10-Q 1 mrvi-20240331.htm 10-Q mrvi-20240331
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____________ to _____________
Commission file number: 001-39725
Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware85-2786970
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
10770 Wateridge Circle, Suite 200
San Diego, California
92121
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip code)
______________________________
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (858) 546-0004
______________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A common stock, $0.01 par valueMRVIThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerýAccelerated filer
o
Non-accelerated filer
o
Smaller reporting company
o
Emerging growth company
o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes    No  x
As of May 2, 2024, 132,830,872 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock were outstanding and 119,094,026 shares of the registrant’s Class B common stock were outstanding.
1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

2

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical fact included in this report, including, without limitation, statements under the section “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements give our current expectations and projections relating to our financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance and business. You can identify forward-looking statements by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. These statements often may include words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “plan,” “intend,” “believe,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “can have,” “likely” and other words and terms of similar meaning. These statements are based upon management’s current expectations, assumptions and estimates and are not guarantees of the timing or nature of our future operating or financial performance or other events. All forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those that we expected, including:
The level of our customers’ spending on and demand for outsourced nucleic acid production and biologics safety testing products and services.
The impact of ongoing macroeconomic challenges and changes in economic conditions, including adverse developments affecting banks and financial institutions, follow-on effects of those events and related systemic pressures, on our and our customers’ current and future business operations.
The effects of our recent reduction in force, including on our ability to attract and/or retain qualified key personnel.
Use of our products by customers in the production of vaccines and therapies, some of which represent relatively new and still-developing modes of treatment, and the impact of unforeseen adverse events, negative clinical outcomes, development of alternative therapies, or increased regulatory scrutiny of these modes of treatment and their financial cost on our customers’ use of our products and services.
Competition with life science, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies who are substantially larger than us and potentially capable of developing new approaches that could make our products, services and technology obsolete.
The potential failure of our products and services to not perform as expected and the reliability of the technology on which our products and services are based.
The risk that our products do not comply with required quality standards.
Market acceptance of our life science reagents.
Significant fluctuations and unpredictability in our quarterly and annual operating results, which make our future operating results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or any guidance we may provide.
Our ability to implement our strategic plan successfully.
Natural disasters, geopolitical instability (including the ongoing military conflicts in Ukraine and the Gaza Strip) and other catastrophic events.
Risks related to our acquisitions, including whether we achieve the anticipated benefits of acquisitions of businesses or technologies.
Product liability lawsuits.
Our dependency on a limited number of customers for a high percentage of our revenue and our ability to maintain our current relationships with such customers.
Our reliance on a limited number of suppliers or, in some cases, sole suppliers, for some of our raw materials and the risk that we may not be able to find replacements or immediately transition to alternative suppliers.
The risk that our products become subject to more onerous regulation by the FDA or other regulatory agencies in the future.
Our ability to obtain, maintain and enforce sufficient intellectual property protection for our current or future products.
The risk that a future cyber-attack or security breach cannot be prevented.
Our ability to protect the confidentiality of our proprietary information
The risk that one of our products may be alleged (or found) to infringe on the intellectual property rights of third parties.
Compliance with our obligations under intellectual property license agreements.
3

Our or our licensors’ failure to maintain the patents or patent applications in-licensed from a third party.
Our ability to adequately protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights throughout the world.
Our existing level of indebtedness and our ability to raise additional capital on favorable terms.
Our ability to generate sufficient cash flow to service all of our indebtedness.
Our potential failure to meet our debt service obligations.
Restrictions on our current and future operations under the terms applicable to the Credit Agreement.
Our dependence, by virtue of our principal asset being our interest in Maravai Topco Holdings, LLC (“Topco LLC”), on distributions from Topco LLC to pay our taxes and expenses, including payments under a tax receivable agreement with the former owners of Topco LLC (the “Tax Receivable Agreement” or “TRA”) together with various limitations and restrictions that impact Topco LLC’s ability to make such distributions.
The risk that conflicts of interest could arise between our shareholders and Maravai Life Sciences Holdings, LLC (“MLSH 1”), the only other member of Topco LLC, and impede business decisions that could benefit our shareholders.
The substantial future cash payments we may be required to make under the Tax Receivable Agreement to MLSH 1 and Maravai Life Sciences Holdings 2, LLC (“MLSH 2”), an entity through which certain of our former owners hold their interests in the Company and the negative effect of such payments.
The fact that our organizational structure, including the TRA, confers certain benefits upon MLSH 1 and MLSH 2 that will not benefit our other common shareholders to the same extent as they will benefit MLSH 1 and MLSH 2.
Our ability to realize all or a portion of the tax benefits that are expected to result from the tax attributes covered by the Tax Receivable Agreement.
The possibility that we will receive distributions from Topco LLC significantly in excess of our tax liabilities and obligations to make to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement.
Unanticipated changes in effective tax rates or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income or other tax returns.
Risks related to our annual assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, including the potential existence of any material weakness or significant deficiency.
The fact that investment entities affiliated with GTCR, LLC (“GTCR”) currently control a majority of the voting power of our outstanding common stock, and it may have interests that conflict with ours or yours in the future.
Risks related to our “controlled company” status within the meaning of the corporate governance standards of NASDAQ.
The potential anti-takeover effects of certain provisions in our corporate organizational documents.
Potential sales of a significant portion of our outstanding shares of Class A common stock.
Potential preferred stock issuances and the anti-takeover impacts of any such issuances.
We derive many of our forward-looking statements from our operating budgets and forecasts, which are based on many detailed assumptions. While we believe that our assumptions are reasonable, we caution that it is very difficult to predict the impact of known factors, and it is impossible for us to anticipate all factors that could affect our actual results. Important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from our expectations or cautionary statements are disclosed under the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 and in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
The forward-looking statements included in this report are made only as of the date hereof. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as otherwise required by law.

4

Part I.
Item 1. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
MARAVAI LIFESCIENCES HOLDINGS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except par value)
(Unaudited)
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$561,691 $574,962 
Accounts receivable, net36,685 54,605 
Inventory49,846 51,397 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets16,818 17,830 
Government funding receivable2,844 1,118 
Total current assets667,884 699,912 
Property and equipment, net161,628 162,900 
Goodwill326,029 326,029 
Intangible assets, net214,118 220,987 
Other assets74,982 77,622 
Total assets$1,444,641 $1,487,450 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$8,226 $10,729 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities35,405 60,237 
Deferred revenue2,210 3,360 
Current portion of payable to related parties pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement7,069 7,069 
Current portion of long-term debt5,440 5,440 
Current portion of finance lease liabilities672 633 
Total current liabilities59,022 87,468 
Long-term debt, less current portion517,893 518,707 
Finance lease liabilities, less current portion31,714 31,897 
Other long-term liabilities58,623 59,494 
Total liabilities667,252 697,566 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 6)
Stockholders’ equity:
Class A common stock, $0.01 par value - 500,000 shares authorized; 132,655 and 132,228 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
1,327 1,322 
Class B common stock, $0.01 par value - 300,000 shares authorized; 119,094 issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023
1,191 1,191 
Additional paid-in capital134,482 128,503 
Retained earnings273,659 285,737 
Total stockholders’ equity attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc.410,659 416,753 
Non-controlling interest366,730 373,131 
Total stockholders’ equity777,389 789,884 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,444,641 $1,487,450 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
5

MARAVAI LIFESCIENCES HOLDINGS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Revenue$64,179 $79,025 
Operating expenses:
Cost of revenue38,335 33,676 
Selling, general and administrative40,885 38,671 
Research and development5,032 4,145 
Restructuring
(1,212) 
Total operating expenses83,040 76,492 
(Loss) income from operations(18,861)2,533 
Other income (expense):
Interest expense(10,864)(11,833)
Interest income7,210 6,045 
Change in payable to related parties pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement (1,436)
Other income
106 168 
Loss before income taxes
(22,409)(4,523)
Income tax expense (benefit)
271 (3,175)
Net loss
(22,680)(1,348)
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests
(10,602)(1,281)
Net loss attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc.
$(12,078)$(67)
Net loss per Class A common share attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc., basic and diluted
$(0.09)$0.00 
Weighted average number of Class A common shares outstanding, basic and diluted
132,333 131,739 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
6

MARAVAI LIFESCIENCES HOLDINGS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(in thousands)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Net loss$(22,680)$(1,348)
Comprehensive loss attributable to non-controlling interests
(10,602)(1,281)
Total comprehensive loss attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc.
$(12,078)$(67)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.
7

MARAVAI LIFESCIENCES HOLDINGS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
Class A Common StockClass B Common Stock
SharesAmountSharesAmountAdditional Paid-In CapitalRetained EarningsNon-Controlling InterestTotal Stockholders’ Equity
December 31, 2023132,228$1,322 119,094$1,191 $128,503 $285,737 $373,131 $789,884 
Issuance of Class A common stock under employee equity plans, net of shares withheld for employee taxes427 5 — — (1,877)— — (1,872)
Non-controlling interest adjustment for changes in proportionate ownership in Topco LLC— — — — 1,510 — (1,510) 
Stock-based compensation— — — — 6,346 — 5,711 12,057 
Net loss— — — — — (12,078)(10,602)(22,680)
March 31, 2024132,655$1,327 119,094$1,191 $134,482 $273,659 $366,730 $777,389 

Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
Class A Common StockClass B Common Stock
SharesAmountSharesAmountAdditional Paid-In CapitalRetained EarningsNon-Controlling InterestTotal Stockholders’ Equity
December 31, 2022131,692$1,317 123,669$1,237 $137,898 $404,766 $360,025 $905,243 
Effects of Structuring Transactions— — (4,575)(46)(26,348)— 26,392 (2)
Issuance of Class A common stock under employee equity plans, net of shares withheld for employee taxes97 1 — — (496)— (445)(940)
Non-controlling interest adjustment for changes in proportionate ownership in Topco LLC— — — — 122 — (122) 
Stock-based compensation— — — — 3,133 — 2,854 5,987 
Distribution for tax liabilities to non-controlling interest holder— — — — — — (8,302)(8,302)
Net loss— — — — — (67)(1,281)(1,348)
March 31, 2023131,789$1,318 119,094$1,191 $114,309 $404,699 $379,121 $900,638 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.
8

MARAVAI LIFESCIENCES HOLDINGS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Operating activities:
Net loss$(22,680)$(1,348)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash (used in) provided by operating activities:
Depreciation4,786 2,080 
Amortization of intangible assets6,869 6,765 
Amortization of operating lease right-of-use assets2,098 2,062 
Amortization of deferred financing costs740 719 
Stock-based compensation expense12,057 5,987 
Deferred income taxes (1,520)
Revaluation of liabilities under the Tax Receivable Agreement 1,436 
Change in fair value of derivative instruments
(1,919)878 
Other223 (326)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable17,883 82,407 
Inventory820 (3,383)
Prepaid expenses and other assets730 (23,012)
Accounts payable(3,682)(235)
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities(24,116)24,225 
Deferred revenue(1,150)(1,058)
Other long-term liabilities(1,126)(10,603)
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities
(8,467)85,074 
Investing activities:
Cash paid for acquisition of a business, net of cash acquired (69,731)
Purchases of property and equipment(5,665)(7,868)
Proceeds from government assistance allocated to property and equipment1,421 8,028 
Prepaid lease payments on finance lease yet to commence (159)
Net cash used in investing activities(4,244)(69,730)
Financing activities:
Distributions for tax liabilities to non-controlling interest holders (8,302)
Principal repayments of long-term debt(1,360)(1,360)
Payments of finance lease liabilities(145) 
Proceeds from derivative instruments2,378 492 
Payment of acquisition consideration holdback (9,706)
Taxes paid for shares withheld under employee equity plans, net of proceeds from issuance of Class A common stock
(1,433)(333)
Net cash used in financing activities(560)(19,209)
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents
(13,271)(3,865)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period574,962 632,138 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period$561,691 $628,273 
Supplemental cash flow information:
Cash paid for interest$12,140 $9,593 
9

Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Cash paid (refunded) for income taxes, net
$197 $(521)
Supplemental disclosures of non-cash activities:
Property and equipment included in accounts payable and accrued expenses$3,162 $1,175 
Prepaid lease payments on finance lease yet to commence included in accounts payable and accrued expenses$ $20,552 
Accrued receivable for capital expenditures to be reimbursed under a government contract$2,844 $616 
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for new finance lease liabilities$ $17,067 
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for new operating lease liabilities$ $3,931 
Fair value of contingent consideration liability recorded in connection with acquisition of a business$ $5,289 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.
10

MARAVAI LIFESCIENCES HOLDINGS, INC.

NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
1.Organization and Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc. (the “Company”, and together with its consolidated subsidiaries, “Maravai”, “we”, “us”, and “our”) provides critical products to enable the development of drugs, therapeutics, diagnostics, vaccines and support research on human diseases. Our products address the key phases of biopharmaceutical development and include complex nucleic acids for diagnostic and therapeutic applications and antibody-based products to detect impurities during the production of biopharmaceutical products.
The Company was incorporated as a Delaware corporation in August 2020 and is headquartered in San Diego, California. We have two principal businesses: Nucleic Acid Production and Biologics Safety Testing. Our Nucleic Acid Production business manufactures and sells products used in the fields of gene therapy, vaccines, nucleoside chemistry, oligonucleotide therapy and molecular diagnostics, including reagents used in the chemical synthesis, modification, labelling and purification of deoxyribonucleic acid (“DNA”) and ribonucleic acid (“RNA”). Our core Nucleic Acid Production offerings include messenger ribonucleic acid (“mRNA”), long and short oligonucleotides, our proprietary CleanCap® capping technology and oligonucleotide building blocks, and custom enzyme development and manufacturing. Our Biologics Safety Testing business sells highly specialized analytical products for use in biologic manufacturing process development, including custom product-specific development antibody and assay development services.
Basis of Presentation
The Company operates and controls all of the business and affairs of Topco LLC, and, through Topco LLC and its subsidiaries, conducts its business. Because we manage and operate the business and control the strategic decisions and day-to-day operations of Topco LLC and also have a substantial financial interest in Topco LLC, we consolidate the financial results of Topco LLC, and a portion of our net loss is allocated to the non-controlling interests in Topco LLC held by MLSH 1.
The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and accounts between the businesses comprising the Company have been eliminated in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Unaudited Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and pursuant to Form 10-Q of Regulation S-X of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments necessary to fairly state the financial position and the results of our operations and cash flows for interim periods in accordance with GAAP. All such adjustments are of a normal, recurring nature. Operating results for the three months ended March 31, 2024 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2024 or for any future period.
The condensed consolidated balance sheet presented as of December 31, 2023 has been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of that date. The condensed consolidated financial statements and notes are presented as permitted by Form 10-Q and do not contain all information that is included in the annual financial statements and notes thereto of the Company. The condensed consolidated financial statements and notes included in this report should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 (“2023 Form 10-K”) filed with the SEC.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires the Company to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, equity, revenue and expenses, and related disclosures. These estimates form the basis for judgments the Company makes about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The Company bases its estimates and judgments on historical experience and on various other assumptions that the Company believes are reasonable under the circumstances. These estimates are based on management’s knowledge about current events and expectations about actions the Company may undertake in the future. Significant estimates include, but are not limited to, the measurement of right-of-use assets and lease liabilities and related
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incremental borrowing rate, the payable to related parties pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement (as defined in Note 10), the realizability of our net deferred tax assets, and the valuation of goodwill and intangible assets acquired in business combinations. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
Significant Accounting Policies
A description of the Company’s significant accounting policies is included in Note 1 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in the 2023 Form 10-K. There have been no material changes in the Company’s significant accounting policies during the three months ended March 31, 2024.
Revenue Recognition
The Company generates revenue primarily from the sale of products, and to a much lesser extent, services in the fields of nucleic acid production and biologics safety testing. Products are sold primarily through a direct sales force and through distributors in certain international markets where the Company does not have a direct commercial presence.
Revenue is recognized when control of promised goods or services is transferred to a customer or distributor in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Distributors are the principal in all sales transactions with our customers. To determine revenue recognition for its arrangements with customers, the Company performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.
The majority of the Company’s contracts include only one performance obligation. A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer and is defined as the unit of account for revenue recognition. The Company also recognizes revenue from other contracts that may include a combination of products and services, the provision of solely services, or from license fee arrangements which may be associated with the delivery of product. Where there is a combination of products and services, the Company accounts for the promises as individual performance obligations if they are concluded to be distinct. Performance obligations are considered distinct if they are both capable of being distinct and distinct within the context of the contract. In determining whether performance obligations meet the criteria for being distinct, the Company considers a number of factors, such as the degree of interrelation and interdependence between obligations, and whether or not the good or service significantly modifies or transforms another good or service in the contract. As a practical expedient, we do not adjust the transaction price for the effects of a significant financing component if, at contract inception, the period between customer payment and the transfer of goods or services is expected to be one year or less. Contracts with customers are evaluated on a contract-by-contract basis as contracts may include multiple types of goods and services as described below.
The Company recognizes revenue from sales to customers through distributors consistently with the policies and practices for direct sales to customers, as described above.
Nucleic Acid Production
Nucleic Acid Production revenue is generated from the manufacture and sale of highly modified, complex nucleic acids products to support the needs of our customers’ research, therapeutic and vaccine programs. The primary offering of products includes CleanCap®, mRNA, specialized oligonucleotides, and enzymes. Contracts typically consist of a single performance obligation. We also sell nucleic acid products for labeling and detecting proteins in cells and tissue samples research. The Company recognizes revenue from these products in the period in which the performance obligation is satisfied by transferring control to the customer or distributor. Revenue for nucleic acid catalog products is recognized at a single point in time, generally upon shipment to the customer or distributor. Revenue for contracts for certain custom nucleic acid products, with an enforceable right to payment and a reasonable margin for work performed to date, is recognized over time, based on a cost-to-cost input method over the manufacturing period. Payments received from customers in advance of manufacturing their products is recorded as deferred revenue until the products are delivered.
Biologics Safety Testing
The Company’s Biologics Safety Testing revenue is associated with the sale of host cell protein, bioprocess impurity detection, viral clearance prediction kits, and associated products. We also enter into contracts that include custom antibody development, assay development, antibody affinity extraction and mass spectrometry services. These products and services enable the detection of impurities that occur in the manufacturing of biologic drugs and other therapeutics including cell and gene therapies. The Company recognizes revenue from the sale of kits and products in the period in which the performance obligation is satisfied by transferring control to the customer or distributor.
12

Custom antibody development contracts consist of a single performance obligation, typically with an enforceable right to payment and a reasonable margin for work performed to date. Revenue is recognized over time based on a cost-to-cost input method over the contract term. Where an enforceable right to payment does not exist, revenue is recognized at a point in time when control is transferred to the customer. Assay development service contracts consist of a single performance obligation. Revenue is recognized at a point in time when a successful antigen test and report is provided to the customer. Affinity extraction, mass spectrometry and other analytical services, which generally occur over a short period of time, consist of a single performance obligation to perform the service and provide a summary report to the customer. Revenue is recognized upon delivery of the report to the customer.
The Company elected the practical expedient to not disclose the unfulfilled performance obligations for contracts with an original length of one year or less. The Company had no material unfulfilled performance obligations for contracts with an original length greater than one year for any period presented.
The Company accepts returns only if the products do not meet specifications, and historically, the Company’s volume of product returns has not been significant. Further, no warranties are provided for promised goods and services other than assurance type warranties.
Revenue for an individual contract is recognized at the related transaction price, which is the amount the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for transferring the products and/or services. The transaction price for product sales is calculated at the contracted product selling price. The transaction price for a contract with multiple performance obligations is allocated to the separate performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis. Standalone selling prices for products are determined based on the prices charged to customers, which are directly observable. Standalone selling price of services are mostly based on time and materials. Generally, payments from customers are due when goods and services are transferred. As most contracts contain a single performance obligation, the transaction price is representative of the standalone selling price charged to customers. Revenue is recognized only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of the cumulative amount recognized will not occur in future periods. Variable consideration has not been material to our consolidated financial statements.
Sales taxes
Sales taxes collected by the Company are not included in the transaction price as revenue as they are ultimately remitted to a governmental authority.
Shipping and handling costs
The Company has elected to account for shipping and handling activities related to contracts with customers as costs to fulfill the promise to transfer the associated products. Accordingly, revenue for shipping and handling is recognized at the same time that the related product revenue is recognized.
Contract costs
The Company recognizes the incremental costs of obtaining contracts as an expense when incurred when the amortization period of the assets that otherwise would have been recognized is one year or less. These costs are included in sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses. The costs to fulfill the contracts are determined to be immaterial and are recognized as an expense when incurred.
Contract balances
Contract assets are generated when contractual billing schedules differ from revenue recognition timing and the Company records a contract receivable when it has an unconditional right to consideration. There were no contract asset balances as of March 31, 2024 or December 31, 2023.
Contract liabilities include billings in excess of revenue recognized, such as customer deposits and deferred revenue. Customer deposits, which are included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities, are recorded when cash payments are received or due in advance of performance. Deferred revenue is recorded when the Company has unsatisfied performance obligations. Total contract liabilities were $4.2 million and $5.5 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. Contract liabilities are expected to be recognized as revenue within the next twelve months.
13

Disaggregation of revenue
The following tables summarize the revenue by segment and region for the periods presented (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
Nucleic Acid ProductionBiologics Safety TestingTotal
North America$26,278$7,093$33,371
Europe, the Middle East and Africa4,7404,6259,365
Asia Pacific14,9116,22521,136
Latin and Central America87220307
Total revenue$46,016$18,163$64,179
Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
Nucleic Acid ProductionBiologics Safety TestingTotal
North America$33,415$7,093$40,508
Europe, the Middle East and Africa4,4214,5718,992
Asia Pacific23,5515,82129,372
Latin and Central America6489153
Total revenue$61,451$17,574$79,025
Total revenue is attributed to geographic regions based on the bill-to location of the transaction. For all periods presented, the majority of our revenue was recognized at a point in time.
Restructuring Costs
Restructuring costs relate to a cost realignment plan implemented by the Company in November 2023 to optimize business operations and match them to current market conditions. Restructuring costs are comprised of severance and other employee-related costs, facility and other exit costs, professional fees and other restructuring costs.
Employee separation costs principally consist of one-time termination benefits and other post-employment benefits. One-time termination benefits are expensed at the date the entity notifies the employee, unless the employee must provide future service, in which case the benefits are expensed over the future service period. Other post-employment benefits are expensed when the obligation is probable and the benefit amounts are estimable. Other costs associated with restructuring activities, including facility and other exit costs and professional fees, are expensed as they are incurred.
Non-Controlling Interests
Non-controlling interests represent the portion of profit or loss, net assets and comprehensive income or loss of our consolidated subsidiaries that is not allocable to the Company based on our percentage of ownership of such entities.
In November 2020, following the completion of a series of organizational transactions (the “Organizational Transactions”), we became the sole managing member of Topco LLC. As of March 31, 2024, we held approximately 52.7% of the outstanding LLC Units of Topco LLC, and MLSH 1 held approximately 47.3% of the outstanding LLC Units of Topco LLC. Therefore, we report non-controlling interests based on the percentage of LLC Units of Topco LLC held by MLSH 1 on the condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2024. Income or loss attributed to the non-controlling interest in Topco LLC is based on the LLC Units outstanding during the period for which the income or loss is generated and is presented on the condensed consolidated statements of operations and condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss).
MLSH 1 is entitled to exchange its LLC Units of Topco LLC, together with an equal number of shares of our Class B common stock (together referred to as “Paired Interests”), for shares of Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis or, at our election, for cash, from a substantially concurrent public offering or private sale (based on the price of our Class A common stock in such public offering or private sale). As such, future exchanges of Paired Interests by MLSH 1 will result in a change in ownership and reduce or increase the amount recorded as non-controlling interests and increase or decrease additional paid-in-capital when Topco LLC has positive or negative net assets, respectively. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, MLSH 1 did not exchange any Paired Interests.
Distributions of $8.3 million for tax liabilities were made to MLSH 1 during the three months ended March 31, 2023. No such distributions were made during the three months ended March 31, 2024.
14

Segment Information
The Company operates in two reportable segments. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise for which separate financial information is evaluated regularly by the Company’s chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) in deciding how to allocate resources and assessing performance. The CODM allocates resources and assesses performance based upon discrete financial information at the segment level. All of our long-lived assets are located in the United States.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The carrying value of these cash equivalents approximates fair value. Cash and cash equivalents consist of deposits held at financial institutions and money market funds.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Credit Losses
Accounts receivable primarily consist of amounts due from customers for product sales and services. The Company’s expected credit losses are developed using an estimated loss rate method that considers historical collection experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. The estimated loss rates are applied to trade receivables with similar risk characteristics such as the length of time the balance has been outstanding, liquidity and financial position of the customer, and the geographic location of the customer. In certain instances, the Company may identify individual accounts receivable assets that do not share risk characteristics with other accounts receivable, in which case the Company records its expected credit losses on an individual asset basis.
The allowance for credit losses was approximately $1.0 million and $1.4 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. There were $0.5 million of write-offs of accounts receivable during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and none during the three months ended March 31, 2023. There were no recoveries during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and $0.5 million of recoveries during the three months ended March 31, 2023.
Net Income (Loss) per Class A Common Share Attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc.
Basic net income (loss) per Class A common share attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc. is computed by dividing net income (loss) attributable to us by the weighted average number of Class A common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per Class A common share is calculated by giving effect to all potential weighted average dilutive stock options, restricted stock units, and Topco LLC Units, that, together with an equal number of shares of our Class B common stock, are convertible into shares of our Class A common stock. The dilutive effect of outstanding awards, if any, is reflected in diluted earnings per share by application of the treasury stock method or if-converted method, as applicable. In periods in which the Company reports a net loss attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc., diluted net loss per Class A common share attributable to the Company is the same as basic net loss per Class A common share attributable to the Company, since dilutive equity instruments are not assumed to have been issued if their effect is anti-dilutive. The Company reported a net loss attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc. for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
Government Assistance
The consideration awarded to the Company by the U.S. Department of Defense is outside the scope of the contracts with customers, income tax, funded research and development, and contribution guidance. This is because the awarding entity is not considered to be a customer, the receipt of the funding is not predicated on the Company’s income tax position, there are no refund provisions, and the entity is not receiving reciprocal value for their support provided to the Company. The Company’s elected policy is to recognize such assistance as a reduction to the carrying amount of the assets associated with the award when it is reasonably assured that the funding will be received as evidenced through the existence of an arrangement, amounts eligible for reimbursement are determinable and have been incurred or paid, the applicable conditions under the arrangement have been met, and collectability of amounts due is reasonably assured.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company defines fair value as the amount that would be received to sell an asset, or paid to transfer a liability, in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The Company follows accounting guidance that has a three-level hierarchy for fair value measurements based upon the transparency of inputs to the valuation of the asset or liability as of the measurement date. Instruments with readily available actively quoted prices, or for which fair value can be measured from actively quoted prices in an orderly market, will generally have a higher degree of market price transparency and a lesser degree of judgment used in measuring fair value. The three levels of the hierarchy are defined as follows:
Level 1—Observable inputs that reflect quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets;
15

Level 2—Include other inputs that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace; and
Level 3—Unobservable inputs which are supported by little or no market activity.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the carrying value of current assets and liabilities approximates fair value due to the short maturities of these instruments. The fair values of the Company’s long-term debt approximate carrying value, excluding the effect of unamortized debt discount, as it is based on borrowing rates currently available to the Company for debt with similar terms and maturities (Level 2 inputs).
Contingent Consideration
Contingent consideration represents additional consideration that may be transferred to former owners of an acquired entity in the future if certain future events occur or conditions are met. Contingent consideration resulting from the acquisition of a business is recorded at fair value on the acquisition date. Such contingent consideration is re-measured to its estimated fair value at each reporting date with the change in fair value recognized within operating expenses in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations. Subsequent changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration are classified as an adjustment to cash flows from operating activities in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows because the change in fair value is an input in determining net loss. Cash paid in settlement of contingent consideration liabilities are classified as cash flows from financing activities up to the acquisition date fair value with any excess classified as cash flows from operating activities.
Changes in the fair value of contingent consideration liabilities associated with the acquisition of a business can result from updates to assumptions such as the expected timing or probability of achieving customer-related performance targets, specified sales milestones, changes in projected revenue or changes in discount rates. Judgment is used in determining those assumptions as of the acquisition date and for each subsequent reporting period. Therefore, any changes in the fair value will impact the Company’s results of operations in such reporting period, thereby resulting in potential variability in the Company’s operating results until such contingencies are resolved.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and accounts receivable. The Company maintains the majority of its cash balances at multiple financial institutions that management believes are of high-credit-quality and financially stable. Cash is deposited with major financial institutions in excess of Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insurance limits. The Company believes it is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial strength of the depository institutions in which the cash is held. The Company provides credit, in the normal course of business, to international and domestic distributors as well as certain customers, which are geographically dispersed. The Company attempts to limit its credit risk by performing ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and maintaining adequate allowances for potential credit losses.
The following table summarizes revenue from each of our customers who individually accounted for 10% or more of our total revenue or accounts receivable for the periods presented:
RevenueAccounts Receivable, net
Three Months Ended March 31,March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
20242023
Nacalai USA, Inc.14.8 %20.5 %24.5 %27.3 %
CureVac N.V.***13.0 %
____________________
*Less than 10%
For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, all of the revenue recorded for Nacalai USA, Inc. was generated by the Nucleic Acid Production segment.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In November 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280) - Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures (“ASU 2023-07”), which improves segment disclosure requirements, primarily through enhanced disclosures about significant expenses. ASU 2023-07 requires disclosures to include significant segment expenses that are regularly provided to the CODM and included within each reported measure of segment profit or loss, an amount for other segment items by reportable segment and a description of its
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composition, any additional measures of a segment’s profit or loss used by the CODM when deciding how to allocate resources, and the title and position of the CODM and an explanation of how the CODM uses the reported measures of segment profit or loss in assessing segment performance and deciding how to allocate resources. The ASU also requires all annual disclosures currently required by Topic 280 to be included in interim periods. ASU 2023-07 is effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. The amendments in this ASU should be applied retrospectively to all prior periods presented in the consolidated financial statements. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this standard on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740) - Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures (“ASU 2023-09”). The amendments in this ASU address investor requests for more transparency about income tax information through improvements to tax disclosures primarily related to the rate reconciliation and income taxes paid information. The ASU also includes certain other amendments to improve the effectiveness of income tax disclosures. ASU 2023-09 is effective for the Company for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. The amendments in this ASU should be applied on a prospective basis, with retrospective application permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this standard on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
2.Restructuring
In November 2023, the Company implemented a cost realignment plan (the “Cost Realignment Plan”) that included the termination of approximately 15% of the Company’s workforce, the termination of certain leases, and other actions to reduce expenses, all as part of a plan to optimize business operations and match them to current market conditions. The reduction in force was completed on January 5, 2024, following the end of the sixty-day notification period required by the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act. The Cost Realignment Plan was substantially completed during the first quarter of 2024 and most of the cash payments had been disbursed prior to March 31, 2024, with the remainder to be disbursed by the end of the fiscal year 2024. The Company does not expect to incur additional restructuring costs relating to the Cost Realignment Plan.
For the three months ended March 31, 2024, restructuring charges primarily consist of the stock-based compensation benefit recognized for the forfeiture of stock awards upon the termination of certain impacted employees resulting from the Cost Realignment Plan. The Company’s restructuring charges by segment and unallocated corporate costs, which are recorded as restructuring expenses on the condensed consolidated statements of operations, were as follows for the three months ended March 31, 2024 (in thousands):
Severance and Other Employee Costs (Reversals)
Stock-Based Compensation Benefit
Professional Fee Reversals and Other
Total
Nucleic Acid Production
$(15)$(815)$(20)$(850)
Corporate
68 (416)(14)(362)
Total
$53 $(1,231)$(34)$(1,212)
The following table summarizes the activity for accrued restructuring costs, which is recorded within accrued expenses and other current liabilities on the condensed consolidated balance sheets, for the period presented (in thousands):
Severance and Other Employee Costs
Stock-Based Compensation Expense (Benefit)
Professional Fees and Other
Total
Balance as of December 31, 2023$2,543 $ $271 $2,814 
Charges (benefit)
53 (1,231)(34)(1,212)
Non-cash benefit
 1,231  1,231 
Cash payments
(2,106) (226)(2,332)
Balance as of March 31, 2024$490 $ $11 $501 
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3.Fair Value Measurements
The following tables summarize the Company’s financial assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis by level within the fair value hierarchy as of the periods presented (in thousands):
Fair Value Measurements as of March 31, 2024
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets
Money market funds
$404,202 $ $ $404,202 
Interest rate cap 8,100  8,100 
Total assets$404,202 $8,100 $ $412,302 
Liabilities
Current portion of contingent consideration$ $ $131 $131 
Contingent consideration, non-current  1,872 1,872 
Total liabilities$ $ $2,003 $2,003 
Fair Value Measurements as of December 31, 2023
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets
Money market funds
$418,685 $ $ $418,685 
Interest rate cap 8,559  8,559 
Total assets$418,685 $8,559 $ $427,244 
Liabilities
Current portion of contingent consideration$ $ $131 $131 
Contingent consideration, non-current  1,872 1,872 
Total liabilities$ $ $2,003 $2,003 
Contingent Consideration
In connection with the acquisition of Alphazyme, LLC (“Alphazyme”), which was completed in January 2023, the Company is required to make contingent payments to the sellers of Alphazyme of up to $75.0 million, subject to achieving certain revenue thresholds. The preliminary fair value of the liability for the contingent payments recognized upon the acquisition as part of the purchase accounting opening balance sheet totaled $5.3 million. The preliminary fair value of the contingent consideration was determined using a Monte-Carlo simulation-based model discounted to present value. Assumptions used in this calculation are expected revenue, a discount rate of 17.8% and various probability factors. The ultimate settlement of the contingent consideration could deviate from current estimates based on the actual results of these financial measures. The contingent consideration has three performance payments spanning over three years beginning 2024. This liability is considered to be a Level 3 financial liability that is remeasured each reporting period. Changes in fair value of contingent consideration are recognized as a gain or loss and recorded within change in estimated fair value of contingent consideration in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company did not record any changes in the estimated fair value of contingent consideration.
The following table provides a reconciliation of liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) for the period presented (in thousands):
Contingent Consideration
Balance as of December 31, 2023$2,003 
Balance as of March 31, 2024$2,003 
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4.Balance Sheet Components
Inventory
Inventory consisted of the following as of the periods presented (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Raw materials$17,070 $19,338 
Work-in-process12,525 12,680 
Finished goods20,251 19,379 
Total inventory$49,846 $51,397 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
Accrued expenses consisted of the following as of the periods presented (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Employee related$9,855 $12,905 
Accrued interest payable
8,960 9,202 
Operating lease liabilities, current portion
6,970 6,780 
Professional services2,879 2,277 
Customer deposits1,974 2,156 
Accrued property and equipment
1,602 632 
Sales and use tax liability852 1,001 
Accrued restructuring costs501 2,814 
Accrued MyChem Retention Payments, current portion
 19,446 
Other1,812 3,024 
Total accrued expenses and other current liabilities$35,405 $60,237 
5.Government Assistance
Cooperative Agreement
In May 2022, TriLink Biotechnologies, LLC (“TriLink”) entered into a cooperative agreement (the “Cooperative Agreement”) with the U.S. Department of Defense, as represented by the Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense on behalf of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (“BARDA”), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”), to advance the development of domestic manufacturing capabilities and to expand TriLink’s domestic production capacity in its San Diego manufacturing campus (the “Flanders San Diego Facility”) for products critical to the development and manufacture of mRNA vaccines and therapeutics. The Cooperative Agreement has since transitioned from the U.S. Department of Defense to the HHS as of January 2023. The Flanders San Diego Facility consists of two buildings (“Flanders I” and “Flanders II”), however, the Cooperative Agreement is exclusively involved in Flanders I.
The Cooperative Agreement requires the Company to provide the U.S. Government with conditional priority access and certain preferred pricing obligations for a 10-year period from the completion of the construction project for the production of a medical countermeasure (or a component thereof) that the Company manufactures in the Flanders San Diego Facility during a declared public health emergency.
Pursuant to certain requirements, BARDA awarded TriLink an amount equal to $38.8 million or 50% of the construction and validation costs currently budgeted for the Flanders San Diego Facility. The contract period of performance is May 2022 through January 2034, which is the effective date of the Cooperative Agreement through the anticipated expiration of the 10-year conditional priority access period. Amounts reimbursed are subject to audit and may be recaptured by the HHS in certain circumstances.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company received $1.4 million and $8.0 million, respectively, of reimbursements under the Cooperative Agreement, with equal offsets recorded to property and equipment on the condensed
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consolidated balance sheets. As of March 31, 2024, the Company has recorded a receivable of $2.8 million, with an equal offset to property and equipment.
6.Commitments and Contingencies
Unconditional Purchase Obligations
In the ordinary course of business, we enter into certain unconditional purchase obligations with our suppliers. These are agreements to purchase products and services that are enforceable, legally binding, and specify terms that include provisions with respect to quantities, pricing and timing of purchases.
Amounts purchased under these obligations totaled $1.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024. Such amounts were not material for the three months ended March 31, 2023.
As of March 31, 2024, future minimum commitments under these obligations totaled $3.6 million which relates to the nine months ending December 31, 2024.
7.Long-Term Debt
Credit Agreement
In October 2020, Maravai Intermediate Holdings, LLC (“Intermediate”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Topco LLC, along with certain of its subsidiaries (together with Intermediate, the “Borrowers”), entered into a credit agreement (as amended, the “Credit Agreement”), which provides for a term loan facility and a revolving credit facility. In January 2022, the Company entered into an amendment (the “Amendment”) to refinance the term loan and to replace London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) with a Term Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) based rate.
As amended, the Credit Agreement provides for a $600.0 million term loan facility, maturing October 2027 (the “Term Loan”), and a $180.0 million revolving credit facility, maturing October 2025 (the “Revolving Credit Facility”).
As of March 31, 2024, the interest rate on the Term Loan was 8.31% per annum.
The Credit Agreement also provides for a $20.0 million limit for letters of credit. As of March 31, 2024, the Company had a $0.5 million outstanding letter of credit as security for a lease agreement, which reduced the availability for letters of credit under the Revolving Credit Facility to $19.5 million.
Borrowings under the Credit Agreement are unconditionally guaranteed by Topco LLC, together with the existing and future material domestic subsidiaries of Topco LLC (subject to certain exceptions), as specified in the respective guaranty agreements. Borrowings under the Credit Agreement are also secured by a first-priority lien and security interest in substantially all of the assets (subject to certain exceptions) of existing and future material domestic subsidiaries of Topco LLC that are loan parties.
As of March 31, 2024, unamortized debt issuance costs totaled $1.2 million and are recorded within other assets on the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet as there is no balance outstanding related to the Revolving Credit Facility.
Commencing with the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, and each fiscal year thereafter, the Credit Agreement requires that we make mandatory prepayments on the Term Loan principal upon certain excess cash flow, subject to certain step-downs based on the Company’s first lien net leverage ratio. The excess cash flow shall be reduced to 25% or 0% of the calculated excess cash flow if the Company’s first lien net leverage ratio was equal to or less than 4.75:1.00 or 4.25:1.00, respectively, however, no prepayment shall be required to the extent excess cash flow calculated for the respective period is equal to or less than $10.0 million. As of March 31, 2024, the Company’s first lien net leverage ratio was less than 4.25:1.00. Thus, a mandatory prepayment on the Term Loan out of our excess cash flow was not required.
The Credit Agreement contains certain covenants, including, among other things, covenants limiting our ability to incur or prepay certain indebtedness, pay dividends or distributions, dispose of assets, engage in mergers and consolidations, make acquisitions or other investments and make changes to the nature of the business. Additionally, the Credit Agreement also requires us to maintain a certain net leverage ratio if the outstanding debt balance on the Revolving Credit Facility exceeds 35.0% of the aggregate amount of available credit of $180.0 million. The Company was in compliance with these covenants as of March 31, 2024.
Interest Rate Cap
In the first quarter of 2021, the Company entered into an interest rate cap agreement to manage a portion of its variable interest rate risk on its outstanding long-term debt. The contract, which was effective March 31, 2021, entitles the Company to receive
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from the counterparty at each calendar quarter end the amount, if any, by which a specified defined floating market rate exceeds the cap strike interest rate, applied to the contract’s notional amount of $415.0 million. The floating rate of interest is reset at the end of each three-month period. The contract was set to expire on March 31, 2023.
In May 2022, the Company amended the interest rate cap agreement, effective June 30, 2022, to increase the contract’s notional amount to $500.0 million and to extend the maturity date to January 19, 2025. Additionally, the floating rate option changed from a LIBOR-based rate to a SOFR-based rate. Other provisions remained unchanged as a result of the amendment. Premiums paid to amend the interest rate cap agreement were immaterial.
The interest rate cap agreement has not been designated as a hedging relationship and has been recognized on the condensed consolidated balance sheet at fair value of $8.1 million within other assets with changes in fair value recognized within interest expense in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. Proceeds from the interest rate cap agreement are reflected in cash flows used in financing activities in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.
The Company’s long-term debt consisted of the following as of the periods presented (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Term Loan
$531,760 $533,120 
Unamortized debt issuance costs(8,427)(8,973)
Total long-term debt523,333 524,147 
Less: current portion(5,440)(5,440)
Total long-term debt, less current portion$517,893 $518,707 
There were no borrowing balances outstanding on the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
As of March 31, 2024, the aggregate future principal maturities of the Company’s debt obligations based on contractual due dates, were as follows (in thousands):
2024 (remaining nine months)
$4,080 
20255,440 
20265,440 
2027516,800 
Total long-term debt$531,760 
8.Net Loss Per Class A Common Share Attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc.
Basic net loss per Class A common share has been calculated by dividing net loss for the period, adjusted for net loss attributable to non-controlling interests, by the weighted average number of Class A common shares outstanding during the period. In periods in which the Company reports a net loss attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc., diluted net loss per Class A common share attributable to the Company is the same as basic net loss per Class A common share attributable to the Company, since dilutive equity instruments are not assumed to have been issued if their effect is anti-dilutive. The Company reported a net loss attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc. during each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
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The following table presents the computation of basic and diluted net loss per Class A common share attributable to the Company for the periods presented (in thousands, except per share amounts):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Net loss$(22,680)$(1,348)
Less: loss attributable to common non-controlling interests
10,602 1,281 
Net loss attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc.
$(12,078)$(67)
Weighted average Class A common shares outstanding
132,333 131,739 
Net loss per Class A common share attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc.:
Basic$(0.09)$0.00 
Diluted$(0.09)$0.00 
Shares of Class B common stock do not share in the earnings or losses of the Company and are therefore not participating securities. As such, a separate presentation of basic and diluted net loss per share for Class B common stock under the two-class method has not been presented.
The following table presents potentially dilutive securities excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share for the periods presented because their effect would have been anti-dilutive for the periods presented (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Restricted stock units
2,3433,195
Stock options4,1424,528
Shares estimated to be purchased under the employee stock purchase plan
726
Shares of Class B common stock119,094131,789
Total125,586139,538
Shares underlying contingently issuable awards that have not met the necessary conditions as of the end of a reporting period are not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per Class A common share attributable to the Company for that period. The Company had contingently issuable performance stock units (“PSUs”) outstanding that did not meet the market and performance conditions as of March 31, 2024 and 2023 and, therefore, were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per Class A common share attributable to the Company. The maximum number of potentially dilutive shares that could be issued upon vesting for such awards was insignificant as of March 31, 2024 and 2023. These share amounts were also excluded from the potentially dilutive securities in the table above.
9.Income Taxes
We are subject to U.S. federal and state income taxes with respect to our allocable share of any taxable income or loss of Topco LLC, as well as any stand-alone income or loss we generate. Topco LLC is organized as a limited liability company and treated as a partnership for U.S. federal tax purposes and generally does not pay income taxes on its taxable income in most jurisdictions. Instead, Topco LLC’s taxable income or loss is passed through to its members, including us.
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The following table summarizes the Company’s income tax expense (benefit) and effective tax rate for the periods presented (in thousands, except percentages):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Loss before income taxes$(22,409)$(4,523)
Income tax expense (benefit)$271 $(3,175)
Effective tax rate(1.2)%70.2 %
The Company’s effective tax rate of (1.2)% for the three months ended March 31, 2024 differed from the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate of 21.0%, primarily due to the valuation allowance recorded against the Company’s deferred tax assets.
The Company’s effective tax rate of 70.2% for the three months ended March 31, 2023 differed from the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate of 21.0%, primarily due to loss income associated with the non-controlling interest and a change in tax (benefit) expense due to adjustments to the deferred tax asset for the Company’s investment in Topco LLC.
Tax Distributions to Topco LLC’s Owners
Topco LLC is subject to an operating agreement put in place at the date of the Organizational Transactions (“LLC Operating Agreement”). The LLC Operating Agreement has numerous provisions related to allocations of income and loss, as well as timing and amounts of distributions to its owners. This agreement also includes a provision requiring cash distributions enabling its owners to pay their taxes on income passing through from Topco LLC. These tax distributions are computed based on an assumed income tax rate equal to the sum of (i) the maximum combined marginal U.S. federal and state income tax rate applicable to an individual and (ii) the net investment income tax. The assumed income tax rate currently totals 46.7%, which may increase to 54.1% in certain cases where the qualified business income deduction is unavailable.
In addition, under the tax rules, Topco LLC is required to allocate taxable income disproportionately to its unit holders. Because tax distributions are determined based on the holder of LLC Units who is allocated the largest amount of taxable income on a per unit basis, but are made pro rata based on ownership, Topco LLC is required to make tax distributions that, in the aggregate, will likely exceed the amount of taxes Topco LLC would have otherwise paid if it were taxed on its taxable income at the assumed income tax rate. Topco LLC is subject to entity level taxation in certain states and certain of its subsidiaries are subject to entity level U.S. and foreign income taxes. As a result, the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations include income tax expense related to those states and to U.S. and foreign jurisdictions where Topco LLC or any of our subsidiaries are subject to income tax.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, Topco LLC did not pay any tax distributions to its owners. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, Topco LLC paid tax distributions of $17.4 million to its owners, including $9.1 million to the Company.
As of March 31, 2024, no amounts for tax distributions had been accrued as such payments, if any, are made during the period.
10.Related Party Transactions
MLSH 1’s majority owner is GTCR, LLC (“GTCR”). The Company’s Executive Chairman of the Board, Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”) and General Counsel are executives of MLSH 1 and MLSH 2.
Payable to Related Parties Pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement
We are a party to a Tax Receivable Agreement (“TRA”) with MLSH 1 and MLSH 2. The TRA provides for the payment by us to MLSH 1 and MLSH 2, collectively, of 85% of the amount of certain tax benefits, if any, that we actually realize, or in some circumstances are deemed to realize, as a result of the Organizational Transactions, our initial public offering (“IPO”) and any subsequent purchases or exchanges of LLC Units of Topco LLC. The Company expects to benefit from the remaining 15% of any cash tax savings that it realizes.
We recognize the amount of TRA payments expected to be paid within the next 12 months and classify this amount as current. This determination is based on our estimate of taxable income for the year ended December 31, 2023. As of March 31, 2024, the current liability under the TRA was $7.1 million.
As of December 31, 2023, the Company had derecognized the remaining $665.3 million non-current liability under the TRA after concluding it was not probable that the Company will be able to realize the remaining tax benefits based on estimates of future taxable income. The estimation of liability under the TRA is by its nature imprecise and subject to significant
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assumptions regarding the amount, character, and timing of the taxable income in the future. If the Company concludes in a future period that the tax benefits are more likely than not to be realized and releases its valuation allowance, the corresponding TRA liability amounts may be considered probable at that time and recorded on the consolidated balance sheet and within earnings.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, our liability under the TRA was $7.1 million, payable to MLSH 1 and MLSH 2, representing approximately 85% of the calculated tax savings based on our estimate of taxable income for the year ended December 31, 2023.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, no payments were made to MLSH 1 or MLSH 2 pursuant to the TRA.
Contribution, Exchange and Forfeiture Agreement with MLSH 1
In connection with the Company’s acquisition of Alphazyme, which was completed in January 2023, the Company undertook a series of structuring transactions (the “Structuring Transactions”), including:
On January 18, 2023, the Company acquired all of the outstanding membership interests in Alphazyme.
On January 19, 2023, the Company entered into a contribution agreement (the “Contribution Agreement”) with Alphazyme Holdings, Inc. (“Alphazyme Holdings”), a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, pursuant to which the Company contributed all such membership interests in Alphazyme (the “Alphazyme Membership Interest”) to Alphazyme Holdings.
On January 22, 2023, Alphazyme Holdings entered into a contribution and exchange agreement (the “Contribution and Exchange Agreement”) with Topco LLC, pursuant to which it contributed all of the Alphazyme Membership Interests to TopCo LLC in exchange for 5,059,134 newly-issued LLC Units of Topco LLC at a price per unit of $13.87, which was equal to the 50-day volume-weighted average price of the Company’s Class A common stock as calculated on January 18, 2023 (the “Contribution and Exchange”).
Immediately following the Contribution and Exchange, the Company entered into a forfeiture agreement (the “Forfeiture Agreement”) with Alphazyme Holdings, TopCo LLC and MLSH 1, a related party, pursuant to which each of the Company (together with Alphazyme Holdings) and MLSH 1 agreed to forfeit 5,059,134 and 4,871,970 LLC Units, respectively, representing 3.7% of the Company’s (together with Alphazyme Holdings) and MLSH 1’s respective LLC Units of Topco LLC, and an equal number of shares of the Company’s Class B common stock, par value $0.01 per share, were forfeited by MLSH 1, in each case for no consideration.
Topco LLC Operating Agreement
MLSH 1 is party to the LLC Operating Agreement put in place at the date of the Organizational Transactions. This agreement includes a provision requiring cash distributions enabling its owners to pay their taxes on income passing through from Topco LLC. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company made distributions of $8.3 million for tax liabilities to MLSH 1 under this agreement. No such distributions were made during the three months ended March 31, 2024.
11.Segments
The Company’s financial performance is reported in two segments. A description of each segment follows:
Nucleic Acid Production: focuses on the manufacturing and sale of highly modified nucleic acids products to support the needs of customers’ research, therapeutic and vaccine programs. This segment also provides research products for labeling and detecting proteins in cells and tissue samples.
Biologics Safety Testing: focuses on the manufacturing and sale of host cell protein, bioprocess impurity detection, viral clearance prediction kits and associated products. This segment also provides services for custom antibody development, assay development, antibody affinity extraction and mass spectrometry that are utilized by our customers in their biologic drug manufacturing spectrum.
The Company has determined that adjusted earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (“Adjusted EBITDA”) is the profit or loss measure that the CODM uses to make resource allocation decisions and evaluate segment performance. Adjusted EBITDA assists management in comparing the segment performance on a consistent basis for purposes of business decision-making by removing the impact of certain items that management believes do not directly reflect the core operations and, therefore, are not included in measuring segment performance. The Company defines Adjusted EBITDA as net loss before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, certain non-cash items and other adjustments that we do not consider in our
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evaluation of ongoing operating performance from period to period. Corporate costs, net of eliminations, are managed on a standalone basis and are not allocated to segments.
The following schedule includes revenue and adjusted EBITDA for each of the Company’s reportable operating segments (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Revenue:
Nucleic Acid Production$46,016 $61,451 
Biologics Safety Testing18,163 17,574 
Total reportable segments’ revenue$64,179 $79,025 
Segment adjusted EBITDA:
Nucleic Acid Production$10,088 $27,873 
Biologics Safety Testing13,926 13,746 
Total reportable segments’ adjusted EBITDA24,014 41,619 
Reconciliation of total reportable segments’ adjusted EBITDA to loss before income taxes
Amortization(6,869)(6,765)
Depreciation(4,786)(2,080)
Interest expense(10,864)(11,833)
Interest income7,210 6,045 
Corporate costs, net of eliminations(16,219)(17,821)
Other adjustments:
Acquisition integration costs (2,498)(2,464)
Stock-based compensation(12,057)(5,987)
Merger and acquisition related expenses(30)(3,291)
Acquisition related tax adjustment113 173 
Tax Receivable Agreement liability adjustment (1,436)
Restructuring costs (1)
(19) 
Other(404)(683)
Loss before income taxes(22,409)(4,523)
Income tax (expense) benefit
(271)3,175 
Net loss$(22,680)$(1,348)
___________________
(1)For the three months ended March 31, 2024, stock-based compensation benefit of $1.2 million related to forfeited stock awards in connection with the restructuring is included on the stock-based compensation line item.
There was no intersegment revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. Any intersegment sales and the related gross margin on inventory recorded at the end of the period are eliminated for consolidation purposes. Internal selling prices for intersegment sales are consistent with the segment’s normal retail price offered to external parties. There was no commission expense recognized for intersegment sales for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
The Company does not allocate assets to its reportable segments as they are not included in the review performed by the CODM for purposes of assessing segment performance and allocating resources.
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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
You should read the following discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations together with our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. This discussion and analysis reflects our historical results of operations and financial position and contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in or implied by these forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. Please also see the section titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” We were incorporated in August 2020 and, pursuant to the Organizational Transactions described in Note 1 to our condensed consolidated financial statements, became a holding company whose principal asset is a controlling equity interest in Topco LLC. As the sole managing member of Topco LLC, we operate and control the business and affairs of Topco LLC and its subsidiaries. Accordingly, we consolidate Topco LLC in our consolidated financial statements and report a non-controlling interest related to the portion of Topco LLC not owned by us. Because the Organizational Transactions were considered transactions between entities under common control, the consolidated financial statements for periods prior to the Organizational Transactions and the initial public offering have been adjusted to combine the previously separate entities for presentation purposes. Unless otherwise noted or the context otherwise requires, references in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q to “we,” “us” or “our” refer to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Overview
We are a leading life sciences company providing critical products to enable the development of drug therapies, diagnostics, novel vaccines and support research on human diseases. Our customers include the top global biopharmaceutical companies ranked by research and development expenditures according to industry consultants, and many other emerging biopharmaceutical and life sciences research companies, as well as leading academic research institutions and in vitro diagnostics companies. Our products address the key phases of biopharmaceutical development and include complex nucleic acids for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, antibody-based products to detect impurities during the production of biopharmaceutical products, and products to detect the expression of proteins in tissues of various species.
We have and will continue to build a transformative life sciences products company by acquiring businesses and accelerating their growth through capital infusions and industry expertise. Biomedical innovation is dependent on a reliable supply of reagents in the fields of nucleic acid production, biologics safety testing and protein labeling. From inventive startups to the world’s leading biopharmaceutical, vaccine, diagnostics and gene and cell therapy companies, these customers turn to us to solve their complex discovery challenges and help them streamline and scale their supply chain needs beginning from research and development through clinical trials to commercialization.
Our primary customers are biopharmaceutical companies who are pursuing novel research and product development programs. Our customers also include a range of government, academic and biotechnology institutions.
As of March 31, 2024, we employed a team of over 570 full-time employees, approximately 26% of whom have advanced degrees.
We primarily utilize a direct sales model for our sales to our customers in North America. Our international sales, primarily in Europe and Asia Pacific, are through a combination of third-party distributors as well as via a direct sales model. The percentage of our total revenue derived from customers in North America was 52.0% and 51.3% for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
We generated revenue of $64.2 million and $79.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
Total revenue by segment was $46.0 million in Nucleic Acid Production and $18.2 million in Biologics Safety Testing for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to $61.5 million and $17.6 million, respectively, for the three months ended March 31, 2023.
We focus a substantial portion of our resources supporting our core business segments. We are actively pursuing opportunities to expand our customer base both domestically and internationally by fostering strong relationships with both existing and new customers and distributors. Our management team has experience working with biopharmaceutical, vaccine, diagnostics and gene and cell therapy companies as well as academic and research scientists. We also intend to continue making investments in our overall infrastructure and business segments to support our growth. We incurred aggregate selling, general and administrative expenses of $40.9 million and $38.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
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Our research and development efforts are geared towards supporting our customers’ needs. We incurred research and development expenses of $5.0 million and $4.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. We intend to continue to invest in research and development and new products and technologies to support our customers’ needs for the foreseeable future.
Trends and Uncertainties
While we believe that the long-term trend of biopharmaceutical customers relying on outside parties to provide important inputs and services for their clinical research and manufacturing remains a long-term growth driver for us, we believe that recent industry trends and uncertainties, including changes in our customers’ spending priorities and budgetary policies and practices, which negatively impacted our revenue and operating results in the year ended December 31, 2023, may continue and result in slower growth and/or cause a further decline in our revenues during the year ending December 31, 2024. These trends and uncertainties, which we primarily attribute to lower levels of investment in the research and development funding of early-stage biotechnology companies and declines and uncertainties in the capital markets amidst ongoing negative macroeconomic challenges, has and may continue to cause those companies to take action to conserve capital, resulting in a potential reduction in research and development spending across the markets in which we participate.
Our businesses also continue to see headwinds from a general contraction in economic activity in Asia, particularly in China, which may negatively impact our revenue derived from those markets.
How We Assess Our Business
We consider a variety of financial and operating measures in assessing the performance of our business. The key measures we use to determine how our business is performing are revenue and Adjusted EBITDA.
Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure that we define as net loss adjusted for interest, provision for income taxes, depreciation, amortization and stock-based compensation expenses. Adjusted EBITDA reflects further adjustments to eliminate the impact of certain items, including certain non-cash and other items, that we do not consider representative of our ongoing operating performance. We also present Adjusted Free Cash Flow, which is a non-GAAP measure that we define as Adjusted EBITDA less capital expenditures.
Management uses Adjusted EBITDA to evaluate the financial performance of our business and the effectiveness of our business strategies. We present Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Free Cash Flow because we believe they are frequently used by analysts, investors and other interested parties to evaluate companies in our industry and they facilitate comparisons on a consistent basis across reporting periods. Further, we believe they are helpful in highlighting trends in our operating results because they exclude items that are not indicative of our core operating performance. Adjusted EBITDA is also a component of the financial covenant under the Credit Agreement that governs our ability to access more than $63.0 million in aggregate letters of credit and available borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility. In addition, if we borrow more than $63.0 million under the Revolving Credit Facility, we are required to maintain a specified net leverage ratio. See “Liquidity and Capital Resources—Credit Agreement” below for a discussion of this financial covenant.
Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Free Cash Flow have limitations as analytical tools and you should not consider them in isolation or as substitutes for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. We may in the future incur expenses similar to the adjustments in the presentation of Adjusted EBITDA. In particular, we expect to incur meaningful share-based compensation expense in the future. Other limitations include that Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Free Cash Flow do not reflect:
all expenditures or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
changes in our working capital needs;
provision for income taxes, which may be a necessary element of our costs and ability to operate;
the costs of replacing the assets being depreciated, which will often have to be replaced in the future;
the non-cash component of employee compensation expense; and
the impact of earnings or charges resulting from matters we consider not to be reflective, on a recurring basis, of our ongoing operations.
In addition, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Free Cash Flow may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies in our industry or across different industries.
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Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
Our revenue consists primarily of product revenue and, to a much lesser extent, service revenue. We generated total consolidated revenue of $64.2 million and $79.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, through the following segments: (i) Nucleic Acid Production and (ii) Biologics Safety Testing.
Nucleic Acid Production Segment
Our Nucleic Acid Production segment focuses on the manufacturing and sale of highly modified nucleic acids products to support the needs of customers’ research, therapeutic and vaccine programs. This segment also provides research products for labeling and detecting proteins in cells and tissue samples.
Biologics Safety Testing Segment
Our Biologics Safety Testing segment focuses on manufacturing and selling biologics safety and impurity tests and assay development services that are utilized by our customers in their biologic drug manufacturing activities.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue associated with our products primarily consists of manufacturing related costs incurred in the production process, including personnel and related costs, stock-based compensation expense, inventory write-downs, costs of materials, labor and overhead, packaging and delivery costs and allocated costs, including facilities, information technology, depreciation and amortization of intangibles. Cost of revenue also includes adjustments for excess, obsolete or expired inventory, and idle capacity. Cost of revenue associated with our services primarily consists of personnel and related costs, stock-based compensation expense, cost of materials and allocated costs, including facilities and information technology costs. Costs of services were not material for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
Operating Expenses
Selling, General and Administrative
Our selling, general and administrative expenses primarily consist of salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation expense for our employees in our commercial sales functions, marketing, executive, accounting and finance, legal and human resource functions as well as travel expenses, professional services fees, such as consulting, audit, tax and legal fees, general corporate costs and allocated costs, including facilities, information technology and amortization of intangibles.
We expect that our selling, general and administrative expenses will gradually increase in future periods, primarily due to our expanding facilities footprint to support anticipated long-term growth in the business, costs incurred in increasing our presence globally, and increases in marketing activities to drive awareness and adoption of our products and services.
Research and Development
Research and development costs primarily consist of salaries, benefits, stock-based compensation expense, outside contracted services, cost of supplies, in-process research and development costs from asset acquisitions and allocated facilities costs for employees engaged in research and development of products and services. We expense all research and development costs in the period in which they are incurred. Payment made prior to the receipt of goods or services to be used in research and development are recognized as prepaid assets until the goods are received or services are rendered.
We expect our research and development costs will increase to support our research and development efforts, including meeting our customers’ needs.
Restructuring
For the three months ended March 31, 2024, restructuring costs (benefit) primarily consist of the stock-based compensation benefit recognized for the forfeiture of stock awards upon the termination of certain impacted employees resulting from the Cost Realignment Plan, which was implemented in November 2023.
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Other Income (Expense)
Interest Expense
Interest expense consists of interest costs and the related amortization of the debt discount and deferred issuance costs on our outstanding debt, changes in the fair value of our interest rate cap agreement, and interest costs on our finance lease liabilities.
Interest Income
Interest income consists of interest earned on our cash balances and short-term investments in money market funds held at financial institutions.
Change in Payable to Related Parties Pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement
The Tax Receivable Agreement liability adjustment reflects changes in the Tax Receivable Agreement liability recorded in our condensed consolidated balance sheets primarily due to changes in our estimated state apportionment and the corresponding change of our estimated state tax rate.
Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
As a result of our ownership of LLC Units in Topco LLC, we are subject to U.S. federal, state and local income taxes with respect to our allocable share of any taxable income of Topco LLC and will be taxed at the prevailing corporate tax rates.
Non-Controlling Interests
Non-controlling interests represent the portion of profit or loss, net assets and comprehensive income or loss of our consolidated subsidiaries that is not allocable to the Company based on our percentage of ownership of such entities. Income or loss attributed to the non-controlling interests is based on the LLC Units outstanding during the period and is presented on the condensed consolidated statements of operations. As of March 31, 2024, we held approximately 52.7% of the outstanding LLC Units of Topco LLC, and MLSH 1 held approximately 47.3% of the outstanding LLC Units of Topco LLC.
Results of Operations
The results of operations presented below should be reviewed in conjunction with the condensed consolidated financial statements and notes included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. For information with respect to recent
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accounting pronouncements that are of significance or potential significance to us, see Note 1 to the condensed consolidated financial statements contained in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023Change
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Revenue$64,179 $79,025 (18.8)%
Operating expenses:
Cost of revenue (1)
38,335 33,676 13.8 %
Selling, general and administrative (1)
40,885 38,671 5.7 %
Research and development (1)
5,032 4,145 21.4 %
Restructuring (1)
(1,212)— *
Total operating expenses83,040 76,492 8.6 %
(Loss) income from operations(18,861)2,533 (844.6)%
Other income (expense), net(3,548)(7,056)(49.7)%
Loss before income taxes(22,409)(4,523)395.4 %
Income tax expense (benefit)271 (3,175)(108.5)%
Net loss(22,680)(1,348)1582.5 %
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests(10,602)(1,281)727.6 %
Net loss attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc.$(12,078)$(67)*
Net loss per Class A common share attributable to Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc., basic and diluted$(0.09)$0.00 
Weighted average number of Class A common shares outstanding, basic and diluted132,333 131,739 
Non-GAAP measures:
Adjusted EBITDA$7,795 $23,798 
Adjusted Free Cash Flow$3,551 $22,653 
____________________
*    Not meaningful
(1)Includes stock-based compensation expense (benefit) as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023Change
Cost of revenue$2,631 $1,339 96.5 %
Selling, general and administrative9,500 4,202 126.1 %
Research and development1,157 446 159.4 %
Restructuring
(1,231)— *
Total stock-based compensation expense$12,057 $5,987 101.4 %
Revenue
Consolidated revenue by segment was as follows for the periods presented (in thousands, except percentages):
Three Months Ended March 31,Percentage of Revenue
20242023Change20242023
Nucleic Acid Production$46,016 $61,451 (25.1)%71.7 %77.8 %
Biologics Safety Testing18,163 17,574 3.4 %28.3 %22.2 %
Total revenue$64,179 $79,025 (18.8)%100.0 %100.0 %
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Total revenue was $64.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to $79.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023, representing a decrease of $14.8 million, or 18.8%.
Nucleic Acid Production revenue decreased from $61.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 to $46.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, representing a decrease of $15.4 million, or 25.1%. The decrease in Nucleic Acid Production revenue was primarily driven by lower demand for CleanCap analogs from COVID-19 vaccine manufacturers, and large GMP services projects that did not repeat in the current quarter.
Biologics Safety Testing revenue increased from $17.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 to $18.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, representing an increase of $0.6 million, or 3.4%. The increase from the prior year was not significant.
Segment Information
Management has determined that adjusted earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization is the profit or loss measure used to make resource allocation decisions and evaluate segment performance. Adjusted EBITDA assists management in comparing the segment performance on a consistent basis for purposes of business decision-making by removing the impact of certain items that management believes do not directly reflect the core operations and, therefore, are not included in measuring segment performance. We define Adjusted EBITDA as net loss before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, certain non-cash items and other adjustments that we do not consider in our evaluation of ongoing operating performance from period to period. Corporate costs, net of eliminations, are managed on a standalone basis and are not allocated to segments.
We do not allocate assets to our reportable segments as they are not included in the review performed by our Chief Operating Decision Maker for purposes of assessing segment performance and allocating resources.
As of March 31, 2024, all of our long-lived assets were located within the United States.
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The following schedule includes revenue and adjusted EBITDA for each of our reportable operating segments (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Revenue:
Nucleic Acid Production$46,016 $61,451 
Biologics Safety Testing18,163 17,574 
Total reportable segments’ revenue$64,179 $79,025 
Segment adjusted EBITDA:
Nucleic Acid Production$10,088 $27,873 
Biologics Safety Testing13,926 13,746 
Total reportable segments’ adjusted EBITDA24,014 41,619 
Reconciliation of total reportable segments’ adjusted EBITDA to loss before income taxes
Amortization(6,869)(6,765)
Depreciation(4,786)(2,080)
Interest expense(10,864)(11,833)
Interest income7,210 6,045 
Corporate costs, net of eliminations(16,219)(17,821)
Other adjustments:
Acquisition integration costs(2,498)(2,464)
Stock-based compensation(12,057)(5,987)
Merger and acquisition related expenses(30)(3,291)
Acquisition related tax adjustment113 173 
Tax Receivable Agreement liability adjustment— (1,436)
Restructuring costs (1)
(19)— 
Other(404)(683)
Loss before income taxes(22,409)(4,523)
Income tax (expense) benefit(271)3,175 
Net loss$(22,680)$(1,348)
___________________
(1)For the three months ended March 31, 2024, stock-based compensation benefit of $1.2 million related to forfeited stock awards in connection with the restructuring is included on the stock-based compensation line item.
There was no intersegment revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. Any intersegment sales and the related gross margin on inventory recorded at the end of the period are eliminated for consolidation purposes. Internal selling prices for intersegment sales are consistent with the segment’s normal retail price offered to external parties. There was no commission expense recognized for intersegment sales for each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
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Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Adjusted EBITDA
A reconciliation of net loss to adjusted EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP measure, is set forth below (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Net loss$(22,680)$(1,348)
Add:
Amortization6,869 6,765 
Depreciation4,786 2,080 
Interest expense10,864 11,833 
Interest income(7,210)(6,045)
Income tax expense (benefit)271 (3,175)
EBITDA(7,100)10,110 
Acquisition integration costs (1)
2,498 2,464 
Stock-based compensation (2)
12,057 5,987 
Merger and acquisition related expenses (3)
30 3,291 
Acquisition related tax adjustment (4)
(113)(173)
Tax Receivable Agreement liability adjustment (5)
— 1,436 
Restructuring costs (6)
19 — 
Other (7)
404 683 
Adjusted EBITDA$7,795 $23,798 
____________________
(1)Refers to incremental costs incurred to execute and integrate completed acquisitions, and retention payments in connection with these acquisitions.
(2)Refers to non-cash expense associated with stock-based compensation.
(3)Refers to diligence, legal, accounting, tax and consulting fees incurred associated with acquisitions that were pursued but not consummated.
(4)Refers to non-cash income associated with adjustments to the indemnification asset recorded in connection with the acquisition of MyChem, LLC (“MyChem”), which was completed in January 2022.
(5)Refers to the adjustment of the Tax Receivable Agreement liability primarily due to changes in our estimated state apportionment and the corresponding change of our estimated state tax rate.
(6)Refers to restructuring costs associated with the Cost Realignment Plan, which was implemented in November 2023. Stock-based compensation benefit of $1.2 million related to forfeited stock awards in connection with the restructuring is included on the stock-based compensation line item.
(7)For the three and three months ended March 31, 2024, refers to inventory step-up charges and certain other adjustments in connection with the acquisition of Alphazyme, LLC, which was completed in January 2023, and other non-recurring costs. For the three months ended March 31, 2023, refers to severance payments, legal settlement amounts, inventory step-up charges in connection with the acquisition of Alphazyme, LLC, and other non-recurring costs.
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Adjusted Free Cash Flow
Adjusted Free Cash Flow, which is a non-GAAP measure that we define as Adjusted EBITDA less capital expenditures, is set forth below for the periods presented (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Adjusted EBITDA$7,795 $23,798 
Capital expenditures (1)
(4,244)(1,145)
Adjusted Free Cash Flow$3,551 $22,653 
____________________
(1)We define capital expenditures as: (i) purchases of property and equipment which are included in cash flows from investing activities, offset by government funding received; and (ii) construction costs determined to be lessor improvements recorded as prepaid lease payments and right-of-use assets, offset by government funding received.
Operating Expenses
Operating expenses included the following for the periods presented (in thousands, except percentages):
Three Months Ended March 31,Percentage of Revenue
20242023Change20242023
Cost of revenue$38,335 $33,676 13.8 %59.7 %42.6 %
Selling, general and administrative40,885 38,671 5.7 %63.7 %48.9 %
Research and development5,032 4,145 21.4 %7.9 %5.3 %
Restructuring
(1,212)— *(1.9)%— %
Total operating expenses$83,040 $76,492 8.6 %129.4 %96.8 %
____________________
*Not meaningful
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue increased by $4.7 million from $33.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 to $38.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, or 13.8%. The increase in cost of revenue was primarily attributable to an increase of $4.7 million due to lower direct labor and overhead expense absorption, an increase of $0.5 million in supplies and materials, and an increase of $0.5 million in facilities costs driven by new facilities. These increases were partially offset by a decrease of $1.0 million in personnel costs primarily driven by a decrease in headcount as a result of the Cost Realignment Plan.
Gross profit decreased by $19.5 million from $45.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 to $25.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024. The decrease in the gross profit margin as a percentage of sales was primarily attributable to an overall increase in the cost of revenue as a percentage of sales as the result of higher supplies and materials, higher facilities costs, and lower manufacturing throughput and related absorption which increased the direct labor and overhead expenses incurred into cost of revenue in the period.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by $2.2 million from $38.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 to $40.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, or 5.7%. The increase was primarily driven by increases of $4.4 million in stock-based compensation expense, $2.5 million in depreciation expense driven by new facilities, and $0.4 million in certain adjustments related to the acquisition of MyChem recognized in the prior period. These were partially offset by a decrease of $3.7 million in professional service fees primarily driven by consulting services incurred in the prior period related to the acquisition of Alphazyme and a decrease of $1.4 million in certain personnel costs primarily driven by a decrease in headcount as a result of the Cost Realignment Plan.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses increased by $0.9 million from $4.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 to $5.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, or 21.4%. The increase in expenses compared to the prior year was
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primarily driven by an increase of $0.5 million in professional service fees for external analytic studies, $0.2 million in personnel costs, and $0.1 million in information technology costs.
Restructuring
For the three months ended March 31, 2024, restructuring costs (benefit) primarily consists of the stock-based compensation benefit recognized for the forfeiture of stock awards upon the termination of certain impacted employees resulting from the Cost Realignment Plan, which was implemented in November 2023. See Note 2 to the condensed consolidated financial statements contained in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for additional information.
Other Income (Expense)
Other income (expense) included the following for the periods presented (in thousands, except percentages):
Three Months Ended March 31,Percentage of Revenue
20242023Change20242023
Interest expense$(10,864)$(11,833)(8.2)%(16.9)%(15.0)%
Interest income7,210 6,045 19.3 %11.2 %7.7 %
Change in payable to related parties pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement— (1,436)*— %(1.8)%
Other income106 168 (36.9)%0.2 %0.2 %
Total other expense$(3,548)$(7,056)(49.7)%(5.5)%(8.9)%
____________________
*Not meaningful
Other expense was $7.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 compared to $3.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, representing a decrease of $3.5 million, or 49.7%. The decrease in Other expense was primarily attributable to the change in payable to related parties pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement of $1.4 million in the prior year as a result of changes in our estimated state income tax apportionment and a corresponding change in our estimated state income tax rate. The decrease was also attributable to a $1.2 million increase in interest income earned on our cash balances and short-term investments in money market funds. The decrease was further driven by a $1.0 million decrease in interest expense primarily due to changes in the fair value of our interest rate cap agreement and interest rates.
Relationship with GTCR, LLC (“GTCR”)
As of March 31, 2024, investment entities affiliated with GTCR collectively controlled approximately 56% of the voting power of our common stock, which enables GTCR to control the vote of all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders and to control the election of members of the Board and all other corporate decisions.
We made distributions of $8.3 million during the three months ended March 31, 2023 for tax liabilities to MLSH 1, which is controlled by GTCR and is the only holder of LLC Units other than us and our wholly owned subsidiaries. No such distributions were made during the three months ended March 31, 2024.
We are also a party to a Tax Receivable Agreement, or TRA, with MLSH 1, which is primarily owned by GTCR, and MLSH 2 (see Note 10 to the condensed consolidated financial statements contained in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q). The TRA provides for the payment by us to MLSH 1 and MLSH 2, collectively, of 85% of the amount of tax benefits, if any, that we actually realize, or in some circumstances are deemed to realize, from exchanges of LLC Units (together with the corresponding shares of Class B common stock) for Class A common stock, as a result of (i) certain increases in the tax basis of assets of Topco LLC and its subsidiaries resulting from purchases or exchanges of LLC Units, (ii) certain tax attributes of the entities acquired from MLSH 1 and MLSH 2 in connection with the Organizational Transactions, Topco LLC and subsidiaries of Topco LLC that existed prior to the IPO, and (iii) certain other tax benefits related to our entering into the TRA, including tax benefits attributable to payments that we make under the TRA (collectively, the “Tax Attributes”). Payment obligations under the TRA are not conditioned upon any Topco LLC unitholders maintaining a continued ownership interest in us or Topco LLC, and the rights of MLSH 1 and MLSH 2 under the TRA are assignable. There is no stated term for the TRA, and the TRA will continue until all tax benefits have been utilized or expired unless we exercise our right to terminate the TRA for an agreed-upon amount.
We recognize the amount of TRA payments expected to be paid within the next 12 months and classify this amount as current. As of March 31, 2024, our current liability under the TRA was $7.1 million.
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As of December 31, 2023, the Company had derecognized the remaining $665.3 million non-current liability under the TRA after concluding it was not probable that the Company will be able to realize the remaining tax benefits based on estimates of future taxable income. The estimation of liability under the TRA is by its nature imprecise and subject to significant assumptions regarding the amount, character, and timing of the taxable income in the future. If the Company concludes in a future period that the tax benefits are more likely than not to be realized and releases its valuation allowance, the corresponding TRA liability amounts may be considered probable at that time and recorded on the consolidated balance sheet and within earnings.
No payments under the TRA were made during either of the three months ended March 31, 2024 or 2023.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Overview
We have financed our operations primarily from cash flow from operations, borrowings under long-term debt agreements and, to a lesser extent, the sale of our Class A common stock.
As of March 31, 2024, we had cash and cash equivalents of $561.7 million and retained earnings of $273.7 million. We had a net loss of $22.7 million and negative cash flow from operations of $8.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024.
We have relied on revenue derived from product and services sales, and equity and debt financings to fund our operations to date.
Our principal uses of cash have been to fund operations, acquisitions and capital expenditures, as well as make tax distributions to MLSH 1, make TRA payments to MLSH 1 and MLSH 2 and make interest payments and mandatory principal payments on our long-term debt.
We plan to utilize our existing cash on hand, together with cash generated from operations, primarily to fund our commercial and marketing activities associated with our products and services, continued research and development initiatives, and ongoing investments into our manufacturing facilities to create efficiencies and build capacity. We believe our cash on hand, cash generated from operations and continued access to our credit facilities, will be sufficient to satisfy our cash requirements over the next 12 months and beyond.
As a result of our ownership of LLC Units in Topco LLC, the Company is subject to U.S. federal, state and local income taxes with respect to its allocable share of any taxable income of Topco LLC and is taxed at the prevailing corporate tax rates. In addition to tax expenses, we also will incur expenses related to our operations and we may be required to make payments under the TRA with MLSH 1 and MLSH 2. Due to the uncertainty of various factors, we cannot precisely quantify the likely tax benefits we will realize as a result of LLC Unit exchanges and the resulting amounts we are likely to pay out to LLC Unitholders of Topco LLC pursuant to the TRA. We expect that probable future payments under the TRA relating to the purchase by the Company of LLC Units from MLSH 1 and the corresponding tax attributes will be approximately $7.1 million. This determination is based on our estimate of taxable income for the year ended December 31, 2023. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we determined that making a payment under the non-current portion of the TRA was not probable under Accounting Standards Codification 450 - Contingencies as a result of a valuation allowance having been recorded against our deferred tax assets and, therefore, that it is more likely than not that we will not generate sufficient future taxable income to utilize related tax benefits that will result in a payment under the TRA. If we had determined that making a payment under the TRA and generating sufficient future taxable income was probable, we would have also recorded a non-current liability pursuant to the TRA of approximately $665.3 million in the condensed consolidated balance sheet. Future payments in respect of subsequent exchanges or financings and tax attributes relating to the purchase by the Company of LLC Units from MLSH 1 would be in addition to this amount and may be substantial. The foregoing numbers are estimates and the actual payments could differ materially. We expect to fund these payments using cash on hand and cash generated from operations.
As a result of a change of control, material breach, or our election to terminate the TRA early, (1) we could be required to make cash payments to MLSH 1 and MLSH 2 that are greater than the specified percentage of the actual benefits we ultimately realize in respect of the tax benefits that are subject to the TRA, and (2) we will be required to make an immediate cash payment equal to the present value of the anticipated future tax benefits that are the subject of the TRA, which payment may be made significantly in advance of the actual realization, if any, of such future tax benefits. In these situations, our obligations under the TRA could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations, or other changes of control. There can be no assurance that we will be able to finance our obligations under the TRA.
In addition to payments to be made under the TRA, we are also required to make tax distributions to MLSH 1 pursuant to the LLC Operating Agreement for the portion of income passing through to them from Topco LLC. We made distributions of $8.3
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million during the three months ended March 31, 2023 for tax liabilities to MLSH 1 under the LLC Operating Agreement. No such distributions were made during the three months ended March 31, 2024.
Credit Agreement
In October 2020, Maravai Intermediate Holdings, LLC (“Intermediate”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Topco LLC, along with certain of its subsidiaries (together with Intermediate, the “Borrowers”), entered into a credit agreement (as amended, the “Credit Agreement”), which provides for a term loan facility and a revolving credit facility. In January 2022, the Company entered into an amendment (the “Amendment”) to refinance the term loan and to replace London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) with a Term Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) based rate.
As amended, the Credit Agreement provides for a $600.0 million term loan facility, maturing October 2027 (the “Term Loan”), and a $180.0 million revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Credit Facility”).
As of March 31, 2024, the interest rate on the Term Loan was 8.31% per annum.
The Credit Agreement also provides for a $20.0 million limit for letters of credit. As of March 31, 2024, the Company had a $0.5 million outstanding letter of credit as security for a lease agreement, which reduced the availability for letters of credit under the Revolving Credit Facility to $19.5 million.
Borrowings under the Credit Agreement are unconditionally guaranteed by Topco LLC, together with the existing and future material domestic subsidiaries of Topco LLC (subject to certain exceptions), as specified in the respective guaranty agreements. Borrowings under the Credit Agreement are also secured by a first-priority lien and security interest in substantially all of the assets (subject to certain exceptions) of existing and future material domestic subsidiaries of Topco LLC that are loan parties.
Commencing with the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, and each fiscal year thereafter, the Credit Agreement requires that we make mandatory prepayments on the Term Loan principal upon certain excess cash flow, subject to certain step-downs based on the Company’s first lien net leverage ratio. The excess cash flow shall be reduced to 25% or 0% of the calculated excess cash flow if the Company’s first lien net leverage ratio was equal to or less than 4.75:1.00 or 4.25:1.00, respectively, however, no prepayment shall be required to the extent excess cash flow calculated for the respective period is equal to or less than $10.0 million. As of March 31, 2024, the Company’s first lien net leverage ratio was less than 4.25:1.00. Thus, a mandatory prepayment on the Term Loan out of our excess cash flow was not required.
The Credit Agreement contains certain covenants, including, among other things, covenants limiting our ability to incur or prepay certain indebtedness, pay dividends or distributions, dispose of assets, engage in mergers and consolidations, make acquisitions or other investments and make changes to the nature of the business. Additionally, the Credit Agreement also requires us to maintain a certain net leverage ratio if the outstanding debt balance on the Revolving Credit Facility exceeds 35.0% of the aggregate amount of available credit of $180.0 million. The Company was in compliance with these covenants as of March 31, 2024.
Tax Receivable Agreement
We are a party to the TRA with MLSH 1 and MLSH 2. The TRA provides for the payment by us to MLSH 1 and MLSH 2, collectively, of 85% of the amount of certain tax benefits, if any, that we actually realize, or in some circumstances are deemed to realize, as a result of the Organizational Transactions, IPO and any subsequent purchases or exchanges of LLC Units of Topco LLC.
As of March 31, 2024, our current liability under the TRA was $7.1 million, representing 85% of the calculated tax savings we expect to utilize for the year ended December 31, 2023. We may record additional liabilities under the TRA when LLC Units are exchanged in the future and as our estimates of the future utilization of the Tax Attributes, net operating losses and other tax benefits change. We expect to make payments under the TRA, to the extent they are required, within 125 days after the extended due date of our U.S. federal income tax return for such taxable year. Interest on such payments will begin to accrue from the due date (without extensions) of such tax return at a rate of LIBOR (or, if LIBOR ceases to be published, a Replacement Rate) plus 100 basis points. Generally, any late payments will continue to accrue interest at LIBOR (or a Replacement Rate, as applicable) plus 500 basis points until such payments are made. Given the cessation of LIBOR, we have transitioned to the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") as the applicable Replacement Rate as allowable under the Tax Receivable Agreement.
The payment obligations under the TRA are obligations of Maravai LifeSciences Holdings, Inc. and not of Topco LLC. Although the actual timing and amount of any payments that may be made under the TRA will vary, the aggregate payments that we will be required to make to MLSH 1 and MLSH 2 may be substantial. Any payments made by us under the TRA will generally reduce the amount of overall cash flow that might have otherwise been available to us or to Topco LLC and, to the extent that we are unable to make payments under the TRA for any reason, the unpaid amounts will be deferred and will accrue
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interest until paid by us. We anticipate funding ordinary course payments under the TRA from cash flow from operations of Topco LLC and its subsidiaries, available cash and/or available borrowings under the Credit Agreement.
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we determined that making a payment under the non-current portion of the TRA was not probable under Accounting Standards Codification 450 - Contingencies as a result of a valuation allowance having been recorded against our deferred tax assets, and therefore, that it is more likely than not that we will not generate sufficient future taxable income to utilize related tax benefits that would result in a payment under the TRA. If we had determined that making a payment under the TRA and generating sufficient future taxable income was probable, we would have also recorded a liability pursuant to the TRA, net of current portion, of approximately $665.3 million in the condensed consolidated balance sheet.
Cash Flows
The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods presented (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Net cash provided by (used in):
Operating activities$(8,467)$85,074 
Investing activities(4,244)(69,730)
Financing activities(560)(19,209)
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents$(13,271)$(3,865)
Operating Activities
Net cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $8.5 million, which was primarily attributable to a net loss of $22.7 million and net cash outflow from the change in our operating assets and liabilities of $10.6 million, of which $19.4 million was driven by a decrease in accrued expenses and other current liabilities for the retention payments relating to the acquisition of MyChem. These were partially offset by non-cash depreciation and amortization of $11.7 million, non-cash amortization of operating lease right-of-use assets of $2.1 million, non-cash amortization of deferred financing costs of $0.7 million, and non-cash stock-based compensation of $12.1 million.
Net cash provided by operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2023 was $85.1 million, which was primarily attributable to a net cash inflow from the change in our operating assets and liabilities of $68.3 million, non-cash depreciation and amortization of $8.8 million, non-cash amortization of operating lease right-of-use assets of $2.1 million, non-cash amortization of deferred financing costs of $0.7 million, non-cash stock-based compensation of $6.0 million, and non-cash loss on the revaluation of liabilities under the TRA of $1.4 million. These were partially offset by a net loss of $1.3 million and non-cash deferred income taxes of $1.5 million.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $4.2 million, which was primarily comprised of cash outflows of $5.7 million for property and equipment purchases, offset by proceeds from government assistance allocated to property and equipment of $1.4 million.
Net cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2023 was $69.7 million, which was primarily comprised of the net cash consideration paid for the acquisition of Alphazyme and cash outflows of $7.9 million for property and equipment purchases, offset by proceeds from government assistance allocated to property and equipment of $8.0 million.
Financing Activities
Net cash used in financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $0.6 million, which was primarily attributable to $1.4 million of tax payments for shares withheld under employee equity plans, net of proceeds from issuance of Class A common stock and $1.4 million of principal repayments of long-term debt. These were partially offset by proceeds from the interest rate cap agreement of $2.4 million.
Net cash used in financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2023 was $19.2 million, which was primarily attributable to a $9.7 million payment of an acquisition consideration holdback relating to the acquisition of MyChem, $8.3 million of distributions for tax liabilities to non-controlling interest holders, required pursuant to the terms of the LLC Operating Agreement, and $1.4 million of principal repayments of long-term debt.
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Capital Expenditures
Capital expenditures for the three months ended March 31, 2024 totaled $4.2 million, which is net of government funding of $1.4 million. Capital expenditures for the year ending December 31, 2024 are projected to be in the range of $30.0 million to $35.0 million, which is net of anticipated government funding recognized. This primarily includes leasehold improvements and equipment primarily for the Flanders San Diego Facility.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations and commitments as of March 31, 2024 (in thousands):
Payments due by period
Total1 year