|Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers|
|Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable|
|Item 3. Key Information|
|Item 4. Information on The Company|
|Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments|
|Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects|
|Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees|
|Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions|
|Item 8. Financial Information|
|Item 9. The Offer and Listing|
|Item 10. Additional Information|
|Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk|
|Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities|
|Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies|
|Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds|
|Item 15. Controls and Procedures|
|Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert|
|Item 16B. Code of Ethics|
|Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services|
|Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees|
|Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers|
|Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant|
|Item 16G. Corporate Governance|
|Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure|
|Item 17. Financial Statements|
|Item 18. Financial Statements|
|Item 19. Exhibits|
|Balance Sheet||Income Statement||Cash Flow|
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number: 001-36515
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(Translation of Registrants name into English)
Kingdom of Belgium
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
Technologielaan 15, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
(Address of principal executive offices)
Peter Leys, telephone +32 (16) 39 66 11, facsimile +32 (16) 39 66 00, Technologielaan 15, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
American Depositary Shares, each representing one
Ordinary Share, no nominal value per share
|The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC|
|Ordinary Shares, no nominal value per share*||The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC|
Not for trading but only in connection with the registration of the American Depositary Shares pursuant to the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None.
The number of outstanding shares of each of the issuers classes of capital or common stock as of December 31, 2019 was: 53,172,513 Ordinary Shares
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. ☐ Yes ☒ No
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. ☐ Yes ☒ No
Note Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☒ Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). ☐ Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definition of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer, and emerging growth company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large accelerated filer||☐||Accelerated filer||☒|
|Non accelerated filer||☐||Emerging growth company||☐|
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
The term new or revised financial accounting standard refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its managements assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP ☐
|International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ☒||Other ☐|
If Other has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. ☐ Item 17 ☐ Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). ☐ Yes ☒ No
(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. ☐ Yes ☐ No
Except as otherwise required by the context, references to (i) Materialise, Company, we, us and our are to Materialise NV and its subsidiaries, (ii) ACTech are to ACTech Holding GmbH and its subsidiaries, which we acquired in 2017, and (iii) Engimplan are to Engimplan Engenharia De Implante Indústria E Comércio Ltda., in which we acquired a controlling interest in 2019.
Our trademark portfolio contained 148 registered trademarks and 9 pending trademark applications as of December 31, 2019. All other trademarks or trade names referred to in this annual report are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this annual report are referred to without the ® and symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.
All references in this annual report to U.S. dollars or $ are to the legal currency of the United States and all references to or euro are to the currency introduced at the start of the third stage of the European economic and monetary union pursuant to the treaty establishing the European Community, as amended.
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This annual report includes certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, concerning our business, operations and financial performance and condition as well as our plans, objectives and expectations for our business operations and financial performance and condition. Any statements that are not of historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. You can identify these forward-looking statements by words such as believes, estimates, anticipates, expects, plans, intends, may, could, might, will, should, aims, or other similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes. Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places throughout this annual report and include statements regarding our intentions, beliefs, assumptions, projections, outlook, analyzes or current expectations concerning, among other things, our intellectual property position, research and development projects, acquisitions, results of operations, cash needs, spending of the remaining net proceeds from our initial public offering, capital expenditures, financial condition, liquidity, prospects, growth and strategies, regulatory approvals and clearances, the markets and industry in which we operate and the trends and competition that may affect the markets, industry or us. In particular, under Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsD. Trend Information of this annual report and in the notes to our audited consolidated financial statements, we discuss, based on our current assessment of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), or coronavirus, pandemic, how our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be impacted during the year 2020.
By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events, competitive dynamics and industry change, and depend on economic circumstances that may or may not occur in the future or may occur on longer or shorter timelines than anticipated. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this annual report, we caution you that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that are in some cases beyond our control. All of our forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results to differ materially from our expectations.
Actual results could differ materially from our forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including, without limitation, risks related to:
our ability to enhance and adapt our software, products and services to meet changing technology and customer needs;
fluctuations in our revenue and results of operations;
impacts on our business, financial condition and results of operations from the current global health crisis related to the coronavirus pandemic;
changes in volumes and patterns of customer electricity usage;
our ability to operate in a highly competitive and rapidly changing industry;
our ability to adequately increase demand for our products and services;
our collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances or partnerships with third-parties;
our ability to integrate acquired businesses or technologies effectively;
our dependence upon sales to certain industries;
our relationships with suppliers;
our ability to attract and retain senior management and other key employees;
any disruptions to our service center operations, including by accidents, natural disasters or otherwise;
our ability to raise additional capital on attractive terms, or at all, if needed to meet our growth strategy;
our ability to adequately protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology;
our international operations;
our ability to comply with applicable governmental laws and regulations to which our products, services and operations are subject; and
other risk factors as set forth under Item 3. Key InformationD. Risk Factors.
Any forward-looking statements that we make in this annual report speak only as of the date of such statement, and we undertake no obligation to update such statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this annual report or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. Comparisons of results for current and any prior periods are not intended to express any future trends or indications of future performance, unless expressed as such, and should only be viewed as historical data. You should, however, review the factors and risks we describe in the reports we will file from time to time with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, after the date of this annual report. See Item 10. Additional InformationH. Documents on Display.
You should also read carefully the factors described in Item 3. Key InformationD. Risk Factors and elsewhere in this annual report to better understand the risks and uncertainties inherent in our business and underlying any forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this annual report will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified timeframe, or at all.
|ITEM 1.|| |
IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
|ITEM 2.|| |
OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
|ITEM 3.|| |
A. Selected Financial Data
The tables below contain a summary of our financial data as of and for years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016 and 2015, which have been derived from our consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, which we refer to as IFRS. Our consolidated financial statements and the related notes as of and for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 appear elsewhere in this annual report.
Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the financial results to be expected in any future periods. You should read this information in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this annual report, as well as the section entitled Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.
The Company has applied IFRS 16 as from January 1, 2019 by using the modified retrospective approach, not restating comparatives for the 2018 reporting period. The reclassifications and the adjustments arising from the new leasing standard are recognized in the opening balance sheet on January 1, 2019.
Consolidated Statements of Financial Position Data:
|As of December 31,|
Inventories and contracts in progress
Cash and cash equivalents
Net assets represents total assets less total liabilities.
Consolidated Income Statements Data:
|For the year ended December 31,|
Cost of sales
Research and development expenses
Sales and marketing expenses
General and administrative expenses
Net other operating income
Operating profit (loss)
Share in loss of joint venture
Profit (loss) before taxes
Net profit (loss) for the year
Net profit (loss) attributable to:
The owners of the parent
Earnings per share attributable to the owners of the parent
Weighted average number of ordinary shares for basic earnings per share (´000)
Weighted average number of ordinary shares adjusted for effect of dilution (´000)
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income Data:
Net profit (loss)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of taxes
Total comprehensive income (loss) for the year, net of taxes
Other Data (unaudited):
|For the year ended December 31,|
Adjusted EBITDA (unaudited)(1)
We calculate EBITDA as net profit (loss) for the year plus income taxes, financial expenses (less financial income), depreciation and amortization, and share in loss of joint venture. We calculate Adjusted EBITDA by adding non-cash share-based compensation expenses and acquisition-related expenses of business combinations to EBITDA. Disclosure in this annual report of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA, which are non-IFRS financial measures, is intended as a supplemental measure of our performance that is not required by, or presented in accordance with, IFRS. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as alternatives to net profit or any other performance measure derived in accordance with IFRS. Our presentation of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not be construed to imply that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or non-recurring items. For additional information, see Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsA. Operating ResultsOther Financial Information. The following table reconciles net profit to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA for the periods presented:
|For the year ended December 31,|
Net profit (loss)
Depreciation and amortization
Share in loss of joint venture
Non-cash share-based compensation expenses(a)
Acquisition-related expenses of business combinations(b)
Adjusted EBITDA (unaudited)
Non-cash share-based compensation expenses represent the cost of equity-settled and cash-settled share-based payments to employees.
Acquisition-related expenses of business combinations represent fees and costs in connection with the acquisition of ACTech in 2017 and the Engimplan acquisition in 2019.
Capitalization and Indebtedness
Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Risks Relating to Our Business
We may not be able to maintain or increase the market share or reputation of our software and other products and services that they need to remain or become a market standard.
The additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, industry is rapidly growing on a global scale and is subject to constant innovation and technological change. A variety of technologies compete against one another in our market, which is driven, in part, by technological advances and end-user requirements and preferences, as well as by the emergence of new standards and practices. As the additive manufacturing market evolves, the industry standards that are adopted and adhered to are a function of the inherent qualities of the technology as well as the willingness of members of the industry to adopt them. To remain competitive, we depend in large part on our ability to increase and maintain market share and influence in the industry in order to be recognized as a market standard. Nonetheless, in the future, our influence in setting standards for the additive manufacturing industry may be limited and the standards adopted by the market may not be compatible with our present or future products and services.
We may not be successful in continuing to enhance and adapt our software, products and services in line with developments in market technologies and demands.
Our present or future software, products and services could be rendered obsolete or uneconomical by technological advances by one or more of our present or future competitors or by other technologies. Our ability to remain competitive will depend, in large part, on our ability to enhance and adapt our current software, product and services to developments in market technologies and demands and to enhance and develop new 3D printing software solutions, products and services. We believe that to remain competitive we must continuously enhance and expand the functionality and features of our products, services and technologies. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to:
maintain and enhance the market share of our current products, services and technologies;
enhance our existing product, services and technologies;
continue to leverage advances in 3D printing technology;
develop new products, services and technologies that address the increasingly sophisticated and varied needs of prospective end-users;
respond to technological advances and emerging industry standards and practices on a cost-effective and timely basis;
develop products and services that are cost effective or that otherwise gain market acceptance; or
adequately protect our intellectual property as we develop new products, services and technologies and anticipate intellectual property claims from third parties.
The research and development programs that we are currently engaged in, or that we may establish in the future, may not be successful and our significant investments in these programs may be lost.
To remain competitive, we currently, and we intend to continue to, invest significant amounts in various research and development programs. There can be no assurances, however, that these research and development programs will improve our existing additive manufacturing software solutions, products and services or create new software, products or services. Even if some of these programs are successful, it is possible that the new software, products or services developed from such programs will not be commercially viable, that new 3D printing technologies that we, or others, develop will eventually supplant our current 3D printing technologies, that changes in the manufacturing or use of 3D printers will adversely affect the need or demand for our software, products or services or that our competitors will create or successfully market 3D printing technologies that will replace our solutions, products and services in the market. As a result, any of our software solutions, products or services may be rendered obsolete or uneconomical and our significant investments in all or some of our research and development programs may be lost.
Existing and increased competition may reduce our revenue and profits.
The market segments in which we operate, Materialise Software, Materialise Medical and Materialise Manufacturing, are characterized by vigorous competition, by entry of competitors with innovative technologies, by consolidation of companies with complementary products, services and technologies, and by entry of large corporations in any one or more of our market segments.
In particular, the barriers to enter the software, medical and industrial markets with 3D printing solutions are decreasing rapidly.
In the Materialise Software segment, the availability of computing devices with continually expanding performance at progressively lower prices contributes to the ease of market entry. Additionally, there are certain open source software applications that are being offered free of charge or for a nominal fee that can place additional competitive pressure on us. In addition, 3D printer manufacturers, which closely work with their customers, may successfully bundle their own software solutions with their equipment, which may make our independent software solutions obsolete. In addition, companies that have greater financial, technical, sales and marketing and other resources, including market leaders with significant in-house capacities in software development, or existing computer-aided design, or CAD, or computer-aided manufacturing, or CAM, software providers, may, at any point in time, enter the additive manufacturing market and very rapidly gain a significant share of the markets that we target.
In the Materialise Medical segment, medical device companies are investing in 3D printing solutions that may compete with our software solutions, products and services. Companies that initially rely on us to enter the additive manufacturing market for medical applications may, as they gain experience and as 3D printing technology gains strategic importance, decide to develop their own in-house solutions and enter the market themselves with their own software, products or services, thus becoming competitors and denying us continued access to their distribution channels.
In the Materialise Manufacturing segment, as additive manufacturing gains importance as a strategic technology, our customers are likely to bring 3D manufacturing in-house and reduce or even discontinue using our 3D printing services. In addition, competitors with more efficient or profitable business models, superior techniques or more advanced technologies may take market share away from us.
Because of these and other factors, competitive conditions in the industry are likely to intensify in the future. Increased competition could result in price reductions, reduced revenue and operating margins and loss of market share, any of which would likely harm our results of operations.
We rely on collaborations with users of our additive manufacturing solutions to be present in certain large scale markets and, indirectly, to expand into potentially high-growth specialty markets. Our inability to continue to develop or maintain these relationships in the future could harm our ability to remain competitive in existing markets and expand into other markets.
Our strategy includes entering into collaborations with our customers in certain large-scale markets and leveraging these collaborations to enter into other underserved specialty markets. For example, in the medical market, we have entered into collaborations with Zimmer Biomet Holdings, Inc., or Zimmer Biomet, Encore Medical, L.P. (d/b/a DJO Surgical), or DJO Surgical, DePuy Synthes Companies of Johnson & Johnson, or DePuy Synthes, Limacorporate Spa, or Lima, Mathys AG, or Mathys, Corin Ltd, or Corin, Medtronic Inc., or Medtronic, and Abbott Laboratories Inc., or Abbott. Increased adoption of our software, products and services, especially in potentially high-growth specialty markets, will depend in part on our current and future collaborators willingness to continue to adopt our additive manufacturing solutions in their markets and on our ability to continue to collaborate with these and other players. Certain of our customers that have initially relied on our 3D printing software and services have announced their intention to bring their 3D printing operations in-house and enter the market themselves, and other customers may also do so in the future as they gain experience and as 3D printing technology gains strategic importance, thus denying us continued access to their distribution channels. In addition, a change of control of any of our collaboration partners may negatively impact our relationship. If we are not able to maintain our existing collaborations and develop new collaborative relationships, our foothold in larger markets and expansion into potentially high-growth specialty markets could be harmed significantly.
Our revenue and results of operations may fluctuate.
Our revenue and results of operations may fluctuate from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year and are likely to continue to vary due to a number of factors, many of which are not within our control. You should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance.
Fluctuations in our results of operations and financial condition may occur due to a number of factors, including, but not limited to, those listed below and those identified throughout this annual report:
our ability to continue, renew or replace relationships with key customers;
the degree of market acceptance of our software and our products;
the mix of software, products and services that we sell during any period, as well as the mix of the various markets in which we make sales during said periods;
a decline in new or renewed periodic licenses or maintenance contracts;
delays in the introduction of new features;
the entry of new competitors into our market;
the development and degree of market acceptance of new competitive systems or processes by others;
changes in our pricing policies or those of our competitors, including our responses to price competition;
changes in the amount we spend in our marketing and other efforts;
delays between our expenditures to develop, acquire or license new technologies and processes, and the generation of sales related thereto;
the amounts we spend on, and the success rate of, our research and development activities;
changes in the regulatory environment, including changes in regulatory laws and regulations and the interpretation thereof, applicable to our software programs, products or services;
delays in obtaining regulatory approval for our software programs, products or services;
interruptions to or other problems with our website and interactive user interface, information technology systems, manufacturing processes or other operations;
general economic and industry conditions that affect end-user demand and end-user levels of product design and manufacturing, including the adverse effects of global economic uncertainties such as the recent global economic uncertainty related to the novel coronavirus pandemic; and
changes in accounting rules and tax laws.
Demand for additive manufacturing generally and our additive manufacturing software solutions, products and services in particular may not increase adequately.
The industrial and medical industries are generally dominated by conventional production methods with limited use of additive manufacturing technology in certain specific instances. If additive manufacturing technology, in particular but not limited to, for the production of end parts does not gain more mainstream market acceptance, or gains market acceptance at a significantly slower pace than currently expected, or if the marketplace adopts additive manufacturing based on a technology other than the technologies that we currently use or serve, we may not be able to meet our growth objectives or increase or sustain the level of sales of our additive manufacturing software solutions, products and services, and our results of operations would be adversely affected as a result.
We are dependent upon sales to certain industries.
Our revenue from products are currently relatively concentrated in the industrial and medical industries, and particularly in the automotive and orthopedic/cranio-maxillofacial segments within such industries, respectively. To the extent any of these industries experiences a downturn and we are unable to penetrate and expand in other industries, our results of operations may be adversely affected. Additionally, if any of these industries or their respective suppliers or other providers of manufacturing services develop new technologies or alternatives to manufacture the products that are currently manufactured using our 3D printing software, products and services, it may adversely affect our results of operations.
If our relationships with suppliers, including with limited source suppliers of consumables, were to terminate or our manufacturing arrangements were to be disrupted, our business could be adversely affected.
We purchase consumables and other components that are used in our production from third-party suppliers. We currently use only a limited number of suppliers for several of the consumables for our print materials. Our reliance on a limited number of vendors involves a number of risks, including:
potential shortages of some key consumables or other components;
printed material performance or quality shortfalls, if traceable to particular consumables or other components, since the supplier of the faulty consumable or component cannot readily be replaced;
discontinuation of a consumable or other component on which we rely;
potential insolvency of these vendors; and
reduced control over delivery schedules, manufacturing capabilities, quality and costs.
If certain suppliers were to decide to discontinue production, or the supply to us, of a consumable or other component that we use, the unanticipated change in the availability of supplies, or unanticipated supply limitations, could cause delays in, or loss of, sales, increased production or related costs and, consequently, reduced margins, and damage to our reputation. In addition, because we use a limited number of suppliers, increases in the prices charged by our suppliers may have an adverse effect on our results of operations, as we may be unable to find a supplier who can supply us at a lower price. As a result, the loss of a limited source supplier could adversely affect our relationships with our customers and our results of operations and financial condition.
We depend on the knowledge and skills of our senior management and other key personnel, and if we are unable to retain and motivate them or recruit additional qualified personnel, our operations could suffer.
Our success depends upon the continued service and performance of our senior management and other key personnel, including engineers, designers, software developers and product managers, and our ability to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain qualified personnel in the future. Competition for senior management and key employees in our industry is intense and we cannot guarantee that we will be able to retain our personnel or attract new, qualified personnel. We may need to invest significant amounts of cash and equity to attract and retain new employees and we may not realize returns on these investments. The loss of the services of members of our senior management or key employees could prevent or delay the implementation and completion of our strategic objectives, could divert managements attention to seeking certain qualified replacements or could adversely affect our ability to manage our company effectively. Each member of senior management as well as our key employees may resign at any time. Only some of the members of our senior management are subject to non-competition agreements, which may also be difficult to enforce. Accordingly, the adverse effect resulting from the loss of certain members of senior management or other key employees could be compounded by our inability to prevent them from competing with us. We do not carry key-man insurance on any member of our senior management team or other key personnel. If we lose the ability to hire and retain key executives and employees with a diversity and high level of skills in appropriate domains (such as research and development and sales), it could have a material adverse impact on our business activities and results of operations.
In addition, the success of our acquisitions may depend in part on our ability to retain senior management and other key personnel of the acquired company following the acquisition and to continue to attract such persons to our company. For example, the companies we acquire may depend on small teams of founders and senior managers with extensive market knowledge and relationships or that exercise substantial influence over the acquired business. As result, the loss of such persons could adversely affect us.
We may need to raise additional capital from time to time in order to meet our growth strategy and may be unable to do so on attractive terms, or at all.
We intend to continue to make investments to support the growth of our business and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to implement our growth strategy, increase market share in our current markets or expand into other markets, or broaden our technology, intellectual property or service capabilities. Accordingly, we may require additional investments of capital from time to time, and our existing sources of cash and any funds generated from operations may not provide us with sufficient capital. For various reasons, including any noncompliance with existing or future lending arrangements, additional financing, may not be available when needed, or may not be available on terms favorable to us. If we fail to obtain adequate capital on a timely basis or if capital cannot be obtained on terms satisfactory to us, we may not be able to achieve our planned rate of growth, which will adversely affect our results of operations.
Our international operations subject us to various risks, and our failure to manage these risks could adversely affect our results of operations.
We face significant operational risks as a result of doing business internationally, such as:
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
potentially longer sales and payment cycles;
potentially greater difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;
potentially adverse tax consequences, including liabilities imposed from inconsistent enforcement;
challenges in providing solutions across a significant distance, in different languages and among different cultures;
the impact of global public health crises, such as the coronavirus pandemic currently impacting almost all large economies worldwide;
becoming subject to the different, complex and changing laws, regulations and court systems of multiple jurisdictions and compliance with a wide variety of foreign laws, treaties and regulations;
reduced protection of, or significant difficulties in enforcing, intellectual property rights in certain countries;
difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations, particularly in new geographic locations;
restrictions imposed by local labor practices and laws on our business and operations, including unilateral cancellation or modification of contracts;
expropriation or nationalization of property;
rapid changes in government, economic and political policies and conditions, political or civil unrest or instability, terrorism or pandemics, epidemics and other similar outbreaks or events;
operating in countries with a higher incidence of corruption and fraudulent business practices;
seasonal reductions in business activity in certain parts of the world, particularly during the summer months in Europe;
costs and difficulties of customizing products for foreign countries; and
tariffs, trade barriers and other regulatory or contractual limitations on our ability to sell or develop our products in certain foreign markets.
We maintain important software research and development and engineering centers in Malaysia and Ukraine. In Malaysia, the government may exercise substantial control over certain sectors of the economy through regulation and state ownership. In Ukraine, the political and economic situation, in general, and the relations among Ukraine, United States, the European Union and Russia, in particular, remain unstable. We continue to monitor the situation in Ukraine and have a risk mitigation plan designed to limit the impact on our operations in case of escalation of the instability in that region. However, escalation could have a significant impact on our operations, in particular in the event where internet services would no longer be available in Ukraine or where the situation would become such that our employees would no longer be able to work from their homes. Our facility in Ukraine does not focus on sales to the Ukrainian market and mainly provides supporting activities for our global operations. Any material disruption of these supporting activities, however, could significantly impact our ability to further develop our products and to continue to service our customers globally. Moreover, changes in the laws and regulations of Malaysia or Ukraine, or in their interpretation or enforcement, including with respect to operations such as ours, which rely to a large extent on local private entrepreneurs, may significantly impact our activities in Malaysia or Ukraine, which would limit our future growth and adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, in August 2019, we acquired a 75% interest in Engimplan, a Brazil-based manufacturer of orthopaedic and cranio-maxillofacial (CMF) implants and instruments. Brazil has experienced recent political and economic uncertainty and instability, including as a result of country-wide money laundering and corruption probes. Our failure to manage the market and operational risks associated with our international operations effectively could limit the future growth of our business and adversely affect our results of operations.
Our international operations pose currency risks, which may adversely affect our results of operations and net income.
Our results of operations may be affected by volatility in currency exchange rates and our ability to effectively manage our currency transaction risks. In general, we conduct our business, earn revenue and incur costs in the local currency of the countries in which we operate. During the year ended December 31, 2019, approximately 71% of our revenue was generated, and approximately 72% of our total costs were incurred in euros. As we continue to expand internationally, our exposure to currency risks will increase. Historically, we have not managed our foreign currency exposure in a manner that would eliminate the effects of changes in foreign exchange rates. Changes in exchange rates between the foreign currencies in which we do business and the euro will affect our revenue, cost of sales, and operating margins, and could result in exchange losses in any given reporting period.
Changes in tax laws, treaties or regulations could adversely affect our financial results.
Our future effective tax rates could be adversely affected by changes in tax laws, treaties and regulations, both internationally and domestically, including possible changes to the patent income deduction and innovation income deduction regime in Belgium or the way it proportionately impacts our effective tax rate. An increase of our future effective tax rates could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
We may engage in acquisitions or investments that could disrupt our business, cause dilution to our shareholders and harm our financial condition and results of operations.
We have in the past and intend to continue to evaluate opportunities to acquire or invest in, companies that we believe have products, services, competencies or capabilities that are a strategic or commercial fit with any of our businesses or that otherwise offer opportunities for our company. For example, in August 2019, we acquired a 75% interest in Engimplan, a Brazil-based manufacturer of orthopaedic and CMF implants and instruments.
In connection with acquisitions or investments, we may:
issue American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, or other forms of equity that would dilute our existing shareholders percentage of ownership;
incur debt and assume liabilities; and/or
incur amortization expenses related to intangible assets or incur large and immediate write-offs.
If we complete an acquisition or investment, we cannot assure you that it will ultimately strengthen our competitive position or that it will be viewed positively by customers, suppliers, employees, financial markets or investors. Furthermore, future acquisitions or investments could pose numerous additional risks to our operations, including:
problems integrating the purchased business, products, services or technologies;
challenges in achieving strategic objectives, cost savings and other anticipated benefits;
increases to our expenses;
due diligence investigations failing to discover undisclosed liabilities or risks affecting the acquired businesses;
the assumption of significant liabilities that exceed the limitations of any applicable indemnification provisions or the financial resources of any indemnifying party;
inability to maintain relationships with key customers, vendors and other business partners of our current or acquired businesses;
diversion of managements attention from their day-to-day responsibilities;
difficulty in maintaining controls, procedures and policies during the transition and integration;
entrance into marketplaces where we have no or limited prior experience and where competitors have stronger marketplace positions;
potential loss of key employees, particularly those of the acquired entity; and
historical financial information may no longer be representative or indicative of our results as a combined company.
Alternatively, while certain acquisitions or investments may be of strategic importance for the execution of our business plan, we may not ultimately be able to complete such acquisitions or investments on favorable terms, or at all, which may in turn materially affect our ability to grow or even cause us to lose market share, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may enter into collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances or partnerships with third parties that may not result in the development of commercially viable products or the generation of significant future revenue.
In the ordinary course of our business, we may enter into collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances or partnerships to develop proposed products or services and to pursue new markets. For example, in the Materialise Medical segment, we have collaborations with leading medical device companies and academic institutions for the development and distribution of our surgical planning software, services, and products, including with Zimmer Biomet, DJO Surgical, DePuy Synthes, Lima, Medtronic, Abbott, Corin, Mathys and the University of Michigan. Furthermore, in the Materialise Software segment, we have established collaborations with Siemens PLM, or Siemens, and Essentium Inc., or Essentium, and, in the Materialise Manufacturing segment, we have established collaborations with HOYA Vision Care Company,
or HOYA, PTC Inc., or PTC, BASF 3D Printing Solutions GmbH and Essentium. Proposing, negotiating and implementing collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances or partnerships may be a lengthy and complex process. Other companies, including those with substantially greater financial, marketing, sales, technology or other business resources, may compete with us for these opportunities or arrangements. We may not succeed in maintaining, renewing or extending existing collaborations or in identifying, securing, or completing any such new transactions or arrangements in a timely manner, on a cost-effective basis, on acceptable terms or at all. We may also not realize the anticipated benefits of any such transaction or arrangement. In particular, these collaborations may not result in the development of products or services that achieve commercial success or result in significant revenue and could be terminated prior to developing any products or services.
Additionally, we may not be in a position to exercise sole decision making authority regarding the transaction or arrangement, which could create the potential risk of creating impasses on decisions, and our collaboration partners may have economic or business interests or goals that are, or that may become, inconsistent with our economic or business interests or goals. It is possible that conflicts may arise with our current or future collaboration partners, such as conflicts concerning the achievement of performance milestones, or the interpretation of terms under any agreement, such as those related to financial obligations, the ownership or license rights or control of intellectual property developed before or during the collaboration or indemnification. If any conflicts arise with our current or future collaboration partners, they may act in their self-interest, which may be adverse to our best interest, and they may breach their obligations to us. In addition, we have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our current collaboration partners or any future collaboration partners devote to our collaboration partners or our future products or services. Disputes with our collaboration partners may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase our expenses and divert the attention of our management. Further, these transactions and arrangements are contractual in nature and may be terminated or dissolved under the terms of the applicable agreements and, in such event, we may not continue to have rights to the products or access to the markets relating to such transaction or arrangement or may need to purchase such rights at a premium.
Failure to comply with applicable anti-corruption legislation could result in fines, criminal penalties and an adverse effect on our business.
We operate in a number of countries throughout the world, and are committed to doing business in accordance with applicable anti-corruption laws. We are subject, however, to the risk that our officers, directors, employees, agents and collaboration partners may take action determined to be in violation of such anti-corruption laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 and the Belgian Penal Code, as well as trade sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control and the U.S. Department of Commerce. Any such violation could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil and/or criminal penalties or curtailment of operations in certain jurisdictions, and might adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation and ability to do business.
Errors or defects in our software or other products could cause us to incur additional costs, lose revenue and business opportunities, damage our reputation and expose us to potential liability.
Sophisticated software and complex 3D printed products may contain errors, defects or other performance problems at any point in the life of the product. If errors or defects are discovered in our current or future software or other products, we may not be able to correct them in a timely manner, or provide an adequate response to our customers. We may therefore need to expend significant financial, technical and management resources, or divert some of our development resources, in order to resolve or work around those defects. We may also experience an increase in our service and warranty costs. Particularly in the medical sector, errors or defects in our software or products could lead to claims by patients against us and our customers and expose us to lawsuits that may damage our and our customers reputations. Claims may be made by individuals or by classes of users. Our product liability and related insurance policies may not apply or sufficiently cover any product liability lawsuit that arises from defective software or products. Customers such as our collaboration partners may also seek indemnification for third party claims allegedly arising from breaches of warranties under our collaboration agreements.
Errors, defects or other performance problems in our software or other products may also result in the loss of, or delay in, the market acceptance of our software, our products and related 3D printing or engineering services or postponement of customer deployment. Such difficulties could also cause us to lose customers and, particularly in the case of our largest customers, the potentially substantial associated revenue which would have been generated by our sales to companies participating in our customers supply chain. Technical problems, or the loss of a customer with a particularly important global reputation, could also damage our own business reputation and cause us to lose new business opportunities.
We rely on our information technology systems to manage numerous aspects of our business and customer and supplier relationships, and a disruption of these systems could adversely affect our results of operations.
We rely on our information technology systems and databases to manage numerous aspects of our business and to provide analytical information to management. Our information technology systems allow us to, among other things, optimize our software development and research and development efforts, organize our in-house 3D printing services logistics, efficiently purchase products from our suppliers, provide other procurement and logistic services, ship and invoice products to our customers on a timely basis, maintain cost-effective operations and generally provide service to our customers. Our information technology systems are an essential component of our business and growth strategies, and a disruption to our information technology systems could significantly limit our ability to manage and operate our business efficiently. Although we take steps to secure our information technology systems, including our computer systems, intranet and internet sites, email and other telecommunications and data networks, the security measures we have implemented may not be effective and our systems may be vulnerable to, among other things, damage and interruption from power loss, including as a result of natural disasters, computer system and network failures, loss of telecommunication services, operator negligence, loss of data, security breaches, computer viruses and other disruptive events. Any such disruption could adversely affect our reputation, brand and financial condition.
A breach of security in our products or computer systems may compromise the integrity of our products, harm our reputation, create additional liability and adversely impact our financial results.
We make significant efforts to maintain the security and integrity of our product source code and computer systems. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber attack or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. These threats include identity theft, unauthorized access, DNS attacks, wireless network attacks, viruses and worms, advanced persistent threat (APT), application centric attacks, peer-to-peer attacks, phishing, backdoor trojans and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. Any of the foregoing could attack our products and computer systems. Despite significant efforts to create and continuously reinforce the security barriers to such programs, it is virtually impossible for us to entirely eliminate this risk. Like all software products and computer systems, our software products and computer systems are vulnerable to such cyber attacks, and our computer systems have been subject to certain cyber security incidents in the past. The impact of cyber attacks could disrupt the proper functioning of our software products and computer systems, cause errors in the output of our or our customers work, allow unauthorized access to sensitive, proprietary or confidential information of our company, our customers or the patients that we and our customers serve through our medical solutions. Moreover, as we continue to invest in new lines of products and services we are exposed to increased security risks and the potential for unauthorized access to, or improper use of, the information of our product and service users. If any of the foregoing occur, our reputation may suffer, customers may stop buying our products or services, we could face lawsuits and potential liability, and our results of operations could be adversely affected.
We rely on third party technology, platform, carriers, server and hardware providers, and a failure of service by these providers could adversely affect our business and reputation.
We rely upon a third party provider to host our main servers. If this provider is unable to handle current or higher volumes of use, experiences any interruption in operations or ceases operations for any reason or if we are unable to agree on satisfactory terms for a continued hosting relationship, we would be forced to enter into a relationship with other service providers or assume hosting responsibilities ourselves. If we are forced to switch hosting facilities, we may not be successful in finding an alternative service provider on acceptable terms or in hosting the computer servers ourselves. We may also be limited in our remedies against our third party hosting provider in the event of a failure of service. A failure or limitation of service or available capacity by our third party hosting provider could adversely affect our business and reputation.
Workplace accidents or environmental damage could result in substantial remedial obligations and damage to our reputation.
Accidents or other incidents that occur at our service centers and other facilities or involve our personnel or operations could result in claims for damages against us. In addition, in the event we are found to be financially responsible, as a result of environmental or other laws or by court order, for environmental damages alleged to have been caused by us or occurring on our premises, we could be required to pay substantial monetary damages or undertake expensive remedial obligations. The amount of any costs, including fines or damages payments that we might incur under such circumstances could substantially exceed any insurance we have to cover such losses. Any of these events, alone or in combination, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and could adversely affect our reputation.
Our operations are subject to environmental laws and other government regulations that could result in liabilities in the future.
We are subject to local environmental laws and regulations governing our operations, including, but not limited to, emissions into the air and water and the use, handling, disposal and remediation of hazardous substances. A certain risk of environmental liability is inherent in our production activities. Under certain environmental laws, we could be held solely or jointly and severally responsible, regardless of fault, for the remediation of any hazardous substance contamination at our service centers and other facilities and the respective consequences arising out of human exposure to such substances or other environmental damage. We may not have been and may not be at all times in complete compliance with environmental laws, regulations and permits, and the nature of our operations exposes us to the risk of liabilities or claims with respect to environmental and worker health and safety matters. If we violate or fail to comply with environmental laws, regulations and permits, we could be subject to penalties, fines, restrictions on operations or other sanctions, and our operations could be interrupted. The cost of complying with current and future environmental, health and safety laws applicable to our operations, or the liabilities arising from past releases of, or exposure to, hazardous substances, may result in future expenditures. Any of these developments, alone or in combination, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If our service center operations are disrupted, sales of our 3D printing services, including the medical devices that we print, may be affected, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
We have six 3D printing service centers in Europe, the United States and Asia, including our principal 3D printing service center located in Leuven, Belgium. If the operations of these facilities are materially disrupted, whether by fires or other industrial accidents, extreme weather, natural disasters, labor stoppages, acts of terror, or otherwise, we would be unable to fulfill customer orders for the period of the disruption, we would not be able to recognize revenue on orders, we could suffer damage to our reputation, and we might need to modify our standard sales terms to secure the commitment of new customers during the period of the disruption and perhaps longer. Depending on the cause of the disruption, we could incur significant costs to remedy the disruption and resume providing 3D printing services. Such a disruption could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
We could experience unforeseen difficulties in building and operating key portions of our 3D printing infrastructure.
We have designed and built our own 3D printing operations, 3D printer platforms and other key portions of our technical infrastructure through which we serve our products and services, and we plan to continue to expand the size of our infrastructure through expanding our 3D printing facilities. The infrastructure expansion we may undertake may be complex, and unanticipated delays in the completion of these projects or availability of components may lead to increased project costs, operational inefficiencies, or interruptions in the delivery or degradation of the quality of our products. In addition, there may be issues related to this infrastructure that are not identified during the design and implementation phases, which may only become evident after we have started to fully utilize the underlying equipment, that could further degrade the user experience or increase our costs.
We may not have adequate insurance for potential liabilities, including liabilities arising from litigation.
In the ordinary course of business, we have been, and in the future may be, subject to various product and non-product related claims, lawsuits and administrative proceedings seeking damages or other remedies arising out of our commercial operations, including litigation related to defects in our software or other products. We maintain insurance to cover our potential exposure for a number of claims and losses. However, our insurance coverage is subject to various exclusions, self-retentions and deductibles, may be inadequate or unavailable to protect us fully, and may be cancelled or otherwise terminated by the insurer. Furthermore, we face the following additional risks related to our insurance coverage:
we may not be able to continue to obtain insurance coverage on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, including with respect to our activities in the medical industry;
we may be faced with types of liabilities that are not covered under our insurance policies, such as environmental contamination, terrorist attacks or alleged infringements of third parties intellectual property rights, and that exceed any amounts that we may have reserved for such liabilities;
the amount of any liabilities that we may face may exceed our policy limits; and
we may incur losses resulting from the interruption of our business that may not be fully covered under our insurance policies.
Even a partially uninsured claim of significant size, if successful, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. However, even if we successfully defend ourselves against any such claim, we could be forced to spend a substantial amount of money in litigation expenses, our management could be required to spend valuable time defending these claims and our reputation could suffer, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Current and future global economic uncertainties and political conditions may adversely affect our results of operations.
Our results of operations could be substantially affected not only by global economic conditions, but also by local operating, economic, public health or environmental conditions, which can vary substantially by market. Unfavorable conditions can depress sales in a given market and may result in actions that adversely affect our margins, constrain our operating flexibility or result in charges that are unusual or non-recurring. Certain macroeconomic events, such as adverse conditions in the global economy, including most recently with the market disruptions caused by the containment measures taken by almost all countries with major economies in response to the coronavirus pandemic, the consequences of the exit by the United Kingdom from the European Union (commonly referred to as Brexit) and the economic and political challenges facing China, Brazil and certain Eurozone countries, could have a more wide-ranging and prolonged impact on the general business environment, which could also adversely affect us. These economic developments could affect us in numerous ways, many of which we cannot predict. We are unable to predict the likely duration and severity of the current disruption in financial markets and adverse economic conditions, or the effects these disruptions and conditions could have on us.
In addition, political and economic developments could also result in changes to legislation or reformation of government policies, rules and regulations, including in relation to tax and trade. Such changes could have a significant impact on our business by increasing the cost of doing business, affecting our ability to sell our software, products and services and negatively impacting our profitability. For example, on January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom ceased to be a member state of the European Union. As of that date, the United Kingdom entered a transitional period with the European Union, which is expected to continue through December 31, 2020. During this transitional period, the United Kingdom retains access to the E.U. single market and customs union and the United Kingdom and the European Union are expected to attempt to negotiate various aspects of their future relationship following the transitional period, including a free trade deal. The long-term effects of Brexit will depend on the agreements or arrangements between the United Kingdom and the European Union, and the extent to which the United Kingdom retains access to the E.U. markets both during and after the transitional period. The longer term economic, legal, political and social framework to be put in place between the United Kingdom and the European Union is unclear at this stage and is likely to lead to ongoing political and economic uncertainty and periods of exacerbated volatility in both the United Kingdom and in wider European markets for some time. Although it is unknown what the final terms of the United Kingdoms future relationship with the European Union will be, it is possible that there will be greater restrictions on imports and exports between the United Kingdom and European Union countries and increased regulatory complexities. These changes may adversely affect our operations and financial results.
Additionally, in the United States, President Trumps administration has discussed, and in some cases implemented, changes with respect to certain tax and trade policies, tariffs and other government regulations affecting trade between the United States and other countries. For
example, trade relations between the United States and China were, at times, significantly strained during calendar 2019, as both countries imposed increased tariffs on the importation of certain product categories. While it is not possible to predict whether or when any additional changes will occur or what form they may take, the implementation of a border tax, tariff or higher customs duties on our products imported into the United States or on raw materials we import into the United States, or any potential corresponding actions by other countries in which we do business, could negatively impact our financial performance. In addition, other countries may change their business and trade policies in anticipation of or in response to increased import tariffs and other changes in the United States trade policy and regulations, which could also negatively impact our financial performance.
The coronavirus global health crisis could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows or liquidity.
The outbreak of a novel coronavirus, was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since spread globally. In response to the pandemic, governments worldwide have closed business, restricted travel and implemented emergency quarantines, and businesses and individuals have reduced travel, cancelled meetings and events and implemented work-from-home policies, which have caused significant disruption to the global economy and normal business operations. The coronavirus public health crisis may have broader macroeconomic implications, including a decrease in or halt to economic growth, the effects of which could be long lasting.
In an effort to protect the health and safety of employees, we, and many of our customers, partners, suppliers and other counterparties, currently require that employees work from home and restrict travel as much as possible, which affects, among other things, their ability to attend industry events and to engage in commercial visits. In the event we or our customers, partners, suppliers and other counterparties maintain or expand these restrictions, we may suffer disruptions to business operations, including the closure of manufacturing facilities, warehouses and logistics supply chains worldwide. Furthermore, the coronavirus and the responses thereto could have a range of other effects on us. For example, the implementation of business continuity plans in a fast-moving public health emergency could have an adverse effect on our internal controls (potentially giving rise to significant deficiencies or material weaknesses) and increase our vulnerability to information technology and other systems disruptions.
As of the date of this report, we are unable to predict the duration and severity of the spread of the coronavirus and the political and economic responses thereto and as a result, we are unable to assess with certainty its impact on our business and operations, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and liquidity. The coronavirus and related responses are developing rapidly, making their impact highly uncertain, and are subject to many factors beyond our control, such as the speed of contagion, the implementation of effective preventative and containment measures, the development of effective medical solutions, the timing and scope of governmental restrictions on public gatherings, mobility and other activities, financial and other market reactions, and reactions and responses of the public. In particular, although we have included under Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsD. Trend Information of this annual report and in the notes to our audited consolidated financial statements a discusion, based on our current assessment of the coronavirus pandemic, of how our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be impacted during the year 2020, this discussion should be considered as highly uncertain. While we expect we will suffer adverse effects, the more severe the outbreak is and the longer it lasts, the more likely it is that the effects on us and our business will be materially adverse.
We face potential liability related to the privacy and security of personal information we collect.
In particular, but not exclusively, in connection with our Materialise Medical segment, we may have access to personal information that is subject to a number of U.S. federal and state, E.U. and other applicable foreign laws protecting the confidentiality of certain patient health or other private information, including patient records, and restricting the use and disclosure of that protected information.
In the United States, we are subject to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, or HIPAA, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, regulations issued pursuant to these statutes, state privacy and security laws and regulations. These statutes, regulations and contractual obligations impose numerous requirements regarding the use and disclosure of personal health information with which we must comply. In addition, a new privacy law, the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA, effective as of January 1, 2020, requires, among other things, covered companies, including us, to provide new disclosures to California consumers and afford such consumers the ability to opt out of certain sales of personal information. We cannot yet predict the impact of the CCPA on our business or operations, but it may require us to modify our data processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply.
In the European Union, the General Data Protection Regulation, or the GDPR, was passed on May 24, 2016, and replaced the E.U. Data Protection Directive when it came into force on May 25, 2018. GDPR introduced new data protection requirements in the European Union, unprecedented regulatory risk for non-compliant data processors and controllers and sizeable penalties for serious breachesup to 20 million or 4% of global turnover, whichever is higher. The GDPR also significantly expands the territorial reach of existing E.U. data protection and privacy rules. Our business processes have been and continue to be modified in order to incorporate the requirements of the GDPR.
In ensuring continued compliance with the E.U. regime, our transfer of any personal data from the European Union to the United States must be done in a manner which satisfies E.U. cross-border data transfer requirements. While this may be achieved under the E.U.-U.S. Privacy Shield, the legality of this regime has been challenged on a number of occasions in European courts. We will need to take steps to mitigate the risk of the Privacy Shield being invalidated as happened to the previous Safe Harbour regime. Adherence to the Privacy Shield is not, however, mandatory. U.S.-based companies are permitted to rely either on their adherence to the E.U.-U.S. Privacy Shield or on the other authorized means and procedures to transfer personal data provided by the GDPR, such as the inclusion of standard contractual clauses in contracts between controllers and processors.
In addition, the use and disclosure of personal health and other private information is subject to regulation in other jurisdictions in which we do business or expect to do business in the future. Those jurisdictions may attempt to apply such laws extraterritorially or through treaties or other arrangements with European governmental entities. We might unintentionally violate such laws, such laws may be modified and new laws may be enacted in the future which may increase the chance that we violate them. For example, the GDPR contains rules relating to the collection and processing of personal information, which are not identical to the current rules under national privacy laws and which contain more strict provisions. Any such developments, or developments stemming from enactment or modification of other laws, or the failure by us to comply with their requirements or to accurately anticipate the application or interpretation of these laws could create material liability to us, result in adverse publicity and negatively affect our medical business.
Our failure to accurately anticipate the application or interpretation of these statutes, regulations and contractual obligations as we develop our medical and other products and services, a failure by us to comply with their requirements (e.g., evolving encryption and security requirements) or an allegation that defects in our medical or other products have resulted in noncompliance by our customers could create material civil and/or criminal liability for us, resulting in adverse publicity and negatively affecting our medical business. Any legislation or regulation in the area of privacy and security of personal information could affect the way we operate and could harm our business. The costs of compliance with, and the other burdens imposed by, these and other laws or regulatory actions may prevent us from selling our solutions or increase the costs associated with selling our products and services, and may affect our ability to invest in or jointly develop our products and services in the United States, the European Union and in foreign jurisdictions. Further, we cannot assure you that our privacy and security policies and practices will be found sufficient to protect us from liability or adverse publicity relating to the privacy and security of personal information.
Risks Related to Our Materialise Medical Segment and Regulatory Environment
Our medical business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be significantly and negatively affected by substantial government regulations.
Our medical products are subject to rigorous regulation by the European Commission, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, and numerous other applicable governmental authorities. In general, the development, testing, manufacturing and marketing of our medical products are subject to extensive regulation and review by numerous governmental authorities in the European Union, the United States, Canada, Brazil, Japan and Australia, and in other markets where we are currently active or may become active in the future. The regulatory process requires the expenditure of significant time, effort and expense to bring new medical products to market, and we cannot be certain that we will receive regulatory approvals, certifications or registrations in any country in which we plan to market our medical products.
The laws and regulations, including the requirements for approvals, certifications or registrations and the time required for regulatory review, vary from country to country. The regulatory approval process outside the European Union and the United States may include all of the risks associated with obtaining CE or FDA clearance or approval in addition to other risks. Clearance or approval by the FDA in the United States, or conformity assessment and affixing a CE mark in the European Economic Area, or EEA, does not ensure approval or certification by regulatory authorities in other countries, and approval or certification by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries. We may be required to perform additional pre-clinical or clinical studies even if FDA clearance or approval, or the right to bear the CE label, has been obtained. We may not obtain regulatory approvals or certifications outside the European Union and the United States on a timely basis, if at all. If we fail to receive necessary approvals to commercialize our medical products in jurisdictions outside the European Union and the United States on a timely basis, or at all, our medical business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
As a manufacturer of medical devices, we participate in the Medical Device Single Audit Program, or MDSAP, which is a prerequisite for market entry in Canada, and which makes results from external audits by an accredited auditing organization available to the regulatory authorities of the United States, Canada, Brazil, Japan and Australia. A single audit is used in lieu of multiple separate audits or inspections by participating regulatory authorities or their representatives, reducing the overall number of audits or inspections. However, the auditing organization must inform regulatory authorities directly when certain non-conformity thresholds are reached, enabling participating regulatory authorities to immediately undertake actions appropriate for their jurisdictions.
In addition, we are required to implement and maintain stringent reporting, labeling and record keeping procedures and make our facilities and operations subject to periodic inspections, both scheduled and unannounced, by the regulatory authorities. The medical device industry is also subject to a myriad of complex laws and regulations governing reimbursement, which varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction in the European Union and which includes Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement in the United States as well as healthcare fraud and abuse laws, with these laws and regulations being subject to interpretation. In many instances, the industry does not have the benefit of significant regulatory or judicial interpretation of these laws and regulations. In certain public statements, governmental authorities have taken positions on issues for which little official interpretation was previously available. Some of these positions appear to be inconsistent with common practices within the industry but that have not previously been challenged.
Various governmental agencies have become increasingly vigilant in recent years in their investigation of various business practices. Governmental and regulatory actions against us can result in various actions that could adversely impact our medical operations, including:
the recall or seizure of products;
the suspension or revocation of the authority necessary for the production or sale of a product;
the delay of our ability to introduce new products into the market;
the suspension of shipments from particular manufacturing facilities;
the issuance of warning letters or untitled letters;
the imposition of operating restrictions;
the imposition of injunctions, fines and penalties;
the exclusion of our products from being reimbursed by healthcare programs in the European Union or U.S. federal and state healthcare programs (such as Medicare, Medicaid, Veterans Administration health programs and Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services);
the delay or denial of customs clearance of our products for import in certain jurisdictions; and
other civil or criminal sanctions against us.
Failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements could also result in civil actions against us and other unanticipated expenditures. Any of these actions, in combination or alone, or even a public announcement that we are under investigation for possible violations of these laws, could have a material adverse effect on our medical business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. If investigated, we cannot assure that the costs of defending or resolving those investigations or proceedings would not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In many of the countries in which we market our medical products, we are subject to regulations affecting, among other things, clinical efficacy, product standards, packaging requirements, labeling requirements, import/ export restrictions, tariff regulations, duties and tax requirements. Many of the regulations applicable to our medical surgical guides, models, implants and software products in these countries are similar to those of the European Commission and the FDA. In addition, in many countries the national health or social security organizations require our medical products to be qualified before they can be marketed with the benefit of reimbursement eligibility. Failure to receive or delays in the receipt of relevant foreign qualifications also could have a material adverse effect on our medical business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
As the government regulators in the European Union, United States and elsewhere have become increasingly stringent, we may be subject to more rigorous regulation by governmental authorities in the future.
Modifications to our medical products marketed in the United States may require new 510(k) clearances or premarket approvals, or may require us to cease marketing or recall the modified products until clearances are obtained.
Any modification to a 510(k)-cleared device that could significantly affect its safety or efficacy, or that would constitute a major change in its intended use, technology, materials, packaging and certain manufacturing processes, may require a new 510(k) clearance or, possibly, a premarket approval, or PMA. The FDA requires every manufacturer to make the determination regarding the need for a new 510(k) clearance or PMA in the first instance, but the FDA may (and often does) review the manufacturers decision. The FDA may not agree with a manufacturers decision regarding whether a new clearance or approval is necessary for a modification, and may retroactively require the manufacturer to submit a premarket notification requesting 510(k) clearance or an application for PMA. We have made modifications to our medical products in the past and may make additional modifications in the future that we believe did not or will not require additional clearances or approvals. No assurance can be given that the FDA would agree with any of our decisions not to seek 510(k) clearance or PMA. If the FDA requires us to cease marketing and recall the modified device until we obtain a new 510(k) clearance or PMA, our medical business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects could be materially adversely affected. Further, our medical products could be subject to recall if the FDA determines, for any reason, that our products are not safe or effective. Any recall or FDA requirement that we seek additional approvals or clearances could result in significant delays, fines, increased costs associated with modification of a product, loss of revenue and potential operating restrictions imposed by the FDA.
Healthcare policy changes, including legislation to reform the U.S. healthcare system, could adversely affect us.
From time to time, legislation is drafted and introduced that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the clearance or approval, manufacture and marketing of a medical device. In addition, regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted in ways that may significantly affect our medical business and our medical products. It is impossible to predict whether legislative changes will be enacted or regulations, guidance or interpretations changed, and what the impact of such changes, if any, may be.
For instance, in 2010, the U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the U.S. Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively, the PPACA, was enacted, which included, among other things, the following measures: a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research; reporting and disclosure requirements on device manufacturers for any transfer of value made or distributed to prescribers and other healthcare providers, effective March 30, 2013 (referred to as the Physician Sunshine Payment Act); payment system reforms including a national pilot program on payment bundling to encourage hospitals, physicians and other providers to improve the coordination, quality and efficiency of certain healthcare services through bundled payment models, beginning on or before January 1, 2013; and an independent payment advisory board that will submit recommendations to reduce Medicare spending if projected Medicare spending exceeds a specified growth rate. Some of the provisions of the PPACA have yet to be fully implemented, while certain provisions have been subject to U.S. judicial and Congressional challenges. Efforts to repeal and replace the PPACA have been ongoing since the 2016 election, but it is unclear if these efforts will be successful. Since January 2017, President Trump has signed Executive Orders and other directives designed to delay, circumvent or loosen the implementation of certain provisions requirements mandated by the PPACA or otherwise circumvent some of the requirements for health insurance mandated by the PPACA. In addition, as part of the December 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, the individual mandate, which required individuals to purchase insurance, was repealed. Furthermore, in December 2018, a U.S. District Court Judge in the Northern District of Texas ruled that the PPACA is unconstitutional in its entirety because such individual mandate was repealed, although the U.S. District Court Judge and President Trump, among others, have acknowledged the ruling will have no immediate effect pending appeal. Thus, the full impact of the PPACA, any law repealing or replacing elements of it, and the political uncertainty surrounding any repeal or replacement legislation on our business remains unclear.
We cannot predict what healthcare programs and regulations will be ultimately implemented at the U.S. federal or state level, or at the E.U. level or within the implementing legislation of the individual E.U. Member States, or the effect of any future legislation or regulation. However, these provisions as adopted could meaningfully change the way healthcare is delivered and financed, and may materially impact numerous aspects of our medical business. In particular, any changes that lower reimbursements or reduce medical procedure volumes could adversely affect our medical business and results of operations.
In addition, in the future there may continue to be additional proposals relating to the reform of the healthcare systems of the United States, the European Union, any individual Member State of the European Union or any other jurisdiction where we may operate. For example, on April 5, 2017, the Medical Devices Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2017/745) was adopted. Subject to any postponement of the implementation of the Medical Devices Regulation by the European Council and European Parliament, the regulation will become effective on May 26, 2020. Once effective, the new regulation will, among other things:
strengthen the rules on placing devices on the market and reinforce surveillance once they are available;
establish explicit provisions on manufacturers responsibilities for the follow-up of the quality, performance and safety of devices placed on the market;
improve the traceability of medical devices throughout the supply chain to the end-user or patient through a unique identification number;
set up, as of 2022, a central database to provide patients, healthcare professionals and the public with comprehensive information on products available in the European Union; and
strengthen rules for the assessment of certain high-risk devices, such as implants, which may have to undergo an additional check by experts before they are placed on the market.
Transition from the regulation of our products under the current E.U. regulatory framework to regulation under the Medical Devices Regulation may require a substantial transition effort by us. In addition, detail as to how certain aspects of the Medical Devices Regulation will be applied remains unclear. Failure to update our quality system and regulatory documentation could delay our transition to compliance with the Medical Devices Regulation and delay or prevent us from obtaining new CE Certificates of Conformity under the Regulation. As a result, transition from compliance with the current E.U. regulatory framework to the Medical Devices Regulation could result in disruption to our business in the European Economic Area, which could adversely affect our business, results of operation and financial condition.
Furthermore, initiatives sponsored by government agencies, legislative bodies and the private sector to limit the growth of healthcare costs, including price regulation and competitive pricing, are ongoing in markets where we do business. We could experience a negative impact on our results of operations due to increased pricing pressure in certain or all of the markets in which we operate. Governments, hospitals and other third-party payors could reduce the amount of approved reimbursements for our products. Reductions in reimbursement levels or coverage or other cost-containment measures could unfavorably affect our future results of operations.
The use, including the misuse or off-label use, of our medical services and products may be deemed unauthorized use or improper promotion, which could harm our image in the marketplace or result in injuries that lead to product liability suits and could be costly to our business or result in regulatory sanctions.
Medical decisions may only be made and operations may only be executed by trained professionals who are authorized to do so in the jurisdictions in which they operate.
Our medical services and products are generally designed to support surgeons in the planning and performance of their operations. In our medical software products set up, training and engineering support, we make it very clear that responsibility for medical decisions rests
exclusively with the responsible surgeon, who is responsible for carefully reviewing and explicitly approving the surgical plan and/or the design of the medical device that is proposed by our software and engineers. Nonetheless, we cannot assure that patients, hospitals, surgeons or other parties will not try to hold us responsible for all or a part of the medical decisions underlying the operations that we support, exposing us to potential litigation or civil and criminal liability for unauthorized medical decision-making. Such actions or liability could lead governmental agencies to conclude that our products or services are used improperly, all of which could significantly damage our reputation and could materially impair the continued adoption of our medical services and product offering in the market.
In the markets in which we operate, our medical promotional materials and training methods must comply with numerous applicable laws and regulations, including the prohibition on the promotion of a medical device for a use that has not been cleared or approved by the relevant regulator or supervisory body. Use of a device outside of its cleared or approved indication is known as off-label use. If a relevant governmental authority determines that our medical promotional materials or training constitute promotion of an off-label use, it could request that we modify our training or promotional materials or subject us to regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance of an untitled letter, a warning letter, injunction, seizure, civil fine and criminal penalties. In that event, our reputation could be damaged and adoption of our medical products would be impaired. Although we train our sales force not to promote our medical products for off-label uses, and our instructions for use in all markets specify that our products are not intended for use outside of those indications cleared for use, competent regulatory agency could conclude that we have engaged in off-label promotion. In addition, there may be increased risk of injury if surgeons attempt to use our medical products off-label.
Surgeons also may misuse our medical products or use improper techniques if they are not adequately trained, potentially leading to injury and an increased risk of product liability. Product liability claims are expensive to defend and could divert our managements attention and result in substantial damage awards against us. Any of these events could adversely affect our medical business, results of operations and reputation and our ability to attract and retain customers for our products and services.
If our marketed medical devices are defective or otherwise pose safety risks, the relevant governmental authorities could require their recall, or we may initiate a recall of our products voluntarily.
The relevant governmental authorities may require the recall of commercialized products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture or in the event that a product poses an unacceptable risk to health. Manufacturers, on their own initiative, may recall a product if any material deficiency in a device is found. A government mandated or voluntary recall could occur as a result of an unacceptable risk to health, component failures, manufacturing errors, design or labeling defects or other deficiencies and issues. Recalls of any of our medical products would divert managerial and financial resources and have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Any recall could impair our ability to produce our medical products in a cost-effective and timely manner in order to meet our customers demands. We also may be required to bear other costs or take other actions that may have a negative impact on our future revenue and our ability to generate profits. We may initiate voluntary recalls involving our medical products in the future that we determine do not require notification of the relevant regulatory body. If a governmental agency disagrees with our determinations, they could require us to report those actions as recalls. A future recall announcement could harm our reputation with customers and negatively affect our revenue. In addition, the relevant authority could take enforcement action for failing to report the recalls when they were conducted.
If our Materialise Medical segment products cause or contribute to a death or a serious injury, or malfunction in certain ways, we will be subject to medical device reporting regulations, which can result in voluntary corrective actions or agency enforcement actions.
Under the FDA medical device reporting regulations, or MDR, we are required to report to the FDA any incident in which our medical product has malfunctioned and would be likely to cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if the malfunction happened again. If we fail to report these events to the FDA within the required timeframes, or at all, the FDA could take enforcement action against us. Any adverse event involving our medical products could result in future voluntary corrective actions, such as recalls or customer notifications, or agency action, such as inspection, mandatory recall or other enforcement action. Any corrective action, whether voluntary or involuntary, as well as defending ourselves in a lawsuit, will require the dedication of our time and capital, distract management from operating our business, and may harm our reputation and financial results.
In the EEA, we must comply with the E.U. Medical Device Vigilance System, the purpose of which is to improve the protection of health and safety of patients, users and others by reducing the likelihood of reoccurrence of incidents related to the use of a medical device. Under this system, incidents must be reported to the competent authorities of the Member States of the EEA. An incident is defined as any malfunction or deterioration in the characteristics and/or performance of a device, as well as any inadequacy in the labeling or the instructions for use which, directly or indirectly, might lead to or might have led to the death of a patient or user or of other persons or to a serious deterioration in their state of health. Incidents are evaluated by the EEA competent authorities to whom they have been reported, and where appropriate, information is disseminated between them in the form of National Competent Authority Reports. The E.U. Medical Device Vigilance System is further intended to facilitate a direct, early and harmonized implementation of Field Safety Corrective Actions, or FSCAs, across the Member States of the EEA where the device is in use. An FSCA is an action taken by a manufacturer to reduce a risk of death or serious deterioration in the state of health associated with the use of a medical device that is already placed on the market. An FSCA may include the recall, modification, exchange, destruction or retrofitting of the device. FSCAs must be communicated by the manufacturer or its legal representative to its customers and/or to the end users of the device through Field Safety Notices.
Our Materialise Medical segments 3D printing operations are required to operate within a quality management system that is compliant with the regulations of various jurisdictions, including the requirements of ISO 13485, and the U.S. Quality System Regulation, which is costly and could subject us to enforcement action.
We are subject to the regulations of various jurisdictions regarding the manufacturing process for our medical products, including the requirements of ISO 13485. Within the United States, we are required to comply with the Quality System Regulation, which covers, among other things, the methods of documentation of the design, testing, production, control, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, sterilization, storage and shipping of our medical products. Compliance with these regulations is costly and time-consuming. In addition, the FDA enforces the Quality System Regulation through periodic announced and unannounced inspections of manufacturing facilities. The failure by a manufacturer to comply with applicable statutes and regulations administered by the FDA and other regulatory bodies, or the failure to timely and adequately respond to any adverse inspectional observations or product safety issues, could result in, among other things, any of the following enforcement actions:
untitled letters, warning letters, fines, injunctions, consent decrees and civil penalties;
customer notifications or repair, replacement, refunds, recall, detention or seizure of our medical products;
operating restrictions or partial suspension or total shutdown of production;
refusing or delaying requests for 510(k) clearance or PMA of new products or modified products;
withdrawing 510(k) clearances or PMAs that have already been granted;
refusal to grant export approval for our medical products; or
For example, during 2019, The National Health Surveillance Agency of Brazil (ANVISA) conducted inspections of Engimplans manufacturing facilities in response to claims that unapproved products were being produced. Although the investigations did not result in any penalties or sanctions imposed by ANVISA, Engimplan may be subject to increased regulatory oversight as a result of these investigations.
Any regulatory enforcement actions could impair our ability to produce our medical products in a cost-effective and timely manner in order to meet our customers demands. We also may be required to bear other costs or take other actions that may have a negative impact on our future revenue and our ability to generate profits. Furthermore, our key component suppliers may not currently be or may not continue to be in compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements, which could result in our failure to produce our medical products on a timely basis and in the required quantities, if at all.
We may be subject to or otherwise affected by U.S. federal and state, European or other healthcare laws, including fraud and abuse and health information privacy and security laws, and could face substantial penalties if we are unable to fully comply with such laws.
Healthcare regulation by U.S. federal and state, European or other governments could significantly impact our medical business. Healthcare fraud and abuse and health information privacy and security laws potentially applicable to our medical operations include:
the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Law, which constrains our marketing practices and those of our independent sales agencies, educational programs, pricing, bundling and rebate policies, grants for physician-initiated trials and continuing medical education, and other remunerative relationships with healthcare providers, by prohibiting, among other things, soliciting, receiving, offering or providing remuneration, intended to induce the purchase or recommendation of an item or service reimbursable under a U.S. federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare or Medicaid programs;
U.S. federal false claims laws which prohibit, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment from Medicare, Medicaid, or other third-party payors that are false or fraudulent;
HIPAA, and its implementing regulations, which created federal criminal laws that prohibit executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters and which also imposes certain regulatory and contractual requirements regarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;
U.S. state laws analogous to each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws that may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers, and state laws governing the privacy and security of certain health information, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts; and
similar foreign laws and regulations governing healthcare fraud and abuse, patient data privacy, interactions with healthcare professionals and related laws and regulations that apply to us in the countries in which we operate.
If our past or present operations are found to be in violation of any of such laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from U.S. federal healthcare programs and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. Similarly, if the healthcare providers or entities with whom we do business are found to be non-compliant with applicable laws, they may be subject to sanctions, which could also have a negative impact on us. Any penalties, damages, fines, curtailment or restructuring of our operations could adversely affect our ability to operate our medical business and our financial results. The risk of our company being found in violation of these laws is increased by the fact that many of them have not been fully interpreted by the regulatory authorities or the courts, and their provisions are open to a variety of interpretations. Further, the PPACA, among other things, amends the intent requirement of the U.S. federal anti-kickback and criminal health care fraud statutes. A person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of this statute or specific intent to violate it. In addition, the PPACA provides that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the U.S. federal anti-kickback statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the false claims statutes. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against them, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our managements attention from the operation of our business.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
If we are unable to obtain patent protection for our products or otherwise protect our intellectual property rights, our business could suffer.
We rely on a combination of patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, confidentiality and other contractual arrangements with our employees, end-users and others to maintain our competitive position. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to obtain patent protection for or maintain as trade secrets our proprietary products, technologies and inventions and to maintain the confidentiality of our trade secrets and know-how, operate without infringing upon the proprietary rights of others and prevent others from infringing upon our business proprietary rights.
Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, it is possible that competitors or other unauthorized third parties may obtain, copy, use or disclose or otherwise circumvent our technologies, software, inventions, processes or improvements. We cannot assure investors that any of our existing or future patents or other intellectual property rights will be enforceable, will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, or will otherwise provide us with meaningful protection or any competitive advantage. In addition, our pending patent applications may not be granted, and we may not be able to obtain foreign patents or elect to file applications corresponding to our U.S., European or other patents. We intend to expand our business to certain countries that may not provide the same level of patent or other intellectual property protection as the United States and the European Union. Even if we assert our patents or obtain additional patent or similar protection in such countries, effective enforcement of such patents or other rights may not be available. If our patents do not adequately protect our technology, our competitors may be able to offer products or services similar to ours or potential customers may gain illegal access to our proprietary technology. Our competitors may also be able to develop similar technology independently or design around our patents, and we may not be able to detect the unauthorized use of our proprietary technology or take appropriate steps to prevent such use. Any of the foregoing events would lead to increased competition and lower revenue or gross margins, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Moreover, ongoing changes to the U.S. patent laws may impact our ability to obtain and enforce our intellectual property rights. In recent years, the courts have interpreted U.S. patent laws and regulations differently, and in particular the U.S. Supreme Court has decided a number of patent cases and continues to actively review more patent cases than it has in the past. Some of these changes or potential changes may not be advantageous for us, and may make it more difficult to obtain adequate patent protection or to enforce our patents against parties using them without a license or payment of royalties. These changes could increase the costs and uncertainties surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our patent rights, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
We may not be able to protect our trade secrets and intellectual property.
While some of our technology is licensed under patents belonging to others or is covered by process patents which are owned or applied for by us, much of our technology is not protected by patents. Furthermore, patents are jurisdictional in nature and therefore only protect us in certain markets, rather than globally. We have devoted substantial resources to the development of our technology, trade secrets, know-how and other unregistered proprietary rights. While we enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements intended to protect such rights, such agreements can be difficult and costly to enforce or may not provide adequate remedies if violated. Such agreements may be breached and confidential information may be willfully or unintentionally used or disclosed in violation of the agreements, or our competitors or other parties may learn of the information in some other way. We cannot legally prevent one or more other companies from developing similar or identical technology to our unpatented technology and accordingly, it is likely that, over time, one or more other companies may be able to replicate our technology, thereby reducing our technological advantages. If we do not protect our technology or are unable to develop new technology that can be protected by patents or as trade secrets, we may face increased competition from other companies, which may adversely affect our results of operations.
We may incur substantial costs enforcing or acquiring intellectual property rights and defending against third-party claims as a result of litigation or other proceedings.
In connection with the enforcement of our intellectual property rights, opposing third parties from obtaining patent rights or disputes related to the validity or alleged infringement of our or third-party intellectual property rights, including patent rights, we have been and may in the future be subject or party to claims, negotiations or complex, protracted litigation.
While we strive to avoid infringing the intellectual property rights of third parties, we cannot provide any assurances that we will be able to avoid any claims that our products and technology, including the technology that we license from others, infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties. Patent applications in the United States and most other countries are confidential for a period of time until they are published, and the publication of discoveries in scientific or patent literature typically lags actual discoveries by several months or more. As a result, the nature of claims contained in unpublished patent filings around the world is unknown to us, and we cannot be certain that we were the first to conceive inventions covered by our patents or patent applications or that we were the first to file patent applications covering such inventions. Furthermore, it is not possible to know in which countries patent holders may choose to extend their filings under the Patent Cooperation Treaty or other mechanisms. Moreover, the patent landscape in the field of 3D printing is very complex and freedom to operate examinations are costly and time-consuming. We have not obtained extensive freedom to operate reports in the past for each and all of our products and services, nor do we intend to install on a general basis freedom to operate examinations for our future products and services. In addition, we may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims from individuals, vendors and other companies, including those that are in the business of asserting patents, but are not commercializing products or services in the field of 3D printing, or our collaboration partners or our other customers may seek to invoke indemnification obligations to involve us in such intellectual property infringement claims. Furthermore, although we maintain certain procedures to help to ensure that the items we 3D print on behalf of customers do not infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others, we cannot be certain that our procedures will be effective in preventing any such infringement.
Intellectual property disputes and litigation, regardless of the merit or resolution, could cause us to incur significant costs in enforcing, or responding to, defending and resolving such claims. In addition, such claims can be costly and disruptive to our business operations by diverting attention and energies of management and key technical personnel, by prohibiting or otherwise impairing our ability to commercialize new or existing products or services and by increasing our costs of doing business. We may not prevail in any such dispute or litigation, and an adverse decision in any legal action involving intellectual property rights, including any such action commenced by us, could limit the scope of our intellectual property rights and the value of the related technology. Third-party claims of intellectual property infringement successfully asserted against us may require us to redesign infringing technology or enter into costly settlement or license agreements on terms that are unfavorable to us, prevent us from manufacturing or licensing certain of our products, subject us to injunctions restricting our sale of products and use of infringing technology, cause severe disruptions to our operations or the markets in which we compete, impose costly damage awards or require indemnification of our sales agents and end-users. In addition, as a consequence of such claims, we may incur significant costs in acquiring the necessary third-party intellectual property rights for use in our products and services or developing non-infringing substitute technology. Any of the foregoing developments may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, documentary, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.
Periodic maintenance fees on any issued patent are due to be paid to governmental patent agencies, including the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, in several stages over the lifetime of the patent. The USPTO and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. While an inadvertent lapse can in many cases be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Non-compliance events that could result in lapse of a patent or patent application include, but are not limited to, failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, non-payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. If we or our licensors fail to maintain the patents and patent applications covering our products and processes, our competitive position could be adversely affected.
We may be subject to claims that our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their former employers.
Certain of our past and present employees were previously employed at other companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Some of these employees executed proprietary rights, non-disclosure and non-competition agreements in connection with such previous employment. Although we try to ensure that our employees do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these employees have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such employees former employer. We are not aware of any threatened or pending claims related to these matters, but in the future litigation may be necessary to defend against such claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable personnel or intellectual property rights. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.
If disputes arise, we could lose rights that are important to our business or be subject to restrictions on the conduct of our business.
We have license agreements with respect to certain intellectual property that is important to our business and that may include exclusivity and non-competition undertakings. Disputes may arise between the counterparties to these agreements and us that could result in termination of these agreements. If we fail to comply with our obligations under our intellectual property-related agreements, or misconstrue the scope of the rights granted to us or restrictions imposed on us under these agreements, the counterparties may have the right to terminate these
agreements or sue us for damages or equitable remedies, including injunctive relief. Termination of these agreements, the reduction or elimination of our rights under these agreements, or the imposition of restrictions under these agreements that we have not anticipated may result in our having to negotiate new or reinstated licenses with less favorable terms, or to cease commercialization of licensed technology and products. This could materially adversely affect our business.
Certain technologies and patents have been developed with collaboration partners and we may face restrictions on this jointly developed intellectual property.
We have entered into collaborations with a number of industrial and medical device companies and academic institutions, including Zimmer-Biomet, DJO Surgical, DePuy Synthes, Lima, Mathys, Siemens, BASF 3D Printing Solutions GmbH, FluidDa NV, or FluidDa, the University of Michigan, and HOYA. We have, in some cases individually and in other cases along with our collaboration partners, filed for patent protection for a number of technologies developed under these agreements and may in the future file for further intellectual property protection and/or seek to commercialize such technologies. Under some of these agreements, certain intellectual property developed by us and the relevant partner may be subject to joint ownership by us and the partner and our commercial use of such intellectual property may be restricted, or may require written consent from, or a separate agreement with, the partner. In other cases, we may not have any rights to use intellectual property solely developed and owned by the partner. If we cannot obtain commercial use rights for such jointly-owned intellectual property or partner-owned intellectual property, our future product development and commercialization plans may be adversely affected. For additional information, see Item 4. Information on the CompanyB. Business OverviewIntellectual Property.
Our use of open source software may expose us to additional risks and harm our intellectual property.
Some of our proprietary software, including some of our 3D printing software, may use or incorporate open source software. Some open source software licenses require users who distribute open source software as part of their own software product to publicly disclose all or part of the source code to such software product or make available any derivative works of the open source code on unfavorable terms or at no cost. We monitor, on an ongoing basis, whether our proprietary software, including that in our 3D printing software, would make use of any open source software that could require us to disclose our proprietary source code, which could adversely affect our business.
Risks Related to the ADSs
The ADSs may experience price and volume fluctuations.
The stock market generally has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of listed companies. Broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of the ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. The market price and liquidity of the market for the ADSs may be higher or lower than the price you paid and may be significantly affected by numerous factors, some of which are beyond our control. These factors include:
significant volatility in the market price and trading volume of securities of companies in our sector, which is not necessarily related to the operating performance of these companies;
the mix of products that we sell, and related services that we provide, during any period;
delays between our expenditures to develop and market new products and the generation of sales from those products;
changes in the amount that we spend to develop, acquire or license new products, technologies or businesses;
changes in our expenditures to promote our products and services;
success or failure of research and development projects of us or our competitors;
announcements of acquisitions by us or one of our competitors;
the general tendency towards volatility in the market prices of shares of companies that rely on technology and innovation;
changes in regulatory policies or tax guidelines;
changes or perceived changes in earnings or variations in operating results;
any shortfall in revenue or net income from levels expected by investors or securities analysts; and
general economic trends and other external factors.
Any of these could result in a material decline in the price of the ADSs. In particular, the stock market has recently experienced significant price and volume fluctuations as a result of the coronavirus. This volatility has had a significant impact on the market price of securities issued by many companies across many industries.
Members of our board of directors and senior management own a significant percentage of our ordinary shares and are able to exert significant influence over matters subject to shareholder approval.
Members of our board of directors and senior management beneficially owned approximately 64.1% of our outstanding ordinary shares (including ordinary shares represented by ADSs), as of December 31, 2019. These shareholders have significant influence over the election of members of our board of directors and the outcome of corporate actions requiring shareholder approval, including dividend policy, mergers, share capital increases, amendments of our articles of association and other extraordinary transactions. For example, these shareholders may be able to influence the outcome of elections of members of our board of directors, amendments of our organizational documents, or approval of any merger, sale of assets, or other major corporate transactions. In addition, our articles of association provide that, as long as Wilfried Vancraen, our founder and Chief Executive Officer, Hilde Ingelaere, an Executive Vice President of our company who is also Mr. Vancraens spouse, and their three children, Linde, Sander and Jeroen Vancraen, or collectively the Family Shareholders, control, directly or indirectly, in the aggregate at least 20% of the voting rights attached to our ordinary shares, a majority of our directors must be appointed by our shareholders from a list of candidates proposed by the Family Shareholders. This concentration of ownership within this group of shareholders and the rights of the Family Shareholders prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our ordinary shares or ADSs that you may feel are in your best interest as one of our shareholders. The interests of these existing shareholders or the Family Shareholders may not always coincide with your interests or the interests of other shareholders, and they may act in a manner that advances their best interests and not necessarily those of other shareholders, including seeking a premium value for their ordinary shares, which might affect the prevailing market price for the ADSs.
The dilutive effect of our warrants and convertible bonds could have an adverse effect on the future market price of the ADSs or otherwise adversely affect the interests of our shareholders.
Based on outstanding granted warrants and outstanding convertible bonds, as of December 31, 2019, there were outstanding granted warrants to subscribe for an aggregate of 893,672 ordinary shares at a weighted average exercise price of 7.88 per share, and 1.0 million of outstanding convertible bonds convertible into an aggregate of 508,904 ordinary shares at a conversion price of 1.97 per share. The warrants and convertible bonds likely will be exercised or converted if the market price of the ADSs equals or exceeds the applicable exercise or conversion price. To the extent such securities are exercised or converted, additional ordinary shares will be issued, which would dilute the ownership of existing shareholders.
You may not have the same voting rights as the holders of our ordinary shares and may not receive voting materials in time to be able to exercise your right to vote.
Except as described in the deposit agreement related to the ADSs, holders of ADSs are not able to exercise voting rights attaching to the ordinary shares evidenced by the ADSs on an individual basis. Under the terms of the deposit agreement, holders of ADSs may instruct the depositary to vote the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs, but only if we ask the depositary to ask for their instructions. Otherwise, holders of ADSs are not able to exercise their right to vote, unless they withdraw our ordinary shares underlying the ADSs they hold to vote them in person or by proxy. However, holders of ADSs may not know about the meeting far enough in advance to withdraw those ordinary shares. If we ask for the instructions of holders of ADSs, the depositary, upon timely notice from us, will notify holders of ADSs of the upcoming vote and arrange to deliver our voting materials to them. Upon our request, the depositary will mail to holders of ADSs a shareholder meeting notice which contains, among other things, a statement as to the manner in which voting instructions may be given, including an express indication that such instructions may be given or deemed given to the depositary to give a discretionary proxy to a person designated by us if no instructions are received by the depositary from holders of ADSs on or before the response date established by the depositary. However, no voting instruction shall be deemed given and no such discretionary proxy shall be given with respect to any matter as to which we inform the depositary that (i) substantial opposition exists, or (ii) such matter materially and adversely affects the rights of shareholders. We cannot guarantee that holders of ADSs will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that they can instruct the depositary to vote their shares. In addition, the depositarys liability to holders of ADSs for failing to execute voting instructions or for the manner of executing voting instructions is limited by the deposit agreement. As a result, holders of ADSs may not be able to exercise their right to give voting instructions or to vote in person or by proxy and they may not have any recourse against the depositary or our company if their shares are not voted as they have requested or if their shares cannot be voted.
You may not receive distributions on our ordinary shares represented by the ADSs or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to holders of ADSs.
Under the terms of the deposit agreement, the depositary for the ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our ordinary shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of our ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, in accordance with the limitations set forth in the deposit agreement, it may be unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to holders of ADSs. We have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of the ADSs, ordinary shares, rights or anything else to holders of ADSs. This means that you may not receive the distributions we make on our ordinary shares or any value from them if it is unlawful or impractical to make them available to you. These restrictions may have a material adverse effect on the value of your ADSs.
We have no present intention to pay dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future and, consequently, your only opportunity to achieve a return on your investment during that time is if the price of the ADSs appreciates.
We have no present intention to pay dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. Any recommendation by our board of directors to pay dividends will depend on many factors, including our financial condition, results of operations, legal requirements and other factors. Furthermore, pursuant to Belgian law, the calculation of amounts available for distribution to shareholders, as dividends or otherwise, must be determined on the basis of our non-consolidated statutory financial statements prepared under generally accepted accounting principles in Belgium, or Belgian GAAP. In addition, in accordance with Belgian law and our articles of association, we must allocate each year an amount of at least 5% of our annual net profit under our statutory non-consolidated accounts (prepared in accordance with Belgian GAAP) to a legal reserve until the reserve equals 10% of our share capital. Our legal reserve currently meets this requirement. As a consequence of these facts, there can be no assurance as to whether dividends or other distributions will be paid out in the future or, if they are paid, their amount.
As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from a number of rules under the U.S. securities laws and are permitted to file less information with the SEC than U.S. domestic issuers. This may limit the information available to holders of ADSs.
We are a foreign private issuer, as defined in the rules and regulations of the SEC and, consequently, we are not subject to all of the disclosure requirements applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. For example, we are exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act that regulate disclosure obligations and procedural requirements related to the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations applicable to a security registered under the Exchange Act. In addition, our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and related rules with respect to their purchases and sales of our securities. Moreover, we are not required to file periodic reports and consolidated financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. domestic issuers. Accordingly, there may be less publicly available information concerning our company than there is for U.S. public companies. As a foreign private issuer, we file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the close of each year ended December 31 and furnish reports on Form 6-K relating to certain material events promptly after we publicly announce these events. However, although we intend to continue to issue quarterly financial information, because of the above exemptions for foreign private issuers, we are not required to do so, and, therefore, our shareholders will not be afforded the same protections or information generally available to investors holding shares in public companies organized in the United States.
We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.
As a foreign private issuer, we are not required to comply with all the periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and related rules and regulations. The determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuers most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Accordingly, we will next make a determination with respect to our foreign private issuer status on June 30, 2020. There is a risk that we will lose our foreign private issuer status in the future.
We would lose our foreign private issuer status if, for example, more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States and more than 50% of our outstanding ordinary shares are held of record by U.S. residents. As of December 31, 2019, 3.1% of our assets were located in the United States. The regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws as a U.S. domestic issuer may be significantly greater than the costs we incur as a foreign private issuer. If we are not a foreign private issuer, we will be required to file periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms with the SEC, which are more detailed and extensive in certain respects than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. We would be required under current SEC rules to prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP and modify certain of our policies to comply with corporate governance practices associated with U.S. domestic issuers. Such conversion and modifications would involve significant additional costs. In addition, we may lose our ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements on U.S. stock exchanges that are available to foreign private issuers such as the ones described above and exemptions from procedural requirements related to the solicitation of proxies.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting and if we fail to establish and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. In particular, we are required, under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to perform system and process evaluations and testing of our internal controls over financial reporting to allow management and our independent registered public accounting firm to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This assessment must include disclosure of any material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting identified by our management or our independent registered public accounting firm. A material weakness is a control deficiency, or combination of control deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting that results in more than a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act also generally requires an attestation from our independent registered public accounting firm on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating. Our remediation efforts may not enable us to avoid a material weakness in the future.
Although we have implemented an internal control system and devoted significant resources into internal audit, accounting, IT and other functions to improve our internal control system, our compliance with Section 404 will require that we incur further substantial accounting expenses and continue to expend significant management efforts to further implement and maintain our internal control system. We may not be able to further implement or maintain an effective internal control system or complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion. In connection with the preparation of this annual report, during the evaluation and testing process, we identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, and concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2019. See Item 15. Controls and Procedures. We cannot assure you that we will be able to remedy the material weaknesses in a timely fashion or at all, or that there will not be material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. If we are unable to remedy any of the material weaknesses and conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of the ADSs could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the NASDAQ Stock Market, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.
We have incurred and will incur significant increased costs as a result of operating as a company whose ADSs are publicly traded in the United States, and our management is required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives.
As a company whose ADSs are publicly traded in the United States, we have incurred and will incur significant legal, accounting, insurance and other expenses that we did not incur prior to our initial public offering. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and related rules implemented by the SEC and the NASDAQ Stock Market have imposed various requirements on public companies, including requiring establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls. These costs have increased now that we are no longer an emerging growth company eligible to rely on exemptions under the JOBS Act from certain disclosure and governance requirements. Our management and other personnel need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations increase our legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming and costly. These laws and regulations could also make it more difficult and expensive for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or its committees. Furthermore, if we are unable to satisfy our obligations as a public company, we could be subject to delisting of the ADSs, fines, sanctions and other regulatory action and potentially civil litigation.
You may be subject to limitations on the transfer of your ADSs.
Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems doing so expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may close its books from time to time for a number of reasons, including in connection with corporate events such as a rights offering, during which time the depositary needs to maintain an exact number of ADS holders on its books for a specified period. The depositary may also close its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of the ADSs generally when our share register or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks that it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement. As a result, you may be unable to transfer your ADSs when you wish to.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding the ADSs, the market price for the ADSs and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for the ADSs is influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade the ADSs, the market price for the ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which, in turn, could cause the market price or trading volume for the ADSs to decline.
It may be difficult for investors outside Belgium to serve process on or enforce foreign judgments against us or our directors and senior management.
We are a Belgian limited liability company. None of the members of our board of directors and senior management is a resident of the United States. All or a substantial portion of the assets of such non-resident persons and most of our assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may not be possible for investors to effect service of process upon such persons or on us or to enforce against them or us a judgment obtained in U.S. courts. Original actions or actions for the enforcement of judgments of U.S. courts relating to the civil liability provisions of the federal or state securities laws of the United States are not directly enforceable in Belgium. The United States and Belgium do not currently have a multilateral or bilateral treaty providing for reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments, other than arbitral awards, in civil and commercial matters. In order for a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by U.S. courts based on civil liability to produce any effect on Belgian soil, it is accordingly required that this judgment be recognized or be declared enforceable by a Belgian court in accordance with Articles 22 to 25 of the 2004 Belgian Code of Private International Law. Recognition or enforcement does not imply a review of the merits of the case and is irrespective of any reciprocity requirement. A U.S. judgment will, however, not be recognized or declared enforceable in Belgium if it infringes upon one or more of the grounds for refusal which are exhaustively listed in Article 25 of the Belgian Code of Private International Law. These grounds mainly require that the recognition or enforcement of the foreign judgment should not be a manifest violation of public policy, that the foreign courts must have
respected the rights of the defense, that the foreign judgment should be final, and that the assumption of jurisdiction by the foreign court may not have breached certain principles of Belgian law. In addition to recognition or enforcement, a judgment by a federal or state court in the United States against us may also serve as evidence in a similar action in a Belgian court if it meets the conditions required for the authenticity of judgments according to the law of the state where it was rendered. The findings of a federal or state court in the United States will not, however, be taken into account to the extent they appear incompatible with Belgian public policy.
Holders of ADSs are not treated as shareholders of our company.
Holders of ADSs with underlying shares in a Belgian limited liability company are not treated as shareholders of our company, unless they withdraw our ordinary shares underlying the ADSs that they hold. The depository is the holder of the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs. Holders of ADSs therefore do not have any rights as shareholders of our company, other than the rights that they have pursuant to the deposit agreement.
We are a Belgian limited liability company but are not a listed company in Belgium, and shareholders of our company may have different and in some cases more limited shareholder rights than shareholders of a listed company in Belgium or of a U.S. listed corporation.
We are organized as a limited liability company (naamloze vennootschap / société anonyme) under the laws of Belgium. Our corporate affairs are governed by Belgian corporate law. From a Belgian corporate law point of view, we qualify as a public company (een vennootschap die een openbaar beroep op het spaarwezen heeft gedaan / une société ayant fait publiquement appel à lépargne), but not as a listed company (genoteerde vennootschap / société cotée) because none of our securities are listed on any regulated market in the EEA. The Belgian corporate law provisions that are applicable to Belgian listed companies do therefore not apply to us. Furthermore, we are not subject to most of the disclosure obligations applicable to Belgian listed companies. As a result, shareholders of our company may not enjoy certain of the rights and protection generally afforded to shareholders of a Belgian listed company.
You should also be aware that the rights provided to our shareholders under Belgian corporate law and our articles of association differ in certain respects from the rights that you would typically enjoy as a shareholder of a U.S. corporation under applicable U.S. federal and state laws.
Under Belgian corporate law, except in certain limited circumstances, our shareholders may not ask for an inspection of our corporate records, while under Delaware corporate law any shareholder, irrespective of the size of his or her shareholdings, may do so. Shareholders of a Belgian corporation are also unable to initiate a derivative action, a remedy typically available to shareholders of U.S. companies, in order to enforce a right of our company, in case we fail to enforce such right ourselves, other than in certain cases of director liability under limited circumstances. In addition, a majority of our shareholders may release a director from any claim of liability we may have, including if he or she has acted in bad faith or has breached his or her duty of loyalty, provided, in some cases, that the relevant acts were specifically mentioned in the convening notice to the shareholders meeting deliberating on the discharge. In contrast, most U.S. federal and state laws prohibit a company or its shareholders from releasing a director from liability altogether if he or she has acted in bad faith or has breached his or her duty of loyalty to the company. Finally, Belgian corporate law does not provide any form of appraisal rights in the case of a business combination. For additional information on these and other aspects of Belgian corporate law and our articles of association, see Item 10. Additional InformationB. Memorandum and Articles of Association. As a result of these differences between Belgian corporate law and our articles of association, on the one hand, and U.S. federal and state laws, on the other hand, in certain instances, you could receive less protection as a shareholder of our company than you would as a shareholder of a U.S. corporation.
The implementation of the recent reform of the Belgian Companies Code may adversely affect the rights of our shareholders.
A new Belgian Companies Code was approved by the Belgian Parliament that entered into force on May 1, 2019. For existing companies like us there is a transition regime providing for a staggered applicability of the new provisions. Certain parts of the new code apply to us as of January 1, 2020. The full transition must be completed by the earlier of (i) the next extraordinary shareholders meeting that amends our articles of association or (ii) January 1, 2024. On the date of this annual report, we have not yet initiated or implemented any changes as a result of such new Companies Code. However, we or our shareholders may propose changes to our articles of association following the entry into force of the new Belgian Companies Code that could impact our shareholders rights.
As a foreign private issuer, we are not subject to certain NASDAQ Stock Market corporate governance rules applicable to U.S. listed companies.
We rely on provisions in the Listing Rules of the NASDAQ Stock Market that permit us to follow our home country corporate governance practices with regard to certain aspects of corporate governance. This allows us to follow Belgian corporate law and the Belgian Company Code, which differ in significant respects from the corporate governance requirements applicable to U.S. companies listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market. See Item 16G. Corporate Governance.
Holders of ADSs or ordinary shares have limited rights to call shareholders meetings or to submit shareholder proposals, which could adversely affect their ability to participate in the governance of our company.
Except under limited circumstances, only the board of directors may call a shareholders meeting. Shareholders who collectively own at least 20% of the ordinary shares of our company may require the board of directors or the statutory auditor to convene a special or an extraordinary general meeting of shareholders. As a result, the ability of holders of the ADSs or ordinary shares to participate in and influence the governance of our company is limited.
Holders of the ADSs have limited recourse if we or the depositary fail to meet our respective obligations under the deposit agreement or if they wish to involve us or the depositary in a legal proceeding.
The deposit agreement expressly limits the obligations and liability of us and the depositary. Neither we nor the depositary will be liable to the extent that liability results from the fact that we:
are prevented or hindered in performing any obligation by circumstances beyond their control;
exercise or fail to exercise discretion under the deposit agreement;
perform our obligations without negligence or bad faith;
take any action based upon advice of or information from legal counsel, accountants, any person presenting shares for deposit, any holder of the ADSs or any other qualified person; or
rely on any documents we believe in good faith to be genuine and properly executed.
In addition, neither we nor the depositary has any obligation to participate in any action, suit or other proceeding in respect of the ADSs which may involve it in expense or liability unless it is indemnified to its satisfaction. These provisions of the deposit agreement will limit the ability of holders of the ADSs to obtain recourse if we or the depositary fails to meet our respective obligations under the deposit agreement or if they wish to involve us or the depositary in a legal proceeding.
Investors may not be able to participate in equity offerings, and ADS holders may not receive any value for rights that we may grant.
In accordance with Belgian corporate law, our articles of association provide for preferential subscription rights to be granted to our existing shareholders to subscribe on a pro rata basis for any issue for cash of new shares, convertible bonds or warrants that are exercisable for cash, unless such rights are cancelled or limited by resolution of our shareholders meeting or the board of directors. Our shareholders meeting or board of directors may cancel or restrict such rights in future equity offerings. In addition, certain shareholders (including those in the United States, Australia, Canada or Japan) may not be entitled to exercise such rights even if they are not cancelled unless the rights and related shares are registered or qualified for sale under the relevant legislation or regulatory framework. As a result, there is the risk that investors may suffer dilution of their shareholding should they not be permitted to participate in preference right equity or other offerings that we may conduct in the future.
If rights are granted to our shareholders, as the case may be, but if by the terms of such rights offering or for any other reason, the depositary may not either make such rights available to any ADS holders or dispose of such rights and make the net proceeds available to such ADS holders, then the depositary may allow the rights to lapse, in which case ADS holders will receive no value for such rights.
Shareholders in jurisdictions with currencies other than the euro face additional investment risk from currency exchange rate fluctuations in connection with their holding of our shares.
Any future payments of dividends on shares will be denominated in euro. The U.S. dollaror other currencyequivalent of any dividends paid on our shares or received in connection with any sale of our shares could be adversely affected by the depreciation of the euro against these other currencies.
In order to satisfy our obligations as a public company, we may need to hire additional qualified accounting and financial personnel and consultants with appropriate experience.
As a public company, we need to establish and maintain effective disclosure and financial controls. We have hired additional accounting and financial personnel and consultants with experience and technical accounting knowledge in this respect, but we may need to hire additional personnel and consultants with appropriate experience and technical accounting knowledge. It is difficult to recruit and retain such personnel and consultants, and our operating expenses and operations are and will be impacted by the direct costs of their employment or engagement and the indirect consequences related to the diversion of management resources from research and development efforts.
We do not expect to be a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes; however, there is a risk that we may be classified as a passive foreign investment company, which could result in materially adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. investors.
We do not expect to be a passive foreign investment company, or a PFIC. However, the relevant rules are not entirely clear and certain aspects of the tests will be outside our control; therefore, no assurance can be given that we will not be classified as a PFIC for any taxable year. If you are a U.S. taxpayer and we are determined to be a PFIC at any time during your holding period, you may be subject to materially adverse consequences, including additional tax liability and tax filing obligations. See Item 10. Additional InformationE. TaxationU.S. TaxationPassive Foreign Investment Company.
|ITEM 4.|| |
INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
A. History and Development of the Company
Materialise NV was incorporated in Belgium on June 28, 1990 as a limited liability company under Belgian company law.
On August 6, 2019, we acquired 75% of the shares of Engimplan through a combined acquisition of existing and new shares through our Brazilian subsidiary Engimplan Holding Ltda., or Engimplan Holding. Engimplan is a Brazil-based manufacturer of orthopaedic and CMF implants and instruments. As part of this transaction, we have gained access to Engimplans local production facility and we intend to expand Engimplans portfolio with our 3D printed implants and expertise and leverage Engimplas existing partner and distribution network in Brazil. We believe that the combination of our expertise in 3D printed medical solutions and Engimplans innovative product portfolio will help accelerate the introduction of 3D printed, personalized implants and instruments in the Brazilian market.
As of October 1, 2019, all the assets and liabilities of Materialise UK Ltd., our wholly owned subsidiary, were transferred to Meridian Technique Ltd., also our wholly owned subsidiary as part of a global restructuring to enable us to operate as one legal entity in the United Kingdom.
Our principal executive and registered offices are located at Technologielaan 15, 3001 Leuven, Belgium. Our telephone number is +32 (16) 39 66 11. We are registered with the Register of Legal Entities of Leuven under the number 0441.131.254. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Materialise USA, LLC, located at 44650 Helm Ct., Plymouth, Michigan 48170, telephone number (734) 259-6445. Our internet website is www.materialise.com. The information contained on, or accessible through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this annual report and should not be considered a part of this annual report.
The SEC maintains an internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
Capital Expenditures (Property Plant and Equipment and Intangible Assets)
Our capital expenditures amounted to 15.7 million, 20.9 million and 35.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively. In 2019, our main capital expenditures were 0.8 million for a cleanroom in Belgium, 1.2 million for a new building in Germany, 1.1 million for medical projects, and 8.8 million for new machines and installations in Belgium, Germany, Poland and the United States. In 2018, our main capital expenditures were 10.7 million for new machines and installations in Belgium and Germany, 2.5 million for land and buildings in Germany and 1.8 million for information technology equipment. In 2017, our main capital expenditures were 12.8 million related to building constructions in Belgium and Poland and 11.9 million for new machinery and installations in Belgium, Poland and Germany
B. Business Overview
Our mission is to innovate product development that results in a better and healthier world, through our software and hardware infrastructure, and an in-depth knowledge of additive manufacturing.
We are a leading provider of additive manufacturing and medical software and of sophisticated 3D printing services. Since our founding in 1990 by our Chief Executive Officer, Wilfried Vancraen, we have consistently focused on developing innovative applications of additive manufacturing technologies. We believe our proprietary software platforms, which enable and enhance the functionality of 3D printers and of 3D printing operations, have become a market standard for professional 3D printing. We believe that our commitment to enabling 3D printing technologies has significantly supported and accelerated the acceptance and proliferation of additive manufacturing in the industrial and medical sectors and will continue to play an instrumental role as the industry evolves. In the healthcare sector, we bring software and medical devices to the market. Our medical software products include surgical planning tools that allow medical professionals to make 3D printable designs of the human anatomy. Our medical devices include surgical guides as well as customized medical implants. In our 3D printing service centers, including what we believe to be one of the worlds largest single-site additive manufacturing service center in Leuven, Belgium, we print medical devices, prototypes, production parts, and consumer products. Our customers are active in a wide variety of industries, including healthcare, automotive, aerospace, art and design and consumer products. As of December 31, 2019, our team consisted of 2,177 full-time equivalent employees, or FTEs, and fully dedicated consultants. Our portfolio of intellectual property features 290 patents and 157 pending patent applications as of December 31, 2019. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we generated 196.7 million of revenue, representing 6.5% growth over the prior year, a net profit of 1.7 million and Adjusted EBITDA of 26.7 million. For a description of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of our net profit to our Adjusted EBITDA, see Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsA. Operating ResultsOther Financial Information.
Our Core Competencies
Our established and proven business model integrates our three research-based core competencies: (i) software development, (ii) 3D printing, and (iii) engineering, which act as complementary incubators for our new products and function as integrated support centers for our existing products. The interaction and synergies among our software development, 3D printing and engineering teams position us well to continuously develop and support innovative applications of 3D printing that often integrate all three core competencies.
Software Development. Our expertise in developing 3D printing software originated from our efforts to enable 3D printing applications and to continually improve processes within our own additive manufacturing operations. As a result of our continued deployment over the course of more than 25 years of human, intellectual and economic capital to software development, a number of our products, including Magics and Streamics, have evolved into industry-leading flagship products. Our software development team works in close partnership with the commercial groups that are active in our various market segments through project teams that support our various products and services. These project teams rely, in turn, on research and development groups that develop libraries of software code that can be shared in multiple products and services across various markets. We have an established quality management system for the development of our software products that is ISO 9001:2015 certified. We are also ISO 13485:2016 certified for our medical applications and our medical applications comply with the regulatory requirements of several jurisdictions, including Europe and the United States.
3D Printing. As a pioneer in the additive manufacturing industry, we believe we have an extensive history of 3D printing millions of parts utilizing a broad array of technologies, often in highly regulated environments, for thousands of commercial, industrial and medical customers. We operate some of the most sophisticated printing machines currently available on the market, as well as our own proprietary stereolithography-based technology, Mammoth, to provide a very broad range of technologies, sizes, materials and finishing degrees and to address the needs of customers across a large number of potential markets. Production is organized in multiple production lines that are dedicated to the Medical and the Industrial Production segments that we serve. Our 3D printing group, which operates in an ISO 9001:2015-certified quality management system, in an ISO 13485:2016-certified system for the production of medical devices, and in an EN9100:2016 as well as EASA POA certified system for the production of plastic aerospace parts, has its own maintenance and research team that utilizes an in-house laboratory facility where products can be tested. The wide variety of products that are processed by our multiple production lines are logistically streamlined through our proprietary database systems that manage the entire process from order intake to 3D printing to final shipment. As of December 31, 2019, we operated a total of 181 3D printers, six vacuum casting machines and 28 computer numeric control, or CNC, machines at these service centers. (See Manufacture and Supply for more detailed information about the printers we operate).
Engineering. Our engineering expertise is integral to our entire business, as it enhances our software development and 3D printing expertise. Our engineers work in teams that support customers in different market segments. These teams work directly with our customers to identify new, and customize and refine existing, 3D printing applications and to increase productivity, efficiency and ease of use across all aspects of the solutions we provide. Our engineering teams have particular expertise in industrial and medical applications, including patient-specific surgical guides, models and implants with the applicable market clearances. Our teams are highly specialized, especially in the medical field, and include quality controllers, development researchers for new hardware concepts and trainers who bring new engineers to the required level of expertise. Our engineers operate within the framework of a certified quality management system. Our engineering teams make extensive use of our proprietary software tools and have direct access to our 3D printing center where developments can be tested in an actual production environment.
Our Market Segments
The product and service offerings developed by our three core competencies are offered through a market oriented organization that is active across three principal market segments: (i) Materialise Software, (ii) Materialise Medical, and (iii) Materialise Manufacturing. We believe that our customers benefit significantly from the synergistic interplay between our core competencies and the three market segments on which we focus and which provide constant end-user feedback to the product development and support teams within our core competencies. For example, we believe our software programs have become globally leading products in the markets we serve as a result of many factors including the sharing of knowledge within our central software development group as well as our in-house production operations, which enable us to continuously innovate, refine and focus our software solutions and provide us with valuable insight into our customers objectives and needs. Similarly, certain aspects of the equipment, processes and know-how that enable us to print surgical guides cleared by the FDA, and CE-labeled implants are applicable to certain industrial markets we serve, including automotive and aerospace, where our customers have stringent requirements for high quality precision parts.
Our discussion below of the growth opportunities for each of our market segments is based on our medium and long term expectations for these segments. In the short term, we expect both the 3D printing industry and our business will be impacted by the current coronavirus pandemic, although we cannot predict with certainty the impact the pandemic will have. For more information, see Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsD. Trend Information below.
Our Materialise Software Segment
In our Materialise Software segment, we offer proprietary software worldwide through programs and platforms that enable and enhance the functionality of 3D printers and of 3D printing operations. We have developed software that interfaces between almost all types of industrial 3D printers, and various software applications and capturing technologies, including CAD/CAM packages and 3D scanners, by enabling data preparation and process planning. Our programs interface with machines manufactured by leading original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, such as Sindoh Co. Ltd., EOS GmbH, Essentium Inc., HP Inc., The ExOne Company, Renishaw PLC, SLM Solutions Group AG, Stratasys Ltd., Trumpf GmbH & Co. KG, Uniontech Corporation and Voxeljet AG. In addition, we have entered into partnership agreements with leading CAD, CAM and product lifecycle management, or PLM, companies such as Siemens, HCL Technologies Ltd., or HCL, and PTC, for the integration of our additive manufacturing technology into Siemens NX software, HCLs CAMworks, and PTCs Creo software. This enables the streamlining of the design to manufacturing process for products being produced using additive manufacturing. We offer software that enables our customers to more efficiently organize the entire workflow of a 3D printing operation with multiple 3D printing machines, many operators and complex data flow and logistical
requirements. We believe that the capabilities of our software products and their unique compatibility with almost all 3D printing systems continue to set standards in the professional 3D printing software market. Customers operating machines from multiple OEMs and customers running large 3D printing operations are among those who can benefit the most from our software packages and we believe that in many cases those customers demand compatibility with our software from the systems of OEMs.
As of December 31, 2019, our Materialise Software segment had a team of approximately 303 FTEs and fully dedicated consultants, with approximately 36.2% based at our headquarters in Belgium and the remaining employees distributed throughout our local field offices in China, Germany, Japan, Malaysia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Business Model. We generate revenue in our Materialise Software segment from our software licenses, maintenance contracts, hardware controller sales for our Materialise Controllers and custom software development services. Additionally, we offer consultancy and training services. We license our software products to our customers on either a time-based or perpetual basis, in which case we offer annual maintenance contracts that provide for software updates and support. We charge our custom software development services either on a time and material or on a fixed-cost basis. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, our Materialise Software segment generated revenue of 41.7 million, 37.4 million and 35.8 million, respectively, representing 21.2%, 20.2% and 25.1% of our total revenue, respectively, and 11.5%, 4.5% and 18.8% growth over the prior year, respectively.
Software Products. We have a diversified portfolio comprised of software applications addressing different 3D market opportunities. Our decades of experience in the additive manufacturing industry are reflected in the sophisticated 3D printing software and business management tools we provide for our customers. We believe that each of our software applications is, or has the potential of becoming, one of the leading technologies in its domain. We believe that our neutral platform approach positions our software to drive greater innovation and choice across the 3D printer software ecosystem, and provides 3D printer users with more powerful and flexible printing capabilities.
In particular, we offer the following software applications:
Magics. Magics enables customers to import a wide variety of CAD formats and to export standard tessellation language, or STL, files ready for additive manufacturing. Magics applications include repairing and optimizing 3D models; analyzing parts; making process-related design changes on customers STL files; designing support structures; documenting customer projects; nesting multiple parts in a single print run; and process planning.
Our Magics platform is enhanced with modules that further expand functionality and utility for our customers. For instance, the Magics Import Module plays an important role in efficiently moving CAD designs through to manufactured products by importing nearly all standard CAD formats into Magics. The Magics Structures Module was designed to help customers to reduce weight and material usage in their designs. We also have developed logistical modules such as the Magics SG Module, which offers tools for support structure design during the 3D printing process, and the Magics Sintermodule, which offers solutions for automated part nesting, protecting small and fragile parts and locating them after building. The Magics Simulation module enables our users to simulate the build process virtually, and optimize the build preparation based on the results, thus reducing build failures and improving the result.
In addition to offering state-of-the-art data preparation functionality to our users, our Magics platform also focuses on automation and other productivity improvements and brings interconnectivity to machines and enterprise software platforms.
Specific versions of the Magics application were also brought to the market by us:
Magics Essentials: an entry-level package offering premium data preparation functionality (but without machine connectivity), that can be used in combination with machine build preparation software offered by machine vendors. The package is available on a monthly or annual rental basis, through e-commerce.
Magics Print: This software combines the most important build preparation tools (Materialise Magics) and straightforward build file generation technology (Materialise Build Processor). This package is sold to machine manufacturers so that they can bundle it with their machines to offer their customers a complete, high-value service package that can get them started with 3D printing. Magics Print is available for DLP and metal technologies, and we plan to work together with Essentium Inc. to develop a version tailored at industrial FDM/Essentiums high speed extrusion machines.
Users of Magics Essentials and Magics Print can upgrade to our expert Materialise Magics platform in case they want the full data and build preparation functionality at their disposal in one package, potentially extended with the above mentioned speciality modules.
Streamics. Complementary to Magics is our Streamics product, which is a central additive manufacturing logistics and control system that links operators, 3D printers (including those from various OEMs and based on different technologies), processes, materials and shipment flows together to improve customer service and save time and money. Streamics provides a user-friendly, server-based system, which centralizes our customers project data and makes it easier to collaborate among team members and communicate with customers. The configurable modules are designed to facilitate communication, support the organization and execution of data preparation, plan machine capacity, and guide post-processing steps, allowing additive manufacturing teams to quickly adapt to business and market changes.
3-maticSTL. 3-maticSTL is a versatile application that permits, among other things, design modification, design simplification, 3D texturing, re-meshing and forward engineering directly to standard additive manufacturing STL files. Using Materialise consultancy services, targeted design automation solutions can be created for specific work flows.
MiniMagics and MiniMagicsPro. MiniMagics and MiniMagicsPro provide solutions for our customers working in data preparation, or in quoting and quality control teams. MiniMagics allows customers to view STL files and communicate in an efficient way with their account manager by seeing the same visualization of the part on their respective screens. MiniMagicsPro is a professional STL file communication tool that allows account managers to access multiple file formats and exchange annotations and comments with the customer, and generate quotations taking into account file quality and the appropriate build orientation of each part. MiniMagics Pro is designed to give our customers quality control and finishing teams the ability to compare measurement results with the initial design and deliver professional quality reports.
Build Processors and Machine Control Software. We work in close collaboration with a wide variety of 3D printer OEMs to develop customized and integrated solutions for their additive manufacturing machines. Our build processors automatically translate the 3D model data into layer data to provide sliced geometry and can link the latter with the appropriate build parameters to feed the machine control software. Another key benefit of our build processors is that they allow for a two-way communication between Magics and 3D printers. In essence, the build processor not only tells the machine what to do, but is also capable of receiving feedback from the machine allowing the operator to trace and store data on specific jobs for quality control and other purposes. Our machine control software interprets sliced build data that is transferred to 3D printers and steers such machines, helping to ensure smooth and trouble-free production. We also develop the metal build processors in Materialise Bremen and as a consequence we are able to cover a wide range of metal 3D printers. Furthermore, licensing and integrating our build processor framework, companies such as Siemens and PTC can also leverage the extensive ecosystem of build processors we have developed together with OEMs. Powered by our build processor framework and the appropriate build processor, users of Siemens and PTC CAD packages can seamlessly connect directly to the printer from within the CAD application.
e-Stage. e-Stage is a software solution that increases additive manufacturing productivity by automating STL support generation, optimizing the STL build process, and reducing the time our customers spend on finishing work such as build support removal and sanding. e-Stage is designed to allow our customers to use less material, to be able to 3D nest and to minimize failed builds. e-Stage for plastic has been commercially available since September 2007, and in the fall of 2017, we released e-Stage for metal. In 2018, we won the TCT SOFTWARE AWARD 2018 for e-Stage for metal.
Materialise Controller. Materialise Controller controls and steers additive manufacturing machines using embedded Materialise software, and is fully integrated into the Materialise 3D printing software platform. It is engineered towards research and development applications, machine manufacturers and those who want to control or adapt the production process to their specific needs.
Sales and Marketing. We market and distribute our software directly through our sales force as well as through our own website and third-party distributors. Our Belgian team oversees our global marketing strategy and sales processes. Our local field office employees manage sales for particular markets and provide pre- and post-sales technical support to our customers. In addition, OEMs and local dealers often distribute our software products together with their 3D printers, with our software enhancing the printers value proposition and broadening the suite of applications available to the machines. Our sales force will typically follow up on these OEM or distributor sales to offer follow on products and services to the machine users. We intend to continue focusing on managing sales by third-party distributors through our channel partner program, which is designed to provide our resellers and distributors with valuable resources and support in order to assist them in achieving their sales goals. We believe that this focus has led to an increase of approximately 50% in third-party distributor sales in the year ended December 31, 2019.
Customers. We believe we have a reputation for providing high-quality software in the marketplace and have strong relationships with leading multinational customers and other key users of additive manufacturing. The customers for our Materialise Software segment include 3D printing OEMs as well as manufacturers in a variety of other industries, such as the automotive, aerospace, consumer goods and hearing aid industries, and external 3D printing service bureaus. Our Materialise Software segment customer base is spread across Asia, Europe and the Americas.
For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, our ten largest customers in the Materialise Software segment represented 21.5%, 23.8% and 23.0%, respectively, of our Materialise Software segments revenue.
Competition. In our Materialise Software segment, we face indirect competition from the software developed by 3D printing OEMs, which are often more closed ecosystem-oriented (i.e., only focused on their own machines), and from companies that offer software that addresses one or more specific functional areas covered by our software solutions, such as providers of traditional CAD solutions. We compete directly with other providers of additive manufacturing management and machine control software, including open source software providers.
Growth Opportunities. As the number of internal and external service or production centers across the 3D printing industry grows with these 3D printing operations running more complex mixes of machines from different manufacturers and based on various technologies, as 3D printing will be increasingly used for the manufacturing of complex or customized end parts, and as the number of 3D printer manufacturers increases with certain new players initially focusing more on the hardware than on the software component of their 3D printers, we believe the demand for highly performing industrial 3D printing software platforms is likely to grow accordingly. Furthermore, we believe that the worldwide market for additive manufacturing software is tied to the growth of the overall additive manufacturing sector and in particular the number of industrial 3D printing systems in operation. We expect that the volume of industrial 3D printing systems sold will grow with increased adoption of additive manufacturing processes, and that 3D printing software, in particular in the professional segment of the market, will increasingly be needed to interface with these systems and allow for more efficient operation of those systems.
We believe that we can continue to expand our market penetration through expanding relationships with customers and OEMs, and through the continued innovation of our software products to adapt to and meet market demands. In order to be able to do so, we intend to bring our teams closer to our customer base worldwide, which will require continued investments in the expansion of our marketing and sales presence. In order to be able to meet the demands of new entrants on the market and to better address the needs of the end parts market, we also intend to continue to invest significantly in the development of our software tools and solutions, including furthering their compatibility with as many 3D printers on the market as possible. For example, we believe the market for metal-based printing will be a key growth area in the additive manufacturing industry and, while we believe we currently have a strong market position in software for metal printing, we are also committed to research and development of metal-based technologies, such as machine integration and porous structures generation.
Our Materialise Medical Segment
In our Materialise Medical segment, our product and services offering addresses what we believe to be long-term trends in the medical industry towards personalized, functional and evidence-based medicine.
As of December 31, 2019, our Materialise Medical segment consisted of approximately 763 FTEs and fully dedicated consultants, with approximately 26.8% based at our headquarters in Belgium and the remaining employees distributed throughout our local offices in Australia, Brazil, China, Colombia, France, Germany, Japan, Malaysia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Business Model. We generate revenue in our Materialise Medical segment through clinical services and medical software. We sell medical devices that we print for our customers and sell licenses to our medical software packages and software maintenance contracts. We also provide custom software development and engineering services, for which we charge either on a time and material or fixed-cost basis. The majority of the medical devices that we printed in 2019 were surgical guides (and related bone models) that were distributed to surgeons through our collaboration partners Corin, DJO Surgical, DePuy Synthes, Lima, Mathys, Smith & Nephew, Stryker and Zimmer Biomet. We also print patient-specific implants that we sell directly to hospitals or distribute through partners such as DePuy Synthes. The customer base for our medical software products includes academic institutions, medical device companies and hospitals. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, our Materialise Medical segment generated revenue of 60.8 million, 52.3 million and 42.8 million, respectively, representing 30.9%, 28.3% and 30.0% of our total revenue, respectively, and 16.4%, 22.0% and 13.0% growth over the prior year, respectively.
Medical Software. Our software allows medical-image based analysis and engineering as well as patient-specific design of surgical devices and implants. Our customers include leading research institutes, renowned hospitals and major medical device companies. Our medical software packages often serve as an introduction to our capabilities and in certain cases lead to custom software developments and clinical services opportunities. Our medical software packages are:
Materialise Mimics Innovation Suite. The Materialise Mimics Innovation Suite is a complete set of tools developed for biomedical professionals that allows them to perform a multitude of engineering operations based on medical imaging data. The suite consists of several complementary products and services, including Materialise Mimics, Materialise 3-matic, engineering services and medical models, as well as consultancy and custom software development.
Materialise Mimics. Materialise Mimics is software addressing medical professionals specifically developed for medical image processing that can be used to segment accurate 3D models from medical imaging data (for example, from CT or MRI) to measure accurately in 2D and 3D and to export 3D models for additive manufacturing or to Materialise 3-matic. These patient-specific models can be used for a variety of engineering applications directly in Materialise Mimics or Materialise 3-matic, or may be exported to third party software focused on statistical analysis, CAD or finite element analysis (which is used to predict how a product reacts to real-world forces such as vibration, heat and fluid flow).
Materialise 3-matic. Materialise 3-matic focuses on anatomical design and is able to combine CAD tools with pre-processing capabilities directly on the anatomical data coming from Materialise Mimics. It enables our customers to conduct thorough 3D measurements and analysis, design a patient-specific implant, a surgical guide, or a benchtop model, and to prepare the anatomical data and/or resulting implants for simulation
Materialise OrthoView. Materialise OrthoView is a 2D digital pre-operative planning and templating solution for orthopedic surgeons. The software imports a digital X-ray image from a Picture Archiving and Communication System, or PACS, and positions the templates of suitable prostheses on the X-ray image at the correct scale. Materialise OrthoView currently serves more than 12,000 orthopedic surgeons in 60 countries globally, focusing primarily on joint replacements. We acquired OrthoView Holdings Limited in October 2014, and have included the OrthoView solution in our portfolio of pre-operative planning solutions.
Materialise Mimics inPrint. With Materialise Mimics inPrint, clinicians can easily create files for 3D printing and use anatomically accurate models to help simulate or evaluate options for patient-specific surgical treatment. This software was designed specifically around the needs of clinicians to integrate seamlessly into their existing workflow. Materialise Mimics inPrint allows clinicians to get patient images from PACS and directly import them to start the 3D printing process. The software is compatible with digital imaging and communications in medicine, or DICOM, standard, which ensures easy connections with all modern imaging systems. By sharing virtual or printed 3D models as an interactive PDF on any device, communication is both immediate and clear with co-workers, the surgical team and patients. We have received FDA 510(k) clearance, pursuant to which we are permitted to certify certain 3D printer and software combinations for anatomically accurate model printing in hospitals.
Materialise ProPlan CMF. Materialise ProPlan CMF is a software package developed for oral, maxillofacial, nose, throat and plastic surgeons. The software allows surgeons to pre-operatively plan their surgeries in 3D based on (CB)CT or MRI images using a set of tools to analyze, measure and reconstruct the patients anatomy. With the software the surgeon can also plan the movements (translations and rotations) of the mandible or maxilla and preplan the reconstruction of defects.
Materialise Mimics Enlight. Materialise Mimics Enlight planning software enables clinicians and hospitals to scale their 3D planning for cardiovascular procedures. Mimics Enlight is based on the strengths of Materialises Mimics Innovation Suite. Created in collaboration with Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, Michigan, Mimics Enlight is intended to support patient selection and planning for structural heart and vascular therapy. The first application introduced through Mimics Enlight was released and cleared by the FDA in 2019 for transcatheter mitral valve replacement, or TMVR, procedures and provides a streamlined, easy-to-use clinical workflow for planning complex procedures to correct mitral regurgitation.
Clinical Services. Using our FDA-cleared and CE compliant medical software, we analyze 3D medical images of patients and provide doctors with virtual surgical planning services for their review and approval. In most cases, we also design and 3D print surgical guides that uniquely fit a specific patient and allow the surgeon to conduct the operation in accordance with the approved surgical plan. In certain circumstances, we deliver 3D printed customized patient-specific medical implants.
In our 3D printing centers in Belgium, Japan and the United States, we have separate production lines, with an aggregate of 32 machines that only print devices for our Materialise Medical segment.
We believe that our medical image-based simulation and planning software and 3D printing technology can assist medical device companies, hospitals and clinicians in solving complex problems, ranging from virtual preparation tools, over patient-specific surgical guides, to patient-specific implants which can contribute to increased quality of life.
Utilizing our SurgiCase Connect tool, surgeons upload CT or MRI medical image data and submit their cases to us, track their cases and review them as interactive virtual 3D models. SurgiCase Connect enables our clinical engineers to better support the surgeons in the creation of surgical plans and guides. Surgeons using our clinical services work together with our clinical engineers to turn their patients medical image data into virtual surgical plans, and patient-specific 3D printed precise surgical and customized anatomical models to optimize intervention planning. For indications such as shoulder surgery, we have optimized and automated our 3D planning capabilities to provide surgical plans within a short timeframe and at a high quality that does not require an anatomical model to be provided. In the framework of our collaborations with certain leading medical device companies, our SurgiCase Connect tool is rebranded and adapted to the specific product offering and needs of our collaboration partners.
Our 3D printed surgical guides include joint replacement guides for knee, shoulder and hip replacement surgeries, osteotomy guides and CMF guides, and our 3D printed implants include hip-revision implants, shoulder and CMF implants. The surgical guides we print for U.S. based patients are FDA-cleared, and to the extent required by law, our medical devices for EEA-based patients bear the appropriate CE labels. We address large surgical markets in orthopedics and CMF through collaboration agreements with leading medical device companies, including Zimmer-Biomet, DJO Surgical, DePuy Synthes, and Lima. Pursuant to these agreements, we print joint replacement and/or CMF guides that our collaboration partners distribute under their own brands, together with their own implants, in the United States, Canada, South Africa, Latin America, Europe, China, Japan and Australia. We leverage our collaboration partners distribution capabilities to extend our reach into these large markets, and our collaboration partners utilize our 3D printing-related expertise to provide surgical planning and customized devices to surgeons. We also address certain high value-added, specialty applications by providing the full solution ourselves, including the delivery of implants and guides directly to the hospital or surgeon. Such applications include customized CMF, hip revision, and shoulder implants in a patented porous matrix configuration and osteotomy guides. Our CMF implants, hip revision, shoulder implants and/or osteotomy guides are currently distributed in Europe, South Africa, the United States, Canada and Singapore. Through Engimplan, we also distribute implants and instruments in Brazil, offering both traditional and 3D printed CMF implants as well as a broader portfolio that includes additional new product lines for spine, trauma and sport medicine.
We also work with customers to print anatomical models that may be used for a wide range of applications such as sizing of medical devices, clinical trials, training, patient communications and marketing. For example, our HeartPrint service provides 3D printed cardiovascular anatomical models. These models are printed using our proprietary process that makes possible a superior final product that is flexible. We also print transparent or multi-color models for better visualization of the anatomy. Each of our core competencies was instrumental in developing the HeartPrint technology.
Sales and Marketing. We distribute our medical software through our direct sales force, our website and PACS partners (some of which partners also include our OrthoView solutions in their product offering to hospitals). We distribute our 3D printed medical devices primarily through our agreements with our collaboration partners such as Zimmer Biomet and Depuy Synthes. In specialty markets, we market and distribute our 3D printed medical devices and other clinical services through our experienced engineers who develop a close collaboration with key opinion leaders in each of these market segments.
All our activities in our Materialise Medical segment are coordinated and supervised from our headquarters in Belgium, which supervises product management and sales of our medical devices and software products.
Customers. The customers for our Materialise Medical segment mainly include medical device companies, hospitals, universities, research institutes and industrial companies. For the year ended December 31, 2019, partner sales to medical companies collectively represented 51.2% and total software revenue represented 31.9% of our total Materialise Medical segment revenue. Most of our other clinical service sales to customers are executed on the basis of single transaction contracts or purchase orders. These contracts and purchase orders lay out the pricing, delivery and other terms of the order.
Collaboration Partners. We collaborate with leading medical device companies and academic institutions for the development and distribution of our surgical planning software, services, and products, including with Zimmer Biomet, DJO Surgical, DePuy Synthes, Lima, Mathys, Medtronic, Abbott, Corin and the University of Michigan. Pursuant to these arrangements, we develop and license software and sell surgical guides, including for use in the fields of knee and shoulder replacement, CMF and thoracic procedures that our collaboration partners may then distribute under their own brands, together with their own implants, mainly in the United States, Europe, Japan and Australia. In addition, we grant licenses to collaboration partners to use, market and distribute such software or surgical guides. Some of the licenses we have granted to our products and software provide for exclusive rights, including with respect to a particular field of medicine or to the software or product developed during the collaboration, and certain collaboration partners may have rights of first refusal with respect to related products or collaborations. The compensation structures under these arrangements vary and may include an upfront fee, royalties, milestone payments linked to certain targets, and fees for the service, maintenance and training we provide in connection with our software and products.
Competition. In our Materialise Medical segment, we compete with a number of companies that provide image based software, 3D printed surgical models or medical devices, such as 3DSystems, Stratasys, Simple Ware, Pie Medical, WITHIN Lab, GE Additive, Siemens as well as with medical device companies that are developing in-house capacity to offer 3D printed medical devices and related software services.
Growth Opportunities. The Materialise Medical segment is the market where we believe we can most directly realize our mission statement and contribute to a healthier world. We are currently investing significantly in the development of new product offerings as well as in the expansion of our distribution channel in the various sub-segments of our Materialise Medical segment as well as in new territories, such as Brazil.
In the implant business, the extensive clinical evidence that OBL SA has developed with key opinion leaders over the last few years regarding the efficacy of our customized CMF implant solutions has enabled us to build an extensive portfolio of customized CMF implants and guides. We bring this portfolio to the market through collaborations with partners such as DePuy Synthes and also directly in certain markets that are not subject to our collaboration agreements, such as France and Brazil.
As a result of the trend that we see in the medical community towards more patient-specific devices and treatments, as well as towards more advanced planning, a growing number of academic, clinical and commercial researchers are focusing on customized medical treatments. Because these new products and treatments can only be brought to the market in compliance with very strict regulatory requirements, we believe there is an opportunity for safe and stable medical software tools, such as our Mimics Innovation Suite, that can pass significant regulatory scrutiny. We also believe that increasing regulatory requirements provide opportunities for our clinical services as we can leverage our significant medical sector experience and strong quality management systems.
We are investing significantly in the development of new solutions for other sub-markets, including planning tools for the cardiovascular markets in the shorter term and the pneumology markets in the longer term.
We believe that our medical services and software may also help to reduce the clinical trial effort and expense for medical device companies by allowing more efficient bench-top modelling, testing and simulations and by increasing efficiency in the selection of eligible patients.
We have also developed other applications, such as malunion and osteotomy surgical guides. We intend to further diversify our product portfolio through product development and entering into new collaborations.
As we intend to continue to invest in product development and market penetration, we will require certain capital commitments and may experience an impact to our revenue and profitability levels in the near term. However, we expect such investments to form the basis of stable annual revenue growth in the longer term.
Our medical engineering services offerings, which we continue to build, assist medical device companies in their designs. Our engineers not only serve the CMF and orthopedic field but also the cardiovascular field where new and customized approaches are being developed and sizing of devices is an important development area. As product managers in the medical device industry continue to recognize the value of, and need for, specialized advice and assistance in the design of new 3D printable devices, our medical engineering services may grow accordingly.
Our Materialise Manufacturing Segment
In our Materialise Manufacturing segment, we primarily offer 3D printing services to industrial and commercial customers, the majority of which are located in Europe. In addition, we have identified, and provide 3D printing services to, certain specialty growth markets in both the industrial and consumer marketplaces.
Many of the parts we print require functionality that cannot be delivered using other production processes. We believe that our industrial customers value the high quality, accuracy, complexity, durability, functionality and diversity in terms of size, scale and materials of the 3D printing services that we can offer. We deliver products to highly regulated industries, such as aerospace, healthcare, machine manufacturing, quality control equipment and consumer goods, where our applications, technology and hardware capabilities enable us to adhere to high quality standards in a certified production environment.
As of December 31, 2019, our Materialise Manufacturing segment consisted of 775 FTEs and fully dedicated consultants, with 25.7% based at our headquarters in Belgium and the remaining employees distributed throughout our local field offices in Austria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, India, Italy, Poland, Spain, Ukraine, the United States and the United Kingdom.
In October 2017, we acquired ACTech, a full-service manufacturer of complex metal parts. This acquisition increased the scope of our Materialise Manufacturing segments operations, in particular in the prototyping of highly complex, full production grade metal components, and had a significant impact on our results of operations for both the fourth quarter of 2017 and the year ended December 31, 2017, as well as the year ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2019.
Business Model. We generate revenue in our Materialise Manufacturing segment through the sale of parts that we print for our customers and design and engineering services. We charge for our design and engineering services either on a time or on a fixed-cost basis. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, our Materialise Manufacturing segment generated revenue of 94.2 million, 95.0 million and 63.7 million, respectively, representing 47.9%, 51.4% and 44.7% of our total revenue, respectively, and a 0.8% decrease and 49.0% and 37.3% increase, as applicable, over the prior year, respectively.
B2B (Business-to-Business) Services. We offer the following services in our Materialise Manufacturing segment:
Additive Manufacturing Solutions. We provide design and engineering services and rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing of production parts to customers serving the automotive, consumer goods, industrial goods, art and architecture and aerospace markets. In our service centers in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Poland and Germany, as of December 31, 2019, we operated 149 3D printers, six vacuum casting machines and 20 CNC machines, producing both prototypes and production parts based on our customers product designs. Our service centers offer a variety of 3D printing technologies including stereolithography, laser sintering, FDM (also known as Filament Fusion), PolyJet, powder binding, Multi Jet Fusion, selective laser melting(or SLM), vacuum casting and foundry parts based on sand-printed moulds. In order to meet specific customer needs for very large printed parts, we developed Mammoth, our own proprietary stereolithography technology, which we believe is capable of printing parts larger than those produced using any other stereolithography technology by utilizing a build area of approximately 1.26 cubic meters with a length of 2 meters. We currently operate 15 Mammoth 3D printers in our Belgian service center.
Niche Industrial and Consumer Solutions. We have developed additive manufacturing solutions that serve certain specialty industrial applications. Our RapidFit+ business utilizes additive manufacturing to provide the automotive market with customized, highly precise and, in certain cases, patent protected measurement and fixturing tools. Through the use of additive manufacturing technology, we believe that RapidFit+ fixtures provide more functionality and flexibility than the traditional fixtures that are currently widely used in the automotive industry. We also offer production tooling that we believe has substantially better ergonomics and improved functionality than traditional fixtures. ACTech also provides specialized additive manufacturing solutions. In particular, ACTech provides prototyping of highly complex metal components through casting techniques that result in products that have a production grade performance. The casting is done using state-of-the-art 3D printed sand molds, while the final functionality of the components is achieved by a fully integrated post processing of the components in our CNC workshop.
In the consumer market, i.materialise, our global online 3D printing service that caters to the home professional. Designers, students, inventors and everyday consumers who want to create something unique can utilize our online service to produce their own products and, if they desire, share their products with, and even offer them for sale to others through our platform. Users can upload their 3D designs, choose from a large selection of materials and colors, and instantly see the price for such models in the desired scale and quantities. Users can also buy 3D printed products from the catalogue of .MGX by Materialise or other third party designs on our i.materialise website. In 2016, we fully integrated the i.materialise platform into our Materialise Manufacturing segment.
Sales and Marketing. We market our services to our additive manufacturing solutions business customers using our sales force and through our website. Our more complex product offerings are addressed directly by our specialized sales managers who are located throughout Europe in close proximity to our larger accounts and who align our customers needs with the wide range of 3D printing technologies that we offer. More straightforward products can be ordered directly by our customers through our Materialise OnSite web portal, a proprietary automated system that takes orders, provides quotes and manages the printing process from start to finish, and allows customers to track the manufacturing and shipment process of their product online. Within our larger sales teams, specialized sales managers focus either on rapid prototyping, which is our traditional and well-established market, or the additive manufacturing of end-use production parts, which is the market where we see opportunities for significant growth. Our marketing team in Belgium oversees our global marketing strategy. In addition, employees at our Belgian headquarters and in our local field offices manage sales for particular markets and accounts and provide back office and production management support to our customers.
All sales for our online sales platform are through our website, and managed mainly from our headquarters in Belgium. We have a separate team dedicated to the fixtures market where our account managers thorough technical knowledge is key to effectively managing our RapidFit+ application.
In addition, as a result of its specific product portfolio, we have dedicated sales, marketing and project teams based in Germany (Freiberg), the United States and India for ACTech products.
Customers. The customers for our Materialise Manufacturing segment are from a wide variety of industries, including automotive, aerospace, healthcare, industrial machining, art and design and consumer products For these customers, we offer a complete set of services ranging from co-creation, to design and engineering, rapid prototyping, and certified manufacturing of end-use parts, including the RapidFit+ service offered to automotive customers.
Through our co-creation offering, we work together with customers to solve complex design challenges and to discuss how the introduction of 3D printing can affect product development, manufacturing workflow, business models and customer experiences. For example, a co-creation with HOYA, in collaboration with Hoet Design Studio, saw the launch of the worlds first vision-centric, 3D-tailored eyewear solution, Yuniku, in the fall of 2016. Yuniku enables individualized lens and frame design through a sophisticated end-to-end digital supply chain, which includes a custom 3D scanner and software platform, co-created by us and HOYA, directly linked to our manufacturing factory where we provide our Certified Additive Manufacturing services. In 2017, we started shipping the first Yuniku scanners. In 2018, together with our partners Mclaren (LAmy) for titanium printed eyewear and Impressio, respectively, we won the Silmo dOr in the Technological Innovation category and a Silmo dOr for the Best Sun Glasses.
Through our design and engineering service, we also provide support for those customers looking for support in their initial concept design or with maximizing a design for 3D printing. Our design and engineering team, which is comprised of highly specialized designers and CAD engineers, offers dedicated design and software support for additive manufacturing, including remodeling and file preparation, as well as 3D scanning and measuring.
The customers of both our Materialise OnSite and i.materialise platforms order through our website. Materialise OnSite customers tend to be industrial customers looking to rapid prototype parts quickly and reliably, often taking advantage of fast-lane machines to ensure short lead times for time-critical projects. For i.materialise, while there is a potential to address the wide consumer market with this platform, we prefer to describe our current customers as home professionals. Our i.materialise client base includes independent designers and CAD hobbyists that often sell their creations or their services to others, including, in certain instances, through the i.materialise gallery. Through i.materialises APIs, companies can also partner with i.materialise to give their own customers a cloud-based, 3D-printing solution on their website, streamlining the ordering, manufacturing and shipping processes through a direct link to our factory for 3D printing. Since 2016, Microsoft has been using the i.materialise API to offer a cloud-based 3D print solution for Windows 10 users, and PTC did the same for Creo 4.0 software users.
Most of our straightforward additive manufacturing and rapid prototyping solutions are executed on the basis of single transaction contracts or purchase orders with the customer. These contracts and purchase orders lay out the pricing, delivery and other terms of the order. For our Certified Additive Manufacturing service an entirely new approach to ensure parts are made according to agreed standards is required, for which we have set processes to onboard new customers. An example of this is our dedicated aerospace manufacturing line, backed by certifications EN9100 and EASA Part 21G, through which we are currently manufacturing plastic parts for, among others, Airbuss A350 XWB. We expect that as demand for our Certified Additive Manufacturing service grows, more long-term agreements may be entered into.
For the automotive manufacturers and their suppliers that use our RapidFit+ service, the fixtures are custom engineered by dedicated teams. Our RapidFit+ customers, which include their quality departments, expect that fixtures meet high accuracy standards. A number of automotive OEMs in Europe are currently considering our innovative solution as a potential new standard, while a solid base of automotive Tier 1 suppliers in Europe has embraced RapidFit as one of their fixture solutions.
Competition. In our additive manufacturing solutions business, we compete with a number of companies that provide industrial 3D printing services, including ARK, Cresilas, Protolabs and 3D Systems Corporation. In addition, larger accounts tend to move their 3D printing production in-house once their orders have reached certain volumes, which not only creates opportunities for our Materialise Software segment but also for our Materialise Manufacturing segment in terms of capacity balancing services. In the measurement and quality control fixture market addressed by RapidFit+, we are not aware of any direct competition coming from 3D printing companies. We do have competition, however, from a large group of smaller companies that are active in this field. While there are multiple startup companies seeking to address the home 3D printing services market, we believe that Shapeways and Sculpteo are the most prominent direct competitors of i.materialise based on their global reach. i.materialise focuses on standing out as a brand in terms of service and reliability.
Growth Opportunities. We believe that there is particular potential to grow our presence in the markets for additive manufacturing of complex and/or unique end products, including for instance certain parts for the aviation industry and eyewear products. In recent years, more companies have been using additive manufacturing for production across a broad range of industrial sectors, including aerospace, orthopedic implants, surgical guides, dental copings and hearing devices. Additive manufacturing is also being used to manufacture specialty furniture, accessories for the home and office, personal accessories, fashion products, jewelry and footwear.
For industrial end parts, we intend to continue to selectively invest in the expansion and creation of certified 3D manufacturing environments that meet the high standards of the specialized segments of the industrial production market that we focus on. In addition, we believe that our local sales teams, which are in close proximity to our customers, as well as our engineering teams, which can bring in additional expertise where required, are important and rather unique assets in this market that are worthwhile to continue to invest in.
Geographic Information. Our revenues by geographical area for the year ended December 31, 2019 were 30.3% for the Americas, 59.9% for Europe & Africa and 9.8% for Asia, as compared to 23.8% for the Americas, 65.2% for Europe & Africa and 11.1% for Asia, for the same period in 2018, and 24.6% for the Americas, 61.7% for Europe & Africa and 13.7% for Asia, for the same period in 2017. See Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsA. Operating Results.
Manufacture and Supply. We produce our 3D printed products at our service centers in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Japan and the United States. We print substantially all of products in-house using a variety of technologies, including stereolithography, laser sintering, FDM (also known as Filament Fusion), PolyJet, powder binding, Multi Jet Fusion, Powder Bed Fusion and vacuum casting, and only subcontract the manufacture of products if certain other technologies (such as CNC machined components) are required or for capacity balancing purposes. As of December 31, 2019, we operated a total of 181 3D printers and six vacuum casting machines at these service centers, which include distinct areas dedicated to the machinery, quality control, cleaning and labeling of our products. The table below provides selected information about our 3D printers:
|Stereolithography||Small/Medium Size||3D Systems Corporation||34|
|FDM||Small Size(2)||Stratasys Ltd.||2|
|Medium Size(3)||Stratasys Ltd.||18|
|Large Size(4)||Stratasys Ltd.||17|
|Laser Sintering||Small Size||EOS GmbH||11|
|Medium Size||3D Systems Corporation/ EOS GmbH||23|
|Large Size||EOS GmbH||24|
|Multi Jet Fusion||Medium Size||HP||9|
|Powder Binding||Large Size||ExOne||3|
|Vacuum Casting|| |
MCP HEK GmbH
MCP HEK GmbH
MCP HEK GmbH
|Direct Metal Laser Sintering||Medium Size||EoS GmbH||8|
|Medium Size||Concept Laser GmbH||6|
|Medium Size||Renishaw/SLM Solutions||2|
|Large Size||SLM Solutions||3|
We have proprietary stereolithography machines based on our patented curtain coat technologies. The original curtain coat machines had a medium sized build volume. These medium sized machines have subsequently been adapted to become the extra-large sized Mammoth machines.
Small size machines are machines with a build volume of less than 250×250×250 mm.
Medium size machines have a build volume of less than 500×500×500 mm.
Large size machines have a build volume of more than 500×500×500 mm.
As of December 31, 2019, 32 printers produced parts exclusively for our Materialise Medical segment, while the other 149 printers and six vacuum casting machines printed parts for our Industrial Production segment.
As of December 31, 2019, all of our 3D printers and vacuum casting machines were either owned or held under a lease-contract. At the end of the lease agreements (which are typically for a period of five years), we have an option to purchase the machines for a value of approximately 1.6% of their original value. We are responsible for the maintenance of such leased equipment.
We devote significant time and attention to the quality control of our products during the printing process by maintaining a comprehensive quality control program, which, among other things, includes the control and documentation of all material specifications, operating procedures, equipment maintenance and quality control methods. In addition, we inspect all of our raw materials to be used in our products throughout the printing process. We control our production orders through the use of labels or visual references on our internal database, bar-codes, controlled prints and routers, which enables us to trace our products during the printing process. Upon completion of the production process, we package and label our products.
The raw materials used in the printing of our products are mainly aluminium, titanium alloy and stainless steel powders, epoxy based photocurable resins, PA12 and thermoplastic polyurethane, or TPU, based powders and a suite of thermoplastic filaments like ABS and Ultem and following the ACTech acquisition, aluminium, cast iron and steel, quartz sand and furanic resin binder.
With the exception of FDM and PolyJet -materials, we believe that none of our other raw material requirements is limited to any significant extent by critical supply or price volatility. We continuously look for second sourcing of our raw materials in order not to be dependent on a single supplier in case a supply issue was to occur. We monitor the costs of our raw materials in order to optimize the cost/performance whilst not jeopardizing the expectations of our customers and the safe use of the materials in critical applications. With our strategic partnership with BASF 3D Printing Solutions GmbH, we are working towards offering to the market open solutions in terms of materials and software through which the user of additive manufacturing equipment can choose functionalities that best suit the user.
Our 3D printing operations for our patient-specific surgical guides, models and implants are subject to extensive regulation. We operate a certified quality management system in line with the U.S. Quality System Regulation, good manufacturing practice regulations and ISO 13485. We are registered with regulatory authorities in the United States, Europe, Canada, Australia and other jurisdictions. We CE mark our products where required. Our service centers are subject to periodic and sometimes unannounced inspections by regulatory authorities, including inspections by the FDA.
Research and Development
We have an ongoing research and development program to improve and expand the capabilities of our existing technology portfolio, which reflects our continued investments in a range of disciplines, including software development, industrial, mechanical and biomedical engineering, physics and chemistry.
We have a long history of research and development through collaborations, which augment our internal development efforts. Our earliest joint research projects date from the early 1990s with market leading collaboration partners such as Siemens AG, Zeneca and the University of Leuven (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven), or KU Leuven. Many of our innovations are based on industrial collaborations such as those with Phonak Staefa Switzerland, Zimmer Biomet, DePuy Synthes, and BASF SE and its subsidiaries. As of December 2019, we were active in 28 government funded research projects and we also employed two researchers with a publicly funded scholarship. With our platform technologies and strong track record in successful commercialization of scientific innovations, we receive many requests for participation in new development projects. While we strongly protect our intellectual property in our core competencies, many of our products require collaborations in order to create healthy ecosystems for their successful implementation.
As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately 80 active research and development projects in various stages of completion and approximately 380 FTEs and fully dedicated consultants working on research and development in our facilities in Belgium, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, Ukraine, China and Malaysia.
For the year ended December 31, 2019, our research and development expenses were 23.3 million, or 11.9% of our revenue (15.1% excluding ACTech), as compared to 22.4 million, or 12.1% (15.9% excluding ACTech) of our revenue, in 2018 and 20.0 million, or 14.0% (15.1% excluding ACTech) of our revenue, in 2017.
Our research and development projects include (but are not limited to) the following:
various software development projects including projects related to engineering and design for 3D printing, and improving existing technological challenges (for example, the handling of large amounts of data and advanced image segmentation), which are expected to benefit both our Materialise Software and Materialise Medical segments;
research projects to understand and develop cutting-edge software tools for industrially relevant additive manufacturing technologies (powder bed fusion for plastics (laser sintering) and metal (laser melting), stereolithography, FDM (also known as Filament Fusion), non-laser based power bed fusion, DLP-based printing and inkjet based technologies);
research projects in our Materialise Medical segment to develop patient specific surgical planning tools or surgical guides or implants for orthopaedic, CMF and cardiovascular surgeries;
release of a research version of Mimics software that allows post-operative analysis of implant placement using x-ray data;
a research and development project on smart digital technologies for the large scale personalization of wearables;
a research project in our Materialise Medical segment regarding automation of segmentation of medical images and using them for population analysis; and
several research projects related to improving the maturity, reliability and quality of the additive manufacturing process, which are expected to benefit our three segments.
In addition, our strategic partnership with BASF New Business GmbH focuses on collaboration for research and development activities in multiple areas, primarily focusing on the introduction of new plastic materials in additive processes. One of the new products developed by the partnership was TPU material for HP Multi Jet Fusion.
We also regularly apply for research and development grants and subsidies under European, Belgian, British, French and German, grant rules. The majority of these grants and subsidies are non-refundable. We have received grants and subsidies from different authorities, including the Flemish government (VLAIO, or Vlaams Agentschap Innoveren en Ondernemen), the European Union (FP7 and H2020 framework programs) and BMBF, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.
We expect to continue to invest significantly in research and development in the future.
We regard our intellectual property rights as valuable to our business and protect our technology portfolio through a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret and other intellectual property laws, confidentiality and other contractual provisions and other measures. The nature and extent of legal protection associated with each such intellectual property right depends on, among other things, the type of intellectual property right and the given jurisdiction in which such right arises.
As of December 31, 2019, our portfolio of intellectual property features 290 issued patents and an additional 157 pending patent applications primarily in the United States, the European Union and Japan. Of these, our issued patents expire between approximately 2020 and 2035, while our currently pending patent applications will generally remain in effect for 20 years from the date of the initial applications. We believe that, while our patents provide us with a competitive advantage, our success depends primarily on our business development, applications know-how and ongoing research and development efforts. Accordingly, we believe that the expiration of any single patent, or the failure of any single patent application to result in an issued patent, would not be material to our business or financial position.
As is the case in the 3D printing industry generally, the development of our products, processes and materials has required considerable experience, manufacturing and processing know-how and research and development activities. We protect our proprietary products, processes and materials as trade secrets through nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants and customers.
In addition, we own the trademark registrations for Materialise (Benelux, United States, United Kingdom, International, Malaysia, India and Thailand), and trademark registrations and pending applications for many of our services and software solutions, including Streamics, Mimics, 3-matic, Inspector, Magics, RapidFit+, MGX by Materialise, Heartprint, ADaM, Engineering on Anatomy and Surgicase, among others.
We are party to various licenses and other arrangements that allow us to practice and improve our technology under a broad range of patents, patent applications and other intellectual property, including agreements with our collaboration partners, Zimmer Biomet, DJO Surgical, DePuy Synthes, Global Orthopaedic Technology, Lima, Mathys, Stryker, Corin, Siemens, FluidDa, HOYA, the University of Michigan and PTC.
There can be no assurance that the steps we take to protect our proprietary rights will be adequate or that third parties will not infringe or misappropriate such rights. We have been subject to claims and expect to be subject to legal proceedings and claims from time to time in the ordinary course of our business. In particular, we may face claims from third parties that we have infringed their patents, trademarks or other intellectual property rights. Such claims, even if not meritorious, could result in the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources. Any unauthorized disclosure or use of our intellectual property could make it more expensive to do business and harm our operating results.
End markets such as healthcare, automotive, aerospace and consumer products may experience some seasonality. While the historical impact of seasonality on the revenue of our Materialise Medical and Materialise Manufacturing segments has not been material, the project related nature of our ACTech business, may make our Materialise Manufacturing segment more susceptible to fluctuations, although not necessarily in a seasonal pattern. Historically, the revenue of our Materialise Software segment has been greater in the fourth quarter, as compared to the revenue of each of the other quarters. A number of our customers make their initial software purchase in the fourth quarter prior to the end of their annual budget cycle and tend to renew, extend or broaden the scope of their licenses on the anniversary date of their first purchase. In addition, we have in the past often brought new releases on the market in the third quarter of the calendar year, which may also have an impact on sales in the subsequent quarter.
Regulatory / Environmental Matters
Our facilities and operations are subject to extensive U.S. federal, state and local, European and other applicable foreign environmental and occupational health and safety laws and regulations. These laws and regulations govern, among other things, air emissions; wastewater discharges; the generation, storage, handling, use and transportation of hazardous materials; the handling and disposal of hazardous wastes; the cleanup of contamination; and the health and safety of our employees. Under such laws and regulations, we are required to obtain permits from governmental authorities for some of our operations. If we violate or fail to comply with these laws, regulations or permits, we could be fined or otherwise sanctioned by regulators. We could also be held responsible for costs and damages arising from any contamination at our past or present facilities or at third-party waste disposal sites.
Our headquarters in Belgium and ACTechs headquarters in Germany, follow the ISO 14001:2015 criteria for an effective environmental management system and are ISO 14001:2015 certified.
Compliance with laws and regulations relating to the discharge of materials into the environment or otherwise relating to the protection of the environment has not had a material impact on capital expenditures, earnings or the competitive position of our subsidiaries and us. We are not the subject of any legal or administrative proceedings relating to the environmental laws of Belgium or any country in which we have facilities. We have not received any notices of any violations of any such environmental laws.
Healthcare Regulatory Matters
In our Materialise Medical segment, we are subject to extensive and complex U.S. federal, state and local, European and other applicable foreign healthcare and medical devices laws and regulations.
Both before and after approval or clearance our medical products and product candidates are subject to extensive regulation. In the United States, the FDA under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act primarily regulates us. In Europe and in other foreign jurisdictions in which we sell our medical products, many of the regulations applicable to our medical devices and products in these countries are similar to those of the FDA. Together, these regulations govern, among other things and where applicable, the following activities in which we are involved:
product clinical trial compliance;
product labeling and instructions for use;
product safety, product safety reporting, recalls and field corrective actions;
product packaging and storage;
product registration, market clearance or approval;
product marketing, advertising and promotion;
product import and export, restrictions, tariff regulations, duties and tax requirements;
product sales and distribution;
post-market surveillance, including reporting of deaths or serious deterioration in the state of health and malfunctions that, if they were to recur, could lead to death or serious deterioration in the state of health;
record keeping procedures;
registration for reimbursement; and
necessity of testing performed in country by distributors for licenses.
Failure to comply with the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act could result in, among other things, warning letters, civil penalties, delays in approving or refusal to approve a medical device candidate, product recall, product seizure, interruption of production, operating restrictions, suspension or withdrawal of product approval, injunctions or criminal prosecution. In non-U.S. countries, failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could result in similar actions, and in the suspension or withdrawal of Quality Management System certification which may be a prerequisite to market medical devices.
The time required to obtain clearance required by foreign countries may be longer or shorter than that required for FDA clearance, and requirements for licensing a product in a foreign country may differ significantly from FDA requirements.
Moreover, these laws and regulations are subject to change. For example, in April 2017, the Medical Devices Regulation was adopted in the European Union, which is requiring us to adopt certain measures in anticipation of its effectiveness. For more information, see Item 3. Key InformationD. Risk FactorsRisks Related to Our Materialise Medical Segment and Regulatory EnvironmentHealthcare policy changes, including legislation to reform the U.S. healthcare system, could adversely affect us.
We are in the process of obtaining MDSAP certification. This program allows an MDSAP-recognized auditing organization to conduct a single regulatory audit of a medical device manufacturer that satisfies the relevant requirements of the regulatory authorities participating in the program. To the extent that we do business in the participating jurisdictions, certain major non-conformities identified under this program may be escalated to the regulatory authorities of the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia and Brazil. The Canadian regulatory authority, Health Canada, has made participation in MDSAP a mandatory requirement for medical device manufacturers importing products to Canada. Failure to achieve timely certification under MDSAP may impact our capability to do business in Canada. In addition, failure to address escalated issues reported to the participating authorities may impact our capability to do business in the respective jurisdictions.
C. Organizational Structure
The following illustrates our corporate structure as of the date of this annual report:
RapidFit NV Shareholders Agreement
On June 27, 2013, we entered into a shareholders agreement with PMV-TINA Comm.VA, or PMV, with respect to our subsidiary RapidFit NV, of which we own 83.33% and PMV owns 16.66%. Pursuant to the agreement, we have the right to appoint four out of the five members of the board of directors and PMV has the right to appoint one director, who has approval rights for certain company decisions and transactions, including with respect to certain acquisitions, dispositions or pledges of assets, the budget, officers, and issuance or offering of shares of RapidFit NV. The shareholders agreement contains provisions regarding restrictions against the transfer of shares, put and call options, anti-dilution warrants, liquidation preference, tag along rights and drag along rights. For additional information regarding the accounting treatment of the put and call options and warrants, see Note 13 to our audited consolidated financial statements.
D. Property, Plants and Equipment
Our corporate headquarters and our largest 3D printing service center are located in Leuven, Belgium. We currently own office and service spaces in Belgium as well as in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Poland and the United States. We also lease other service centers and sales offices, which are located in Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Malaysia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States, Poland, Colombia, Australia and Italy. The aggregate annual lease payments for our facilities in 2019, 2018 and 2017 were 2.1 million, 1.8 million and 1.7 million, respectively. The table below provides selected information regarding our facilities.
|Leuven, Belgium||Owned|| |
|50,614.35 sq. m.||N/A|
|Leuven, Belgium||Leased||Warehouse||200 sq. m.||March 31, 2021|
|Ghent, Belgium||Leased||Office/Production||547 sq. m.||December 31, 2023|
|Plymouth, Michigan, United States||Owned|| |
|Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States||Leased||Office/Production||2,771 sq. ft.||October 31, 2023|
|Saint Marcel les Valence, France||Owned||Office||1,100 sq. m.||N/A|
|Yokohama, Japan||Leased||Office||515.58 sq. m.||March 31, 2021|
|Kawasaki, Japan||Leased||Production||205 sq. m.||May 19, 2021|
|Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic||Owned||Office; production||16,013 sq. m.||N/A|
|Vienna, Austria||Leased||Office||44 sq. m.||December 31, 2021|
|Gilching, Germany||Leased||Office||399 sq. m.||December 31, 2021|
|Bremen, Germany||Leased||Office||650 sq. m.||December 31, 2020|
|Bremen, Germany||Leased||Office; production||916 sq. m.||June 30, 2020 (partially) and Indefinite Term (partially)|
|Bremen, Germany||Owned||Office||6724 sq. m.||N/A|
|Petaling Jaya, Malaysia||Leased||Office|| |
13,935 sq. ft.
6,403 sq. ft.
May 31, 2024
May 31, 2024
|Malakoff, France||Leased||Office||564.40 sq. m.||May 31 30, 2028|
|Kiev, Ukraine||Leased||Office||3,384.8 sq. m.||June 29, 2028|
|Kiev, Ukraine||Leased||Office||171 sq. m.||December 31, 2021|
|Sheffield, United Kingdom||Leased||Office||1,575 sq. ft.||January 31, 2020 (partially) and November 30, 2020 (partially)|
|Southampton, United Kingdom||Leased||Office||3,340 sq. ft.||April 22, 2023|
|Shanghai, China||Leased||Office||1,200 sq. m.||June 8, 2021|
|Medellin, Colombia|| |
247.25 sq. m.
64.06 sq. m.
August 31, 2020
January 31, 2021
|Wroclaw, Poland||Owned||Office; production||2.3975 hectare||N/A|
|Gold Coast, Australia||Leased||Office||38 sq. m.||January 1, 2022|
|Milan, Italy||Leased||Office||55 sq. m.||December 31, 2023|
|Freiberg, Germany||Owned||Office, Production, Parking (Land)||26,277 sq. ft.||N/A|
|Freiberg, Germany||Owned||Office, warehouse, parking (Land)||7,996 sq. m.||N/A|
|Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States||Leased||Office||1,987 sq. ft.||December 31, 2020|
|Bangalore, India||Leased||Office||2,000 sq. ft.||March 31, 2022|
|Rio Claro, Brazil||Leased||Corporate Offices, R&D Laboratory, Production||4,092.27 sq. m.||August 5, 2029|
See also B. Business OverviewManufacture and Supply for information about the printers we operate, Regulatory / Environmental MattersEnvironmental Matters for information about environmental matters and Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects B. Liquidity and Capital ResourcesIndebtedness for information about indebtedness secured by mortgages.
|ITEM 4A.|| |
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
|ITEM 5.|| |
OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the information set forth in Item 3. Key InformationA. Selected Financial Data, and our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere herein.
This section contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, without limitation, those discussed in the sections entitled Item 3. Key InformationD. Risk Factors, Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Information and Item 4. Information on the CompanyB. Business Overview and elsewhere in this annual report.
A. Operating Results
We are a leading provider of additive manufacturing and medical software and of sophisticated 3D printing services. Our customers are active in a wide variety of industries, including healthcare, automotive, aerospace, art and design and consumer products. Since our founding in 1990 by our Chief Executive Officer, Wilfried Vancraen, we have consistently focused on developing innovative applications of additive manufacturing technologies. We believe our proprietary software platforms, which enable and enhance the functionality of 3D printers and of 3D printing operations, have become a market standard for professional 3D printing. We believe that our commitment to enabling 3D printing technologies has significantly supported and accelerated the acceptance and proliferation of additive manufacturing and will continue to play an instrumental role as the industry evolves. In the healthcare sector, our technology is responsible for the design and manufacture of customized, patient-specific medical devices that includes both surgical guides (and related bone models) as well as customized implants. In our 3D printing service centers, including what we believe to be one of the worlds largest single-site additive manufacturing service center in Leuven, Belgium, we print medical devices, prototypes, production parts, and consumer products. As of December 31, 2019, our team consisted of 2,177 FTEs, and fully dedicated consultants. Our portfolio of intellectual property featured 290 patents and 157 pending patent applications as of December 31, 2019. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we generated 196.7 million of revenue, representing 6.5% growth over the prior year, net profit of 1.7 million and an adjusted EBITDA of 26.7 million. For a description of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of our net profit to our Adjusted EBITDA, see Other Financial Information below.
On October 4, 2017, we acquired ACTech, a full-service manufacturer of complex metal parts. As described in more detail below, the acquisition increased the scope of our Materialise Manufacturing segments operations and had a significant impact on our results of operations for both the fourth quarter of 2017 and the year ended December 31, 2017, as well as the years ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2019, resulting in increases to our revenues and operating expenses, among other items.
Private Placement and Public Offering
On July 19, 2018, we closed a private placement of 1,953,125 newly issued ordinary shares to BASF Antwerpen for gross proceeds of approximately $25 million.
On July 27, 2018, we closed a follow-on public offering of a total of 3,450,000 ADSs at a public offering price of $13.00 per ADS for gross proceeds of $44.9 million.
We raised approximately $65.2 million (or 55.9 million, based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2018) in aggregate net proceeds from such private placement and follow-on public offering, collectively.
Acquisition of Majority Interest in Engimplan
On August 6, 2019, we acquired 40% of the shares and voting interest of Engimplan and subsequently increased our shareholding in Engimplan to 75% with a capital increase in Engimplan.
The Brazil-based company is a specialized manufacturer of orthopaedic and CMF implants and instruments. Engimplan operates within our Materialise Medical segment.
End markets such as healthcare, automotive, aerospace and consumer products may experience some seasonality. While the historical impact of seasonality on the revenue of our Materialise Medical and Materialise Manufacturing segments has not been material, the project-related nature of our ACTech business, which we acquired in the fourth quarter of 2017, may make our Materialise Manufacturing segment more susceptible
to fluctuations, although not necessarily in a seasonal pattern. Historically, the revenue of our Materialise Software segment has been greater in the fourth quarter as compared to the revenue of each of the other quarters. A number of our customers make their initial software purchase in the fourth quarter prior to the end of their annual budget cycle and tend to renew, extend or broaden the scope of their licenses on the anniversary date of their first purchase. In addition, we have in the past often brought new releases on the market in the third quarter of the calendar year, which may also have an impact on sales in the subsequent quarter.
In our Materialise Software segment, we expect that the demand for software platforms such as ours, which interface with virtually all 3D printers, is likely to grow as sales of 3D printing systems, in particular for professional use, continue to grow. We believe that we can continue to increase the market penetration of our software platforms by expanding relationships with OEMs, CAD/computer aided manufacturing, or CAM, companies as well as with industrial users of 3D printers. In order to be able to do so, we intend to bring our teams closer to our customer base worldwide, which will require important investments in the expansion of our marketing and sales presence. In order to be able to meet, in particular, the demands of new entrants to the additive manufacturing market and the end parts manufacturing market, we intend to also invest significantly in the development of our software products, including in order to better address the needs of the high volume manufacturing and of the mass customization markets.
In our Materialise Medical segment, we believe that we are well placed to assist the larger medical device companies with our technological solutions, as these companies gradually expand their presence in the medical 3D printing market, in particular in the orthopaedic and CMF markets. We also intend to continue to invest in the development of new software, planning and related device offerings, in new fields such as cardiovascular and pulmonology. We also see growing opportunities in the hospital market. Because customized medical products and treatments can only be brought to the market in compliance with very strict regulatory requirements, we believe there is an opportunity for providers of safe medical software tools, such as our company, that can pass significant regulatory scrutiny.
In our Materialise Manufacturing segment, we believe that demand for 3D printing services will continue to grow. We believe that there is particular potential to grow our presence in the markets for additive manufacturing of end products (including end products that can be customized on a large scale, such as wearables). For end parts, we intend to continue to invest in the expansion and creation of certified 3D manufacturing environments that meet the high standards of the specialized segments of the industrial market that we focus on. In addition, we believe that the cooperation between our local sales teams, which are in close proximity to our customers, and our engineering teams, which can bring in additional expertise where required, is an important asset to further increase our customer base. We have further integrated i.materialise in our Materialise Manufacturing segment. The acquisition of ACTech has allowed us to better position our metal 3D printing offering, in particular in the market of the production of unique or small batches of complex metal parts (including pre-production prototypes) for the automotive industry. We engage in co-creation sessions with carefully chosen partners who have the intention of transforming their manufacturing ecosystem through the use of 3D printing. Our initiatives in the eyewear market are a good example of the result of these co-creation sessions. We believe that there is potential for similar partnerships in other markets.
Our growth strategies for each of our market segments are based on our medium and long term expectations for these segments. In the short term, we expect both the 3D printing industry and our business will be impacted by the current coronavirus pandemic, although we cannot predict with certainty the impact the pandemic will have. For more information, see Trend Information below.
See Note 27 to our audited consolidated financial statements for disclosure of significant transactions and significant changes in our financial condition or results of operations that occurred subsequent to December 31, 2019. In addition, see Trend Information below.
Key Income Statement Items
Revenue is generated primarily by the sale of our software and 3D printed and complex manufactured products and services.
In our Materialise Software segment, we generate revenues from software licenses, maintenance contracts and custom software development services and sales of Materialise Controller.
In our Materialise Medical segment, we generate revenue through the sale of medical devices that we print or manufacture for our customers and from the sale of licenses on our medical software packages, software maintenance contracts and custom software development and engineering services.
In our Materialise Manufacturing segment, we generate most of our revenue through the sale of parts that we print or produce for our customers.
Software. Software revenue is comprised of perpetual and time-based licenses, maintenance revenue and software development service fees. Our software products are mainly licensed pursuant to one of two payment structures: (i) perpetual licenses, for which the customer pays an initial fee for a perpetual license and subsequently pays fees for maintenance under separate maintenance contracts, generally on an annual basis, or (ii) time-based licenses (generally annual licenses), for which the customer pays equal periodic fees to keep the license active. Perpetual licenses require the payment of fees for maintenance, technical support and product updates. Time-based licenses entitle the customer to corrective maintenance and product updates without additional charge. We generally recognize revenue from our time-based licenses and our maintenance revenue ratably on a straight-line basis over the term of the applicable license or maintenance contracts. Our software revenue depends upon both incremental sales of software licenses to both new and existing customers and renewals of existing time-based licenses and maintenance contracts. Sales and renewals are also driven by our customers usage and budget cycle. Software development services are typically charged either on a time and materials basis or on a fixed fee basis.
3D printed products and services. 3D printed products revenue is derived from our network of 3D printing service centers. Our service centers not only utilize our 3D printing technology to print products but are also full-service operations that provide support and services such as pre-production collaboration prior to printing the product. Revenue from 3D printed products depends upon the volume of products that we print for our customers. Sales of these products are linked to the number of our 3D printing machines that are installed and active worldwide. We have dedicated teams and production lines for industrial applications and medical applications. All medical products require a highly regulated production environment. Whereas both segments use the same 3D printing technologies, the complex combination of our engineering and software solutions in connection with medical applications results in higher margins for our medical applications.
Production of limited runs of highly complex casted metal parts. Casted products revenue is derived from ACTechs network, with its production unit in Freiberg, Germany. ACTech is utilizing casting technology, including 3D printing technology for mould making, and offers full-service project operations, including project and pre-production collaboration, and high-end complex finishing services.
Cost of Sales
Our cost of sales includes raw materials, external subcontracting services, labor costs, manufacturing overhead expenses, depreciation and reserves for inventory obsolescence. Our manufacturing overhead expenses include quality assurance, manufacturing engineering, material procurement, inventory control, facilities, equipment and information technology and operations supervision and management.
Research and Development Expenses
Our research and development activities primarily consist of engineering and research programs associated with our products under development as well as research and development activities associated with our core technologies and processes. Research and development expenses are primarily related to employee compensation, including salary, fringe benefits, share-based compensation and temporary employee expenses. We also incur expenses for software and materials, supplies, costs for facilities and equipment, depreciation, and outside design and outside research support.
Development expenditures on an individual project are recognized as an intangible asset when we can demonstrate:
the technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that the asset will be available for use or sale;
the intention to complete and the ability to use or sell the asset;
how the asset will generate future economic benefits;
the availability of resources to complete the asset; and
the ability to measure reliably the expenditure during development.
We have determined that the conditions for recognizing internally generated intangible assets from proprietary software, guides and other product development activities are not met until shortly before the products are available for sale, unless either (i) we have strong evidence that the above criteria are met and a detailed business plan is available showing the asset will on a reasonable basis generate future economic benefits or (ii) the development is done based upon specific request of the customer, we have the intention to market the product to parties other than the customer, the development is subject to an agreement and the substance of the agreement is that the customer reimburses us for a significant portion of the development expenses incurred. As such, development expenditures not satisfying the above criteria and expenditures on the research phase of internal projects are recognized in the consolidated income statement as incurred.
Sales and Marketing Expenses
Our sales and marketing expenses primarily consist of employee compensation, including salary, fringe benefits and share-based compensation for our marketing, sales and business development functions. Other significant expenses include travel, depreciation, product demonstration samples, brochures, websites and trade show expenses.
General and Administrative Expenses
Our general and administrative expenses primarily consist of employee compensation, including salary, fringe benefits and share-based compensation for our executive, financial, human resources, information technology support and regulatory affairs and administrative functions. Other significant expenses include outside legal counsel, independent auditors and other outside consultants, insurance, facilities, depreciation and information technologies expenses.
Net Other Operating Income
Net other operating income consists primarily of withholding tax exemptions for qualifying researchers, development and government grants, partial funding of research and development projects, currency exchange results on purchase and sales transactions the amortization of intangible assets from business combinations, and the write-off of trade receivables.
Government grants are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to development costs or another expense, it is recognized as income over the grant period necessary to match the income on a systematic basis to the costs that it is intended to compensate. When the grant relates to the construction of buildings, it is recognized as income over the depreciation period of the related building.
Such grants have been received from the federal and regional governments and from the European Union in the forms of grants linked to certain of its research and development programs, reduced payroll taxes and the financing of the construction of an office building in Leuven, Belgium and in Freiberg, Germany.
Where retention of a government grant is related to assets or to income and dependent on the Company satisfying certain criteria, it is initially recognized as deferred income. When the criteria for retention have been satisfied, the deferred income balance is released to other operating income in the consolidated income statement on a systematic basis over the periods in which the entity recognizes as expenses the related costs for which the grants are intended to compensate.
Any government grants recognized as income do not have any unfulfilled conditions or other contingencies attached to them, as otherwise we would not be recognizing income for such.
Our financial expenses primarily include costs associated with currency exchange differences and with interest payments on our debt obligations.
Critical Accounting Policies and Accounting Estimates
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities, and the accompanying disclosures. Uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of assets or liabilities for future periods.
On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, assumptions and judgments, including those related to revenue recognition, development expenses, share-based payment transactions, income taxes, impairment of goodwill, intangible assets and property, plant & equipment and business combinations.
We based our assumptions and estimates on parameters available when the consolidated financial statements were prepared. Existing circumstances and assumptions about future developments, however, may change due to market changes or circumstances arising beyond our control. Such changes are reflected in the assumptions when they occur.
Our revenue recognition policies require management to make significant estimates. Management analyzes various factors, including a review of specific transactions, historical experience, creditworthiness of customers and current market and economic conditions. Changes in judgments based upon these factors could impact the timing and amount of revenue and cost recognized and thus affects our results of operations and financial condition. The significant estimates and judgments relate to:
The assessment whether a performance obligation is distinct in a bundled sale(s) transaction;
Estimates of the variable considerations and the assessment of the revenue constraint limitation;
Estimates of the stand-alone selling prices for each distinct performance obligation; and
The stage of completion of our customized development of software components for customers when revenue is satisfied over time.
We make significant judgments when performing the assessment of whether a performance obligation is distinct from the other performance obligations in a contract, i.e., whether the good or service has a benefit for the customer on its own or together with readily available resources and/or whether the good or service is highly interrelated or a significant input with another good or service delivered, or whether it significantly modifies or customizes another good or service. Relevant judgments include the following:
Whether the software license is distinct from the 3D printed guides in most cases with contracts with collaboration partners in the Materialise Medical segment, the software license is combined with the manufacturing of the 3D printed guides as the software license has no benefit for the customer without the manufacturing services. We have also implemented a new Plan Only feature where the collaboration partners can benefit from a virtual plan produced with the software license without the manufacturing of any physical product. Such Plan Only features are recognized in revenue as a separate performance obligation based on the usage by the collaboration partner.
Whether the development services are distinct from other performance obligations in most cases, those performance obligations are distinct however for one contract with a collaboration partner in the Materialise Medical segment, the software license is combined with the license and the 3D printed guides as one distinct performance obligation
For the stand-alone selling prices, we are using prices from price list or historical prices for similar transactions. However, in certain cases, such information is not immediately available, and in such cases, we estimate the stand-alone selling price by using a cost-plus or another estimate. In addition, for certain performance obligations such as development services, stand-alone selling prices also require an estimate of the time to complete the development.
Certain contracts include estimates of variable considerations within the transaction price and assessing the revenue constraint, such as:
Quantities/volume sold for fixed prices in relation to, but not limited to, manufacturing of 3D printed products, software licenses sold and maintenance renewals;
Contractual prices may be different based on volume purchased during a certain period;
FTE expenses for development or other services billed on a time & material basis; and
The method applied to estimate the variable consideration is dependent on the number of possible scenarios and the probability of each scenario. In case there are many possible scenarios with a wide range of probabilities (each less than 50%), we will use the expected value method while the most likely method is used when there is a scenario with a higher probability (more than 50%).
Variable consideration is not a constraint when, based on historical experience, high reliable business forecast and/or the timeframe of the estimates, we determine that there is a high probability that this will not result in a future revenue reversal.
We determine the stage of completion for development contracts satisfied over time by comparing labor hours incurred to-date to the estimated total labor hours required to complete the project. We consider labor hours to be the most reliable, available measure of progress on these projects. Adjustments to estimates to complete are made in the periods in which facts resulting in a change become known. When the estimate indicates that a loss will be incurred, such loss is recorded in the period identified. Significant judgments and estimates are involved in determining the percent complete of each contract. Different assumptions could yield materially different results.
Under International Accounting Standards 38, or IAS 38, internally generated intangible assets from the development phase are recognized if certain conditions are met. These conditions include the technical feasibility, intention to complete, the ability to use or sell the asset under development, and the demonstration of how the asset will generate probable future economic benefits. The cost of a recognized internally generated intangible asset comprises all directly attributable cost necessary to make the asset capable of being used as intended by management. In contrast, all expenditures arising from the research phase are expensed as incurred.
Determining whether internally generated intangible assets from development are to be recognized as intangible assets requires significant judgment, particularly in determining whether the activities are considered research activities or development activities, whether the product enhancement is substantial, whether the completion of the asset is technically feasible considering a company-specific approach and the probability of future economic benefits from the sale or use.
We have determined that the conditions for recognizing internally generated intangible assets from proprietary software, guide and other product development activities are not met until shortly before the products are available for sale, unless either (i) we have strong evidence that the above criteria are met and a detailed business plan is available showing the asset will on a reasonable basis generate future economic benefits or (ii) the development is done based upon specific request of the customer, we have the intention to market the product also to other parties than the customer, the development is subject to an agreement and the substance of the agreement is that the customer reimburses us for a significant portion of the development expenses incurred. As such, development expenditures not satisfying the above criteria and expenditures on the research phase of internal projects are recognized in the consolidated income statement as incurred. This assessment is monitored by us on a regular basis.
We have determined that the criteria for internally generated intangible assets were met for two projects in 2018: (1) the software development of a new planner for hospitals within the cardiovascular field and (2) the process to obtain FDA and E.U. approval for a 3D printed tracheal splint within the Materialise Medical segment. The first project was successfully completed in 2019. For the latter, we determined that there is a low risk that FDA approval will not be obtained although clinical trials have to be started and commercialization is not expected before 2022. This assessment was made by management based on several factors including the developed product itself, the exclusive patent rights obtained on the developed product, the successful application of the product on a number of patients as part of the emergency exception use obtained from the FDA and the continued discussions to speed up the trial duration and commercialization. The product is also expected to receive E.U. approval for commercialization by the end of 2020. However, there can be no assurance that such approvals will be obtained. The total amount capitalized for the tracheal splint amounted to K1,376 as of December 31, 2019 and the total amount capitalized for the new planner for hospitals amounted to K461.
Share-Based Payment Transactions
We measure the cost of equity-settled transactions with employees by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments at the date at which they are granted and measured the cost of cash-settled transactions by reference to the fair value of the equity instrument at the date of reporting. We have applied the Black-Scholes valuation model to estimate fair value. Using this model requires management to make assumptions with regards to volatility and expected life of the equity instruments. The assumptions used for estimating fair value for share-based payment transactions are disclosed in Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements and are estimated as follows:
The dividend return is estimated by reference to the historical dividend payment. Currently, this is estimated to be zero as no dividends have been paid since inception;
Expected volatility is estimated based on the average annualized volatility of the volatility of our shares (until September 2016: of a number of quoted peers in the 3D printing industry and the volatility of our shares);
Estimated life of the warrant is determined to be until the first exercise period which is typically the month after vesting; and
Fair value of the shares is determined based on the share price of our ADSs on Nasdaq at the date of valuation. For the grants prior to the initial public offering, the fair value of the shares was estimated based on a discounted cash flow model with three-year cash flow projections and a multiple of EBITDA determined based on a number of quoted peers in the 3D printing industry.
Deferred tax assets are recognized for unused tax losses to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the losses can be utilized. Significant management judgment is required to determine the amount of deferred tax assets that can be recognized, based upon the likely timing and the level of future taxable profits together with future tax planning strategies.
As of December 31, 2019, we had 37.4 million (2018: 25.3 million; 2017: 11.9 million) of tax losses carry forward and other tax credits such as investment tax credits (and notional interest deductions in 2017 and 2016), of which 25.2 million related to Materialise NV (2018: 15.6 million; 2017:4.6 million). These losses relate to Materialise NV and subsidiaries that have a history of losses in countries where these losses do not expire (except for the notional interest deductions of 0.0 million in 2019 (2018: 0.0 million; 2017: 0.3 million)) and may not be used to offset taxable income elsewhere our consolidated group.
With respect to the unused tax losses of Materialise NV, no deferred tax assets have been recognized given that it in view of the Belgian Patent Income Deduction and Innovation Income Deduction systems, there is an uncertainty to what extent these tax losses will be used in future years. Effective as of July 1, 2016, the new Innovation Income Deduction system replaced the former Patent Income Deduction system. Under the grandfathering rule, the Patent Income Deduction system can still be applied until June 30, 2021. The Belgian Patent Income Deduction system allows companies to deduct 80% of the qualifying gross patent income from the taxable basis. Under the Innovation Income Deduction system, companies can deduct up to 85% of their net innovation income from the taxable basis. Based on our analysis in 2019, we have assessed that no deferred tax asset should be accounted for with respect to our unused tax losses in Belgium.
With respect to the unused tax losses of our subsidiaries, deferred tax assets have been recognized in 2019 for the amount of 0 million (2018: 0; 2017: 0 million). We have not recognized deferred tax assets on unused tax losses totaling 10.7 million in 2019 (2018: 11.9 million; 2017: 7.9 million) given that it is not probable that sufficient positive taxable base will be available in the foreseeable future against which these tax losses can be utilized.
If we were able to recognize all unrecognized deferred tax assets, net profit would have increased by 6.9 million in 2019, in which 23.1 million of tax losses would have been utilized. Further details on taxes are disclosed in Note 22.10 to our consolidated financial statements.
Impairment of Goodwill, Intangible Assets and Property, Plant & Equipment
We had goodwill for a total amount of 20.2 million as of December 31, 2019 (2018: 17.5 million; 2017: 17.6 million) which has been subject to an impairment test. Goodwill is tested for impairment based on a discounted cash flow model with cash flows for the next five years derived from the budget and a residual value considering a perpetual growth rate. The value in use is sensitive to the discount rate used for the discounted cash flow model as well as the expected future cash-inflows and the growth rate used for extrapolation purposes. The key assumptions used to determine the value in use for the different cash generating units, or CGUs, are disclosed and further explained in Note 5 to our consolidated financial statements.
We capitalized development expenses for a total amount of 1.3 million as at December 31, 2019, in respect of products under development which are not in the condition intended by management and as such are not amortized. These development expenses have been subject to an impairment test based on a discounted cash flow, or DCF, model with cash flows derived from the latest business plan for the products. The value in use is sensitive to the discount rate (11.38% applied) used for the DCF model as well as the expected commercialization date for the products and the expected future cash inflows after commercialization. See Development Expenses above for further information.
We are in the process of building or refurbishing a number of machines that allow for the use of recycled powder and reduce the scrap rate, which are expected to bring significant production benefits to our consolidated group. We aim to complete the project in 2020. The total carrying value of these assets under construction is 1.8 million as at December 31, 2019. These assets have been subject to an impairment test based on a DCF model using five years of projected cash flows. The present value is sensitive to the discount rate (10.0% applied) used for the DCF model, the expected date the assets may be used in production and the expected future net cash inflows (revenue minus production costs). See Note 7 to our audited consolidated financial statements for additional information.
When events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the intangible assets and property, plant & equipment may not be recoverable, we estimate the value in use for the individual assets, or when not possible, at the level of CGUs to which the individual assets belong. No impairment charges were recorded during 2019 (or in 2018 or 2017).
We determine and allocate the purchase price of an acquired business to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the business combination date. The purchase price allocation process requires us to use significant estimates and assumptions, including:
estimated fair value of the acquired intangible assets;
estimated fair value of property, plant and equipment; and
estimated fair value of the contingent consideration.
The contingent consideration as included in the financial statements is recorded at fair value at the date of acquisition and is reviewed on a regular basis, at least annually. The fair value of the contingent consideration is based on risk-adjusted future cash flows of different scenarios discounted using appropriate interest rates. The structure of the possible scenarios and the probability assigned to each one of them is reassessed by management at every reporting period and requires judgement from management about the outcome and probability of the different scenarios as well as the evolution of the variables.
While we are using our best estimates and assumptions as part of the purchase price allocation process to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the date of acquisition, our estimates and assumptions are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. Examples of critical estimates in valuing certain of the intangible assets we have acquired or may acquire in the future include but are not limited to:
future expected cash flows from customer contracts and relationships, software license sales and maintenance agreements;
the fair value of the plant and equipment;
the fair value of the deferred revenue; and
Provision for Expected Credit Losses, or ECLs, of Trade Receivables and Contract Assets
We use a provision matrix to calculate ECLs for trade receivables and contract assets. The provision rates are based on days past due for groupings of various customer segments that have similar loss patterns (i.e., by legal entity).
The provision matrix is initially based on our historical observed default rates. We will calibrate the matrix to adjust the historical credit loss experience with forward-looking information. For instance, if forecast economic conditions (i.e., gross domestic product) are expected to deteriorate over the next year which can lead to an increased number of defaults, the historical default rates are adjusted. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analyzed.
The assessment of the correlation between historical observed default rates, forecast economic conditions and ECLs is a significant estimate. The amount of ECLs is sensitive to changes in circumstances and of forecast economic conditions. Our historical credit loss experience and forecast of economic conditions may also not be representative of a customers actual default in the future. Information about the ECLs on our trade receivables and contract assets is disclosed in Note 25 to our consolidated financial statements.
Convertible Loan Granted to FluidDa
We account for the convertible loan granted to FluidDa in January 2019, with a notional amount of 2.5 million, at fair value. The carrying value of the convertible loan amounts to 2.8 million at December 31, 2019. FluidDa is a private start-up company which delivers contract research organization, or CRO, services for drug development and develops medical devices that require EMA and/or FDA approval. FluidDa is currently loss-making. In determining the fair value of the convertible loan, we consider different contractual parameters such as the repayment and conversion scenarios and dates. In addition, we must make significant estimates such as (i) the discount rate, (ii) the probability and timing of each repayment and conversion scenario, and (iii) the amount of a qualified capital increase that will determine the conversion factor. The convertible loan has a duration of seven years with a 10.0% annual interest rate which is capitalized. We have applied a discount factor of 13.88% that is based on the estimated weighted average cost of capital of FluidDa, reflecting the uncertainty in relation to FluidDas ability to be successful and the applied estimates by our consolidated group.
At December 31, 2019, we determined that the fair value of the convertible loan was not significantly different than its carrying value. Changes in significant assumptions may lead to a significant increase or decrease in the fair value of the convertible loan. An increase or decrease in the applied discount rate by 2.0% would lead to a change in fair value by 0.27 million or 0.30 million, respectively.
Changes in useful life for certain assets
The Group reviews the useful life for the intangible assets and property, plant and equipment on an annual basis considering the current facts and circumstances available. This review has resulted in 2019 in a re-assessement of the useful life for certain specific assets in the categories buildings, fixtures, vehicles and machinery. We refer to Note 7 to our consolidated financial statements for the impact of the change in useful lifes during the year 2019.
Leases IFRS 16 Estimating the Discount Rate and Probability of Exercising Extension Options/Termination Options and Purchase Options
As we cannot always determine the interest rate implicit in lease contracts, we must estimate the incremental borrowing rate to measure certain lease liabilities such as buildings. For buildings, we use the property yield as a reference to determine the incremental borrowing rate. For other assets, we generally use the interest rate implicit in the lease contract or apply the incremental borrowing rate for a portfolio of similar assets. The incremental borrowing rate reflects what we would have to pay, which requires estimation when no observable rates are available or when they need to be adjusted to reflect the terms and conditions of the lease.
In addition, certain lease contracts may have extension options, termination options (in the case of property leases) and/or purchase options (in the case of leases). We estimate whether it is reasonably certain that such options will be exercised, which impacts the lease term in the case of extension options and termination options and the period over which the lease assets are depreciated in the case of purchase options.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The standards and interpretations that are issued, but not yet effective, up to the date of issuance of our financial statements are disclosed in our financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.
Of those standards that are not yet effective, none are expected to have a material impact on our financial statements in the period of initial application.
Other Financial Information
We believe EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are meaningful measures to our investors to enhance their understanding of our financial performance. Although EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are not necessarily a measure of our ability to fund our cash needs, we understand that it is frequently used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties as a measure of financial performance and to compare our performance with the performance of other companies that report EBITDA or Adjusted EBITDA. Management believes these non-IFRS measures to be important measures as they exclude the effects of items which primarily reflect the impact of long-term investment and financing decisions, rather than the performance of our day-to-day operations. As compared to net profit, these measures are limited in that they do not reflect the periodic costs of certain capitalized tangible and intangible assets used in generating revenues in our business, or the charges associated with impairments. Management evaluates such items through other financial measures such as capital expenditures and cash flow provided by operating activities. We believe that these measurements are useful to measure a companys ability to grow or as a valuation measurement. Our calculation of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
We calculate EBITDA as net profit plus income taxes, financial expenses (less financial income), depreciation and amortization, and share in loss of joint venture. We calculate Adjusted EBITDA by adding non-recurring initial public offering related expenses, non-cash share-based compensation expenses and acquisition-related expenses of business combinations to EBITDA. Disclosure in this annual report of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA, which are non-IFRS financial measures, is intended as a supplemental measure of our performance that is not required by, or presented in accordance with, IFRS. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as alternatives to net profit or any other performance measure derived in accordance with IFRS. Our presentation of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not be construed to imply that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or non-recurring items.
Reconciliation of Net Profit to Adjusted EBITDA (unaudited) on a Consolidated Basis
|For the year ended December 31,|
Net profit (loss)
Depreciation and amortization
Share in loss of joint venture
Non-cash share-based compensation expenses(1)
Acquisition-related expenses of business combinations(2)
Adjusted EBITDA (unaudited)
Non-cash share-based compensation expenses represent the cost of equity-settled and cash-settled share-based payments to employees.
Acquisition-related expenses of business combinations represent fees and costs in connection with the acquisition of ACTech in 2017 and the Engimplan acquisition in 2019.
Results of Operations
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018
|For the year ended December 31,|
|in 000, except percentages||2019||2018||% |
Cost of sales
Research and development expenses
Sales and marketing expenses
General and administrative expenses
Net other operating income
Share in loss of joint venture
Profit before taxes
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 by Segment
|in 000||Materialise |
For the year ended December 31, 2019
Segment Adjusted EBITDA
Segment Adjusted EBITDA %
For the year ended December 31, 2018
Segment Adjusted EBITDA
Segment Adjusted EBITDA %
Unallocated related Revenues consist of occasional one-off sales by our core competencies not allocated to any of our segments. Unallocated related Segment Adjusted EBITDA consist of corporate research and development, corporate headquarter costs and other operating income (expense).
Revenue. Revenue was 196.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to 184.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of 12 million, or 6.5%.
Revenue by geographical area is presented as follows:
|For the year ended |
Europe & Africa
Revenue generated in Europe & Africa decreased by 2.6million, or 2.2%, in the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the year ended December 31, 2018, mainly due to lower revenue from our Materialise Manufacturing segment, which was partly offset by increased revenue from our Materialise Software and our Materialise Medical segments.. Revenue generated throughout the Americas increased by 15.7 million, or 35.8%, in the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the year ended December 31, 2018, with a strong revenue increase for all our segments Revenue generated in Asia-Pacific decreased by 1.2 million, or 5.7%, in the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the year ended December 31, 2018.
Revenue from our Materialise Software segment increased 11.4% from 37.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 to 41.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2019. Recurrent revenue, consisting of limited license fees and maintenance fees, grew 20.0%. Non-recurrent revenue, mainly consisting of perpetual fees, increased 4.3%. Deferred revenue from license and maintenance fees increased to 3.1 million, compared to 2.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2018.
Revenue from our Materialise Medical segment increased 8.6 million, or 16.4%, from 52.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 to 60.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2019, including 2.4 million from Engimplan. Medical software revenue grew by 18.3% from 2018 to 2019. Within our medical software department recurrent revenue from annual and renewed licenses and maintenance fees increased by 20.0%, reflecting the implementation of our strategy focused on products with defined contractual periods. Our non-recurrent revenue from perpetual licenses and services decreased by 3.3%. These recurrent revenues represented 77.7% of all medical software revenues in the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to 73.7% in the year ended December 31, 2018. Revenues from medical devices and services grew 17.6% in the year ended December 31, 2019, due to the revenue increase from partner sales business lines (especially in CMF), and Engimplan. As of December 31, 2019, our Materialise Medical segment operated 32 3D printers, as compared to 32 as of December 31, 2018.
Revenue from our Materialise Manufacturing segment decreased from 95.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 to 94.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2019, representing a decrease of 0.8 million. During 2019, we had moderate single-digit revenue growth in the first three quarters, which was offset by a decrease of 11% in the fourth quarter, reflecting lower activity in both our traditional manufacturing and ACTech business lines, which were affected by the softened macro-economic environment. As of December 31, 2019, Materialise Manufacturing operated 149 3D printers, six vacuum casting machines and 20 CNC machines, as compared to 149, six and 19 as of December 31, 2018, respectively. Although the total number of 3D printers did not change from the year ended December 31, 2018 to the year ended December 31, 2019, we replaced certain printers with printers we believe to be more efficient. Four metal 3D printers were added, while four older plastic 3D printers were put out of operation during the year ended December 31, 2019.
Cost of sales. Cost of sales was 87.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to 82.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, representing an increase of 4.7 million, or 5.7%. This increase in cost of sales was mainly due to increased payroll expenses and the inclusion of Engimplans cost of sales as of August 1, 2019.
Gross profit. The overall gross profit margin (gross profit divided by our revenue) amounted to 55.8% in the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to 55.4% in the year ended December 31, 2018. The improved margin reflected a combination of the following factors: a change in sales mix, which was positively affected by the growing importance of our software revenues and negatively affected by the growing cost of sales from medical devices (specifically, our Engimplan and CMF business lines); and improvements in efficiency in general in all of our business lines.
Research and development, or R&D, sales and marketing, or S&M, and general and administrative, or G&A, expenses. R&D, S&M and G&A expenses increased, in the aggregate, to 108.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to 101.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2018. R&D expenses increased from 22.4 million to 23.3 million, S&M expenses increased from 46.3 million to 53.0 million and G&A expenses decreased from 32.3 million to 31.8 million. The R&D cost increase excludes 0.9 million of expenditures in 2019 that were capitalized as intangible assets and related to our tracheal splint project. In total, the intangible assets related to this development project amounted to K1,651 on our balance sheet at December 31, 2019.
Net other operating income. Net other operating income increased from 3.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 to 5.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2019. The variance was mainly due to higher grant income and an improvement of our bad debt position.
Net financial expense (financial expenses and financial income). In each of 2018 and 2019, the net financial expense mainly related to the net interest expense from loans and deposits of financial institutions. The net financial expense increased from 1.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 to 2.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2019. This variance was due to an increase of net interest expense and bank charges.
Income taxes. Income taxes in the year ended December 31, 2019 resulted in an expense of 2.6 million, which was a combination of deferred tax bookings and income taxes due over the result for the period.
Net profit. As a result of the factors described above, net profit was 1.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to a net profit of 3.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, or a decrease of 1.3 million.
EBITDA. As a result of the factors described above, our consolidated EBITDA increased from 22.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 to 26.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of 3.8 million, or 16.8%, and our total segment EBITDA increased from 32.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 to 36.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of 4.2 million, or 12.8%. The 2019 EBITDA includes Engimplans contribution of 0.7 million.
Our Materialise Software segments Adjusted EBITDA increased from 11.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 to 13.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of 2.3 million, or 19.7%. This segments Adjusted EBITDA margin (the segments Adjusted EBITDA divided by the
segments revenue) increased from 30.9% for the year ended December 31, 2018 to 33.2% in the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease in the Adjusted EBITDA margin was due to revenue growth of 11.4% (which was affected positively by sales mix with a higher portion of recurrent sales), partly offset by an increase in operating expenses by 11.7%, reflecting continued investments in S&M. R&D costs were flat, while G&A expenses decreased.
Our Materialise Medical segments Adjusted EBITDA increased from 10.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 to 10.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2019. The segments Adjusted EBITDA margin decreased from 19.6% in the year ended December 31, 2018 to 17.7% in the year ended December 31, 2019. Excluding Engimplans contribution, the margin was 17.4% in 2019. The segments Adjusted EBITDA margin was affected negatively by a changed sales mix in our medical devices business (CMFs production revenue grew significantly resulting in higher cost of sales), and our operating expenses, which grew in the aggregate by 16.4%. The increase in our operating expenses was mainly due to an increase in remuneration expenses.
Our Materialise Manufacturing segments Adjusted EBITDA increased from 10.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 to 12.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2019. The Adjusted EBITDA margin of this segment increased from 11.4% in the year ended December 31, 2018 to 12.9% in the year ended December 31, 2019. While the gross margin remained stable, operating expenses (S&M, R&D, and G&A) decreased slightly and net other operating income (including grants) increased.
Reconciliation of Net Profit to Segment Adjusted EBITDA
|For the year ended |
Share in loss of joint venture
Depreciation and amortization
Corporate research and development
Corporate headquarters costs
Other operating (income) expense
Segment Adjusted EBITDA (unaudited)
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2018 and 2017
|For the year ended December 31,|
|in 000, except percentages||2018||2017||% Change|
Cost of sales
Research and development expenses
Sales and marketing expenses
General and administrative expenses
Net other operating income (expenses)
Share in loss of joint venture
Profit (loss) before taxes
Net profit (loss)
Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 by Segment
|in 000||Materialise |
For the year ended December 31, 2018
Segment Adjusted EBITDA
Segment Adjusted EBITDA %
For the year ended December 31, 2017
Segment Adjusted EBITDA
Segment Adjusted EBITDA %
Unallocated Revenues consist of occasional one-off sales by our core competencies not allocated to any of our segments. Unallocated Segment Adjusted EBITDA consists of corporate research and development, corporate headquarter costs and other operating income (expense).
Revenue. Revenue was 184.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 142.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2017, an increase of 42.1 million, or 29.6%.
Revenue by geographical area is presented as follows:
|For the year ended |
Europe & Africa
Revenue generated in Europe & Africa increased by 32.4 million, or 36.9% in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017, mainly as a result of the consolidation of ACTechs full year revenue and the increased revenue in our Materialise Medical segment, boosted by revenue from medical device partnerships. Revenue generated throughout the Americas increased by 8.8 million or 25.0% in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017, also mainly because of ACTechs full year consolidation effect and the revenue growth in our Materialise Medical segment. Revenue generated in Asia-Pacific increased by 0.9 million, or 4.7% in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017.
Revenue from our Materialise Software segment increased 4.5% from 35.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 to 37.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 Recurrent revenue, consisting of limited licence fees and maintenance fees, grew 18.0%. Non-recurrent revenue, mainly consisting of perpetual fees, decreased 4.6%. Deferred revenue from license and maintenance fees increased 2.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 1.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2017.
Revenue from our Materialise Medical segment increased 9.4 million or 22.0% from 42.8 in the year ended December 31, 2017 to 52.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2018. Medical software growth was 9.1% in total. Within our medical software department recurrent revenue from annual and renewed licenses and maintenance fees increased by 17.1%, reflecting the result of our strategy implementation, focusing on products with defined contractual periods. Our revenue from perpetual licenses and services decreased by 8.4%. These recurrent revenues represented 73.7% of all medical software revenues in the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to 68.7% in the year ended December 31, 2017. Revenues from medical devices and services grew 29.3%, entirely due to the revenue increase from partner sales, especially in our business lines of CMF, shoulder, and knee devices. At December 31, 2018, Materialise Medical operated 32 3D printers, as compared to 24 at December 31, 2017.
Revenue from our Materialise Manufacturing segment increased from 63.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 to 95.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, representing an increase of 31.2 million, or 49.1%. Revenue from the ACTech business that was acquired in October 2017 contributed 43.4 million in 2018. At December 31, 2018, Materialise Manufacturing operated 149 3D printers, six vacuum casting machines and 19 CNC machines, as compared to 155, 6, and 16 at December 31, 2017 respectively. The decrease of the 3D printers is mainly due to the 5 powder binding machines no longer used for consumer printing commercial purposes. four metal 3D printers were added, while five older plastic 3D printers have been put out of operation.
As a result of the ACTech acquisition, our revenue is distributed differently in 2018 than in 2017. During the year ended December 31, 2018, aggregated over our various segments, 29.5% of our revenue was derived from Materialise Software and Materialise Medical software licenses and related services, as compared to 36.1% in the year ended December 31, 2017. Furthermore 51.4% of our revenues was gained from the sale of printed industrial and consumer products (including 43.4 million from ACTechs business), compared to 44.7% in the year ended December 31, 2017, and 19.1% of our revenue was obtained from the sale of medical devices (guides as well as implants). These were brought to the market together with complex software planning solutions, including royalties and other fees, and contribute to the total revenue at the same level as compared to the year ended December 31, 2017.
Cost of sales. Cost of sales was 82.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to 63.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2017, representing an increase of 19.5 million, or 30.6%. This increase in cost of sales is entirely due to increased purchases of goods and services, payroll expenses and depreciation expenses from the acquired ACTech business at the beginning of the 4th quarter of 2017. The total cost of sales of ACTech business amounted to 28.7 million in 2018.
Gross profit. The overall gross profit margin (gross profit divided by our revenue) amounted to 55.4% in the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to 55.8% in the year ended December 31, 2017.
Research and development, or R&D, sales and marketing, or S&M and general and administrative, or G&A, expenses. R&D, S&M and G&A expenses increased, in the aggregate, to 101.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 coming from 83.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2017. 9.2 million of the R&D, S&M and G&A expenses relate to the newly acquired ACTech business, compared to 2.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2017.. Excluding the ACTech business, R&D expenses increased from 20.0 million to 22.4 million, S&M expenses increased from 38.9 million to 46.3 million (including 3.2 million of ACTech), and G&A expenses (including 6.0 million of ACTech) increased from 24.9 million to 32.3 million.
Net other operating income. Net other operating income decreased from 4.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 to 3.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2018. The variance is primarily due to the increase of the provision for doubtful receivables, including the impact of the new IFRS 9 accounting standard.
Financial result (financial expenses and financial income). In 2018, the net financial result mainly relates to the net interest expense from loans and deposits of financial institutions. The net financial result decreased from (1.5) million in the year ended December 31, 2017 to (1.2) million in the year ended December 31, 2018. This variance is due to an increase of net interest expense, entirely offset by positive variances related to foreign currency results, and net other financial income.
Income taxes. Income taxes in the year ended December 31, 2018 resulted in an expense of 0.4 million, which was a combination of deferred tax bookings, and income taxes due over the result for the period.
Net profit. As a result of the factors described above, the net profit is 3.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to a net loss of 2.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2017, or an increase of 5.1 million.
EBITDA. As a result of the factors described above, our consolidated EBITDA increased from 13.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 to 22.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of 7.5 million or 73.1%, and our total segment adjusted EBITDA increased from 22.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 to 32.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of 9.8 million, or 43.1%. The 2017 EBITDA includes ACTechs contribution of 9.4 million.
Our Materialise Software segments adjusted EBITDA decreased from 13.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 to 11.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, a decrease of 2.4 million, or 17.3%. This segments adjusted EBITDA margin (the segments adjusted EBITDA divided by the segments revenue) decreased from 38.9% for the year ended December 31, 2017 to 30.9% in the year ended December 31, 2018. The decrease in the adjusted EBITDA margin is due to a moderate revenue growth of 4.5% (affected negatively because of the sales mix with a higher portion of recurrent sales and deferred revenue impact) while operating expenses increased by 18.3%, reflecting continued investments in sales and marketing, research and development and G&A expenses.
Our Materialise Medical segments adjusted EBITDA increased from 4.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 to 10.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2018. The segments adjusted EBITDA margin increased from 10.3% in the year ended December 31, 2017 to 19.6% in the year ended December 31, 2018. This improvement is due to the increase of the segments gross margin by 28.6%, mainly reflecting the positive impact of the medical devices revenue growth, compared to an increase of 6.1% across the segments operational expenses.
Our Materialise Manufacturing segments adjusted EBITDA increased from 4.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 to 10.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2018. Excluding ACTechs contribution of 9.4 million, the adjusted EBITDA margin of this segment decreased from 5.4% in the year ended December 31, 2017 to 2.7% in the year ended December 31, 2018, as a result of decreased revenue and increased operating expenses.
Reconciliation of Net Profit to Segment Adjusted EBITDA
|For the year ended |
Net profit (loss)
Share in loss of joint venture
Depreciation and amortization
Corporate research and development
Corporate headquarters costs
Other operating income (expense)
Segment Adjusted EBITDA (unaudited)
|B. Liquidity and Capital Resources|
Prior to our initial public offering, we historically funded our operations principally from cash generated from operations and borrowings. On June 30, 2014, we completed our initial public offering of 8,000,000 ADSs at a public offering price of $12.00 per ADS, and received net proceeds of approximately $88.3 million. On July 19, 2018, we completed a private placement of 1,953,125 newly issued ordinary shares to BASF Antwerpen for gross proceeds of approximately $25 million. On July 27, 2018, we sold 3,450,000 ADSs in our follow-on public offering at a public offering price of $13.00 per ADS, and received net proceeds of approximately $40.2 million. As we continue to grow our business, we envision funding our operations through multiple sources, including the remaining proceeds from our initial public offering, our private placement to BASF Antwerpen and our follow-on offering, and future earnings and cash flow from operations and borrowings.
We expect our main uses of cash in the future will be funding our business operations, capital expenditures and loan reimbursements, acquisitions and partnerships. We believe that we will have sufficient liquidity to satisfy the operating requirements of our business through the next 12 months.
Our liquidity plans are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including those described in the section of this annual report titled Item 3. Key InformationD. Risk Factors, some of which are outside of our control. Macro-economic conditions, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy, could hinder our business plans, which could, in turn, adversely affect our financing strategy.
The table below summarizes our cash flows from operating activities, investing activities and financing activities for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.
|For the year ended December 31,|
Net cash flow from operating activities
Net cash flow from/(used in) investing activities
Net cash flow from/(used in) financing activities
Net increase of cash and cash equivalents
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018
Net cash flow from operating activities was 28.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to 28.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of 0.1 million, or 0.3%, resulting from the increase in Adjusted EBITDA (3.1 million) offset by higher income taxes and working capital requirements.
Net cash flow used in investing activities was 25.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to 22.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of 3.5 million, or 15.7%. In 2019, in addition to capital expenditures, cash flow used in investing activities were impacted by the acquisition of Engimplan and a convertible loan we granted to FluidDa. For more information regarding this loan, see Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements.
Net cash flow from financing activities was 10.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to 65.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, a decrease of 54.5 million, or 83.5 %. During 2018, the main cash flow from financing activity related to our follow-on public offering and BASF Antwerpen private placement in July 2018. During 2019, we drew an additional 25.0 million tranche under our finance contract with the European Investment Bank, and 4.0 million to finance capital expenditures from other credit institutions.
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2018 and 2017
Net cash flow from operating activities was 28.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 10.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2017, an increase of 18.4 million, or 184.6%, resulting from the increase in EBITDA (9.4 million) and additional cash flow from working capital and taxes paid (8.5 million).
Net cash flow used in investing activities was 22.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 59.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2017, a variance of 37.1 million, mainly explained by the business combination related to ACTech in 2017.
Net cash flow from financing activities was 65.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 38.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2017, an increase of 27.2 million. During 2018, the main cash flow from financing activity resulted from our follow-on public offering and BASF Antwerpen private placement in July 2018.
Investments in Property, Plant & Equipment and Intangible Assets
The table below describes our investments in property, plant & equipment and intangible assets for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017:
|For the year ended |
Purchase of property, plant and equipment
Purchase of intangible assets
As of December 31, 2019, we had loans and borrowings in the total amount of 127.9 million, with mainly fixed interest rates. These loans include secured bank loans used to finance the acquisition of ACTech, the construction of office and production facilities in Belgium and Poland, the acquisition of production equipment and installations, and research and development projects.
The following table sets forth our principal indebtedness:
|As of December 31|
K35,000 EIB bank loan
K28,000 acquisition bank loan
K18,000 secured bank loans
K12,300 bank loans ACTech
K8,750 other facility loans
Bank investment loans - top 20 outstanding
Bank investment loans - other
Lease liabilities (2018 and 2017: Finance leases)
Related party loan
Total loans and borrowings
K35,000 EIB bank loan
On December 20, 2017, we entered into a finance contract with the European Investment Bank, or EIB, to finance future research and development programs. The contract provides a credit of up to 35.0 million drawable in two tranches. As part of the first tranche, an amount of 10.0 million was drawn in July of 2018. The duration of the loan will be between six to eight years, and includes a two-year loan repayment grace period.
In July 2019, the second tranche of 25.0 million was drawn. Similar to the first tranche, the duration of the loan will be between six to eight years, and includes a two-year loan repayment grace period.
Loans under the contract are made at a fixed rate, based on the Euribor rate at the time of the borrowing, plus a variable margin. The applied rate for the first tranche is initially equal to 2.4%. The applied rate for the second tranche is initially equal to 2.72% and varies in function of certain EBITDA levels and debt ratios. The contract contains customary security, covenants and undertakings.
K28,000 Acquisition loan
This bank loan was concluded in October 2017 to finance the acquisition of ACTech. The loan includes a portion of 18.0 million, repayable monthly over seven years, and a bullet portion of 10.0 million, payable at once in October 2024. The interest rate is fixed for the duration of the loan, and amounts to 1.1% on average for both portions. The bank loans are secured with a business pledge mandate, a share pledge on Materialise Germany GMBH, and debt covenants.
K18,000 secured bank loans
The K18,000 loan has been concluded in 2016 in two agreements to finance the construction of new facilities in Leuven (Belgium) and in Poland, both maturing in 2032. The agreement for the Belgian facility financing amounts to K12,000 (drawn per end 2018: K11,739; per end 2017 K11,739), and with reimbursements only starting in December 2022. The agreement for the Polish facility financing amounts to K6,000 (fully drawn per end of 2017), and with reimbursements only starting in June 2019. The average interest rate of both agreements amounts to 1.2%. The bank loan is secured with a mortgage mandate on the Belgian facility buildings.
K12,300 bank loans
In March 2018, three bank loans originating from the acquired ACTech business were refinanced in their entirety for an aggregate amount of 9.3 million, with the maturity adjusted to May 2025 and the first repayments beginning in August 2020. The interest rate was fixed at approximately 1.6%, and pledges including a 4.7 million mortgage on ACTechs facilities and guaranteed by Materialise NV. In addition, a new investment credit of 3.0 million was obtained from Commerzbank in June 2018, repayable as from January 2019 and with a fixed interest rate of 1.5%.
K8,750 - Other facility loans
Three facility loans were contracted in 2005, 2006 and 2012 for the construction of Leuven office and production facilities (2.0 million, 0.3 million and 5.0 million respectively) and another loan for the Czech Republic offices in 2008 (1.8 million). The aggregate balance of the four loans amounted to 4.3 million as of December 31, 2019. All loans have a repayment schedule of 15 years and interest rates are fixed between 4.3% and 5.4% for the four loans.
Bank investment loans
The 20 largest of these investment loans outstanding as of December 31, 2019 amount to a balance of 22.1 million. They were agreed in 2018, 2017 and prior years to finance various investments in machinery, printers, equipment, and software tools. The vast majority of the loans have a reimbursement period over seven years, and are at fixed interest rates with weighted average below 1%.
K9,876 Lease liabilities included lease with related party
We have several lease obligations, mainly with financial institutions and related to the financing of buildings and various other items of plant and equipment such as 3D printers. As at December 31, 2019 the balance of these lease obligations amounts to K9,876, and are mostly at fixed interest rates with weighted average below 2%. The subsidiary Engimplan is renting the office and production building from its non-controlling shareholders for an initial term of 10 years, with an extension option for an additional 10 years (assessed not to be reasonably certain to be exercised). The lease has been accounted for under IFRS 16 resulting in a lease liability at December 31, 2019 of K617.
K2,000 institutional loan
This loan was contracted with a governmental institution in Germany to finance the production operations of Materialise Germany for a maximum amount of K2,000. The loan is repayable over a four year period, starting as of September 2017 with a fixed interest rate of 0.25% payable per quarter. As of December 31, 2019 K2,000 has been drawn with an outstanding balance of K824.
K1,000 convertible bonds held by related party
On October 28, 2013, we issued 1,000 convertible bonds with a related party for a total amount of 1.0 million. The bonds have been fully subscribed by a member of our senior management.
The conditions of the convertible bonds are summarized as follows:
Number of convertible bonds: 1,000
Nominal value per bond: 1,000
Contractual life: seven years
Interest: 3.7% per year
Conversion period: from January 1, 2017 until maturity
Conversion price: 1.97 per share
The maximum number of ordinary shares that can be issued upon conversion is 508,904.
We have estimated the fair value of a similar liability however without any conversion option by reference to a number of quoted peers in Belgium. The fair value was estimated at 0.9 million. Upon initial recognition, an amount of 93,000 was recognized in consolidated reserves reflecting the fair value of the conversion option.
Related party loan
Ailanthus NV has granted us one other loan at fixed interest rate of 4.23% that matures in 2025. The purpose of the loan is to finance the purchase of a building in France. The amounts outstanding as of December 31, 2019 is 0.2 million (2018: 0.2 million; 2017: 0.2 million). The interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2019 is 8,645 (2018: 10,000; 2017: 11,000).
Material Unused Sources of Liquidity
Our cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 were 128.9 million, 115.5 million and 43.2 million, respectively. We have no longer undrawn lines of credit at December 31, 2019.
Transfers from Subsidiaries
The amount of dividends payable by our subsidiaries to us is subject to, among other restrictions, general limitations imposed by the corporate laws, capital transfer restrictions and exchange control restrictions of the respective jurisdictions where those subsidiaries are organized and operate. For example, China has very specific approval regulations for all capital transfers to or from the country, certain capital transfers to and from Ukraine are subject to obtaining a specific permit and current legislation in Brazil permits the Brazilian government to impose temporary restrictions on remittances of foreign capital abroad in the event of a serious imbalance or an anticipated serious imbalance in Brazils balance of payments. Dividends paid to us by certain of our subsidiaries may also be subject to withholding taxes in certain jurisdictions. Of our cash and cash equivalents held outside of Belgium as of December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, the amount of cash that would have been subject to withholding taxes if transferred to us by way of dividends and the amount of cash that could not have been transferred by law, or the transfer of which would have been subject to prior approval that was beyond our control, was in each case immaterial.
C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses
For information regarding our research and development program, see Item 4. Information on the CompanyB. Business OverviewResearch and Development.
D. Trend Information
The COVID-19 pandemic had no impact on our financial performance for the period from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019. However, its trajectory remains highly uncertain and we cannot predict the duration and severity of the outbreak and its containment measures.
As discussed in more detail in Note 27 to our audited consolidated financial statements, based on our current assessment of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have considered various hypothetical scenarios on how our business, results of operations and financial condition could be impacted during the year 2020. In these scenarios, we take the general view, but without any certainty as we are reviewing the situation constantly, that our business will be impacted very significantly in the second quarter of 2020, and will subsequently continue to be weak for the rest of the year, although our current assessment of the situation is that our business may gradually improve during the remainder of 2020. However, in the current situation, in view of the many uncertainties of this unprecedented crisis, we find it very hard to gain any visibility beyond the second quarter.
In our Materialise Software segment, we believe that an important part of the software sales of this segment are, at least temporarily, at risk. A significant portion of the sales of this segment comes from parties that either sell or use 3D printing systems. The weakness of the 3D printing industry in general is expected to weigh very negatively on 3D printing system sales and thus also on our software sales, definitely in the second quarter of 2020 with a possible extension into the second half of 2020.
In our Materialise Medical segment, we design, produce and sell customized implants, surgical guides and models as well as visualization and planning software to research institutes, universities, medical device companies and hospitals. A significant percentage of this segments revenue stems, directly or indirectly, from elective surgeries, almost all of which are now being postponed due to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC, guidelines, which require hospitals to prioritize preparation and response to the pandemic. As a result, these revenues (and at least the timing thereof) become uncertain, which will result in a significant reduction of sales of this segment, definitely in the second quarter of 2020, and possibly in the next quarters as well, depending on how the pandemic evolves.
Our Materialise Manufacturing segment operates as part of the overall manufacturing sector in Europe, which includes subsectors such as automotive, aviation, machine parts and consumer products, all of which are heavily impacted by the coronavirus crisis. The European automotive market was particularly weak before the COVID-19 outbreak, and we now expect an even slower recovery than previously estimated. Other European industrial subsectors are not faring much better in this market and will likely face larger declines than previously expected. Order intake within this segment has been slowing down, which will significantly impact the segments second quarter results and which may impact the results beyond the second quarter, as a function of how the crisis develops in general and how the industry as a whole, and our customers in particular, subsequently recover from the situation.
We also expect an increase of bad debt, a delay in trade payments, and that we will not be able to adjust and align all of our costs according to the expected decrease of revenue. We experienced the first negative effects of this crisis on our revenues in the first quarter of 2020. In these analyses, we considered a major negative impact in the second quarter, and only a gradual and partial recovery in the third and fourth quarter of this year. From these analyses, we conclude that (according to the currently most likely scenarios), the going concern principle should be maintained, and that the principle financial covenants of our credit facilities will not be violated. We believe that the expected situation does not impact the current valuation of our inventories, investments, intangible assets (including goodwill), long-lived assets, or our debt.
While we continue to monitor the situation regularly, we believe that eventually the 3D printing industry will recover and may even come out of this crisis stronger, as the crisis appears to be underscoring certain advantages of the 3D printing technology, in particular its flexibility in terms of part design, speed, production of smaller strategic batches and localization. Therefore, while we try to adjust our costs and capital spending in proportion to the short term reduction of our revenues, we currently take the view that these cost and spending reductions should, where possible, be as moderate and temporary as possible, since we believe that continued innovation during the current crisis may give us a competitive advantage going forward. This strategy involves significant risks, including risks in terms of its impact on our cash position, and as the crisis lasts longer, we may not be able to sustain this strategy and it might have negative implications for our long term competitive position.
Notwithstanding our current assessment of the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition and results of operations, we cannot predict with certainty the impacts, trends and uncertainties involving the pandemics effects on economic activity, the 3D printing software and services markets, our sales, the availability and price of our products, and the extent to which our business may be materially and adversely affected. For more information regarding the risks of the COVID-19 pandemic, see Item 3. Key InformationD. Risk FactorsRisks Relating to our Business. In addition, see Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Information on page 1 of this annual report.
E. Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements that have, or are reasonably likely to have, a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that is material to investors.
F. Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations
The table below sets forth our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2019:
|in 000||Total||Less than 1 |
|2-3 years||4-5 years||More than 5 |
Loans and borrowings
Scheduled interest payments(1)
Scheduled interest payments comprises the interest payable on loans and borrowings and financial lease commitments. No interest is payable on the other contractual obligations in the above table.
In relation to our property, plant & equipment, we had committed expenditures of 0.7 million as of December 31, 2017, related to the purchase of land in Germany. In the course of 2018, this commitment was fulfilled and the land was purchased. As of the end of December 31, 2019, we had no significant purchase commitments related to property, plant & equipment.
G. Safe Harbor
See Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Information on page 1 of this annual report.
A. Directors and Senior Management
The following table sets forth certain information with respect to the current members of our board of directors and senior management:
|58||Founder, Director & Chief Executive Officer|
A Tre C CVOA, represented by Johan De Lille
|58||Director & Executive Vice President|
Jos Vander Sloten
Senior Management and Executive Committee Members:
|58||Founder, Director & Chief Executive Officer|
|58||Director & Executive Vice President|
Seaquence BVBA, represented by Johan Pauwels
|52||Executive Vice President|
Bart Van der Schueren
|53|| ||Executive Vice President, Chief Technology |
Alfinco BVBA, represented by Johan Albrecht
|56|| ||Executive Vice President, Chief Financial |
Ioberan BVBA, represented by Stefaan Motte
|43|| ||Vice President, Materialise Software |
De Vet Management bvba, represented by Brigitte de Vet-Veithen
|49||Vice President, Materialise Medical segment|
Level 5 BVBA, represented by Jurgen Laudus
|41|| ||Vice President, Materialise Manufacturing |
|61||Chief Information Officer|
SoHo services, represented by Conny Hooghe
|54||Vice President, Human Resources|
Carla Van Steenbergen
|44||Vice President, Chief Legal Officer|
The term of the directorship of each member of our board of directors will expire at the 2020 annual general meeting of shareholders. The business address of the members of our board of directors is the same as our business address: Technologielaan 15, 3001 Leuven, Belgium. Our board of directors has determined that three members of our board of directors, Jürgen Ingels, Lieve Verplancke and A Tre C CVOA, represented by Johan De Lille, are independent under Belgian law and the NASDAQ Stock Market listing requirements.
The following is a brief summary of the business experience of the current members of our board of directors:
Wilfried Vancraen. Wilfried Vancraen has served as one of our directors and as our Chief Executive Officer since founding our company in July 1990. Mr. Vancraen previously worked as a research engineer and consultant at the Research Institute of the Belgian Metalworking Industry, where he was introduced to 3D printing. Passionate about this new technology and firm in his belief that it could help create a better and healthier world, he founded Materialise in July 1990. Mr. Vancraen holds several patents related to the technical and medical applications of 3D printing and remains committed to using the technology to make positive changes in peoples lives. In recent years, Mr. Vancraen has been awarded the RTAM/SME Industry Achievement Award, the highest honor in the 3D printing industry, has been selected as the most influential person in additive manufacturing by industry professionals and TCT Magazine, and has been listed one of the five leading players in his sector by the Financial Times. He is also the recipient of a 2013 Visionaries! Award from the Museum of Art and Design in New York. Mr. Vancraen holds a Master of Science in Electro-Mechanical Engineering and a Master in Business Administration from KU Leuven. Wilfried Vancraen was chosen in the TCT Hall of Fame in 2017 for his contributions to the 3D printing industry. In 2018, he was chosen by the Additive Manufacturing Users Group (AMUG) as the Innovators Showcase and received the Industry Dino Award. In 2019, Mr. Vancraen was appointed as a faculty honorary professor at the Faculty of Engineering, KU Leuven on the recommendation of the Department of Mechanical Engineering because of his role as founder and CEO of our company.
Peter Leys. Peter Leys has served as one of our directors and as our Executive Chairman since 2013. Previously, from 1990 to 2013, Mr. Leys was at the Brussels office of Baker & McKenzie CVBA, where he focused on mergers and acquisitions, and capital markets. Mr. Leys lectures a contract negotiation course at the KU Leuven. Mr. Leys holds a Candidacy Degree in Philosophy from KU Leuven and Master of Law degrees from KU Leuven and the University of Georgia.
Johan De Lille. Johan De Lille has represented A Tre C CVOA as one of our directors since July 2006, and A Tre C CVOA has been an independent director of Materialise since 2006. Mr. De Lille started his professional career as an auditor at Arthur Andersen LLP in 1988. In 1994, he became Vice President & Group Controller of Ackermans & van Haaren NV, a Belgian public holding company. In 1999, he became Chief Financial Officer of Easdaq/Nasdaq Europe and took on the role of Chief Financial Officer of Option NV, a Belgian public technology company, in 2001. Mr. De Lille joined Delhaize Group, a Belgian public company, as Vice President & Controller in September 2002, and later became Chief Internal Auditor of the Delhaize Group in August 2006, and Chief Financial Officer of Delhaize Belgium in January 2009. Since 2013, Mr. De Lille has acted as Chief Financial & Information Officer of BMT Group, an industrial family owned holding company active in high-precision machining. Mr. De Lille serves as an independent director on the board of directors of Boma NV, a Belgian private company specializing in cleaning products. In 1988, Mr. De Lille was the award winner for the best final paper of the Department of Economics from KU Leuven. In 2010, he received the CFO Magazine Award for the Best Finance Team of the year for Working Capital in Belgium. Mr. De Lille holds a Masters degree in Economics, with a major in Econometrics and Mathematical Economics, from KU Leuven.
Hilde Ingelaere. Hilde Ingelaere co-founded Materialise in 1990, together with the companys Chief Executive Officer, Wilfried Vancraen, and has served as one of our directors since 1997. In her early years at Materialise, Ms. Ingelaere managed several staff departments including human resources, finance and legal. Today as the Executive Vice President of Materialise, she plays an important role in strategic negotiations with a focus on partnerships and applications in the medical domain. Prior to joining Materialise, Ms. Ingelaere conducted cardiovascular clinical research at Bristol-Myers Squibb from 1986 to 1989. She then worked as a business analyst with Plant Genetic Systems from 1989 to 1992. Ms. Ingelaere holds a Masters degree in Bioengineering from KU Leuven, where she focused on Biotechnology, and a Masters degree in Business Administration from KU Leuven.
Pol Ingelaere. Pol Ingelaere has served as one of our directors since 2011. Mr. Ingelaere has been involved for many years in education and the sciences, teaching physics, chemistry and biology to final grade college students in Belgium. In 1981 Mr. Ingelaere was appointed as an inspector for all science teachers in West Flanders, Belgium. Mr. Ingelaere has been an active member of a number of educational commissions. Mr. Ingelaere holds a Masters degree in Biology from the University of Ghent and an International Certificate in Human Ecology from the Free University of Brussels.
Jürgen Ingels. Jürgen Ingels has served as one of our independent directors since November 2013. Mr. Ingels is Founder and Managing Partner of SmartFin Capital, a growth stage private equity fund that was set up in December 2014. In October 2014, Mr. Ingels sold Clear2Pay NV/S.A., a global innovative payments software technology company he founded in 2000, to FIS Global. The clients of Clear2Pay include global and major regional financial institutions such as ING Group, Banco Santander, S.A., Crédit Agricole S.A., BNP Paribas, The U.S. Federal Reserve, Royal Bank of Scotland, The Peoples Bank of China (PBOC). Mr. Ingels started his career in private equity in 1997 at Dexia NV/S.A., where his role was focused on investing in technology companies. Mr. Ingels currently serves as a director on the board of directors for UnifiedPost NV, Guardsquare NV, Projective NV, Itineris NV, Itiviti AB, Willemen Groep, Ghelamco NV, WDP (Euronext), and Vavato. In 2015, Mr. Ingels co-founded The Glue, a provider of infrastructure solutions for financial institutions. In 2018, Mr. Ingels founded Scale-Ups.eu and organized Supernova, a four-day technology event in Antwerp with over 30.000 visitors. Mr. Ingels holds a Masters degree in Business Administration and a Masters degree in Political and Social Sciences from the University of Antwerp.
Jos Vander Sloten. Jos Vander Sloten has served as one of our directors since January 2007. Mr. Vander Sloten is a full professor at the Faculty of Engineering Science, KU Leuven and chaired the Division of Biomechanics for two terms from 2006 to 2014. He chaired the Leuven Medical Technology Centre (L-MTC), which he founded in 2008 until the end of his two terms in 2016. Mr. Vander Sloten teaches engineering mechanics, problem solving and engineering design, computer integrated surgery systems, and medical device design including regulatory affairs. From 2006 to 2012, he served as program director of the Master in Biomedical Engineering at KU Leuven. His research interests are computer applications in musculoskeletal biomechanics and computer integrated surgery, on which he authored more than 160 journal papers. Mr. Vander Sloten is a Founding Fellow of the European Alliance for Medical and Biological Engineering and Science, where he previously served as president in 2006, president-elect in 2005 and secretary-general from 2003 to 2004. In 2015, he was elected as a member of the International Academy for Medical and Biological Engineering. Mr. Vander Sloten holds a Masters degree in Mechanical Engineering and a PhD in Mechanical Engineering Biomedical Engineering from KU Leuven. Since 2016, he is Vice-Dean for International Affairs at the Faculty of Engineering Science, KU Leuven.
Lieve Verplancke. Godelieve (Lieve) Verplancke has served as one of our independent directors since June 2015. Ms. Verplancke began her career in 1984 with The Beecham Group (now part of GlaxoSmithKline), and has since held key management positions with Merck & Co., as well as Bristol-Myers Squibb, where she served as Managing Director, leading their Belgian/GDL subsidiary, until 2012. Ms. Verplancke has also served as a board member for Brussels-based Europe Hospitals, the Imelda Hospital in Bonheiden, the Euronext fund, Quest for Growth, MdxHealth and the Stichting tegen Kanker. She is also the founder and managing director of Qaly@Beersel, an elderly care center in Belgium. In addition to being a medical doctor (MD KU Leuven), Ms. Verplancke holds a postgraduate degree in Economics and a Master in Business Administration from the University of Antwerp. She has also completed courses at INSEAD, CEDEP, Columbia University and the Vlerick Business School, and is a certified Executive Coach (PCC).
Bart Luyten. Bart Luyten has served as one of our independent directors since June 2017 and also previously served as representative of one of our directors from 2012 to 2015. Mr. Luyten is Founder and Managing Partner of SmartFin Capital, a private equity fund investing in growth stage technology companies. Previously, Mr. Luyten was the Founder and Managing Director of Sniper Investments NV, a smart technologies venture capital fund that was liquidated in 2016. Mr. Luyten has experience as Investment Director of Partners At Venture, Managing Partner of Privast Capital Partners and General Partner of Nausicaa Ventures, all Belgian-based private equity and venture capital funds with a focus on technology investments. Mr. Luyten currently holds positions on the boards of directors of a number of European technology companies and serves on the advisory board of Boston Millennia Partners II, a U.S. based venture capital and private equity firm he was associated with earlier in his career. Mr. Luyten holds a Master of Science degree in Applied Economics from the University of Antwerp and a postgraduate Master degree in SME management from VIZO Brussels.
Volker Hammes. Volker Hammes, has served as one of our directors since November 2018. Mr. Hammes has served as a Managing Director of BASF New Business GmbH, a subsidiary of BASF SE, the German chemical conglomerate (FWB: BAS), since January 2016 and a Chairman of BASF 3D Printing Solutions GmbH, another subsidiary of BASF, since August 2017. Between 2012 and 2016, Mr. Hammes also served as director or officer of various BASF affiliates, including as Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director, Head of Business Center Turkey, Middle East and North Africa of BASF Turk Kimya San. Ltd. Sti. In addition, Mr. Hammes has served as a director on the board of directors of Essentium Inc., a provider of industrial 3D printing solutions, since December 2017. Mr. Hammes holds a Master of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering, Polymer Technology from RWTH Aachen.
Our board of directors has established an Executive Committee, within the meaning of article 524bis of the Belgian Companies Code. The following is a brief summary of the professional experience of the members of our Executive Committee, which was established effective as of January 1, 2017:
Johan Pauwels. Johan Pauwels has served as an Executive Vice President of our company since January 2011 and has been with our company since our founding. In 1990, Mr. Pauwels completed his Masters thesis on stereolithography on the very first 3D printing machine at Materialise. After graduating in 1991, Mr. Pauwels stayed on with our company, focusing on software development to support our 3D printing services. Throughout his career with our company, Mr. Pauwels has held several positions, including Software Sales Manager and Director of Sales, and is currently an Executive Vice President responsible for global sales organization and our sales offices around the world. Mr. Pauwels holds a Masters degree in Electro-Mechanical Engineering from KU Leuven.
Bart Van der Schueren. Bart Van der Schueren has served as an Executive Vice President of our company since January 2011 and as our Chief Technology Officer since 2016. Prior to joining Materialise, Mr. Van der Schueren was at KU Leuven as a liaison engineer for the newly founded Materialise and established the basic research activities for the company while also founding the research activities in 3D printing at the KU Leuven. Mr. Van der Schueren then went on to obtain a PhD in selective laser metal sintering. In 1995, Mr. Van der Schueren officially joined Materialise and ran the service bureau. Over the years, his dedication and expertise has grown the service bureau from a regional player to one of the most prominent additive manufacturing facilities in Europe. In 2011, Mr. Van der Schueren became an Executive Vice President of our company, responsible for the Materialise Manufacturing segment and focusing on production and engineering services. Since 2018, Mr. Van der Schueren is globally responsible for the research activities of Materialise. Mr. Van der Schueren holds a PhD in Selective Laser Metal Sintering and a Masters degree in Mechanical Engineering from KU Leuven.
Johan Albrecht. Johan Albrecht has represented Alfinco BVBA as our Chief Financial Officer since August 2015. Mr. Albrecht joined Materialise from BARC NV, a global central laboratory that supports the pharmaceutical and biotech industry in the development of new drugs, where he served as Chief Financial Officer between 1989 and 2015, with responsibility for its worldwide financial and business reporting and control systems. Mr. Albrecht was also a member of BARC NVs executive committee and a director in its subsidiaries in Belgium, the United States, China, Australia, Singapore and South Africa. After Cerba European Lab, a network of 200 laboratories, acquired BARC NV in 2007, Mr. Albrecht also joined Cerba European Labs executive committee in 2011. Prior to joining BARC NV, Mr. Albrecht served in various financial capacities with Pizzaland Benelux (United Biscuits), Applied Data Research and Minit International. Mr. Albrecht holds a postgraduate degree in corporate finance from KU Leuven and a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration from HU Brussels University.
Stefaan Motte. Stefaan Motte serves as Vice President and General Manager of the Materialise Software segment, and as such is responsible for the general strategic management of that segment. Mr. Motte joined us in April 2010, with an initial focus on growing our cranio-maxillofacial business. From 2012 onwards, Mr. Mottes scope broadened to orthopaedic applications as he took up the role of Director of the Clinical Business Unit. From 2015 onwards, Mr. Motte assumed his current role leading the Software business. Mr. Motte has been a member of the Materialise Executive Committee since 2010. Prior to joining Materialise, Mr. Motte was a software architect and project manager with Koninklijke Philips NV from 2001 to 2006. From 2006 to 2010, Mr. Motte worked with NXP semiconductors as a competence center manager, and a member of the NXP Belgium management team. Mr. Motte holds a Master of Science degree in Mathematics from KU Leuven and a Master of Science degree in Applied Informatics from KU Leuven. In 2017 Mr. Motte was appointed Fellow of the Faculty of Science, KU Leuven.
Brigitte de Vet-Veithen. Brigitte de Vet-Veithen has represented De Vet Management bvba as Vice President Medical since June 2016. Mrs de Vet-Veithen has more than 20 years of experience in the Healthcare and Life Sciences Sector. She has worked in various management roles for Johnson & Johnson, ultimately serving as Vice President for the EMEA region of Cordis Neurovascular and General Manager of Cordis in Germany. Before joining Materialise she has held various leadership roles as representative of De Vet Management bvba including the role of Chief Executive Officer of Acertys group, a provider of medical devices, software, services and supplies to hospitals and medical professionals. Mrs de Vet-Veithen holds a Master of Business Administration with a Major in Engineering from HEC Liege and an MBA from INSEAD.
Jurgen Laudus. Jurgen Laudus serves as Vice-President of our Materialise Manufacturing segment. Mr. Laudus joined us in August 2001 as project manager and continued to our U.K. office to become Rapid Tooling manager in 2003. For two years, Mr. Laudus was responsible for both our Rapid Tooling sales support and production management. In 2005, Mr. Laudus returned to Belgium to become international production manager for our additive manufacturing services and later on sales manager, playing an active role in the growth of the additive manufacturing production activities of Materialise. Mr. Laudus holds a Master of Science degree in Engineering from the KU Leuven.
Eddy Crits. Eduard (Eddy) Crits has served as our Chief Information Officer since August 2018. For the past 30 years of his career, Mr. Crits held managerial and executive positions in ICT, Product Development, Operations and Engineering in global technological companies such as Agfa, IPTE and IBA. Mr. Crits holds a PhD degree in Physics from KU Leuven and an Executive MBA degree from the University of Antwerp.
Conny Hooghe. Conny Hooghe represented SoHo Services as our Global HR Director since September 2017. She holds a Master of Industrial Psychology from the University of Ghent. Previously she has held several human resources management positions within technological oriented or IT companies like Wolters Kluwer, Fujitsu Services and Atos Origin.
Carla Van Steenbergen. Carla Van Steenbergen has served as our in-house counsel since 2003, and her role has gradually evolved into our Chief Legal Officer. Ms. Van Steenbergen has served as our Compliance Officer since June 2014, and is a member of our Executive Committee in addition to being secretary to the board of directors. Ms. Van Steenbergen graduated from the law faculty of KU Leuven in 1999. After having worked for three years at Brussels based law firm Marx Van Ranst Vermeersch & Partners, she temporarily moved to London to earn a LLM degree at Kings College London. Upon her return to Belgium, she started working as in-house legal counsel for our company, a position which she holds to this day. Over the years, our legal department has expanded, changing Ms. Van Steenbergens role from the sole company lawyer to that of a legal team manager.
Wilfried Vancraen and Hilde Ingelaere are spouses. Pol Ingelaere is the father of Hilde Ingelaere. No other family relationship exists between any members of our board of directors or senior management.
Compensation of Directors
Our Remuneration and Nomination Committee recommends the level of remuneration for directors. These recommendations are subject to approval by our board of directors and, subsequently, by our shareholders at the annual general meeting. During the year ended December 31, 2019, only the directorships of Mr. Vancraen, Mr. Leys, Ms. Ingelaere, Mr. De Lille, Mr. Vander Sloten, Mr. Ingels, Mr. Luyten, Ms. Verplancke and Mr. Hammes were remunerated. See Compensation of Senior Management and Executive Committee below for more information about the remuneration of the directorships of Mr. Vancraen, Mr. Leys and Ms. Ingelaere. During the year ended December 31, 2019, Mr. De Lille, Mr. Vander Sloten, Mr. Ingels, Mr. Luyten, Ms. Verplancke and Mr. Hammes each received annual remuneration equal to 10,000. In addition, Mr. De Lille, Mr. Vander Sloten, Mr. Ingels, Mr. Luyten, Ms. Verplancke and Mr. Hammes each received a remuneration of 1,250 per physical board meeting that he or she attended and 625 for each board meeting held via conference call (lasting more than one hour) that he or she attended.
In addition, the Chairman of the Audit Committee and the Chairman of the Remuneration and Nomination Committee received annual remuneration of 7,500 and 2,500, respectively. Each independent member (including the Chairman) of the Audit Committee or the Remuneration and Nomination Committee received a remuneration of 1,250 for each physical committee meeting that he or she attended, and 625 for each committee meeting held via conference call (lasting more than one hour) and that he or she attended. The Remuneration and Nomination Committee benchmarks directors compensation against peer companies to ensure that it is competitive. In addition, our board of directors sets and revises, from time to time, the rules and level of compensation for directors carrying out a special mandate or sitting on one or more of the board of directors committees and the rules for reimbursement of directors business-related out-of-pocket expenses.
Compensation of Senior Management and Executive Committee
In 2019, our senior management received in the aggregate total gross compensation of 2.48 million, which included base salary, bonus payments, company car allowance and other benefits. This amount also includes the remuneration of the directorships of Mr. Vancraen, Mr. Leys and Ms. Ingelaere and the compensation for the members of the Executive Committee.
We have entered into services agreements (Contracts for Paid Office as a member of the Executive Committee) with each member of our Executive Committee. The terms of these agreements are substantially similar. These agreements generally provide for an annual base salary. In addition to the fixed remuneration components, under the terms of these agreements, members of our Executive Committee are entitled to certain additional benefits (including mobile phone and director and officer liability insurance) and reimbursement of necessary and reasonable expenses. These services agreements with members of our Executive Committee provide for payments and benefits (including upon termination of employment) that we believe are in line with customary market practice for similar companies who are operating in our industry.
C. Board Practices
Except as described above under B. CompensationCompensation of Senior Management and Executive Committee, we do not have service contracts with any member of our board of directors or Executive Committee.
Board of Directors Practices
Decisions are generally made by our board of directors as a whole. However, decisions on certain matters may be delegated to committees of our board of directors or to the Executive Committee to the extent permitted by law and our articles of association. The chairperson, or if he or she is prevented from doing so, the vice chairperson, chairs the meetings of our board of directors and determines the order in which the agenda items are discussed, the method and order of the voting, any adjournment of the discussion and passing of resolutions on individual agenda items after a due assessment of the circumstances.
Our board of directors transferred management powers to the Executive Committee, except for the general policy of the company and other powers which are reserved by Belgian company law to the board of directors. The Executive Committee is supervised by our board of directors. The following actions are comprised under general policy of our company and are thus excluded from the powers of the Executive Committee:
mergers and acquisitions;
transfer and waive of intellectual property rights to third parties;
granting of exclusivity rights to third parties with an important impact on the freedom of a particular business segment;
nomination and removal of members of the Executive Committee;
opening of offices abroad and nomination and removal of managers thereof;
conclusion of financial loans;
sale and purchase of real estate; and
cancellation of a particular product line.
Our board of directors entrusted the daily management of the company to Wilfried Vancraen, our Chief Executive Officer, in conformity with article 525 of the Belgian Companies Code.
Pursuant to our articles of association, our board of directors may form committees from among its members and charge them with the performance of specific tasks. The committees tasks, authorizations and processes are determined by our board of directors. Where permissible by law and our articles of association, important powers of our board of directors may also be transferred to committees.
The Audit Committee consists of three members: Johan De Lille (Chairman), Lieve Verplancke and Jürgen Ingels. Our board of directors has determined that Messrs. De Lille and Ingels and Ms. Verplancke are independent under Rule 10A-3 of the Exchange Act and the applicable rules of the NASDAQ Stock Market and that each of Messrs. De Lille and Ingels and Ms. Verplancke qualifies as an audit committee financial expert as defined under the Exchange Act.
Our Audit Committee assists our board of directors in overseeing the accuracy and integrity of our accounting and financial reporting processes and audits of our consolidated financial statements, the implementation and effectiveness of an internal control system and our compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, the independent auditors qualifications and independence and the performance of the independent auditors.
The Audit Committees duties and responsibilities to carry out its purposes include, among others:
the review of our accounting processes;
the review of the effectiveness of our internal systems of control, risk management and compliance;
the consideration and recommendation of the nomination, compensation, retention and termination of the Companys statutory auditor for Belgian company law purposes and the Companys independent auditor for SEC purposes, the commissioning of the auditors to conduct audits, agreeing on additional services to be provided by the auditors under their respective engagements, the establishment of the scope and the main review points of the audit and oversight of the auditors work (including resolution of disagreements with the auditors);
the preparation of our board of directors resolution on our consolidated financial statements;
reviewing our interim consolidated financial statements that are made public or otherwise filed with any securities regulatory authority;
discussing any flaws relating to our internal control systems, as reported by our board of directors to the audit committee;
monitoring our bookkeeping and records; and
the establishment of procedures for (i) the receipt, retention and treatment of complaints we receive regarding accounting, internal accounting controls or auditing matters and (ii) the confidential, anonymous submission by our employees of concerns regarding questionable accounting or auditing matters.
Our Audit Committee is entitled to review information on any point it wishes to verify, and is authorized to acquire such information from any of our employees. It is also authorized to obtain independent advice, including legal advice, if this is necessary for an inquiry into any matter under its responsibility. It is entitled to call on the resources that will be needed for this task. It is entitled to receive reports directly from the auditors, including reports with recommendations on how to improve our control processes.
Remuneration and Nomination Committee
Our Remuneration and Nomination Committee consists of three members: Wilfried Vancraen, Jozef Vander Sloten and Johan De Lille. Our board of directors has determined that Mr. De Lille is independent under the applicable rules of the NASDAQ Stock Market.
Our Remuneration and Nomination Committee assists our board of directors in its decisions relating to the remuneration policy and individual remuneration packages for our board of directors and Chief Executive Officer, the appointment of directors, the Chief Executive Officer and the other members of senior management.
The Remuneration and Nomination Committees duties and responsibilities to carry out its purposes include, among others:
identifying individuals qualified to become members of our board of directors, consistent with criteria approved by our board of directors;
recommending to our board of directors the director nominees for each annual general meeting, taking into account any nomination rights that certain shareholders may have under our articles of association;
recommending to our board of directors director nominees to fill vacancies;
recommending to our board of directors qualified and experienced directors for service on the committees of the board of directors;
recommending to our board of directors the compensation of the members of senior management;
recommending to our board of directors any incentive compensation plans and equity-based plans, and awards thereunder, and profit-sharing plans for our employees;
evaluating the performance of our Chief Executive Officer; and
advising our board of directors on other compensation issues.
The table below sets out information about the number of FTEs and fully dedicated consultants, which consultants included individual professionals who are registered as private entrepreneurs in Ukraine and who work exclusively with our company. FTEs who are a part of one or more of our three core competencies are allocated to one of our segments and therefore included in our segment reporting.
|For the year ended December 31,|
Includes 104 Engimplan FTEs.
We currently do not have a work council or trade union delegation. We have a health and safety committee entitled to certain information and consultation rights under Belgian law, at our Belgian headquarters. We consider our employee relations to be good and have never experienced a work stoppage.
E. Share Ownership
The following table sets forth information relating to beneficial ownership of our ordinary shares, as of April 24, 2020, for each member of our board of directors and senior management as of April 24, 2020:
|Ordinary Shares Beneficially |
Owned as of April 24, 2020
A Tre C CVOA, represented by Johan De Lille(5)
Jos Vander Sloten
Bart Van der Schueren(7)
Carla Van Steenbergen(9)
Brigitte de Vet-Veithen
Less than 1%
Except as otherwise indicated, the address for each of the persons named above is Technologielaan 15, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC. In computing the number of shares beneficially owned by a person and the percentage ownership of that person, we have included shares that the person has the right to acquire within 60 days of April 12, 2019, including through the exercise of any option, warrant or other right or the conversion of any other security. These shares, however, are not included in the computation of the percentage ownership of any other person. Except as otherwise indicated, we believe the persons named in this table have sole voting and investment power with respect to all ordinary shares shown as beneficially owned by them, subject to community property laws where applicable and to the information contained in the footnotes to this table.
Consists of (i) 5,331,164 ordinary shares held by Mr. Vancraen, (ii) 277,500 ordinary shares held by Ms. Ingelaere, (iii) 15,000 ADSs jointly held by Mr. Vancraen and Ms. Ingelaere, (iv) 14,021,612 ordinary shares jointly held by Mr. Vancraen and Ms. Ingelaere through Idem, a civil partnership (burgerlijke maatschap / société civile de droit commun) that is controlled and managed by Mr. Vancraen and Ms. Ingelaere, (v) 13,428,688 ordinary shares held by Ailanthus NV, which is owned and controlled by Mr. Vancraen and Ms. Ingelaere, and (vi) 25,000 ADSs held by Ailanthus NV. Mr. Vancraen and Ms. Ingelaere may be deemed to share voting power and investment power over these shares, and ADSs. Does not include (i) 1,125 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Vancraen or 1,125 warrants issued and granted to Ms. Ingelaere under the 2013 Warrant Plan, that will be exercisable upon vesting for an aggregate of 4,500 ordinary shares and 4,500 ordinary shares, respectively, at 2.14 per share, which vests in thirds on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018 and that expire in 2023, (ii) 18,180 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Vancraen or 18,180 warrants issued and granted to Ms. Ingelaere under the 2014 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 18,180 ordinary shares and 18,180 ordinary shares, respectively, at 8.81 per share, vest 25% on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018 and expire in 2024 or (iii) 15,000 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Vancraen or 15,000 warrants issued and granted to Ms. Ingelaere under the 2015 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 15,000 ordinary shares and 15,000 ordinary shares, respectively, at 6.45 per share, vested or will vest 10% on September 2018, 20% on September 2019, 30% on September 2020 and 40% on September 2021, and expire in 2025.
Consists of (i) 67,500 ADSs and (ii) 508,904 ordinary shares issuable upon conversion of 1,000 convertible bonds which have been issued to and subscribed by Mr. Leys and Ms. Kindt and which can be converted at a conversion price of 1.97 per share and mature in 2020. Does not include (i) 18,194 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Leys under the 2013 Warrant Plan, that will be exercisable upon vesting for an aggregate of 72,776 ordinary shares at 1.97 per share, which vests in thirds on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018, and that expire in 2023, or (ii) 15,000 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Leys under the 2015 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 15,000 ordinary shares at 6.45 share, vested or will vest 10% on September 2018, 20% on September 2019, 30% on September 2020 and 40% on September 2021, and expire in 2025.
The address for A Tre C CVOA is Timmermansstraat 32, 8340 Damme, Belgium.
Consists of (i) 40,000 ordinary shares held jointly with Mr. Pauwels spouse Kristine Van Muylder, (ii) 10,590 ADSs held jointly with Ms. Van Muylder. Mr. Pauwels and Ms. Van Muylder may be deemed to share voting power and investment power over these shares, and (iii) 100,000 ordinary shares jointly held by Mr. Pauwels and Ms. Van Muylder through Sorelle, a civil partnership (burgerlijke maatschap / société civile de droit commun) that is controlled and managed by Mr. Pauwels and Ms. Van Muylder. Does not include (i) 375 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Pauwels under the 2013 Warrant Plan, that will be exercisable upon vesting for an aggregate of 1,500 ordinary shares at 2.14 per share, which vests in thirds on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018, and that expire in 2023, (ii) 9,090 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Pauwels under the 2014 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 9,090 ordinary shares at 8.81 per share, vest 25% on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018 and expire in 2024 or (iii) 15,000 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Pauwels under the 2015 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 15,000 ordinary shares at 6.45 per share, vested or will vest 10% on September 2018, 20% on September 2019, 30% on September 2020 and 40% on September 2021, and expire in 2025.
Consists of (i) 129,052 ordinary shares held by Mr. Van der Schueren and (ii) 9,265 ADSs held by Mr. Van der Scheuren. Does not include (i) 375 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Van der Schueren under the 2013 Warrant Plan, that will be exercisable upon vesting for an aggregate of 1,500 ordinary shares at 2.14 per share, which vests in thirds on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018, and that expire in 2023, (ii) 9,090 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Van der Schueren under the 2014 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 9,090 ordinary shares at 8.81 per share, vest 25% on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018 and expire in 2024 or (iii) 10,500 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Van der Schueren under the 2015 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 10,500 ordinary shares at 6.45 per share, vested or will vest 10% on September 2018, 20% on September 2019, 30% on September 2020 and 40% on September 2021, and expire in 2025.
Consists of 22,374 ADSs held by Mr. Laudus. Does not include (i) 375 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Laudus under the 2013 Warrant Plan, that will be exercisable upon vesting for an aggregate of 1,500 ordinary shares at 2.14 per share, which vests in thirds on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018, and that expire in 2023, (ii) 9,090 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Laudus under the 2014 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 9,090 ordinary shares at 8.81 per share, vest 25% on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018 and expire in 2024 or (iii) 15,000 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Laudus under the 2015 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 4,000 ordinary shares at 6.45 per share, vested or will vest 10% on September 2018, 20% on September 2019, 30% on September 2020 and 40% on September 2021, and expire in 2025.
Consists of (i) 27,764 ordinary shares held by Ms. Van Steenbergen and (ii) 1,500 ADSs held by Ms. Van Steenbergen. Does not include (i) 375 warrants issued and granted to Ms. Van Steenbergen under the 2013 Warrant Plan, that will be exercisable upon vesting for an aggregate of 1,500 ordinary shares at 2.14 per share, which vests in thirds on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018, and that expire in 2023, (ii) 9,090 warrants issued and granted to Ms. Van Steenbergen under the 2014 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 9,090 ordinary shares at 8.81 per share, vest 25% on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018 and expire in 2024 or (iii) 15,000 warrants issued and granted to Ms. Van Steenbergen under the 2015 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 4,000 ordinary shares at 6.45 per share, vested or will vest 10% on September 2018, 20% on September 2019, 30% on September 2020 and 40% on September 2021, and expire in 2025.
Consists of (i) 1,500 ordinary shares held by Mr. Motte and (ii) 15 ADSs held by Mr. Motte. Does not include (i) 375 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Motte under the 2013 Warrant Plan that will be exercisable upon vesting for an aggregate of 1,500 ordinary shares at 2.14 per share, which vests in thirds on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018, and that expire in 2023, (ii) 9,090 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Motte under the 2014 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 9,090 ordinary shares at 8.81 per share, vest 25% on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018 and expire in 2024 or (iii) 3,500 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Motte under the 2015 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 3,500 ordinary shares at 6.45 per share, vested or will vest 10% on September 2018, 20% on September 2019, 30% on September 2020 and 40% on September 2021, and expire in 2025.
|ITEM 7.|| |
MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
A. Major Shareholders
The following table sets forth information relating to beneficial ownership of our ordinary shares, as of April 24, 2020, for each person who is known by us to own beneficially 5% or more of our outstanding ordinary shares:
|Ordinary Shares Beneficially |
Owned as of April 24, 2020
Nikko Asset Management Americas Inc.(4)
ARK Investment Management LLC(5)
(1) Except as otherwise indicated, the address for each of the persons named above is Technologielaan 15, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC. In computing the number of shares beneficially owned by a person and the percentage ownership of that person, we have included shares that the person has the right to acquire within 60 days of April 12, 2019, including through the exercise of any option, warrant or other right or the conversion of any other security. These shares, however, are not included in the computation of the percentage ownership of any other person. Except as otherwise indicated, we believe the persons named in this table have sole voting and investment power with respect to all ordinary shares shown as beneficially owned by them, subject to community property laws where applicable and to the information contained in the footnotes to this table.
Consists of (i) 5,331,164 ordinary shares held by Mr. Vancraen, (ii) 277,500 ordinary shares held by Ms. Ingelaere, (iii) 15,000 ADSs jointly held by Mr. Vancraen and Ms. Ingelaere, (iv) 14,021,612 ordinary shares jointly held by Mr. Vancraen and Ms. Ingelaere through Idem, a civil partnership (burgerlijke maatschap / société civile de droit commun) that is controlled and managed by Mr. Vancraen and Ms. Ingelaere, (v) 13,428,688 ordinary shares held by Ailanthus NV, which is owned and controlled by Mr. Vancraen and Ms. Ingelaere, and (vi) 25,000 ADSs held by Ailanthus NV. Mr. Vancraen and Ms. Ingelaere may be deemed to share voting power and investment power over these shares and ADSs. Does not include (i) 1,125 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Vancraen or 1,125 warrants issued and granted to Ms. Ingelaere under the 2013 Warrant Plan, that will be exercisable upon vesting for an aggregate of 4,500 ordinary shares and 4,500 ordinary shares, respectively, at 2.14 per share, which vest in thirds on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018 and that expire in 2023, (ii) 18,180 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Vancraen or 18,180 warrants issued and granted to Ms. Ingelaere under the 2014 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 18,180 ordinary shares and 18,180 ordinary shares, respectively, at 8.81 per share, vest 25% on a yearly basis beginning in October 2018 and expire in 2024 or (iii) 15,000 warrants issued and granted to Mr. Vancraen or 15,000 warrants issued and granted to Ms. Ingelaere under the 2015 Warrant Plan, which warrants are exercisable for 15,000 ordinary shares and 15,000 ordinary shares, respectively, at 6.45 per share, vested or will vest 10% on September 2018, 20% on September 2019, 30% on September 2020 and 40% on September 2021, and expire in 2025.
Based on a Schedules 13G/A filed with the SEC on February 12, 2020 by Nikko Asset Management Americas Inc. (NAMA) and jointly by Sumitomo Mitsui Trust Holdings Inc. (SMTH) and Nikko Asset Management Co., Ltd. (NAMC). NAMA is an investment advisor and in the Schedule 13G/A filed by NAMA it is reported that NAMA has (a) shared voting with respect to 2,654,048 ADSs and (b) shared dispositive power with respect to 2,667,051 ADSs. SMTH and NAMC are parent holding companies of NAMA and are non-U.S. institutions. NAMC is an investment advisor and in the Schedule 13G/A jointly filed by SMTH and NAMC it is reported that SMTH and NAMC beneficially own, as parent holding companies of NAMA, 2,667,051 ADSs and have (a) shared voting with respect to 2,667,051 ADSs and (b) shared dispositive power with respect to 2,667,051 ADSs.
Based on a Schedules 13G/A filed with the SEC on February 14, 2020 by ARK Investment Management LLC (ARK). ARK is an investment advisor and in the Schedule 13G/A filed by ARK it is reported that ARK has (a) sole voting power with respect to 2,545,931 ADSs; (b) shared voting with respect to 55,558 ADSs; and (c) shared dispositive power with respect to 2,834,406 ADSs.
None of our shareholders have different voting rights from other shareholders, except that as long as the Family Shareholders control, directly or indirectly, in the aggregate at least 20% of the voting rights attached to our ordinary shares, a majority of our directors must be appointed by our shareholders from a list of candidates proposed by the Family Shareholders. We are not aware of any arrangement that may, at a subsequent date, result in a change of control of our company.
As of December 31, 2019, there were 67 individual holders of record entered in our share register. The number of individual holders of record is based exclusively upon our share register and does not address whether a share or shares may be held by the holder of record on behalf of more than one person or institution who may be deemed to be the beneficial owner of a share or shares in our company. As of December 31, 2019, 66.9% of our outstanding ordinary shares were held in Belgium by 67 holders of record. As of December 31, 2019, assuming that all of our ordinary shares represented by ADSs are held by residents of the United States, approximately 33.1% of our outstanding ordinary shares were held in the United States by one holder of record, the Bank of New York Mellon, depositary of the ADSs. At such date, there were outstanding 17,583,315 ADSs, each representing one of our ordinary shares, and in the aggregate representing approximately 33.1% of our outstanding ordinary shares. The actual number of holders is greater than these numbers of record holders, and includes beneficial owners whose ADSs are held in street name by brokers and other nominees. This number of holders of record also does not include holder whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.
B. Related Party Transactions
Since January 1, 2019, there has not been, nor is there currently proposed, any material transaction or series of similar material transactions to which we were or are a party in which any of the members of our board of directors or senior management, holders of more than 10% of any class of our voting securities, or any member of the immediate family of any of the foregoing persons, had or will have a direct or indirect material interest, other than the compensation and shareholding arrangements we describe in Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees and A. Major Shareholders, and the transactions we describe below.
Ailanthus NV, a shareholder and director that is owned and controlled by Mr. Vancraen and Ms. Ingelaere, has previously provided several loans and financial leases to us for the purchase of machinery and a portion of our office and production buildings.
Ailanthus NV has granted us one loan at a fixed interest rate of 4.23% that matures in 2025. The purpose of the loan is to finance the purchase of a building in France. For additional information, see Note 15 to our audited consolidated financial statements.
We rent apartments on a regular basis from Ailanthus NV in order to host our employees from foreign subsidiaries who are visiting our headquarters in Leuven. The total amount paid to Ailanthus NV for rent in 2019 was 0.11 million.
Convertible Bonds Issuance
On October 28, 2013, we issued to Mr. Leys and his spouse 1,000 convertible bonds at an issuance price of 1,000 per bond. The bonds have a maturity of seven years, bear an annual interest rate of 3.7% and can be converted into ordinary shares at a conversion price of 1.97 per share.
Registration Rights Agreement
On September 15, 2016, we entered into a registration rights agreement with certain holders of our ordinary shares, warrants and convertible bonds, including certain of our directors, senior management and consultants, which we refer to as the Registration Rights Agreement. In accordance with the terms of the Registration Rights Agreement, we filed a shelf registration statement on Form F-3 to register up to 35,032,250 ordinary shares represented by 35,032,250 ADSs to be sold by the selling shareholders from time to time. These ordinary shares consist of ordinary shares previously issued to and ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of warrants or conversion of convertible bonds held by the selling shareholders, as well as ordinary shares underlying ADSs that were acquired by the selling shareholders on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.
C. Interests of Experts and Counsel
|ITEM 8.|| |
A. Consolidated Financial Statements and Other Information
See Item 3.A. Key Information A. Selected Financial Data and Item 18. Financial Statements.
Legal or Arbitration Proceedings
From time to time, we may be subject to various claims or legal or arbitration proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business. We are currently involved in a legal proceeding with Dentsply Implants NV regarding the alleged wrongful termination of a supply agreement we entered into with Dentsply Implants NV in 2010. The court of first instance ruled in favor of Dentsply Implants NV that we have wrongfully terminated the relationship. We have appealed this decision before the court has pronounced itself on the monetary damages. The amount of damages which Dentsply Implants NV is claiming is 2.7 million. While we are confident that the first instance decision will be overruled, we believe that, in the event that the first instance decision would be confirmed, the amount of monetary damages that we would be exposed to will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions or results of operations.
We are currently not a party to any other legal or arbitration proceedings, which, in the opinion of our management, is likely to have or could reasonably possibly have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. We have been made aware of patent infringement proceedings commenced in August 2019 in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware by Conformis Inc. against Zimmer Biomet, which may impact our knee guide business with Zimmer Biomet. We continue to monitor these proceedings.
Policy on Dividend Distribution
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our shares, and we have no present intention of declaring or paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any recommendation by our board of directors to pay dividends, subject to compliance with applicable law and any contractual provisions that restrict or limit our ability to pay dividends, including under agreements for indebtedness that we may incur, will depend on many factors, including our financial condition, results of operations, legal requirements, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors that our board of directors deems relevant.
All of the shares represented by the ADSs have the same dividend rights as all of our other outstanding shares. In general, distributions of dividends proposed by our board of directors require the approval of our shareholders at a shareholders meeting, although our board of directors may declare interim dividends without shareholder approval.
Furthermore, pursuant to Belgian law, the calculation of amounts available for distribution to shareholders, as dividends or otherwise, must be determined on the basis of our non-consolidated statutory Belgian GAAP financial statements. In addition, in accordance with Belgian law and our articles of association, we must allocate each year an amount of at least 5% of our annual net profit under our statutory non-consolidated accounts (prepared in accordance with Belgian GAAP) to a legal reserve until the reserve equals 10% of our share capital. As a consequence of these facts there can be no assurance as to whether dividends or other distributions will be paid out in the future or, if they are paid, their amount.
For information regarding the Belgian withholding tax applicable to dividends and related U.S. reimbursement procedures, see Item 10. Additional InformationE. TaxationBelgian Taxation.
B. Significant Changes
|ITEM 9.|| |
THE OFFER AND LISTING
|A. Offer and Listing Details|
The ADSs, each representing one ordinary share, have been listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol MTLS since June 25, 2014. Prior to that date, there was no public trading market for ADSs or our ordinary shares.
|B. Plan of Distribution|
The ADSs have been listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol MTLS since June 25, 2014.
|D. Selling Shareholders|
|F. Expenses of the Issue|
|A. Share Capital|
|B. Memorandum and Articles of Association|
The information called for by this item has been reported previously in Exhibit 2.3 (Description of Securities) to Amendment No. 1 on Form 20-F/A to our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on June 28, 2019, which exhibit is incorporated herein by reference, and is supplemented by the following additional information related to changes in our share capital:
The share capital of Materialise NV was increased following the exercise of warrants previously issued under our 2007 Warrant Plan on November 27, 2014, with 73,696 (including issuance premium) against the issuance of 75,200 new ordinary shares, and on November 20, 2015 with 96,040 (including issuance premium) against the issuance of 98,000 new ordinary shares. The 2007 Warrant Plan 2007 is now terminated. There are no outstanding warrants issued under this plan.
On March 5, 2015, the board of directors increased the share capital of Materialise NV by 578,917 (including issuance premium) against the issuance of 80,182 new ordinary shares, pursuant to the powers granted to it by the extraordinary general meeting of shareholders held on April 23, 2014.
On December 18, 2015, the board of directors adopted a new warrant plan, our 2015 Warrant Plan, and issued 1,400,000 warrants, which warrants are exercisable for 1,400,000 new ordinary shares, pursuant to the powers granted to it by the extraordinary general meeting of shareholders held on April 23, 2014. As of December 31, 2019, 352,000 of the warrants were granted.
On March 30, 2018, the board of directors increased the share capital of Materialise NV by 207,263.05 (including issuance premium) against the issuance of 102,856 new ordinary shares, pursuant to the powers granted to it by the extraordinary general meeting of shareholders held on April 23, 2014.
On July 18, 2018, the board of directors decided to increase the share capital of Materialise NV, which capital increase was confirmed on July 26 and July 27, 2018, by 33,361,847.73 (including issuance premium) and 4,993,171.73 (including issuance premium), respectively, against the issuance of 3,000,000 and 450,000 new ordinary shares, respectively, pursuant to the powers granted to it by the extraordinary general meeting of shareholders held on April 23, 2014.
On July 19, 2018, the board of directors increased the share capital of Materialise NV by 21,531,306.52 (including issuance premium) against the issuance of 1,953,125 new ordinary shares, pursuant to the powers granted to it by the extraordinary general meeting of shareholders held on April 23, 2014.
On December 28, 2018, the board of directors increased the share capital of Materialise NV following the exercise of warrants previously issued under the 2013 Warrant Plan and the 2014 Warrant Plan by 40,778.50 (including issuance premium) and 354,532.02 (including issuance premium), respectively, against the issuance of 19,100 and 40,242 new ordinary shares, respectively, pursuant to the powers granted to it by the extraordinary general meeting of shareholders held on April 23, 2014.
On November 28, 2019, the board of directors increased the share capital of Materialise NV following the exercise of warrants previously issued under the 2013 Warrant Plan and the 2014 Warrant Plan by 355,600.26 (including issuance premium) and 912,610.28 (including issuance premium), respectively, against the issuance of 178,164 and 103,588 new ordinary shares, respectively, pursuant to the powers granted to it by the extraordinary general meeting of shareholders held on June 4, 2019.
On April 7, 2020, the board of directors increased the share capital of Materialise NV following the exercise of warrants previously issued under the 2015 Warrant Plan by 140,287.5 (including issuance premium) against the issuance of 21,750 new ordinary shares, pursuant to the powers granted to it by the extraordinary general meeting of shareholders held on June 4, 2019.
|C. Material Contracts|
We have not entered into any material contracts in the prior two years other than in the ordinary course of business and other than those described elsewhere in this annual report, including under B. Memorandum and Articles of Association, Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party TransactionsB. Related Party Transactions.
|D. Exchange Controls|
There are no Belgian exchange control regulations that impose limitations on our ability to make, or the amount of, cash payments to residents of the United States. See Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsB. Liquidity and Capital ResourcesTransfers from Subsidiaries for a discussion of various restrictions applicable to transfers of funds by our subsidiaries.
The following paragraphs are a summary of material Belgian tax consequences of the ownership of ADSs by an investor. The summary is based on laws, treaties and regulatory interpretations in effect in Belgium on the date of this document, all of which are subject to change, including changes that could have retroactive effect.
The summary only discusses Belgian tax aspects which are relevant to U.S. holders of ADSs, or Holders. This summary does not address Belgian tax aspects which are relevant to persons who are residents in Belgium or engaged in a trade or business in Belgium through a permanent establishment or a fixed base in Belgium. This summary does not purport to be a description of all of the tax consequences of the ownership of ADSs, and does not take into account the specific circumstances of any particular investor, some of which may be subject to special rules, or the tax laws of any country other than Belgium. This summary does not describe the tax treatment of investors that are subject to special rules, such as banks, insurance companies, collective investment undertakings, dealers in securities or currencies, persons that hold, or will hold, ADSs in a position in a straddle, share-repurchase transaction, conversion transactions, synthetic security or other integrated financial transactions. Investors should consult their own advisers regarding the tax consequences of an investment in ADSs in the light of their particular circumstances, including the effect of any state, local or other national laws.
In addition to the assumptions mentioned above, it is also assumed in this discussion that for purposes of the domestic Belgian tax legislation, the owners of ADSs will be treated as the owners of the ordinary shares represented by such ADSs. However, the assumption has not been confirmed or verified with the Belgian Tax Administration.
Dividend Withholding Tax
As a general rule, a withholding tax of 30% is levied on the gross amount of dividends paid on the ordinary shares represented by the ADSs, subject to such relief as may be available under applicable domestic or tax treaty provisions. Dividends subject to the dividend withholding tax include all benefits attributed to the ordinary shares represented by the ADSs, irrespective of their form. A reimbursement of fiscal capital made in accordance with the Belgian Code of Companies and Associations is partly considered to be a distribution of the existing taxed reserves (irrespective whether incorporated into the capital or not) and/or the tax-free reserves incorporated into the capital. The proportion is determined on the basis of the ratio between certain taxed reserves and tax-free reserves incorporated into the capital on the one hand and, on the other hand, the aggregate of such reserves and the fiscal capital. In principle, fiscal capital includes paid-up statutory share capital, and subject to certain conditions, the paid-up issue premiums and the cash amounts subscribed to at the time of the issue of profit sharing certificates.
In case of a redemption by us of own shares represented by ADSs, the redemption distribution (after deduction of the portion of fiscal capital represented by the redeemed shares) will be treated as a dividend which in certain circumstances may be subject to a withholding tax of 30%, subject to such relief as may be available under applicable domestic or tax treaty provisions. In case of a liquidation of our Company, any amounts distributed in excess of the fiscal capital will be subject to a 30% withholding tax, subject to such relief as may be available under applicable domestic or tax treaty provisions.
For non-resident individuals and companies, the dividend withholding tax will be the only tax on dividends in Belgium, unless the non-resident holds ADSs in connection with a business conducted in Belgium, through a fixed base in Belgium or a Belgian permanent establishment.
Relief of Belgian Dividend Withholding Tax
Under the Belgium-United States Tax Treaty, or the Treaty, there is a reduced Belgian withholding tax rate of 15% on dividends paid by us to a U.S. resident which beneficially owns the dividends and is entitled to claim the benefits of the Treaty under the limitation of benefits article included in the Treaty (which we refer to as a Qualifying Holder). If such Qualifying Holder is a company that owns directly at least 10% of our voting stock, the Belgian withholding tax rate is further reduced to 5%. No withholding tax is however applicable if the Qualifying Holder, is: (i) a company that is a resident of the United States that has owned directly ADSs representing at least 10% of our capital for a 12-month period ending on the date the dividend is declared, or (ii) a pension fund that is a resident of the United States, provided that such dividends are not derived from the carrying on of a business by the pension fund or through an associated enterprise.
Under the normal procedure, we or our paying agent must withhold the full Belgian withholding tax (without taking into account the Treaty rate). Qualifying Holders may make a claim for reimbursement for amounts withheld in excess of the rate defined by the Treaty. The reimbursement form (Form 276 Div-Aut.) may be obtained from the Centre Etrangers, Kruidtuinlaan 50, PO 3429, 1000 Brussels, Belgium or online on the website of the Belgian tax authorities. Qualifying Holders may also, subject to certain conditions, obtain the reduced Treaty rate at source. Qualifying Holders should deliver a duly completed Form 276 Div-Aut. no later than ten days after the date on which the dividend is paid. U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors as to whether they qualify for reduction in withholding tax upon payment or attribution of dividends, and as to the procedural requirements for obtaining a reduced withholding tax upon the payment of dividends or for making claims for reimbursement.
Withholding tax is also not applicable, pursuant to Belgian domestic tax law, on dividends paid to certain U.S. pension funds provided that the U.S. pension fund (i) qualifies as a non-resident saver for Belgian withholding tax purposes (i.e., it has a separate legal personality and fiscal residence outside of Belgium), (ii) has a corporate purpose that consists solely in managing and investing funds collected in order to pay legal or complementary pensions, (iii) has activity that is limited to the investment of funds collected in the exercise of its statutory purpose, without any profit making activity and (iv) is exempt from income taxes in the United States. Furthermore, such pension fund may not contractually be obligated to redistribute the dividends to any beneficial owner of such dividends for whom it would manage the ADSs and subject to certain procedural formalities.
Under Belgian domestic tax law, a withholding tax exemption is available to dividends paid to a non-resident corporate shareholder (located in the EEA or in a country with which Belgium has entered in a double tax treaty including sufficient information exchange provisions) provided that (i) at the date of payment or attribution of the dividend it holds a participation in our company representing at least 10% of our share capital, (ii) this holding has been held in full ownership for an uninterrupted period of at least one year, (iii) this non-resident corporate shareholder is subject to a corporate income tax regime similar to Belgian corporate income tax regime without benefitting from a notably advantageous tax regime as compared to the ordinary income tax regime and (iv) its legal form is (similar to one of the legal forms) listed in the annex of the E.U. directive dated 23 July 1990 (90/435/EC) as amended by the directive of 22 December 2003 (2003/123/EC). This reduced withholding tax will apply provided that certain procedural formalities are complied with.
Finally, a withholding tax exemption is available, pursuant to Belgian domestic tax law, to dividends paid to a non-resident corporate shareholder (located in the EEA or in a country with which Belgium has entered in a double tax treaty including sufficient information exchange provisions) to the extent that at the date of payment or attribution of the dividend it holds a participation in our company representing less than 10%
of our share capital but the acquisition value of which is at least 2.5 million and provided that certain other conditions are met, i.e., that (i) this holding has been held in full ownership for an uninterrupted period of at least one year (ii) this non-resident corporate shareholder is subject to a corporate income tax regime similar to Belgian corporate income tax regime without benefitting from a notably advantageous tax regime as compared to the ordinary income tax regime, and (iii) its legal form is (similar to one of the legal forms) listed in the annex I, part A, of the E.U. directive dated 30 November 2011 (2011/96/EU) as amended by the directive of 8 July 2014 (2014/86/EU). This reduced withholding tax will apply only if and to the extent that the ordinary Belgian withholding tax cannot be credited or reimbursed to the non-resident corporate shareholder referred to below and subject to certain procedural formalities.
Capital Gains and Losses
Pursuant to the Treaty, capital gains and/or losses realized by a Qualifying Holder from the sale, exchange or other disposition of ADSs do not fall within the scope of application of Belgian domestic tax law.
Capital gains realized on ADSs by a corporate Holder which is not entitled to claim the benefits of the Treaty under the limitation of benefits article included in the Treaty are generally not subject to taxation in Belgium unless the corporate Holder is acting through a Belgian permanent establishment. Capital losses are not deductible.
Private individual Holders who are not entitled to claim the benefits of the Treaty under the limitation of benefits article included in the Treaty and which are holding ADSs as a private investment will, as a rule, not be subject to tax on any capital gains arising out of a disposal of ADSs. Losses will, as a rule, not be deductible in Belgium.
However, if the gain realized by such individual Holders on ADSs is deemed to be realized outside the scope of the normal management of such individuals private estate and the capital gain is obtained or received in Belgium, the gain will in principle be taxable at 33%. The Official Commentary to the ITC 1992 stipulates that occasional transactions on a stock exchange regarding ADSs should not be considered as transactions realized outside the scope of normal management of ones own private estate.
Capital gains realized by such individual Holders on the disposal of ADSs for consideration, outside the exercise of a professional activity, to a non-resident company (or a body constituted in a similar legal form), to a foreign state (or one of its political subdivisions or local authorities) or to a non-resident legal entity who is established outside the EEA, are in principle taxable at a rate of 16.5% if, at any time during the five years preceding the sale, such individual Holders has owned directly or indirectly, alone or with his/her spouse or with certain relatives, a substantial shareholding in us (that is, a shareholding of more than 25% of our shares).
Capital gains realized by a Holder upon the redemption of ADSs or upon our liquidation will generally be taxable as a dividend. See section Dividend Withholding Tax.
Estate and Gift Tax
There is no Belgian estate tax on the transfer of ADSs upon the death of a Belgian non-resident.
Donations of ADSs made in Belgium may or ma