20-F 1 mrm-20221231x20f.htm 20-F
00018197042022FYfalsetrueP1YP1YP1YMedirom Healthcare Technologies Inc.P3YP10Yhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#ImpairmentOfLongLivedAssetsHeldForUsehttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#ImpairmentOfLongLivedAssetsHeldForUse1http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#OperatingLeaseLiabilityCurrent http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2022#OperatingLeaseLiabilityNoncurrentP1YP1YP1YP1YP1YP1Y00001819704mrm:AmericanDepositorySharesMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2023-01-200001819704us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-12-310001819704srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310001819704us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2020-12-310001819704us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310001819704us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-12-310001819704srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-12-310001819704srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-12-310001819704us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2019-12-310001819704us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-12-310001819704us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2019-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-12-310001819704us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMember2020-10-022020-10-020001819704us-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2022-01-012022-12-3100018197042019-01-012019-12-310001819704us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMembermrm:DirectorAndCorporateAuditorMember2020-10-022020-10-020001819704us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMembermrm:DirectorAndEmployeeMember2016-12-212016-12-210001819704us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMembermrm:CorporateAuditorMember2016-12-212016-12-210001819704us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMember2015-12-212015-12-210001819704us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMembermrm:DirectorAndCorporateAuditorMember2015-12-212015-12-210001819704us-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:OtherAssetsMember2021-12-3100018197042028-01-012022-12-3100018197042027-01-012022-12-3100018197042026-01-012022-12-3100018197042025-01-012022-12-3100018197042024-01-012022-12-3100018197042023-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:RoyaltyMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:ProductAndServiceOtherMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:ProductAndServiceOtherMembermrm:DigitalPreventativeHealthcareSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberus-gaap:RoyaltyMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberus-gaap:ProductAndServiceOtherMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberus-gaap:FranchisorOwnedOutletMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberus-gaap:FranchiseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembermrm:SubleaseRevenueMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembermrm:StaffingServiceRevenueMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembermrm:OtherFranchiseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembermrm:FranchisorOwnedOutletSoldMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchisorOwnedOutletMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchisorOwnedOutletMembermrm:LuxuryBeautySegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchiseMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:SubleaseRevenueMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:StaffingServiceRevenueMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:ShippingOfMotherBraceletsMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:OtherFranchiseMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:FranchisorOwnedOutletSoldMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:RoyaltyMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:ProductAndServiceOtherMembermrm:DigitalPreventativeHealthcareSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberus-gaap:RoyaltyMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberus-gaap:ProductAndServiceOtherMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberus-gaap:FranchisorOwnedOutletMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberus-gaap:FranchiseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembermrm:SubleaseRevenueMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembermrm:StaffingServiceRevenueMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembermrm:OtherFranchiseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMembermrm:FranchisorOwnedOutletSoldMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchisorOwnedOutletMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchisorOwnedOutletMembermrm:LuxuryBeautySegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchiseMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:SubleaseRevenueMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:StaffingServiceRevenueMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:OtherFranchiseMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:FranchisorOwnedOutletSoldMembermrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMembermrm:KabushikiKaishaNoTrackMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMembermrm:KabushikiKaishaLtwMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMembermrm:AoyamaConsultingGroupCo.Ltd.Member2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMembermrm:KabushikiKaishaNoTrackMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMembermrm:KabushikiKaishaLtwMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMembermrm:AoyamaConsultingGroupCo.Ltd.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMembermrm:KabushikiKaishaNoTrackMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMembermrm:KabushikiKaishaLtwMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMembermrm:AoyamaConsultingGroupCo.Ltd.Member2020-01-012020-12-310001819704srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:VehiclesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:VehiclesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:VehiclesMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:VehiclesMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:MatrixIndustriesInc.Member2021-02-032021-02-030001819704us-gaap:FranchisorOwnedOutletMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchiseMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchisorOwnedOutletMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchiseMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchisorOwnedOutletMember2020-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchiseMember2020-12-310001819704us-gaap:CreditCardReceivablesMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:CreditCardReceivablesMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704mrm:RepresentativeDirectorMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:KazuyoshiTakahashiMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:SecondCorporateBondMaturesDecember2022Membermrm:KazuyoshiTakahashiMember2022-08-150001819704mrm:ZCCMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:ZCCMemberus-gaap:TrademarksMember2021-10-010001819704mrm:ZCCMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2021-10-010001819704mrm:SawanCoLTDMemberus-gaap:TrademarksMember2021-05-060001819704mrm:SawanCoLTDMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2021-05-060001819704us-gaap:ContractualRightsMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:ContractualRightsMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:PropertyAndEquipmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704us-gaap:TrademarksMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:TrademarksMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:BellEpoqueTrademarkMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:ZCCMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:SawanCoLTDMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704srt:WeightedAverageMemberus-gaap:TrademarksMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:WeightedAverageMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:WeightedAverageMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:WeightedAverageMemberus-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:TrademarksMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MinimumMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:WeightedAverageMemberus-gaap:TrademarksMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704srt:WeightedAverageMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704srt:WeightedAverageMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704srt:WeightedAverageMemberus-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:TrademarksMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:TrademarksMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMemberus-gaap:TrademarksMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMemberus-gaap:TrademarksMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:OtherNonMarketableSecuritiesMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:MatrixIndustriesInc.Member2022-12-310001819704mrm:OtherNonMarketableSecuritiesMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:MatrixIndustriesInc.Member2021-12-310001819704mrm:CozyJointVentureMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2023-01-200001819704mrm:EmployeeStockOptionsNinthSeriesMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:EmployeeStockOptionsNinthSeriesMember2020-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:CommonSharesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:CommonSharesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704mrm:CommonSharesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704mrm:AccruedExpensesMembermrm:KabushikiKaishaNoTrackMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:AccruedExpensesMembermrm:KabushikiKaishaLtwMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:AccruedExpensesMembermrm:AoyamaConsultingGroupCo.Ltd.Member2022-12-310001819704mrm:AccruedExpensesMembermrm:KabushikiKaishaNoTrackMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:AccruedExpensesMembermrm:KabushikiKaishaLtwMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:AccruedExpensesMembermrm:AoyamaConsultingGroupCo.Ltd.Member2021-12-310001819704mrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:LuxuryBeautySegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:DigitalPreventativeHealthcareSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:CorporateAndEliminationsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:LuxuryBeautySegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:DigitalPreventativeHealthcareSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:CorporateAndEliminationsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704mrm:DigitalPreventativeHealthcareSegmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704mrm:CorporateAndEliminationsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704srt:MinimumMembermrm:JapaneseFinancialInstitutionsUnsecuredBankLoansMember2022-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMembermrm:JapaneseFinancialInstitutionsUnsecuredBankLoansMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:FirstCorporateBondMaturesAugust2022Membermrm:KazuyoshiTakahashiMember2022-05-100001819704srt:MinimumMembermrm:JapaneseFinancialInstitutionsUnsecuredBankLoansMember2021-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMembermrm:JapaneseFinancialInstitutionsUnsecuredBankLoansMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:ProductAndServiceOtherMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchisorOwnedOutletMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchiseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:ProductAndServiceOtherMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchisorOwnedOutletMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchiseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:ProductAndServiceOtherMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchisorOwnedOutletMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchiseMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-03-290001819704us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-03-290001819704us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-12-3100018197042019-12-310001819704srt:MinimumMembermrm:ActOnSettlementOfFundsMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:LuxuryBeautySegmentMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:DigitalPreventativeHealthcareSegmentMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:CorporateAndEliminationsMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:LuxuryBeautySegmentMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:DigitalPreventativeHealthcareSegmentMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:CorporateAndEliminationsMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:RelaxationSalonSegmentMember2020-12-310001819704mrm:DigitalPreventativeHealthcareSegmentMember2020-12-310001819704mrm:CorporateAndEliminationsMember2020-12-310001819704mrm:ZCCMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:SawanCoLTDMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:ZCCMember2022-01-012022-01-010001819704mrm:ZCCMember2021-10-012021-10-010001819704mrm:SawanCoLTDMember2021-05-062021-05-060001819704us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:EmployeeStockOptionsNinthSeriesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:EmployeeStockOptionsEighthSeriesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:EmployeeStockOptionsEighthSeriesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704srt:MinimumMembermrm:RelaxationSalonsMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMembermrm:RelaxationSalonsMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MinimumMembermrm:RelaxationSalonsMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMembermrm:RelaxationSalonsMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704srt:MinimumMembermrm:RelaxationSalonsMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMembermrm:RelaxationSalonsMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704us-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:AmericanDepositorySharesMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2023-03-310001819704us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMembersrt:DirectorMember2020-10-022020-10-020001819704us-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:ZCCMember2021-10-012021-10-310001819704mrm:ZCCMember2021-08-312021-08-310001819704mrm:RelaxationSalonsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704mrm:RepresentativeDirectorMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:KazuyoshiTakahashiMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:LoansReceivableMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:OtherCurrentLiabilitiesMember2020-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember2022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember2021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember2020-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMemberus-gaap:TrademarksMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember2020-01-012020-12-310001819704srt:MinimumMembermrm:RelaxationSalonsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMembermrm:RelaxationSalonsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchiseMembersrt:MinimumMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:FranchiseMembersrt:MaximumMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:MatrixIndustriesInc.Member2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:MatrixIndustriesInc.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001819704mrm:RepresentativeDirectorMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:RepresentativeDirectorMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:KazuyoshiTakahashiMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:IndependentDirectorTwoMembermrm:CommonSharesMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:CorporateAuditorMember2022-12-310001819704mrm:IndependentDirectorTwoMembermrm:CommonSharesMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:CorporateAuditorMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:IndependentDirectorTwoMembermrm:CommonSharesMember2020-12-310001819704mrm:CorporateAuditorMember2020-12-310001819704srt:MinimumMember2022-12-310001819704srt:MaximumMember2022-12-3100018197042020-12-3100018197042020-01-012020-12-310001819704us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-03-290001819704mrm:RelaxationSalonsMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:RelaxationSalonsMemberus-gaap:FranchiseRightsMember2020-12-310001819704mrm:ZCCMember2022-01-010001819704mrm:ZCCMember2021-10-310001819704mrm:ZCCMember2021-08-310001819704mrm:RelaxationSalonsMember2021-12-310001819704mrm:ZCCMember2021-10-010001819704mrm:RelaxationSalonsMember2020-12-310001819704mrm:RelaxationSalonsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:RelaxationSalonsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMember2020-01-012020-12-3100018197042021-12-310001819704mrm:SawanCoLTDMember2021-05-060001819704us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001819704dei:AdrMember2022-01-012022-12-310001819704mrm:CommonSharesNoParValueMember2022-01-012022-12-3100018197042022-12-310001819704dei:BusinessContactMember2022-01-012022-12-3100018197042021-01-012021-12-3100018197042022-01-012022-12-31iso4217:JPYxbrli:sharesmrm:segmentxbrli:sharesiso4217:JPYxbrli:puremrm:itemmrm:buildingmrm:loanmrm:subsidiarymrm:Yiso4217:USD

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)  OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number 001-39809

MEDIROM HEALTHCARE TECHNOLOGIES INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Japan

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

2-3-1 Daiba,

Minato-ku

Tokyo 135-0091, Japan

(Address of principal executive offices)

Fumitoshi Fujiwara

Chief Financial Officer

Telephone: +81-(0)3-6721-7364

Email: ir@medirom.co.jp

2-3-1 Daiba, Minato-ku,

Tokyo 135-0091, Japan

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile Number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

American Depositary Shares, each representing one common share

MRM

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Common Shares, no par value*

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

*   Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing of the American Depositary Shares on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC.

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 4,882,500 Common Shares

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17 Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).

Yes No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

Yes No

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

1

PART I.

2

ITEM 1.

IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

2

ITEM 2.

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

2

ITEM 3.

KEY INFORMATION

2

ITEM 4.

INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

29

ITEM 4.A.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

52

ITEM 5.

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

52

ITEM 6.

DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

68

ITEM 7.

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

74

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

77

ITEM 9.

THE OFFER AND LISTING

77

ITEM 10.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

77

ITEM 11.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

86

ITEM 12.

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

88

PART II.

90

ITEM 13.

DEFAULTS, DIVIDENDS ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

90

ITEM 14.

MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

90

ITEM 15.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

90

ITEM 16A.

AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

91

ITEM 16B.

CODE OF ETHICS AND BUSINESS CONDUCT

92

ITEM 16C.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

92

ITEM 16D.

EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

92

ITEM 16E.

PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

92

ITEM 16F.

CHANGE IN REGISTRANT'S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

93

ITEM 16G.

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

93

ITEM 16H.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

94

ITEM 16I.

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

94

ITEM 16J.

INSIDER TRADING POLICIES

94

PART III.

94

ITEM 17.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

94

ITEM 18.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

94

ITEM 19.

EXHIBITS

101

i

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Various statements contained in this annual report, including those that express a belief, expectation or intention, as well as those that are not statements of historical fact, are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements may include projections and estimates concerning our possible or assumed future results of operations, financial condition, business strategies and plans, market opportunity, competitive position, industry environment, and potential growth opportunities. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may”, “will”, “should”, “believe”, “expect”, “could”, “intend”, “plan”, “anticipate”, “estimate”, “continue”, “predict”, “project”, “potential”, “target,” “goal” or other words that convey the uncertainty of future events or outcomes. You can also identify forward-looking statements by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and assumptions about future events. While our management considers these expectations and assumptions to be reasonable, because forward-looking statements relate to matters that have not yet occurred, they are inherently subject to significant business, competitive, economic, regulatory and other risks, contingencies and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. These and other important factors, including, among others, those discussed in this annual report under the headings “Risk Factors”, “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects”, and “Business Overview” may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements in this annual report. Some of the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements in this annual report include:

our ability to attract and retain customers;
our ability to successfully enter new markets and manage our business expansion;
our ability to develop or acquire new products and services, improve our existing products and services and increase the value of our products and services in a timely and cost-effective manner;
our ability to compete in the relaxation salon market;
our expectations regarding our customer growth rate and the usage of our services;
our ability to increase our revenues and our revenue growth rate;
our ability to timely and effectively scale and adapt our existing technology and network infrastructure;
our ability to successfully acquire and integrate companies and assets;
our ability to respond to national disasters, such as earthquakes and tsunamis, and to global pandemics, such as COVID-19, including the emergence of COVID variants, and its impact on our business and results of operations;
our future business development, results of operations and financial condition; and
the regulatory environment in which we operate.

Given the foregoing risks and uncertainties, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements in this annual report. The forward-looking statements contained in this annual report are not guarantees of future performance and our actual results of operations and financial condition may differ materially from such forward-looking statements. In addition, even if our results of operations and financial condition are consistent with the forward-looking statements in this annual report, they may not be predictive of results or developments in future periods.

Any forward-looking statement that we make in this annual report speaks only as of the date of this annual report. Except as required by law, we do not undertake any obligation to update or revise, or to publicly announce any update or revision to, any of the forward-looking statements in this annual report, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date of this annual report.

1

PART I.

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

A.[Reserved]

B.Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.Risk Factors

RISK FACTORS

We operate in a dynamic and rapidly changing industry that involves numerous risks and uncertainties. You should carefully consider the factors described below, together with all of the other information contained in this annual report, including the audited and unaudited financial statements and the related notes included in this annual report. These risk factors are not presented in the order of importance or probability of occurrence. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. Some statements in this annual report, including statements in the following risk factors, constitute forward-looking statements. Please refer to the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

As used this annual report, the terms “the Company”, “Medirom”, “we”, “our” or “us” may, depending upon the context, refer solely to the Company, to one or more of the Company’s consolidated subsidiaries or to all of them taken as a whole.

Our functional currency and reporting currency is the Japanese yen (which we refer to as “JPY” or“¥”). The terms “dollar,” “USD,” “US$” or “$” refer to U.S. dollars, the legal currency of the United States. Convenience translations included in this annual report of Japanese yen into U.S. dollars have been made at the exchange rate of ¥131.810 = US$1.00, which was the foreign exchange rate on December 30, 2022 as reported by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (which we refer to as the “U.S. Federal Reserve”) in weekly release on January 3, 2023. Historical and current exchange rate information may be found at www.federalreserve.gov/releases/h10/.

Summary Risk Factors

Investing in our company involves significant risks. You should carefully consider all of the information in this annual report before making an investment in our company. These risks include the following:

Risks Related to Our Company and Our Business

Risks and uncertainties related to our Company and our business include, but are not limited to, the following:

We may not achieve our development goals, which could adversely affect our operations and financial results;

2

We are implementing new growth strategies, priorities and initiatives and any inability to execute and evolve our strategy over time could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations;
Sale of our salons could depend heavily on a number of factors, and as a result, our annual revenue from salon sales may vary from year on year;
We are actively expanding mainly in Japan and overseas markets, and we may be adversely affected if Japanese and global economic conditions and financial markets deteriorate;
We have experienced growth in our Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment, however we may not achieve or sustain profitability;
Our system-wide relaxation salon base is geographically concentrated in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, and we could be negatively affected by conditions specific to that region;
Our success depends substantially on the value of our brands;
The failure to enforce and maintain our trademarks and protect our other intellectual property could materially adversely affect our business, including our ability to establish and maintain brand awareness;
We may need to raise additional capital to meet our business requirements in the future, and such capital raising may be costly or difficult to obtain and could dilute current shareholders’ ownership interests;
If we fail to obtain necessary funds for our operations, we will be unable to maintain and improve our services, other businesses, and technology, and we will be unable to develop and commercialize our services, other businesses, and technologies;
Our level of indebtedness could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;
Our outstanding debt agreements may limit our flexibility in operating and expanding our business;
We depend on key members of our management and advisory team and will need to add and retain additional leading experts;
We may suffer losses from liabilities or other claims if our services cause harm to customers;
Our prepaid cards are heavily regulated under Japanese law and violations of the relevant law could subject us to sanctions;
If we or our franchisees face labor shortages or increased labor costs, our results of operations and our growth could be adversely affected;
We are exposed to the risk of natural disasters, unusual weather conditions, pandemic outbreaks such as COVID-19, political events, war and terrorism that could disrupt business and result in lower sales, increased operating costs and capital expenditures;
As we expand our businesses internationally, we will become subject to foreign laws and regulations, and we could be adversely affected by violations of these laws as well as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar worldwide anti-bribery and anti-kickback laws; and
There is a risk that we will be a passive foreign investment company (which we refer to as "PFIC") for the current or any future taxable year, which could result in material adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences if you are a U.S. holder.

3

Risks Related to Our Relationships with Franchisees

Risks and uncertainties related to our relationships with franchisees include, but are not limited to, the following:

The financial performance of our franchisees can negatively impact our business;
We have limited control with respect to the operations of our franchisees, which could have a negative impact on our business;
We rely on franchise agreements that could be breached and may be difficult to enforce, which could result in franchisees improperly managing relaxation salons;
We rely in part on the financial health of our franchisees. If we do not screen and monitor them appropriately, it could adversely affect our operations and financial results if they experience financial hardship;
Franchisee turnover could affect our ability to recruit new franchisees;
Premature termination of franchise agreements can cause losses;
The interests of our franchisees may conflict with ours in the future and we could face liability from our franchisees or related to our relationship with our franchisees; and
We are subject to various Japanese laws that may affect our relationship with our franchisees.

Risks Related to Our Industry

Risks and uncertainties related to our industry include, but are not limited to, the following:

We are vulnerable to changes in consumer preferences and economic conditions that could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow;
We may not be able to compete successfully with other relaxation salon businesses, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations; and
We face significant competition and continuous technological change.

Risks Related to Ownership of the ADSs

Risks and uncertainties related to our ownership of the American Depositary Shares (the “ADSs”) include, but are not limited to, the following:

We are an “emerging growth company” and, as a result of the reduced disclosure and governance requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, our common shares and ADSs may be less attractive to investors;
As a “foreign private issuer” we are permitted, and intend, to follow certain home country corporate governance and other practices instead of otherwise applicable SEC and NASDAQ requirements, which may result in less protection than is accorded to investors under rules applicable to domestic U.S. issuers;
ADSs representing our common shares are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market. As such, we must meet the Nasdaq Capital Market’s continued listing requirements and other Nasdaq rules, or we may risk delisting. Delisting could negatively affect the price of our ADSs, which could make it more difficult for us to sell securities in a financing and for you to sell your ADSs.

4

Our Chief Executive Officer owns a “golden share” with key veto rights, thereby limiting a shareholder’s ability to influence our business and affairs;
The requirements of being a U.S. public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention;
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control to remediate our material weakness over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud;
We cannot assure you that the ADSs will remain liquid or that it will remain listed on NASDAQ;
The price of the ADSs may fluctuate substantially; and
We do not intend to pay dividends on our common shares for the foreseeable future.

Risks Related to Japan

Risks and uncertainties related to Japan include, but are not limited to, the following:

We are incorporated in Japan, and it may be more difficult to enforce judgments against us that are obtained in courts outside of Japan;
Substantially all of our revenues are generated in Japan, but an increase of our international presence could expose us to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, or a change in monetary policy may harm our financial results; and
Rights of shareholders under Japanese law may be different from rights of shareholders in other jurisdictions.

General Risk Factors

Other general risk factors include, but are not limited to, the following:

Third party claims with respect to intellectual property assets, if decided against us, may result in competing uses or require adoption of new, non-infringing intellectual property, which may in turn adversely affect sales and revenues; and
Information technology system failures or breaches of our network security could interrupt our operations and adversely affect our business.

Risks Related to Our Company and Our Business

We may not achieve our development goals, which could adversely affect our operations and financial results.

Our number of relaxation salons was 312 as of December 31, 2022, which remained the same as of December 31, 2021. We opened 11 new salons and closed 11 salons during 2022. We intend to continue our growth either through developing additional directly-operated salons or through new salon development by acquisition, both in existing markets and in new markets, particularly in Japan. Such rapid development involves substantial risks, including the risk of:

the inability to identify suitable franchisees;
limited availability of financing for our Company and for franchisees at acceptable rates and terms;
development costs exceeding budgeted or contracted amounts;

5

delays in completion of construction;
the inability to identify, or the unavailability of, suitable sites at acceptable cost and other leasing or purchase terms;
developed properties not achieving desired revenue or cash flow levels once opened;
the negative impact of a new salon upon sales at nearby existing salons;
the challenge of developing in areas where competitors are more established or have greater penetration or access to suitable development sites;
incurring substantial unrecoverable costs in the event a development project is abandoned prior to completion;
impairment charges resulting from underperforming salons or decisions to curtail or cease investment in certain locations or markets;
in new geographic markets where we have limited or no existing locations, the inability to successfully expand or acquire critical market presence for our brands, acquire name recognition, successfully market our products or attract new customers;
operating cost levels that reduce the demand for, or raise the cost of, developing new salons;
the challenge of identifying, recruiting and training qualified salon management;
the inability to obtain all required permits;
changes in laws, regulations and interpretations; and
general economic and business conditions.

Although we manage our growth and development activities to help reduce such risks, we cannot provide assurance that our present or future growth and development activities will perform in accordance with our expectations. Our inability to expand in accordance with our plans or to manage the risks associated with our growth could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

We are implementing new growth strategies, priorities and initiatives and any inability to execute and evolve our strategy over time could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.

We seek to accelerate the growth of our acquisition model while at the same time improve the performance of directly-operated salons. Our success also depends, in part, on our ability to grow our franchise model, including attracting and retaining qualified franchisees. Our ability to open new relaxation salons is dependent upon a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including our and our franchisees’ ability to:

identify available and suitable relaxation salon sites;
successfully compete for relaxation salon sites;
reach acceptable agreements regarding the lease or purchase of locations;
obtain or have available the financing required to acquire and operate a relaxation salon, including construction and opening costs, which includes access to build-to-suit leases at favorable interest and capitalization rates;
respond to unforeseen engineering or environmental problems with leased premises;

6

avoid the impact of inclement weather, natural disasters and other calamities;
hire, train and retain the skilled management and other employees necessary to meet staffing needs;
obtain, in a timely manner and for an acceptable cost, required licenses, permits and regulatory approvals and respond effectively to any changes in law and regulations that adversely affect our and our franchisees’ costs or ability to open new relaxation salons; and
control construction cost increases for new relaxation salons.

The growth of our acquisition model will take time to execute and may create additional costs, expose us to additional legal and compliance risks, cause disruption to our current business and impact our short-term operating results. Further, in order to enhance services to its franchisees, we may need to invest in certain new capabilities and/or services.

Our success also depends, in part, on our ability to improve sales, as well as both cost of service and product and operating margins at our directly-operated salons. Same-store sales are affected by average ticket and same-store guest visits. A variety of factors affect same-store guest visits, including the guest experience, salon locations, staffing and retention of therapists and salon leaders, price competition, current economic conditions, marketing programs and weather conditions. These factors may cause our same-store sales to differ materially from prior periods and from our expectations.

As part of our longer-term growth strategy, we plan to enter new geographical markets, including the United States and Southeast Asia, where we have little or no prior operating or franchising experience. The challenges of entering new markets include: difficulties in hiring experienced personnel; unfamiliarity with local real estate markets and demographics; consumer unfamiliarity with our brand; and different competitive and economic conditions, consumer tastes and discretionary spending patterns that are more difficult to predict or satisfy than in our existing markets. Consumer recognition of our brand has been important in the success of both directly-operated and franchised relaxation salons in our existing markets. Relaxation salons that we open in new markets may take longer to reach expected sales and profit levels and may have higher construction, occupancy and operating costs than existing relaxation salons, thereby negatively affecting our operating results. Any failure on our part to recognize or respond to these challenges may adversely affect the success of any new relaxation salons. Expanding our franchise system could require the implementation, expense and management of enhanced business support systems, management information systems and financial controls as well as additional staffing, franchise support and capital expenditures and working capital.

Sale of our salons could depend heavily on a number of factors, and as a result, our annual revenue from sale of salons may vary from year on year.

In December 2021, we began implementation of our new strategy to sell certain of our owned salons to investors and charge management fees from such sold salons. We have increased our revenue from salon sales from JPY559 million (US$4.2 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021 to JPY1,123 million (US$8.5 million) for the year ended December 31, 2022. However, our revenue from salon sales will depend on a number of factors including the interest of potential investors, financial market conditions, available interest rates, and expected return of other comparable types of investments, none of which we will have control over. In addition, our management fees from the sold salons will depend on the actual contractual terms subject to our negotiation with potential investors in the future.

Furthermore, our ability to successfully implement this strategy will depend on our ability to maintain highly profitable salons, revitalize less profitable salons, and otherwise keep salons inventory in good level. The failure to continue to implement this growth strategy will adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are actively expanding mainly in Japan and overseas markets, and we may be adversely affected if Japanese and global economic conditions and financial markets deteriorate.

We seek to proactively expand our business overseas in the future including into new regions for us, particularly the United States and Southeast Asia. We also intend to explore growth opportunities in other markets where we

7

assess primarily on low cost of entry, friendly franchising or partnership relationships and believe there is an economic staying power of our relaxation salon brand locally. We remain opportunistic on strategic mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, and partnerships in these international markets. As a result, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially affected by general economic conditions and financial markets in Japan and foreign countries, which would be influenced by the changes of various factors. These factors include fiscal and monetary policies, and laws, regulations and policies on financial markets. In the event of an economic downturn in Japan or the United States, consumer spending habits could be adversely affected, and we could experience lower than expected net sales, which could force us to delay or slow our growth strategy and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, profitability and cash flows. In addition, we could be impacted by labor shortages in Japan or other markets. The deterioration of Japanese and global economic conditions, or financial market turmoil, could result in a worsening of our liquidity and capital conditions, an increase in our credit costs, and, as a result, adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have experienced growth in our Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment, however we may not achieve or sustain profitability.

Over 85% of our revenue is generated in Japan from the Relaxation Salon Segment. Our Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment, such as applications Lav® supporting the Specific Health Guidance Program and our MOTHER Bracelet®, has shown a gradual growth over the years, generating a total revenue of JPY386 million (US$2.9 million) for the fiscal year 2022, as compared to a total revenue of JPY44 milllion (US$0.3 million) for 2021. However, we cannot guarantee that these businesses or any other businesses we develop will achieve or increase market acceptance. The degree of market acceptance of our businesses will depend on a number of factors, including the competitive landscape and the adequacy and success of distribution, sales and marketing efforts. Customers, third party payors or advertisers in general may be unwilling to accept, utilize or recommend any of our businesses.

Furthermore, the manufacturing of our MOTHER Bracelet® involves a number of third parties, including patent license, and we may be adversely affected by business relationships with such third parties or their financial soundness. In particular, the self-charging functionality of our MOTHER Bracelet® is derived from the core semiconductor provided by Matrix Industries, Inc. (“Matrix”), a startup based in California, United States. In addition, we currently rely on third party manufacturer in Japan to manufacture MOTHER Bracelet®. Should a natural disaster, a labor strike, or any other accident or incident occur at the factory or the manufacturer significantly increase the assembly price, our sales or profitability could be adversely affected. As a result, we are unable to predict the extent of future losses or the time required to achieve profitability in that business unit, if at all.

Our system-wide relaxation salon base is geographically concentrated in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, and we could be negatively affected by conditions specific to that region.

Approximately 55.5% of our directly-operated and franchised relaxation salons are located in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan as of December 31, 2022. Adverse changes in demographic, unemployment, economic, regulatory or weather conditions or natural disasters affecting the Kanto region of Japan have had, and may continue to have, material adverse effects on our business. As a result of our concentration in this market, we have been, and in the future may be, disproportionately affected by these adverse conditions compared to other chain relaxation salons with a greater national footprint.

In addition, our competitors could open additional relaxation salons in Kanto region of Japan, which could result in reduced market share for us and may adversely impact our profitability.

We also plan to expand our relaxation salons business in Kansai region in western Japan. We opened three new salons in Kansai region during 2022 and intend to continue exploring more business opportunities in that region. However, there can be no assurance that our growth strategy to geographically expand the business will be successful.

Our success depends substantially on the value of our brands.

Our success is dependent, in large part, upon our ability to maintain and enhance the value of our brands, our customers’ connection to our brands, and a positive relationship with our franchisees. Brand value can be severely damaged even by isolated incidents, particularly if the incidents receive considerable negative publicity, including via social media, or result in litigation. Some of these incidents may relate to the way we manage our relationship

8

with our franchisees, our growth strategies, our development efforts, or the ordinary course of our, or our franchisees’, business. Other incidents may arise from events that are or may be beyond our ability to control and may damage our brands, such as actions taken (or not taken) by one or more franchisees or their employees relating to health, safety, welfare, or otherwise; litigation and claims; security breaches or other fraudulent activities associated with our payment systems; and illegal activity targeted at us or others. Consumer demand for our products and services and our brands’ value could diminish significantly if any such incidents or other matters erode consumer confidence in us or our products or services, which would likely result in lower sales and, ultimately, lower royalty income, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

The failure to enforce and maintain our trademarks and protect our other intellectual property could materially adversely affect our business, including our ability to establish and maintain brand awareness.

We regard our trademarks, trade secrets, know-how, and similar intellectual property as critical to our success. We have registered 38 trademarks as of December 31, 2022, and other names and logos used by our Company as trademarks with the Japan Patent Office, two of which are registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and one of which is registered with the China National Intellectual Property Administration. Our principal intellectual property rights include the trademark “Re.Ra.Ku. ®”, which is our core brand, and the standard character trademark “MOTHER Bracelet®”, copyrights in our website and mobile applications content for MOTHER Bracelet® and Lav®, rights to our domain name https://medirom.co.jp, and https://mother-bracelet.com, trade secrets and know-how with respect to our training, servicing, sales and marketing and other aspects of our business, and our digital innovations such as the MOTHER application and Lav® application. The success of our business strategy depends on our continued ability to use our existing intellectual property in order to increase brand awareness and develop our branded services. If our efforts to protect our intellectual property are not adequate, or if any third party misappropriates or infringes on our intellectual property, whether in print, on the Internet or through other media, the value of our brands may be harmed, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, including the failure of our brands and branded services to achieve and maintain market acceptance. There can be no assurance that all of the steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property in Japan or outside Japan in relevant foreign countries will be adequate. In addition, in light of our intention to expand internationally, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of Japan. If any of our trademarks, trade secrets or other intellectual property are infringed, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

We may need to raise additional capital to meet our business requirements in the future, and such capital raising may be costly or difficult to obtain and could dilute current shareholders' ownership interests.

Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including the speed and geographic area of relaxation salon and other business growth, progress and results of our businesses, the number and development requirements of other business that we pursue, and the costs of commercialization activities, including marketing and sales. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development and commercialization of our businesses, we are unable to reasonably estimate the amounts of increased capital outlays and operating expenditures that our business will require. It is likely that we will need to raise additional funds through public or private debt or equity financings to meet various objectives including, but not limited to:

pursuing growth opportunities;
acquiring complementary businesses;
making capital improvements to our infrastructure;
hiring qualified management and key employees;
responding to competitive pressures;
complying with regulatory requirements; and
maintaining compliance with applicable laws.

9

Any additional capital raised through the sale of equity or equity-linked securities may dilute our current shareholders' ownership in us and could also result in a decrease in the market price of the American Depositary Shares (which we refer to as “ADSs”). The terms of those securities issued by us in future capital transactions may be more favorable to new investors and may include preferences, superior voting rights and the issuance of warrants or other derivative securities, which may have a further dilutive effect. Debt securities convertible into equity could be subject to adjustments in the conversion ratio pursuant to which certain events may increase the number of equity securities issuable upon conversion. Preferred shares, if issued, could have a preference with respect to liquidating distributions or a preference with respect to dividend payments that could limit our ability to pay dividends to the holders of the ADSs.

Furthermore, any debt or equity financing that we may need may not be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. If we are unable to obtain required additional capital, we may have to curtail our growth plans or cut back on existing business, and we may not be able to continue operating if we do not generate sufficient revenues from operations needed to stay in business.

We may incur substantial costs in pursuing future capital financing, including investment banking fees, legal fees, accounting fees, securities law compliance fees, printing and distribution expenses and other costs. We may also be required to recognize non-cash expenses in connection with certain securities we issue, such as convertible notes and warrants, which may adversely impact our financial condition. Thus, holders of the ADSs bear the risk that our future offerings may reduce the market price of the ADSs and dilute their shareholdings in us.

If we fail to obtain necessary funds for our operations, we will be unable to maintain and improve our services, other businesses, and technology, and we will be unable to develop and commercialize our services, other businesses, and technologies.

Our present and future capital requirements depend on many factors, including:

future revenues and profits generated from the expected launch of new services;
the level of research and development investment required to develop our services, and maintain and improve our technology positions;
our ability and willingness to enter into new agreements with strategic partners and the terms of these agreements;
the costs of recruiting and retaining qualified personnel;
the time and costs involved in obtaining regulatory approvals should such be required; and
the costs of filing, prosecuting, defending, and enforcing trademark, patent claims and other intellectual property rights.

If we are unable to obtain the funds necessary for our operations, we will be unable to develop and commercialize our services and technologies, which would materially and adversely affect our business, liquidity and results of operations.

Our level of indebtedness could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The total principal outstanding under our credit facilities as of December 31, 2022 was JPY751,318 thousand (US$5,700 thousand) on a consolidated basis. Additionally, we issued corporate convertible bonds in the aggregate amount of JPY500,000 thousand (US$3,793 thousand) to Kufu Company Inc., a Japanese company, in December 2022. Our indebtedness could have significant effects on our business, such as:

limiting our ability to borrow additional amounts to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service requirements, execution of our growth strategy and other purposes;

10

requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to pay principal and interest on our debt, which would reduce availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, execution of our growth strategy and other general corporate purposes;
making us more vulnerable to adverse changes in general economic, industry and competitive conditions, in government regulation and in our business by limiting our ability to plan for and react to changing conditions;
diluting the economic and voting rights of our existing shareholders or reduce the market price of the ADSs or both upon redemption of the convertible bonds; and
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared with our competitors that have less debt.

In addition, we may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow from our operations to repay our indebtedness when it becomes due and to meet our other cash needs. If we are not able to pay our debts as they become due, we will be required to pursue one or more alternative strategies, such as selling assets, refinancing or restructuring our indebtedness or selling additional debt or equity securities. We may not be able to refinance our debt or sell additional debt or equity securities or our assets on favorable terms, if at all, and if we must sell our assets, it may negatively affect our ability to generate revenues.

Our outstanding debt agreements may limit our flexibility in operating and expanding our business.

As of December 31, 2022, we had a total of 18 loans with five Japanese financial institutions for an aggregate principal amount of JPY751,318 thousand (US$5,700 thousand) on a consolidated basis. None of the loan agreements contain any material financial covenants, although certain of the government-sponsored loans set a limit on the total loan amount we may borrow from other government-sponsored lenders. However, eight of the loan agreements have our Chief Executive Officer as a personal guarantor of such debt obligations of our Company. In addition, Kazuyoshi Takahashi, the representative director of ZACC Kabushiki Kaisha (“ZACC”), is also a guarantor with respect to three out of five corporate loans of ZACC. If we release our Chief Executive Officer or Mr. Takahashi from such a guarantor burden, the lenders may request us to provide them with alternative collateral and/or seek additional negative covenants on the existing loan agreements. This could limit our discretion to invest, utilize, and/or dispose of our assets for business.

In addition, we issued corporate convertible bonds in the aggregate amount of JPY500,000 thousand (US$3,793 thousand) to Kufu Company Inc., a Japanese company, in December 2022. The bonds are unsecured, accrue interest at a rate of 5.0% per annum, payable on June 30, 2023 and semi-annually thereafter, and will mature on December 28, 2027, unless earlier redeemed or converted. At any time between the six-month anniversary date of December 28, 2022 (which may be earlier in case of the limited event provided for in the indenture) and before the close of business on December 28, 2027, Kufu Company Inc., as the bond holder, may convert the bonds at its option, in whole or in part, into our common shares. The bond holder may also exercise its put option to demand the redemption of the bonds by us, in whole or in part, any time after the six-month anniversary date of December 28, 2022. If Kufu Company Inc. elects to convert the bonds into our common shares or demand redemption of the bond prior to the maturity date, our cash flows and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

Furthermore, the potential restrictive covenants to be contained in our existing and future loan agreements may restrict our access to future debt financing, on which our business operations and expansion plans, in part, depend. If our revenues decrease materially or we experience a significant increase in our interest expenses, we may not have enough available cash or be able to raise additional funds on satisfactory terms, if at all, through equity or debt financings to make any required prepayment or repay such indebtedness at the time any such event of default occurs. In such an event, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our business development or expansion efforts. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected as a result.

We depend on key members of our management and advisory team and will need to add and retain additional leading experts.

We are highly dependent on our executive officers, including our Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Kouji Eguchi, our Chief Financial Officer, Mr. Fumitoshi Fujiwara, and other key management and technical personnel. We do not have employment agreements with either Mr. Kouji Eguchi or Mr. Fumitoshi Fujiwara.

11

Furthermore, our ability to manage our salon expansion will require us to continue to train, motivate, and manage our associates. We will need to attract, motivate, and retain additional qualified executive, managerial, and merchandising personnel and salon associates. Competition for this type of personnel is intense, and we may not be successful in attracting, assimilating, and retaining the personnel required to grow and operate our business profitably. We presently maintain a "key person" life insurance policy only for our Chief Executive Officer. There can be no assurance that we will be able to retain our existing personnel, including our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and other key management personnel, or attract additional qualified employees. The loss of key personnel or the inability to hire and retain additional qualified personnel in the future could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.

We may suffer losses from liabilities or other claims if our services cause harm to customers.

Although we screen our customers for major illnesses and injury, our services could potentially cause harm or injury to customers. Unexpected and undesirable side effects caused by our services for which we have not provided sufficient warnings, which may have been performed negligently, could result in the discontinuance of our relaxation services or prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of our services. Such side effects or injury incidents could also expose us to liability lawsuits. We currently maintain a comprehensive general liability policy; however, if any general liability lawsuits or claims are successfully brought against us, we could suffer from increased insurance premiums. Moreover, if damages exceed our policy limits, we may incur substantial financial losses. These claims could cause negative publicity regarding our Company, or brand, which could in turn harm our reputation and net revenue, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, profitability, and cash flows.

Our prepaid cards are heavily regulated under Japanese law and violations of the relevant law could subject us to sanctions.

We began issuing prepaid cards called "Re.Ra.Ku® Cards" to relaxation salon customers on December 1, 2008. Re.Ra.Ku® Card users can continuously use and also replenish the card at most of our Company's relaxation salons. Prepaid cards are generally considered "prepaid payment methods" (which we refer to as "PPMs") under the Act on Settlement of Funds (Act No. 59 of 2009) (which we refer to as the "Settlement Act"). PPMs are regulated under the Settlement Act so long as there is a possibility the cards could be valid for a period of more than six months. The Re.Ra.Ku® Cards do not have expiration dates and therefore are regulated under the Settlement Act. Moreover, the Re.Ra.Ku® Cards can be used at salons operated by franchisees, and because the franchisees are considered third parties for the purposes of the Settlement Act, we fall under the category of a Public Use PPM Provider.

A Public Use PPM Provider must be registered with the relevant Local Financial Bureau and follow rather detailed deposit procedures to assure that there are adequate funds for the individuals who are effectively loaning their money to the Public Use PPM Provider. If we fail to comply with these procedures, there is some possibility that we will be assessed a monetary fine, and in certain circumstances, a member of our Company could face a criminal penalty of imprisonment. If such results were to occur, it could adversely impact our financial results as well as our brand image.

Furthermore, one of the requirements for issuers of prepaid cards under the Settlement Act is to maintain net assets of not less than JPY100 million based on Japanese GAAP. As of December 31, 2022, our net assets have fallen below JPY100 million based on Japanese GAAP on a standalone basis. In early 2022, we failed to meet such standard but were able to recover subsequently. We have recently reported this matter to the Kanto Local Financial Bureau and are currently in consultation with the regulatory authority for administrative guidance. If we fail to show a persuasive plan to rectify the situation in the foreseeable future, our registration granted as the issuer of the prepaid cards may be revoked and we may be required to refund any unused prepaid card balance to customers who have purchased the prepaid cards.

If we or our franchisees face labor shortages or increased labor costs, our results of operations and our growth could be adversely affected.

Labor is a primary component in the cost of operating our directly-operated and franchised relaxation salons. As of December 31, 2022, we had 411 employees on a full-time basis, 520 employees on a part-time basis, and 48 employees on a fixed-term basis. Most of our employees are therapists who provide services at our directly-operated salons and franchised salons. If we or our franchisees face labor shortages or increased labor costs because of

12

increased competition for employees, higher employee-turnover rates, or increases in the relevant minimum wage, change in employment status standards, or other employee benefits costs (including costs associated with health insurance coverage or workers' compensation insurance), our and our franchisees' operating expenses could increase, and our growth could be adversely affected.

If such events occur, we may be unable to increase our prices in order to pass future increased labor costs on to our customers, in which case our margins would be negatively affected. Also, reduced margins of franchisees could make it more difficult to sell franchises. If prices are increased by us and our franchisees to cover increased labor costs, the higher prices could adversely affect transactions which could lower sales and thereby reduce our margins and the royalties that we receive from franchisees.

In addition, our success depends in part upon our and our franchisees' ability to attract, motivate and retain a sufficient number of well-qualified relaxation salon operators, management personnel and other employees, including relaxation therapists. Qualified individuals needed to fill these positions can be in short supply in some geographic areas. In addition, relaxation salons have traditionally experienced relatively high employee turnover rates. Our and our franchisees' ability to recruit and retain such individuals may delay the planned openings of new relaxation salons or result in higher employee turnover in existing relaxation salons, which could increase our and our franchisees' labor costs and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. If we or our franchisees are unable to recruit and retain sufficiently qualified individuals, our business and our growth could be adversely affected. Competition for these employees could require us or our franchisees to pay higher wages, which would also result in higher labor costs and adversely affect our results of operation.

We are exposed to the risk of natural disasters, unusual weather conditions, pandemic outbreaks such as COVID-19, political events, war and terrorism that could disrupt business and result in lower sales, increased operating costs and capital expenditures.

Our headquarters, directly-operated and franchised relaxation salon locations and other businesses, as well as certain of our vendors and customers, are located in areas which have been and could be subject to natural disasters such as floods, typhoons, tsunamis, tornadoes, fires or earthquakes, as well as global pandemics such as COVID-19. Adverse weather conditions or other extreme changes in the weather, including resulting electrical and technological failures and even nuclear leaks, as a result of the concentration of our relaxation salons, may disrupt our and our franchisees' business and may adversely affect our and our franchisees' ability to sell services. Our business may be harmed if our or our franchisees' ability to sell services is impacted by any such events, any of which could influence customer trends and purchases and negatively impact our and our franchisees' revenues, properties or operations.

While the Omicron variant had a continuously negative impact on us in the first quarter from January to March 2022, we have shown signs of normalization in our business in the rest of 2022. We believe our relaxation salons may return to ordinary operations at the pre-COVID-19 level soon. However, the risk of a resurgence still exists, and if that happens, our business could be materially adversely affected by government-driven or voluntary closure of workplaces and public spaces, the general public’s reluctance or inability to commute on public transportation, shop, or enjoy outdoor leisure activities, and other COVID-related measures and restrictions.

In addition, if we experience the effects of other events, such as natural or other disasters, we could suffer physical damage to one or more of our or our franchisees' properties, the temporary closure of some or all of our directly-operated relaxation salons and franchised relaxation salons, the temporary lack of an adequate work force in a market, temporary or long-term disruption in the transport of goods, delay in the delivery of goods and supplies to our directly-operated and franchised relaxation salons, disruption of our technology support or information systems, or fuel or electricity shortages or dramatic increases in fuel or electricity prices, all of which would increase the cost of doing business. These events also could have indirect consequences such as increases in the costs of insurance or taxes if they result in significant loss of property or other insurable damage. Any of these factors, or any combination thereof, could adversely affect our operations and our financial results.

13

As we expand our businesses internationally, we will become subject to foreign laws and regulations, and we could be adversely affected by violations of these laws as well as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar worldwide anti-bribery and anti-kickback laws.

As we expand our business in Japan and other parts of the world, including in the United States in the future, we become subject to risks customarily associated with such global operations, including the complexity of laws, regulations, and markets in the countries in which we operate; the uncertainty of enforcement of remedies in certain jurisdictions; the effect of currency exchange rate fluctuations; export control laws; the impact of foreign labor laws and disputes; the ability to attract and retain key personnel; the economic, tax, and regulatory policies of local governments; compliance with applicable anti-money laundering, anti-bribery, and anti-corruption laws, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws that generally prohibit persons and companies and their agents from offering, promising, authorizing, or making improper payments to foreign government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business; and compliance with applicable sanctions regimes regarding dealings with certain persons or countries. Certain of these laws also contain provisions that require accurate recordkeeping and further require companies to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in preventing our franchisees or other agents from taking actions in violation of these foreign laws or regulations. Such violations, or allegations of such violations, could disrupt our business and result in a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

There is a risk that we will be a passive foreign investment company (which we refer to as "PFIC") for the current or any future taxable year, which could result in material adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences if you are a U.S. holder.

A non-U.S. corporation, such as our Company, is classified as a PFIC for any taxable year in which, after applying relevant look-through rules with respect to the income and assets of its subsidiaries, either: (i) 50% or more of the value of the corporation's assets either produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income, based on the quarterly average of the fair market value of such assets; or (ii) at least 75% of the corporation's gross income is passive income. "Passive income" generally includes, for example, dividends, interest, certain rents and royalties, certain gains from the sale of stock and securities, and certain gains from commodities transactions. In determining the value and composition of our assets, cash will generally be considered to be held for the production of passive income and thus will be considered a passive asset.

The determination of whether a corporation is a PFIC for a taxable year depends, in part, on the application of complex U.S. federal income tax rules that are subject to differing interpretations. In addition, the determination of whether a corporation will be a PFIC for any taxable year can only be made after the close of such taxable year. Our Furthermore, because we may value our goodwill based on the market price of the ADSs, a decrease in the market price of our ADSs may also cause us to be classified as a PFIC for the current or any future taxable year. Based upon the foregoing, it is uncertain whether we will be a PFIC for our current taxable year or any future taxable year.

If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. holder (as defined below) owns common shares or ADSs, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to such U.S. holder. See "Item 10.E. Taxation—Certain U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders" for further information. We have not determined, if we were to be classified as a PFIC for a taxable year, whether we will provide information necessary for a U.S. holder to make a "qualified electing fund" election which, if available, would result in tax treatment different from (and generally less adverse than) the general tax treatment for PFICs. Accordingly, U.S. holders should assume that they will not be able to make a qualified electing fund election with respect to the common shares or ADSs. The PFIC rules are complex, and each U.S. holder should consult its own tax advisor regarding the PFIC rules, the elections which may be available to it, and how the PFIC rules may affect the U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to the ownership and disposition of our common shares or ADSs.

Risks Related to Our Relationships with Franchisees

The financial performance of our franchisees can negatively impact our business.

Approximately 36.2% of our relaxation salons were franchised locations as of December 31, 2022. We derive revenues associated with our franchised locations from royalty fees and other fees to franchised locations. Our financial results are therefore dependent in part upon the operational and financial success of our franchisees. We have established operational standards and guidelines for our franchisees; however, we have limited control over

14

how our franchisees' businesses are run. While we are responsible for ensuring the success of our entire system of relaxation salons and for taking a longer-term view with respect to system improvements, our franchisees have individual business strategies and objectives, which might conflict with our interests. Our franchisees may not be able to secure adequate financing to continue operating their relaxation salons. If they incur too much debt or if economic or sales trends deteriorate such that they are unable to repay existing debt, our franchisees could experience financial distress or even bankruptcy. If a significant number of franchisees become financially distressed, it could harm our operating results through reduced royalty revenues, and the impact on our profitability could be greater than the percentage decrease in the royalty revenues. Closure of franchised relaxation salons would reduce our royalty revenues and could negatively impact margins, because we may not be able to reduce fixed costs which we continue to incur.

We have limited control with respect to the operations of our franchisees, which could have a negative impact on our business.

Franchisees are independent business operators and are not our employees. Though we have established operational standards and guidelines, they own, operate and oversee the daily operations of their salon locations. We provide training and support to franchisees and set and monitor operational standards, but the quality of franchised relaxation salons may be diminished by any number of factors beyond our control. Consequently, franchisees may not successfully operate relaxation salons in a manner consistent with our standards and requirements or may not hire and train qualified managers and other relaxation salon personnel, including relaxation therapists. If franchisees do not operate to our expectations, our image and reputation, and the image and reputation of other franchisees, may suffer materially, and franchise-wide sales could decline significantly, which would reduce our royalty revenues, and the impact on profitability could be greater than the percentage decrease in royalties and fees.

In addition, our franchisees are subject to the same general economic risks as our Company, and their results are influenced by competition for both guests and therapists, market trends, price competition and disruptions in their markets due to severe weather and other external events. Like us, they rely on external vendors for some critical functions and to protect their company data. They may also be limited in their ability to open new locations by an inability to secure adequate financing, especially since many of them are small businesses with much more limited access to financing than our Company, or by the limited supply of favorable real estate for new salon locations. They may experience financial distress as a result of over-leveraging, which could negatively affect our operating results as a result of delayed payments to us.

We rely on franchise agreements that could be breached and may be difficult to enforce, which could result in franchisees improperly managing relaxation salons.

Although we believe that we take reasonable steps to protect the quality of services provided at our franchised locations, including the use of franchise agreements with detailed and rigorous obligations on the part of franchisees, the agreements can be difficult and costly to enforce. Although we seek to require strict adherence to properly structured franchise agreements, disputes may arise related to revenue, financing, or intellectual property rights associated with our franchise. If a dispute arises, a court may determine that a third party's rights were infringed. In addition, enforcement of our rights can be costly and unpredictable. We also rely on trade secrets and proprietary know-how that we seek to protect in part by confidentiality agreements with our franchisees, employees, contractors, consultants, advisors or others. Despite the protective measures we employ, we still face the risks that:

-these agreements may be breached;
-these agreements may not provide adequate remedies for the applicable type of breach;
-our trade secrets or proprietary know-how will otherwise become known; and
-our competitors will independently develop similar technology or proprietary information.

We rely in part on the financial health of our franchisees. If we do not screen and monitor them appropriately, it could adversely affect our operations and financial results if they experience financial hardship.

We rely in part on our franchisees and the manner in which they operate their locations to develop and promote our business. It is possible that some franchisees could under-report sales, file for bankruptcy or become delinquent

15

in their payments to us, which could have a significant adverse impact on our business due to loss or delay in payments of royalties and other fees. Bankruptcies by our franchisees could negatively impact our market share and operating results as we may have fewer well-performing relaxation salons, and adversely impact our ability to attract new franchisees.

Although we have developed criteria to evaluate and screen prospective franchisees, we cannot be certain that the franchisees we select will have the business acumen or financial resources necessary to open and sustainably operate successful franchises in their franchise areas, and Japanese contract laws may limit our ability to terminate or modify these franchise arrangements. Moreover, franchisees may not hire qualified managers or may not successfully operate relaxation salons in a manner consistent with our standards and requirements. The failure of developers and franchisees to open and operate franchises successfully could have a material adverse effect on us, our reputation, our brand and our ability to attract prospective franchisees and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Franchisees may not have access to the financial or management resources that they need to open the relaxation salons contemplated by their agreements with us. Franchisees may not be able to negotiate acceptable lease or purchase terms for relaxation salon sites, obtain the necessary permits and government approvals or meet construction schedules. Any of these problems could slow our growth and reduce our franchise revenues. Additionally, our franchisees typically depend on financing from banks and other financial institutions, which may not always be available to them, in order to construct and open new relaxation salons. For these reasons, franchisees may not be able to meet the new relaxation salon opening dates required under franchise agreements.

Franchisee turnover could affect our ability to recruit new franchisees.

Although we make great efforts with the aid of our franchise support team to help franchisees who run into difficulties, we may suffer from franchisee retention. Low franchisee retention could harm our image and deter prospective franchisees. If franchisee turnover increases and we begin to struggle to recruit new franchisees to take over relinquished salon locations or establish new ones, such an occurrence could harm our financial results.

Premature termination of franchise agreements can cause losses.

Our franchise agreements may be subject to premature termination in certain circumstances, such as failure of a franchisee to cure a monetary default or abandonment of the franchise. If terminations occur for this or other reasons, we may need to enforce our right to damages for breach of contract and related claims, which may cause us to incur significant legal fees and expenses and/or to take back and operate such salons as directly-operated. Any damages we ultimately collect could be less than the projected future value of the fees and other amounts we would have otherwise collected under the franchise agreement. In addition, with many of our brands, we remain liable under the lease and, therefore, will be obligated to pay rent or enter into a settlement with the landlord, and we may not be made whole by the franchisee. A significant loss of franchise agreements due to premature terminations could hurt our financial performance or our ability to grow our business.

The interests of our franchisees may conflict with ours in the future and we could face liability from our franchisees or related to our relationship with our franchisees.

Franchisees, as independent business operators, may from time to time disagree with us and our strategies regarding the business or our interpretation of our respective rights and obligations under the respective franchise agreements and the terms and conditions of the franchisee/franchisor relationship. This may lead to disputes with our franchisees, and we expect such disputes to occur from time to time in the future as we continue to offer franchises. Such disputes may result in legal action against us. To the extent we have such disputes, the attention, time and financial resources of our management and our franchisees will be diverted from our relaxation salons and other businesses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows even if we have a successful outcome in the dispute.

We are subject to various Japanese laws that may affect our relationship with our franchisees.

Various Japanese laws govern our relationship with our franchisees and our potential sale of a franchise. A franchisee and/or a government agency may bring legal action against us based on the franchisee/franchisor

16

relationships that could result in the award of damages to franchisees and/or the imposition of fines or other penalties against us.

The Act on Prohibition of Private Monopolization and Maintenance of Fair Trade (Act No. 54 of 1947, as amended) (which we refer to as the "Antimonopoly Act") prohibits any activities that inappropriately induce or mislead customers to enter into a business relationship by demonstrating seemingly preferable trade terms and conditions that could create a false impression over other competitor franchisors. The Japan Fair Trade Commission (which we refer to as the "JFTC"), which enforces the Antimonopoly Act and other Japanese antitrust laws, set forth "Guidelines Concerning the Franchise System Under the Antimonopoly Act" which suggest that a franchisor adequately disclose and explain material trade terms to a potential franchisee (willing to join the franchise relationship) to prevent any material terms and conditions inappropriately inducing or misleading such potential franchisee. In addition, when a franchisor markets its franchise, in the event a franchisor provides a prospective franchisee with an estimate of the revenue or profit that might possibly be earned upon becoming a franchisee, such estimated revenue or profit must be based on a reasonable method of calculation and established facts, such as the results of an existing franchise operating in a similar environment. The franchisor is required to present to the prospective franchisee such methods and facts. If the JFTC finds that any of our activities violate the Antimonopoly Act, including any "deceptive customer inducement", then the JFTC may order us to cease and desist from engaging in such unlawful activities, delete any relevant unlawful clauses from the franchise contract, or carry out any other measures necessary to eliminate such unlawful activities.

In the event the JFTC suspects any violation of the Antimonopoly Act or alleges our Company has misled or wrongly induced based on any particular trade terms, our Company could be exposed to risks including governmental action against our Company.

Risks Related to Our Industry

We are vulnerable to changes in consumer preferences and economic conditions that could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow.

Relaxation salon businesses depend on discretionary consumer spending and are often affected by changes in consumer tastes, national, regional and local economic conditions, and demographic trends. Factors such as traffic patterns, weather, local demographics, and the type, number and locations of competing salons may adversely affect the performance of individual locations. In addition, economic downturns, rapid inflation, tight labor market conditions and the resulting increase of general wage levels and increases in salon lease expenses could harm the relaxation industry in general and our relaxation salon locations in particular. Adverse changes in any of these factors could reduce consumer traffic or impose practical limits on pricing that could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow. There can be no assurance that consumers will continue to regard our brand of relaxation salons favorably or that we will be able to develop new services that appeal to consumer preferences. Our business, financial condition and results of operations depend in part on our ability to anticipate, identify and respond to changing consumer preferences and economic conditions. If we are unable to adapt to changes in consumer preferences and trends, we may lose customers and our revenues may decline.

We may not be able to compete successfully with other relaxation salon businesses, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

We may not be able to compete successfully with other relaxation salon businesses. Intense competition in the relaxation industry could make it more difficult to expand our business and could also have a negative impact on our operating results if customers favor our competitors, or if we are forced to change our pricing and other marketing strategies.

The relaxation industry, particularly in Japan, is intensely competitive. In addition, the Tokyo metropolitan area (consisting of Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba) of Japan, the primary market in which we compete, contains what we believe to be the most competitive relaxation services market in Japan. We expect competition in this market to continue to be intense because relaxation salons are comparatively inexpensive to start and operate, and new competitors are regularly entering the market. Competition in our industry is primarily based on price, convenience, quality of service, brand recognition, and location of the relaxation salons. If our directly-operated and franchised relaxation salons cannot compete successfully with other relaxation salon companies in new and existing markets, we could lose customers and our revenues could decline. Our directly-operated and franchised relaxation

17

salons compete with national and regional relaxation salon chains for customers, relaxation salon locations and qualified management and other staff, including licensed relaxation therapists. Some of our competitors may have substantially greater financial and other resources, may have been in business longer, may have greater brand recognition, or may be better established in the markets where our relaxation salons are located or are planned to be located. Any of these competitive factors may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We face significant competition and continuous technological change.

In our Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment, if our competitors develop and commercialize services faster than we do or develop and commercialize services that are superior to ours, our commercial opportunities will be reduced or eliminated. The extent to which any of our services achieve market acceptance will depend on competitive factors, many of which are beyond our control. Competition in the relaxation and health technology industries is intense. Our main competitors in the Specific Health Guidance Program, promoted by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan, include SOMPO Health Support Inc,, Benefit One Inc., and FitsPlus Inc.

Negative publicity could reduce sales at some or all of our relaxation salons.

Although we actively screen all personnel and staff members, including relaxation therapists, who interact with customers, we cannot guarantee that our staff or customers will not engage in illegal or inappropriate behavior that could have a negative effect on our brand image, as well as the health and well-being of our customers or staff, as the case may be. In addition, negative publicity may adversely affect us, regardless of whether the allegations are valid or whether we are held to be responsible. Any such negative impact of adverse publicity relating to one relaxation salon may extend far beyond the relaxation salon involved, especially due to the high geographic concentration of many of our relaxation salons, to affect some or all of our other relaxation salons, including our franchised relaxation salons. The risk of negative publicity is particularly great with respect to our franchised relaxation salons because we are limited in the manner in which we can regulate them, especially on a real-time basis, and negative publicity from our franchised relaxation salons may also significantly impact directly-operated relaxation salons. In addition, the relaxation industry can often be held under legal and legislative scrutiny as a result of some fringe relaxation businesses that engage in illegal or anti-social activities.

Employee claims against us based on, among other things, wage and hour violations, discrimination, harassment, wrongful termination, or similar claims may also create not only legal and financial liability but negative publicity that could adversely affect us and divert our financial and management resources that would otherwise be used to benefit the future performance of our operations. Certain of these types of employee claims, such as tort claims, could be asserted against us by employees of our franchisees. A significant increase in the number of these claims or an increase in the number of successful claims could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We are potentially subject to government regulations, and we may experience delays in obtaining required regulatory approvals, if required, to market our proposed businesses.

Various aspects of our operations are or may become subject to Japanese law or the laws of another relevant country or jurisdiction, any of which may change from time to time. Costs arising out of any regulatory developments could be time-consuming, expensive and could divert management resources and attention and, consequently, could adversely affect our business operations and financial performance.

Delays in regulatory clearance, approval, limitations in regulatory approval and withdrawals of regulatory approval, if any are required, may have a negative impact on our results. If we experience significant delays in obtaining any regulatory approvals, our business development costs will increase and or our ability to commercialize future businesses will be adversely affected.

18

Risks Related to Ownership of the ADSs

We are an "emerging growth company" and, as a result of the reduced disclosure and governance requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, our common shares and ADSs may be less attractive to investors.

We are an "emerging growth company," as defined in the U.S. Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (which we refer to as the "JOBS Act "), and we are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies but not to emerging growth companies, including, but not limited to, an exemption from the auditor attestation requirement of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (which we refer to as the "Sarbanes-Oxley Act"), reduced disclosure about executive compensation arrangements, no requirement to seek non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements, and not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding a supplement to the auditor's report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements. We have elected to adopt these reduced disclosure requirements.

Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a registration statement declared effective under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (which we refer to as the "Securities Act"), or do not have a class of securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (which we refer to as the "Exchange Act")) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an "emerging growth company" can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act for complying with new or revised financial accounting standards. An emerging growth company can, therefore, delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards under Section 102(b)(2) of the JOBS Act. This election allows us to delay the adoption of new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until those standards apply to private companies. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates.

We would cease to be an "emerging growth company" upon the earliest of (i) December 31, 2025, (ii) the last day of the fiscal year during which our annual gross revenues are US$1.07 billion or more, (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than US$1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities, or (iv) as of the end of any fiscal year in which the market value of our common shares held by non-affiliates exceeded US$700 million as of the end of the second quarter of that fiscal year (and we have been a public company for at least 12 months and have filed at least one annual report on Form 20-F).

We cannot predict if investors will find the ADSs less attractive as a result of our taking advantage of these exemptions. If some investors find the ADSs less attractive as a result of our choices, there may be a less active trading market for the ADSs and our stock price may be more volatile.

As a "foreign private issuer" we are permitted, and intend, to follow certain home country corporate governance and other practices instead of otherwise applicable SEC and NASDAQ requirements, which may result in less protection than is accorded to investors under rules applicable to domestic U.S. issuers.

Our status as a foreign private issuer exempts us from compliance with certain SEC laws and regulations and certain regulations of The Nasdaq Capital Market (which we refer to as "NASDAQ"), including certain governance requirements such as independent director oversight of the nomination of directors and executive compensation. Further, consistent with corporate governance practices in Japan, we do not have a standalone compensation committee or nomination and corporate governance committee under our board. In addition, we are not required under the Exchange Act to file current reports and financial statements with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (which we refer to as the "SEC") as frequently or as promptly as U.S. domestic companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act, and we are generally exempt from filing quarterly reports with the SEC. Also, we are not required to provide the same executive compensation disclosures regarding the annual compensation of our five most highly compensated senior executives on an individual basis as are required of U.S. domestic issuers. As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to disclose executive compensation on an aggregate basis and need not supply a Compensation Discussion & Analysis, as is required for domestic companies. Furthermore, as a foreign private issuer, we are also not subject to the requirements of Regulation FD (Fair

19

Disclosure) promulgated under the Exchange Act. These exemptions and accommodations will reduce the frequency and scope of information and protections to which you are entitled as an investor.

ADSs representing our common shares are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market. As such, we must meet the Nasdaq Capital Market’s continued listing requirements and other Nasdaq rules, or we may risk delisting. Delisting could negatively affect the price of our ADSs, which could make it more difficult for us to sell securities in a financing and for you to sell your ADSs.

ADSs representing our common shares are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market. As such, we are required to meet the continued listing requirements of the Nasdaq Capital Market and other Nasdaq rules, including those regarding director independence and independent committee requirements, minimum shareholders’ equity, minimum share price and certain other corporate governance requirements. In particular, we are required to maintain at least $35 million market value of listed securities requirement set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(2).

As previously disclosed in a report on Form 6-K filed with the SEC on December 30, 2022, we received a written notice from Nasdaq’s Listing Qualifications Department notifying us that, based upon our non-compliance with the $35 million market value of listed securities requirement set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(2) as of December 27, 2022, our ADSs were to be suspended from trading on and delisted from Nasdaq. On January 3, 2023 we requested a hearing before a Nasdaq Hearings Panel (the “Panel”) to appeal the delisting determination, which hearing was granted and held on February 16, 2023. On March 15, 2023, we received a written notice from the Panel granting our request for continued listing on Nasdaq until May 1, 2023, subject to evidencing compliance by such date with the net income standard set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(3), which requires a minimum net income from continuing operations of $500,000 in the most recently completed fiscal year or two of the last three most recently completed fiscal years. On April 28, 2023, we received a written notice from the Panel granting our request for an extension until May 19, 2023 to demonstrate compliance with the net income standard. On May 2023, we received a written determination from the Panel granting our request for a further extension until May 30, 2023 to demonstrate compliance with the net income standard, and a written notice from Nasdaq notifying us that we were not in compliance with the periodic filing requirements for continued listing set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5250(c)(1) due to the delay in the filing of this Annual Report. Our net income for the year ended December 31, 2022 is $1.1 million, as included in the audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report. While we expect to regain compliance with the Nasdaq listing standards, there is no assurance that we will remain in compliance with the listing requirements of Nasdaq in the future. We cannot guarantee that any actions we take to prevent future non-compliance or to regain compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements in the future will be successful.

If we do not meet these continued listing requirements, our ADSs could be delisted. Delisting of our ADSs from the Nasdaq Capital Market would cause us to pursue eligibility for trading on other markets or exchanges, or on the pink sheets. In such case, our shareholders’ ability to trade, or obtain quotations of the market value of, our ADSs would be severely limited because of lower trading volumes and transaction delays. These factors could contribute to lower prices and larger spreads in the bid and ask prices for our securities. There can be no assurance that our ADSs, if delisted from the Nasdaq Capital Market in the future, would be listed on a national securities exchange, a national quotation service, the Over-The-Counter Markets or the pink sheets. Delisting from the Nasdaq Capital Market, or even the issuance of a notice of potential delisting, would also result in negative publicity, make it more difficult for us to raise additional capital, adversely affect the market liquidity of our common shares, reduce security analysts’ coverage of us and diminish investor, supplier and employee confidence. Additionally, the threat of delisting or a delisting of our ADSs from the Nasdaq Capital Market could reduce the number of investors willing to hold or acquire our common shares, thereby further restricting our ability to obtain equity financing, and it could reduce our ability to retain, attract and motivate our directors, officers and employees. In addition, as a consequence of any such delisting, our share price could be negatively affected and our shareholders would likely find it more difficult to sell, or to obtain accurate quotations as to the prices of, our ADSs.

Our Chief Executive Officer owns a "golden share" with key veto rights, thereby limiting a shareholder's ability to influence our business and affairs.

Kouji Eguchi, our Chief Executive Officer and director, is the sole holder of our Class A common share, which we refer to as a "golden share," entitling him to certain veto rights on key matters presented to our shareholders. Consequently, Mr. Eguchi is able to control key corporate decisions, thus limiting the ability of the holders of the ADSs to influence matters affecting our Company. As a shareholder, Mr. Eguchi may be able to influence the

20

outcome of matters submitted to shareholders for approval, including amendments of our organizational documents, issuance of additional common shares, approval of any merger, sale of assets, or other major corporate transactions. This may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our common shares or ADSs that you may feel are in your best interest as one of our shareholders. Circumstances may occur in which the interests of our Chief Executive Officer could be in conflict with your interests or the interests of other shareholders. Accordingly, a shareholder's ability to fully influence our business and affairs through voting its common shares may be limited.

The requirements of being a U.S. public company may strain our resources and divert management's attention.

As a public company with ADSs listed on NASDAQ, we incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, and the listing standards of NASDAQ as applicable to a foreign private issuer, which are different in some material respects from those required for a U.S. public company, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. Compliance with these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly, and increase demand on our systems and resources, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” Further, these rules and regulations may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage, which could make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors.

Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, once we are no longer an emerging growth company, we may be required to furnish an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. When our independent registered public accounting firm is required to undertake an assessment of our internal control over financial reporting, the cost of complying with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act will significantly increase, and management's attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. We may need to hire more employees in the future or engage outside consultants to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which will further increase our cost and expense. In addition, enhanced legal and regulatory regimes and heightened standards relating to corporate governance and disclosure for public companies result in increased legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming.

As a result of disclosure of information in this annual report and in filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition will become more visible, which may result in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors, shareholders or third parties. If such claims are successful, our business and operating results could be harmed, and even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control to remediate our material weakness over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud.

In connection with the preparation of our financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, we have identified several material weaknesses and other control deficiencies including significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. As defined in the standards established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of the United States, or PCAOB, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. As of and for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, we have identified material weaknesses in our financial reporting related to the following:

delay in updating the group level accounting policies. We are still in the process of updating our group level accounting policies to conform to the latest accounting standards under the U.S. GAAP). As such, we have not disseminate these policies on a timely basis.
lack of segregation of duties for sufficient review or approvals in the financial reporting process. In particular, we identified a lack of segregation of duties for the financial reporting process in ZACC, a

21

subsidiary which the Company acquired in 2021.
lack of evidence for reviews and approvals. Even in the situation where the appropriate person reviewed or approved the information prepared by staff, no or insufficient evidence has been recorded.
lack of adequate control designs and operations over financial reporting for new businesses, such as for the sales and purchase processes in connection with our MOTHER Bracelet®, as well as the acquisition process of salons from our franchisees and the sales processes of our own branded salons to investors.

We have already taken some steps and have continued to implement measures to remediate the material weaknesses identified, including but not limited to, (i) updating and designing the group level accounting policies to be disseminated to our Company including our subsidiaries, (ii) providing more internal resources and educating our contractors to design and implement sufficient review and approval processes, (iii) designing business process that includes sufficient internal controls for the new businesses such as MOTHER Bracelet®, as well as the acquisitions and sales of our own branded salons.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (which we refer to as “Section 404”), requires that as a U.S. public company, we assess the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting at the end of each fiscal year. In addition, once we cease to be an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal control or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, our reporting obligations may place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. We may be unable to timely complete our evaluation testing and any required remediation.

We cannot assure you that our remedial measures will successfully remediate the material weaknesses identified so far, or that other material weaknesses will not be discovered in the future. In addition, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404. If we fail to maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations, and lead to a decline in the trading price of the ADSs. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from NASDAQ, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions. We may also be required to restate our financial statements for prior periods.

We cannot assure you that the ADSs will remain liquid or that they will remain listed on NASDAQ.

Our ADSs representing our common shares are listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market; however, we cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain such listing. In addition, if we fail to meet the criteria set forth in SEC regulations, various requirements would be imposed by law on broker-dealers who sell our securities to persons other than established customers and accredited investors. Consequently, such regulations may deter broker-dealers from recommending or selling ADSs representing our common shares, which may further affect the liquidity of the ADSs. This would also make it more difficult for us to raise additional capital or attract qualified employees or partners.

Although the ADSs are currently listed on NASDAQ under the symbol “MRM”, an active trading market for the ADSs may never develop or be sustained. If an active trading market does not develop or is not sustained, you may have difficulty selling your ADSs at an attractive price, or at all. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling our common shares or ADSs, and it may impair our ability to attract and motivate our employees through equity incentive awards and our ability to acquire other companies, products or technologies by using our common shares or ADSs as consideration.

22

The price of the ADSs may fluctuate substantially.

The stock market in general, and the price for the ADSs are subject to fluctuation, and changes in the price of our ADSs may be unrelated to our operating performance. Some factors that may cause the market price of the ADSs to fluctuate, in addition to the other risks mentioned in this section of the annual report, are:

-any failure to meet or exceed revenue and financial projections we provide to the public;
-actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly financial condition and operating results or those of other companies in our industry;
-our failure to meet or exceed the estimates and projections of the investment community;
-announcements of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by us or our competitors;
-additions or departures of our key management personnel;
-issuances by us of debt or equity securities;
-litigation involving our Company, including shareholder litigation; investigations or audits by regulators into the operations of our Company; or proceedings initiated by our competitors, franchisees, or customers;
-changes in the market valuations of similar companies;
-ADS price and volume fluctuations attributable to inconsistent trading volume levels of the ADSs;
-significant sales of the ADSs or common shares by our insiders or our shareholders in the future;
-the trading volume of the ADSs in the United States; and
-general economic and market conditions.

These and other market and industry factors may cause the market price and demand for the ADSs to fluctuate substantially, regardless of our actual operating performance, which may limit or prevent investors from readily selling their ADSs and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of the ADSs. Future market fluctuations may also materially adversely affect the market price of the ADSs.

In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company's securities, shareholders have often instituted securities class action litigation against that company. Any such class action suit or other securities litigation would divert the attention of our senior management, require us to incur significant expense and, whether or not adversely determined, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We do not currently intend to pay dividends on our common shares for the foreseeable future.

We currently do not intend to pay any dividends to holders of our common shares for the foreseeable future. We currently intend to invest our future earnings, if any, to fund our growth. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors and subject to limitations under applicable law. Therefore, you are not likely to receive any dividends on your ADSs for the foreseeable future, and the success of an investment in the ADSs will depend upon any future appreciation in its value. Moreover, any ability to pay may be restricted by the terms of any future credit agreement or any future debt or preferred equity securities of us or our subsidiaries. Consequently, investors may need to sell all or part of their holdings of our common shares after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment. There is no guarantee that the ADSs will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which our shareholders have purchased the ADSs.

23

The future issuance of additional common shares in connection with our stock option plan, convertible bonds, acquisitions or otherwise may adversely affect the market of the ADSs.

As of December 31, 2022, we had an aggregate of 596,750 common shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options, at a weighted average exercise price of JPY857 (US$7.44) per share. If and when these options are exercised for our common shares, the number of common shares outstanding will increase. Such an increase in our outstanding securities, and any sales of such shares, could have a material adverse effect on the market for the ADSs, and the market price of the ADSs.

We provide a stock option plan for our Company's directors, internal corporate auditors, employees and external consultants. We currently plan to continue granting stock options and other incentives so that we can continue to secure talented personnel in the future. We may issue all of these common shares without any further action or approval by our shareholders, subject to certain exceptions. Any common shares, issued in connection with our stock option plan, the exercise of outstanding stock options, or otherwise, would dilute your ownership interest.

The right of holders of ADSs to participate in any future rights offerings may be limited, which may cause dilution to their holdings and holders of ADSs may not receive cash dividends if it is impractical to make them available to them.

We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. However, we cannot make any such rights available to the ADS holders in the United States unless we register such rights and the securities to which such rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. In addition, the deposit agreement provides that the depositary bank will not make rights available to ADS holders unless the distribution to ADS holders of both the rights and any related securities are either registered under the Securities Act or exempted from registration under the Securities Act. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective. Moreover, we may not be able to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act.

The depositary has agreed to pay ADS holders the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our common shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. However, because of these deductions, ADS holders may receive less, on a per share basis with respect to their ADSs than they would if they owned the number of shares or other deposited securities directly. ADSs holders will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of common shares the ADSs represent. In addition, the depositary may, at its discretion, decide that it is not lawful or practical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, the depositary may determine that it is not practicable to distribute certain property through the mail, or that the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may decide not to distribute such property and ADS holders will not receive such distribution.

Holders of ADSs may be subject to limitations on transfer of their ADSs.

ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deems it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

We may amend the deposit agreement without consent from holders of ADSs and, if such holders disagree with our amendments, their choices will be limited to selling the ADSs or withdrawing the underlying common shares.

We may agree with the depositary to amend the deposit agreement without consent from holders of ADSs. If an amendment increases fees to be charged to ADS holders or prejudices a material right of ADS holders, it will not become effective until 30 days after the depositary notifies ADS holders of the amendment. At the time an amendment becomes effective, ADS holders are considered, by continuing to hold their ADSs, to have agreed to the amendment and to be bound by the amended deposit agreement. If holders of ADSs do not agree with an amendment to the deposit agreement, their choices will be limited to selling the ADSs or withdrawing the

24

underlying common shares. No assurance can be given that a sale of ADSs could be made at a price satisfactory to the holder in such circumstances.

Holders of ADSs may not receive distributions on our common shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to such holders.

The depositary of ADSs has agreed to pay holders of ADSs the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian for the ADSs receives on common shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. Holders of ADSs will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of our common shares that such ADSs represent. However, the depositary is not responsible for making such payments or distributions if it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, it would be unlawful to make a distribution to a holder of ADSs if it consists of securities that require registration under the Securities Act, but that are not properly registered or distributed pursuant to an applicable exemption from registration. The depositary is not responsible for making a distribution available to any holders of ADSs if any government approval or registration required for such distribution cannot be obtained after reasonable efforts made by the depositary. We have no obligation to take any other action to permit distributions on our common shares to holders of ADSs. This means that holders of ADSs may not receive the distributions we make on our common shares if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to such holders. These restrictions may materially reduce the value of the ADSs.

ADS holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our common shares provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial for any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our common shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, which may include any claim under the U.S. federal securities laws.

If we or the depositary were to oppose a jury trial based on this waiver, the court would have to determine whether the waiver was enforceable based on the facts and circumstances of the case in accordance with applicable state and federal law. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver in connection with claims arising under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by the United States Supreme Court. However, we believe that a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable, including under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement, or by a federal or state court in the City of New York, which has non-exclusive jurisdiction over matters arising under the deposit agreement. In determining whether to enforce a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver, courts will generally consider whether a party knowingly, intelligently and voluntarily waived the right to a jury trial. We believe that this would be the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. It is advisable that you consult legal counsel regarding the jury waiver provision before investing in the ADSs.

If you or any other holders or beneficial owners of ADSs bring a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, you or such other holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have, including outcomes that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action. Nevertheless, if this jury trial waiver is not permitted by applicable law, an action could proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or the ADSs serves as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs (including purchasers of our ADSs in the secondary market) or by us or the depositary of compliance with any substantive provision of the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

25

Risks Related to Japan

We are incorporated in Japan, and it may be more difficult to enforce judgments against us that are obtained in courts outside of Japan.

We are incorporated in Japan as a joint stock corporation (kabushiki kaisha) with limited liability. All of our directors are non-U.S. residents, and a substantial portion of our assets and the personal assets of our directors are located outside the United States. As a result, when compared to a U.S. company, it may be more difficult for investors to effect service of process upon us in the United States, or to enforce against us, or our directors or executive officers, judgments obtained in U.S. courts predicated upon civil liability provisions of U.S. federal or state securities laws or similar judgments obtained in other courts outside of Japan. There is doubt as to the enforceability in Japanese courts, in original actions or in actions for enforcement of judgments of U.S. courts, of civil liabilities predicated solely upon U.S. federal and state securities laws.

Substantially all of our revenues are generated in Japan, but an increase of our international presence could expose us to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, or a change in monetary policy may harm our financial results.

Our functional currency and reporting currency is the Japanese yen. Substantially all of our revenues are generated in Japan, but an increase in our international presence could expose us to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. We are subject to the effects of exchange rate fluctuations with respect to any of these currencies which, among other factors, may be influenced by governmental policies and domestic and international economic and political developments. If our non-Japanese revenues increase substantially in the future, any significant change in the value of the currencies of the countries in which we do business against the Japanese yen could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations due to translational and transactional differences in exchange rates.

We cannot predict the effects of exchange rate fluctuations upon our future operating results because of the number of currencies involved, the amount of our revenues that will be generated in other countries, the variability of currency exposures, and the potential volatility of currency exchange rates. We do not take actions to manage our foreign currency exposure, such as entering into hedging transactions.

Rights of shareholders under Japanese law may be different from rights of shareholders in other jurisdictions.

Our articles of incorporation and the Companies Act of Japan (which we refer to as the "Companies Act") govern our corporate affairs. Legal principles relating to matters such as the validity of corporate procedures, directors' fiduciary duties and obligations, and shareholders' rights under Japanese law may be different from, or less clearly defined than, those that would apply to a company incorporated in any other jurisdiction. Shareholders' rights under Japanese law may not be as extensive as shareholders' rights under the laws of other countries. For example, under the Companies Act, only holders of 3% or more of our total voting rights or our outstanding shares are entitled to examine our accounting books and records. Furthermore, there is a degree of uncertainty as to what duties the directors of a Japanese joint stock corporation may have in response to an unsolicited takeover bid, and such uncertainty may be more pronounced than that in other jurisdictions.

Holders of ADSs have fewer rights than shareholders under Japanese law, and their voting rights are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement.

The rights of shareholders under Japanese law to take actions, including with respect to voting their shares, receiving dividends and distributions, bringing derivative actions, examining our accounting books and records, and exercising appraisal rights, are available only to shareholders of record. Because the depositary, through its custodian agents, is the record holder of our common shares underlying the ADSs, only the depositary can exercise those rights in connection with the deposited shares. ADS holders will not be able to bring a derivative action, examine our accounting books and records, or exercise appraisal rights through the depositary.

Holders of ADSs may exercise their voting rights only in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Upon receipt of voting instructions from the ADS holders in the manner set forth in the deposit agreement, the depositary will make efforts to vote the common shares underlying the ADSs in accordance with the instructions of the ADS holders. The depositary and its agents may not be able to send voting instructions to ADS

26

holders or carry out their voting instructions in a timely manner. Furthermore, the depositary and its agents will not be responsible for any failure to carry out any instructions to vote, for the manner in which any vote is cast, or for the effect of any such vote. As a result, holders of ADSs may not be able to exercise their right to vote.

Direct acquisition of our common shares, in lieu of ADSs, is subject to a prior filing requirement under recent amendments to the Japanese Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Act and related regulations.

Under recent amendments in 2019 to the Japanese Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Act and related regulations (which we refer to as “FEFTA”), direct acquisition of our common shares, in lieu of ADSs, by a Foreign Investor (as defined herein under “Memorandum and Articles of Association—Exchange Controls”) could be subject to the prior filing requirement under FEFTA. A Foreign Investor wishing to acquire direct ownership of our common shares, rather than ADSs, will be required to make a prior filing with the relevant governmental authorities through the Bank of Japan and wait until clearance for the acquisition is granted by the applicable governmental authorities, which approval may take up to 30 days and could be subject to further extension. The requisite approval relating to our initial public offering was received on December 4, 2020. Without such clearance, the Foreign Investor will not be permitted to acquire our common shares directly. As such, prior to accepting our common shares for deposit, the depositary obtained such pre-clearance from the applicable Japanese governmental authority. In addition, any Foreign Investor expecting to receive delivery of our common shares upon surrender of ADSs must also obtain pre-clearance from the applicable Japanese governmental authority prior to accepting delivery, which approval may take up to 30 days and could be subject to further extension. Although such prior filing requirement is not triggered for trading our ADSs once the depositary receives clearance for the deposit of the underlying common shares, we cannot assure you that there will not be delays for additional Foreign Investors who wish to acquire our common shares or for holders of the ADSs who are Foreign Investors and who wish to surrender their ADSs and acquire the underlying common shares. In addition, we cannot assure you that the applicable Japanese governmental authorities will grant such clearance in a timely manner or at all. See “Item 10.D. Exchange Controls” and “Item 12.A. American Depositary Shares.”

Dividend payments and the amount you may realize upon a sale of ADSs that you hold will be affected by fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Japanese yen.

Cash dividends, if any, in respect of our common shares represented by the ADSs will be paid to the depositary in Japanese yen and then converted by the depositary into U.S. dollars, subject to certain conditions. Accordingly, fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Japanese yen and the U.S. dollar will affect, among other things, the amounts a holder of ADSs will receive from the depositary in respect of dividends, the U.S. dollar value of the proceeds that a holder of ADSs would receive upon sale in Japan of our common shares obtained upon surrender of ADSs, and the secondary market price of ADSs. Such fluctuations will also affect the U.S. dollar value of dividends and sales proceeds received by holders of common shares.

General Risk Factors

Third party claims with respect to intellectual property assets, if decided against us, may result in competing uses or require adoption of new, non-infringing intellectual property, which may in turn adversely affect sales and revenues.

There can be no assurance that third parties will not assert infringement or misappropriation claims against us, or assert claims that our rights in our trademarks, patents and other intellectual property assets are invalid or unenforceable. Any such claims could have a material adverse effect on us or our franchisees if such claims were to be decided against us. If our rights in any intellectual property were invalidated or deemed unenforceable, it could permit competing uses of intellectual property which, in turn, could lead to a decline in relaxation salon, Digital Preventative Healthcare business, and other revenues. If the intellectual property became subject to third party infringement, misappropriation or other claims, and such claims were decided against us, we may be forced to pay damages, be required to develop or adopt non-infringing intellectual property or be obligated to acquire a license to the intellectual property that is the subject of the asserted claim. There could be significant expenses associated with the defense of any infringement, misappropriation, or other third-party claims.

27

Information technology system failures or breaches of our network security could interrupt our operations and adversely affect our business.

We and our franchisees rely on our computer systems and network infrastructure across our operations, including point-of-sale processing at our relaxation salons. We use Amazon’s AWS as our cloud service provider. Our and our franchisees’ operations depend upon our and our franchisees’ ability to protect our computer equipment and systems against damage from physical theft, fire, power loss, telecommunications failure or other catastrophic events, as well as from internal and external security breaches, viruses, worms and other disruptive problems. Any damage or failure of our computer systems, network infrastructure, or AWS cloud servers that cause an interruption in our operations could have a material adverse effect on our business and subject us to litigation or actions by regulatory authorities. The failure of these systems to operate effectively, maintenance problems, upgrading or transitioning to new platforms, or a material network breach in security of these systems as a result of cyber-attack or any other failure to maintain a continuous and secure cyber network could further result in substantial harm, or in delays in customer service and reduce efficiency in our and our franchisees’ operations. This could include the theft of our intellectual property or trade secrets, or the improper use of personal information or other “identity theft.” While we utilize our personnel, as well as a variety of hardware and software, to monitor our systems, controls, firewalls and encryption and intend to maintain and upgrade our security technology and operational procedures to prevent damage, breaches or other disruptive problems, there can be no assurance that these security measures will be successful. Any such claim, proceeding or action by a regulatory authority, or any adverse publicity resulting from these allegations, could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Cybersecurity breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information, result in the unauthorized disclosure of confidential guest, employee, Company and/or business partners’ information, damage our reputation, and expose us to liability, which could negatively impact our business.

In the ordinary course of our business, we collect, process, and salon sensitive and confidential data, including our proprietary business information and that of our guests, suppliers and business partners, and personally identifiable information of our guests and employees, in our data centers and on our networks. For example, our customers are asked to complete a survey, often digitally on iPads, prior to first receiving services at our relaxation salons. The surveys contain questions requesting private health-related information of our relaxation salon patrons. In connection with credit and debit card sales, we and our franchisees transmit confidential credit and debit card information by way of secure private retail networks.

The secure processing, maintenance, and transmission of this information is critical to our operations. We rely on commercially available systems, software, tools, and monitoring to provide security for processing, transmission, and storage of confidential information. Despite the security measures we have in place and continual vigilance in regard to the protection of sensitive information, our systems and those of our third-party service providers may be vulnerable to security breaches, attacks by hackers, acts of vandalism, computer viruses, misplaced or lost data, human errors, or other similar events. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost, or stolen. Any such access, disclosure, or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, disrupt our operations, damage our reputation, and cause a loss of confidence in our business, products, and services, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, profitability, and cash flows.

Furthermore, although we currently carry cyber liability insurance, such insurance has limited coverage to cover liabilities incurred by breaches of our customers’ data caused by security breaches, attacks by hackers, acts of vandalism, computer viruses, misplaced or lost data, human errors, or other similar events. A significant claim not covered by our insurance, in full or in part, may result in significant expenditures by us. Moreover, we may not be able to maintain insurance policies in the future at reasonable costs or on acceptable terms, which may adversely affect our business and the trading price of the ADSs.

Changes in regulatory requirements, or in application of current regulatory requirements, may have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Relaxation salons such as ours are not currently regulated by the Japanese government. The main law in Japan governing the massage industry is the Act on Practitioners of Massage, Acupressure, Acupuncture and Moxibustion, and etc. (Act No. 217 of 1947) (which we refer to as the “Massage Act”). However, our Company does not market or provide massage, acupressure, acupuncture, moxibustion or other services regulated under the Massage Act, and

28

this information is clearly provided to all customers prior to receiving our services, as well as all franchisees to prevent unauthorized services. Moreover, all of our customers are required to sign a waiver acknowledging this prior to receiving our services. Nevertheless, the Japanese government could later include our industry within the meaning of the Massage Act, or enact a separate law to regulate our industry. If such an occurrence were to happen, our costs associated with licensing and training staff, as well as any additional wages required for hiring licensed staff, as necessary, could add to our expenses and harm our results of operation.

Matters relating to employment and labor law may adversely affect our business.

Various Japanese labor laws govern our relationships with our employees and affect operating costs. These laws include employment classifications of employee, independent contractor, or contract worker; minimum wage requirements; employer contributions to social security, unemployment insurance, and workers’ accident compensation insurance, and other wage and benefit requirements. Significant additional government regulations and new laws, including mandating increases in minimum wages, changes in employment status requirements, or other labor law changes could materially affect our business, financial condition, operating results or cash flow. Additionally, if our or our franchisees’ employees unionize, it could materially affect our business, financial condition, operating results or cash flow.

We are also subject in the ordinary course of business to employee claims against us based, among other things, on discrimination, harassment, wrongful termination, or violation of labor laws. Such claims could also be asserted against us by employees of our franchisees. These claims may divert our financial and management resources that would otherwise be used to benefit our operations. The ongoing expense of any resulting lawsuits, and any substantial settlement payment or damage award against us, could adversely affect our business, brand image, employee recruitment, financial condition, operating results or cash flows.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of the ADSs and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for the ADSs depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If few or no securities or industry analysts cover us, the trading price for the ADSs could be negatively impacted. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades the ADSs, publishes incorrect or unfavorable research about our business, ceases coverage of our Company, or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for the ADSs could decrease, which could cause the price of the ADSs or trading volume to decline.

Sales of a substantial number of our common shares or ADSs in the public markets by our existing shareholders in the future could cause the price of the ADSs to fall.

Sales of a substantial number of our common shares or ADSs in the public market in the future or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of the ADSs and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities from time to time. We are unable to predict the effect that any such sales may have on the prevailing market price of the ADSs.

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

A.History and Development of the Company

Our Company was originally incorporated in Japan on July 13, 2000 under the name “Kabushiki Kaisha Young Leaves.” In January 2017, we changed our name to “MEDIROM Inc.” In April 2018, we established three wholly-owned subsidiaries, Bell Epoc Wellness Inc., JOYHANDS WELLNESS Inc., and Medirom Human Resources Inc. In October 2018, we acquired our fourth wholly-owned subsidiary, Decollte Wellness Corporation. In March 2020, our Company’s English name was changed to “MEDIROM Healthcare Technologies Inc.” In December 2020, the Company listed its ADSs representing its common shares on The Nasdaq Capital Market. We are a joint-stock corporation incorporated in Japan under the Companies Act.

On May 6, 2021, we acquired control of SAWAN CO. LTD. (“SAWAN”) by purchasing 100% ownership interest of SAWAN for cash. As a result, “Ruam Ruam”, which is a luxury relaxation salon brand held by SAWAN, has become part of the Company’s directly-operated salons.

29

Effective July 1, 2021, Bell Epoc Wellness Inc., a subsidiary of the Company, was merged with Decollte Wellness Corporation, another subsidiary of the Company, pursuant to an absorption-type company split agreement, with Bell Epoc Wellness Inc. being the successor entity. Bell Epoc Wellness Inc. changed its name to Wing Inc. effective November 1, 2021.

On October 1, 2021, we acquired 60% of the ownership interest in ZACC, a high-end hair salon company, and acquired the remaining 40% of the ownership interest in ZACC in January 2022. ZACC owns and operates four luxury hair salons under three brands (ZACC vie, ZACC raffine, and ZACC ginza), all of which have been recognized by customers for over 30 years for their high level of techniques and hospitality.

As of December 31, 2022, we had the following subsidiaries: JOYHANDS WELLNESS Inc., Wing Inc., Bell & Joy Power Partners, Inc., SAWAN, ZACC, and Medirom Human Resources Inc.

Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc., located at 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10168. Our principal executive offices are located in 2-3-1 Daiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 135-0091, Japan, and our main telephone number is +81(0)3-6721-7364. Our website is https://medirom.co.jp/en/. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into, and is not a part of, this annual report. You should not consider any information on our website to be a part of this annual report. We have included our website address in this annual report solely for informational purposes.

The SEC maintains an internet site (http://www.sec.gov), which contains reports, information we are required to provide to our shareholders or otherwise make public under our home country laws, and other information regarding us that file electronically with the SEC.

B.

Business Overview

We are one of the leading holistic health services providers in Japan. Medirom is a franchiser and operator of healthcare salons across Japan and is a preferred platform partner for healthcare service providers and government entities to affect positive health outcomes. Through our well-known retail salon brands, including primarily Re.Ra.Ku®, nascent tech platforms, and targeted health consulting and marketing, we have formed a "healthtech" segment. The healthtech segment's goal is to improve health outcomes and the satisfaction of our customers, as well as offer corporations data-rich, targeted advertising and promotional opportunities.

We operate three synergistic lines of businesses: (1) Relaxation Salon Segment (retail); (2) Luxury Beauty Segment (retail); and (3) Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment (healthtech). By combining brand strength and core retail competencies, including a broad physical footprint in population dense areas across the country, with proprietary technologies and partnerships, our business provides unique, value-added healthcare services to our customers with scale, customization, and cross-network effects that we believe few other companies in the industry can emulate.

As of December 31, 2022, the Relaxation Salon Segment has 312 locations across Japan, located within the country’s major cities. Our customer management system is a cloud-based customer relationship management system which we use to record all customer data and which facilities reservation, point-of-sale and business intelligence functions. Our salons are generally located in metro stations/subways, shopping malls, plazas and high-traffic streets. The Relaxation Salon Segment is our core business and accounted for ¥6,016 million (US$45.6 million), or approximately 86.0 % of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 and ¥5,197 million (US$39.4 million), or approximately 96.1% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021.

The Luxury Beauty Segment consists of ZACC, our high-end hair salon, which accounted for ¥595 million (US$4.5 million), or approximately 8.5% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022, and ¥169 million (US$1.3 million), or approximately 3.1% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily due to full-year consolidation of ZACC’s revenue in 2022, while only revenues between October 1, 2021 and December 31, 2021 were consolidated in 2021.

The Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment mainly consists of the following operations: government-sponsored Specific Health Guidance program, utilizing our internally-developed on-demand health monitoring smartphone application, Lav®; our MOTHER Bracelet® for fitness applications; and preventative healthcare services utilizing our experienced nutritionists and health nurses. The Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment is a growing

30

business line and accounted for ¥386 million (US$2.9 million), or approximately 5.5% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022, and¥44 million (US$0.3 million), or less than 1% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Consumers increasingly recognize the value of services in the relaxation sector. While the COVID-19 pandemic may have led to structural changes in demand in the United States, including a shift in preferences toward digital commerce per traditional retail brick and mortar, we view the effects as much more muted in Japan. The relaxation sector continues to offer a nearly non-discretionary service, as bodily health, joint alignment, and therapeutic bodyworks impact the health wellness of our customers and require physical contact—continuing to buoy our core Salon business. We believe the COVID-19 pandemic has intensified public perception of the importance of health and wellness. In particular, based upon our observations, we believe that consumers are increasingly seeking services and adopting personal measures to address their health and wellness with greater priority. In light of our recovery rate in both customers and revenues over the course of the pandemic in Japan, we believe services such as ours are being viewed as a more necessary item of consumer spend that we expect will increase demand for our services given the strength of our brand.

Relaxation Salon Segment

The Relaxation Salon Segment is the core of our business consisting of directly-operated salons (including salons which we sold to third party investors who then outsource the management of such salons back to us) as well as franchised relaxation salons in Japan. Our salon locations cover major cities throughout Japan, with strong market presence in the Tokyo metropolitan area, which includes Tokyo, Kanagawa and Saitama. According to the Survey on Basic Resident Registration System as of January 1, 2020, by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, the population (registered residents) of the Tokyo metropolitan area was estimated to be 36.7 million, making it the most populous metropolitan area in the world. According to the 2022 Yano Report issued by Yano Research Institute, one of the leading market research firms (the “Yano Report”), in terms of the number of salons, we are one of the top three companies, on a consolidated basis, in the Kanto region (Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, Chiba, Gunma, Ibaraki and Tochigi), and in the top four nationwide.

Our goal is to improve our customers' quality of life by providing alternative, non-invasive wellness care. We use therapeutic techniques encompassing finger-pressure style bodywork therapy, stretch therapy, posture and joint alignment, as well as physical therapy elements. Our salons are designed to appeal to individuals seeking to improve their mental and/or physical well-being. Our customers vary from individuals seeking stress and pain relief to other individuals who are just looking to improve their overall mental and physical health. We offer a variety of individual services at our salons, including anti-fatigue therapy, athletic support therapy, slim-down therapy and reflexology. Each therapy is unique and designed to target specific areas of the body.

Our salons operate under several brand names. Our core brand is Re.Ra.Ku®. Our salons are generally located in metro stations/subways, shopping malls, plazas and high-traffic streets. On average, our salons measure approximately 723 square feet (which excludes data from salons in spa facilities and salons where the franchisees have direct contracts with the landlords) and contain a reception area and treatment space. A typical salon under the Re.Ra.Ku® brand is staffed by six relaxation therapists.

Since our founding in 2000, we have steadily increased the number of Re.Ra.Ku®-branded salons. We intend to continue to grow our salon business over time through both organic growth, including acquisition and turnaround of underperforming franchised salons, and opportunistic acquisition and consolidation of competitor salons. As of December 31, 2022, we had 312 salons in operation throughout Japan under all of our brands. However, the rate of growth of our Re.Ra.Ku®-branded salons in recent years has slowed down due to our shift in focus on the acquisition of third-parties’ salons.

Our largest source of revenue derives from our directly-operated salons. Revenue from operating our directly-operated salons accounted for 61.5% of our consolidated revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022. Revenue from our franchise business consists of recurring franchise royalty, franchise membership fees, staffing services fees, sublease revenue and other franchise revenues and accounted for 16.7% of our consolidated revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022. As part of our new growth strategy, we have sold, and plan to continue to sell, certain of our owned salons to investors and charge management fees from such sold salons. Our revenue from salon sales accounted for 16.1% of our consolidated revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022.

31

Our franchisees are expected to meet the same quality and customer service standards as our Company-operated locations. We select potential franchisees based on a set of strict qualification criteria which includes background checks, financial net worth assessment and personal interviews. We enter into a franchise agreement with each of our franchisees, stipulating a standard set of terms and conditions for operating the salons and each party's duties and responsibilities.

Graphic

Customers

Our relaxation salons are designed to appeal to individuals seeking to improve their mental and/or physical well-being. Our customers include individuals who are health conscious and other individuals seeking stress and pain relief, therapeutic reflexology, or to improve their overall mental and physical health. The majority of our customers are employed females with disposable income, but our demographic mix varies by salon and geography. Our customer base has grown each year with the opening of new salons. We benefit from and rely on the value and recognition of our Re.Ra.Ku® and other brands which drive word of mouth and direct referrals. Additionally, we utilize an omnichannel advertising strategy across print, affiliate referrals and digital marketing to reach out to and cultivate potential customers.

Services

Our relaxation salons offer a variety of individual services, each with multiple price ranges, including: anti-fatigue therapy; athletic support therapy; slim-down therapy; and reflexology. Anti-fatigue therapy is designed to relieve fatigue and discomfort, and concentrates on the shoulder blade, neck, lower back and posture. We suggest that first-time customers begin with anti-fatigue therapy because most new customers visit our salons with stiff muscles and are unable to do more difficult stretches. Anti-fatigue therapy helps enhance the customer's stretching ability. Athletic support therapy is intended to provide quick gains in active and passive range of motion to help improve athletic performance and increase flexibility, by performing shoulder blade alignment adjustments and resistance exercise. Slim-down therapy focuses on pelvic and shoulder blade alignment and is intended to help dieting by moving the muscles near the pelvis, which normally get little exercise, thereby increasing metabolism and improving posture. Our reflexology therapy is designed to target specific pressure points and areas on the feet to promote relaxation, improve circulation and reduce pain. While most Re.Ra.Ku® locations offer these four therapies, some individual salons offer other select therapy methods, such as Thai traditional stretching. Pursuant to the terms of our standard franchise agreements, our approval is required for any changes to the services provided in franchised salons.

Our customers can arrive at our salons with or without appointments at times convenient to their schedule. Upon checking-in, salon staff provides customers with a questionnaire that asks for their contact information and certain health information to help the therapist identify the service that is most appropriate for the customer and whether the customer is experiencing muscle pain or other health problems. Upon completion of the therapy, the therapist will meet with the customers to obtain feedback on the services provided.

In December 2008, we began issuing prepaid cards, called the Re.Ra.Ku® Card, to relaxation salon customers. Users of the Re.Ra.Ku® Card can continuously use and replenish the card at most of our Company's relaxation salons. The customer receives rewards on a tiered basis, so the more the customer spends on the Re.Ra.Ku® Card, the greater the reward that can be used at Re.Ra.Ku® locations. In addition, following the acquisition of SAWAN, we started to issue another line of prepaid cards, called the Free Pass, which can be used at Ruam Ruam branded salons. As of December 31, 2022, the aggregate prepaid amounts by customers on the Re.Ra.Ku® Cards and the Free Pass were approximately JPY507 million (US$3.8 million), partially as a result of our seasonal promotions. Except for limited circumstances, the prepaid amounts on the Re.Ra.Ku® Card and the Free Passes are generally non-refundable.

32

Market

Most of our relaxation salons are located in the Kanto region of Japan. Kanto is commonly considered the economic and political center of Japan, and includes cities such as Tokyo, Yokohama, and Saitama, among other large cities and prefectures. According to the Statistics Bureau of Japan, as of October 1, 2022, the population of Kanto was 43.5 million, which accounted for 34.8% of the total population of Japan (124.9 million). According to the 2022 Yano Report, in terms of the number of salons, we are one of the top three companies, on a consolidated basis, in the Kanto region (Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, Chiba, Gunma, Ibaraki and Tochigi) and in the top four nationwide.

Graphic

Our mid-term goal is to have 1,000 salons nationwide and become the number one salon network in Japan. In addition, we may pursue opportunities to acquire similar businesses in the United States and Southeast Asia subject to favorable terms.

Graphic

Seasonality

Our Relaxation Salon Segment experiences seasonal trends due primarily to changes in weather and in line with holiday schedules. Generally, our revenue is strongest from May to October. Sales tend to slow in November due to the shorter day length and lower temperatures in Japan, but then increase in December for the holiday season. Fewer operating days and cold weather lead to weaker sales figures in January and February. March and April are transition months before the high season. We carry out spring sales promotion in April to boost the sales in May.

Franchises

As of December 31, 2022, 113 of our 312 salons were operated by franchisees. We strive to ensure that each of our franchise locations meets the same quality and customer service standards as our directly-operated locations in order to preserve the consistency and reliability of our brand and earn the trust of our customers.

33

We are committed to providing the tools that our franchisees need to succeed before, during and after a salon opening, including guidance with site selection and development, training, operations and marketing support. We have a franchisee support team that we use to help provide continuous assistance to franchisees. This support team is sent directly to meet with franchisees to help identify any areas that could be improved with regard to the franchisee's business, and devise strategies to overcome such obstacles the franchisees may be facing.

We identify potential franchisees through a variety of methods, including word-of-mouth and referrals from existing franchise owners. We also employ qualification criteria in the selection of franchisees, including reviewing the candidates' backgrounds and net worth, conducting interviews and determining the candidates' compatibility with our Company's culture. Our franchise agreements set forth a high standard of conduct across all franchised locations. As such, our franchisees are curated to confirm with the high standards of quality, expertise, and customer centricity which form the core of our brand and culture. We provide our franchisees with ongoing training and advertising support. We continuously monitor the financial performance of each franchised location using a customized software called Peak Manager.

Additionally, all of our franchisees join an organization, "Franchisees' Friendship Club", that facilitates discussion among the franchisees regarding our Company's business model and shared know-how. The Club also makes proposals to our Company regarding the franchise agreement, Company business and other matters related to the franchisor-franchisee relationship, to maximize mutual benefits. The Franchisees' Friendship Club holds a meeting once per month. Apart from the Franchisees' Friendship Club, our Company holds "Franchise Owners Meeting" every quarter to share our Company's salon business strategy, key performance indicators, and other matters of common interest. Our Chief Executive Officer attends meetings to interact directly with the franchisees.

Franchise Agreements

Our franchise model requires minimal capital expenditures by our Company while generating recurring revenue streams from franchise fees and salon sales. For each franchised salon, we enter into a franchise agreement stipulating a standard set of terms and conditions.

A franchise agreement allows an owner to open a single salon at a specific location. The initial term of a franchise agreement is five years from the salon's opening date. Unless either party provides notice of nonrenewal by at least six (6) months prior to the franchise agreement's expiration, the franchise term extends for an additional five-year period, and the same provision applies thereafter. Franchisees must pay an initial fee for our salons at the time the franchise agreement is signed. Franchisees that renew their franchises after the initial term must pay a renewal fee on a per salon basis. Under our standard franchise agreements, franchisees are also required to pay a monthly royalty fee. The royalty rates vary depending on the number of salons operated by a franchisee, ranging from 6-8% of the total revenue of the franchisee.

Our franchise agreements set forth certain material duties and responsibilities of the franchisees, including, but not limited to: (i) cooperating with our Company's advertising initiatives prior to and after the opening of a salon; (ii) maintaining the design, layout and equipment of a salon as designated by our Company; (iii) undergoing periodic skills training in accordance with our policies; and (iv) complying with restrictions on transfer of the franchise. We provide our franchisees with license to use our registered marks, including CLP CARE LIFE PLANNER®, in connection with the operation of their franchised salons. We utilize this mark in our franchise agreements to define therapists who have completed a required technique training program. We retain the right to approve any change to a salon location, the service menu and the types of products sold at the salon other than those products supplied or purchased from us. Franchisees are subject to non-compete provisions during the term of the franchise agreement and for one year after termination thereof. Franchisees are responsible for hiring and compensating their own employees.

We have the right to terminate the franchise agreement for cause, including failure of the franchisees to pay our fees as set forth in the franchise agreement or failing to meet our established profitability metrics. Either we or the franchisee may terminate the franchise agreement without cause upon six months' prior written notice to the other party and prior consultation to attempt to resolve any disputes and prior consultation with the franchisees. The franchisee may be required to pay us a termination fee under certain circumstances. The franchise agreement may only be amended upon mutual consent of both parties in writing.

34

Site Selection, Design and Construction

Our real estate department identifies and recommends the salon sites for directly-operated and franchise locations. The real estate department analyses the sites based on criteria such as the average population, income and gender demographics, proximity to train stations and foot traffic in front of the salon. A score is then assigned to each potential site location. Once our Company identifies a potential site, it will enter into a lease agreement with the landlord. Street locations generally have a three-year lease term, while locations inside train stations or shopping centers have a five-year lease term. Our Company subleases salon locations to franchisees and passes through all of the associated rental costs. Franchisees are required to pay us an upfront fee for design and construction of the leased location as well as a nominal monthly management fee during the term of the lease to cover processing and service charges. It takes approximately 90 days to complete the design and construction of a new salon. We believe the sublease arrangements are more suitable for our business because our reputation and size allow us to negotiate for more favorable lease terms than would otherwise be provided to individual franchisees.

Recruiting and Training

As a complement to our salons, we also operate Re.Ra.Ku® College (which we refer to as the "College"). The flagship College is located in the Odaiba area in Tokyo. The College offers continuing training for franchise owners, home office staff, and salon staff, covering topics such as customer service, salon operations, and relaxation techniques. The College also provides training for students who wish to become qualified as "Relaxation Therapists", which is a private qualification granted by the Association of Japan Relaxation Industry, an industry group for relaxation services providers. In addition, franchise owners, salon managers and relaxation therapists engage in recurring monthly education at the College. We do not charge students any fees for the training provided at the College. However, upon completion of the initial training program, we assist students with obtaining employment at our franchised salons in exchange for a fixed monthly payment from the franchise owners. We also employ students at our directly-operated salons. The College enables us to implement and promote our corporate culture and mission and we believe it helps improve job satisfaction and employee retention.

Graphic

To be admitted into the College, students must pass a qualification check and an interview. This initial qualification program consists of 41 courses that typically extend for a month. The curriculum used at the College teaches 126 skills to students via a combination of live training and online videos. Although there is no qualification requirement for a therapist in Japan, students have to pass this initial qualification program before working at our salons. Currently, our Company has College campuses in Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka.

Luxury Beauty Segment

Our new Luxury Beauty Segment mainly consists of the management and operations of the high-end hair salon brands under ZACC. We acquired 60% of the ownership interest in ZACC in October 2021 and the remaining 40% of the ownership interest in ZACC in January 2022. Revenue contributed by ZACC branded salons was JPY594,761 thousand (US$4,512 thousand) for the year ended December 31, 2022.

35

Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment

Our Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment consists of the following businesses.

Specific Health Guidance Program via Lav(R) Application (ToB).  We serve small businesses, large corporations, and government entities in their implementation of health and wellness programs as outlined by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan's Specific Health Guidance Program. Japan is confronting a super-aging society, as well as inflation of medical expenses from the increasing number of fatal diseases, such as diabetes, heart attack and stroke. To tackle this nationwide issue, the government initiated the Specific Health Guidance Program in April 2008. In this program, 40-through-74-year-old people who have received a diagnosis alerting lifestyle diseases at a health check-up are requested by a doctor to take a series of courses that are tailored to reduce the risk of developing certain lifestyle diseases. Because Japanese citizens and permanent residents are required to maintain health insurance through government or employer sponsored programs, it is generally the health insurance providers' responsibility to have participants take the courses if they are requested to do so. By partnering with a number of health insurance providers, we provide support to connect those who need to take the courses with health care professionals via our on-demand health monitoring application for smartphones called Lav®. We charge fees to health insurance providers, depending on how many participants take the program and which type of program is taken. A portion of these fees is subsidized by the Japanese government.

Lav® Application (ToC). We launched an upgraded version of Lav® as a B2C application in July 2021. The updated Lav® application offers menus such as detox, weight control, and exercise programs. On this consumer version of the Lav® application, we also currently engage our in-house therapists as coaches to provide guidance and feedback through the app. We also plan to focus on increasing the sales of the Lav® program by targeting our existing customers at the salon locations.

MOTHER Bracelet®.  In 2019, we acquired a minority interest in Matrix Industries, Inc. (“Matrix”) based in California, United States, a developer of a thermoelectric generator and boost converter. In furtherance of our relationship, we entered into a production and development agreement with Matrix in August 2020 to develop and manufacture a health monitoring wearable device called MOTHER Bracelet®. Our MOTHER Bracelet® fitness device is designed to track and collect the health data of the wearer, such as calorie consumption, activity and sleep patterns.

The agreement grants us exclusivity as to third parties in the Asia territory, except for certain prior contractual obligations of Matrix, for use of their thermoelectric power module and software in our MOTHER Bracelet® wearable device for one year following receipt of the sample product, or end of 2022, whichever is earlier. On December 8, 2022, the exclusivity agreement was extended to December 31, 2024.

We believe the MOTHER Bracelet® will be the only fitness tracker that requires no electric charging, as it will utilize innovative technology such as Gemini TEG (Thermoelectric Generator) and Mercury Boost Converter to enable the user's body heat to generate electricity. We are not aware of any other wearable devices equipped with NFC currently in the market with equivalent capabilities at this time. MOTHER Bracelet® is our registered trademark in Japan. We intend to pursue other opportunities in Japan and the United States for large-scale private label contracts for our device.

Our Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment is entering into a growth phase. We have entered into contracts with 59 corporate insurance associations for our Specific Health Guidance Program provided by Lav®, our on-demand training app, as of December 31, 2022. We also provided lifestyle improvement programs via Lav® for people under 40 years of age, and have entered into service agreements with seven corporate insurance associations as of December 31, 2022. In addition, we launched an upgraded version of Lav® as a subscription-based B2C application on July 1, 2021. The updated Lav® application offers menus such as detox, weight control, and exercise programs. We launched a crowdfunding campaign for individual consumers in July 2021 and started shipping of MOTHER Bracelet® to those customers in March 2022. In 2022, we delivered a total of 12,362 units of MOTHER Bracelet®, which generated a total of JPY340,289 thousand (US$2,582 thousand) in sales revenue. We hope that our diverse health related services and products offering will help us collect and manage healthcare data from users and customers and enable us to become a leader in big data in the healthcare industry.

36

Customers

Specific Health Guidance Program.   Although we have developed an on-demand health monitoring application, this business sector has not adopted a subscription business model to date. We charge fees to health insurance providers, depending on how many participants take the program and which type of program is taken. We plan on continuing to grow both provider count (including corporate sponsors, insurance providers, and government entities) as well as the end-participant pool (which are end users under our Lav® application). Our B2C Lav® application has not adopted a subscription business model and charges fees for fixed-term health coaching services to date.

MOTHER Bracelet ®. Our prospective clients are hospitals, clinics, department stores, sports clubs (gyms), electronics volume stores, foreign embassies (commercial division), trading firms, life insurance companies, human resource service companies, beverage makers, and so on, as well as individual consumers.

Graphic

Services

Specific Health Guidance Program.  Through our Lav® application, we provide participants in their health insurance providers the ability to search for professionals tailored to each individual's preferences, lifestyle, and health conditions. Participants can enjoy benefits from specific health guidance based on provided information. In addition, our therapists, composed of licensed nutritionists and registered dieticians, provide coaching services to program participants. This allows us to leverage idle time from therapists to generate additional revenue, which effectively results in improved efficiency ratios. We will continue to favor recruiting recent graduates with an added preference for those with nutritionist or dietetics pedigrees.

Graphic

MOTHER Bracelet®.  Our MOTHER Bracelet® is designed to monitor and collect the health data of the wearer and can work seamlessly with our Lav® application and most of the other health monitoring applications that are available on the market. We also offer a Software Development Kit, or SDK, to our partners for their application or software development convenience. Furthermore, we are developing and plan to operate a centralized monitoring system specific to nursing care businesses utilizing MOTHER Bracelet®. The system is designed to notify facility managers and family members when it detects abnormal health-related signs and signals on the wearers. In September 2022, we have entered into a business alliance agreement with L-Care Co., Ltd, a subsidiary of Longlife Holding Co., Ltd., a provider of various home-based nursing care and heath care services (“L-Care”). We have

37

launched trial operations with L-Care in October 2022. As of December 31, 2022, we have sold 10,000 units of MOTHER Bracelet® in connection with our engagement with L-Care.

Market

Our Lav® healthcare app and its Specific Health Guidance Program competes in the Preventative Care sub-segment (US$3 billion) of the broader Medical Treatment Market in Japan (US$100 billion). This sub-segment of the market receives proportionally increasing funding from the Japanese government's health insurance budget and its respective participants within the Specific Health Guidance Program. Secular shifts toward prevention versus treatment, increasing insurance premiums and greater government subsidies make this a growing and attractive submarket to capture.

The Japanese healthcare system itself is well-regarded worldwide, leading most other countries on key outcomes including availability of hospital beds, public expenditure as a percentage of GDP, and infant mortality. These qualities allow leaders in the market to capture significant revenues and prioritize of budgets from both the public and private sectors. One notable deficiency is in the low number of practicing physicians per population density, which reflects both the highly populous cities of Japan and the relative dearth in medical practitioners.

Our Lav® app was created to address the aforementioned shortfall by leveraging co-medical practitioners and therapists to advise patients digitally. This telehealth approach to medical service and healthcare is further fortified by our strong brand, retail scale which allows for drop-in appointments, and both technical and live support leveraging our broad employee base and scope of customer service.

Our MOTHER Bracelet® operates in the wearable device space though we focus on specific market segments tailored towards corporate clientele, hospitals, nursing homes and medical facilities serving the elderly population, and labs and research facilities. We will opportunistically sell direct to consumers in Japan to begin with through distributors, online commerce, and strategic partners including retail placements at select big box stores before moving into B2B market.

The Roots of our Business

Our Company was originally incorporated as "Kabushiki Kaisha Young Leaves" in Japan on July 13, 2000. On January 1, 2017, our Company's name was changed to MEDIROM Inc. and on March 26, 2020, our Company's English d/b/a name was changed to MEDIROM Healthcare Technologies Inc.

Through a series of transactions in 2018, we expanded our relaxation salon business by acquiring three branded businesses: Bell Epoc Wellness Inc. (which we refer to as "BEW"), Decollte Wellness Corporation (which we refer to as "DW"), JOYHANDS WELLNESS Inc. (which we refer to as "JW"). We operate these businesses through three separate wholly-owned subsidiaries, along with an additional subsidiary, Medirom Human Resources Inc. (which we refer to as "MHR"). All of the foregoing subsidiaries are organized and existing under the laws of Japan. BEW, DW, and JW each operate relaxation salons and MHR operates a therapist dispatch business. Our Company provides administrative functions, such as accounting, finance, human resources, and legal affairs to each of the subsidiaries. In exchange for such administrative functions, we receive a monthly service fee from each subsidiary.

Graphic

38

On April 17, 2018, we established BEW. On May 28, 2018, 46 relaxation salons with the brand name "Bell Epoc" were transferred from Kabushiki Kaisha Bell Epoc to BEW for cash. Pursuant to an operating agreement entered into in 2018, by and between Kabushiki Kaisha Bell Epoc and BEW, Kabushiki Kaisha Bell Epoc has continued to manage the relaxation salons and BEW pays operation fees to Kabushiki Kaisha Bell Epoc based on revenue.

On April 20, 2018, we formed JW to acquire the relaxation business operated by Kabushiki Kaisha Joyhands. Kabushiki Kaisha Joyhands is party to a number of outsource agreements with various public bath operators, whereby Kabushiki Kaisha Joyhands provided relaxation services to customers of public bath houses. JW began entering into assignment and novation agreements with such public bath service providers, whereby Kabushiki Kaisha Joyhands would be substituted by JW as the counterparty to the existing outsource agreements with the public bath operators.

On April 27, 2018, we established MHR under the trade name Re.Ra.Ku Wellness Inc. MHR operates our therapist dispatch business. Previously, we hired therapists pursuant to an exemption that allowed us to forego obtaining permission from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan under the Act for Securing the Proper Operation of Worker Dispatching Undertakings and Improved Working Conditions for Dispatched Workers and dispatched such therapists to our franchisees. When the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan eliminated the exemption in September 2018, we created MHR and transferred the therapist dispatch business to it.

On October 1, 2018, we acquired DW from Decollte Corporation for cash. On May 6, 2021, we acquired 100% of the interests in SAWAN, a relaxation salon operator of “Ruam Ruam” from BOX GROUP Co., Ltd., a Japanese holding company specializing in beauty and spa products and services. Ruam Ruam is a luxury relaxation salon brand, which is characterized with oriental relaxation techniques to fit the needs and preferences of the Japanese consumer. This acquisition resulted in the addition of 13 directly-operated salons under the brand of “Ruam Ruam” to our relaxation salon segment.

In July 2021, in order to speed up the decision-making process, improve business efficiency, and maximize business value, we reorganized and re-designated certain parts of our wholly-owned subsidiaries by business functions.

As part of the reorganization, DW merged with and into BEW with BEW being the surviving entity. As a result of the merger between DW and BEW, BEW (currently known as Wing Inc.) now operates the salons previously owned by DW, and since July 1, 2021, it has been managing a majority of our relaxation salon operations, excluding those located in spa facilities or under “Ruam Ruam” brand. In addition, we established Bell Epoc Power Partners Inc., which succeeded to the rights and obligations relating to the salon management entrusted division previously operated by BEW.

On October 1, 2021, we acquired 60% of the ownership interest in ZACC, a high-end hair salon company recognized by customers for their high-level techniques and hospitality for over 30 years. ZACC’s flagship hair salon is located in Omotesando, one of the fashion centers in Tokyo. ZACC recently opened its Ginza salon prior to the acquisition. We plan to help and facilitate ZACC’s multi-store management and opening of new ZACC branded salons by sharing our expertise in store management, franchising and employee independence programs. We acquired the remaining 40% of the ownership interest in ZACC in January 2022.

In November 2021, BEW changed its name to “Wing Inc.” and Bell Epoc Power Partner Inc. changed its name to “Bell & Joy Power Partner Inc.”

Our Growth Strategy

Our goal is not only to capture a significant share of the existing market for relaxation salons but also to expand our Digital Preventative Healthcare business lines. We expect to employ a variety of strategic initiatives, including increasing the number of directly-operated and franchised salons and expanding marketing and advertising efforts throughout strategic locations.

Organic Growth in the Japanese Market.  According to the 2022 Yano Report, in terms of the number of salons, we are one of the top three companies, on a consolidated basis, in the Kanto region (Tokyo, Kanagawa,

39

Saitama, Chiba, Gunma, Ibaraki and Tochigi), and in the top four nationwide. The total number of relaxation salons under major brands in Japan, according to the 2022 Yano Report, was 2,944, with the largest operator having 613 salons. We believe that the Japanese market has capacity for approximately 1,000 of our salons in the future, based upon our assessment of suitable real estate that fits the underwriting requirements for our business. We aim to achieve this capacity goal through a combination of franchising, direct ownership, and our new salon sales and management contract model. We also plan to expand our relaxation salons business in Kansai region in western Japan. We opened three new salons in Kansai region in 2022 and intend to continue exploring more business opportunities in that region. If we are able to achieve this goal, we believe that we would then have the largest salon network in Japan.

Lead Industry Consolidation Via Targeted Acquisitions. As the domestic Japanese relaxation sector faces structural changes that accelerate consolidation, we believe that we are positioned strategically to harness value, acquire synergies, and maximize our pipeline of suitable bids at bargain prices. Our corporate acquisitions team aims to buy businesses at a small multiple to ours, leveraging our brand, the well-regarded reputation of our founder CEO, and the halo effect of joining Japan’s first publicly listed relaxation company in the United States. We believe we have a competitive advantage and significant negotiating power to structure accretive deals, integrate both culture and operations of target companies, and grow long-term value.

Update of Business Model. Currently, Wing Inc. (fka Bell Epoc Wellness, Inc.), our wholly owned subsidiary, manages a majority of our relaxation salon operations, excluding those located in spa facilities or under “Ruam Ruam” brand. While we continue to grow the total number of our franchised salons, we expect to become more selective in new franchise salon owners. In the fourth quarter of 2021, we started a new business model under which we sell our directly-owned salons to third-party investors and enterd into service Agreements to manage the operation of the salons on behalf of the inventers. Under this model, we are entitled to a contingent fee equal to 80 to 90% of the amount of profit that exceeds 6% to 8% investment yield on the purchase price of each purchased salon. We believe this model will maximize the return on capital investment in our relaxation salon segment, accelerate salon openings by reinvesting the proceeds from the sales of salons, improve operational efficiency by focusing on salon operations, and generate additional income from the salons that were sold to investors and are under our management. As of December 31, 2022, 31 investor-owned salons are under our management, as compared to 12 salons as of December 31, 2021.

Focus on Margin Improvement and Leveraged Use of Infrastructure. We believe our corporate infrastructure is positioned to support a customer base greater than our existing footprint. As we are still recovering from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we believe we have a great potential to attract more customers, utilize our currently idle capacities at certain salons, and improve our workforce management. We plan to closely monitor our operational metrics such as sales per salon, number of customers served per salon, sales per customer, total working hours per salon and total hours in service per salon. We also plan to replace our existing employee evaluation and incentive systems to better motivate our employees to meet certain performance targets assigned to them.

As we continue to grow, we expect to drive greater efficiencies across our operations and development and marketing organizations and further leverage our technology and existing support infrastructure. We believe we will be able to reduce the percentage of corporate costs to revenue over time to enhance margins as general and administrative expenses are expected to grow at a slower rate due to expected efficiencies of scale as we expand our salon network.

Marketing and Advertising Strategy. We conduct most of our marketing and advertising on our website and through print advertisements in magazines. In addition, our salons are strategically located in areas near train stations and shopping centers that are advertising and marketing drivers. Furthermore, in addition to our effort to improve margins at our relaxation salons, we will enhance our digital marketing initiatives to increase revenue, including launching our brands’ smart phone apps to retain our repeat customers and improve the frequency of customer visits. The Re.Ra.Ku® application, which is specialized app for our relaxation salons, was released in October 2022. The application has accumulative 74,061 downloads as of the end of December 2022, and 8.5% of all reservations at our relaxion salons are made through the application in December 2022.

Healthtech Strategy.  We plan to invest in and grow the Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment with a higher margin. We intend to increase the number of Lav® users via the Specific Health Guidance Program promoted by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. In addition, we expect to expand the billing user base for the upgraded Lav® application. We also intend to accelerate the production of our MOTHER Bracelet® . We are actively

40

expanding revenue streams from MOTHER Bracelet® in both B2B and B2C domains. We are now ramping up our sales efforts and developing a centralized monitoring system that allows hospitals and nursing home operators to remotely monitor health data of their patients or residents using the MOTHER Bracelets® on the condition that such patients or residents would agree to sharing their personal health data with their healthcare or health service providers. We are currently conducting trials with patients using nursing care services. We believe no other wearable device manufacturer or service provider supplies such a product comparable to MOTHER Bracelet®, which enables our business customers to collect data from a large number of customers through a centralized monitoring system. However, health data generated from other devices (e.g. Apple Watch, Garmin, Fitbit, etc.) are only available in the device itself and smartphone applications linked to the individual subscribers due to their closed SDK policy.

We experience significant competition, in all aspects of our business, including for highly skilled relaxation therapists and for the best salon locations. Our directly-operated and franchised relaxation salons compete with national and regional relaxation salon chains for customers, relaxation salon locations and qualified management and other staff, including relaxation therapists. Competition in our industry is primarily based on price, convenience, quality of service, brand recognition, and location. We consider our biggest competitors to be K.K. Factory Japan (Karada Factory) and K.K. Bodywork (Raffine), both of which are operators of relaxation salons in Japan.

Although the Luxury Beauty Segment also experiences competition, ZACC does not enter into price competition due to the strength of its brand. A key factor for brand strength is the retention rate of the senior hair stylists employed by ZACC.

In our Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment, we face competition from large incumbents in the traditional and digital advertising space and, to a lesser extent, startups in the health tech industry. Given the unique value proposition and startup nature of our growth segments, we remain focused on transaction level priorities, winning clients through our platform capabilities and features and benefits and leveraging relationships over what other incumbents may be doing in the space.

Our Competitive Strengths

We are a defined leader in Japan's health and wellness space. We provide ground-up educational and training services for aspiring specialists, as well as top of the line health services for our customers. As we continue to grow and expand, the brand recognition that we enjoy across Japan will help promote our new digital business lines. We believe the following strengths have contributed to our initial success and will position us well for future growth:

Innovative Services.  Our salon services are innovative and differ from traditional shiatsu-style bodywork. For example, we created our unique wing stretch method, which focuses especially on the shoulder blades. This is important because the shoulder blades are a critical part of the body, as they connect and balance the bones from the neck to the lower back and support the body to ensure the body moves smoothly. Further, traditional shiatsu-style bodywork therapists typically use their body weight to put pressure on the muscles, which can cause damage. Our relaxation therapists use stretch techniques on the muscles, rather than body weight pressure, thereby preventing damage. We believe our non-pressure method mitigates the risk of severe malpractice and other similar claims. Finally, our relaxation therapists are trained to converse with our customers, to ask our customers questions in order

41

to tailor the therapy to the customers' unique needs, and to promote self-care by communicating with our customers about their current body ailments and to give advice for future visits.

Graphic

Brand Value.  We believe our trademarks and other intellectual property create a strong competitive advantage in our Relaxation Salon Segment, Luxury Beauty Segment and Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment. With widespread recognition in the Kanto region and across Japan, our Company, benefits from a loyal customer base and brand recognition that allows for smooth scaling of growth businesses.

Employee Satisfaction.  We employ a majority of our therapists on a salaried basis, rather than a commission-based contractor model normally used in the industry. High turn-over rate and difficulty in hiring skilled labor are challenges facing the relaxation industry. We have invested culturally and economically to create a career progression for our therapists so they will stay and grow with our Company. We believe that our industry-leading employee satisfaction levels contributed to employees’ high morale, which is evidenced by the fact that we were awarded the Grand Prix for the relaxation sector’s top therapist and best salon award in Japan in 2019, as well as the Semi-Grand Prix for the individual therapist and the Grand Prix for the best salon award in 2021. This is particularly important as high turnover reduces or disrupts available investment in capital because of the costs associated with hiring and training new employees. We continue to optimize our working environment for therapists in an effort to improve morale, productivity and a long-term orientation to their work and status within the Company.

Re.Ra.Ku® College.  We believe we own one of the largest in scale and best in-class education and training facilities for relaxation therapists in the Japanese relaxation industry, which enables us to provide continuous training to our franchise owners and salon staff, as well as continuous direct access to a pool of newly trained and job-ready staff. We focus on providing constant trainings and learning opportunities to our therapists to ensure the quality of our services is consistent throughout our salons. Our Company requires a higher threshold of training before allowing trainees to work with our clients in our salons. We find that this rigorous skill training system better prepares our students and has proven effective for our salons. We provide 54-hour training programs. Each training module can be taken randomly, rather than in a series, for the trainees' convenience. Moreover, we provide the follow-up training courses, based on which we evaluate and grade the practitioners' skills. We believe this is a different approach from certain of our competitors, who tend to utilize practitioners on a contract basis. Our training package enables our therapists to improve their treatment skills continuously and, importantly, to maintain high morale.

42

Graphic

Specific Health Guidance Program (via Lav® Application (ToB)).  As a leading provider of holistic health services, we have been engaged in the government-initiated program, Specific Health Guidance Program, for the use of our on-demand health monitoring application, Lav®. As a government (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare)-subsidized program, participating companies need to maintain quality controls. Partners and service providers are vetted and must adhere to standards that are established by each of the health insurance providers. This business is currently entering into a growth phase. We have entered into contracts with 59 corporate insurance associations for its Specific Health Guidance Program provided via Lav®, as of December 31, 2022.

Until recently, the goals of health checkups and health guidance have been early identification and treatment of sickness. By focusing on visceral-fat obesity, specific health checkups and specific health guidance are intended to decrease the numbers of those who suffer from, or are at risk for, lifestyle-related conditions such as diabetes, through providing health guidance to help them improve the living habits that cause visceral-fat obesity (i.e., disease prevention). Since lifestyle-related conditions progress with no visible symptoms, specific health checkups, which are comprised of health screenings intended to identify those who require health guidance to prevent lifestyle-related conditions, are considered to be an excellent opportunity to review the individual's living habits. Health guidance is provided to help the individual change his or her behavior. All those who have undergone specific health checkups are provided with information suited to their own individual circumstances.

Based on the results of specific health checkups, persons eligible for specific health guidance are identified by level (that is, those eligible for motivational support and those eligible for active support) in accordance with their risk levels, by focusing on the degree of visceral fat buildup and numbers of risk factors. The goals of specific health guidance are to enable eligible persons to be aware of their own health conditions and make voluntary efforts, on a continual basis, to improve their own living habits. Participants are provided with a variety of motivational information and advice to help them live healthier lifestyles on their own. Motivational support provides support to encourage improvements in living habits, in principle, one time.

The Specific Health Guidance Program provides continual support in multiple sessions over three months or longer. An action plan is prepared with the guidance of the specialists such as doctors, health nurses, and nutritionists, and provides motivational support to improve their daily habits that are related to each individual’s heath. We have engaged several experienced nutritionists and healthcare professionals as designated coaches by entering into service agreements for this purpose. These therapists and nutritionists help provide an integrated bodywork (physical body), encouragement and inspiration (mental), and dietary guidelines (metabolic/diet). Specialists provide regular, continual support for efforts to improve living habits over a period of three months or longer.

Graphic

43

Lav® Application (ToC). We launched an upgraded version of Lav® application for BtoC in July 2021. The updated Lav® application offers menus such as detox, weight control, and exercise programs. For this consumer version of the Lav® application, we are engaging more in-house therapists as coaches with the aim of increasing their income. We are also focused on increasing the sales of the Lav® program targeting our existing customers at the salon locations. We believe that Lav® application is unique in that it provides a comprehensive support and guidance for not only nutrition but also exercise and sleep based on physician-supervised methods. We have advantages in securing sufficient number of coaches as needed since we can recruit our existing therapists to be coaches for such purposes.

MOTHER Bracelet®.   Our MOTHER Bracelet® fitness device is designed to track and collect the user’s health data, such as calorie consumption, activity and sleep patterns. MOTHER Bracelet® records user’s activities, sleep duration and pattern, body temperature, and heart rate continuously without the need for re-charging. We have also developed MOTHER application, which synchronizes with MOTHER Bracelet® and allows users to access such records.

We believe our MOTHER Bracelet® is the only fitness tracker that requires no electric charging as it will utilize innovative technology such as Gemini TEG (Thermoelectric Generator) and Mercury Boost Converter to enable the user's body heat to generate electricity. We are not aware of any other wearable devices equipped with NFC currently in the market with equivalent capabilities at this time.

Graphic

    

Graphic

    

Graphic

We are actively expanding revenue streams from MOTHER Bracelet® in both B2B and B2C fields. We are now ramping up our sales efforts and developing a centralized monitoring system that allows hospitals and nursing home operators to remotely monitor health data of their patients or residents with MOTHER Bracelets®. We are currently conducting trials with patients receiving nursing care services.

In 2022, we sold a total of 12,362 units MOTHER Bracelet® , and generated a total revenue of JPY 340,289 thousand (US$ 2,582 thousand) from such sales.

MOTHER Bracelet® is unique in its SDK (Software Development Kit) open policy. By making the SDK publicly available, we allow and encourage software and hardware developers to customize the management of healthcare data for their own purposes. We are building this data management platform to serve the various lifestyles of users. We are planning to upgrade the device for the medical field by incorporating the requests from medical institutions in the future.

Our standard character trademark application for MOTHER Bracelet® was approved and registered by the Japan Patent Office in February 2022. Our applications to register MOTHER Bracelet logo are currently pending with the Japan Patent Office.

44

Attractive Market Opportunity

Relaxation Industry Growth

According to the 2022 Yano Report, the Japanese relaxation sector is expected to continue to lead overall GDP growth, which is expected to increase 1.72% from JPY114 billion (US$990 million) in 2022 to JPY120 billion (US$1 billion) in 2025, while national GDP is expected to grow by 1.2% from 2022 to 2026, according to Daiwa Research Institute Economic Report (dated January 24, 2022).

Graphic

Source: 2022 Yano Report

We believe the sector continues to see outsized growth as consumers in an already health-conscious country increasingly value health and wellness of both body and mind. Concurrently, large companies, in partnership with or through subsidies received from the government, increasingly factor in employee wellness for both productivity and for retention, loyalty, and satisfaction with the employer. This has led to the creation of corporate budgets, often with government subsidies, earmarked for employee health and wellness programs, insurance programs, fitness and gym memberships which further increases spend in the market. While 51% of the market is occupied by mid to large chains like ours, most of the market consists of small, locally-owned salons, 68.9% of which are estimated to be individual-run single outlets.

M&A, Consolidation, and Industry Rationalizations

The relaxation sector in Japan faces structural changes that have accelerated mergers and acquisitions and consolidations. As smaller, private operators either fail to grow sufficient revenue to cover costs and owners of larger, established companies seek to exit for retirement or other reasons, an increasing number of sellers have attracted both industry players as well as financial sponsors. We believe the gating factors remain synergies between the acquirer and target, including a pragmatic approach to M&A integration, post-acquisition operations, and preservation of brand and customer base. Purchase price remains a more muted factor which affords compelling valuation creation for the right strategic acquirer.

Integrated Health Solutions, Analytics and Targeting

The Japanese government and major corporate sponsors in the country have accelerated needs for preventative care and ascribing key factors affecting health outcomes. As demographics continue to focus on the elderly and insurance plans face uncertain or insufficient returns relative to premiums, major health insurance companies and the government require solutions to target problems, streamline costs, and save lives through a preventative focus. This has resulted in government budgets and subsidies earmarked for improving employee health and increased incentives for understanding, diagnosing, and creating action plans to address health issues. We believe our platform and technology allow us to serve government and corporate entities with a one-stop shop, data-driven and targeted solution service.

45

Global Expansion Opportunities

We focus on core competencies within the local markets of Japan, although we opportunistically assess franchising or partnerships abroad for our core salon business, and B2B2C distribution models for MOTHER Bracelet® and other digital businesses through online marketing, commerce, and joint ventures. We believe the wearables market and omnichannel distribution trends, particularly online commerce, remain attractive avenues of growth for our Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment.

Employees

As of December 31, 2022, we had 411 employees on a full-time basis, 520 employees on a part-time basis, and 48 employees on a fixed-term basis. Most of our employees are directly employed by our wholly-owned subsidiary, Medirom Human Resources Inc. Our Company is not currently, and has not in the past, been unionized. As such, neither we nor our franchisees are required to engage in collective bargaining procedures with any unions under Japanese labor laws.

We do not use contract employees hired by any third-party agencies in the relaxation salon. Our employees are paid on a salary basis. We also offer various incentive programs which vary based on the employment status. Our new incentive program, which became effective on July 1, 2022, aims to reward those who make continuous efforts to improve their skills and performance and raise the overall quality level of the employees.

Property and Equipment

As of December 31, 2022, we have 312 relaxation salons, each of which is leased at train and subway stations, shopping malls, plazas, and high-traffic streets throughout Japan. We invest in leasehold improvement, equipment, and furniture in our directly-operated salons. The terms and conditions of the lease arrangements varies by agreement.

Our corporate headquarters are located at 2-3-1 Daiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. The term of our lease for this location was renewed on December 1, 2022 for an additional term of two years. Our Re.Ra.Ku® College is annexed to our corporate headquarters, and we also have branch school locations in Nagoya and Osaka.

Intellectual Property

To establish and protect our proprietary rights, we rely on a combination of trademarks, confidentiality policies and procedures, non-disclosure agreements with third parties, employee non-disclosure agreements, and other contractual and implicit rights worldwide. We have 38 registered trademarks as of December 31, 2022, and other names and logos used by our Company as trademarks with the Japan Patent Office, two of which are registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and one of which is registered with the China National Intellectual Property Administration. Our principal intellectual property rights include the trademark “Re.Ra.Ku. ®”, which is our core brand, and the standard character trademark “MOTHER Bracelet®”, copyrights in our website and mobile applications content for MOTHER Bracelet® and Lav®, rights to our domain name https://medirom.co.jp and https://mother-bracelet.com, trade secrets and know-how with respect to our training, servicing, sales and marketing and other aspects of our business, and our digital innovations such as the MOTHER application and Lav® application. The success of our business strategy depends on our continued ability to use our existing intellectual property in order to increase brand awareness and develop our branded services. If our efforts to protect our intellectual property are not adequate, or if any third party misappropriates or infringes on our intellectual property, whether in print, on the Internet or through other media, the value of our brands may be harmed, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, including the failure of our brands and branded services to achieve and maintain market acceptance. There can be no assurance that all of the steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property in Japan or outside Japan in relevant foreign countries will be adequate. In addition, in light of our intention to expand internationally, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of Japan. If any of our trademarks, trade secrets or other intellectual property are infringed, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

In addition, third parties may assert infringement or misappropriation claims against us, or assert claims that our rights in our trademarks, patents and other intellectual property assets are invalid or unenforceable. Any such claims could have a material adverse effect on us or our franchisees if such claims were to be decided against us. If our

46

rights in any intellectual property were invalidated or deemed unenforceable, it could permit competing uses of intellectual property which, in turn, could lead to a decline in relaxation salon and other revenues. If the intellectual property became subject to third party infringement, misappropriation or other claims, and such claims were decided against us, we may be forced to pay damages, be required to develop or adopt non-infringing intellectual property or be obligated to acquire a license to the intellectual property that is the subject of the asserted claim. There could be significant expenses associated with the defense of any infringement, misappropriation, or other third-party claims.

Legal and Administrative Matters

We are currently not a party to any material legal or administrative proceedings. We may from time to time be subject to various legal or administrative claims and proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business, including matters involving our franchisees, among others. Any litigation or other legal or administrative proceedings, regardless of the outcome, are likely to result in substantial costs and a diversion of our resources, including our management's time and attention.

Nasdaq Notification Letters

On January 18, 2022, the Company received a written notification (the “Notification Letter”) from The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”), notifying the Company that it was not in compliance with the minimum market value requirement set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rules for continued listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market. Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(2) requires companies to maintain a minimum market value of $35 million and Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(C) provides that a failure to meet the minimum market value requirement exists if the deficiency continues for a period of 30 consecutive business days. Based on the market value of the Company from November 23, 2021 to January 14, 2022, the Company no longer met the minimum market value requirement. The Notification Letter did not impact the Company’s listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market at that time. In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(C), the Company was provided 180 calendar days, or until July 18, 2022, to regain compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(2). To regain compliance, the Company’s market value must exceed $35 million for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days. The Company’s business operations were not affected by the receipt of the Notification Letter.

On April 19, 2022, Nasdaq issued a notice to the Company stating that Nasdaq has determined that for 10 consecutive business days, from April 10, 2022 to April 19, 2022, the Company’s market value of listed securities was $35,000,000 or greater. Accordingly, the Company has regained compliance with the Rule.

On June 29, 2022, the Company received a second written notification letter (the “Second Notification Letter”) from Nasdaq, notifying the Company that it was not in compliance with the minimum market value requirement set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rules for continued listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market. Based on the market value of the Company from May 9, 2022 to June 28, 2022, the Company no longer met the minimum market value requirement. The Second Notification Letter did not impact the Company’s listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market at that time. In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(C), the Company was provided 180 calendar days, or until December 27, 2022, to regain compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(2). To regain compliance, the Company’s market value must exceed $35 million for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days. The Company’s business operations were not affected by the receipt of the Second Notification Letter.

On December 28, 2022, the Company received a written notice from Nasdaq, notifying the Company that, based on the Company’s non-compliance with the $35 million market value of listed securities requirement set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(2) as of December 27, 2022, the Company’s American ADSs, representing common shares of the Company, were to be suspended from trading on and delisted from Nasdaq, subject to notice of appeal. On January 3, 2023, the Company requested a hearing before a Nasdaq Hearing Panel (the “Panel”) to appeal the delisting determination, which hearing was granted and held on February 16, 2023. For more information, see also “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Ownership of the ADSs—ADSs representing our common shares are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market. As such, we must meet the Nasdaq Capital Market’s continued listing requirements and other Nasdaq rules, or we may risk delisting. Delisting could negatively affect the price of our ADSs, which could make it more difficult for us to sell securities in a financing and for you to sell your ADSs” and “—Subsequent Event—Nasdaq Hearing” below.

47

Subsequent Event

10-b5-1 Share Repurchase Plan

On January 19, 2023, COZY LLC (“COZY”), a company owned and controlled by Kouji Eguchi, the CEO and controlling shareholder of our Company, entered into a stock repurchase plan (the “Plan”) with a U.S. investment bank, for the purchase, from time to time during the period commencing on February 13, 2023 and ending on March 31, 2023 in accordance with the terms of the Plan, of up to JPY50 million of the ADSs. On January 18, 2023, our Board of Directors approved the Plan. The Plan was made in accordance with Rules 10b5-1 and 10b-18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.. The timing and manner of the purchases and the price and amount of ADSs to be purchased would depend on a number of factors, including without limitation, market price of ADSs, general market and economic conditions, applicable legal requirements and other price, market, volume and timing constraints specified in the Plan, and there was no assurance that any ADSs would be purchased under the Plan at all. All purchases of ADSs made under the Plan were funded by Mr. Eguchi personally. As of March 31, 2023 when the Plan ended, a total of 22,543 ADSs (representing a total purchase price of approximately JPY19.0 million) was purchased by COZY under the Plan.

Nasdaq Hearing

On March 15, 2023, we received a written notice from the Panel granting our request for continued listing on Nasdaq until May 1, 2023, subject to evidencing compliance by such date with the net income standard set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(3), which requires a minimum net income from continuing operations of $500,000 in the most recently completed fiscal year or two of the last three most recently completed fiscal years. On April 28, 2023, we received a written notice from the Panel granting our request for an extension until May 19, 2023 to demonstrate compliance with the net income standard. On May 23, 2023, we received a written determination from the Panel granting our request for a further extension until May 30, 2023 to demonstrate compliance with the net income standard, and a written notice from Nasdaq notifying us that we were not in compliance with the periodic filing requirements for continued listing set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5250(c)(1) due to the delay in the filing of this Annual Report. Our net income for the year ended December 31, 2022 is $1.1 million, as included in the audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report. As such, we expect to regain compliance with the Nasdaq Listing Rules 5550(b)(3) and 5250(c)(1). For more information, see also “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Ownership of the ADSs—ADSs representing our common shares are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market. As such, we must meet the Nasdaq Capital Market’s continued listing requirements and other Nasdaq rules, or we may risk delisting. Delisting could negatively affect the price of our ADSs, which could make it more difficult for us to sell securities in a financing and for you to sell your ADSs.”

Net Assets Requirements Related to Our “Re.Ra.Ku Cards

One of the requirements for issuers of prepaid cards under the Settlement Act is to maintain net assets of not less than JPY100 million based on Japanese GAAP. As of December 31, 2022, our net assets have fallen below JPY100 million based on Japanese GAAP on a standalone basis. In early 2022, we failed to meet such standard but were able to recover subsequently. On March 20, 2023, we reported this matter to the Kanto Local Financial Bureau and are currently in consultation with the regulatory authority for administrative guidance. If we fail to show a concrete plan to rectify the situation in the foreseeable future, our registration granted as the issuer of the prepaid cards may be revoked and we may be required to refund any unused prepaid card balance to customers who have purchased the prepaid cards. See “—Regulations Governing Prepaid Cards” below for more detail.

For further information regarding these subsequent events, please see Note 19: Subsequent Events to our audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 included elsewhere in this annual report.

Regulations Governing our Relaxations Salons

Relaxation salons such as ours are not currently regulated by the Japanese government. The main law in Japan governing the massage industry is the Act on Practitioners of Massage, Acupressure, Acupuncture and Moxibustion, and etc. (Act No. 217 of 1947). However, we do not market or provide massage, finger pressure, acupuncture, moxa-cauterization or other services regulated under this Act, and this information is clearly provided to all customers prior to them receiving our salon services.

48

Regulations Governing our Franchises

Japan has antitrust laws that protect consumers and regulate how companies operate their businesses. Among the various Japanese antitrust laws, the seminal antitrust law is the Act on Prohibition of Private Monopolization and Maintenance of Fair Trade (Act No. 54 of 1947, as amended) (which we refer to as the “Antimonopoly Act”). The Antimonopoly Act prohibits certain activities that inappropriately induce or mislead persons into entering into a business relationship with us through our granting of seemingly preferable trade terms and conditions that could create false impressions in relation to other franchisors we compete with.

The Japan Fair Trade Commission (which we refer to as the “JFTC”) enforces the Antimonopoly Act and other Japanese antitrust laws. The JFTC issued the “Guidelines Concerning the Franchise System Under the Antimonopoly Act” on April 24, 2002 (last amended on April 28, 2021) (which we refer to as the “Guidelines”), under which the JFTC suggests that, prior to entering into a franchise relationship, a franchisor should adequately disclose and explain material trade terms to a potential franchisee in order to prevent any misunderstanding of the material trade terms, and to prevent such potential franchisee from being misled or improperly induced into entering into such franchise relationship. Material trade terms include terms relating to the following:

the supply of products after the party becomes a franchisee (such as a system for recommending suppliers);
guidance, procedures, frequency, and cost to the franchisee relating to the business activities of the franchise;
nature and amount of payments to be collected when the party joins the franchise, whether the payments are refundable or may be returned, and the conditions for refunding or returning the payments;
royalties that the franchisee pays to the franchisor for use of trademarks and trade names and for guidance relating to management procedures, including the amount of, procedure for calculating, and the time and method of payment, of royalties;
loans the franchisor extends to the franchisee, including the interest rate and the mechanism and conditions of settlement;
compensation for any losses the business incurs, including the details of such compensation and whether there is management support from the franchisor in the event of a decline in business;
terms of the franchise agreement and the conditions and procedures for renewing or terminating the franchise agreement, including early termination prior to the expiration of its term; and
restrictions with respect to the franchisor or other franchisees of the franchise setting up an identical or similar business near the proposed business of the potential party to join the franchise, including whether there are any plans to set up additional businesses and the details of such plans.

In addition, when a franchisor markets its franchise, in the event such franchisor provides a prospective franchisee with an estimate of the revenue or profit that could possibly be generated upon becoming a franchisee, such estimated revenue or profit must be based on a reasonable method of calculation and established facts, such as the results of an existing franchise operating in a similar environment. The franchisor is required to present to the prospective franchisee such methods and facts.

If the JFTC finds any activities that violate the Antimonopoly Act, including any “deceptive customer inducement”, then the JFTC may order the offending franchisor to cease and desist from engaging in such unlawful activities, delete any applicable unlawful clauses from the franchise contract, or carry out any other measures necessary to eliminate such unlawful activities.

In the event the JFTC suspects any violation of the Antimonopoly Act or alleges that we have misled or wrongly induced any of our franchisees based upon any particular trade terms, we could be exposed to risks, including governmental action against us.

49

Regulations Governing Prepaid Cards

We began issuing our prepaid Re.Ra.Ku® Cards to relaxation salon customers starting in December 2008. Re.Ra.Ku® Card users can continuously use and also replenish the card at our relaxation salons. Prepaid cards are generally considered “prepaid payment methods” (which we refer to as “PPMs”) under the Act on Settlement of Funds (Act No. 59 of 2009) (which we refer to as the “Settlement Act”). PPMs are regulated under the Settlement Act so long as there is a possibility that the cards could be valid for a period of more than six months. The Re.Ra.Ku® Cards currently do not have expiration dates and therefore are regulated under the Settlement Act.

Issuers of prepaid cards with a validity of longer than six months are referred to as “PPM Providers.” There are two categories of PPM Providers:

(i)a provider of prepaid cards that can only be used to purchase goods or services from that same provider or its affiliates, referred to as a “Private Use PPM Provider”; and
(ii)a provider of prepaid cards that can be used at third party establishments, referred to as “Public Use PPM Providers.”

The Re.Ra.Ku® Card can be used at salons operated by our franchisees, which are considered third parties for the purposes of the Settlement Act. As such, we are considered a Public Use PPM Provider. A Public Use PPM Provider must file an application with the Kanto Local Financial Bureau and be allowed for a registration to issue PPM cards. On September 30, 2016, we were allowed for our registration from the Kanto Local Financial Bureau.

A PPM Provider typically holds a certain amount of its customers’ cash in the form of prepaid amounts on the cards that have not yet been exchanged for goods or services. The total of such amounts for all customers of a PPM Provider is referred to as the “Outstanding Amount.” A Public Use PPM Provider is required to maintain deposits of at least half of its Outstanding Amount at the local Legal Affairs Bureau (although other arrangements are possible), in order to ensure that there are adequate funds for the card holders who are effectively loaning their money to the Public Use PPM Provider through their purchase of the prepaid card. At the end of March and September each year, the Public Use PPM Provider must calculate its Outstanding Amount and deposit half that amount at the Legal Affairs Bureau within two months. In the following year, if the Outstanding Amount has increased, the Public Use PPM Provider must pay the difference between such Outstanding Amount and the amount deposited with the Legal Affairs Bureau. We made our initial deposit of our Outstanding Amount with the Legal Affairs Bureau on November 28, 2016, in the amount of JPY125,261 (US$950 thousand), and made additional deposits and adjustments with each semi-annual reporting.

For the semi-annual reporting period ending September 30, 2022, we made a deposit payment of JPY 57,820 thousand (US$439 thousand) on December 30, 2022. Since the deposit payment was made one month late from the deadline, we made a separate filing of the detailed report for missing the deadline, and attended the hearing conducted by the Kanto Local Financial Bureau on March 7, 2023. After filing the report and attending the hearing, our responses were accepted by the authority and the matter was closed.

One of the requirements for issuers of prepaid cards under the Settlement Act is to maintain net assets of not less than JPY100 million based on Japanese GAAP. As of December 31, 2022, our net assets have fallen below JPY100 million based on Japanese GAAP on a standalone basis. In early 2022, we failed to meet such standard but were able to recover subsequently. On March 20, 2023, we reported the matter to the Kanto Local Financial Bureau and are currently in consultation with the regulatory authority for administrative guidance. If we fail to show a concrete plan to rectify the situation in the foreseeable future, our registration granted as the issuer of the prepaid cards may be revoked and we may be required to refund any unused prepaid card balance to customers who have purchased the prepaid cards.

Given the heavy burden imposed on us as a Public Use PPM Provider, our board of directors has begun discussions on shifting from the current prepaid card model to the issuance of tickets that expire within six months after purchase. Under this model, we believe we will no longer be classified as a Public Use PPM Provider. Therefore, we are considering ways to reduce the amount of new issuance and gradually shift towards a new system that will not be subject to the Settlement Act.

50

Personal Information Protection

We are subject to laws and regulations regarding privacy and protection of user data and personal information, due to our customer data collection operations in connection with our Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment. The application and interpretation of these and other similar international laws and regulations regarding privacy and protection of user data and personal information is often uncertain, particularly with respect to the new and rapidly evolving industry in which we operate.

In Japan, the Act on the Protection of Personal Information (which we refer to as the “APPI”) and its related guidelines impose various requirements on businesses, including us, that use databases containing personal information. Under the APPI, we are required to lawfully use personal information we have obtained within the purpose of use we have specified and take appropriate measures to maintain the security of such personal information. We are also restricted from providing personal information to third parties without the consent of such user. The APPI also includes regulations relating to the handling of sensitive personal data and anonymous personal data and the transfer of personal information to foreign countries. We collect information from our relaxation salon customers through the questionnaire completed by each first-time customer. Some of the information we collect through that questionnaire could fall under the category of sensitive personal data under the APPI.

We obtained the “PrivacyMark” certification in Japan in July 2022. “PrivacyMark” is a certification which is given to enterprises that take appropriate measures to protect personal information. The “PrivacyMark” System was established by the Japan Information Processing Development Corporation (JIPDEC) in April 1998, and the “PrivacyMark” is certified and granted by JIPDEC as well as other designated organizations. Such private enterprises are granted the right to display "PrivacyMark" in the course of their business activities. The system is in compliance with Japan Industrial Standards (JIS Q 15001: [Personal Information Protection Management System - Requirements]). This “PrivacyMark” certification is highly valued and provides credibility. Therefore, it is often required by our business associates in the Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment, including health insurance providers, hospitals, and nursing homes. We will continue to take necessary actions in order to maintain this certification.

Graphic

C.Organizational Structure

Our principal operating subsidiaries at December 31, 2022 are as follows:

    

Jurisdiction

    

Percentage Interest Held

Bell & Joy Power Partners Inc.

Japan

100%

WING Inc.

Japan

100%

JOYHANDS WELLNESS Inc.

Japan

100%

Medirom Human Resources Inc.

Japan

100%

SAWAN CO. LTD.

Japan

100%

ZACC Kabushiki Kaisha

Japan

100%

D.Property, Plants and Equipment

Please see a detailed discussion of our property, plants and equipment under “Item 4. Information of the Company— Property and Equipment”.

51

ITEM 4.A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the sections of this annual report entitled “Selected Financial Data” and “Business”, and our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto, included elsewhere in this annual report. In addition to historical financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current plans, expectations, estimates and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this annual report, particularly in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

We have prepared our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Our fiscal year ends on December 31 and references to fiscal years 2020, 2021, and 2022 are to the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022, respectively. In accordance with Instruction 6 to Item 5 of Form 20-F, we are omitting from this annual report a discussion of our results of operations for fiscal year 2020. For a discussion of our results of operations for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020compared with the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating Results” from our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, as filed with the SEC on November 14, 2021.

Overview

Our principal business is to own, develop, operate, manage, and support relaxation salons through franchising, through direct ownership of such salons, or through selling salons to investors and managing such salon operations on behalf of the investors, throughout Japan. We seek to be the leading provider of relaxation and bodywork services in the markets we serve and to become the most recognized brand in our industry through the steady and focused expansion of relaxation salons in key markets throughout Japan and potentially abroad.

As of December 31, 2022, we and our franchisees operated 312 salons, of which 168 were operated as Company-owned salons, 113 were operated by our franchisees, and 31 were investor-owned salons which the Company operated on their behalf. We consider both Company-owned salons and investor-owned salons which are managed by us as “directly-operated salons”.

Our current strategy is to grow our business through development of additional franchises, and to continue to expand the number of our directly-operated salons in a deliberate and measured manner. In addition, we believe that we can continue the development of, and revenue generation from, Company-operated salons through further selective acquisition of existing franchised salons and the opening of greenfield units. We will seek to acquire existing franchised salons that meet our criteria for demographics, site attractiveness, proximity to other salons, and other suitability factors.

Key Financial Definitions

Revenue.   Revenue consists of the following items: revenue from directly-operated salons, franchise revenue, and other revenues.

Cost of Revenue.   The total cost of delivering services to customers consists of the following items: cost of goods sold, subcontract expenses, cost of franchise royalty and affiliation revenue, salon operating cost, salaries for therapists, legal and welfare expenses, provision for paid annual leave, travelling expenses, salon rent, depreciation and amortization, gain/loss from asset retirement obligation, interest expenses for asset retirement obligation, business consignment expenses, and others.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses.   Selling, general and administrative expenses, or SG&A, includes the costs to sell and deliver services and the costs to manage the company as follows: directors’ compensations, salaries and allowances, bonuses, legal welfare expenses, provision for paid annual leave, recruiting

52

expenses, travel expenses, advertising expenses, rent, taxes and duties, commission fees, compensations, depreciation and amortization, provision for doubtful accounts, and others.

Impairment Loss on Long-lived Assets. Long-lived assets include property and equipment, right-of-use lease assets, internal use software, and definite-lived intangible assets. The Company reviews the carrying value of long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or circumstances occur that indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. If the assets are not deemed to be recoverable, an impairment is recorded if the fair value of the asset grouping is less than the carrying value.

Non-U.S. GAAP Measures

Financial Expense and Income.   We define financial expense and income as dividend income plus interest income less interest expense and use it to measure net financial burden of our borrowings.

Adjusted EBITDA.   We define Adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss), adjusted to exclude: (i) dividend and interest income, (ii) interest expense, (iii) gain from bargain purchases, (iv) other, net, (v) income tax expense, (vi) depreciation and amortization, (vii) losses on sales of directly-owned salons to franchisees, (viii) gains (losses) on disposal of property and equipment, and other intangible assets, (ix) impairment loss on long-lived assets and (x) stock-based compensation expense. Management considers Adjusted EBITDA to be a measurement of performance which provides useful information to both management and investors. Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered an alternative to net income or other measurements under GAAP. Adjusted EBITDA is not calculated identically by all companies and, therefore, our measurements of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.

We use Adjusted EBITDA to enhance our understanding of our operating performance, which represents our views concerning our performance in the ordinary, ongoing and customary course of our operations. We historically have found it helpful, and believe that investors have found it helpful, to consider an operating measure that excludes certain expenses relating to transactions not reflective of our core operations. Stock-based compensation expense represents non-cash charges related to equity awards granted by us. We recognized stock-based compensation expense in 2021. Our management believes the measurement of these amounts can vary considerably from period to period and depend substantially on factors that are not direct consequences of the performance of our Company and are not within our management’s control. Therefore, our management believes that excluding these expenses facilitates comparisons of our operational results and financial performances in different periods, as well as comparisons against similarly determined non-GAAP financial measures of comparable companies.

The information about our operating performance provided by this financial measure is used by our management for a variety of purposes. We regularly communicate Adjusted EBITDA results to our board of directors, and we discuss with the board our interpretation of such results. We also compare our Adjusted EBITDA performance against internal targets as a key factor in evaluating our periodic operating performance at each salon level, segment level, and consolidated level, largely because we believe that this measure is indicative of how the fundamental business is performing and is being managed.

Adjusted EBITDA Margin.   Adjusted EBITDA margin is calculated by dividing Adjusted EBITDA for a period by total revenue for the same period.

CAPEX.   Capital expenditure, or CAPEX, is the sum of investment amounts on tangible fixed assets and intangible assets during the period. These investment activities consist of acquisitions of property and equipment, acquisitions of businesses, and cost additions to internal use software. CAPEX—paid-out cash basis is the cash amount actually paid during the period to the CAPEX investments defined above, while CAPEX—paid-out cash plus future payment obligation basis is the sum of CAPEX—paid-out cash basis and the unpaid but obliged to pay amounts in the future to the same capital investments which remain on our consolidated balance sheet as accounts payable or accrued expenses.

Key Performance Indicators

In assessing the performance of our relaxation business, we consider several key performance indicators used by management. We receive monthly performance reports from our system and our relaxation salons which include key performance indicators per salon including sales, number of customers, number of newly-acquired customers,

53

number of repeat customers, sales per customer, and operation ratio. We believe these indicators provide us with useful data with which to measure our performance and to measure the performance of our own and our franchisees’ relaxation salons.

These key indicators include:

Number of Salons.   Directly-operated salons, and franchisees’ relaxation salons.
Number of Salons with Data. The number of relaxation salons for which comparable financial and customer data is available.
Total Customers Served.   The number of customers serviced at relaxation salons (other than JOYHANDS WELLNESS, SAWAN, and certain other salons in which our point-of-sale system is not installed and therefore, comparative financial and customer data is not available).
Sales Per Customer.   The ratio of total salon sales to number of treated customers at relaxation salons (other than JOYHANDS WELLNESS, SAWAN, and certain other salons for which comparative financial and customer data is not available).
Repeat Ratio.    The ratio of repeat customer visits to total customer visits in the applicable month or other stated period for all relaxation salons for which comparable financial and customer data is available.
Operation Ratio.   The ratio of therapists’ in-service time to total therapists’ working hours (including stand-by time) for the applicable month or other stated period for all relaxation salons for which comparable financial and customer data is available.

The following table sets forth the above key performance indicators for the periods presented:

    

Number
of
Salons

    

Number
of Salons
with Data

    

Total
Customers
Served

    

Sales Per
Customer

    

Repeat
Ratio

    

Operation
Ratio

21-Jan

302

218

56,557

JPY

6,443

84.0%

44.6%

21-Feb

302

218

56,370

JPY

6,443

83.0%

47.6%

21-Mar

303

217

62,441

JPY

6,352

81.9%

47.0%

21-Apr

301

219

63,682

JPY

6,250

81.4%

46.3%

21-May

313

212

66,604

JPY

6,370

80.6%

48.7%

21-Jun

313

219

68,069

JPY

6,350

81.2%

48.6%

21-Jul

314

220

70,912

JPY

6,498

81.0%

48.1%

21-Aug

315

221

66,323

JPY

6,592

81.3%

46.5%

21-Sep

316

221

65,130

JPY

6,428

82.0%

46.7%

21-Oct

316

221

68,608

JPY

6,486

83.3%

48.9%

21-Nov

316

221

65,569

JPY

6,466

81.9%

47.7%

21-Dec

312

221

71,173

JPY

6,634

81.7%

50.5%

22-Jan

312

221

62,747

JPY

6,570

82.4%

48.2%

22-Feb

310

219

54,443

JPY

6,662

83.8%

46.4%

22-Mar

310

217

61,417

JPY

6,595

82.4%

46.5%

22-Apr

309

232

69,986

JPY

6,616

82.0%

48.3%

22-May

308

232

77,291

JPY

6,461

79.6%

50.1%

22-Jun

307

231

73,259

JPY

6,511

80.4%

50.3%

22-Jul

309

231

76,521

JPY

6,668

80.6%

50.3%

22-Aug

311

232

72,250

JPY

6,705

80.1%

49.8%

22-Sep

312

233

71,770

JPY

6,505

80.8%

50.3%

22-Oct

313

234

72,252

JPY

6,630

81.8%

50.0%

22-Nov

312

232

65,724

JPY

6,717

82.6%

48.8%

22-Dec

312

231

68,571

JPY

6,913

82.8%

50.1%

54

Graphic

    

Graphic

Graphic

Graphic

Graphic

The number of our relaxation salons was 312 as of December 31, 2022, the same as that of December 31, 2021.

Total customers served was 826,231 for the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to 781,438 in the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase is primarily attributed to the recovery from the COVID-19 and full-year inclusion of the customers of SAWAN during 2022, as compared to only from May to December in 2021.

Average sales per customer was JPY6,627 (US$50.3) in the year ended December 31, 2022, increased from JPY6,445 (US$48.9) in the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase is attributed to the promotion of value-added services.

Average repeat ratio, a measure of repeat customers, was 81.5% in the year ended December 31, 2022, relatively stable with 81.9% in the year ended December 31, 2021.

Average operation ratio was 49.2% in the year ended December 31, 2022, up from 47.6% in the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase is attributed to the recovery from the COVID-19 impact.

The total number of salons with data was 231 in December 2022, increased by ten salons from 221 in December 2021.

Factors Impacting our Operating Results

We expect that our results of operations will be affected by a number of factors and will primarily depend on the global economy, issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan and elsewhere, general market conditions, customer preference, and the competitive environment.

55

Our revenues, operating results and financial performance are impacted by a multitude of factors, including, but not limited to:

Business Environment.   According to the 2022 Yano Report, the relaxation market continues to see industry consolidation and notable category entrants from athletic and personal training services, and body stretching. We believe that market share will be further transferred to the category leaders in the industry, as smaller, private operators sell their businesses for retirement and/or market competition reasons, which industry trends, as we believe, may benefit us if realized.

Cost of Services.  The cost of service of relaxation business has been increasing. For the past decade, minimum wage has continuously been increasing throughout Japan. In 2012, the minimum wage in Tokyo was JPY850 (US$6.45), while it is JPY1,072 (US$8.13) as of December 31, 2022, according to Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.

In addition, we are facing inflationary trend in general prices, including utility costs, due to geo-political factors. In order to deal with such increased costs, as well as to adjust long-term trend of minimum wage increase, we plan to update our service prices. Hence, we introduced a trial renewal of our primary service lines at six of our directly-operated salons on October 1, 2022 to test market acceptance of our new pricing structure, which reflects increases in wages and other operating expenses. We are targeting to implement the new pricing at all of our directly-operated salons under Re.Ra.Ku brand in the first half of 2023. We also decided to increase our service prices at RuamRuam salons before Japanese Golden Week holidays from the end of April to the first week of May.

Update of Business Model Since the fourth quarter of 2021, we have sought to become more asset-light by selling our owned salons to third-party investors and continue to operate these sold salons on behalf of the investors. We believe this model will maximize the return on capital investment in our relaxation salon segment, accelerate salon openings by reinvesting the proceeds from the sales of salons, improve operational efficiency by focusing on salon operations, and generate additional income from the salons that were sold to investors and are under our management. In 2022, we sold additional 19 salons, as compared to 12 salons which we had sold in 2021.

Specific Health Guidance Program.  In our Digital Preventative Healthcare Segment, we have been continuously involved in the Specific Health Guidance Program, promoted by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan, which utilizes our upgraded Lav® application. We have received subscription orders from 59 corporate insurance associations as of December 31, 2022, increased from 43 as of December 31, 2021. The number of users under the Specific Health Guidance Program was 1,767 as of December 31, 2022, an increase of users by 216 from 1,551 as of December 31, 2021. In addition, we began to provide the same service to younger generation workers who are not eligible for the Specific Health Guidance Program. We believe large-sized Japanese corporations are showing more interested in the health conditions of their own employees. This trend benefited us by adding subscription orders from seven corporate insurance associations as of December 31, 2022 for their younger employees who were not previously covered by the Specific Health Guidance Program.

56

A.Operating Results

Comparison of the Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021

(in thousands, except change % data and Adjusted EBITDA margin )

Year ended December 31,

Change (2022 vs 2021)

Consolidated Statement of Operations:

    

2022($)

    

2022(¥)

2021(¥)

    

$

    

¥

    

%

Revenues:

Relaxation Salon

$

45,315

¥

5,972,913

¥

5,196,540

$

5,890

¥

776,373

14.9

%

Luxury Beauty

4,512

594,761

169,320

3,228

425,441

251.3

%

Digital Preventative Healthcare

2,931

386,383

43,965

2,598

342,418

778.8

%

Total revenue

52,758

6,954,057

5,409,825

11,716

1,544,232

28.5

%

Cost of revenues and operating expenses:

Cost of revenues

38,325

5,051,600

3,994,414

8,021

1,057,186

26.5

%

Selling, general and administrative expenses

13,698

1,805,490

1,822,787

(131)

(17,297)

(0.9)

%

Impairment loss on long-lived assets

0

63,211

(63,211)

(100.0)

%

Total cost of revenues and operating expenses

52,023

6,857,090

5,880,412

7,410

976,678

16.6

%

Operating income (loss)

$

736

¥

96,967

¥

(470,587)

$

4,306

¥

567,554

%

Other income (expenses):

Dividend income

2

2

%

Interest income

46

6,072

839

40

5,233

623.7

%

Interest expense

(74)

(9,800)

(11,950)

16

2,150

(18.0)

%

Other, net

656

86,533

67,215

147

19,318

28.7

%

Total other income

628

82,807

56,106

203

26,701

47.6

%

Income tax (benefit) expense

234

30,809

576,250

(4,138)

(545,441)

(94.7)

%

Net income (loss)

1,130

148,965

(990,731)

8,647

1,139,696

%

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

$

2,230

¥

293,931

¥

(77,974)

$

2,822

¥

371,905

%

Adjusted EBITDA margin(2)

4.2

%

4.2

%

(1.4)

%

5.6

pt.

(1)For a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most comparable U.S. GAAP measure, see the following table.
(2)Adjusted EBITDA margin is calculated by dividing Adjusted EBITDA for a period by total revenue for the same period.

Reconciliation of non-GAAP measures:

Year ended December 31,

(in thousands, except Adjusted EBITDA margin)

2022($)

    

2022(¥)

    

2021(¥)

Net income (loss)

$

1,130

¥

148,965

¥

(990,731)

Dividend income and interest income

(46)

(6,074)

(841)

Interest expense

74

9,800

11,950

Other, net

(656)

(86,533)

(67,215)

Income tax expense (benefit)

234

30,809

576,250

Operating income

$

736

¥

96,967

¥

(470,587)

Depreciation and amortization

1,396

184,056

126,243

Losses on sales of directly-owned salons to franchisees

2,692

Losses on disposal of property and equipment, net and other intangible assets, net

98

12,908

3,614

Impairment loss on long-lived assets

63,211

Stock-based compensation expense

196,853

Adjusted EBITDA

$

2,230

¥

293,931

¥

(77,974)

Adjusted EBITDA margin

4.2

%

4.2

%

(1.4)

%

57

Revenues

Revenues derived from our Relaxation Salon Segment were JPY5,972,913 thousand (US$45,315 thousand) in the year ended December 31, 2022 and JPY5,196,540 thousand (US$39,424 thousand) in the year ended December 31, 2021.

The revenue from our Relaxation Salon Segment consists of revenue from directly-operated salons, revenue from franchising, and other revenues. In the year ended December 31, 2022, our revenue from directly-operated salons increased to JPY5,396,294 thousand (US$40,940 thousand) from JPY3,837,514 thousand (US$29,114 thousand) in 2021. Our revenue from franchising decreased to JPY1,163,998 thousand (US$8,883 thousand) from JPY1,359,026 thousand (US$10,310 thousand) in 2021.

The primary factor for the increase in revenues from directly-operated salons between 2021 and 2022 was the increased price per customer, as well as full-year contribution of revenues generated by SAWAN salons in 2022, as compared to only from May to December in 2021. In 2021, our price per customer was JPY6,445, was as compared to JPY6,627 in 2022 (excluding visitors to our JOYHANDS WELLNESS salons located in spa facilities, and a few other salons in which our point-of-sale system is not installed and therefore, comparative financial and customer data is not available). In addition, we sold 19 salons to third-party investors in 2022 under the sale-and-outsource business model. We recognized revenue from such sales of salons of JPY1,122,595 thousand (US$8,517 thousand), while we recognize revenue from sale of salons of US$ JPY559,000 thousand (US$4,241 thousand) in 2021.

The primary reason for the decrease in revenues from franchising was decrease in the number of franchised salons, as well as that we withdrew from therapist deployment business to franchised salons. As of December 31, 2022, the number of franchised salons decreased to 113 from 124 salons as of December 31, 2021, due to our acquisitions of franchised salons and franchisees’ withdrawal from the business.

Our initial franchise fees and expected renewal franchise fees are recognized as revenue ratably over the expected average franchising contract life (7 -10 years) on the opening date of the new franchised salons. In addition, our revenue from franchise royalties includes revenues from recurring royalty income, rental income from subleased salon properties, construction of franchised salons, uniforms and training sales.

Revenue from our Preventative Healthcare Segment increased 778.8% from JPY43,965 thousand (US$333.5 thousand) in 2021 to JPY386,384 thousand (US$2,931 thousand) in 2022. This significant increase was due to (i) our beginning of manufacturing of MOTHER Bracelet® and delivery of finished products to customers who had bought the products in our crowdfunding activity in 2021, which resulted in revenue recognition of previously un-earned revenue, (ii) revenue from sales of MOTHER Bracelet® to business customers, and (iii) an increase in the number of participants in the Health Guidance Program and launch of Lav® app services to consumers.

Revenue from our Luxury Beauty Segment was JPY594,761 thousand (US$4,512 thousand) in 2022, an increase from JPY169,320 thousand (US$1,470 thousand) in 2021, primarily due to the full-year consolidation of revenue generated by ZACC in 2022 , as compared to only from October to December in 2021.

Cost of Revenues

For the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, the cost of revenues was JPY5,051,600 thousand (US$38,325 thousand) and JPY3,994,414 thousand (US$30,304 thousand), respectively. The increase was primarily due to salaries paid to SAWAN therapists and ZACC hairdressers as well as increase in the total number of our employed therapists to meet the increased demand after the COVID-19 pandemic, increase in cost of sales of salons due to increased number of salons sold to investors, and increase in cost of MOTHER Bracelet® which we began to sell in 2022, partially offset by decreased cost of franchising due to decreased number of franchisees and decrease in office supplies costs at salons. The cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue was 73.8% during the year ended December 31, 2021 and 72.6% during the year ended December 31, 2022.

The cost of revenue from directly-operated salons increased by JPY847,459 thousand (US$6,429 thousand) from JPY3,281,781 thousand (US$24,898 thousand) in the year ended December 31, 2021 to JPY4,129,240 thousand (US$31,327 thousand) in the year ended December 31, 2022. The cost of revenue from franchising activities decreased by JPY45,553 thousand (US$346 thousand) from JPY691,286 thousand (US$5,245 thousand) in

58

the year ended December 31, 2021 to JPY645,733 thousand (US$4,899 thousand) in the year ended December 31, 2022.

Selling, General, and Administration Expenses

For the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, the selling, general, and administration expenses were JPY1,805,490 thousand (US$13,698 thousand) and JPY1,822,787 thousand (US$13,829 thousand), respectively. The percentage of revenue of selling, general, and administration expenses in the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2022 was 33.7% and 26.0%, respectively. The decrease in 2022 was primarily due to that no stock compensation expense was recognized in 2022, decrease in professional fees, and decrease in allowance for doubtful accounts, partially offset by increased salaries and allowances, an increase in commission fees, full-year amortization of customer relationships, tradename, and trademarks, which was accounted for only from May 6, 2021, the acquisiton date of SAWAN and October 1, 2021, the acquisition date of ZACC to December 31, 2021, and an increase in recruiting expense.

Impairment Loss on Long-lived Assets

In 2022, we did not recognize impairment loss on long-lived assets, as compared to an impairment loss on long-lived assets of JPY63,211 thousand (US$480 thousand) recognized in 2021. This is primarily due to our improved profitability and visibility of future business plan in accordance with the normalization from COVID-19 pandemic.

Interest Expense

Interest expense slightly decreased in 2022 compared with that of 2021 as the total outstanding loan principals decreased as a result of repayments.

Other Income—Net

Total other income increased by JPY19,318 thousand (US$147 thousand) to JPY86,533 thousand (US$656 thousand) in the year ended December 31