation.
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services.
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
EX-10.19 ex1019merckusseparationben.htm
EX-10.27 a2018form10-k_exhibit1027x.htm
EX-10.28 a2018form10-k_ex1028xoffer.htm
EX-21 a2018form10-k_ex21xsubsidi.htm
EX-23 ex23consentofindependentre.htm
EX-24.1 ex241powerofattorneymrk123.htm
EX-24.2 ex242certificationofboardr.htm
EX-31.1 ex311rule13a-14a15dx14acer.htm
EX-31.2 ex312rule13a-14a15dx14acer.htm
EX-32.1 ex321section1350certificat.htm
EX-32.2 ex322section1350certificat.htm

Merck Earnings 2018-12-31

MRK 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 mrk1231201810k.htm 2018 FORM 10-K Document
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 27, 2019
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D. C. 20549
_________________________________
FORM 10-K
(MARK ONE)
 
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
 
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
 
or
 
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
 
For the transition period from                  to                 

Commission File No. 1-6571
_________________________________
Merck & Co., Inc.
2000 Galloping Hill Road
Kenilworth, N. J. 07033
(908) 740-4000
Incorporated in New Jersey
 
I.R.S. Employer
Identification No. 22-1918501
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on which Registered
Common Stock ($0.50 par value)
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.125% Notes due 2021
 
New York Stock Exchange
0.500% Notes due 2024
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.875% Notes due 2026
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.500% Notes due 2034
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.375% Notes due 2036
 
New York Stock Exchange
Number of shares of Common Stock ($0.50 par value) outstanding as of January 31, 2019: 2,581,220,308.
Aggregate market value of Common Stock ($0.50 par value) held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2018 based on closing price on June 30, 2018: $161,991,000,000.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes        No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes        No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes        No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes        No  
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check One):
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes        No  
Documents Incorporated by Reference:
Document
 
Part of Form 10-K
Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held May 28, 2019, to be filed with the
Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the close of the fiscal year covered by this report
 
Part III



Table of Contents
 
 
 
Page
Item 1.
Item 1A.
 
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
 
(a)
 
 
 
 
 
(b)
Item 9.
Item 9A.
 
Item 9B.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
 
 
 
Item 16.
 



PART I
 
Item 1.
Business.
Merck & Co., Inc. (Merck or the Company) is a global health care company that delivers innovative health solutions through its prescription medicines, vaccines, biologic therapies and animal health products. The Company’s operations are principally managed on a products basis and include four operating segments, which are the Pharmaceutical, Animal Health, Healthcare Services and Alliances segments.
The Pharmaceutical segment includes human health pharmaceutical and vaccine products. Human health pharmaceutical products consist of therapeutic and preventive agents, generally sold by prescription, for the treatment of human disorders. The Company sells these human health pharmaceutical products primarily to drug wholesalers and retailers, hospitals, government agencies and managed health care providers such as health maintenance organizations, pharmacy benefit managers and other institutions. Human health vaccine products consist of preventive pediatric, adolescent and adult vaccines, primarily administered at physician offices. The Company sells these human health vaccines primarily to physicians, wholesalers, physician distributors and government entities.
The Animal Health segment discovers, develops, manufactures and markets animal health products, including pharmaceutical and vaccine products, for the prevention, treatment and control of disease in all major livestock and companion animal species, which the Company sells to veterinarians, distributors and animal producers.
The Healthcare Services segment provides services and solutions that focus on engagement, health analytics and clinical services to improve the value of care delivered to patients.
The Alliances segment primarily includes results from the Company’s relationship with AstraZeneca LP related to sales of Nexium and Prilosec, which concluded in 2018.
The Company was incorporated in New Jersey in 1970.
All product or service marks appearing in type form different from that of the surrounding text are trademarks or service marks owned, licensed to, promoted or distributed by Merck, its subsidiaries or affiliates, except as noted. All other trademarks or services marks are those of their respective owners.
Product Sales
Total Company sales, including sales of the Company’s top pharmaceutical products, as well as sales of animal health products, were as follows:
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Total Sales
$
42,294

 
$
40,122

 
$
39,807

Pharmaceutical
37,689

 
35,390

 
35,151

Keytruda
7,171

 
3,809

 
1,402

Januvia/Janumet
5,914

 
5,896

 
6,109

Gardasil/Gardasil 9
3,151

 
2,308

 
2,173

ProQuad/M-M-R II/Varivax
1,798

 
1,676

 
1,640

Zetia/Vytorin
1,355

 
2,095

 
3,701

Isentress/Isentress HD
1,140

 
1,204

 
1,387

Bridion
917

 
704

 
482

Pneumovax 23
907

 
821

 
641

NuvaRing
902

 
761

 
777

Simponi
893

 
819

 
766

Animal Health
4,212

 
3,875

 
3,478

Livestock
2,630

 
2,484

 
2,287

Companion Animals
1,582

 
1,391

 
1,191

Other Revenues(1)
393

 
857

 
1,178

(1) 
Other revenues are primarily comprised of Healthcare Services segment revenue, third-party manufacturing sales, and miscellaneous corporate revenues, including revenue hedging activities.

1


Pharmaceutical
The Pharmaceutical segment includes human health pharmaceutical and vaccine products. Human health pharmaceutical products consist of therapeutic and preventive agents, generally sold by prescription, for the treatment of human disorders. Human health vaccine products consist of preventive pediatric, adolescent and adult vaccines, primarily administered at physician offices. Certain of the products within the Company’s franchises are as follows:
Oncology
Keytruda (pembrolizumab), the Company’s anti-PD-1 (programmed death receptor-1) therapy, as monotherapy for the treatment of certain patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), melanoma, classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL), urothelial carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, and microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient cancer, and in combination with chemotherapy in certain patients with NSCLC. Keytruda is also used in the United States for monotherapy treatment of certain patients with cervical cancer, primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL), hepatocellular carcinoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma, and in combination with chemotherapy for patients with squamous NSCLC; Emend (aprepitant) for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced and post-operative nausea and vomiting; and Temodar (temozolomide) (marketed as Temodal outside the United States), a treatment for certain types of brain tumors. In addition, the Company recognizes alliance revenue related to sales of Lynparza (olaparib), an oral poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, for certain types of ovarian and breast cancer; and Lenvima (lenvatinib) for certain types of thyroid cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and in combination for certain patients with renal cell carcinoma.
Vaccines
Gardasil (Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent [Types 6, 11, 16 and 18] Vaccine, Recombinant)/Gardasil 9 (Human Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine, Recombinant), vaccines to help prevent certain diseases caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV); ProQuad (Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Virus Vaccine Live), a pediatric combination vaccine to help protect against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella; M-M-R II (Measles, Mumps and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live), a vaccine to help prevent measles, mumps and rubella; Varivax (Varicella Virus Vaccine Live), a vaccine to help prevent chickenpox (varicella); Pneumovax 23 (pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent), a vaccine to help prevent pneumococcal disease; RotaTeq (Rotavirus Vaccine, Live Oral, Pentavalent), a vaccine to help protect against rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and children; and Zostavax (Zoster Vaccine Live), a vaccine to help prevent shingles (herpes zoster).
Hospital Acute Care
Bridion (sugammadex) Injection, a medication for the reversal of two types of neuromuscular blocking agents used during surgery; Noxafil (posaconazole) for the prevention of invasive fungal infections; Invanz (ertapenem sodium) for the treatment of certain infections; Cubicin (daptomycin for injection), an I.V. antibiotic for complicated skin and skin structure infections or bacteremia, when caused by designated susceptible organisms; Cancidas (caspofungin acetate), an anti-fungal product; Primaxin (imipenem and cilastatin sodium), an anti-bacterial product; and Zerbaxa (ceftolozane and tazobactam) is currently approved in the United States for the treatment of adult patients with complicated urinary tract infections caused by certain susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms, and is also indicated, in combination with metronidazole, for the treatment of adult patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by certain susceptible Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms.
Immunology
Simponi (golimumab), a once-monthly subcutaneous treatment for certain inflammatory diseases; and Remicade (infliximab), a treatment for inflammatory diseases, which the Company markets in Europe, Russia and Turkey.
Neuroscience
Belsomra (suvorexant), an orexin receptor antagonist indicated for the treatment of insomnia, characterized by difficulties with sleep onset and/or sleep maintenance.
Virology
Isentress/Isentress HD (raltegravir), an HIV integrase inhibitor for use in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection; and Zepatier (elbasvir and grazoprevir) for the treatment of adult patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 1 or GT4 infection, with ribavirin in certain patient populations.

2


Cardiovascular
Zetia (ezetimibe) (marketed as Ezetrol in most countries outside the United States); Vytorin (ezetimibe/simvastatin) (marketed as Inegy outside the United States); Atozet (ezetimibe and atorvastatin) (marketed in certain countries outside of the United States) and Rosuzet (ezetimibe and rosuvastatin) (marketed in certain countries outside of the United States), cholesterol modifying medicines; and Adempas (riociguat), a cardiovascular drug for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Diabetes
Januvia (sitagliptin) and Janumet (sitagliptin/metformin HCl) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Women’s Health
NuvaRing (etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring), a vaginal contraceptive product; and Implanon (etonogestrel implant), a single-rod subdermal contraceptive implant/Nexplanon (etonogestrel implant), a single, radiopaque, rod-shaped subdermal contraceptive implant.
Animal Health
The Animal Health segment discovers, develops, manufactures and markets animal health products, including pharmaceutical and vaccine products, for the prevention, treatment and control of disease in all major livestock and companion animal species. Principal products in this segment include:
Livestock Products
Nuflor (Florfenicol) antibiotic range for use in cattle and swine; Bovilis/Vista vaccine lines for infectious diseases in cattle; Banamine (Flunixin meglumine) bovine and swine anti-inflammatory; Estrumate (cloprostenol sodium) for the treatment of fertility disorders in cattle; Matrix (altrenogest) fertility management for swine; Resflor (florfenicol and flunixin meglumine), a combination broad-spectrum antibiotic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for bovine respiratory disease; Zuprevo (Tildipirosin) for bovine respiratory disease; Zilmax (zilpaterol hydrochloride) and Revalor (trenbolone acetate and estradiol) to improve production efficiencies in beef cattle; Safe-Guard (fenbendazole) de-wormer for cattle; M+Pac (Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin) swine pneumonia vaccine; Porcilis (Lawsonia intracellularis baterin) and Circumvent (Porcine Circovirus Vaccine, Type 2, Killed Baculovirus Vector) vaccine lines for infectious diseases in swine; Nobilis/Innovax (Live Marek’s Disease Vector), vaccine lines for poultry; Paracox and Coccivac coccidiosis vaccines; Exzolt, a systemic treatment for poultry red mite infestations; Slice (Emamectin benzoate) parasiticide for sea lice in salmon; Aquavac (Avirulent Live Culture)/Norvax vaccines against bacterial and viral disease in fish; Compact PD vaccine for salmon; and Aquaflor (Florfenicol) antibiotic for farm-raised fish.
Companion Animal Products
Bravecto (fluralaner), a line of oral and topical products that kills fleas and ticks in dogs and cats for up to 12 weeks; Nobivac vaccine lines for flexible dog and cat vaccination; Otomax (Gentamicin sulfate, USP; Betamethasone valerate USP; and Clotrimazole USP ointment)/Mometamax (Gentamicin sulfate, USP, Mometasone Furoate Monohydrate and Clotrimazole, USP, Otic Suspension)/Posatex (Orbifloxacin, Mometasone Furoate Monohydrate and Posaconazole, Suspension) ear ointments for acute and chronic otitis; Caninsulin/Vetsulin (porcine insulin zinc suspension) diabetes mellitus treatment for dogs and cats; Panacur (fenbendazole)/Safeguard (fenbendazole) broad-spectrum anthelmintic (de-wormer) for use in many animals; Regumate (altrenogest) fertility management for horses; Prestige vaccine line for horses; and Scalibor (Deltamethrin)/Exspot for protecting against bites from fleas, ticks, mosquitoes and sandflies.
For a further discussion of sales of the Company’s products, see Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” below.

3


2018 Product Approvals

Set forth below is a summary of significant product approvals received by the Company in 2018.
Product
Date
Approval
Keytruda
December 2018
The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (JMHLW) approved Keytruda for three expanded uses in unresectable, advanced or recurrent NSCLC, one in malignant melanoma, as well as a new indication in high microsatellite instability solid tumors.
December 2018
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Keytruda for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.
December 2018
The European Commission (EC) approved Keytruda for the adjuvant treatment of adults with stage III melanoma and lymph node involvement who have undergone complete resection.
November 2018
FDA approved Keytruda for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who have been previously treated with sorafenib.
October 2018
FDA approved Keytruda, in combination with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel, for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
September 2018
EC approved Keytruda in combination with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC in adults whose tumors have no EGFR or ALK positive mutations.
September 2018
EC approved Keytruda for the treatment of recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in adults whose tumors express PD-L1 with a ≥ 50% TPS and progressing on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy.
August 2018
FDA approved Keytruda in combination with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC patients with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations.
July 2018
The China National Drug Administration (CNDA) approved Keytruda for the treatment of adult patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma following failure of one prior line of therapy.
June 2018
FDA approved Keytruda for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with refractory primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL), or who have relapsed after two or more prior lines of therapy.
June 2018
FDA approved Keytruda for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer with disease progression on or after chemotherapy whose tumors express PD-L1 as determined by an FDA-approved test.
Lynparza(1)
December 2018
FDA approved Lynparza for use as maintenance treatment of certain patients with advanced ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer who are in complete or partial response to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.
July 2018
JMHLW approved Lynparza for use in patients with unresectable or recurrent BRCA-mutated, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer who have received prior chemotherapy.
May 2018
EC approved Lynparza for use as a maintenance therapy in patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed high grade epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer, who are in response (complete or partial) to platinum based chemotherapy regardless of BRCA mutation status.
January 2018
FDA approved Lynparza for use in patients with BRCA-mutated, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer who have been previously treated with chemotherapy.
January 2018
JMHLW approved Lynparza for use as a maintenance therapy in patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer, regardless of BRCA mutation status.

4


Lenvima(2)
September 2018
CNDA approved Lenvima for the treatment of certain patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
August 2018
FDA approved Lenvima for the treatment of certain patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
August 2018
EC approved Lenvima for the treatment of certain patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
March 2018
JMHLW approved Lenvima for the treatment of certain patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
Gardasil 9
October 2018
FDA approved Gardasil 9 for an expanded age indication for use in women and men ages 27 to 45 for the prevention of certain cancers and diseases caused by the nine HPV types covered by the vaccine.
April 2018
CNDA approved Gardasil 9 for use in girls and women ages 16 to 26.
Delstrigo
November 2018
EC approved Delstrigo (doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) for the treatment of adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) without past or present evidence of resistance to the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) class, lamivudine, or tenofovir.
August 2018
FDA approved Delstrigo for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adult patients with no prior antiretroviral treatment experience.
Pifeltro
November 2018
EC approved Pifeltro (doravirine), in combination with other antiretroviral medicinal products, for the treatment of adults infected with HIV-1 without past or present evidence of resistance to the NNRTI class.
August 2018
FDA approved Pifeltro for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adult patients with no prior antiretroviral treatment experience.
Isentress
March 2018
EC approved Isentress for an extension to the existing indication to cover treatment of neonates. Isentress is now indicated in combination with other anti-retroviral medicinal products for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.
Prevymis
January 2018
EC approved Prevymis (letermovir) for the prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and disease in adult CMV-seropositive recipients [R+] of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Steglatro, Steglujan and Segluromet(3)
March 2018
EC approved Steglatro (ertugliflozin), Steglujan (ertugliflozin and sitagliptin) and Segluromet (ertugliflozin and metformin hydrochloride) for the treatment of adults aged 18 years and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycaemic control (as monotherapy in patients for whom the use of metformin is considered inappropriate due to intolerance or contraindications, and in addition to other medicinal products for the treatment of diabetes).
Vaxelis
December 2018
FDA approved Vaxelis (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Inactivated Poliovirus, Haemophilus b Conjugate [Meningococcal Protein Conjugate] and Hepatitis B [Recombinant] Vaccine) for use in children from 6 weeks through 4 years of age (prior to the 5th birthday)
(1) 
In July 2017, Merck and AstraZeneca entered into a global strategic oncology collaboration to co-develop and co-commercialize AstraZeneca’s Lynparza.
(2) 
In March 2018, Merck and Eisai Co., Ltd. announced a strategic collaboration for the worldwide co-development and co-commercialization of Eisai’s Lenvima.
(3) 
In 2013, Merck and Pfizer Inc. announced that they entered into a worldwide collaboration, except Japan, for the co-development and co-promotion of ertugliflozin.
Competition and the Health Care Environment
Competition
The markets in which the Company conducts its business and the pharmaceutical industry in general are highly competitive and highly regulated. The Company’s competitors include other worldwide research-based pharmaceutical companies, smaller research companies with more limited therapeutic focus, generic drug manufacturers and animal health care companies. The Company’s operations may be adversely affected by generic and biosimilar competition as the Company’s products mature, as well as technological advances of competitors, industry consolidation,

5


patents granted to competitors, competitive combination products, new products of competitors, the generic availability of competitors’ branded products, and new information from clinical trials of marketed products or post-marketing surveillance. In addition, patent rights are increasingly being challenged by competitors, and the outcome can be highly uncertain. An adverse result in a patent dispute can preclude commercialization of products or negatively affect sales of existing products and could result in the payment of royalties or in the recognition of an impairment charge with respect to intangible assets associated with certain products. Competitive pressures have intensified as pressures in the industry have grown.
Pharmaceutical competition involves a rigorous search for technological innovations and the ability to market these innovations effectively. With its long-standing emphasis on research and development, the Company is well-positioned to compete in the search for technological innovations. Additional resources required to meet market challenges include quality control, flexibility to meet customer specifications, an efficient distribution system and a strong technical information service. The Company is active in acquiring and marketing products through external alliances, such as licensing arrangements and collaborations, and has been refining its sales and marketing efforts to address changing industry conditions. However, the introduction of new products and processes by competitors may result in price reductions and product displacements, even for products protected by patents. For example, the number of compounds available to treat a particular disease typically increases over time and can result in slowed sales growth or reduced sales for the Company’s products in that therapeutic category.
The highly competitive animal health business is affected by several factors including regulatory and legislative issues, scientific and technological advances, product innovation, the quality and price of the Company’s products, effective promotional efforts and the frequent introduction of generic products by competitors.
Health Care Environment and Government Regulation
Global efforts toward health care cost containment continue to exert pressure on product pricing and market access. In the United States, federal and state governments for many years also have pursued methods to reduce the cost of drugs and vaccines for which they pay. For example, federal laws require the Company to pay specified rebates for medicines reimbursed by Medicaid and to provide discounts for outpatient medicines purchased by certain Public Health Service entities and hospitals serving a disproportionate share of low income or uninsured patients.
Against this backdrop, the United States enacted major health care reform legislation in 2010 (the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)). Various insurance market reforms have since advanced and state and federal insurance exchanges were launched in 2014. With respect to the effect of the law on the pharmaceutical industry, the law increased the mandated Medicaid rebate from 15.1% to 23.1%, expanded the rebate to Medicaid managed care utilization, and increased the types of entities eligible for the federal 340B drug discount program. The law also requires pharmaceutical manufacturers to pay a 50% point of service discount to Medicare Part D beneficiaries when they are in the Medicare Part D coverage gap (i.e., the so-called “donut hole”). Approximately $365 million, $385 million and $415 million was recorded by Merck as a reduction to revenue in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, related to the donut hole provision. Beginning in 2019, the 50% point of service discount will increase to a 70% point of service discount in the coverage gap, as a result of the Balanced Budget Act of 2018. In addition, the 70% point of service discount will be extended to biosimilar products. Also, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to pay an annual non-tax deductible health care reform fee. The total annual industry fee was $4.1 billion in 2018 and will decrease to $2.8 billion in 2019 and is currently planned to remain at that amount thereafter. The fee is assessed on each company in proportion to its share of prior year branded pharmaceutical sales to certain government programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. The Company recorded $124 million, $210 million and $193 million of costs within Selling, general and administrative expenses in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, for the annual health care reform fee. In February 2016, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) issued the Medicaid rebate final rule that implements provisions of the ACA effective April 1, 2016. The rule provides comprehensive guidance on the calculation of Average Manufacturer Price and Best Price; two metrics utilized to determine the rebates drug manufacturers are required to pay to state Medicaid programs. The impact of changes resulting from the issuance of the rule is not material to Merck at this time. However, the Company is still awaiting guidance from CMS on two aspects of the rule that were deferred for later implementation. These include a definition of what constitutes a product ‘line extension’ and a delay in the participation of the U.S. Territories in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program until April 1, 2020. The Company will evaluate the financial impact of these two elements when they become effective.

6


There is significant uncertainty about the future of the ACA in particular and health care laws in general in the United States. The Company is participating in the debate, and monitoring how any proposed changes could affect its business. The Company is unable to predict the likelihood of changes to the ACA. Depending on the nature of any repeal and replacement of the ACA, such actions could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, cash flow, results of operations, financial position and prospects.
A number of states have passed pharmaceutical price and cost transparency laws. These laws typically require manufacturers to report certain product price information or other financial data to the state. In the case of a California law, manufacturers also are required to provide advance notification of price increases. The Company expects that states will continue their focus on pharmaceutical price transparency and that this focus will continue to exert pressure on product pricing.
The Company also faces increasing pricing pressure globally from managed care organizations, government agencies and programs that could negatively affect the Company’s sales and profit margins. In the United States, these include (i) practices of managed care organizations, federal and state exchanges, and institutional and governmental purchasers, and (ii) U.S. federal laws and regulations related to Medicare and Medicaid, including the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 and the ACA.
Changes to the health care system enacted as part of health care reform in the United States, as well as increased purchasing power of entities that negotiate on behalf of Medicare, Medicaid, and private sector beneficiaries, could result in further pricing pressures. As an example, health care reform is contributing to an increase in the number of patients in the Medicaid program under which sales of pharmaceutical products are subject to substantial rebates.
In addition, in the effort to contain the U.S. federal deficit, the pharmaceutical industry could be considered a potential source of savings via legislative proposals that have been debated but not enacted. These types of revenue generating or cost saving proposals include additional direct price controls in the Medicare prescription drug program (Part D). In addition, Congress may again consider proposals to allow, under certain conditions, the importation of medicines from other countries. It remains very uncertain as to what proposals, if any, may be included as part of future federal budget deficit reduction proposals that would directly or indirectly affect the Company.
In the U.S. private sector, consolidation and integration among health care providers is a major factor in the competitive marketplace for pharmaceutical products. Health plans and pharmacy benefit managers have been consolidating into fewer, larger entities, thus enhancing their purchasing strength and importance. Private third-party insurers, as well as governments, increasingly employ formularies to control costs by negotiating discounted prices in exchange for formulary inclusion. Failure to obtain timely or adequate pricing or formulary placement for Merck’s products or obtaining such placement at unfavorable pricing could adversely impact revenue. In addition to formulary tier co-pay differentials, private health insurance companies and self-insured employers have been raising co-payments required from beneficiaries, particularly for branded pharmaceuticals and biotechnology products. Private health insurance companies also are increasingly imposing utilization management tools, such as clinical protocols, requiring prior authorization for a branded product if a generic product is available or requiring the patient to first fail on one or more generic products before permitting access to a branded medicine. These same management tools are also used in treatment areas in which the payer has taken the position that multiple branded products are therapeutically comparable. As the U.S. payer market concentrates further and as more drugs become available in generic form, pharmaceutical companies may face greater pricing pressure from private third-party payers.
In order to provide information about the Company’s pricing practices, the Company annually posts on its website its Pricing Transparency Report for the United States. The report provides the Company’s average annual list price and net price increases across the Company’s U.S. portfolio dating back to 2010. 
Efforts toward health care cost containment also remain intense in European countries. The Company faces competitive pricing pressure resulting from generic and biosimilar drugs. In addition, a majority of countries in Europe attempt to contain drug costs by engaging in reference pricing in which authorities examine pre-determined markets for published prices of drugs by brand. The authorities then use price data from those markets to set new local prices for brand-name drugs, including the Company’s. Guidelines for examining reference pricing are usually set in local markets and can be changed pursuant to local regulations.

7


In addition, in Japan, the pharmaceutical industry is subject to government-mandated biennial price reductions of pharmaceutical products and certain vaccines, which occurred in 2018. Furthermore, the government can order repricings for classes of drugs if it determines that it is appropriate under applicable rules.
Certain markets outside of the United States have also implemented other cost management strategies, such as health technology assessments (HTA), which require additional data, reviews and administrative processes, all of which increase the complexity, timing and costs of obtaining product reimbursement and exert downward pressure on available reimbursement. In the United States, HTAs are also being used by government and private payers.
The Company’s focus on emerging markets has continued. Governments in many emerging markets are also focused on constraining health care costs and have enacted price controls and related measures, such as compulsory licenses, that aim to put pressure on the price of pharmaceuticals and constrain market access. The Company anticipates that pricing pressures and market access challenges will continue in 2019 to varying degrees in the emerging markets.
Beyond pricing and market access challenges, other conditions in emerging market countries can affect the Company’s efforts to continue to grow in these markets, including potential political instability, changes in trade sanctions and embargoes, significant currency fluctuation and controls, financial crises, limited or changing availability of funding for health care, and other developments that may adversely impact the business environment for the Company. Further, the Company may engage third-party agents to assist in operating in emerging market countries, which may affect its ability to realize continued growth and may also increase the Company’s risk exposure.
In addressing cost containment pressures, the Company engages in public policy advocacy with policymakers and continues to work to demonstrate that its medicines provide value to patients and to those who pay for health care. The Company advocates with government policymakers to encourage a long-term approach to sustainable health care financing that ensures access to innovative medicines and does not disproportionately target pharmaceuticals as a source of budget savings. In markets with historically low rates of health care spending, the Company encourages those governments to increase their investments and adopt market reforms in order to improve their citizens’ access to appropriate health care, including medicines.
Operating conditions have become more challenging under the global pressures of competition, industry regulation and cost containment efforts. Although no one can predict the effect of these and other factors on the Company’s business, the Company continually takes measures to evaluate, adapt and improve the organization and its business practices to better meet customer needs and believes that it is well-positioned to respond to the evolving health care environment and market forces.
The pharmaceutical industry is also subject to regulation by regional, country, state and local agencies around the world focused on standards and processes for determining drug safety and effectiveness, as well as conditions for sale or reimbursement.
Of particular importance is the FDA in the United States, which administers requirements covering the testing, approval, safety, effectiveness, manufacturing, labeling, and marketing of prescription pharmaceuticals. In some cases, the FDA requirements and practices have increased the amount of time and resources necessary to develop new products and bring them to market in the United States. At the same time, the FDA has committed to expediting the development and review of products bearing the “breakthrough therapy” designation, which has accelerated the regulatory review process for medicines with this designation. The FDA has also undertaken efforts to bring generic competition to market more efficiently and in a more timely manner.
The European Union (EU) has adopted directives and other legislation concerning the classification, labeling, advertising, wholesale distribution, integrity of the supply chain, enhanced pharmacovigilance monitoring and approval for marketing of medicinal products for human use. These provide mandatory standards throughout the EU, which may be supplemented or implemented with additional regulations by the EU member states. The Company’s policies and procedures are already consistent with the substance of these directives; consequently, it is believed that they will not have any material effect on the Company’s business.
The Company’s business in China has grown rapidly in the past few years, and the importance of China to the Company’s overall pharmaceutical and vaccines business has increased accordingly. Continued growth of the Company’s business in China is dependent upon ongoing development of a favorable environment for innovative pharmaceutical products and vaccines, sustained access for the Company’s current in-line products, and the absence

8


of trade impediments or adverse pricing controls. In recent years, the Chinese government has introduced and implemented a number of structural reforms to accelerate the shift to innovative products and reduce costs. Since 2017, there have been multiple new policies introduced by the government to improve access to new innovation, reduce the complexity of regulatory filings, and accelerate the review and approval process. This has led to a significant expansion of the new products being approved each year. Additionally, in 2017, the government updated the National Reimbursement Drug List for the first time in eight years. While the mechanism for drugs being added to the list evolves, it is likely that in the future, inclusion will require a price negotiation which could impact the outlook in the market for selected brands. While pricing pressure has always existed in China, health care reform has led to the acceleration of generic substitution, through a pilot tendering process for mature products that have generic substitutes with a Generic Quality Consistency Evaluation approval.
The Company believes that it will continue to be able to conduct its operations, including launching new drugs, in this regulatory environment. (See “Research and Development” below for a discussion of the regulatory approval process.)
Access to Medicines
As a global health care company, Merck’s primary role is to discover and develop innovative medicines and vaccines. The Company also recognizes that it has an important role to play in helping to improve access to its products around the world. The Company’s efforts in this regard are wide-ranging and include a set of principles that the Company strives to embed into its operations and business strategies to guide the Company’s worldwide approach to expanding access to health care. In addition, the Company has many far-reaching philanthropic programs. The Merck Patient Assistance Program provides medicines and adult vaccines for free to people in the United States who do not have prescription drug or health insurance coverage and who, without the Company’s assistance, cannot afford their Merck medicine and vaccines. In 2011, Merck launched “Merck for Mothers,” a long-term effort with global health partners to end preventable deaths from complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Merck has also provided funds to the Merck Foundation, an independent organization, which has partnered with a variety of organizations dedicated to improving global health.
Privacy and Data Protection
The Company is subject to a significant number of privacy and data protection laws and regulations globally, many of which place restrictions on the Company’s ability to transfer, access and use personal data across its business. The legislative and regulatory landscape for privacy and data protection continues to evolve. There has been increased attention to privacy and data protection issues in both developed and emerging markets with the potential to affect directly the Company’s business, including the new EU General Data Protection Regulation, which went into effect on May 25, 2018 and imposes penalties up to 4% of global revenue. Additional laws and regulations enacted in the United States, Europe, Asia and Latin America, increases enforcement and litigation activity in the United States and other developed markets, and increases regulatory cooperation among privacy authorities globally. The Company has adopted a comprehensive global privacy program to manage these evolving risks which has been certified as compliant with and approved by the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Cross-Border Privacy Rules System, the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield Program, and the Binding Corporate Rules in the EU.
Distribution
The Company sells its human health pharmaceutical products primarily to drug wholesalers and retailers, hospitals, government agencies and managed health care providers, such as health maintenance organizations, pharmacy benefit managers and other institutions. Human health vaccines are sold primarily to physicians, wholesalers, physician distributors and government entities. The Company’s professional representatives communicate the effectiveness, safety and value of the Company’s pharmaceutical and vaccine products to health care professionals in private practice, group practices, hospitals and managed care organizations. The Company sells its animal health products to veterinarians, distributors and animal producers.
Raw Materials
Raw materials and supplies, which are generally available from multiple sources, are purchased worldwide and are normally available in quantities adequate to meet the needs of the Company’s business.

9



Patents, Trademarks and Licenses
Patent protection is considered, in the aggregate, to be of material importance to the Company’s marketing of its products in the United States and in most major foreign markets. Patents may cover products per se, pharmaceutical formulations, processes for or intermediates useful in the manufacture of products or the uses of products. Protection for individual products extends for varying periods in accordance with the legal life of patents in the various countries. The protection afforded, which may also vary from country to country, depends upon the type of patent and its scope of coverage.
The Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act includes a Pediatric Exclusivity Provision that may provide an additional six months of market exclusivity in the United States for indications of new or currently marketed drugs if certain agreed upon pediatric studies are completed by the applicant. Current U.S. patent law provides additional patent term for periods when the patented product was under regulatory review by the FDA. The EU also provides an additional six months of pediatric market exclusivity attached to a product’s Supplementary Protection Certificate (SPC). Japan provides the additional term for pediatric studies attached to market exclusivity unrelated to patent rights.
Patent portfolios developed for products introduced by the Company normally provide market exclusivity. The Company has the following key patent protection in the United States, the EU and Japan (including the potential for patent term extensions (PTE) and SPCs where indicated) for the following marketed products:

10


Product
Year of Expiration (U.S.)
Year of Expiration (EU)(1)
Year of Expiration (Japan)(3)
Emend
Expired
2019
2019
Emend for Injection
2019
2020(2)
2020
Noxafil
2019
2019
N/A
Vaxelis(4)
2020 (method of making)
2021(5) (SPCs)
Not Marketed
Januvia
2022(2)
2022(2)
2025-2026
Janumet
2022(2)
2023
N/A
Janumet XR
2022(2)
N/A
N/A
Isentress
2024
2022(2)
2022
Simponi
N/A(6)
2025(7)
N/A(6)
Lenvima(8)
2025(2) (with pending PTE)
2021 (patents), 2026(2) (SPCs)
2026
Adempas(9)
2026(2)
2028(2)
2027-2028
Bridion
2026(2) (with pending PTE)
2023
2024
Nexplanon
2027 (device)
2025 (device)
Not Marketed
Bravecto
2027 (with pending PTE)
2025 (patents), 2029 (SPCs)
2029
Gardasil
2028
2021(2)
Expired
Gardasil 9
2028
2025 (patents), 2030(2) (SPCs)
N/A
Keytruda
2028
2028 (patents), 2030(2) (SPCs)
2032
Lynparza(10)
2028(2) (with pending PTE)
2024 (patents), 2029(2) (SPCs)
2028-2029 (with pending PTE)
Zerbaxa
2028(2) (with pending PTE)
2023 (patents), 2028(2) (SPCs)
N/A
Sivextro
2028(2)
2024 (patents), 2029(2) (SPCs)
2029 (with pending PTE)
Belsomra
2029(2)
N/A
2031
Prevymis
2029(2) (with pending PTE)
2024 (patents), 2029(2) (SPCs)
2029 (with pending PTE)
Steglatro(11)
2031(2) (with pending PTE)
2029 (patents), 2034(2) (SPCs)
N/A
Steglujan(11)
2031 (with pending PTE)
2029 (patents), 2034 (SPCs)
N/A
Segluromet(11)
2031 (with pending PTE)
2029 (patents), 2034 (SPCs)
N/A
Delstrigo
2032 (with pending PTE)
2031(12)
N/A
Pifeltro
2032 (with pending PTE)
2031(12)
N/A
N/A:
Currently no marketing approval.
Note:
Compound patent unless otherwise noted. Certain of the products listed may be the subject of patent litigation. See Item 8. “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” Note 11. “Contingencies and Environmental Liabilities” below.
(1) 
The EU date represents the expiration date for the following five countries: France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom (Major EU Markets). If SPC applications have been filed but have not been granted in all Major EU Markets, both the patent expiry date and the SPC expiry date are listed.
(2) 
Eligible for 6 months Pediatric Exclusivity.
(3) 
The PTE system in Japan allows for a patent to be extended more than once provided the later approval is directed to a different indication from that of the previous approval. This may result in multiple PTE approvals for a given patent, each with its own expiration date.
(4) 
Being commercialized in a U.S.-based joint partnership with Sanofi Pasteur.
(5) 
SPCs are granted in four Major EU Markets and pending in one, based on a patent that expired in 2016.
(6) 
The Company has no marketing rights in the U.S. and Japan.
(7) 
Includes Pediatric Exclusivity, which is granted in four Major EU Markets and pending in one.
(8) 
Being developed and commercialized in a global strategic oncology collaboration with Eisai.
(9) 
Being commercialized in a worldwide collaboration with Bayer AG.
(10) 
Being developed and commercialized in a global strategic oncology collaboration with AstraZeneca.
(11) 
Being developed and promoted in a worldwide, except Japan, collaboration with Pfizer.
(12) 
SPC applications to be filed by May 2019.

While the expiration of a product patent normally results in a loss of market exclusivity for the covered pharmaceutical product, commercial benefits may continue to be derived from: (i) later-granted patents on processes and intermediates related to the most economical method of manufacture of the active ingredient of such product; (ii) patents relating to the use of such product; (iii) patents relating to novel compositions and formulations; and (iv) in the United States and certain other countries, market exclusivity that may be available under relevant law. The effect of product patent expiration on pharmaceutical products also depends upon many other factors such as the nature of the market and the position of the product in it, the growth of the market, the complexities and economics of the process for manufacture of the active ingredient of the product and the requirements of new drug provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act or similar laws and regulations in other countries.
Additions to market exclusivity are sought in the United States and other countries through all relevant laws, including laws increasing patent life. Some of the benefits of increases in patent life have been partially offset by an

11


increase in the number of incentives for and use of generic products. Additionally, improvements in intellectual property laws are sought in the United States and other countries through reform of patent and other relevant laws and implementation of international treaties.
The Company has the following key U.S. patent protection for drug candidates under review in the United States by the FDA. Additional patent term may be provided for these pipeline candidates based on Patent Term Restoration and Pediatric Exclusivity. 
Under Review (in the U.S.)
Currently Anticipated
Year of Expiration (in the U.S.)
V920 (ebola vaccine)
2023
MK-7655A (relebactam + imipenem/cilastatin)
2029
The Company also has the following key U.S. patent protection for drug candidates in Phase 3 development: 
Phase 3 Drug Candidate
Currently Anticipated
Year of Expiration (in the U.S.)
MK-1242 (vericiguat)(1)
2031
MK-7264 (gefapixant)
2027
V114 (pneumoconjugate vaccine)
2031
(1) 
Being developed in a worldwide clinical development collaboration with Bayer AG.
Unless otherwise noted, the patents in the above charts are compound patents. Each patent is subject to any future patent term restoration of up to five years and six month pediatric market exclusivity, either or both of which may be available. In addition, depending on the circumstances surrounding any final regulatory approval of the compound, there may be other listed patents or patent applications pending that could have relevance to the product as finally approved; the relevance of any such application would depend upon the claims that ultimately may be granted and the nature of the final regulatory approval of the product. Also, regulatory exclusivity tied to the protection of clinical data is complementary to patent protection and, in some cases, may provide more effective or longer lasting marketing exclusivity than a compound’s patent estate. In the United States, the data protection generally runs five years from first marketing approval of a new chemical entity, extended to seven years for an orphan drug indication and 12 years from first marketing approval of a biological product.
For further information with respect to the Company’s patents, see Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Item 8. “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” Note 11. “Contingencies and Environmental Liabilities” below.
Worldwide, all of the Company’s important products are sold under trademarks that are considered in the aggregate to be of material importance. Trademark protection continues in some countries as long as used; in other countries, as long as registered. Registration is for fixed terms and can be renewed indefinitely.
Royalty income in 2018 on patent and know-how licenses and other rights amounted to $135 million. Merck also incurred royalty expenses amounting to $1.3 billion in 2018 under patent and know-how licenses it holds.
Research and Development
The Company’s business is characterized by the introduction of new products or new uses for existing products through a strong research and development program. At December 31, 2018, approximately 14,500 people were employed in the Company’s research activities. The Company prioritizes its research and development efforts and focuses on candidates that it believes represent breakthrough science that will make a difference for patients and payers.
The Company maintains a number of long-term exploratory and fundamental research programs in biology and chemistry as well as research programs directed toward product development. The Company’s research and development model is designed to increase productivity and improve the probability of success by prioritizing the Company’s research and development resources on candidates the Company believes are capable of providing unambiguous, promotable advantages to patients and payers and delivering the maximum value of its approved medicines and vaccines through new indications and new formulations. Merck is pursuing emerging product opportunities independent of therapeutic area or modality (small molecule, biologics and vaccines) and is building its biologics capabilities. The Company is committed to ensuring that externally sourced programs remain an important

12


component of its pipeline strategy, with a focus on supplementing its internal research with a licensing and external alliance strategy focused on the entire spectrum of collaborations from early research to late-stage compounds, as well as access to new technologies.
The Company also reviews its pipeline to examine candidates that may provide more value through out-licensing. The Company continues to evaluate certain late-stage clinical development and platform technology assets to determine their out-licensing or sale potential.
The Company’s clinical pipeline includes candidates in multiple disease areas, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, neurosciences, obesity, pain, respiratory diseases, and vaccines.
In the development of human health products, industry practice and government regulations in the United States and most foreign countries provide for the determination of effectiveness and safety of new chemical compounds through preclinical tests and controlled clinical evaluation. Before a new drug or vaccine may be marketed in the United States, recorded data on preclinical and clinical experience are included in the New Drug Application (NDA) for a drug or the Biologics License Application (BLA) for a vaccine or biologic submitted to the FDA for the required approval.
Once the Company’s scientists discover a new small molecule compound or biologic that they believe has promise to treat a medical condition, the Company commences preclinical testing with that compound. Preclinical testing includes laboratory testing and animal safety studies to gather data on chemistry, pharmacology, immunogenicity and toxicology. Pending acceptable preclinical data, the Company will initiate clinical testing in accordance with established regulatory requirements. The clinical testing begins with Phase 1 studies, which are designed to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary pharmacodynamic activity of the compound in humans. If favorable, additional, larger Phase 2 studies are initiated to determine the efficacy of the compound in the affected population, define appropriate dosing for the compound, as well as identify any adverse effects that could limit the compound’s usefulness. In some situations, the clinical program incorporates adaptive design methodology to use accumulating data to decide how to modify aspects of the ongoing clinical study as it continues, without undermining the validity and integrity of the trial. One type of adaptive clinical trial is an adaptive Phase 2a/2b trial design, a two-stage trial design consisting of a Phase 2a proof-of-concept stage and a Phase 2b dose-optimization finding stage. If data from the Phase 2 trials are satisfactory, the Company commences large-scale Phase 3 trials to confirm the compound’s efficacy and safety. Another type of adaptive clinical trial is an adaptive Phase 2/3 trial design, a study that includes an interim analysis and an adaptation that changes the trial from having features common in a Phase 2 study (e.g. multiple dose groups) to a design similar to a Phase 3 trial. An adaptive Phase 2/3 trial design reduces timelines by eliminating activities which would be required to start a separate study. Upon completion of Phase 3 trials, if satisfactory, the Company submits regulatory filings with the appropriate regulatory agencies around the world to have the product candidate approved for marketing. There can be no assurance that a compound that is the result of any particular program will obtain the regulatory approvals necessary for it to be marketed.
Vaccine development follows the same general pathway as for drugs. Preclinical testing focuses on the vaccine’s safety and ability to elicit a protective immune response (immunogenicity). Pre-marketing vaccine clinical trials are typically done in three phases. Initial Phase 1 clinical studies are conducted in normal subjects to evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of the vaccine candidate. Phase 2 studies are dose-ranging studies. Finally, Phase 3 trials provide the necessary data on effectiveness and safety. If successful, the Company submits regulatory filings with the appropriate regulatory agencies.
In the United States, the FDA review process begins once a complete NDA or BLA is submitted, received and accepted for review by the agency. Within 60 days after receipt, the FDA determines if the application is sufficiently complete to permit a substantive review. The FDA also assesses, at that time, whether the application will be granted a priority review or standard review. Pursuant to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act V (PDUFA), the FDA review period target for NDAs or original BLAs is either six months, for priority review, or ten months, for a standard review, from the time the application is deemed sufficiently complete. Once the review timelines are determined, the FDA will generally act upon the application within those timelines, unless a major amendment has been submitted (either at the Company’s own initiative or the FDA’s request) to the pending application. If this occurs, the FDA may extend the review period to allow for review of the new information, but by no more than three months. Extensions to the review period are communicated to the Company. The FDA can act on an application either by issuing an approval letter or by issuing a Complete Response Letter (CRL) stating that the application will not be approved in its present form and describing all deficiencies that the FDA has identified. Should the Company wish to pursue an application after receiving

13


a CRL, it can resubmit the application with information that addresses the questions or issues identified by the FDA in order to support approval. Resubmissions are subject to review period targets, which vary depending on the underlying submission type and the content of the resubmission.
The FDA has four program designations — Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy, Accelerated Approval, and Priority Review — to facilitate and expedite development and review of new drugs to address unmet medical needs in the treatment of serious or life-threatening conditions. The Fast Track designation provides pharmaceutical manufacturers with opportunities for frequent interactions with FDA reviewers during the product’s development and the ability for the manufacturer to do a rolling submission of the NDA/BLA. A rolling submission allows completed portions of the application to be submitted and reviewed by the FDA on an ongoing basis. The Breakthrough Therapy designation provides manufacturers with all of the features of the Fast Track designation as well as intensive guidance on implementing an efficient development program for the product and a commitment by the FDA to involve senior managers and experienced staff in the review. The Accelerated Approval designation allows the FDA to approve a product based on an effect on a surrogate or intermediate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict a product’s clinical benefit and generally requires the manufacturer to conduct required post-approval confirmatory trials to verify the clinical benefit. The Priority Review designation means that the FDA’s goal is to take action on the NDA/BLA within six months, compared to ten months under standard review.
In addition, under the Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now Act, the FDA may grant Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) status to antibacterial or antifungal drugs intended to treat serious or life threatening infections including those caused by antibiotic or antifungal resistant pathogens, novel or emerging infectious pathogens, or other qualifying pathogens. QIDP designation offers certain incentives for development of qualifying drugs, including Priority Review of the NDA when filed, eligibility for Fast Track designation, and a five-year extension of applicable exclusivity provisions under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.
The primary method the Company uses to obtain marketing authorization of pharmaceutical products in the EU is through the “centralized procedure.” This procedure is compulsory for certain pharmaceutical products, in particular those using biotechnological processes, and is also available for certain new chemical compounds and products. A company seeking to market an innovative pharmaceutical product through the centralized procedure must file a complete set of safety data and efficacy data as part of a Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) with the European Medicines Agency (EMA). After the EMA evaluates the MAA, it provides a recommendation to the EC and the EC then approves or denies the MAA. It is also possible for new chemical products to obtain marketing authorization in the EU through a “mutual recognition procedure” in which an application is made to a single member state and, if the member state approves the pharmaceutical product under a national procedure, the applicant may submit that approval to the mutual recognition procedure of some or all other member states.
Outside of the United States and the EU, the Company submits marketing applications to national regulatory authorities. Examples of such are the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency in Japan, Health Canada, Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanatária in Brazil, Korea Food and Drug Administration in South Korea, Therapeutic Goods Administration in Australia and China Food and Drug Administration. Each country has a separate and independent review process and timeline. In many markets, approval times can be longer as the regulatory authority requires approval in a major market, such as the United States or the EU, and issuance of a Certificate of Pharmaceutical Product from that market before initiating their local review process.
Research and Development Update
The Company currently has several candidates under regulatory review in the United States and internationally.
Keytruda is an approved anti-PD-1 therapy in clinical development for expanded indications in different cancer types.
In February 2019, the FDA accepted and granted Priority Review for a supplemental BLA for Keytruda in combination with Inlyta (axitinib), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. This supplemental BLA is based on findings from the Phase 3 KEYNOTE-426 trial, which demonstrated that Keytruda in combination with axitinib, as compared to sunitinib, significantly improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in the first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. These data were presented at the American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Genitourinary Cancers Symposium in

14


February 2019. The supplemental BLA also included supporting data from the Phase 1b KEYNOTE-035 trial. The FDA set a PDUFA date of June 20, 2019. Merck has filed data from KEYNOTE-426 with regulatory authorities worldwide.
In February 2019, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the EMA adopted a positive opinion recommending Keytruda, in combination with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel, for the first-line treatment of metastatic squamous NSCLC in adults. This recommendation is based on results from the pivotal Phase 3 KEYNOTE-407 trial, which enrolled patients regardless of PD-L1 tumor expression status. The trial showed a significant improvement in OS and PFS for patients taking Keytruda in combination with chemotherapy (carboplatin and either paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel) compared with chemotherapy alone. If approved, this would mark the first approval in Europe for an anti-PD-1 therapy in combination with chemotherapy for adults with metastatic squamous NSCLC. In October 2018, the FDA approved Keytruda in combination with carboplatin-paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel as a first-line treatment for metastatic squamous NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 expression.
In December 2018, the FDA extended the action date for the supplemental BLA seeking approval for Keytruda as monotherapy for the first-line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC in patients whose tumors express PD-L1 (TPS ≥1%) without EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations. The supplemental BLA is based on results of the Phase 3 KEYNOTE-042 trial where Keytruda monotherapy demonstrated a significant improvement in OS compared with chemotherapy in this patient population. The Company submitted additional data and analyses to the FDA, which constituted a major amendment and extended the PDUFA date by three months to April 11, 2019. Merck continues to work closely with the FDA during the review of this supplemental BLA.
In February 2019, the FDA accepted and granted Priority Review for a supplemental BLA for Keytruda as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with advanced small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) whose disease has progressed after two or more lines of prior therapy. This supplemental BLA, which is seeking accelerated approval for this new indication, is based on data from the SCLC cohorts of the Phase 2 KEYNOTE-158 and Phase 1b KEYNOTE-028 trials. The FDA set a PDUFA date of June 17, 2019. Keytruda is also being studied in combination with chemotherapy in the ongoing Phase 3 KEYNOTE-604 study in patients with newly diagnosed extensive stage SCLC.
In February 2019, the FDA accepted a supplemental BLA for Keytruda as monotherapy or in combination with platinum and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC. This supplemental BLA is based in part on data from the pivotal Phase 3 KEYNOTE-048 trial where Keytruda demonstrated a significant improvement in OS compared with the standard of care, as monotherapy in patients whose tumors expressed PD-L1 with Combined Positive Score (CPS)≥20 and CPS≥1 and in combination with chemotherapy in the total patient population. These data were presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2018 Congress. The FDA granted Priority Review to the supplemental BLA and set a PDUFA date of June 10, 2019. KEYNOTE-048 also serves as the confirmatory trial for KEYNOTE-012, a Phase 1b study which supported the previous accelerated approval for Keytruda as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC with disease progression on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy.
In November 2018, Merck announced that the Phase 3 KEYNOTE-181 trial investigating Keytruda as monotherapy in the second-line treatment of advanced or metastatic esophageal or esophagogastric junction carcinoma met a primary endpoint of OS in patients whose tumors expressed PD-L1 (CPS ≥10). In this pivotal study, treatment with Keytruda resulted in a statistically significant improvement in OS compared to chemotherapy (paclitaxel, docetaxel or irinotecan) in patients with CPS ≥10, regardless of histology. The primary endpoint of OS was also evaluated in patients with squamous cell histology and in the entire intention-to-treat study population. While directionally favorable, statistical significance for OS was not met in these two patient groups. Per the statistical analysis plan, the key secondary endpoints of PFS and objective response rate (ORR) were not formally tested, as OS was not reached in the full intention-to-treat study population. These results were presented in January 2019 at the ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium and have been submitted for regulatory review.
Additionally, Keytruda has received Breakthrough Therapy designation from the FDA for the treatment of high-risk early-stage triple-negative breast cancer in combination with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The FDA’s Breakthrough Therapy designation is intended to expedite the development and review of a candidate that is planned for use, alone or in combination, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition when preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints.

15


In October 2018, Merck announced the first presentation of results from an interim analysis of KEYNOTE-057, a Phase 2 trial evaluating Keytruda for previously treated patients with high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. An interim analysis of the study’s primary endpoint showed a complete response rate of nearly 40% at three months with Keytruda in patients whose disease was unresponsive to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy, the current standard of care for this disease, and who were ineligible for or who refused to undergo radical cystectomy. These results, as well as other study findings, were presented at the ESMO 2018 Congress.
In February 2019, Merck announced that the pivotal Phase 3 KEYNOTE-240 trial evaluating Keytruda, plus best supportive care, for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who were previously treated with systemic therapy, did not meet its co-primary endpoints of OS and PFS compared with placebo plus best supportive care. In the final analysis of the study, there was an improvement in OS for patients treated with Keytruda compared to placebo, however these OS results did not meet statistical significance per the pre-specified statistical plan. Results for PFS were also directionally favorable in the Keytruda arm compared with placebo but did not reach statistical significance. The key secondary endpoint of ORR was not formally tested, since superiority was not reached for OS or PFS. Results will be presented at an upcoming medical meeting and have been shared with the FDA for discussion.
The Keytruda clinical development program consists of more than 900 clinical trials, including more than 600 trials that combine Keytruda with other cancer treatments. These studies encompass more than 30 cancer types including: bladder, cervical, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, head and neck, hepatocellular, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, melanoma, mesothelioma, nasopharyngeal, NSCLC, ovarian, PMBCL, prostate, renal, small-cell lung and triple-negative breast, many of which are currently in Phase 3 clinical development. Further trials are being planned for other cancers.
Lynparza, is an oral PARP inhibitor currently approved for certain types of ovarian and breast cancer. In July 2017, Merck and AstraZeneca entered into a global strategic oncology collaboration to co-develop and co-commercialize AstraZeneca’s Lynparza for multiple cancer types.
In April 2018, Merck and AstraZeneca announced that the EMA validated for review the MAA for Lynparza for use in patients with deleterious or suspected deleterious BRCA-mutated, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer who have been previously treated with chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant or metastatic setting. This was the first regulatory submission for a PARP inhibitor in breast cancer in Europe.
Lynparza tablets are also under review in the EU as a maintenance treatment in patients with newly-diagnosed, BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer who were in complete or partial response following first-line standard platinum-based chemotherapy. This submission was based on positive results from the pivotal Phase 3 SOLO-1 trial. The trial showed a statistically-significant and clinically-meaningful improvement in PFS for Lynparza compared to placebo, reducing the risk of disease progression or death by 70% in patients with newly-diagnosed, BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer who were in complete or partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy.
In December 2018, Merck and AstraZeneca announced positive results from the randomized, open-label, controlled, Phase 3 SOLO-3 trial of Lynparza tablets in patients with relapsed ovarian cancer after two or more lines of treatment. The trial was conducted as a post-approval commitment in agreement with the FDA. Results from the trial showed BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer patients treated with Lynparza following two or more prior lines of chemotherapy demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in the primary endpoint of ORR and the key secondary endpoint of PFS compared to chemotherapy. Merck and AstraZeneca plan to discuss these results with the FDA.
MK-7655A is a combination of relebactam, an investigational beta-lactamase inhibitor, and imipenem/cilastatin (an approved carbapenem antibiotic). In February 2019, Merck announced that the FDA accepted for Priority Review an NDA for MK-7655A for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by certain susceptible Gram-negative bacteria in adults with limited or no alternative therapies available. The PDUFA date is July 16, 2019. In April 2018, Merck announced that a pivotal Phase 3 study of MK-7655A demonstrated a favorable overall response in the treatment of certain imipenem-non-susceptible bacterial infections, the primary endpoint, with lower treatment-emergent nephrotoxicity (kidney toxicity), a secondary endpoint, compared to a colistin (colistimethate sodium) plus imipenem/cilastatin regimen. The FDA had previously designated this combination a Qualified Infectious Disease Product with designated Fast Track status for the treatment of hospital-

16


acquired bacterial pneumonia, ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections.
V920 (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP, live attenuated), is an investigational Ebola Zaire disease vaccine candidate being studied in large scale Phase 2/3 clinical trials. In December 2015, Merck announced that the application for Emergency Use Assessment and Listing (EUAL) for V920 was accepted for review by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to the WHO, the EUAL process is designed to expedite the availability of vaccines needed for public health emergencies such as another outbreak of Ebola. The WHO decision to grant V920 EUAL status will be based on data regarding quality, safety, and efficacy/effectiveness; as well as a risk/benefit analysis for emergency use. While EUAL designation allows for emergency use, the vaccine remains investigational and has not yet been licensed for commercial distribution. In July 2016, Merck announced that the FDA granted V920 Breakthrough Therapy designation, and that the EMA granted the vaccine candidate PRIME (PRIority MEdicines) status. In November 2018, Merck announced that it has started the submission of a rolling BLA to the FDA for V920. This rolling submission was made pursuant to the FDA’s Breakthrough Therapy designation. Merck expects the rolling submission of the BLA to be completed in 2019. The Company also intends to file V920 with the EMA in 2019.
In February 2019, Merck announced that the FDA accepted for Priority Review a supplemental NDA for Zerbaxa to treat adult patients with nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, caused by certain susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms. The PDUFA date is June 3, 2019. Zerbaxa is also under review for this indication by the EMA. Zerbaxa is currently approved in the United States for the treatment of adult patients with complicated urinary tract infections caused by certain susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms, and is also indicated, in combination with metronidazole, for the treatment of adult patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by certain susceptible Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms.
In addition to the candidates under regulatory review, the Company has several drug candidates in Phase 3 clinical development in addition to the Keytruda programs discussed above.
MK-7264, gefapixant, is a selective, non-narcotic, orally-administered P2X3-receptor agonist being investigated in Phase 3 trials for the treatment of refractory, chronic cough and in a Phase 2 trial for the treatment of women with endometriosis-related pain.
Lenvima, is an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor currently approved for certain types of thyroid cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and in combination for certain patients with renal cell carcinoma. In March 2018, Merck and Eisai entered into a strategic collaboration for the worldwide co-development and co-commercialization of Lenvima. Under the agreement, Merck and Eisai will develop and commercialize Lenvima jointly, both as monotherapy and in combination with Keytruda. Per the agreement, the companies will jointly initiate clinical studies evaluating the Keytruda/Lenvima combination to support 11 potential indications in six types of cancer (endometrial cancer, NSCLC, hepatocellular carcinoma, head and neck cancer, bladder cancer and melanoma), as well as a basket trial targeting multiple cancer types. The FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for Keytruda in combination with Lenvima for the potential treatment of patients with advanced and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma and for the potential treatment of certain patients with advanced and/or metastatic non-microsatellite instability high/proficient mismatch repair endometrial carcinoma.
MK-1242, vericiguat, is an investigational treatment for heart failure being studied in patients suffering from chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fracture (Phase 3 clinical trial) and from chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fracture (Phase 2 clinical trial). The development of vericiguat is part of a worldwide strategic collaboration between Merck and Bayer.
V114 is an investigational polyvalent conjugate vaccine for the prevention of pneumococcal disease. In June 2018, Merck initiated the first Phase 3 study in the adult population for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease. Currently five Phase 3 adult studies are ongoing, including studies in healthy adults 50 years of age or older, adults with risk factors for pneumococcal disease, those infected with HIV, and those who are recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. In October 2018, Merck began the first Phase 3 study in the pediatric population. Currently, three studies are ongoing, including studies in healthy infants and in children afflicted with sickle cell disease. In January 2019, Merck announced that V114 received Breakthrough Therapy designation from the FDA for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by the vaccine serotypes in pediatric patients 6 weeks to 18 years of age.

17


As a result of changes in the herpes zoster vaccine environment, Merck is ending development of V212, its investigational vaccine for the prevention of shingles in immunocompromised patients.
The chart below reflects the Company’s research pipeline as of February 22, 2019. Candidates shown in Phase 3 include specific products and the date such candidate entered into Phase 3 development. Candidates shown in Phase 2 include the most advanced compound with a specific mechanism or, if listed compounds have the same mechanism, they are each currently intended for commercialization in a given therapeutic area. Small molecules and biologics are given MK-number designations and vaccine candidates are given V-number designations. Except as otherwise noted, candidates in Phase 1, additional indications in the same therapeutic area (other than with respect to cancer and certain other indications) and additional claims, line extensions or formulations for in-line products are not shown.
Phase 2
Phase 3 (Phase 3 Entry Date)
Under Review
Cancer
Cancer
New Molecular Entities/Vaccines
MK-3475 Keytruda
MK-3475 Keytruda
Bacterial Infection
Advanced Solid Tumors
Breast (October 2015)
MK-7655A relebactam+imipenem/cilastatin
Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Cervical (October 2018) (EU)
(U.S.)
Prostate
Colorectal (November 2015)
Ebola Vaccine
MK-7902 Lenvima(1)
Esophageal (December 2015)
V920(4) (U.S.)
Biliary Tract
Gastric (May 2015) (EU)
 
Non-Small-Cell Lung
Hepatocellular (May 2016) (EU)
Certain Supplemental Filings
V937 Cavatak
Mesothelioma (May 2018)
Cancer
Melanoma
Nasopharyngeal (April 2016)
MK-3475 Keytruda
MK-7690
Ovarian (December 2018)
    First-Line Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
Colorectal(2)
Renal (October 2016) (EU)
(KEYNOTE-426) (U.S.)
MK-7339 Lynparza(1)
Small-Cell Lung (May 2017) (EU)
    First-Line Metastatic Squamous Non-Small-
Advanced Solid Tumors
MK-7902 Lenvima(1,2)
Cell Lung Cancer (KEYNOTE-407) (EU)
Cytomegalovirus Vaccine
Endometrial (June 2018)
    First-Line Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung
V160
MK-7339 Lynparza(1)
Cancer (KEYNOTE-042) (U.S.) (EU)
Diabetes Mellitus
Pancreatic (December 2014)
    Third-Line Advanced Small-Cell Lung
MK-8521(3)
Prostate (April 2017)
Cancer (KEYNOTE-158) (U.S.)
HIV-1 Infection
Cough
    First-Line Head and Neck Cancer
MK-8591
MK-7264 (gefapixant) (March 2018)
(KEYNOTE-048) (U.S.)
Pediatric Neurofibromatosis Type-1
Heart Failure
    Alternative Dosing Regimen
MK-5618 (selumetinib)(1)
MK-1242 (vericiguat) (September 2016)(1)
(Q6W) (EU)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Pneumoconjugate Vaccine
MK-7339 Lynparza(1)
MK-1654
V114 (June 2018)
    Second-Line Metastatic Breast Cancer (EU)
Schizophrenia
 
    First-Line Advanced Ovarian Cancer (EU)
MK-8189
 
HABP/VABP(5)
 
 
MK-7625A Zerbaxa (U.S.)
 
 
 
 
 
Footnotes:
 
 
(1)     Being developed in a collaboration.
 
 
(2)     Being developed in combination with
 
 
Keytruda.
 
 
(3)    Development is currently on hold.
 
 
(4)    Rolling submission.
 
 
(5)    HABP - Hospital-Acquired Bacterial
 
 
Pneumonia / VABP - Ventilator-Associated
 
 
Bacterial Pneumonia

Employees
As of December 31, 2018, the Company had approximately 69,000 employees worldwide, with approximately 25,400 employed in the United States, including Puerto Rico. Approximately 30% of worldwide employees of the Company are represented by various collective bargaining groups.
Restructuring Activities
In 2010 and 2013, the Company commenced actions under global restructuring programs designed to streamline its cost structure. The actions under these programs include the elimination of positions in sales, administrative and headquarters organizations, as well as the sale or closure of certain manufacturing and research and

18


development sites and the consolidation of office facilities. The Company also continues to reduce its global real estate footprint and improve the efficiency of its manufacturing and supply network. Since inception of the programs through December 31, 2018, Merck has eliminated approximately 45,510 positions comprised of employee separations, as well as the elimination of contractors and vacant positions. The Company has substantially completed the actions under these programs.
Environmental Matters
The Company believes that there are no compliance issues associated with applicable environmental laws and regulations that would have a material adverse effect on the Company. The Company is also remediating environmental contamination resulting from past industrial activity at certain of its sites. Expenditures for remediation and environmental liabilities were $16 million in 2018, and are estimated at $57 million in the aggregate for the years 2019 through 2023. These amounts do not consider potential recoveries from other parties. The Company has taken an active role in identifying and accruing for these costs and, in management’s opinion, the liabilities for all environmental matters that are probable and reasonably estimable have been accrued and totaled $71 million and $82 million at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Although it is not possible to predict with certainty the outcome of these matters, or the ultimate costs of remediation, management does not believe that any reasonably possible expenditures that may be incurred in excess of the liabilities accrued should exceed $60 million in the aggregate. Management also does not believe that these expenditures should have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, liquidity or capital resources for any year.
Merck believes that climate change could present risks to its business. Some of the potential impacts of climate change to its business include increased operating costs due to additional regulatory requirements, physical risks to the Company’s facilities, water limitations and disruptions to its supply chain. These potential risks are integrated into the Company’s business planning including investment in reducing energy, water use and greenhouse gas emissions. The Company does not believe these risks are material to its business at this time.
Geographic Area Information
The Company’s operations outside the United States are conducted primarily through subsidiaries. Sales worldwide by subsidiaries outside the United States as a percentage of total Company sales were 57% of sales in 2018, 57% of sales in 2017 and 54% of sales in 2016.
The Company’s worldwide business is subject to risks of currency fluctuations, governmental actions and other governmental proceedings abroad. The Company does not regard these risks as a deterrent to further expansion of its operations abroad. However, the Company closely reviews its methods of operations and adopts strategies responsive to changing economic and political conditions.
Merck has operations in countries located in Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia Pacific. Business in these developing areas, while sometimes less stable, offers important opportunities for growth over time.
Available Information
The Company’s Internet website address is www.merck.com. The Company will make available, free of charge at the “Investors” portion of its website, its Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov. In addition, the Company will provide without charge a copy of its Annual Report on Form 10-K, including financial statements and schedules, upon the written request of any shareholder to the Office of the Secretary, Merck & Co., Inc., 2000 Galloping Hill Road, K1-4157, Kenilworth, NJ 07033 U.S.A.
The Company’s corporate governance guidelines and the charters of the Board of Directors’ four standing committees are available on the Company’s website at www.merck.com/about/leadership and all such information is available in print to any shareholder who requests it from the Company.

19


Item 1A.
Risk Factors.
Investors should carefully consider all of the information set forth in this Form 10-K, including the following risk factors, before deciding to invest in any of the Company’s securities. The risks below are not the only ones the Company faces. Additional risks not currently known to the Company or that the Company presently deems immaterial may also impair its business operations. The Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. This Form 10-K also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. The Company’s results could materially differ from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks it faces described below and elsewhere. See “Cautionary Factors that May Affect Future Results” below.
The Company is dependent on its patent rights, and if its patent rights are invalidated or circumvented, its business would be adversely affected.
Patent protection is considered, in the aggregate, to be of material importance to the Company’s marketing of human health and animal health products in the United States and in most major foreign markets. Patents covering products that it has introduced normally provide market exclusivity, which is important for the successful marketing and sale of its products. The Company seeks patents covering each of its products in each of the markets where it intends to sell the products and where meaningful patent protection is available.
Even if the Company succeeds in obtaining patents covering its products, third parties or government authorities may challenge or seek to invalidate or circumvent its patents and patent applications. It is important for the Company’s business to defend successfully the patent rights that provide market exclusivity for its products. The Company is often involved in patent disputes relating to challenges to its patents or claims by third parties of infringement against the Company. The Company defends its patents both within and outside the United States, including by filing claims of infringement against other parties. See Item 8. “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” Note 11. “Contingencies and Environmental Liabilities” below. In particular, manufacturers of generic pharmaceutical products from time to time file abbreviated NDAs with the FDA seeking to market generic forms of the Company’s products prior to the expiration of relevant patents owned or licensed by the Company. The Company normally responds by defending its patent, including by filing lawsuits alleging patent infringement. Patent litigation and other challenges to the Company’s patents are costly and unpredictable and may deprive the Company of market exclusivity for a patented product or, in some cases, third-party patents may prevent the Company from marketing and selling a product in a particular geographic area.
Additionally, certain foreign governments have indicated that compulsory licenses to patents may be granted in the case of national emergencies or in other circumstances, which could diminish or eliminate sales and profits from those regions and negatively affect the Company’s results of operations. Further, court decisions relating to other companies’ patents, potential legislation relating to patents, as well as regulatory initiatives may result in a more general weakening of intellectual property protection.
If one or more important products lose patent protection in profitable markets, sales of those products are likely to decline significantly as a result of generic versions of those products becoming available. The Company’s results of operations may be adversely affected by the lost sales unless and until the Company has successfully launched commercially successful replacement products. In addition, if products that were measured at fair value and capitalized in connection with acquisitions experience difficulties in the market that negatively affect product cash flows, the Company may recognize material non-cash impairment charges with respect to the value of those products.
A chart listing the patent protection for certain of the Company’s marketed products, and U.S. patent protection for candidates under review and in Phase 3 clinical development is set forth above in Item 1. “Business — Patents, Trademarks and Licenses.”
As the Company’s products lose market exclusivity, the Company generally experiences a significant and rapid loss of sales from those products.
The Company depends upon patents to provide it with exclusive marketing rights for its products for some period of time. Loss of patent protection for one of the Company’s products typically leads to a significant and rapid loss of sales for that product as lower priced generic versions of that drug become available. In the case of products that contribute significantly to the Company’s sales, the loss of market exclusivity can have a material adverse effect

20


on the Company’s business, cash flow, results of operations, financial position and prospects. For example, pursuant to an agreement with a generic manufacturer, that manufacturer launched in the United States a generic version of Zetia in December 2016. In addition, the Company lost U.S. patent protection for Vytorin in April 2017. As a result, the Company experienced a significant and rapid loss of sales of Zetia and Vytorin in the United States in 2017, which continued in 2018. Furthermore, the patents that provide U.S. and EU market exclusivity for Noxafil will expire in July 2019 and December 2019, respectively, and the Company anticipates a significant decline in U.S. and EU Noxafil sales thereafter.
Key products generate a significant amount of the Company’s profits and cash flows, and any events that adversely affect the markets for its leading products could have a material and negative impact on results of operations and cash flows.
The Company’s ability to generate profits and operating cash flow depends largely upon the continued profitability of the Company’s key products, such as Keytruda, Januvia, Janumet, Gardasil/Gardasil 9 and Bridion. As a result of the Company’s dependence on key products, any event that adversely affects any of these products or the markets for any of these products could have a significant adverse impact on results of operations and cash flows. These events could include loss of patent protection, increased costs associated with manufacturing, generic or over-the-counter availability of the Company’s product or a competitive product, the discovery of previously unknown side effects, results of post-approval trials, increased competition from the introduction of new, more effective treatments and discontinuation or removal from the market of the product for any reason. Such events could have a material adverse effect on the sales of any such products.
For example, in 2018, sales of Zepatier were materially unfavorably affected by increasing competition and declining patient volumes. Sales of Zostavax were also materially unfavorably affected due to competition. The Company expects that competition will continue to adversely affect the sales of these products.
The Company’s research and development efforts may not succeed in developing commercially successful products and the Company may not be able to acquire commercially successful products in other ways; in consequence, the Company may not be able to replace sales of successful products that have lost patent protection.
Like other major pharmaceutical companies, in order to remain competitive, the Company must continue to launch new products. Expected declines in sales of products after the loss of market exclusivity mean that the Company’s future success is dependent on its pipeline of new products, including new products that it may develop through collaborations and joint ventures and products that it is able to obtain through license or acquisition. To accomplish this, the Company commits substantial effort, funds and other resources to research and development, both through its own dedicated resources and through various collaborations with third parties. There is a high rate of failure inherent in the research and development process for new drugs. As a result, there is a high risk that funds invested by the Company in research programs will not generate financial returns. This risk profile is compounded by the fact that this research has a long investment cycle. To bring a pharmaceutical compound from the discovery phase to market may take a decade or more and failure can occur at any point in the process, including later in the process after significant funds have been invested.
For a description of the research and development process, see Item 1. “Business — Research and Development” above. Each phase of testing is highly regulated and during each phase there is a substantial risk that the Company will encounter serious obstacles or will not achieve its goals, therefore, the Company may abandon a product in which it has invested substantial amounts of time and resources. Some of the risks encountered in the research and development process include the following: pre-clinical testing of a new compound may yield disappointing results; competing products from other manufacturers may reach the market first; clinical trials of a new drug may not be successful; a new drug may not be effective or may have harmful side effects; a new drug may not be approved by the regulators for its intended use; it may not be possible to obtain a patent for a new drug; payers may refuse to cover or reimburse the new product; or sales of a new product may be disappointing.
The Company cannot state with certainty when or whether any of its products now under development will be approved or launched; whether it will be able to develop, license or otherwise acquire compounds, product candidates or products; or whether any products, once launched, will be commercially successful. The Company must maintain a continuous flow of successful new products and successful new indications or brand extensions for existing products

21


sufficient both to cover its substantial research and development costs and to replace sales that are lost as profitable products lose market exclusivity or are displaced by competing products or therapies. Failure to do so in the short term or long term would have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations, cash flow, financial position and prospects.
The Company’s success is dependent on the successful development and marketing of new products, which are subject to substantial risks.
Products that appear promising in development may fail to reach the market or fail to succeed for numerous reasons, including the following:
findings of ineffectiveness, superior safety or efficacy of competing products, or harmful side effects in clinical or pre-clinical testing;
failure to receive the necessary regulatory approvals, including delays in the approval of new products and new indications, or the anticipated labeling, and uncertainties about the time required to obtain regulatory approvals and the benefit/risk standards applied by regulatory agencies in determining whether to grant approvals;
failure in certain markets to obtain reimbursement commensurate with the level of innovation and clinical benefit presented by the product;
lack of economic feasibility due to manufacturing costs or other factors; and
preclusion from commercialization by the proprietary rights of others.
In the future, if certain pipeline programs are cancelled or if the Company believes that their commercial prospects have been reduced, the Company may recognize material non-cash impairment charges for those programs that were measured at fair value and capitalized in connection with acquisitions or certain collaborations.
Failure to successfully develop and market new products in the short term or long term would have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations, cash flow, financial position and prospects.
The Company’s products, including products in development, cannot be marketed unless the Company obtains and maintains regulatory approval.
The Company’s activities, including research, preclinical testing, clinical trials and the manufacturing and marketing of its products, are subject to extensive regulation by numerous federal, state and local governmental authorities in the United States, including the FDA, and by foreign regulatory authorities, including in the EU, Japan and China. In the United States, the FDA administers requirements covering the testing, approval, safety, effectiveness, manufacturing, labeling and marketing of prescription pharmaceuticals. In many cases, the FDA requirements have increased the amount of time and money necessary to develop new products and bring them to market in the United States. Regulation outside the United States also is primarily focused on drug safety and effectiveness and, in many cases, reduction in the cost of drugs. The FDA and foreign regulatory authorities have substantial discretion to require additional testing, to delay or withhold registration and marketing approval and to otherwise preclude distribution and sale of a product.
Even if the Company is successful in developing new products, it will not be able to market any of those products unless and until it has obtained all required regulatory approvals in each jurisdiction where it proposes to market the new products. Once obtained, the Company must maintain approval as long as it plans to market its new products in each jurisdiction where approval is required. The Company’s failure to obtain approval, significant delays in the approval process, or its failure to maintain approval in any jurisdiction will prevent it from selling the products in that jurisdiction. The Company would not be able to realize revenues for those new products in any jurisdiction where it does not have approval.
Developments following regulatory approval may adversely affect sales of the Company’s products.
Even after a product reaches the market, certain developments following regulatory approval may decrease demand for the Company’s products, including the following:
results in post-approval Phase 4 trials or other studies;

22


the re-review of products that are already marketed;
the recall or loss of marketing approval of products that are already marketed;
changing government standards or public expectations regarding safety, efficacy or labeling changes; and
greater scrutiny in advertising and promotion.
In the past several years, clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance of certain marketed drugs of the Company and of competitors within the industry have raised concerns that have led to recalls, withdrawals or adverse labeling of marketed products. Clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance of certain marketed drugs also have raised concerns among some prescribers and patients relating to the safety or efficacy of pharmaceutical products in general that have negatively affected the sales of such products. In addition, increased scrutiny of the outcomes of clinical trials has led to increased volatility in market reaction. Further, these matters often attract litigation and, even where the basis for the litigation is groundless, considerable resources may be needed to respond.
In addition, following in the wake of product withdrawals and other significant safety issues, health authorities such as the FDA, the EMA and Japan’s Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Agency have increased their focus on safety when assessing the benefit/risk balance of drugs. Some health authorities appear to have become more cautious when making decisions about approvability of new products or indications and are re-reviewing select products that are already marketed, adding further to the uncertainties in the regulatory processes. There is also greater regulatory scrutiny, especially in the United States, on advertising and promotion and, in particular, direct-to-consumer advertising.
If previously unknown side effects are discovered or if there is an increase in negative publicity regarding known side effects of any of the Company’s products, it could significantly reduce demand for the product or require the Company to take actions that could negatively affect sales, including removing the product from the market, restricting its distribution or applying for labeling changes. Further, in the current environment in which all pharmaceutical companies operate, the Company is at risk for product liability and consumer protection claims and civil and criminal governmental actions related to its products, research and/or marketing activities.
The Company faces intense competition from lower cost generic products.
In general, the Company faces increasing competition from lower-cost generic products. The patent rights that protect its products are of varying strengths and durations. In addition, in some countries, patent protection is significantly weaker than in the United States or in the EU. In the United States and the EU, political pressure to reduce spending on prescription drugs has led to legislation and other measures that encourage the use of generic and biosimilar products. Although it is the Company’s policy to actively protect its patent rights, generic challenges to the Company’s products can arise at any time, and the Company’s patents may not prevent the emergence of generic competition for its products.
Loss of patent protection for a product typically is followed promptly by generic substitutes, reducing the Company’s sales of that product. Availability of generic substitutes for the Company’s drugs may adversely affect its results of operations and cash flow. In addition, proposals emerge from time to time in the United States and other countries for legislation to further encourage the early and rapid approval of generic drugs. Any such proposal that is enacted into law could worsen this substantial negative effect on the Company’s sales and, potentially, its business, cash flow, results of operations, financial position and prospects.
The Company faces intense competition from competitors’ products.
The Company’s products face intense competition from competitors’ products. This competition may increase as new products enter the market. In such an event, the competitors’ products may be safer or more effective, more convenient to use, have better insurance coverage or reimbursement levels or be more effectively marketed and sold than the Company’s products. Alternatively, in the case of generic competition, including the generic availability of competitors’ branded products, they may be equally safe and effective products that are sold at a substantially lower price than the Company’s products. As a result, if the Company fails to maintain its competitive position, this could have a material adverse effect on its business, cash flow, results of operations, financial position and prospects. In addition, if products that were measured at fair value and capitalized in connection with acquisitions experience

23


difficulties in the market that negatively impact product cash flows, the Company may recognize material non-cash impairment charges with respect to the value of those products.
The Company faces continued pricing pressure with respect to its products.
The Company faces continued pricing pressure globally and, particularly in mature markets, from managed care organizations, government agencies and programs that could negatively affect the Company’s sales and profit margins. In the United States, these include (i) practices of managed care groups and institutional and governmental purchasers, (ii) U.S. federal laws and regulations related to Medicare and Medicaid, including the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 and the ACA, and (iii) state activities aimed at increasing price transparency, including new laws as noted above in Item 1. “Competition and the Health Care Environment — Health Care Environment and Government Regulations.” Changes to the health care system enacted as part of health care reform in the United States, as well as increased purchasing power of entities that negotiate on behalf of Medicare, Medicaid, and private sector beneficiaries, could result in further pricing pressures. In addition, in the U.S., larger customers may, in the future, ask for and receive higher rebates on drugs in certain highly competitive categories. The Company must also compete to be placed on formularies of managed care organizations. Exclusion of a product from a formulary can lead to reduced usage in the managed care organization.
In order to provide information about the Company’s pricing practices, the Company annually posts on its website its Pricing Transparency Report for the United States. The report provides the Company’s average annual list price and net price increases across the Company’s U.S. portfolio dating back to 2010.
Outside the United States, numerous major markets, including the EU, Japan and China have pervasive government involvement in funding health care and, in that regard, fix the pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceutical and vaccine products. Consequently, in those markets, the Company is subject to government decision making and budgetary actions with respect to its products.
The Company expects pricing pressures to continue in the future.
The health care industry in the United States will continue to be subject to increasing regulation and political action.
The Company believes that the health care industry will continue to be subject to increasing regulation as well as political and legal action, as future proposals to reform the health care system are considered by the Executive branch, Congress and state legislatures.
In 2010, the United States enacted major health care reform legislation in the form of the ACA. Various insurance market reforms have advanced and state and federal insurance exchanges were launched in 2014. With respect to the effect of the law on the pharmaceutical industry, the law increased the mandated Medicaid rebate from 15.1% to 23.1%, expanded the rebate to Medicaid managed care utilization, and increased the types of entities eligible for the federal 340B drug discount program.
The law also requires pharmaceutical manufacturers to pay a 50% point of service discount to Medicare Part D beneficiaries when they are in the Medicare Part D coverage gap (i.e., the so-called “donut hole”). In 2018, the Company’s revenue was reduced by $365 million due to this requirement. Beginning in 2019, the 50% point of service discount will increase to a 70% point of service discount in the coverage gap, as a result of the Balanced Budget Act of 2018. In addition, the 70% point of service discount will be extended to biosimilar products. Also, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to pay an annual non-tax deductible health care reform fee. The total annual industry fee was $4.1 billion in 2018 and will be $2.8 billion in 2019. The fee is assessed on each company in proportion to its share of prior year branded pharmaceutical sales to certain government programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. In 2018, the Company recorded $124 million of costs for this annual fee.
In 2016, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) issued the Medicaid rebate final rule that implements provisions of the ACA effective April 1, 2016. The rule provides comprehensive guidance on the calculation of Average Manufacturer Price and Best Price; two metrics utilized to determine the rebates drug manufacturers are required to pay to state Medicaid programs. The impact of changes resulting from the issuance of the rule is not material to Merck, at this time. However, the Company is still awaiting guidance from CMS on two aspects of the rule that were deferred for later implementation. These include a definition of what constitutes a product ‘line extension’ and a delay

24


in the participation of the U.S. Territories in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program until April 1, 2020. The Company will evaluate the financial impact of these two elements when they become effective.
The Company cannot predict the likelihood of future changes in the health care industry in general, or the pharmaceutical industry in particular, or what impact they may have on the Company’s business, cash flow, results of operations, financial position and prospects.
The Company is increasingly dependent on sophisticated software applications and computing infrastructure. In 2017, the Company experienced a network cyber-attack that led to a disruption of its worldwide operations, including manufacturing, research and sales operations. The Company could be a target of future cyber-attacks.
The Company is increasingly dependent on sophisticated software applications and complex information technology systems and computing infrastructure (collectively, “IT systems”) to conduct critical operations. Disruption, degradation, or manipulation of these IT systems through intentional or accidental means could impact key business processes. Cyber-attacks against the Company’s IT systems could result in exposure of confidential information, the modification of critical data, and/or the failure of critical operations. Misuse of these IT systems could result in the disclosure of sensitive personal information or the theft of trade secrets, intellectual property, or other confidential business information. The Company continues to leverage new and innovative technologies across the enterprise to improve the efficacy and efficiency of its business processes; the use of which can create new risks.
In 2017, the Company experienced a network cyber-attack that led to a disruption of its worldwide operations, including manufacturing, research and sales operations. Due to the cyber-attack, the Company was unable to fulfill orders for certain products in certain markets, which had an unfavorable effect on sales in 2017 of approximately $260 million. In addition, the Company recorded manufacturing-related expenses, primarily unfavorable manufacturing variances, in Cost of sales, as well as expenses related to remediation efforts in Selling, general and administrative expenses and Research and development expenses, which aggregated $285 million in 2017, net of insurance recoveries of approximately $45 million. Due to a residual backlog of orders, 2018 sales were unfavorably affected in certain markets by approximately $150 million from the cyber-attack.
The Company has insurance coverage insuring against costs resulting from cyber-attacks and has received proceeds. However, there are disputes with certain of the insurers about the availability of some of the insurance coverage for claims related to the 2017 cyber-attack.
The Company has implemented a variety of measures to further enhance and modernize its systems to guard against similar attacks in the future, and also is pursuing an enterprise-wide effort to enhance the Company's resiliency against future cyber-attacks, including incidents similar to the 2017 attack. The objective of these efforts is not only to protect against future cyber-attacks, but also to improve the speed of the Company’s recovery from such attacks and enable continued business operations to the greatest extent possible during any recovery period.
Although the aggregate impact of cyber-attacks and network disruptions, including the 2017 cyber-attack, on the Company’s operations and financial condition has not been material to date, the Company continues to be a target of events of this nature and expects them to continue. The Company monitors its data, information technology and personnel usage of Company IT systems to reduce these risks and continues to do so on an ongoing basis for any current or potential threats. There can be no assurance that the Company’s efforts to protect its data and IT systems will be successful in preventing disruptions to its operations, including its manufacturing, research and sales operations. Any such disruption could result in loss of revenue, or the loss of critical or sensitive information from the Company’s or the Company’s third party providers’ databases or IT systems and could also result in financial, legal, business or reputational harm to the Company and potentially substantial remediation costs.
The Company is subject to a variety of U.S. and international laws and regulations.
The Company is currently subject to a number of government laws and regulations and, in the future, could become subject to new government laws and regulations. The costs of compliance with such laws and regulations, or the negative results of non-compliance, could adversely affect the business, cash flow, results of operations, financial position and prospects of the Company; these laws and regulations include (i) additional healthcare reform initiatives in the United States or in other countries, including additional mandatory discounts or fees; (ii) the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or other anti-bribery and corruption laws; (iii) new laws, regulations and judicial or other governmental

25


decisions affecting pricing, drug reimbursement, and access or marketing within or across jurisdictions; (iv) changes in intellectual property laws; (v) changes in accounting standards; (vi) new and increasing data privacy regulations and enforcement, particularly in the EU and the United States; (vii) legislative mandates or preferences for local manufacturing of pharmaceutical or vaccine products; (viii) emerging and new global regulatory requirements for reporting payments and other value transfers to healthcare professionals; (ix) environmental regulations; and (x) the potential impact of importation restrictions, embargoes, trade sanctions and legislative and/or other regulatory changes.
The uncertainty in global economic conditions together with cost-reduction measures being taken by certain governments could negatively affect the Company’s operating results.
Uncertainty in global economic and geopolitical conditions may result in a slowdown to the global economy that could affect the Company’s business by reducing the prices that drug wholesalers and retailers, hospitals, government agencies and managed health care providers may be able or willing to pay for the Company’s products or by reducing the demand for the Company’s products, which could in turn negatively impact the Company’s sales and result in a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, cash flow, results of operations, financial position and prospects.
Global efforts toward health care cost containment continue to exert pressure on product pricing and market access. In the United States, pricing pressures continue on many of the Company’s products and, in several international markets, government-mandated pricing actions have reduced prices of generic and patented drugs. The Company anticipates these pricing actions will continue to negatively affect revenue performance in 2019.
If credit and economic conditions worsen, the resulting economic and currency impacts in the affected markets and globally could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results.
The Company has significant global operations, which expose it to additional risks, and any adverse event could have a material negative impact on the Company’s results of operations.
The extent of the Company’s operations outside the United States is significant. Risks inherent in conducting a global business include:
changes in medical reimbursement policies and programs and pricing restrictions in key markets;
multiple regulatory requirements that could restrict the Company’s ability to manufacture and sell its products in key markets;
trade protection measures and import or export licensing requirements, including the imposition of trade sanctions or similar restrictions by the United States or other governments;
foreign exchange fluctuations;
diminished protection of intellectual property in some countries; and
possible nationalization and expropriation.
In addition, there may be changes to the Company’s business and political position if there is instability, disruption or destruction in a significant geographic region, regardless of cause, including war, terrorism, riot, civil insurrection or social unrest; and natural or man-made disasters, including famine, flood, fire, earthquake, storm or disease. For example, in 2017, the Company’s lone manufacturing plant in Puerto Rico was negatively affected by Hurricane Maria.
In 2016, the United Kingdom (UK) held a referendum in which voters approved an exit from the EU, commonly referred to as “Brexit”. As a result of that referendum, the British government has been in the process of negotiating the terms of the UK’s future relationship with the EU. While the Company has taken actions and made certain contingency plans for scenarios in which the UK and the EU do not reach a mutually satisfactory understanding as to that relationship, it is not possible at this time to predict whether there will be any such understanding, or if such an understanding is reached, whether its terms will vary in ways that result in greater restrictions on imports and exports between the UK and EU countries, increased regulatory complexities, and/or cross border labor issues that could materially adversely impact the Company’s business operations in the UK.

26


Failure to attract and retain highly qualified personnel could affect the Company’s ability to successfully develop and commercialize products.
The Company’s success is largely dependent on its continued ability to attract and retain highly qualified scientific, technical and management personnel, as well as personnel with expertise in clinical research and development, governmental regulation and commercialization. Competition for qualified personnel in the pharmaceutical industry is intense. The Company cannot be sure that it will be able to attract and retain quality personnel or that the costs of doing so will not materially increase.
In the past, the Company has experienced difficulties and delays in manufacturing certain of its products, including vaccines.
Merck has, in the past, experienced difficulties in manufacturing certain of its products, including vaccines. In addition, the network cyber-attack experienced by the Company in June 2017 led to a disruption of the Company’s operations, including its manufacturing operations. The Company may, in the future, experience difficulties and delays inherent in manufacturing its products, such as (i) failure of the Company or any of its vendors or suppliers to comply with Current Good Manufacturing Practices and other applicable regulations and quality assurance guidelines that could lead to manufacturing shutdowns, product shortages and delays in product manufacturing; (ii) construction delays related to the construction of new facilities or the expansion of existing facilities, including those intended to support future demand for the Company’s products; and (iii) other manufacturing or distribution problems including changes in manufacturing production sites and limits to manufacturing capacity due to regulatory requirements, changes in types of products produced, or physical limitations that could impact continuous supply. In addition, the Company could experience difficulties or delays in manufacturing its products caused by natural disasters, such as hurricanes. Manufacturing difficulties can result in product shortages, leading to lost sales and reputational harm to the Company.
The Company may not be able to realize the expected benefits of its investments in emerging markets.
The Company has been taking steps to increase its sales in emerging markets. However, there is no guarantee that the Company’s efforts to expand sales in these markets will succeed. Some countries within emerging markets may be especially vulnerable to periods of global financial instability or may have very limited resources to spend on health care. In order for the Company to successfully implement its emerging markets strategy, it must attract and retain qualified personnel. The Company may also be required to increase its reliance on third-party agents within less developed markets. In addition, many of these countries have currencies that fluctuate substantially and, if such currencies devalue and the Company cannot offset the devaluations, the Company’s financial performance within such countries could be adversely affected.
The Company’s business in China has grown rapidly in the past few years, and the importance of China to the Company’s overall pharmaceutical and vaccines business outside the United States has increased accordingly. Continued growth of the Company’s business in China is dependent upon ongoing development of a favorable environment for innovative pharmaceutical products and vaccines, sustained access for the Company’s currently marketed products, and the absence of trade impediments or adverse pricing controls. As noted above in Healthcare Environment, pricing pressure in China has increased as the Chinese government has been taking steps to reduce costs, including implementing healthcare reform that has led to the acceleration of generic substitution, where available. In addition, the Company anticipates that the reported inquiries made by various governmental authorities involving multinational pharmaceutical companies in China may continue.
For all these reasons, sales within emerging markets carry significant risks. However, a failure to maintain the Company’s presence in emerging markets could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, cash flow, results of operations, financial position and prospects.
The Company is exposed to market risk from fluctuations in currency exchange rates and interest rates.
The Company operates in multiple jurisdictions and virtually all sales are denominated in currencies of the local jurisdiction. Additionally, the Company has entered and will enter into business development transactions, borrowings or other financial transactions that may give rise to currency and interest rate exposure.

27


Since the Company cannot, with certainty, foresee and mitigate against such adverse fluctuations, fluctuations in currency exchange rates, interest rates and inflation could negatively affect the Company’s business, cash flow, results of operations, financial position and prospects.
In order to mitigate against the adverse impact of these market fluctuations, the Company will from time to time enter into hedging agreements. While hedging agreements, such as currency options and forwards and interest rate swaps, may limit some of the exposure to exchange rate and interest rate fluctuations, such attempts to mitigate these risks may be costly and not always successful.
The Company is subject to evolving and complex tax laws, which may result in additional liabilities that may affect results of operations.
The Company is subject to evolving and complex tax laws in the jurisdictions in which it operates. Significant judgment is required for determining the Company’s tax liabilities, and the Company’s tax returns are periodically examined by various tax authorities. The Company believes that its accrual for tax contingencies is adequate for all open years based on past experience, interpretations of tax law, and judgments about potential actions by tax authorities; however, due to the complexity of tax contingencies, the ultimate resolution of any tax matters may result in payments greater or less than amounts accrued. In addition, the Company may be affected by changes in tax laws, or new tax laws, affecting, for example, tax rates, and/or revised tax law interpretations in domestic or foreign jurisdictions.
Pharmaceutical products can develop unexpected safety or efficacy concerns.
Unexpected safety or efficacy concerns can arise with respect to marketed products, whether or not scientifically justified, leading to product recalls, withdrawals, or declining sales, as well as product liability, consumer fraud and/or other claims, including potential civil or criminal governmental actions.
Reliance on third-party relationships and outsourcing arrangements could adversely affect the Company’s business.
The Company depends on third parties, including suppliers, alliances with other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, and third-party service providers, for key aspects of its business including development, manufacture and commercialization of its products and support for its information technology systems. Failure of these third parties to meet their contractual, regulatory and other obligations to the Company or the development of factors that materially disrupt the relationships between the Company and these third parties could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business.
Negative events in the animal health industry could have a negative impact on future results of operations.
Future sales of key animal health products could be adversely affected by a number of risk factors including certain risks that are specific to the animal health business. For example, the outbreak of disease carried by animals, such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or mad cow disease, could lead to their widespread death and precautionary destruction as well as the reduced consumption and demand for animals, which could adversely impact the Company’s results of operations. Also, the outbreak of any highly contagious diseases near the Company’s main production sites could require the Company to immediately halt production of vaccines at such sites or force the Company to incur substantial expenses in procuring raw materials or vaccines elsewhere. Other risks specific to animal health include epidemics and pandemics, government procurement and pricing practices, weather and global agribusiness economic events. As the Animal Health segment of the Company’s business becomes more significant, the impact of any such events on future results of operations would also become more significant.
Biologics and vaccines carry unique risks and uncertainties, which could have a negative impact on future results of operations.
The successful development, testing, manufacturing and commercialization of biologics and vaccines, particularly human and animal health vaccines, is a long, complex, expensive and uncertain process. There are unique risks and uncertainties with biologics and vaccines, including:
There may be limited access to, and supply of, normal and diseased tissue samples, cell lines, pathogens, bacteria, viral strains and other biological materials. In addition, government regulations in multiple

28


jurisdictions, such as the United States and the EU, could result in restricted access to, or transport or use of, such materials. If the Company loses access to sufficient sources of such materials, or if tighter restrictions are imposed on the use of such materials, the Company may not be able to conduct research activities as planned and may incur additional development costs.
The development, manufacturing and marketing of biologics and vaccines are subject to regulation by the FDA, the EMA and other regulatory bodies. These regulations are often more complex and extensive than the regulations applicable to other pharmaceutical products. For example, in the United States, a BLA, including both preclinical and clinical trial data and extensive data regarding the manufacturing procedures, is required for human vaccine candidates, and FDA approval is generally required for the release of each manufactured commercial lot.
Manufacturing biologics and vaccines, especially in large quantities, is often complex and may require the use of innovative technologies to handle living micro-organisms. Each lot of an approved biologic and vaccine must undergo thorough testing for identity, strength, quality, purity and potency. Manufacturing biologics requires facilities specifically designed for and validated for this purpose, and sophisticated quality assurance and quality control procedures are necessary. Slight deviations anywhere in the manufacturing process, including filling, labeling, packaging, storage and shipping and quality control and testing, may result in lot failures, product recalls or spoilage. When changes are made to the manufacturing process, the Company may be required to provide pre-clinical and clinical data showing the comparable identity, strength, quality, purity or potency of the products before and after such changes.
Biologics and vaccines are frequently costly to manufacture because production ingredients are derived from living animal or plant material, and most biologics and vaccines cannot be made synthetically. In particular, keeping up with the demand for vaccines may be difficult due to the complexity of producing vaccines.
The use of biologically derived ingredients can lead to variability in the manufacturing process and could lead to allegations of harm, including infections or allergic reactions, which allegations would be reviewed through a standard investigation process that could lead to closure of product facilities due to possible contamination. Any of these events could result in substantial costs.
Product liability insurance for products may be limited, cost prohibitive or unavailable.
As a result of a number of factors, product liability insurance has become less available while the cost has increased significantly. The Company is subject to a substantial number of product liability claims. See Item 8. “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” Note 11. “Contingencies and Environmental Liabilities” below for more information on the Company’s current product liability litigation. With respect to product liability, the Company self-insures substantially all of its risk, as the availability of commercial insurance has become more restrictive. The Company has evaluated its risks and has determined that the cost of obtaining product liability insurance outweighs the likely benefits of the coverage that is available and, as such, has no insurance for certain product liabilities effective August 1, 2004, including liability for legacy Merck products first sold after that date. The Company will continually assess the most efficient means to address its risk; however, there can be no guarantee that insurance coverage will be obtained or, if obtained, will be sufficient to fully cover product liabilities that may arise.
Social media platforms present risks and challenges.
The inappropriate and/or unauthorized use of certain media vehicles could cause brand damage or information leakage or could lead to legal implications, including from the improper collection and/or dissemination of personally identifiable information. In addition, negative or inaccurate posts or comments about the Company or its products on any social networking platforms could damage the Company’s reputation, brand image and goodwill. Further, the disclosure of non-public Company-sensitive information by the Company’s workforce or others through external media channels could lead to information loss. Although there is an internal Company Social Media Policy that guides employees on appropriate personal and professional use of social media about the Company, the processes in place may not completely secure and protect information. Identifying new points of entry as social media continues to expand also presents new challenges.

29



Cautionary Factors that May Affect Future Results
(Cautionary Statements Under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995)
This report and other written reports and oral statements made from time to time by the Company may contain so-called “forward-looking statements,” all of which are based on management’s current expectations and are subject to risks and uncertainties which may cause results to differ materially from those set forth in the statements. One can identify these forward-looking statements by their use of words such as “anticipates,” “expects,” “plans,” “will,” “estimates,” “forecasts,” “projects” and other words of similar meaning, or negative variations of any of the foregoing. One can also identify them by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. These statements are likely to address the Company’s growth strategy, financial results, product development, product approvals, product potential, and development programs. One must carefully consider any such statement and should understand that many factors could cause actual results to differ materially from the Company’s forward-looking statements. These factors include inaccurate assumptions and a broad variety of other risks and uncertainties, including some that are known and some that are not. No forward-looking statement can be guaranteed and actual future results may vary materially. The Company does not assume the obligation to update any forward-looking statement. The Company cautions you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Although it is not possible to predict or identify all such factors, they may include the following:
Competition from generic and/or biosimilar products as the Company’s products lose patent protection.
Increased “brand” competition in therapeutic areas important to the Company’s long-term business performance.
The difficulties and uncertainties inherent in new product development. The outcome of the lengthy and complex process of new product development is inherently uncertain. A drug candidate can fail at any stage of the process and one or more late-stage product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval. New product candidates may appear promising in development but fail to reach the market because of efficacy or safety concerns, the inability to obtain necessary regulatory approvals, the difficulty or excessive cost to manufacture and/or the infringement of patents or intellectual property rights of others. Furthermore, the sales of new products may prove to be disappointing and fail to reach anticipated levels.
Pricing pressures, both in the United States and abroad, including rules and practices of managed care groups, judicial decisions and governmental laws and regulations related to Medicare, Medicaid and health care reform, pharmaceutical reimbursement and pricing in general.
Changes in government laws and regulations, including laws governing intellectual property, and the enforcement thereof affecting the Company’s business.
Efficacy or safety concerns with respect to marketed products, whether or not scientifically justified, leading to product recalls, withdrawals or declining sales.
Significant changes in customer relationships or changes in the behavior and spending patterns of purchasers of health care products and services, including delaying medical procedures, rationing prescription medications, reducing the frequency of physician visits and foregoing health care insurance coverage.
Legal factors, including product liability claims, antitrust litigation and governmental investigations, including tax disputes, environmental concerns and patent disputes with branded and generic competitors, any of which could preclude commercialization of products or negatively affect the profitability of existing products.
Cyber-attacks on the Company’s information technology systems, which could disrupt the Company’s operations.
Lost market opportunity resulting from delays and uncertainties in the approval process of the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities.
Increased focus on privacy issues in countries around the world, including the United States and the EU. The legislative and regulatory landscape for privacy and data protection continues to evolve, and there has been

30


an increasing amount of focus on privacy and data protection issues with the potential to affect directly the Company’s business, including recently enacted laws in a majority of states in the United States requiring security breach notification.
Changes in tax laws including changes related to the taxation of foreign earnings.
Changes in accounting pronouncements promulgated by standard-setting or regulatory bodies, including the Financial Accounting Standards Board and the SEC, that are adverse to the Company.
Economic factors over which the Company has no control, including changes in inflation, interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates.
This list should not be considered an exhaustive statement of all potential risks and uncertainties. See “Risk Factors” above.
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
Item 2.
Properties.
The Company’s corporate headquarters is located in Kenilworth, New Jersey. The Company’s U.S. commercial operations are headquartered in Upper Gwynedd, Pennsylvania. The Company’s U.S. pharmaceutical business is conducted through divisional headquarters located in Upper Gwynedd, Pennsylvania and Kenilworth, New Jersey. The Company’s vaccines business is conducted through divisional headquarters located in Upper Gwynedd, Pennsylvania. Merck’s Animal Health headquarters is located in Madison, New Jersey. Principal U.S. research facilities are located in Rahway and Kenilworth, New Jersey, West Point, Pennsylvania, Palo Alto, California, Boston, Massachusetts, South San Francisco, California and Elkhorn, Nebraska (Animal Health). Principal research facilities outside the United States are located in Switzerland and China. Merck’s manufacturing operations are headquartered in Whitehouse Station, New Jersey. The Company also has production facilities for human health products at nine locations in the United States and Puerto Rico. Outside the United States, through subsidiaries, the Company owns or has an interest in manufacturing plants or other properties in Japan, Singapore, South Africa, and other countries in Western Europe, Central and South America, and Asia.
Capital expenditures were $2.6 billion in 2018, $1.9 billion in 2017 and $1.6 billion in 2016. In the United States, these amounted to $1.5 billion in 2018, $1.2 billion in 2017 and $1.0 billion in 2016. Abroad, such expenditures amounted to $1.1 billion in 2018, $728 million in 2017 and $594 million in 2016.
The Company and its subsidiaries own their principal facilities and manufacturing plants under titles that they consider to be satisfactory. The Company believes that its properties are in good operating condition and that its machinery and equipment have been well maintained. Plants for the manufacture of products are suitable for their intended purposes and have capacities and projected capacities adequate for current and projected needs for existing Company products. Some capacity of the plants is being converted, with any needed modification, to the requirements of newly introduced and future products. In addition, in October 2018, the Company announced it plans to invest approximately $16 billion on new capital projects from 2018-2022. The focus of this investment will primarily be on increasing manufacturing capacity across Merck’s key businesses.
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings.
The information called for by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to Item 8. “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” Note 11. “Contingencies and Environmental Liabilities”.
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not Applicable.

31



Executive Officers of the Registrant (ages as of February 1, 2019)
All officers listed below serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. None of these officers was elected pursuant to any arrangement or understanding between the officer and any other person(s).
Name
Age
Offices and Business Experience
Kenneth C. Frazier
64
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer (since December 2011)
Sanat Chattopadhyay
59
Executive Vice President and President, Merck Manufacturing Division (since March 2016); Senior Vice President, Operations, Merck Manufacturing Division (November 2009-March 2016)
Frank Clyburn
54
Executive Vice President, Chief Commercial Officer (since January 2019); President, Global Oncology Business Unit (October 2013-December 2018); President, Primary Care and Women’s Health Business Line (September 2011-October 2013)
Robert M. Davis
52
Executive Vice President, Global Services, and Chief Financial Officer (since April 2016); Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (April 2014-April 2016); Corporate Vice President and President, Medical Products, Baxter International, Inc. (October 2010-March 2014)
Richard R. DeLuca, Jr.
56
Executive Vice President and President, Merck Animal Health (since September 2011)
Julie L. Gerberding
62
Executive Vice President and Chief Patient Officer, Strategic Communications, Global Public Policy and Population Health (since July 2016); Executive Vice President for Strategic Communications, Global Public Policy and Population Health (January 2015-July 2016); President, Merck Vaccines (January 2010-January 2015)
Rita A. Karachun
55
Senior Vice President Finance - Global Controller (since March 2014); Assistant Controller (November 2009-March 2014)
Steven C. Mizell

58
Executive Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer, Human Resources (since October 2018); Executive Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer (December 2016-October 2018) and Executive Vice President, Human Resources, Monsanto Company (August 2011-December 2016)
Michael T. Nally
43
Executive Vice President, Chief Marketing Officer (since January 2019); President, Global Vaccines, Global Human Health (September 2016-January 2019); Managing Director, United Kingdom and Ireland, Global Human Health (January 2014-September 2016); Managing Director, Sweden, Global Human Health (November 2011-January 2014)
Roger M. Perlmutter, M.D., Ph.D.
66
Executive Vice President and President, Merck Research Laboratories (since April 2013)
Jim Scholefield
56
Executive Vice President, Chief Information and Digital Officer (since October 2018); Chief Information Officer, Nike, Inc (July 2015-October 2018); Chief Technology Officer, The Coca-Cola Company, (November 2010-June 2015)
Jennifer Zachary
41
Executive Vice President and General Counsel (since April 2018); Partner, Covington & Burling LLP (January 2013-March 2018)



32


PART II
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
The principal market for trading of the Company’s Common Stock is the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol MRK.

As of January 31, 2019, there were approximately 115,320 shareholders of record of the Company’s Common Stock.

Issuer purchases of equity securities for the three months ended December 31, 2018 were as follows:
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
 
 
 
 
 
($ in millions)
Period
 
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased(1)
 
Average Price
Paid Per
Share
 
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares
That May Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans or Programs(1)
October 1 — October 31
 
59,154,075
 
$70.56
 
$12,709(2)
November 1 — November 30
 
5,279,715
 
$74.64
 
$12,315
December 1 — December 31
 
4,788,526
 
$76.30
 
$11,949
Total
 
69,222,316
 
$71.27
 
$11,949

(1) 
All shares purchased during the period were made as part of a plan approved by the Board of Directors in November 2017 to purchase up to $10 billion in Merck shares. In October 2018, the Board of Directors authorized additional purchases of up to $10 billion of Merck’s common stock for its treasury. Shares are approximated.
(2) 
Amount includes $1.0 billion being held back pending final settlement under the accelerated share repurchase agreements discussed below.

33


Performance Graph
The following graph assumes a $100 investment on December 31, 2013, and reinvestment of all dividends, in each of the Company’s Common Shares, the S&P 500 Index, and a composite peer group of major pharmaceutical companies, which are: AbbVie Inc., Amgen Inc., AstraZeneca plc, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Johnson & Johnson, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Novartis AG, Pfizer Inc., Roche Holding AG, and Sanofi SA.
Comparison of Five-Year Cumulative Total Return*
Merck & Co., Inc., Composite Peer Group and S&P 500 Index
 
End of
Period Value
 
2018/2013
CAGR**
MERCK
$179
 
12%
PEER GRP.**
142
 
7%
S&P 500
150
 
8%

chart-c37e259168895f1daaca01.jpg
 
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
MERCK
100.00
117.10
112.40
129.40
127.40
178.70
PEER GRP.
100.00
111.40
114.80
111.20
133.00
142.20
S&P 500
100.00
113.70
115.20
129.00
157.20
150.30

*
Compound Annual Growth Rate
**
Peer group average was calculated on a market cap weighted basis.

This Performance Graph will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent that the Company specifically incorporates it by reference. In addition, the Performance Graph will not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C, other than as provided in Regulation S-K, or to the liabilities of section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent that the Company specifically requests that such information be treated as soliciting material or specifically incorporates it by reference into a filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.

34


Item 6.
Selected Financial Data.                        
The following selected financial data should be read in conjunction with Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in Item 8. “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this report.
Merck & Co., Inc. and Subsidiaries
($ in millions except per share amounts)
 
2018 (1)
 
2017 (2)(3)
 
2016 (2)(4)
 
2015 (2)(5)
 
2014 (2)(6)
Results for Year:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales
$
42,294

 
$
40,122

 
$
39,807

 
$
39,498

 
$
42,237

Cost of sales
13,509

 
12,912

 
14,030

 
15,043

 
16,903

Selling, general and administrative
10,102

 
10,074

 
10,017

 
10,508

 
11,816

Research and development
9,752

 
10,339

 
10,261

 
6,796

 
7,290

Restructuring costs
632

 
776

 
651

 
619

 
1,013

Other (income) expense, net
(402
)
 
(500
)
 
189

 
1,131

 
(12,068
)
Income before taxes
8,701

 
6,521

 
4,659

 
5,401

 
17,283

Taxes on income
2,508

 
4,103

 
718

 
942

 
5,349

Net income
6,193

 
2,418

 
3,941

 
4,459

 
11,934

Less: Net (loss) income attributable to noncontrolling interests
(27
)
 
24

 
21

 
17

 
14

Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.
6,220

 
2,394

 
3,920

 
4,442

 
11,920

Basic earnings per common share attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. common shareholders
$
2.34

 
$
0.88

 
$
1.42

 
$
1.58

 
$
4.12

Earnings per common share assuming dilution attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. common shareholders
$
2.32

 
$
0.87

 
$
1.41

 
$
1.56

 
$
4.07

Cash dividends declared
5,313

 
5,177

 
5,135

 
5,115

 
5,156

Cash dividends declared per common share
$
1.99

 
$
1.89

 
$
1.85

 
$
1.81

 
$
1.77

Capital expenditures
2,615

 
1,888

 
1,614

 
1,283

 
1,317

Depreciation
1,416

 
1,455

 
1,611

 
1,593

 
2,471

Average common shares outstanding (millions)
2,664

 
2,730

 
2,766

 
2,816

 
2,894

Average common shares outstanding assuming dilution (millions)
2,679

 
2,748

 
2,787

 
2,841

 
2,928

Year-End Position:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Working capital
$
3,669

 
$
6,152

 
$
13,410

 
$
10,550

 
$
14,198

Property, plant and equipment, net
13,291

 
12,439

 
12,026

 
12,507

 
13,136

Total assets
82,637

 
87,872

 
95,377

 
101,677

 
98,096

Long-term debt
19,806

 
21,353

 
24,274

 
23,829

 
18,629

Total equity
26,882

 
34,569

 
40,308

 
44,767

 
48,791

Year-End Statistics:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Number of stockholders of record
115,800

 
121,700

 
129,500

 
135,500

 
142,000

Number of employees
69,000

 
69,000

 
68,000

 
68,000

 
70,000

(1) 
Amounts for 2018 include a charge related to the formation of a collaboration with Eisai Co., Ltd.
(2) 
Amounts have been recast as a result of the adoption, on January 1, 2018, of a new accounting standard related to the classification of certain defined benefit plan costs. There was no impact to net income as a result of adopting the new accounting standard.
(3) 
Amounts for 2017 include a provisional net tax charge related to the enactment of U.S. tax legislation and a charge related to the formation of a collaboration with AstraZeneca.
(4) 
Amounts for 2016 include a charge related to the settlement of worldwide patent litigation related to Keytruda.
(5) 
Amounts for 2015 include a net charge related to the settlement of Vioxx shareholder class action litigation, foreign exchange losses related to Venezuela, gains on the dispositions of businesses and other assets, and the favorable benefit of certain tax items.
(6) 
Amounts for 2014 reflect the divestiture of Merck’s Consumer Care business on October 1, 2014, including a gain on the sale, as well as a gain recognized on an option exercise by AstraZeneca, gains on the dispositions of other businesses and assets, and a loss on extinguishment of debt.




35


Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Description of Merck’s Business
Merck & Co., Inc. (Merck or the Company) is a global health care company that delivers innovative health solutions through its prescription medicines, vaccines, biologic therapies and animal health products. The Company’s operations are principally managed on a products basis and include four operating segments, which are the Pharmaceutical, Animal Health, Healthcare Services and Alliances segments. The Pharmaceutical and Animal Health segments are the only reportable segments.
The Pharmaceutical segment includes human health pharmaceutical and vaccine products. Human health pharmaceutical products consist of therapeutic and preventive agents, generally sold by prescription, for the treatment of human disorders. The Company sells these human health pharmaceutical products primarily to drug wholesalers and retailers, hospitals, government agencies and managed health care providers such as health maintenance organizations, pharmacy benefit managers and other institutions. Human health vaccine products consist of preventive pediatric, adolescent and adult vaccines, primarily administered at physician offices. The Company sells these human health vaccines primarily to physicians, wholesalers, physician distributors and government entities. On December 31, 2016, Merck and Sanofi Pasteur S.A. (Sanofi) terminated their equally-owned joint venture, Sanofi Pasteur MSD (SPMSD), which developed and marketed vaccines in Europe. In 2017, Merck began recording vaccine sales and incurring costs as a result of operating its vaccines business in the European markets that were previously part of the SPMSD joint venture, which was accounted for as an equity method affiliate.
The Animal Health segment discovers, develops, manufactures and markets animal health products, including pharmaceutical and vaccine products, for the prevention, treatment and control of disease in all major livestock and companion animal species, which the Company sells to veterinarians, distributors and animal producers.
The Healthcare Services segment provides services and solutions that focus on engagement, health analytics and clinical services to improve the value of care delivered to patients.
The Alliances segment primarily includes activity from the Company’s relationship with AstraZeneca LP related to sales of Nexium and Prilosec, which concluded in 2018 (see Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements).
Overview
The Company’s performance during 2018 demonstrates execution of its innovation strategy, with revenue growth in oncology, vaccines, hospital acute care and animal health, focused investment in the research and development pipeline, and disciplined allocation of resources. Additionally, Merck completed several business development transactions, expanded its capital expenditures program primarily to increase future manufacturing capacity, and returned capital to shareholders.
Worldwide sales were $42.3 billion in 2018, an increase of 5% compared with 2017. Strong growth in the oncology franchise reflects the performance of Keytruda, as well as alliance revenue related to Lynparza and Lenvima resulting from Merck’s business development activities. Also contributing to revenue growth were higher sales of vaccines, driven primarily by Gardasil/Gardasil 9, and growth in the hospital acute care franchise, largely attributable to Bridion and Noxafil. Higher sales of animal health products, reflecting increases in companion animal and livestock products both from in-line and recently launched products, also contributed to revenue growth. Growth in these areas was partially offset by competitive pressures on Zepatier and Zostavax, as well as the ongoing effects of generic and biosimilar competition that resulted in sales declines for products including Zetia, Vytorin, and Remicade.
Augmenting Merck’s portfolio and pipeline with external innovation remains an important component of the Company’s overall strategy. In 2018, Merck continued executing on this strategy by entering into a strategic collaboration with Eisai Co., Ltd. (Eisai) for the worldwide co-development and co-commercialization of Lenvima. Lenvima is an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovered by Eisai, which is approved for certain types of thyroid cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and in combination for certain patients with renal cell carcinoma. Under the agreement, Merck and Eisai will develop and commercialize Lenvima jointly, both as monotherapy and in combination with Keytruda. In addition, Merck acquired Viralytics Limited (Viralytics), a company focused on oncolytic immunotherapy treatments for a range of cancers. Also, the Company announced an agreement to acquire Antelliq Group (Antelliq), a leader in digital animal identification, traceability and monitoring solutions.

36


During 2018, the Company advanced its leadership in oncology through focused commercial execution, the achievement of important regulatory milestones and the presentation of clinical data. Keytruda continues its global launch with multiple new indications across several tumor types, including approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of certain patients with cervical cancer, primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL), a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of certain patients with squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Also during 2018, the European Commission (EC) approved Keytruda for the treatment of certain patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), for the adjuvant treatment of melanoma, and in combination with chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of certain patients with nonsquamous NSCLC. This was the first approval in Europe for an anti-PD-1 therapy in combination with chemotherapy. Also in 2018, Keytruda was approved in China for the treatment of certain patients with melanoma. Additionally, Merck recently announced the receipt of five new approvals for Keytruda in Japan, including three expanded uses in advanced NSCLC, one in adjuvant melanoma, as well as a new indication in advanced microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) tumors. Keytruda also continues to launch in many other international markets.
In 2018, Lynparza, which is being developed in a collaboration with AstraZeneca PLC (AstraZeneca), received FDA approval for use in certain patients with metastatic breast cancer who have been previously treated with chemotherapy, and for use as maintenance treatment of adult patients with certain types of advanced ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer who are in complete or partial response to chemotherapy. Additionally, Lenvima was approved in the United States, European Union (EU), Japan and China for the treatment of certain patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The FDA and EC also approved two new HIV-1 medicines: Delstrigo, a once-daily fixed-dose combination tablet of doravirine, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; and Pifeltro (doravirine), a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor to be administered in combination with other antiretroviral medicines.
Merck continues to invest in its pipeline, with an emphasis on being a leader in immuno-oncology and expanding in other areas such as vaccines and hospital acute care. In addition to the recent regulatory approvals discussed above, the Company has continued to advance its late-stage pipeline with several regulatory submissions. Keytruda is under review in the United States in combination with axitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma for which it has been granted Priority Review by the FDA; in the EU for the first-line treatment of certain patients with metastatic squamous NSCLC; in the United States and in the EU as monotherapy for the first-line treatment of certain patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC; in the United States as monotherapy for the treatment of certain patients with advanced small-cell lung cancer (SCLC); and in the United States as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of certain patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC for which it has been granted Priority Review by the FDA. Additionally, MK-7655A, the combination of relebactam and imipenem/cilastatin, has been accepted for Priority Review by the FDA for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by certain susceptible Gram-negative bacteria in adults with limited or no alternative therapies available. Merck has also started the submission of a rolling Biologics License Application (BLA) to the FDA for V920, an investigational Ebola Zaire disease vaccine candidate.
The Company’s Phase 3 oncology programs include Keytruda in the therapeutic areas of breast, cervical, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, hepatocellular, mesothelioma, nasopharyngeal, ovarian, renal and small-cell lung cancers; Lynparza for pancreatic and prostate cancer; and Lenvima in combination with Keytruda for endometrial cancer. Additionally, the Company has candidates in Phase 3 clinical development in several other therapeutic areas, including V114, an investigational polyvalent conjugate vaccine for the prevention of pneumococcal disease that received Breakthrough Therapy designation from the FDA for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by the vaccine serotypes in pediatric patients 6 weeks to 18 years of age; MK-7264, gefapixant, a selective, non-narcotic, orally-administered P2X3-receptor agonist being developed for the treatment of refractory, chronic cough; and MK-1242, vericiguat, an investigational treatment for heart failure being developed in a collaboration (see “Research and Development” below).
The Company is allocating resources to effectively support its commercial opportunities in the near term while making the necessary investments to support long-term growth. Research and development expenses in 2018 reflect higher clinical development spending and investment in discovery and early drug development.

37


In October 2018, Merck’s Board of Directors approved a 15% increase to the Company’s quarterly dividend, raising it to $0.55 per share from $0.48 per share on the Company’s outstanding common stock. Also in October 2018, Merck’s Board of Directors approved a $10 billion share repurchase program and the Company entered into $5 billion of accelerated share repurchase (ASR) agreements. During 2018, the Company returned $14.3 billion to shareholders through dividends and share repurchases.
Earnings per common share assuming dilution attributable to common shareholders (EPS) for 2018 were $2.32 compared with $0.87 in 2017. EPS in both years reflect the impact of acquisition and divestiture-related costs, as well as restructuring costs and certain other items. Certain other items in 2018 include a charge related to the formation of the collaboration with Eisai and in 2017 include a provisional net tax charge related to the enactment of U.S. tax legislation and a charge related to the formation of a collaboration with AstraZeneca. Non-GAAP EPS, which exclude these items, were $4.34 in 2018 and $3.98 in 2017 (see “Non-GAAP Income and Non-GAAP EPS” below).
Pricing
Global efforts toward health care cost containment continue to exert pressure on product pricing and market access worldwide. In the United States, pricing pressure continues on many of the Company’s products. Changes to the U.S. health care system as part of health care reform, as well as increased purchasing power of entities that negotiate on behalf of Medicare, Medicaid, and private sector beneficiaries, have contributed to pricing pressure. In several international markets, government-mandated pricing actions have reduced prices of generic and patented drugs. In addition, the Company’s revenue performance in 2018 was negatively affected by other cost-reduction measures taken by governments and other third-parties to lower health care costs. The Company anticipates all of these actions will continue to negatively affect revenue performance in 2019.
Cyber-attack
On June 27, 2017, the Company experienced a network cyber-attack that led to a disruption of its worldwide operations, including manufacturing, research and sales operations. Due to a backlog of orders for certain products as a result of the cyber-attack, the Company was unable to fulfill orders for certain products in certain markets, which had an unfavorable effect on sales in 2018 and 2017 of approximately $150 million and $260 million, respectively. In addition, the Company recorded manufacturing-related expenses, primarily unfavorable manufacturing variances, in Cost of sales, as well as expenses related to remediation efforts in Selling, general and administrative expenses and Research and development expenses, which aggregated approximately $285 million in 2017, net of insurance recoveries of approximately $45 million. Costs in 2018 were immaterial.
As referenced above, the Company has insurance coverage insuring against costs resulting from cyber-attacks and has received insurance proceeds. However, there are disputes with certain of the insurers about the availability of some of the insurance coverage for claims related to this incident.
Operating Results
Sales
Worldwide sales were $42.3 billion in 2018, an increase of 5% compared with 2017. Sales growth was driven primarily by higher sales in the oncology franchise reflecting strong growth of Keytruda, as well as alliance revenue related to Lynparza and Lenvima. Also contributing to revenue growth were higher sales of vaccines, driven primarily by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil/Gardasil 9, as well as higher sales in the hospital acute care franchise, largely attributable to Bridion and Noxafil. Higher sales of animal health products also drove revenue growth in 2018.
Sales growth in 2018 was partially offset by declines in the virology franchise driven primarily by lower sales of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment Zepatier, as well as lower sales of shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine Zostavax. The ongoing effects of generic and biosimilar competition for cardiovascular products Zetia and Vytorin, and immunology product Remicade, as well as lower sales of products within the diversified brands franchise also partially offset revenue growth in 2018. The diversified brands franchise includes certain products that are approaching the expiration of their marketing exclusivity or that are no longer protected by patents in developed markets.
Sales in the United States were $18.2 billion in 2018, growth of 5% compared with 2017. The increase was driven primarily by higher sales of Keytruda, Gardasil/Gardasil 9, NuvaRing, and Bridion, as well as alliance revenue

38


from Lynparza and Lenvima, and higher sales of animal health products. Growth was partially offset by lower sales of Zepatier, Zetia, Vytorin, Zostavax, Januvia, Janumet, Invanz, and products within the diversified brands franchise.
International sales were $24.1 billion in 2018, an increase of 6% compared with 2017. The increase primarily reflects growth in Keytruda, Gardasil/Gardasil 9, Januvia, Janumet and Atozet, as well as higher sales of animal health products. Sales growth was partially offset by lower sales of Zepatier, Remicade, Zetia, Vytorin, and products within the diversified brands franchise. International sales represented 57% of total sales in both 2018 and 2017.
Worldwide sales were $40.1 billion in 2017, an increase of 1% compared with 2016. Sales growth in 2017 was driven primarily by higher sales of Keytruda, Zepatier and Bridion. Additionally, sales in 2017 benefited from the December 31, 2016 termination of SPMSD, which marketed vaccines in most major European markets. In 2017, Merck began recording vaccine sales in the markets that were previously part of the SPMSD joint venture resulting in incremental vaccine sales of approximately $400 million during 2017. Higher sales of Pneumovax 23, Adempas, and animal health products also contributed to revenue growth in 2017. These increases were largely offset by the effects of generic competition for certain products including Zetia, which lost U.S. market exclusivity in December 2016, Vytorin, which lost U.S. market exclusivity in April 2017, Cubicin due to U.S. patent expiration in June 2016, and Cancidas, which lost EU patent protection in April 2017. Revenue growth was also offset by continued biosimilar competition for Remicade and ongoing generic erosion for products including Singulair and Nasonex. Collectively, the sales decline attributable to the above products affected by generic and biosimilar competition was $3.3 billion in 2017. Lower sales of other products within the diversified brands franchise, as well as lower combined sales of the diabetes franchise of Januvia and Janumet, and declines in sales of Isentress/Isentress HD also partially offset revenue growth. Additionally, sales in 2017 were reduced by $125 million due to a borrowing the Company made from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Pediatric Vaccine Stockpile of doses of Gardasil 9 as discussed below. Also, the Company was unable to fulfill orders for certain products in certain markets due to the cyber-attack, which had an unfavorable effect on sales in 2017 of approximately $260 million.
See Note 19 to the consolidated financial statements for details on sales of the Company’s products.
Pharmaceutical Segment
Oncology
Keytruda is approved in the United States and in the EU as monotherapy for the treatment of certain patients with NSCLC, melanoma, classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), HNSCC and urothelial carcinoma, a type of bladder cancer, and in combination with chemotherapy for certain patients with nonsquamous NSCLC. Keytruda is also approved in the United States as monotherapy for the treatment of certain patients with gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma and MSI-H or mismatch repair deficient cancer. In addition, the FDA recently approved Keytruda for the treatment of certain patients with cervical cancer, PMBCL, hepatocellular carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and in combination with chemotherapy for patients with squamous NSCLC (see below). Keytruda is approved in Japan for the treatment of certain patients with NSCLC, both as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy, melanoma, cHL, MSI-H tumors, and urothelial carcinoma. Additionally, Keytruda has been approved in China for the treatment of certain patients with melanoma. Keytruda is also approved in many other international markets. The Keytruda clinical development program includes studies across a broad range of cancer types (see “Research and Development” below).
In August 2018, the FDA approved an expanded label for Keytruda in combination with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC, with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations, based on results of the KEYNOTE-189 trial. Keytruda in combination with pemetrexed and carboplatin was first approved in 2017 under the FDA’s accelerated approval process for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC, based on tumor response rates and progression-free survival (PFS) data from a Phase 2 study (KEYNOTE-021, Cohort G1). In accordance with the accelerated approval process, continued approval was contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit, which was demonstrated in KEYNOTE-189 and resulted in the FDA converting the accelerated approval to full (regular) approval. Also, in September 2018, the EC approved Keytruda in combination with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC in adults whose tumors have no EGFR or ALK positive mutations.
In June 2018, the FDA approved Keytruda for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer with disease progression on or after chemotherapy whose tumors express PD-L1 as determined by an FDA-

39


approved test. Also in June 2018, the FDA approved Keytruda for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with refractory PMBCL, or who have relapsed after two or more prior lines of therapy.
In September 2018, the EC approved Keytruda as monotherapy for the treatment of recurrent or metastatic HNSCC in adults whose tumors express PD-L1 with a tumor proportion score (TPS) of ≥50%, and who progressed on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy, based on data from the Phase 3 KEYNOTE-040 trial.
In October 2018, the FDA approved Keytruda, in combination with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel, for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic squamous NSCLC based on results from the KEYNOTE-407 trial. This approval marks the first time an anti-PD-1 regimen has been approved for the first-line treatment of squamous NSCLC regardless of tumor PD-L1 expression status.
In November 2018, the FDA approved Keytruda for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who have been previously treated with sorafenib based on data from the KEYNOTE-224 trial.
In December 2018, the FDA approved Keytruda for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, based on the results of the Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network’s CITN-09/KEYNOTE-017 trial.
Also in December 2018, the EC approved Keytruda for the adjuvant treatment of adults with stage III melanoma and lymph node involvement who have undergone complete resection. Keytruda was approved for this indication by the FDA in February 2019. These approvals were based on data from the pivotal Phase 3 EORTC1325/KEYNOTE-054 trial, conducted in collaboration with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.
Global sales of Keytruda were $7.2 billion in 2018, $3.8 billion in 2017 and $1.4 billion in 2016. The year-over-year increases were driven by volume growth as the Company continues to launch Keytruda with multiple new indications globally. Sales in the United States continue to build across the multiple approved indications, in particular for the treatment of NSCLC reflecting both the continued adoption of Keytruda in the first-line setting as monotherapy for patients with metastatic NSCLC whose tumors have high PD-L1 expression, as well as the uptake of Keytruda in combination with pemetrexed and carboplatin, a commonly used chemotherapy regimen, for the first-line treatment of metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC with or without PD-L1 expression. Other indications contributing to sales growth include HNSCC, bladder, and melanoma. Recently approved indications, including squamous NSCLC and MSI-H cancer, also contributed to growth in 2018. Sales growth in international markets reflects continued uptake for the treatment of NSCLC as the Company has secured reimbursement in most major markets. Sales growth in international markets in 2018 also includes contributions from the more recently approved indications as described above, including for the treatment of HNSCC, bladder cancer and in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of NSCLC in the EU, multiple new indications in Japan, and for the treatment of melanoma in China.
In January 2017, Merck entered into a settlement and license agreement to resolve worldwide patent infringement litigation related to Keytruda. Pursuant to the settlement, the Company will pay royalties of 6.5% on net sales of Keytruda in 2017 through 2023; and 2.5% on net sales of Keytruda in 2024 through 2026.
Global sales of Emend, for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced and post-operative nausea and vomiting, were $522 million in 2018, a decline of 6% compared with 2017 including a 1% favorable effect from foreign exchange. The decline primarily reflects lower demand in the United States due to competition. Worldwide sales of Emend were $556 million in 2017, an increase of 1% compared with 2016. The patent that provided U.S. market exclusivity for Emend expired in 2015 and the patent that provides market exclusivity in most major European markets will expire in May 2019. The patent that provides U.S. market exclusivity for Emend for Injection expires in September 2019 and the patent that provides market exclusivity in major European markets expires in February 2020 (although six-month pediatric exclusivity may extend this date). The Company anticipates that sales of Emend in these markets will decline significantly after these patent expiries.
Lynparza, an oral poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor being developed as part of a collaboration with AstraZeneca entered into in July 2017 (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements), is currently approved for certain types of ovarian and breast cancer. Merck recorded alliance revenue of $187 million in 2018 and $20 million in 2017 related to Lynparza. The revenue increase reflects the approval of new indications, as well as a full year of activity in 2018. In January 2018, the FDA approved Lynparza for use in patients with BRCA-mutated, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer who have been previously treated with chemotherapy,

40


triggering a $70 million capitalized milestone payment from Merck to AstraZeneca. Lynparza was also approved in Japan in July 2018 for use in patients with unresectable or recurrent BRCA-mutated, HER2-negative breast cancer who have received prior chemotherapy. Additionally, Lynparza was approved for use as a maintenance therapy in patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer, regardless of BRCA mutation status in Japan in January 2018 and in the EU in May 2018. In December 2018, the FDA approved Lynparza for use as maintenance treatment of adult patients with deleterious or suspected deleterious germline or somatic BRCA-mutated advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer who are in complete or partial response to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy based on the results of the SOLO-1 clinical trial, triggering a $70 million capitalized milestone payment from Merck to AstraZeneca.
Lenvima, an oral receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor being developed as part of a collaboration with Eisai entered into in March 2018 (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements), is approved for certain types of thyroid cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and in combination for certain patients with renal cell carcinoma. Merck recorded alliance revenue of $149 million in 2018 related to Lenvima. In 2018, Lenvima was approved for the treatment of certain patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States, the EU, Japan and China, triggering capitalized milestone payments of $250 million in the aggregate from Merck to Eisai.
Vaccines
On December 31, 2016, Merck and Sanofi terminated their equally-owned joint venture, SPMSD, which developed and marketed vaccines in Europe. Accordingly, vaccine sales in 2018 and 2017 include sales of Merck vaccines in the European markets that were previously part of the SPMSD joint venture, whereas sales in periods prior to 2017 do not. Prior to 2017, vaccine sales in these European markets were sold through the SPMSD joint venture, the results of which were reflected in equity income from affiliates included in Other (income) expense, net. Supply sales to SPMSD, however, are included in vaccine sales in periods prior to 2017. Incremental vaccine sales resulting from the termination of the SPMSD joint venture were approximately $400 million in 2017, of which approximately $215 million relate to Gardasil/Gardasil 9.
Worldwide sales of Gardasil/Gardasil 9, vaccines to help prevent certain cancers and other diseases caused by certain types of HPV, were $3.2 billion in 2018, growth of 37% compared with 2017 including a 1% favorable effect from foreign exchange. Sales growth was driven primarily by higher sales in the Asia Pacific region, particularly in China reflecting continued uptake since launch, as well as higher demand in certain European markets. The sales increase was also attributable to the replenishment in 2018 of doses borrowed from the CDC Pediatric Vaccine Stockpile in 2017 as discussed below. In April 2018, China’s Food and Drug Administration approved Gardasil 9 for use in girls and women ages 16 to 26. In October 2018, the FDA approved an expanded age indication for use in women and men ages 27 to 45 for the prevention of certain cancers and diseases caused by the nine HPV types covered by the vaccine.
During 2017, the Company made a request to borrow doses of Gardasil 9 from the CDC Pediatric Vaccine Stockpile, which the CDC granted. The Company’s decision to borrow the doses from the CDC was driven in part by the temporary shutdown resulting from the cyber-attack that occurred in June 2017, as well as by overall higher demand than expected. As a result of the borrowing, the Company reversed the sales related to the borrowed doses and recognized a corresponding liability. The Company subsequently replenished a portion of the doses borrowed from the stockpile. The net effect of the borrowing and subsequent partial replenishment was a reduction in sales of $125 million in 2017. The Company replenished the remaining borrowed doses in 2018 resulting in the recognition of sales of $125 million in 2018 and a reversal of the related liability.
Global sales of Gardasil/Gardasil 9 were $2.3 billion in 2017, growth of 6% compared with 2016. Sales growth was driven primarily by higher sales in Europe resulting from the termination of the SPMSD joint venture noted above, as well as higher demand in the Asia Pacific region due in part to the launch in China, partially offset by lower sales in the United States. Lower sales in the United States reflect the timing of public sector purchases and the CDC stockpile borrowing as described above.
The Company is a party to certain third-party license agreements with respect to Gardasil/Gardasil 9 pursuant to which the Company pays royalties on worldwide Gardasil/Gardasil 9 sales. The royalties, which vary by country and range from 7% to 13%, are included in Cost of sales.
Global sales of ProQuad, a pediatric combination vaccine to help protect against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella, were $593 million in 2018, an increase of 12% compared with 2017, driven primarily by higher volumes

41


and pricing in the United States and volume growth in certain European markets. Worldwide sales of ProQuad were $528 million in 2017, an increase of 7% compared with $495 million in 2016. Sales growth in 2017 was driven primarily by higher pricing and volumes in the United States, as well as volume growth in international markets, particularly in Europe. Foreign exchange favorably affected global sales performance by 1% in 2017.
Worldwide sales of M-M-R II, a vaccine to help protect against measles, mumps and rubella, were $430 million in 2018, an increase of 13% compared with 2017, driven primarily by volume growth in Latin America. Global sales of M-M-R II were $382 million in 2017, an increase of 8% compared with $353 million in 2016. Sales growth in 2017 was largely attributable to higher sales in Europe resulting from the termination of the SPMSD joint venture. Foreign exchange favorably affected global sales performance by 1% in 2018 and unfavorably affected global sales performance by 1% in 2017.
Global sales of Varivax, a vaccine to help prevent chickenpox (varicella), were $774 million in 2018, an increase of 1% compared with 2017, reflecting volume growth in Latin America and the Asia Pacific region, along with higher pricing in the United States, largely offset by volume declines in Turkey from the loss of a government tender due to competition. Worldwide sales of Varivax were $767 million in 2017, a decline of 3% compared with $792 million in 2016. The sales decline in 2017 was driven primarily by lower volumes in Brazil due to the loss of a government tender, as well as lower sales in the United States reflecting lower demand that was partially offset by higher pricing. Higher sales in Europe resulting from the termination of the SPMSD joint venture partially offset the sales decline in 2017.
Worldwide sales of Pneumovax 23, a vaccine to help prevent pneumococcal disease, were $907 million in 2018, an increase of 10% compared with 2017. Sales growth was driven primarily by higher pricing in the United States and volume growth in Europe. Global sales of Pneumovax 23 were $821 million in 2017, an increase of 28% compared with 2016, driven primarily by higher demand and pricing in the United States, as well as higher sales in Europe resulting from the termination of the SPMSD joint venture. Foreign exchange unfavorably affected sales performance by 1% in 2017.
Global sales of RotaTeq, a vaccine to help protect against rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and children, were $728 million in 2018, an increase of 6% compared with 2017, driven primarily by the launch in China. Worldwide sales of RotaTeq were $686 million in 2017, an increase of 5% compared with 2016, driven primarily by higher sales in Europe resulting from the termination of the SPMSD joint venture.
Worldwide sales of Zostavax, a vaccine to help prevent shingles (herpes zoster) in adults 50 years of age and older, were $217 million in 2018, a decline of 68% compared with 2017, driven by lower volumes in most markets, particularly in the United States. Lower demand in the United States reflects the launch of a competing vaccine that received a preferential recommendation from the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in October 2017 for the prevention of shingles over Zostavax. The declines were partially offset by higher demand in certain European markets. The Company anticipates competition will continue to have an adverse effect on sales of Zostavax in future periods. Global sales of Zostavax were $668 million in 2017, a decline of 2% compared with 2016 including a 1% favorable effect from foreign exchange. The sales decline was driven primarily by lower demand in the United States reflecting the approval of a competing vaccine as noted above, partially offset by growth in Europe resulting from the termination of the SPMSD joint venture and volume growth in the Asia Pacific region.
In 2018, the FDA approved Vaxelis (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Inactivated Poliovirus, Haemophilus b Conjugate [Meningococcal Protein Conjugate] and Hepatitis B [Recombinant] Vaccine) for use in children from 6 weeks through 4 years of age (prior to the 5th birthday). Vaxelis, which is currently being marketed in Europe, was developed as part of a joint-partnership between Merck and Sanofi. Merck and Sanofi are working to maximize production of Vaxelis to allow for a sustainable supply to meet anticipated U.S. demand. Commercial supply will not be available prior to 2020. 
Hospital Acute Care
Global sales of Bridion, for the reversal of two types of neuromuscular blocking agents used during surgery, were $917 million in 2018, growth of 30% compared with 2017, driven primarily by volume growth in the United States and certain European markets. Worldwide sales of Bridion were $704 million in 2017, growth of 46% compared with 2016, driven by strong global demand, particularly in the United States.

42


Worldwide sales of Noxafil, for the prevention of invasive fungal infections, were $742 million in 2018, an increase of 17% compared with 2017 including a 2% favorable effect from foreign exchange. Sales growth primarily reflects higher demand in the United States, certain European markets and China. Global sales of Noxafil were $636 million in 2017, an increase of 7% compared with 2016, primarily reflecting higher demand and pricing in the United States, as well as volume growth in Europe. The patent that provides U.S. market exclusivity for Noxafil expires in July 2019. Additionally, the patent for Noxafil will expire in a number of major European markets in December 2019. The Company anticipates sales of Noxafil in these markets will decline significantly thereafter.
Global sales of Invanz, for the treatment of certain infections, were $496 million in 2018, a decline of 18% compared with 2017 including a 1% unfavorable effect from foreign exchange. The sales decline was driven by lower volumes in the United States. The patent that provided U.S. market exclusivity for Invanz expired in November 2017 and generic competition began in the second half of 2018. The Company is experiencing a significant decline in U.S. Invanz sales as a result of this generic competition and expects the decline to continue. Worldwide sales of Invanz were $602 million in 2017, an increase of 7% compared with 2016, driven primarily by higher sales in the United States, reflecting higher pricing that was partially offset by lower demand, as well as higher demand in Brazil.
Global sales of Cubicin, an I.V. antibiotic for complicated skin and skin structure infections or bacteremia when caused by designated susceptible organisms, were $367 million in 2018, a decline of 4% compared with 2017 including a 1% favorable effect from foreign exchange. Worldwide sales of Cubicin were $382 million in 2017, a decline of 65% compared with 2016, resulting from generic competition in the United States following expiration of the U.S. composition patent for Cubicin in June 2016.
Global sales of Cancidas, an anti-fungal product sold primarily outside of the United States, were $326 million in 2018, a decline of 23% compared with 2017, and were $422 million in 2017, a decline of 24% compared with 2016. Foreign exchange favorably affected global sales performance by 2% in 2018. The sales declines were driven primarily by generic competition in certain European markets. The EU compound patent for Cancidas expired in April 2017. Accordingly, the Company is experiencing a significant decline in Cancidas sales in these European markets and expects the decline to continue.
Immunology
Sales of Simponi, a once-monthly subcutaneous treatment for certain inflammatory diseases (marketed by the Company in Europe, Russia and Turkey), were $893 million in 2018, growth of 9% compared with 2017 including a 4% favorable effect from foreign exchange. Sales of Simponi were $819 million in 2017, growth of 7% compared with 2016 including a 1% favorable effect from foreign exchange. Sales growth in both years was driven by higher demand in Europe. The Company anticipates sales of Simponi will be unfavorably affected in future periods by the recent launch of biosimilars for a competing product.
Sales of Remicade, a treatment for inflammatory diseases (marketed by the Company in Europe, Russia and Turkey), were $582 million in 2018, a decline of 31% compared with 2017, and were $837 million in 2017, a decline of 34% compared with 2016. Foreign exchange favorably affected sales performance by 2% in 2018. The Company lost market exclusivity for Remicade in major European markets in 2015 and no longer has market exclusivity in any of its marketing territories. The Company is experiencing pricing and volume declines in these markets as a result of biosimilar competition and expects the declines to continue.
Virology
Worldwide sales of Isentress/Isentress HD, an HIV integrase inhibitor for use in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, were $1.1 billion in 2018, a decline of 5% compared with 2017, and were $1.2 billion in 2017, a decline of 13% compared with 2016. Foreign exchange favorably affected global sales performance by 1% in 2017. The sales declines primarily reflect competitive pressure in the United States and Europe.
In August 2018, the FDA approved two new HIV-1 medicines: Delstrigo, a once-daily fixed-dose combination tablet of doravirine, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; and Pifeltro (doravirine), a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor to be administered in combination with other antiretroviral medicines. Both Delstrigo and Pifeltro are indicated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adult patients with no prior antiretroviral treatment experience. Delstrigo and Pifeltro were also approved by the EC in November 2018. In January 2019, the FDA accepted for review supplemental New Drug Applications (NDA) for Pifeltro and Delstrigo seeking approval for

43


use in patients living with HIV-1 who are switching from a stable antiretroviral regimen and whose virus is suppressed. The Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) date for the supplemental NDAs is September 20, 2019.
Global sales of Zepatier, a treatment for adult patients with certain types of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, were $455 million in 2018, a decline of 73% compared with 2017. The sales decline was driven primarily by the unfavorable effects of increasing competition and declining patient volumes, particularly in the United States, Europe and Japan. The Company anticipates that sales of Zepatier in the future will continue to be adversely affected by competition and lower patient volumes. Worldwide sales of Zepatier were $1.7 billion in 2017 compared with $555 million in 2016. Sales growth in 2017 was driven primarily by higher sales in Europe, the United States and Japan following product launch in 2016.
Cardiovascular
Combined global sales of Zetia (marketed in most countries outside the United States as Ezetrol), Vytorin (marketed outside the United States as Inegy), as well as Atozet and Rosuzet (both marketed in certain countries outside of the United States), medicines for lowering LDL cholesterol, were $1.8 billion in 2018, a decline of 26% compared with 2017 including a 3% favorable effect from foreign exchange. The sales decline was driven primarily by lower demand in the United States and Europe. Zetia and Vytorin lost market exclusivity in the United States in December 2016 and April 2017, respectively. Accordingly, the Company experienced a rapid and substantial decline in U.S. Zetia and Vytorin sales as a result of generic competition and has lost nearly all U.S. sales of these products. In addition, the Company lost market exclusivity in major European markets for Ezetrol in April 2018 and has also lost market exclusivity in certain European markets for Inegy (see Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements). Accordingly, the Company is experiencing significant sales declines in these markets as a result of generic competition and expects the declines to continue. These declines were partially offset by higher sales in Japan due in part to the launch of Atozet. Combined worldwide sales of the ezetimibe family were $2.4 billion in 2017, a decline of 39% compared with 2016. The sales decline was driven by lower volumes and pricing of Zetia and Vytorin in the United States as a result of generic competition due to the loss of U.S. market exclusivity as described above.
Pursuant to a collaboration with Bayer AG (Bayer) (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements), Merck has lead commercial rights for Adempas, a cardiovascular drug for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, in countries outside the Americas while Bayer has lead rights in the Americas, including the United States. The companies share profits equally under the collaboration. In 2016, Merck began promoting and distributing Adempas in Europe. Transition from Bayer in other Merck territories, including Japan, continued in 2017. Revenue from Adempas includes sales in Merck’s marketing territories, as well as Merck’s share of profits from the sale of Adempas in Bayer’s marketing territories. Merck recorded revenue related to Adempas of $329 million in 2018, an increase of 10% compared with 2017, reflecting higher sales in Merck’s marketing territories, partially offset by lower profit sharing from Bayer due in part to lower pricing in the United States. Revenue related to Adempas was $300 million in 2017, an increase of 78% compared with 2016, reflecting both higher sales in Merck’s marketing territories, as well as the recognition of higher profit sharing from Bayer. Foreign exchange favorably affected global sales performance by 3% in 2018 and by 1% in 2017.
Diabetes
Worldwide combined sales of Januvia and Janumet, medicines that help lower blood sugar levels in adults with type 2 diabetes, were $5.9 billion in 2018, essentially flat compared with 2017. Global combined sales of Januvia and Janumet were $5.9 billion in 2017, a decline of 3% compared with 2016. Foreign exchange favorably affected sales performance by 1% in both 2018 and 2017. Sales performance in both periods was driven primarily by ongoing pricing pressure, particularly in the United States, partially offset by higher demand in most international markets. The Company expects pricing pressure to continue.
Women’s Health 
Worldwide sales of NuvaRing, a vaginal contraceptive product, were $902 million in 2018, an increase of 19% compared with 2017 including a 1% favorable effect from foreign exchange. Sales growth was driven primarily by higher pricing in the United States. The patent that provided U.S. market exclusivity for NuvaRing expired in April 2018 and the Company anticipates a significant decline in U.S. NuvaRing sales in future periods as a result of generic competition. Global sales of NuvaRing were $761 million in 2017, a decline of 2% compared with 2016 including a 1% favorable effect from foreign exchange. The sales decline was driven primarily by lower sales in the United States reflecting lower volumes that were partially offset by higher pricing, and lower demand in Europe.

44



Animal Health Segment
Global sales of Animal Health products were $4.2 billion in 2018, an increase of 9% compared with 2017, reflecting growth from both in-line and recently launched companion animal and livestock products. Higher sales of companion animal products reflect growth in the Bravecto line of products that kill fleas and ticks in dogs and cats for up to 12 weeks, as well as higher sales of companion animal vaccines. Growth in livestock products reflects higher sales of ruminant, poultry and swine products. Worldwide sales of Animal Health products were $3.9 billion in 2017, an increase of 11% compared with 2016, primarily reflecting higher sales of companion animal products, largely driven by growth in Bravecto, reflecting both growth in the oral formulation and continued uptake in the topical formulation, which was launched in 2016. Animal Health sales growth in 2017 was also driven by higher sales of ruminant, poultry and swine products.
In December 2018, the Company signed an agreement to acquire Antelliq, a leader in digital animal identification, traceability and monitoring solutions (see Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements).
Costs, Expenses and Other
($ in millions)
2018
 
Change
 
2017
 
Change
 
2016
Cost of sales
$
13,509

 
5
 %
 
$
12,912

 
-8
 %
 
$
14,030

Selling, general and administrative
10,102

 
 %
 
10,074

 
1
 %
 
10,017

Research and development
9,752

 
-6
 %
 
10,339

 
1
 %
 
10,261

Restructuring costs
632

 
-19
 %
 
776

 
19
 %
 
651

Other (income) expense, net
(402
)
 
-20
 %
 
(500
)
 
*

 
189

 
$
33,593

 
 %
 
$
33,601

 
-4
 %
 
$
35,148

* Greater than 100%.
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales was $13.5 billion in 2018, $12.9 billion in 2017 and $14.0 billion in 2016. Costs in 2018 include a $423 million charge related to the termination of a collaboration agreement with Samsung Bioepis Co., Ltd. (Samsung) for insulin glargine (see Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements). Also in 2018, the Company recorded $188 million of cumulative amortization expense for amounts capitalized in connection with the recognition of liabilities for potential future milestone payments related to collaborations (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements). Cost of sales includes expenses for the amortization of intangible assets recorded in connection with business acquisitions which totaled $2.7 billion in 2018, $3.1 billion in 2017 and $3.7 billion in 2016. Costs in 2017 and 2016 also include intangible asset impairment charges of $58 million and $347 million, respectively, related to marketed products and other intangibles recorded in connection with business acquisitions (see Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements). Costs in 2017 also include a $76 million intangible asset impairment charge related to a licensing agreement. The Company may recognize additional non-cash impairment charges in the future related to intangible assets that were measured at fair value and capitalized in connection with business acquisitions and such charges could be material. Also included in cost of sales are expenses associated with restructuring activities which amounted to $21 million, $138 million and $181 million in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, primarily reflecting accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs related to the planned sale or closure of manufacturing facilities. Separation costs associated with manufacturing-related headcount reductions have been incurred and are reflected in Restructuring costs as discussed below.
Gross margin was 68.1% in 2018 compared with 67.8% in 2017 and 64.5% in 2016. The year-over-year improvements in gross margin reflect a lower net impact from the amortization of intangible assets and intangible asset impairment charges related to business acquisitions, as well as restructuring costs as noted above, which reduced gross margin by 6.3 percentage points in 2018, 8.3 percentage points in 2017 and 10.6 percentage points in 2016. The gross margin improvement in 2018 compared with 2017 also reflects the favorable effects of product mix and amortization of unfavorable manufacturing variances recorded in 2017, resulting in part from the June 2017 cyber-attack. The gross margin improvement in 2018 was partially offset by a charge associated with the termination of a collaboration agreement

45


with Samsung, as well as the unfavorable effects of pricing pressure and cumulative amortization expense for potential future milestone payments related to collaborations as noted above. The gross margin improvement in 2017 compared with 2016 also reflects the favorable effects of product mix. Manufacturing-related costs associated with the cyber-attack partially offset the gross margin improvement in 2017.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses were $10.1 billion in 2018, essentially flat compared with 2017, reflecting higher administrative costs and the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange, offset by lower selling and promotional expenses. SG&A expenses were $10.1 billion in 2017, an increase of 1% compared with 2016. Higher administrative costs, including costs associated with the Company operating its vaccines business in the European markets that were previously part of the SPMSD joint venture, remediation costs related to the cyber-attack, and higher promotional expenses related to product launches, were partially offset by lower restructuring and acquisition and divestiture-related costs, lower selling expenses and the favorable effect of foreign exchange. SG&A expenses in 2016 include restructuring costs of $95 million related primarily to accelerated depreciation for facilities to be closed or divested. Separation costs associated with sales force reductions have been incurred and are reflected in Restructuring costs as discussed below. SG&A expenses also include acquisition and divestiture-related costs of $32 million, $44 million and $78 million in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, consisting of integration, transaction, and certain other costs related to business acquisitions and divestitures.
Research and Development
Research and development (R&D) expenses were $9.8 billion in 2018, a decline of 6% compared with 2017. The decrease primarily reflects lower expenses in 2018 for upfront and license option payments related to the formation of oncology collaborations, lower in-process research and development (IPR&D) impairment charges, and a reduction in expenses associated with a decrease in the estimated fair value measurement of liabilities for contingent consideration, partially offset by higher clinical development spending and investment in discovery and early drug development, as well as higher expenses related to other business development activities, including a charge in 2018 for the acquisition of Viralytics. R&D expenses were $10.3 billion in 2017, an increase of 1% compared with 2016. The increase was driven primarily by a charge in 2017 related to the formation of a collaboration with AstraZeneca, an unfavorable effect from changes in the estimated fair value measurement of liabilities for contingent consideration, and higher clinical development spending, largely offset by lower IPR&D impairment charges and lower restructuring costs.
R&D expenses are comprised of the costs directly incurred by Merck Research Laboratories (MRL), the Company’s research and development division that focuses on human health-related activities, which were $5.1 billion in 2018, $4.6 billion in 2017 and $4.4 billion in 2016. Also included in R&D expenses are costs incurred by other divisions in support of R&D activities, including depreciation, production and general and administrative, as well as licensing activity, and certain costs from operating segments, including the Pharmaceutical and Animal Health segments, which in the aggregate were $2.8 billion, $2.9 billion and $2.6 billion for 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Additionally, R&D expenses in 2018 include a $1.4 billion charge related to the formation of a collaboration with Eisai (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements), as well as a $344 million charge for the acquisition of Viralytics (see Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements). R&D expenses in 2017 include a $2.35 billion charge related to the formation of a collaboration with AstraZeneca (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements). R&D expenses also include IPR&D impairment charges of $152 million, $483 million and $3.6 billion in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively (see Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements). The Company may recognize additional non-cash impairment charges in the future related to the cancellation or delay of other pipeline programs that were measured at fair value and capitalized in connection with business acquisitions and such charges could be material. In addition, R&D expenses include expense or income related to changes in the estimated fair value measurement of liabilities for contingent consideration recorded in connection with acquisitions. During 2018 and 2016, the Company recorded a net reduction in expenses of $54 million and $402 million, respectively, to decrease the estimated fair value of liabilities for contingent consideration related to the discontinuation or delay of certain programs (see Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements). During 2017, the Company recorded charges of $27 million to increase the estimated fair value of liabilities for contingent consideration. R&D expenses in 2016 also reflect $142 million of accelerated depreciation and asset abandonment costs associated with restructuring activities.

46


Restructuring Costs
In 2010 and 2013, the Company commenced actions under global restructuring programs designed to streamline its cost structure. The actions under these programs include the elimination of positions in sales, administrative and headquarters organizations, as well as the sale or closure of certain manufacturing and research and development sites and the consolidation of office facilities. The Company also continues to reduce its global real estate footprint and improve the efficiency of its manufacturing and supply network.
Restructuring costs, primarily representing separation and other related costs associated with these restructuring activities, were $632 million, $776 million and $651 million in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. In 2018, 2017 and 2016, separation costs of $473 million, $552 million and $216 million, respectively, were incurred associated with actual headcount reductions, as well as estimated expenses under existing severance programs for headcount reductions that were probable and could be reasonably estimated. Merck eliminated approximately 2,160 positions in 2018, 2,450 positions in 2017 and 2,625 positions in 2016 related to these restructuring activities. Also included in restructuring costs are asset abandonment, shut-down and other related costs, as well as employee-related costs such as curtailment, settlement and termination charges associated with pension and other postretirement benefit plans and share-based compensation plan costs. For segment reporting, restructuring costs are unallocated expenses.
Additional costs associated with the Company’s restructuring activities are included in Cost of sales, Selling, general and administrative and Research and development as discussed above. The Company recorded aggregate pretax costs of $658 million in 2018, $927 million in 2017 and $1.1 billion in 2016 related to restructuring program activities (see Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements). The Company has substantially completed the actions under these programs.
Other (Income) Expense, Net
Other (income) expense, net, was $402 million of income in 2018, $500 million of income in 2017 and $189 million of expense in 2016. For details on the components of Other (income) expense, net, see Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements.
Segment Profits
 
 
 
 
 
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Pharmaceutical segment profits
$
24,292

 
$
22,495

 
$
22,141

Animal Health segment profits
1,659

 
1,552

 
1,357

Other non-reportable segment profits
103

 
275

 
146

Other
(17,353
)

(17,801
)

(18,985
)
Income before taxes
$
8,701

 
$
6,521

 
$
4,659

Pharmaceutical segment profits are comprised of segment sales less standard costs, as well as SG&A and R&D expenses directly incurred by the segment. Animal Health segment profits are comprised of segment sales, less all cost of sales, as well as SG&A and R&D expenses directly incurred by the segment. For internal management reporting presented to the chief operating decision maker, Merck does not allocate the remaining cost of sales not included in segment profits as described above, research and development expenses incurred in MRL, or general and administrative expenses, nor the cost of financing these activities. Separate divisions maintain responsibility for monitoring and managing these costs, including depreciation related to fixed assets utilized by these divisions and, therefore, they are not included in segment profits. Also excluded from the determination of segment profits are acquisition and divestiture-related costs (amortization of purchase accounting adjustments, intangible asset impairment charges and expense or income related to changes in the estimated fair value measurement of liabilities for contingent consideration), restructuring costs, and a portion of equity income. Additionally, segment profits do not reflect other expenses from corporate and manufacturing cost centers and other miscellaneous income or expense. These unallocated items, including a charge related to the termination of a collaboration agreement with Samsung for insulin glargine in 2018, a loss on the extinguishment of debt in 2017, and a charge related to the settlement of worldwide Keytruda patent litigation and gains on divestitures in 2016, are reflected in “Other” in the above table. Also included in “Other” are miscellaneous corporate profits (losses), as well as operating profits (losses) related to third-party manufacturing sales. In the first quarter of 2018, the Company adopted a new accounting standard related to the classification of certain defined benefit plan costs, which resulted in a change to the measurement of segment profits (see Note 19 to the consolidated financial statements). Prior period amounts have been recast to conform to the new presentation.

47


Pharmaceutical segment profits grew 8% in 2018 compared with 2017 primarily reflecting higher sales and lower selling and promotional costs. Pharmaceutical segment profits grew 2% in 2017 compared with 2016 primarily reflecting higher sales and the favorable effects of product mix. Animal Health segment profits grew 7% in 2018 and 14% in 2017 driven primarily by higher sales, partially offset by increased selling and promotional costs.
Taxes on Income
The effective income tax rates of 28.8% in 2018, 62.9% in 2017 and 15.4% in 2016 reflect the impacts of acquisition and divestiture-related costs, restructuring costs and the beneficial impact of foreign earnings. The effective income tax rate in 2018 includes measurement-period adjustments to the provisional amounts recorded in 2017 associated with the enactment of U.S. tax legislation known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), including $124 million related to the transition tax (see Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements). In addition, the effective income tax rate for 2018 reflects the unfavorable impacts of a $1.4 billion pretax charge recorded in connection with the formation of a collaboration with Eisai and a $423 million pretax charge related to the termination of a collaboration agreement with Samsung for which no tax benefits were recognized. The effective income tax rate for 2017 includes a provisional net charge of $2.6 billion related to the enactment of the TCJA. The effective income tax rate for 2017 also reflects the unfavorable impact of a $2.35 billion pretax charge recorded in connection with the formation of a collaboration with AstraZeneca for which no tax benefit was recognized, partially offset by the favorable impact of a net tax benefit of $234 million related to the settlement of certain federal income tax issues (see Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements), and a benefit of $88 million related to the settlement of a state income tax issue.
Net (Loss) Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests
Net (loss) income attributable to noncontrolling interests was $(27) million in 2018 compared with $24 million in 2017 and $21 million in 2016. The loss in 2018 primarily reflects the portion of goodwill impairment charges related to certain business in the Healthcare Services segment that are attributable to noncontrolling interests.
Net Income and Earnings per Common Share
Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. was $6.2 billion in 2018, $2.4 billion in 2017 and $3.9 billion in 2016. EPS was $2.32 in 2018, $0.87 in 2017 and $1.41 in 2016.
Non-GAAP Income and Non-GAAP EPS
Non-GAAP income and non-GAAP EPS are alternative views of the Company’s performance that Merck is providing because management believes this information enhances investors’ understanding of the Company’s results as it permits investors to understand how management assesses performance. Non-GAAP income and non-GAAP EPS exclude certain items because of the nature of these items and the impact that they have on the analysis of underlying business performance and trends. The excluded items (which should not be considered non-recurring) consist of acquisition and divestiture-related costs, restructuring costs and certain other items. These excluded items are significant components in understanding and assessing financial performance.
Non-GAAP income and non-GAAP EPS are important internal measures for the Company. Senior management receives a monthly analysis of operating results that includes non-GAAP EPS. Management uses these measures internally for planning and forecasting purposes and to measure the performance of the Company along with other metrics. Senior management’s annual compensation is derived in part using non-GAAP income and non-GAAP EPS. Since non-GAAP income and non-GAAP EPS are not measures determined in accordance with GAAP, they have no standardized meaning prescribed by GAAP and, therefore, may not be comparable to the calculation of similar measures of other companies. The information on non-GAAP income and non-GAAP EPS should be considered in addition to, but not as a substitute for or superior to, net income and EPS prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (GAAP).

48


A reconciliation between GAAP financial measures and non-GAAP financial measures is as follows:
($ in millions except per share amounts)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Income before taxes as reported under GAAP
$
8,701

 
$
6,521

 
$
4,659

Increase (decrease) for excluded items:
 
 
 
 
 
Acquisition and divestiture-related costs
3,066

 
3,760

 
7,312

Restructuring costs
658

 
927

 
1,069

Other items:
 
 
 
 
 
Charge related to the formation of an oncology collaboration with Eisai
1,400

 

 

Charge related to the termination of a collaboration with Samsung
423

 

 

Charge for the acquisition of Viralytics
344

 

 

Charge related to the formation of an oncology collaboration with AstraZeneca

 
2,350

 

Charge related to the settlement of worldwide Keytruda patent litigation

 

 
625

Other
(57
)
 
(16
)
 
(67
)
Non-GAAP income before taxes
14,535

 
13,542

 
13,598

Taxes on income as reported under GAAP
2,508

 
4,103

 
718

Estimated tax benefit on excluded items (1)
535

 
785

 
2,321

Net tax charge related to the enactment of the TCJA (2)
(160
)
 
(2,625
)
 

Net tax benefit from the settlement of certain federal income tax issues

 
234

 

Tax benefit related to the settlement of a state income tax issue

 
88

 

Non-GAAP taxes on income
2,883


2,585


3,039

Non-GAAP net income
11,652

 
10,957

 
10,559

Less: Net (loss) income attributable to noncontrolling interests as reported under GAAP
(27
)
 
24

 
21

Acquisition and divestiture-related costs attributable to noncontrolling interests
(58
)
 

 

Non-GAAP net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
31


24


21

Non-GAAP net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.
$
11,621


$
10,933


$
10,538

EPS assuming dilution as reported under GAAP
$
2.32

 
$
0.87

 
$
1.41

EPS difference (3)
2.02

 
3.11

 
2.37

Non-GAAP EPS assuming dilution
$
4.34

 
$
3.98

 
$
3.78

(1) 
The estimated tax impact on the excluded items is determined by applying the statutory rate of the originating territory of the non-GAAP adjustments.
(2) Amount in 2017 was provisional (see Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements).
(3) 
Represents the difference between calculated GAAP EPS and calculated non-GAAP EPS, which may be different than the amount calculated by dividing the impact of the excluded items by the weighted-average shares for the applicable year.
Acquisition and Divestiture-Related Costs
Non-GAAP income and non-GAAP EPS exclude the impact of certain amounts recorded in connection with business acquisitions and divestitures. These amounts include the amortization of intangible assets and amortization of purchase accounting adjustments to inventories, as well as intangible asset impairment charges and expense or income related to changes in the estimated fair value measurement of liabilities for contingent consideration. Also excluded are integration, transaction, and certain other costs associated with business acquisitions and divestitures.
Restructuring Costs
Non-GAAP income and non-GAAP EPS exclude costs related to restructuring actions (see Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements). These amounts include employee separation costs and accelerated depreciation associated with facilities to be closed or divested. Accelerated depreciation costs represent the difference between the depreciation expense to be recognized over the revised useful life of the asset, based upon the anticipated date the site will be closed or divested or the equipment disposed of, and depreciation expense as determined utilizing the useful

49


life prior to the restructuring actions. Restructuring costs also include asset abandonment, shut-down and other related costs, as well as employee-related costs such as curtailment, settlement and termination charges associated with pension and other postretirement benefit plans and share-based compensation costs.
Certain Other Items
Non-GAAP income and non-GAAP EPS exclude certain other items. These items are adjusted for after evaluating them on an individual basis, considering their quantitative and qualitative aspects, and typically consist of items that are unusual in nature, significant to the results of a particular period or not indicative of future operating results. Excluded from non-GAAP income and non-GAAP EPS in 2018 is a charge related to the formation of a collaboration with Eisai (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements), a charge related to the termination of a collaboration agreement with Samsung for insulin glargine (see Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements), a charge for the acquisition of Viralytics (see Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements), and measurement-period adjustments related to the provisional amounts recorded for the TCJA (see Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements). Excluded from non-GAAP income and non-GAAP EPS in 2017 is a charge related to the formation of a collaboration with AstraZeneca (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements), as well as a provisional net tax charge related to the enactment of the TCJA, a net tax benefit related to the settlement of certain federal income tax issues and a tax benefit related to the settlement of a state income tax issue (see Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements). Excluded from non-GAAP income and non-GAAP EPS in 2016 is a charge to settle worldwide patent litigation related to Keytruda.
Research and Development
A chart reflecting the Company’s current research pipeline as of February 22, 2019 is set forth in Item 1. “Business — Research and Development” above.

Research and Development Update
The Company currently has several candidates under regulatory review in the United States and internationally.
Keytruda is an approved anti-PD-1 therapy in clinical development for expanded indications in different cancer types.
In February 2019, the FDA accepted and granted Priority Review for a supplemental BLA for Keytruda in combination with Inlyta (axitinib), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. This supplemental BLA is based on findings from the Phase 3 KEYNOTE-426 trial, which demonstrated that Keytruda in combination with axitinib, as compared to sunitinib, significantly improved overall survival (OS) and PFS in the first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. These data were presented at the American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Genitourinary Cancers Symposium in February 2019. The supplemental BLA also included supporting data from the Phase 1b KEYNOTE-035 trial. The FDA set a PDUFA date of June 20, 2019. Merck has filed data from KEYNOTE-426 with regulatory authorities worldwide.
In February 2019, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) adopted a positive opinion recommending Keytruda, in combination with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel, for the first-line treatment of metastatic squamous NSCLC in adults. This recommendation is based on results from the pivotal Phase 3 KEYNOTE-407 trial, which enrolled patients regardless of PD-L1 tumor expression status. The trial showed a significant improvement in OS and PFS for patients taking Keytruda in combination with chemotherapy (carboplatin and either paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel) compared with chemotherapy alone. If approved, this would mark the first approval in Europe for an anti-PD-1 therapy in combination with chemotherapy for adults with metastatic squamous NSCLC. In October 2018, the FDA approved Keytruda in combination with carboplatin-paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel as a first-line treatment for metastatic squamous NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 expression.
In December 2018, the FDA extended the action date for the supplemental BLA seeking approval for Keytruda as monotherapy for the first-line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC in patients whose tumors express PD-L1 (TPS ≥1%) without EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations. The supplemental BLA is based on results of the Phase 3 KEYNOTE-042 trial where Keytruda monotherapy demonstrated a significant improvement in OS compared with chemotherapy in this patient population. The Company submitted additional data and analyses to

50


the FDA, which constituted a major amendment and extended the PDUFA date by three months to April 11, 2019. Merck continues to work closely with the FDA during the review of this supplemental BLA.
In February 2019, the FDA accepted and granted Priority Review for a supplemental BLA for Keytruda as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with advanced SCLC whose disease has progressed after two or more lines of prior therapy. This supplemental BLA, which is seeking accelerated approval for this new indication, is based on data from the SCLC cohorts of the Phase 2 KEYNOTE-158 and Phase 1b KEYNOTE-028 trials. The FDA set a PDUFA date of June 17, 2019. Keytruda is also being studied in combination with chemotherapy in the ongoing Phase 3 KEYNOTE-604 study in patients with newly diagnosed extensive stage SCLC.
In February 2019, the FDA accepted a supplemental BLA for Keytruda as monotherapy or in combination with platinum and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC. This supplemental BLA is based in part on data from the pivotal Phase 3 KEYNOTE-048 trial where Keytruda demonstrated a significant improvement in OS compared with the standard of care, as monotherapy in patients whose tumors expressed PD-L1 with Combined Positive Score (CPS)≥20 and CPS≥1 and in combination with chemotherapy in the total patient population. These data were presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2018 Congress. The FDA granted Priority Review to the supplemental BLA and set a PDUFA date of June 10, 2019. KEYNOTE-048 also serves as the confirmatory trial for KEYNOTE-012, a Phase 1b study which supported the previous accelerated approval for Keytruda as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC with disease progression on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy.
In November 2018, Merck announced that the Phase 3 KEYNOTE-181 trial investigating Keytruda as monotherapy in the second-line treatment of advanced or metastatic esophageal or esophagogastric junction carcinoma met a primary endpoint of OS in patients whose tumors expressed PD-L1 (CPS ≥10). In this pivotal study, treatment with Keytruda resulted in a statistically significant improvement in OS compared to chemotherapy (paclitaxel, docetaxel or irinotecan) in patients with CPS ≥10, regardless of histology. The primary endpoint of OS was also evaluated in patients with squamous cell histology and in the entire intention-to-treat study population. While directionally favorable, statistical significance for OS was not met in these two patient groups. Per the statistical analysis plan, the key secondary endpoints of PFS and objective response rate (ORR) were not formally tested, as OS was not reached in the full intention-to-treat study population. These results were presented in January 2019 at the ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium and have been submitted for regulatory review.
Additionally, Keytruda has received Breakthrough Therapy designation from the FDA for the treatment of high-risk early-stage triple-negative breast cancer in combination with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The FDA’s Breakthrough Therapy designation is intended to expedite the development and review of a candidate that is planned for use, alone or in combination, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition when preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints.
In October 2018, Merck announced the first presentation of results from an interim analysis of KEYNOTE-057, a Phase 2 trial evaluating Keytruda for previously treated patients with high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. An interim analysis of the study’s primary endpoint showed a complete response rate of nearly 40% at three months with Keytruda in patients whose disease was unresponsive to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy, the current standard of care for this disease, and who were ineligible for or who refused to undergo radical cystectomy. These results, as well as other study findings, were presented at the ESMO 2018 Congress.
In February 2019, Merck announced that the pivotal Phase 3 KEYNOTE-240 trial evaluating Keytruda, plus best supportive care, for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who were previously treated with systemic therapy, did not meet its co-primary endpoints of OS and PFS compared with placebo plus best supportive care. In the final analysis of the study, there was an improvement in OS for patients treated with Keytruda compared to placebo, however these OS results did not meet statistical significance per the pre-specified statistical plan. Results for PFS were also directionally favorable in the Keytruda arm compared with placebo but did not reach statistical significance. The key secondary endpoint of ORR was not formally tested, since superiority was not reached for OS or PFS. Results will be presented at an upcoming medical meeting and have been shared with the FDA for discussion.

51


The Keytruda clinical development program consists of more than 900 clinical trials, including more than 600 trials that combine Keytruda with other cancer treatments. These studies encompass more than 30 cancer types including: bladder, cervical, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, head and neck, hepatocellular, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, melanoma, mesothelioma, nasopharyngeal, NSCLC, ovarian, PMBCL, prostate, renal, small-cell lung and triple-negative breast, many of which are currently in Phase 3 clinical development. Further trials are being planned for other cancers.
Lynparza, is an oral PARP inhibitor currently approved for certain types of ovarian and breast cancer. In July 2017, Merck and AstraZeneca entered into a global strategic oncology collaboration to co-develop and co-commercialize AstraZeneca’s Lynparza for multiple cancer types (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements).
In April 2018, Merck and AstraZeneca announced that the EMA validated for review the Marketing Authorization Application for Lynparza for use in patients with deleterious or suspected deleterious BRCA-mutated, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer who have been previously treated with chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant or metastatic setting. This was the first regulatory submission for a PARP inhibitor in breast cancer in Europe.
Lynparza tablets are also under review in the EU as a maintenance treatment in patients with newly-diagnosed, BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer who were in complete or partial response following first-line standard platinum-based chemotherapy. This submission was based on positive results from the pivotal Phase 3 SOLO-1 trial. The trial showed a statistically-significant and clinically-meaningful improvement in PFS for Lynparza compared to placebo, reducing the risk of disease progression or death by 70% in patients with newly-diagnosed, BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer who were in complete or partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy.
In December 2018, Merck and AstraZeneca announced positive results from the randomized, open-label, controlled, Phase 3 SOLO-3 trial of Lynparza tablets in patients with relapsed ovarian cancer after two or more lines of treatment. The trial was conducted as a post-approval commitment in agreement with the FDA. Results from the trial showed BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer patients treated with Lynparza following two or more prior lines of chemotherapy demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in the primary endpoint of ORR and the key secondary endpoint of PFS compared to chemotherapy. Merck and AstraZeneca plan to discuss these results with the FDA.
MK-7655A is a combination of relebactam, an investigational beta-lactamase inhibitor, and imipenem/cilastatin (an approved carbapenem antibiotic). In February 2019, Merck announced that the FDA accepted for Priority Review an NDA for MK-7655A for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by certain susceptible Gram-negative bacteria in adults with limited or no alternative therapies available. The PDUFA date is July 16, 2019. In April 2018, Merck announced that a pivotal Phase 3 study of MK-7655A demonstrated a favorable overall response in the treatment of certain imipenem-non-susceptible bacterial infections, the primary endpoint, with lower treatment-emergent nephrotoxicity (kidney toxicity), a secondary endpoint, compared to a colistin (colistimethate sodium) plus imipenem/cilastatin regimen. The FDA had previously designated this combination a Qualified Infectious Disease Product with designated Fast Track status for the treatment of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia, ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections.
V920 (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP, live attenuated), is an investigational Ebola Zaire disease vaccine candidate being studied in large scale Phase 2/3 clinical trials. In December 2015, Merck announced that the application for Emergency Use Assessment and Listing (EUAL) for V920 was accepted for review by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to the WHO, the EUAL process is designed to expedite the availability of vaccines needed for public health emergencies such as another outbreak of Ebola. The WHO decision to grant V920 EUAL status will be based on data regarding quality, safety, and efficacy/effectiveness; as well as a risk/benefit analysis for emergency use. While EUAL designation allows for emergency use, the vaccine remains investigational and has not yet been licensed for commercial distribution. In July 2016, Merck announced that the FDA granted V920 Breakthrough Therapy designation, and that the EMA granted the vaccine candidate PRIME (PRIority MEdicines) status. In November 2018, Merck announced that it has started the submission of a rolling BLA to the FDA for V920. This rolling submission was made pursuant to the FDA’s Breakthrough Therapy designation. Merck expects the rolling submission of the BLA to be completed in 2019. The Company also intends to file V920 with the EMA in 2019.

52


In February 2019, Merck announced that the FDA accepted for Priority Review a supplemental NDA for Zerbaxa to treat adult patients with nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, caused by certain susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms. The PDUFA date is June 3, 2019. Zerbaxa is also under review for this indication by the EMA. Zerbaxa is currently approved in the United States for the treatment of adult patients with complicated urinary tract infections caused by certain susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms, and is also indicated, in combination with metronidazole, for the treatment of adult patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by certain susceptible Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms.
In addition to the candidates under regulatory review, the Company has several drug candidates in Phase 3 clinical development in addition to the Keytruda programs discussed above.
MK-7264, gefapixant, is a selective, non-narcotic, orally-administered P2X3-receptor agonist being investigated in Phase 3 trials for the treatment of refractory, chronic cough and in a Phase 2 trial for the treatment of women with endometriosis-related pain.
Lenvima, is an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor currently approved for certain types of thyroid cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and in combination for certain patients with renal cell carcinoma. In March 2018, Merck and Eisai entered into a strategic collaboration for the worldwide co-development and co-commercialization of Lenvima (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements). Under the agreement, Merck and Eisai will develop and commercialize Lenvima jointly, both as monotherapy and in combination with Keytruda. Per the agreement, the companies will jointly initiate clinical studies evaluating the Keytruda/Lenvima combination to support 11 potential indications in six types of cancer (endometrial cancer, NSCLC, hepatocellular carcinoma, head and neck cancer, bladder cancer and melanoma), as well as a basket trial targeting multiple cancer types. The FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for Keytruda in combination with Lenvima for the potential treatment of patients with advanced and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma and for the potential treatment of certain patients with advanced and/or metastatic non-microsatellite instability high/proficient mismatch repair endometrial carcinoma.
MK-1242, vericiguat, is an investigational treatment for heart failure being studied in patients suffering from chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fracture (Phase 3 clinical trial) and from chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fracture (Phase 2 clinical trial). The development of vericiguat is part of a worldwide strategic collaboration between Merck and Bayer (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements).
V114 is an investigational polyvalent conjugate vaccine for the prevention of pneumococcal disease. In June 2018, Merck initiated the first Phase 3 study in the adult population for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease. Currently five Phase 3 adult studies are ongoing, including studies in healthy adults 50 years of age or older, adults with risk factors for pneumococcal disease, those infected with HIV, and those who are recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. In October 2018, Merck began the first Phase 3 study in the pediatric population. Currently, three studies are ongoing, including studies in healthy infants and in children afflicted with sickle cell disease. In January 2019, Merck announced that V114 received Breakthrough Therapy designation from the FDA for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by the vaccine serotypes in pediatric patients 6 weeks to 18 years of age.
As a result of changes in the herpes zoster vaccine environment, Merck is ending development of V212, its investigational vaccine for the prevention of shingles in immunocompromised patients.
The Company maintains a number of long-term exploratory and fundamental research programs in biology and chemistry as well as research programs directed toward product development. The Company’s research and development model is designed to increase productivity and improve the probability of success by prioritizing the Company’s research and development resources on candidates the Company believes are capable of providing unambiguous, promotable advantages to patients and payers and delivering the maximum value of its approved medicines and vaccines through new indications and new formulations. Merck is pursuing emerging product opportunities independent of therapeutic area or modality (small molecule, biologics and vaccines) and is building its biologics capabilities. The Company is committed to ensuring that externally sourced programs remain an important component of its pipeline strategy, with a focus on supplementing its internal research with a licensing and external alliance strategy focused on the entire spectrum of collaborations from early research to late-stage compounds, as well as access to new technologies.

53


The Company also reviews its pipeline to examine candidates that may provide more value through out-licensing. The Company continues to evaluate certain late-stage clinical development and platform technology assets to determine their out-licensing or sale potential.
The Company’s clinical pipeline includes candidates in multiple disease areas, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, neurosciences, obesity, pain, respiratory diseases, and vaccines.

Acquired In-Process Research and Development
In connection with business acquisitions, the Company has recorded the fair value of in-process research projects which, at the time of acquisition, had not yet reached technological feasibility. At December 31, 2018, the balance of IPR&D was $1.1 billion.
The IPR&D projects that remain in development are subject to the inherent risks and uncertainties in drug development and it is possible that the Company will not be able to successfully develop and complete the IPR&D programs and profitably commercialize the underlying product candidates. The time periods to receive approvals from the FDA and other regulatory agencies are subject to uncertainty. Significant delays in the approval process, or the Company’s failure to obtain approval at all, would delay or prevent the Company from realizing revenues from these products. Additionally, if certain of the IPR&D programs fail or are abandoned during development, then the Company will not realize the future cash flows it has estimated and recorded as IPR&D as of the acquisition date, and the Company may also not recover the research and development expenditures made since the acquisition to further develop such programs. If such circumstances were to occur, the Company’s future operating results could be adversely affected and the Company may recognize impairment charges and such charges could be material.
In 2018, 2017, and 2016 the Company recorded IPR&D impairment charges within Research and development expenses of $152 million, $483 million and $3.6 billion, respectively (see Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements).
Additional research and development will be required before any of the remaining programs reach technological feasibility. The costs to complete the research projects will depend on whether the projects are brought to their final stages of development and are ultimately submitted to the FDA or other regulatory agencies for approval.

Acquisitions, Research Collaborations and License Agreements
Merck continues to remain focused on pursuing opportunities that have the potential to drive both near- and long-term growth. Certain of the more recent transactions are described below. Merck is actively monitoring the landscape for growth opportunities that meet the Company’s strategic criteria.
In March 2018, Merck and Eisai announced a strategic collaboration for the worldwide co-development and co-commercialization of Lenvima, an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovered by Eisai. Under the agreement, Merck and Eisai will develop and commercialize Lenvima jointly, both as monotherapy and in combination with Merck’s anti-PD-1 therapy, Keytruda. Under the agreement, Merck made an upfront payment to Eisai of $750 million and will make payments of up to $650 million for certain option rights through 2021 (of which $325 million will be paid in March 2019, $200 million is expected to be paid in 2020 and $125 million is expected to be paid in 2021). The Company recorded a charge of $1.4 billion in Research and development expenses in 2018 related to the upfront payment and future option payments. In addition, the agreement provides for Eisai to receive up to $385 million associated with the achievement of certain clinical and regulatory milestones and up to $3.97 billion for the achievement of milestones associated with sales of Lenvima (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements).
In June 2018, Merck acquired Viralytics Limited (Viralytics), an Australian publicly traded company focused on oncolytic immunotherapy treatments for a range of cancers, for AUD 502 million ($378 million). The transaction provided Merck with full rights to Cavatak (V937, formerly CVA21), Viralytics’s investigational oncolytic immunotherapy. Cavatak is based on Viralytics’s proprietary formulation of an oncolytic virus (Coxsackievirus Type A21) that has been shown to preferentially infect and kill cancer cells. Cavatak is currently being evaluated in multiple Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials, both as an intratumoral and intravenous agent, including in combination with Keytruda. Under a previous agreement between Merck and Viralytics, a study is investigating the use of the Keytruda and Cavatak combination in melanoma, prostate, lung and bladder cancers. The transaction was accounted for as an acquisition of an asset. Merck recorded net assets of $34 million (primarily cash) at the acquisition date and Research

54


and development expenses of $344 million in 2018 related to the transaction. There are no future contingent payments associated with the acquisition.
In February 2019, Merck and Immune Design entered into a definitive agreement under which Merck will acquire Immune Design for $5.85 per share in cash for an approximate value of $300 million. Immune Design is a late-stage immunotherapy company employing next-generation in vivo approaches to enable the body’s immune system to fight disease. Immune Design’s proprietary technologies, GLAAS and ZVex, are engineered to activate the immune system’s natural ability to generate and/or expand antigen-specific cytotoxic immune cells to fight cancer and other chronic diseases. Under the terms of the acquisition agreement, Merck, through a subsidiary, will initiate a tender offer to acquire all outstanding shares of Immune Design. The closing of the tender offer will be subject to certain conditions, including the tender of shares representing at least a majority of the total number of Immune Design’s outstanding shares, the expiration of the waiting period under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act and other customary conditions. The transaction is expected to close early in the second quarter of 2019.
Capital Expenditures
Capital expenditures were $2.6 billion in 2018, $1.9 billion in 2017 and $1.6 billion in 2016. Expenditures in the United States were $1.5 billion in 2018, $1.2 billion in 2017 and $1.0 billion in 2016. In October 2018, the Company announced it plans to invest approximately $16 billion on new capital projects from 2018-2022. The focus of this investment will primarily be on increasing manufacturing capacity across Merck’s key businesses.
Depreciation expense was $1.4 billion in 2018, $1.5 billion in 2017 and $1.6 billion in 2016. In each of these years, $1.0 billion of the depreciation expense applied to locations in the United States. Total depreciation expense in 2017 and 2016 included accelerated depreciation of $60 million and $227 million, respectively, associated with restructuring activities (see Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements).
Analysis of Liquidity and Capital Resources
Merck’s strong financial profile enables it to fund research and development, focus on external alliances, support in-line products and maximize upcoming launches while providing significant cash returns to shareholders.
Selected Data
 
 
 
 
 
($ in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Working capital
$
3,669

 
$
6,152

 
$
13,410

Total debt to total liabilities and equity
30.4
%
 
27.8
%
 
26.0
%
Cash provided by operations to total debt
0.4:1

 
0.3:1

 
0.4:1

The decline in working capital in 2018 compared with 2017 reflects the utilization of cash and short-term borrowings to fund $5.0 billion of ASR agreements, a $1.25 billion payment to redeem debt in connection with the exercise of a make-whole provision as discussed below, as well as a $750 million upfront payment related to the formation of a collaboration with Eisai discussed above. The decline in working capital in 2017 compared with 2016 primarily reflects the reclassification of $3.0 billion of notes due in the first half of 2018 from long-term debt to short-term debt, $1.85 billion of upfront and option payments related to the formation of the AstraZeneca collaboration discussed above, as well as $810 million paid to redeem debt in connection with tender offers discussed below.
Cash provided by operating activities was $10.9 billion in 2018, $6.5 billion in 2017 and $10.4 billion in 2016. The lower cash provided by operating activities in 2017 reflects a $2.8 billion payment related to the settlement of certain federal income tax issues (see Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements), payments of $1.85 billion related to the formation of a collaboration with AstraZeneca (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements), and a $625 million payment made by the Company related to the previously disclosed settlement of worldwide Keytruda patent litigation. Cash provided by operating activities continues to be the Company’s primary source of funds to finance operating needs, capital expenditures, treasury stock purchases and dividends paid to shareholders.
Cash provided by investing activities was $4.3 billion in 2018 compared with $2.7 billion in 2017. The increase in cash provided by investing activities was driven primarily by lower purchases of securities and other investments, partially offset by higher capital expenditures, lower proceeds from the sales of securities and other investments, and a $350 million milestone payment in 2018 related to a collaboration with Bayer (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements). Cash provided by investing activities was $2.7 billion in 2017 compared with a use

55


of cash in investing activities of $3.2 billion in 2016. The change was driven primarily by lower purchases of securities and other investments, higher proceeds from the sales of securities and other investments and a lower use of cash for the acquisitions of businesses.
Cash used in financing activities was $13.2 billion in 2018 compared with $10.0 billion in 2017. The increase in cash used in financing activities was driven primarily by higher purchases of treasury stock (largely under ASR agreements as discussed below), higher payments on debt and payment of contingent consideration related to a prior year business acquisition, partially offset by an increase in short-term borrowings. Cash used in financing activities was $10.0 billion in 2017 compared with $9.0 billion in 2016. The increase in cash used in financing activities was driven primarily by proceeds from the issuance of debt in 2016, as well as higher purchases of treasury stock and lower proceeds from the exercise of stock options in 2017, partially offset by lower payments on debt in 2017.
The Company’s contractual obligations as of December 31, 2018 are as follows:
Payments Due by Period
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
($ in millions)
Total
 
2019
 
2020—2021
 
2022—2023
 
Thereafter
Purchase obligations (1)
$
2,349

 
$
886

 
$
1,011

 
$
407

 
$
45

Loans payable and current portion of long-term debt
5,309

 
5,309

 

 

 

Long-term debt
19,882

 

 
4,237

 
4,000

 
11,645

Interest related to debt obligations
7,680

 
662

 
1,163

 
932

 
4,923

Unrecognized tax benefits (2)
44

 
44

 

 

 

Transition tax related to the enactment of the TCJA (3)
4,899

 
275

 
873

 
1,217

 
2,534

Leases
997

 
188

 
348

 
218

 
243

 
$
41,160

 
$
7,364

 
$
7,632

 
$
6,774

 
$
19,390

(1)  
Includes future inventory purchases the Company has committed to in connection with certain divestitures.
(2)  
As of December 31, 2018, the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet reflects liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits, interest and penalties of $2.3 billion, including $44 million reflected as a current liability. Due to the high degree of uncertainty regarding the timing of future cash outflows of liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits beyond one year, a reasonable estimate of the period of cash settlement for years beyond 2019 cannot be made.
(3)  
In connection with the enactment of the TCJA, the Company is required to pay a one-time transition tax, which the Company has elected to pay over a period of eight years as permitted under the TCJA (see Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements).
Purchase obligations are enforceable and legally binding obligations for purchases of goods and services including minimum inventory contracts, research and development and advertising. Amounts reflected for research and development obligations do not include contingent milestone payments related to collaborative arrangements and acquisitions. Contingent milestone payments are not considered contractual obligations as they are contingent upon the successful achievement of developmental, regulatory approval and commercial milestones. At December 31, 2018, the Company has liabilities for milestone payments related to collaborations with AstraZeneca, Eisai and Bayer (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements). Also excluded from research and development obligations are potential future funding commitments of up to approximately $40 million for investments in research venture capital funds. Loans payable and current portion of long-term debt reflects $149 million of long-dated notes that are subject to repayment at the option of the holders. Required funding obligations for 2019 relating to the Company’s pension and other postretirement benefit plans are not expected to be material. However, the Company currently anticipates contributing approximately $50 million to its U.S. pension plans, $150 million to its international pension plans and $15 million to its other postretirement benefit plans during 2019.
In December 2018, the Company exercised a make-whole provision on its $1.25 billion, 5.00% notes due 2019 and repaid this debt.
In November 2017, the Company launched tender offers for certain outstanding notes and debentures. The Company paid $810 million in aggregate consideration (applicable purchase price together with accrued interest) to redeem $585 million principal amount of debt that was validly tendered in connection with the tender offers.
In November 2016, the Company issued €1.0 billion principal amount of senior unsecured notes consisting of €500 million principal amount of 0.50% notes due 2024 and €500 million principal amount of 1.375% notes due 2036. The Company used the net proceeds of the offering of $1.1 billion for general corporate purposes.

56


The Company has a $6.0 billion credit facility that matures in June 2023. The facility provides backup liquidity for the Company’s commercial paper borrowing facility and is to be used for general corporate purposes. The Company has not drawn funding from this facility.
In March 2018, the Company filed a securities registration statement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the automatic shelf registration process available to “well-known seasoned issuers” which is effective for three years.
Effective as of November 3, 2009, the Company executed a full and unconditional guarantee of the then existing debt of its subsidiary Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. (MSD) and MSD executed a full and unconditional guarantee of the then existing debt of the Company (excluding commercial paper), including for payments of principal and interest. These guarantees do not extend to debt issued subsequent to that date.
The Company continues to maintain a conservative financial profile. The Company places its cash and investments in instruments that meet high credit quality standards, as specified in its investment policy guidelines. These guidelines also limit the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer. The Company does not participate in any off-balance sheet arrangements involving unconsolidated subsidiaries that provide financing or potentially expose the Company to unrecorded financial obligations.
In October 2018, Merck announced that its Board of Directors approved a 15% increase to the Company’s quarterly dividend, raising it to $0.55 per share from $0.48 per share on the Company’s outstanding common stock. Payment was made in January 2019. In January 2019, the Board of Directors declared a quarterly dividend of $0.55 per share on the Company’s common stock for the second quarter of 2019 payable in April 2019.
In November 2017, Merck’s Board of Directors authorized purchases of up to $10 billion of Merck’s common stock for its treasury. The treasury stock purchase authorization has no time limit and will be made over time in open-market transactions, block transactions, on or off an exchange, or in privately negotiated transactions. In October 2018, Merck’s Board of Directors authorized an additional $10 billion of treasury stock purchases with no time limit for completion and the Company entered into ASR agreements of $5 billion as discussed below. The Company spent $9.1 billion to purchase shares of its common stock for its treasury during 2018. As of December 31, 2018, the Company’s remaining share repurchase authorization was $11.9 billion. The Company purchased $4.0 billion and $3.4 billion of its common stock during 2017 and 2016, respectively, under authorized share repurchase programs.
On October 25, 2018, the Company entered into ASR agreements with two third-party financial institutions (Dealers). Under the ASR agreements, Merck agreed to purchase $5 billion of Merck’s common stock, in total, with an initial delivery of 56.7 million shares of Merck’s common stock, based on the then-current market price, made by the Dealers to Merck, and payments of $5 billion made by Merck to the Dealers on October 29, 2018, which were funded with existing cash and investments, as well as short-term borrowings. The number of shares of Merck’s common stock that Merck may receive, or may be required to remit, upon final settlement under the ASR agreements will be based upon the average daily volume weighted-average price of Merck’s common stock during the term of the ASR program, less a negotiated discount. Final settlement of the transaction under the ASR agreements is expected to occur in the first half of 2019, but may occur earlier at the option of the Dealers, or later under certain circumstances. If Merck is obligated to make adjustment payments to the Dealers under the ASR agreements, Merck may elect to satisfy such obligations in cash or in shares of Merck’s common stock.
Financial Instruments Market Risk Disclosures
The Company manages the impact of foreign exchange rate movements and interest rate movements on its earnings, cash flows and fair values of assets and liabilities through operational means and through the use of various financial instruments, including derivative instruments.
A significant portion of the Company’s revenues and earnings in foreign affiliates is exposed to changes in foreign exchange rates. The objectives and accounting related to the Company’s foreign currency risk management program, as well as its interest rate risk management activities are discussed below.

Foreign Currency Risk Management
The Company has established revenue hedging, balance sheet risk management, and net investment hedging programs to protect against volatility of future foreign currency cash flows and changes in fair value caused by volatility in foreign exchange rates.

57


The objective of the revenue hedging program is to reduce the variability caused by changes in foreign exchange rates that would affect the U.S. dollar value of future cash flows derived from foreign currency denominated sales, primarily the euro and Japanese yen. To achieve this objective, the Company will hedge a portion of its forecasted foreign currency denominated third-party and intercompany distributor entity sales (forecasted sales) that are expected to occur over its planning cycle, typically no more than two years into the future. The Company will layer in hedges over time, increasing the portion of forecasted sales hedged as it gets closer to the expected date of the forecasted sales. The portion of forecasted sales hedged is based on assessments of cost-benefit profiles that consider natural offsetting exposures, revenue and exchange rate volatilities and correlations, and the cost of hedging instruments. The Company manages its anticipated transaction exposure principally with purchased local currency put options, forward contracts, and purchased collar options.
Because Merck principally sells foreign currency in its revenue hedging program, a uniform weakening of the U.S. dollar would yield the largest overall potential loss in the market value of these hedge instruments. The market value of Merck’s hedges would have declined by an estimated $441 million and $400 million at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, from a uniform 10% weakening of the U.S. dollar. The market value was determined using a foreign exchange option pricing model and holding all factors except exchange rates constant. Although not predictive in nature, the Company believes that a 10% threshold reflects reasonably possible near-term changes in Merck’s major foreign currency exposures relative to the U.S. dollar. The cash flows from these contracts are reported as operating activities in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows.
The Company manages operating activities and net asset positions at each local subsidiary in order to mitigate the effects of exchange on monetary assets and liabilities. The Company also uses a balance sheet risk management program to mitigate the exposure of net monetary assets that are denominated in a currency other than a subsidiary’s functional currency from the effects of volatility in foreign exchange. In these instances, Merck principally utilizes forward exchange contracts to offset the effects of exchange on exposures denominated in developed country currencies, primarily the euro and Japanese yen. For exposures in developing country currencies, the Company will enter into forward contracts to partially offset the effects of exchange on exposures when it is deemed economical to do so based on a cost-benefit analysis that considers the magnitude of the exposure, the volatility of the exchange rate and the cost of the hedging instrument. The cash flows from these contracts are reported as operating activities in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows.
A sensitivity analysis to changes in the value of the U.S. dollar on foreign currency denominated derivatives, investments and monetary assets and liabilities indicated that if the U.S. dollar uniformly weakened by 10% against all currency exposures of the Company at December 31, 2018 and 2017, Income before taxes would have declined by approximately $134 million and $92 million in 2018 and 2017, respectively. Because the Company was in a net short (payable) position relative to its major foreign currencies after consideration of forward contracts, a uniform weakening of the U.S. dollar will yield the largest overall potential net loss in earnings due to exchange. This measurement assumes that a change in one foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar would not affect other foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar. Although not predictive in nature, the Company believes that a 10% threshold reflects reasonably possible near-term changes in Merck’s major foreign currency exposures relative to the U.S. dollar. The cash flows from these contracts are reported as operating activities in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows.
The economy of Argentina was determined to be hyperinflationary in 2018; consequently, in accordance with U.S. GAAP, the Company began remeasuring its monetary assets and liabilities for those operations in earnings. The impact to the Company’s results was immaterial.
The Company also uses forward exchange contracts to hedge its net investment in foreign operations against movements in exchange rates. The forward contracts are designated as hedges of the net investment in a foreign operation. The Company hedges a portion of the net investment in certain of its foreign operations. The unrealized gains or losses on these contracts are recorded in foreign currency translation adjustment within Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) (OCI), and remain in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) (AOCI) until either the sale or complete or substantially complete liquidation of the subsidiary. The Company excludes certain portions of the change in fair value of its derivative instruments from the assessment of hedge effectiveness (excluded component). Changes in fair value of the excluded components are recognized in OCI. In accordance with the new guidance adopted on January 1, 2018 (see Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements), the Company has elected to recognize in earnings the initial value of the excluded component on a straight-line basis over the life of the derivative instrument, rather

58


than using the mark-to-market approach. The cash flows from these contracts are reported as investing activities in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows.
Foreign exchange risk is also managed through the use of foreign currency debt. The Company’s senior unsecured euro-denominated notes have been designated as, and are effective as, economic hedges of the net investment in a foreign operation. Accordingly, foreign currency transaction gains or losses due to spot rate fluctuations on the euro-denominated debt instruments are included in foreign currency translation adjustment within OCI.

Interest Rate Risk Management
The Company may use interest rate swap contracts on certain investing and borrowing transactions to manage its net exposure to interest rate changes and to reduce its overall cost of borrowing. The Company does not use leveraged swaps and, in general, does not leverage any of its investment activities that would put principal capital at risk.
In May 2018, four interest rate swaps with notional amounts aggregating $1.0 billion matured. These swaps effectively converted the Company’s $1.0 billion1.30% fixed-rate notes due 2018 to variable rate debt. In December 2018, in connection with the early repayment of debt, the Company settled three interest rate swaps with notional amounts aggregating $550 million. These swaps effectively converted a portion of the Company’s $1.25 billion, 5.00% notes due 2019 to variable rate debt. At December 31, 2018, the Company was a party to 19 pay-floating, receive-fixed interest rate swap contracts designated as fair value hedges of fixed-rate notes in which the notional amounts match the amount of the hedged fixed-rate notes as detailed in the table below.
($ in millions)
2018
Debt Instrument
Par Value of Debt
 
Number of Interest Rate Swaps Held
 
Total Swap Notional Amount
1.85% notes due 2020
$
1,250

 
5

 
$
1,250

3.875% notes due 2021
1,150

 
5

 
1,150

2.40% notes due 2022
1,000

 
4

 
1,000

2.35% notes due 2022
1,250

 
5

 
1,250

The interest rate swap contracts are designated hedges of the fair value changes in the notes attributable to changes in the benchmark London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) swap rate. The fair value changes in the notes attributable to changes in the LIBOR swap rate are recorded in interest expense along with the offsetting fair value changes in the swap contracts. The cash flows from these contracts are reported as operating activities in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows.
The Company’s investment portfolio includes cash equivalents and short-term investments, the market values of which are not significantly affected by changes in interest rates. The market value of the Company’s medium- to long-term fixed-rate investments is modestly affected by changes in U.S. interest rates. Changes in medium- to long-term U.S. interest rates have a more significant impact on the market value of the Company’s fixed-rate borrowings, which generally have longer maturities. A sensitivity analysis to measure potential changes in the market value of Merck’s investments and debt from a change in interest rates indicated that a one percentage point increase in interest rates at December 31, 2018 and 2017 would have positively affected the net aggregate market value of these instruments by $1.2 billion and $1.3 billion, respectively. A one percentage point decrease at December 31, 2018 and 2017 would have negatively affected the net aggregate market value by $1.4 billion and $1.5 billion, respectively. The fair value of Merck’s debt was determined using pricing models reflecting one percentage point shifts in the appropriate yield curves. The fair values of Merck’s investments were determined using a combination of pricing and duration models.


59


Critical Accounting Policies
The Company’s consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with GAAP and, accordingly, include certain amounts that are based on management’s best estimates and judgments. Estimates are used when accounting for amounts recorded in connection with acquisitions, including initial fair value determinations of assets and liabilities, primarily IPR&D, other intangible assets and contingent consideration, as well as subsequent fair value measurements. Additionally, estimates are used in determining such items as provisions for sales discounts and returns, depreciable and amortizable lives, recoverability of inventories, including those produced in preparation for product launches, amounts recorded for contingencies, environmental liabilities, accruals for contingent sales-based milestone payments and other reserves, pension and other postretirement benefit plan assumptions, share-based compensation assumptions, restructuring costs, impairments of long-lived assets (including intangible assets and goodwill) and investments, and taxes on income. Because of the uncertainty inherent in such estimates, actual results may differ from these estimates. Application of the following accounting policies result in accounting estimates having the potential for the most significant impact on the financial statements.
Acquisitions and Dispositions
To determine whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses, the Company makes certain judgments, which include assessment of the inputs, processes, and outputs associated with the acquired set of activities. If the Company determines that substantially all of the fair value of gross assets included in a transaction is concentrated in a single asset (or a group of similar assets), the assets would not represent a business. To be considered a business, the assets in a transaction need to include an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create outputs.
In a business combination, the acquisition method of accounting requires that the assets acquired and liabilities assumed be recorded as of the date of the acquisition at their respective fair values with limited exceptions. Assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination that arise from contingencies are generally recognized at fair value. If fair value cannot be determined, the asset or liability is recognized if probable and reasonably estimable; if these criteria are not met, no asset or liability is recognized. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Accordingly, the Company may be required to value assets at fair value measures that do not reflect the Company’s intended use of those assets. Any excess of the purchase price (consideration transferred) over the estimated fair values of net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. Transaction costs and costs to restructure the acquired company are expensed as incurred. The operating results of the acquired business are reflected in the Company’s consolidated financial statements after the date of the acquisition. The fair values of intangible assets, including acquired IPR&D, are determined utilizing information available near the acquisition date based on expectations and assumptions that are deemed reasonable by management. Given the considerable judgment involved in determining fair values, the Company typically obtains assistance from third-party valuation specialists for significant items. Amounts allocated to acquired IPR&D are capitalized and accounted for as indefinite-lived intangible assets, subject to impairment testing until completion or abandonment of the projects. Upon successful completion of each project, Merck will make a separate determination as to the then-useful life of the asset, generally determined by the period in which the substantial majority of the cash flows are expected to be generated, and begin amortization. Certain of the Company’s business acquisitions involve the potential for future payment of consideration that is contingent upon the achievement of performance milestones, including product development milestones and royalty payments on future product sales. The fair value of contingent consideration liabilities is determined at the acquisition date using unobservable inputs. These inputs include the estimated amount and timing of projected cash flows, the probability of success (achievement of the contingent event) and the risk-adjusted discount rate used to present value the probability-weighted cash flows. Subsequent to the acquisition date, at each reporting period, the contingent consideration liability is remeasured at current fair value with changes (either expense or income) recorded in earnings. Changes in any of the inputs may result in a significantly different fair value adjustment.
The judgments made in determining estimated fair values assigned to assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination, as well as asset lives, can materially affect the Company’s results of operations.
The fair values of identifiable intangible assets related to currently marketed products and product rights are primarily determined by using an income approach through which fair value is estimated based on each asset’s

60


discounted projected net cash flows. The Company’s estimates of market participant net cash flows consider historical and projected pricing, margins and expense levels; the performance of competing products where applicable; relevant industry and therapeutic area growth drivers and factors; current and expected trends in technology and product life cycles; the time and investment that will be required to develop products and technologies; the ability to obtain marketing and regulatory approvals; the ability to manufacture and commercialize the products; the extent and timing of potential new product introductions by the Company’s competitors; and the life of each asset’s underlying patent, if any. The net cash flows are then probability-adjusted where appropriate to consider the uncertainties associated with the underlying assumptions, as well as the risk profile of the net cash flows utilized in the valuation. The probability-adjusted future net cash flows of each product are then discounted to present value utilizing an appropriate discount rate.
The fair values of identifiable intangible assets related to IPR&D are also determined using an income approach, through which fair value is estimated based on each asset’s probability-adjusted future net cash flows, which reflect the different stages of development of each product and the associated probability of successful completion. The net cash flows are then discounted to present value using an appropriate discount rate.
If the Company determines the transaction will not be accounted for as an acquisition of a business, the transaction will be accounted for as an asset acquisition rather than a business combination and, therefore, no goodwill will be recorded. In an asset acquisition, acquired IPR&D with no alternative future use is charged to expense and contingent consideration is not recognized at the acquisition date.
Revenue Recognition
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted a new standard on revenue recognition (see Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements). Changes to the Company’s revenue recognition policy as a result of adopting the new guidance are described below.
Recognition of revenue requires evidence of a contract, probable collection of sales proceeds and completion of substantially all performance obligations. Merck a