Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Mastec
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$52.27 76 $3,980
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-30 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-06-30 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-03-31 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-30 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-06-30 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-03-31 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2018-11-01 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-02 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-22 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-02-27 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
DAL Delta Air Lines 38,060
SAFT Safety Insurance Group 1,420
PJC Piper Jaffray 978
SGRY Surgery Partners 487
ZYNE Zynerba Pharmaceuticals 175
GEC Great Elm Capital Group 117
CRR Carbo Ceramics 95
BBW Build A Bear Workshop 84
IMMY Imprimis Pharmaceuticals 0
ZNRG Znergy 0
MTZ 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for The Registrant's Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Note 1 - Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2 - Earnings per Share
Note 3 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Note 4 - Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Note 5 - Accounts Receivable, Net of Allowance, and Contract Assets and Liabilities
Note 6 - Property and Equipment, Net
Note 7 - Debt
Note 8 - Lease Obligations
Note 9 - Stock-Based Compensation and Other Employee Benefit Plans
Note 10 - Other Retirement Plans
Note 11 - Equity
Note 12 - Income Taxes
Note 13 - Segments and Related Information
Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies
Note 15 - Related Party Transactions
Note 16 - Quarterly Information (Unaudited)
Note 17 - Supplemental Guarantor Condensed Consolidating Financial Information
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
EX-10.25 mtz12311810-kex1025.htm
EX-21 mtz12311810-kex21.htm
EX-23.1 mtz12311810-kex231.htm
EX-31.1 mtz12311810-kex311.htm
EX-31.2 mtz12311810-kex312.htm
EX-32.1 mtz12311810-kex321.htm
EX-32.2 mtz12311810-kex322.htm

Mastec Earnings 2018-12-31

MTZ 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 mtz12311810-k.htm 10-K Document


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________________________________
Form 10-K
_____________________________________________

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
Commission File Number 001-08106
_____________________________________________

image0a08.jpg
MasTec, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Florida
65-0829355
(State or other jurisdiction of
(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)
Identification No.)
 
 
800 S. Douglas Road, 12th Floor,
 
Coral Gables, FL
33134
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(305) 599-1800
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, $0.10 Par Value
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer; as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.     Yes þ   No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes ¨  No   þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
þ
 
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
¨
 
Smaller reporting company
¨
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act.)    Yes ¨   No   þ
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant computed by reference to the price at which the common stock was last sold as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was approximately $3.2 billion (based on a closing price of $50.75 per share for the registrant’s common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on June 29, 2018).
There were 76,027,780 shares of common stock outstanding as of February 25, 2019.
The registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A for the 2019 annual meeting of shareholders is incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K to the extent stated herein.





TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
Part I    
Part II    
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Part IV    
Signatures    
 

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Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
The Company is making this statement pursuant to the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements described in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. We make statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“this Form 10-K” or this “Annual Report”) and in the documents that we incorporate by reference into this Annual Report that are forward-looking. When used in this Annual Report or in any other presentation, statements which are not historical in nature, including the words “anticipate,” “estimate,” “could,” “should,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “seek,” “expect,” “believe,” “intend,” “target,” “will,” “project,” “forecast,” “continue” and variations of these words and negatives thereof and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. They also include statements regarding:
our future growth and profitability;
our competitive strengths; and
our business strategy and the trends we anticipate in the industries and economies in which we operate.
These forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors, some of which are beyond our control, are difficult to predict, and could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or forecasted in the forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements include:
market conditions, technological developments, regulatory changes or other governmental policy uncertainty that affects us or our customers’ industries;
the effect on demand for our services of changes in the amount of capital expenditures by our customers due to, among other things, economic conditions, commodity price fluctuations, the availability and cost of financing, and customer consolidation in the industries we serve;
activity in the oil and gas, utility and power generation industries and the impact on our customers’ expenditure levels caused by fluctuations in prices of oil, natural gas, electricity and other energy sources;
our ability to manage projects effectively and in accordance with our estimates, as well as our ability to accurately estimate the costs associated with our fixed price and other contracts, including any material changes in estimates for completion of projects and estimates of the recoverability of change orders;
the timing and extent of fluctuations in operational, geographic and weather factors affecting our customers, projects and the industries in which we operate;
the highly competitive nature of our industry;
the ability of our customers, including our largest customers, to terminate or reduce the amount of work, or in some cases, the prices paid for services, on short or no notice under our contracts, and/or customer disputes related to our performance of services and the resolution of unapproved change orders;
our dependence on a limited number of customers and our ability to replace non-recurring projects with new projects;
risks related to completed or potential acquisitions, including our ability to identify suitable acquisition or strategic investment opportunities, to integrate acquired businesses within expected timeframes and to achieve the revenue, cost savings and earnings levels from such acquisitions at or above the levels projected, including the risk of potential asset impairment charges and write-downs of goodwill;
disputes with, or failures of, our subcontractors to deliver agreed-upon supplies or services in a timely fashion, and the risk of being required to pay our subcontractors even if our customers do not pay us;
risks associated with potential environmental issues and other hazards from our operations;    
risks related to our strategic arrangements, including our equity investees;
any exposure resulting from system or information technology interruptions or data security breaches;
any material changes in estimates for legal costs or case settlements or adverse determinations on any claim, lawsuit or proceeding;
the effect of state and federal regulatory initiatives, including costs of compliance with existing and future safety and environmental requirements;
the effect of federal, local, state, foreign or tax legislation and other regulations affecting the industries we serve and related projects and expenditures, including the effect of corporate income tax reform;
the adequacy of our insurance, legal and other reserves;
the outcome of our plans for future operations, growth and services, including business development efforts, backlog, acquisitions and dispositions;
our ability to maintain a workforce based upon current and anticipated workloads;
our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel, key management and skilled employees, including from acquired businesses, and our ability to enforce any noncompetition agreements;
fluctuations in fuel, maintenance, materials, labor and other costs;

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risks related to our operations that employ a unionized workforce, including labor availability, productivity and relations, as well as risks associated with multiemployer union pension plans, including underfunding and withdrawal liabilities;
risks associated with operating in or expanding into additional international markets, including risks from fluctuations in foreign currencies, foreign labor, general business conditions and risks from failure to comply with laws applicable to our foreign activities and/or governmental policy uncertainty;
restrictions imposed by our credit facility, senior notes and any future loans or securities;
our ability to obtain performance and surety bonds;
a small number of our existing shareholders have the ability to influence major corporate decisions;
risks associated with volatility of our stock price or any dilution or stock price volatility that shareholders may experience in connection with shares we may issue as consideration for earn-out obligations or as purchase consideration in connection with past or future acquisitions, or as a result of other stock issuances; and
other factors referenced in this Annual Report, including, without limitation, under Item 1. “Business,” Item 1A. “Risk Factors,” Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other factors detailed from time to time in the reports and other filings we make with the SEC.
We believe these forward-looking statements are reasonable; however, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based on current expectations. Furthermore, forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. If any of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or if any of our underlying assumptions are incorrect, our actual results may differ significantly from the results that we express in, or imply by, any of our forward-looking statements. These and other risks are detailed in this Form 10-K, in the documents that we incorporate by reference into this Form 10-K and in other documents that we file with the SEC. We do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise these forward-looking statements after the date of this Form 10-K to reflect future events or circumstances, except as required by applicable law. We qualify any and all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary factors.

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PART I

ITEM 1.
BUSINESS
We are a leading infrastructure construction company operating mainly throughout North America across a range of industries. Our primary activities include the engineering, building, installation, maintenance and upgrade of communications, energy, utility and other infrastructure, such as: wireless, wireline/fiber and customer fulfillment activities; petroleum and natural gas pipeline infrastructure; electrical utility transmission and distribution; power generation, including renewables; heavy civil; and industrial infrastructure. Our customers are primarily in these industries. Including our predecessor companies, we have been in business for approximately 90 years. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we had an average of approximately 19,000 employees and 380 locations, and offer our services primarily under the MasTec service mark. We have been consistently ranked among the top specialty contractors by Engineering News-Record for the past several years.
We provide our services to a diversified base of customers. We often provide services under master service and other service agreements, which are generally multi-year agreements. The remainder of our work is generated pursuant to contracts for specific projects or jobs that require the construction or installation of an entire infrastructure system or specified units within an infrastructure system.
We seek to grow and diversify our business organically and through acquisitions and/or other strategic arrangements in order to deepen our market presence, broaden our geographic reach and expand our service offerings. For discussion of our recent acquisitions, see Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Business,” which is incorporated by reference.
We manage our operations under five operating segments, which represent our five reportable segments: (1) Communications; (2) Oil and Gas; (3) Electrical Transmission; (4) Power Generation and Industrial and (5) Other. This structure is generally focused on broad end-user markets for our labor-based construction services.
The Communications segment performs engineering, construction, maintenance and customer fulfillment activities related to communications infrastructure, primarily for wireless and wireline/fiber communications and install-to-the-home customers, and, to a lesser extent, infrastructure for utilities, among others. We perform engineering, construction and maintenance services on oil and natural gas pipelines and processing facilities for the energy and utilities industries through our Oil and Gas segment. Our Electrical Transmission segment primarily serves the energy and utility industries through the engineering, construction and maintenance of electrical transmission lines and substations. Our Power Generation and Industrial segment primarily serves energy, utility and other end-markets through the installation and construction of power facilities, including from renewable sources, related electrical transmission infrastructure, ethanol/biofuel facilities and various types of heavy civil and industrial infrastructure. The Other segment includes equity investees, the services of which vary from those provided by our primary segments, as well as other small business units that perform construction and other services for a variety of international end-markets. See Note 13 - Segments and Related Information and Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which are incorporated by reference, for segment related information and significant customer concentrations.
In this Form 10-K, “$” means U.S. dollars unless otherwise indicated.
Industry Trends
Our industry is composed of national, regional and local companies that provide services to customers in a range of industries. We believe the following industry trends affect demand for our services:
Industry Opportunities in our Communications Segment
Significant advances in technology and rapid innovation in service offerings to data consumers continue to increase demand for faster and more reliable wireless and wireline/fiber communications network services. In its 2018 Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Trends, 2017-2022 report (the “2018 VNI report”), Cisco Systems, Inc. (“Cisco”) predicts that global network traffic will increase nearly threefold over the next five years. Additionally, broadband connection speeds are expected to nearly double by 2022, from approximately 40 Mbps to 75 Mbps. With increased usage of mobile devices and advancements in the “internet of things,” the amount of data affecting network traffic has grown significantly, and is expected to continue to experience dramatic growth. Increased data usage from video and voice transmission, digital video and music streaming, ‘smart’ television technology, home automation and connected home monitoring offerings, artificial intelligence, augmented and virtual reality and other advanced data services, including machine-to-machine connections such as autonomous vehicles, video surveillance, smart meters and digital health monitors, have, and will continue, to increase data traffic, resulting in the need for new and upgraded networks. One industry publication predicts that the demand for data capacity in ten years could be almost 1,000 times what it is today, and Cisco, in its 2018 VNI report, predicts that the number of devices connected to the network will exceed three times the global population by 2022.
In response to these growing demands, multiple major carriers have continued to expand, densify and optimize current wireless and wireline/fiber communications network capacity, while planning for next generation evolution technology including 5th generation (“5G”) wireless and fixed wireless network capacity, as well as enhanced broadband connection speeds. Large scale 5G deployments are expected over the next several years, which will include additional and improved tower capacity, as well as deployment of numerous higher bandwidth small/micro cells and distributed antenna systems to densify network performance. In addition, nationwide fiber projects in conjunction with 5G network deployment, such as Verizon Communications Inc.’s launch of “One Fiber,” expanded in 2018 and are expected to continue to rapidly expand to support network densification, data capacity and speed. These factors are expected to create incremental opportunities for investment in communications infrastructure in addition to the continued expansion and deployment by telephone companies and cable operators of fiber-to-the-home with 1-Gigabit-per-second high-speed internet connectivity. In addition, in 2017, AT&T was selected to build and run the First Responder Network Authority (“FirstNetTM”), a new wireless official public safety network for first responders throughout the United States, for which construction and limited operation commenced in 2018. AT&T has stated that it expects to spend approximately $40 billion over the next 25 years as it builds, manages and expands capacity in the network, along with a potential $6.5 billion federal government sponsored investment by FirstNetTM within the next five years. 

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One industry publication anticipates that up to an estimated $250 billion will be invested in 5G technologies over the next decade, and another industry publication predicts that the United States will require up to an estimated $150 billion of fiber infrastructure investment over the next five to seven years to support the increases in projected mobile data traffic and related broadband infrastructure needs. Multiple carriers tested and launched 5G initiatives in 2018, and nationwide fiber deployment projects are expected to continue to rapidly expand in the coming years. Furthermore, in the second half of 2018, the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) announced an initiative to speed deployment of 5G technology in the U.S. through the Facilitate America’s Superiority in 5G Technology, or “FAST” Plan. This plan is designed to make more low, mid and high-band spectrum available to the market and encourage additional investment in 5G wireless infrastructure by streamlining regulatory processes and updating infrastructure policies to speed the review of small cell infrastructure. Additionally, in the fourth quarter of 2018, the FCC also made available additional funds for the deployment of high-speed broadband technology under the Connect America Fund, which is designed to improve the quality and expand the availability of high-speed internet service in rural areas.
In the home installation and customer fulfillment markets, we believe that growth opportunities will be driven by customers seeking to expand their service offerings in the areas of home automation, connected home security monitoring and control, home entertainment offerings and commercial energy management solutions.
We believe that we are well positioned as one of the largest providers of communications and install-to-the-home infrastructure services to significantly benefit from the significant and multiple infrastructure opportunities as previously described. In addition, the buildout and deployment of the FirstNetTM network commenced in 2018, and is expected to create additional demand for our services in 2019 and beyond. These initiatives as well as recent trends toward streamlining regulatory processes to speed the deployment of 5G technology are expected to drive communications infrastructure investment for years to come.
Industry Opportunities in our Oil and Gas Segment
We are one of the leading pipeline contractors in North America, with a balanced portfolio of service offerings, including the construction and maintenance of large diameter (“long-haul”) pipeline, midstream pipeline, gathering lines and related compressor and pumping stations and treatment plants, offering both union and non-union services. Demand for pipeline infrastructure and the related level of oil, natural gas and product pipeline construction activity has grown significantly in recent years as technological advances and increasingly cost-effective production technologies have significantly increased producible North American oil and natural gas reserves. Technological advances in seismic imaging and data analysis have led to improvements in the identification of oil and natural gas reserves as well as the precision with which drilling operations can be performed, lowering the cost of production and maximizing output. The effect of these advances on oil and gas production activities in North America has also driven changes in the geographic locations of North American energy production. The increase in oil and natural gas production driven by these advances, as well as from robust demand, has led to ‘takeaway’ capacity issues, whereby more pipeline infrastructure is required to move this increased level of production to market. For example, the Permian, Bakken and Marcellus/Utica basins have experienced significant growth in production for which additional takeaway capacity is required. Permian basin oil production is expected to double by 2023, according to IHS Markit’s June 2018 Market Outlook report. Additionally, industry reporting indicates that the abundance of low-cost North American natural gas will continue to drive growth of natural gas as a source of lower-carbon power generation, both in the U.S. and abroad. In 2018, natural gas continued to surpass coal as the leading fuel type for electric power generation, and the Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) Annual Energy Outlook 2019 predicts that the U.S., which is already a net exporter of natural gas, will become a net exporter of energy, including oil and natural gas, by the early 2020s. In addition, demand for liquified natural gas (“LNG”) exports has risen dramatically in recent years, driven in part by the easing of certain export regulations, which is expected to drive construction of pipeline infrastructure for the transport of LNG to coastal export facilities in North America.
These trends are expected to continue to drive demand for U.S. oil and gas production, creating expanded opportunities for new pipeline infrastructure throughout North America. Significant investment in pipeline infrastructure will be required to move the increased volumes of oil and gas production to refining centers, distribution hubs, LNG export facilities and industrial users throughout North America, as well as to meet demand resulting from the desire to convert the transportation of oil and gas from traditional methods, such as truck and rail transport, to lower cost and safer pipeline infrastructure. According to the Pipeline & Gas Journal’s 2019 Global Pipeline Construction Outlook, there are approximately 36,000 miles of new and planned pipeline projects within North America, an increase of over 12% from the January 2017 report findings. In March 2018, the C Three Group predicted that over 10,000 miles of new oil and gas pipelines would be built over the three year period from 2018 to 2020, and in December 2018, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”) reported over 2,400 miles of pending onshore natural gas pipeline projects, three quarters of which are pipelines 100 miles or more in length. We anticipate that demand for pipeline infrastructure in North America will provide significant opportunities for years to come, and that our diverse capabilities and expertise will enable us to continue to be a leading service provider in this market.
We also believe that future opportunities exist for upgrades to existing pipeline infrastructure, including pipeline integrity and maintenance upgrades, modernization efforts, including digitization and other technology upgrades and upgrades to address safety regulations.
In addition to potential opportunities in the U.S., initiatives in Mexico are expected to provide long-term growth opportunities. These initiatives call for a shift from fuel oils to more environmentally sensitive and cleaner natural gas, including a program for the long-term importation of natural gas from the U.S., to provide for cleaner and more economical electrical power generation and energy usage. In 2017, MasTec completed construction on two pipelines to move U.S. sourced natural gas to the Mexico/U.S. border. We believe there will be additional pipeline infrastructure opportunities for the delivery of U.S. natural gas to Mexico, as well as opportunities within Mexico, in the coming years.
We believe that the above mentioned trends will support continued expanded levels of project activity, creating a multi-year cycle of demand for pipeline construction projects, and that we are well positioned to benefit from these trends.
Industry Opportunities in our Electrical Transmission Segment
The U.S. electrical transmission and distribution infrastructure requires significant ongoing maintenance, upgrade and expansion to continue delivery of reliable and affordable power, as well as to address future reliability needs. Additional investment in electrical infrastructure will be required to address power line congestion and to avoid delivery failure during peak periods, as well as to modernize the grid and strengthen aging infrastructure

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to withstand weather events, natural disasters and cyber threats. In addition, older power plants, including coal-fired and nuclear plants, continue to be retired, requiring replacement infrastructure. Regional shifts in population and industry could also create incremental demand for transmission and distribution construction and upgrades. According to a January 2019 industry publication, capital expenditures in the power and utilities sector exceeded $130 billion in 2018, with further growth expected in 2019.
Future demand for electrical transmission and distribution infrastructure is also expected to result from technological innovations, deployment of digital capabilities, expected growth in usage of electric/hybrid vehicles, and the continued development of electrical power generation from renewable power sources, among others. The expected growth in demand for, and deployment of, electrical power generation from renewable energy sources will require significant investment in transmission lines, as wind and solar power generation resources are typically located in remote areas of the country, far from industrial users and major population centers.  Transmission lines will be required to connect the power generated from renewable energy sources to electrical grid and infrastructure will also be required to provide for grid-scale storage of electricity from such renewable energy sources.
According to the DOE’s Annual Energy Outlook 2019, almost 450 net gigawatts of new electricity generating capacity are expected to be added in the U.S. through 2050, requiring significant investment in transmission and distribution by electric utility companies. Electrical grid upgrades and expansions in Canada and Mexico may also create opportunities for electrical transmission and distribution infrastructure services. We believe significant capital investment in the transmission and distribution system will continue to be required to meet the above mentioned needs, and that we are well positioned to benefit from these trends.
Industry Opportunities in our Power Generation and Industrial Segment
Growing interest in climate change initiatives and the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, together with growing corporate initiatives and certain regulatory and other policy initiatives at the federal, state and municipal levels, have spurred demand for energy production from sustainable, “green” power sources, including environmentally sensitive electrical power production from renewable sources such as wind, solar and biomass. Currently, almost 40 states, as well as the District of Columbia and four territories, have adopted renewable portfolio standards (“RPS”) or renewable energy goals. Approximately half of the states with RPS targets currently plan to achieve those targets by 2021, and others are considering increases to their current RPS targets. The DOE’s Annual Energy Outlook 2019 projects that 70 gigawatts of new wind and solar capacity will be added from 2018 to 2021 and predicts that renewable power generation will contribute over 30% of U.S. power generation capacity by 2050. These trends, coupled with advancing technologies and improvements in the cost performance and scalability of wind and solar power projects, are expected to continue to drive demand for construction of renewable resources throughout North America in the coming years. In addition to expected growth in demand for construction of new wind power installations, additional opportunities in wind infrastructure are being driven by recent trends toward replacement of existing wind turbines with next generation, higher efficiency turbines, as well as from maintenance of aging wind farms, including the repowering of wind turbines and foundations, which enables existing wind farms to produce more electricity at a lower cost.
The renewable energy industry is partially reliant on federal and state tax incentives, which have limited terms.  Currently, there are certain federal tax incentives applicable to the renewable energy industry, including production and investment tax credits that have historically increased investments in these projects.  Other tax incentives applicable to the renewable energy industry include accelerated tax depreciation provisions, including bonus depreciation, for certain renewable energy generation assets, such as equipment using solar or wind energy, or energy from geothermal deposits or biomass. See Item 1A. “Risk Factors - The renewable energy industry is reliant on tax incentives, the availability of which may be uncertain and could adversely affect demand for our services.” Notwithstanding the potential phase-out of these tax incentives, the continued and increasing trends towards renewable portfolio standards, coupled with growing corporate initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, are expected to continue to drive growth in renewable energy projects.
In addition, industrial plant construction opportunities exist in a wide variety of industries, including in the renewable energy industry. The low price and environmental advantage of clean burning of natural gas is expected to continue to drive demand for gas-fired electrical generating plants, conversions of coal-fired power plants to cleaner natural gas and the construction of other plants which use natural gas as a fuel source. Industrial facilities and power plants in the biofuels/biomass, food processing, natural gas, petroleum and related industries present opportunities as additional domestic energy reserves are produced, transported and processed.
We are one of the leading renewables contractors in North America, with expertise in wind, solar and biomass, as well as industrial and other power plant construction, and expect to benefit from these market trends.
Competitive Strengths
Our competitive strengths include:
Diverse Customer Relationships. We serve a diversified customer and industry base. Our customers include some of the largest communications, utility and power companies in North America, among others. We have longstanding relationships and have developed strong alliances with many of our customers, and we strive to maintain these customer relationships and our status as a preferred vendor to our customers.
Reputation for Reliable Customer Service and Technical Expertise. We have established a reputation for quality customer service and technical expertise. Our reputation gives us an advantage when competing for new work, both from existing and potential customers. In addition, we have broad capabilities and expertise in a wide variety of service offerings, including wireless, wireline/fiber and customer fulfillment activities, pipeline, electrical utility, power generation, including renewables, heavy civil and industrial infrastructure.
North American Footprint. Including our predecessor companies, we have been in business for approximately 90 years and are one of the largest companies in the infrastructure construction services industry, with approximately 380 locations and 19,000 employees, operating throughout North America, primarily in the United States and Canada, and, to a lesser extent, in Mexico and the Caribbean. We offer comprehensive end-to-end infrastructure services to our customers and believe that our experience, technical expertise, geographic reach, financial resources and size are important to our customers.

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Ability to Respond Quickly and Effectively. The skills required to serve our end-markets are similar, which allows us to utilize qualified personnel across multiple end-markets and projects. We are able to respond quickly and effectively to industry and technological changes, demand and major weather events by allocating our employees, fleet and other assets as and where they are needed, enabling us to provide cost-effective and timely services for our customers.  
Experienced Management Team. Our management team plays a significant role in establishing and maintaining long-term relationships with our customers, supporting the growth of our business, integrating acquired businesses and managing the financial aspects of our operations. Our chief executive officer, chief operating officer and business unit presidents have broad industry experience and a deep understanding of our customers and their requirements. Key management personnel of acquired businesses generally continue to work for us under employment or services agreements.
Sustainability
We are committed to responsible environmental, social and governance practices. We strive to be recognized as a company that achieves customer expectations safely, profitably and in a manner that is rewarding for both our customers and our team. We strive to achieve these goals through an organizational structure that provides excellent service delivery with a reputation of integrity within the communities in which we operate, and by providing our team members with growth opportunities in an injury-free environment. We seek to develop an inclusive, diverse workplace focused on delivering high quality construction, installation and maintenance services through safe and ethical business practices. We are active in our local communities and participate in numerous charitable giving, community outreach and community building programs, as well as disaster relief efforts for communities affected by hurricanes, flooding and similar events.
Through the services we provide, we also help our customers deliver their sustainable goals. We are one of the largest renewables contractors in North America, having constructed a significant percentage of North America’s wind farms. Our renewables business also builds solar power plants and biofuel/biomass infrastructure. In our Oil and Gas segment, we perform engineering, construction and maintenance services on oil and natural gas pipelines and processing facilities for the energy and utilities industries. In many cases, we are helping consumers and customers access cleaner burning natural gas by providing transportation infrastructure for businesses and consumers that wish to switch to these cleaner burning and lower carbon emission fuel sources. We also provide state-of-the-art pipeline transportation options, which consume fewer hydrocarbons in the transportation process than do traditional truck and rail transport.
We have received numerous awards from our customers for our efforts in sustainability practices, and are committed to reducing our greenhouse gas emissions. In our largest fleet operation, we have developed sophisticated routing, scheduling and fuel management programs that significantly reduce our consumption of fuel. Additionally, as part of our effort to reduce our overall carbon footprint, we have invested in equipment that is equipped with advanced emissions reduction technologies, and we use GPS technologies to improve fleet efficiency and fuel consumption. We also have recycling programs for discarded materials and programs for the proper handling and disposition of hazardous wastes, and we strive to incorporate energy efficiencies and other conservation measures into our office building designs.
We seek to align the interests of our Board of Directors and management with that of our shareholders. We believe that an independent, well-diversified Board makes us a better corporate citizen, and we have a Board with racial, ethnic, gender and skill diversity.  We also believe that our separation of Chairman and CEO further enhances accountability and social responsibility. Our management team and our Board of Directors also have significant ownership in MasTec’s common stock, which further aligns their interests with those of our other shareholders. 
We have detailed governance procedures, including an Audit Committee Charter, a Compensation Committee Charter and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee Charter, as well as a comprehensive Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and Board of Director Governance Principles, all of which can be reviewed on the “Investors” page of our website at MasTec.com.
Strategy
The key elements of our business strategy are as follows:
Focus on Growth Opportunities. We believe that our end-markets offer multiple growth opportunities, and we expect continued spending by key customers in many of the industries we serve. We expect development of wireless and wireline/fiber infrastructure; oil and natural gas pipeline infrastructure; expansion, maintenance and upgrades of electrical transmission capacity and the electrical distribution grid; development of power generation infrastructure, including renewables; and heavy civil and industrial infrastructure construction projects to be areas of investment and opportunity in the coming years. We intend to use our broad geographic presence, technical expertise, financial and operational resources, customer relationships and full range of services to capitalize on these trends and grow our business.
Operational Excellence. We seek to improve our profit margins and cash flows by focusing on services and projects that have high margin potential. We also strive to identify opportunities for leverage within our business, such as deploying resources across multiple customers and projects in order to enhance our operating effectiveness and utilization rates. We also seek to maintain strong working capital management practices. Our management team pursues actions and programs designed to achieve these goals, such as increasing accountability throughout our organization, effectively managing customer contract bidding procedures, evaluating opportunities to improve our working capital cycle time, hiring and retaining experienced operating and financial professionals, and developing, expanding and integrating the use of financial systems and information technology capabilities within our business.
Maintain Conservative Capital Structure. We evaluate our capital structure on an ongoing basis and have expanded our financial resources in recent years. We believe that we have sufficient capital resources to fund our planned operations. As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately $555 million of borrowing availability under our revolving credit facility, with aggregate borrowing commitments of $1.5 billion under our senior secured credit facility and $400 million of 4.875% senior notes due 2023. We may consider opportunities to borrow additional funds, or to refinance, repurchase or retire outstanding debt or repurchase shares as part of our ongoing capital structure evaluation. See Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Summary of Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources,” for details pertaining to our debt instruments and share repurchase activities.

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Leverage Core Performance and Expertise through Strategic Acquisitions and Other Arrangements. We may pursue selected acquisitions, investments and strategic arrangements that allow us to expand our operations, service offerings, customer base or geographic reach. We have diversified our business and expanded our service offerings and geographic footprint in recent years, both organically and through acquisition. In order to maximize their potential, our strategy is to integrate acquired businesses into our operations and internal control environment in a timely and efficient manner. We evaluate our business on a regular basis, and from time to time, we may divest certain businesses or assets, or curtail selected business activities or operations that do not produce adequate revenue or margin or that no longer fit within our long-term business strategy.
Services
Our core services are the engineering, building, installing, maintaining and upgrading of infrastructure, primarily for communications, oil and gas, utility and power generation customers. We provide similar services to each of these customers, including:
Build. We build infrastructure projects for customers across a range of industries. We specialize in building underground and overhead distribution systems, including trenches, conduits, cell towers, cable and power lines, which provide wireless and wireline/fiber communications; natural gas, crude oil and refined product transport pipelines; electrical power generation, transmission and distribution systems; power generation infrastructure, including renewable energy; heavy industrial plants; compressor and pump stations and treatment plants; water and sewer infrastructure; and other civil construction infrastructure.
Install. We install electrical and other energy distribution and transmission systems, power generation facilities, buried and aerial fiber optic and other cables, satellite dishes, home automation and energy management solutions in a variety of environments for our customers. In connection with our installation work, we deploy and manage network connections that involve our customers’ hardware, software and network equipment.
Maintain and Upgrade. We offer 24 hour/365 days-a-year maintenance and upgrade support to our customers. Our comprehensive service offerings include the regular maintenance of our customers’ distribution facilities, networks and infrastructure, including natural gas and petroleum pipeline, communications, electrical distribution and transmission, power generation and heavy civil infrastructure. We also provide emergency services for accidents or storm damage. Our upgrade work ranges from routine replacements and upgrades to major overhauls.
Customers
We have longstanding relationships with many customers, and often provide services under master service and other service agreements, which are generally multi-year agreements. Our master service agreements are typically exclusive up to a specified dollar amount per work order for each defined geographic area, but do not obligate our customers to undertake any infrastructure projects or other work with us. Work performed under master service and other service agreements is usually generated through work orders, each of which is performed for a fixed fee. Services provided under these agreements range from engineering, project management and installation work to maintenance and upgrade services. Master service and other service agreements are frequently awarded on a competitive bidding basis, although customers are sometimes willing to negotiate contract extensions beyond their original terms without re-bidding. Our master service and other service agreements have various terms, depending upon the nature of the services provided, and typically provide for termination on short or no advance notice. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, 35%, 36% and 43% of our revenue, respectively, was derived from projects performed under master service and other service agreements.
The remainder of our work is generated pursuant to contracts for specific projects or jobs requiring the construction and installation of an entire infrastructure system or specified units within an entire infrastructure system. Customers are billed with varying frequency, the timing of which is generally dependent upon advance billing terms, milestone billings based on completion of certain phases of the work, or when services are provided. Under the typical payment terms of master and other service agreements and contracts for specific projects, the customer makes progress payments based on quantifiable measures of performance as defined in the agreements. Some of our contracts include retainage provisions, under which a portion of the contract amount (generally, from 5% to 10% of billings) can be retained by the customer until final contract settlement.
We believe that our industry experience, technical expertise and reputation for customer service, as well as the relationships developed between our customers and our senior management and project management teams are important to our being retained by our customers. See Note 13 - Segments and Related Information and Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which are incorporated by reference, for customer concentration information.
Backlog
Estimated backlog represents the amount of revenue we expect to realize over the next 18 months from future work on uncompleted construction contracts, including new contracts under which work has not begun, as well as revenue from change orders and renewal options. Our estimated backlog also includes amounts under master service and other service agreements and includes our proportionate share of estimated revenue from proportionately consolidated non-controlled contractual joint ventures. Estimated backlog for work under master service and other service agreements is determined based on historical trends, anticipated seasonal impacts, experience from similar projects and estimates of customer demand based on communications with our customers. We expect to realize approximately 80% of our estimated year end 2018 backlog in 2019. The following table presents 18-month estimated backlog by reportable segment, as of the dates indicated:

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Reportable Segment (in millions):
December 31, 2018
 
September 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
Communications
$
4,276

 
$
4,251

 
$
3,628

Oil and Gas
2,125

 
2,253

 
2,525

Electrical Transmission
610

 
597

 
354

Power Generation and Industrial
678

 
731

 
577

Other
1

 
1

 
3

Estimated 18-month backlog
$
7,690

 
$
7,833

 
$
7,087

Approximately half of our backlog as of December 31, 2018 is attributable to amounts under master service or other service agreements, pursuant to which our customers are not contractually committed to purchase a minimum amount of services. Most of these agreements can be canceled on short or no advance notice. Timing of revenue for construction and installation projects included in our backlog can be subject to change as a result of customer delays or cancellations, regulatory delays or other factors and/or other project-related factors. These changes could cause estimated revenue to be realized in periods later than originally expected, or not at all. We occasionally experience postponements, cancellations and reductions in expected future work from master service agreements and/or construction projects due to changes in our customers’ spending plans, market volatility and regulatory factors. There can be no assurance as to our customers’ requirements or the accuracy of our estimates. As a result, our backlog as of any particular date is an uncertain indicator of future revenue and earnings.
Backlog is not a term recognized under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”); however, it is a common measurement used in our industry. Our methodology for determining backlog may not, however, be comparable to the methodologies used by others. Backlog differs from the amount of our remaining performance obligations, which are described in Note 1 - Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference. As of December 31, 2018 total 18-month backlog differed from the amount of our remaining performance obligations due primarily to the inclusion of $2.9 billion of estimates of future revenue under master service and other service agreements within our backlog estimates, as described above, and the exclusion of approximately $300 million of remaining performance obligations in excess of 18 months, which amount is not included in the backlog estimates above. Backlog expected to be realized in 2019 differed from the amount of remaining performance obligations expected to be recognized for the same period due primarily to the inclusion of approximately $1.7 billion of estimates of future revenue under master service and other service agreements that is included within the related backlog estimate.
Sales and Marketing
Our customers increasingly require resources from multiple disciplines. Therefore, our subsidiary services companies market their services not only individually, but also in combination with other companies, including other MasTec companies and independent companies, to provide what we believe are the most efficient and effective solutions to meet our customers’ demands. Through our unified MasTec® brand and an integrated organizational structure designed to permit rapid deployment of labor, equipment and materials, we are able to quickly and efficiently allocate resources to meet customer needs. We offer services that are branded under the MasTec® service mark and other service marks.
We have developed a marketing plan emphasizing the MasTec® registered service mark and trade names of certain acquired companies, as well as an integrated service offering to position ourselves as a provider of a full range of service solutions, providing services including installation as well as sophisticated engineering, design and integration. We believe our longstanding relationships with customers and our reputation for reliability and efficiency facilitate our recurring business. Our marketing efforts are principally carried out by the management of our business units and project groups in coordination with our corporate business development organization. Our management team has many years of industry experience, both at the service provider level, and in some cases, with the customers we serve. Our business unit and project group managers market directly to existing and potential customers for new contracts and also seek our inclusion on lists of vendors invited to submit proposals for service agreements and individual projects. We also market our services in conjunction with certain business partners, strategic investments and arrangements. Our executive management supplements these efforts at the national and international level.
Safety and Insurance/Risk Management
We strive to instill and enforce safe work habits in our employees, and we require that our employees participate in training programs relevant to their employment, including all those required by law. We evaluate employees in part based upon their safety records and the safety records of the employees they supervise. Our business units have established robust safety programs to monitor and improve compliance with safety procedures and regulations. We also provide company-wide training where appropriate, including for information technology and cyber security as well as for workplace and employee awareness programs.
Our business involves the use of heavy equipment and exposure to potentially dangerous workplace conditions. While we are committed to operating safely and prudently, we are subject to claims by employees, customers and third parties for property damage and personal injuries that occur in connection with our work. Our insurance policies are subject to high deductibles and we are self-insured up to the amount of the deductible. We maintain insurance policies for workers’ compensation, general liability and automobile liability that are subject to per claim deductibles. We also maintain excess umbrella coverage and an insurance policy with respect to employee group medical claims, which is subject to annual per employee maximum losses. We are required to post collateral to certain of our insurance carriers, generally in the form of letters of credit, surety bonds and cash. See Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference.

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Suppliers, Materials and Working Capital
Under many of our contracts, our customers provide the necessary materials and supplies for projects and we are responsible for the installation of, but not the cost or warranty of those materials. Under certain other projects, we purchase the necessary materials and supplies on behalf of our customers from third-party providers. We are not dependent on any one vendor and have not experienced significant difficulty in obtaining project-related materials or supplies as and when required for the projects we manage.
We utilize independent contractors to assist on projects and to help us manage our work flow. Our independent contractors typically provide their own vehicles, tools and insurance coverage. We are not dependent on any one independent contractor. We need working capital to support seasonal variations in our business, including the spending patterns of our customers and the effects of weather conditions on external construction and maintenance work, both of which can influence the timing of spending to support related customer demand. See Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources - Working Capital,” which is incorporated by reference.
Competition
Our industry is highly competitive and highly fragmented. We compete with a number of companies in the markets in which we operate, ranging from small local independent companies to large national firms. The national or large regional firms that compete with us include Quanta Services, Inc., MYR Group, Inc., Dycom Industries, Inc., Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., Primoris Services Corporation, Pike Electric, Inc., Bechtel Corporation, D.H. Blattner & Sons, Inc., M.A. Mortenson Company, Black & Veatch and Nexius.
Certain barriers to entry exist in the markets in which we operate, including adequate financial resources, technical expertise, high safety ratings and a proven track record of operational success. Some of our customers employ their own personnel to perform infrastructure services of the type we provide. We compete based upon our industry experience, technical expertise, financial and operational resources, geographic presence, industry reputation, safety record and reputation for customer service. While we believe our customers consider a number of factors when selecting a service provider, they award most of their work through a bid process, and price is often a principal factor in determining which service provider is selected.
Regulation, Environmental and Climate Change Matters
We are subject to state and federal laws that apply to businesses generally, including laws and regulations related to labor relations, wages, worker safety and environmental protection. While many of our customers operate in regulated industries (for example, utilities regulated by the public service commission or communications companies regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”), we are not generally subject to such regulation and oversight.
As a contractor, our operations are subject to various laws, including:
regulations related to worker safety and health, including those established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) and state equivalents;
regulations related to vehicle registrations, including those of the states and the U.S. Department of Transportation (“DOT”);
contractor licensing requirements;
permitting and inspection requirements; and
building and electrical codes.
We are also subject to numerous environmental laws, regulations and programs, including the handling, transportation and disposal of non-hazardous and hazardous substances and wastes, laws governing emissions and discharges into the environment, including discharges into air, surface water, groundwater and soil, and programs related to the protection of endangered species.
We have a substantial investment in construction equipment that utilizes fuel. Any changes in laws requiring us to use equipment that runs on alternative fuels could require a significant investment, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We also are subject to laws and regulations that impose liability and cleanup responsibility for releases of hazardous substances into the environment. Under certain of these laws and regulations, liabilities can be imposed for cleanup of properties, regardless of whether we directly caused the contamination or violated any law at the time of discharge or disposal. The presence of contamination from such substances or wastes could interfere with ongoing operations or adversely affect our business. In addition, we could be held liable for significant penalties and damages under certain environmental laws and regulations. Our contracts with customers may also impose liabilities on us regarding environmental issues that arise through the performance of our services. From time to time, we may incur costs and obligations related to environmental compliance and/or remediation matters. See Item 1A. “Risk Factors - Our failure to comply with environmental laws could result in significant liabilities.”
We believe we have all material licenses and permits needed to conduct operations and that we are in material compliance with all applicable regulatory and environmental requirements. We could, however, incur significant liabilities if we fail to comply with such requirements.
The potential effects of climate change on our operations is highly uncertain. Climate change may result in, among other things, changes in rainfall patterns, storm patterns and intensities and temperature levels. Our operating results are significantly influenced by weather. Therefore, major changes in weather patterns could have a significant effect on our future operating results. For example, if climate change results in significantly more adverse weather conditions in a given period, we could experience reduced productivity, which could negatively affect our revenue and profitability. Climate change could also affect our customers and the projects that they award. Demand for power projects, underground pipelines or other projects could be negatively affected by significant changes in weather or from legislation or regulations governing climate change. See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - We are subject to risks associated with climate change."

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Financial Information About Geographic Areas
We operate throughout North America, primarily in the United States and Canada, and, to a lesser extent, in Mexico and the Caribbean. See Note 13 - Segments and Related Information in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference.
Employees
For the year ended December 31, 2018, we had an average of approximately 19,000 employees. As of December 31, 2018, approximately 1,600 of our employees were represented by unions or were subject to collective bargaining agreements. See Note 10 - Other Retirement Plans in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference.
We hire employees from a number of sources, including our industry, trade schools, colleges and universities. Our primary sources for employees include promotion from within, team member referrals, direct recruiting and various forms of advertising, including social media. We attract and retain employees by offering competitive salaries, technical training opportunities, bonus opportunities, stock ownership, employee incentive programs and a comprehensive benefits package. We believe that our focus on training and career development helps us to attract and retain employees. Our employees participate in ongoing educational programs, many of which are internally developed, to enhance their technical and management skills through classroom and field training. We provide opportunities for promotion and mobility within our organization, which we also believe helps us to retain our employees. We believe we have good employee relations.
Available Information
A copy of this Form 10-K, as well as our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are available free of charge on our website, www.mastec.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file these reports with, or furnish these reports to, the SEC. Copies of our Board of Directors Governance Principles and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, which applies to all of our directors, officers, including our principal executive, financial and accounting officers, and employees and includes additional criteria that are applicable to our Chief Executive Officer and senior financial officers, and the charters for each of our Audit, Compensation and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees are also available on our website in the Investors section under the tab “Corporate Governance,” or may be obtained by contacting our Vice President of Investor Relations by phone at (305) 406-1815, or by email at investor.relations@mastec.com. We intend to provide any amendments or waivers to our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for any of our directors and senior officers on our website within four business days of any such amendment or waiver. The reference to our website address does not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained on the website and such information is not part of this report. Our reports filed with the SEC may be accessed at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
Use of our Website to Distribute Material Company Information
We use our website as a channel of distribution for important company information. We routinely post on our website important information, including press releases, investor presentations and financial information, which may be accessed by clicking on the Investors section of www.mastec.com. We also use our website to expedite public access to time-critical information regarding our company in advance of or in lieu of distributing a press release or a filing with the SEC disclosing the same information. Therefore, investors should look to the Investor Relations subpage of our website for important and time-critical information. Visitors to our website can also register to receive automatic e-mail and other notifications alerting them when new information is made available on the Investor Relations subpage of our website.
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS
Our business is subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described below. Additional risks and uncertainties not known to us or not described below could also negatively affect our operations. If any of the risks described below, or other risks that are unknown to us were to occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could suffer, and/or the trading price of our common stock could decline. We also may not be able to achieve our goals or expectations. You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all of the other information in this Form 10-K, including our Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements described above.
Risks Related to Our Industry and Our Customers’ Industries
Many of the industries we serve are subject to customer consolidation as well as rapid technological and regulatory changes. Our inability or failure to adjust to such changes could result in decreased demand for our services. Additionally, demand for construction services depends on industry activity and expenditure levels, which can be affected by a variety of factors, including changes in governmental regulations and policies.
We derive a substantial portion of our revenue from customers in industries that are subject to consolidation, rapid changes in technology and governmental regulation. Regulatory requirements pertaining to permitting and/or political or social activism related to potential or ongoing project work could result in cancellations or deferrals of projects, which could materially affect demand for our services. Consolidation of any of our customers, or groups of our customers, could result in the loss of customers or could affect customer demand for the services we provide. Additionally, changes in technology have, in the past, and in the future could, reduce demand for the services we provide. For example, the telecommunications industry, including install-to-the-home services, is characterized by rapid technological change, intense competition and changing consumer demands. In the energy industries, technological advances could result in lower costs for sources of energy, which could render existing natural gas and/or renewable energy projects and technologies uncompetitive or obsolete. New technologies or upgrades to existing technologies by customers could reduce demand for our services. Additionally, our failure to rapidly adopt and master new technologies as they are developed in any of the industries we serve could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Furthermore, many of our customers face stringent regulatory and environmental requirements and permitting processes, including governmental regulations and policies pertaining to oil and natural gas. In addition, the industries we serve are subject to effects of environmental

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regulation, climate change initiatives and political or social activism, any of which could result in delays and/or cancellations of current or planned future projects that could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Unfavorable market conditions and/or economic downturns could reduce capital expenditures in the industries we serve or could adversely affect our customers, which could result in decreased demand for the services we provide or impair our customers’ ability to pay for our services.
The demand for our services has been, and will likely continue to be, cyclical in nature and vulnerable to general downturns in the U.S. economy and the economies of the countries in which we operate. During economic downturns, our customers may not have the ability to fund capital expenditures for infrastructure, or may have difficulty obtaining financing for planned projects. In addition, uncertain or adverse economic conditions that create volatility in the credit and equity markets could reduce the availability of debt or equity financing for our customers, causing them to reduce capital spending, which, in the past has resulted, and in the future could result, in cancellations of projects or deferral of projects to a later date. Such cancellations or deferrals could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. These conditions could also make it difficult to estimate our customers’ demand for our services and add uncertainty to the determination of our backlog.
Furthermore, unfavorable market conditions and/or economic downturns could negatively affect demand for our customers’ services or the profitability of their services. Fluctuations in commodity prices and/or decreased demand by end-customers in the industries we serve could affect our customers and their capital expenditure plans. We continually monitor our customers’ industries and their relative health compared to the economy as a whole because we have previously been negatively affected by economic downturns. Historically, the markets for oil and gas have been volatile and are likely to continue to be volatile. Prices for oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids are potentially subject to large fluctuations in response to changes in supply and demand, as well as market uncertainty and a variety of other factors that are beyond our control. Demand for pipeline construction services is sensitive to the level of exploration, development, production, transportation, processing and refining activity of, and the corresponding capital spending by, oil and natural gas companies and demand by industrial and utility customers. Spending on exploration and production activities by large oil and gas companies has a significant effect on the demand for pipeline construction services. For example, the volatility experienced in recent years in the oil markets has had a significant effect on pipeline activities in Canada. In addition, in the past, reductions in new housing starts have negatively affected our customers who utilize our services to construct their “last mile” of communications infrastructure, and such reductions have also had negative effects on other industries we serve, including electrical utility transmission and grid connection as well as pipeline construction. Additionally, our customers who provide communications and customer fulfillment services could be adversely affected by an economic downturn if services are not ordered at the rate that our customers anticipate. During an economic downturn, our customers may also not have the ability or desire to continue to fund capital expenditures for infrastructure work or may outsource less work. A decrease in such project work could negatively affect demand for the services we provide and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Slowing conditions in the industries we serve, customer difficulties in obtaining project financing, economic downturns or bankruptcies could also impair the financial condition of one or more of our customers and hinder their ability to pay us on a timely basis. In the past, we incurred significant losses after a number of customers filed for bankruptcy or experienced financial difficulties following a general economic downturn, in which certain industry factors worsened the effect of the overall economic downturn on those customers. In difficult economic times, some of our clients may find it difficult to pay for our services on a timely basis, increasing the risk that our accounts receivable could become uncollectible and ultimately be written off. In certain cases, our clients are project-specific entities that do not have significant assets other than their interests in the project. From time to time, it may be difficult for us to collect payments owed to us by these clients. Delays in client payments may require us to make a working capital investment, which could negatively affect our cash flows and liquidity. If a client fails to pay us on a timely basis or defaults in making payments on a project for which we have devoted significant resources, it could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Our industry is highly competitive, which could reduce our market share and harm our financial performance.
Our industry is highly fragmented, and we compete with other companies in most of the markets in which we operate, ranging from small independent firms servicing local markets to larger firms servicing regional and national markets. We also face competition from existing and prospective customers that employ in-house personnel to perform some of the services we provide, which could reduce the amount of services our customers request us to perform. There are relatively few barriers to entry into certain of the markets in which we operate and, as a result, any organization that has adequate financial resources and access to technical expertise and skilled personnel may become a competitor. Most of our customers’ work is awarded through a bid process. Consequently, price is often the principal factor that determines which service provider is selected, especially on smaller, less complex projects. Smaller competitors sometimes win bids for these projects based on price alone due to their lower costs and financial return requirements. However, our bids for certain projects may not be successful because of a customer’s perception of our relative ability to perform the work as compared to our competitors or a customer’s perception of technological advantages held by our competitors as well as other factors. Our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity could be materially and adversely affected if we are unsuccessful in bidding for projects or renewing our master service agreements, or if our ability to win such projects or agreements requires that we accept lower margins.
Risks Related to Our Business
Our failure to properly manage projects, or project delays, could result in additional costs or claims, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, cash flows and liquidity.
Certain of our engagements involve large-scale, complex projects that may occur over extended time periods. The quality of our performance on such a project depends in large part upon our ability to manage our client relationship and the project itself and to timely deploy appropriate resources, including third-party contractors and our own personnel. Our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity could be adversely affected if we miscalculate the resources or time needed to complete a project with capped or fixed fees, or the resources or time needed to meet contractual milestones. Additionally, delays on a particular project, including delays in designs, engineering information or materials provided by the customer or a third party, delays or difficulties in equipment and material delivery, schedule changes, delays from failure to timely obtain permits or rights-of-way or to meet other regulatory requirements, weather-related delays, governmental, market, political and other factors, some of which are beyond our control, could result in cancellations or deferrals of project work, which could lead to a decline in revenue, or, for project deferrals, could cause us to incur costs for standby pay, and could lead to personnel shortages on other projects scheduled to commence at a later date.

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We could also encounter project delays due to local opposition, including political and social activism, which could include injunctive actions or public protests related to the siting of oil, natural gas, or electric power transmission lines or for power generation or other facilities, and such delays could adversely affect our project margins. In addition, some of our agreements require that we share in cost overages or pay liquidated damages if we do not meet project deadlines; therefore, any failure to properly estimate or manage cost, or delays in the completion of projects, could subject us to penalties, which could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. Further, any defects or errors, or failures to meet our customers’ expectations, could result in large damage claims against us. Due to the substantial cost of, and potentially long lead-times necessary to acquire certain of the materials and equipment used in our complex projects, damage claims could substantially exceed the amount we can charge for our associated services.
Our failure to recover adequately on claims against project owners, subcontractors or suppliers for payment or performance could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
We occasionally bring claims against project owners for additional costs that exceed the contract price or for amounts not included in the original contract price. Similarly, we present change orders and claims to our subcontractors and suppliers. If we fail to properly document the nature of change orders or claims, or are otherwise unsuccessful in negotiating a reasonable settlement, we could incur reduced profits, cost overruns or project losses. These types of claims can often occur due to matters such as owner-caused delays or changes from the initial project scope, which result in additional costs, both direct and indirect, or from project or contract terminations. From time to time, these claims can be the subject of lengthy and costly proceedings, and it is often difficult to accurately predict when these claims will be fully resolved. When these types of events occur and unresolved claims are pending, we may invest significant working capital in projects to cover cost overruns pending the resolution of the relevant claims. A failure to promptly recover on these types of claims could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and financial results.
We may not accurately estimate the costs associated with services provided under fixed price contracts, which could impair our financial performance.
We derive a significant portion of our revenue from fixed price master service and other service agreements. Under these contracts, we typically set the price of our services on a per unit or aggregate basis and assume the risk that costs associated with our performance may be greater than what we estimated. We also enter into contracts for specific projects or jobs that require the installation or construction of an entire infrastructure system or specified units within an infrastructure system, many of which are priced on a fixed price or per unit basis. Profitability for these contracts will be reduced if actual costs to complete a project exceed our original estimates. If estimated costs to complete the remaining work for a project exceed the expected revenue to be earned, the full amount of any expected loss is recognized in the period the loss is determined. Our profitability is therefore dependent upon our ability to accurately estimate the costs associated with our services and our ability to execute in accordance with our plans. A variety of factors could negatively affect these estimates, including changes in expected productivity levels, conditions at work sites differing materially from those anticipated at the time we bid on the contract and higher than expected costs of labor and/or materials. These variations, along with other risks inherent in performing fixed price contracts, could cause actual project results to differ materially from our original estimates, which could result in lower margins than anticipated, or losses, which could reduce our profitability, cash flows and liquidity.
Our business may be affected by difficult work sites and environments, which could cause delays and/or increase our costs and reduce profitability.
We perform work under a variety of conditions, including, but not limited to, challenging and hard to reach terrain and difficult site conditions. Performing work under such conditions can result in project delays or cancellations, potentially causing us to incur unanticipated costs, reductions in revenue or the payment of liquidated damages. In addition, some of our contracts require that we assume the risk should actual site conditions vary from those expected. Some of our projects involve challenging engineering, procurement and construction phases, which may occur over extended time periods. We may encounter difficulties in engineering, delays in designs or materials provided by the customer or a third party, equipment and material delivery delays, schedule changes, delays from customer failure to timely obtain rights-of-way, weather-related delays, delays by subcontractors in completing their portion of the project and other factors, some of which are beyond our control, but that affect our ability to complete a project as originally scheduled. In some cases, delays and additional costs may be substantial, and we may be required to cancel a project and/or compensate the customer for the delay. We may not be able to recover any of such costs. Any such delays, cancellations, errors or other failures to meet customer expectations could result in damage claims substantially in excess of the revenue associated with a project. Delays or cancellations could also negatively affect our reputation or relationships with our customers, which could adversely affect our ability to secure new contracts.
We recognize revenue for certain projects using the cost-to-cost method of accounting; therefore, variations of actual results from our assumptions could reduce our profitability.
We recognize revenue from fixed price contracts, as well as for certain projects pursuant to master and other service agreements, over time utilizing the cost-to-cost measure of progress, or the “cost-to-cost” method of accounting, under which the percentage of revenue to be recognized in a given period is measured by the percentage of costs incurred to date on the contract to the total estimated costs for the contract. The cost-to-cost method, therefore, relies on estimates of total expected contract costs. Contract revenue and total cost estimates are reviewed and revised on an ongoing basis as the work progresses. Adjustments arising from changes in the estimates of contract revenue or costs are reflected in the fiscal period in which such estimates are revised. Estimates are based on management’s reasonable assumptions, judgment and experience, but are subject to the risks inherent in estimates, including unanticipated delays or technical complications, changes in job performance, job conditions and management’s assessment of expected variable consideration. Variances in actual results from related estimates on a large project, or on several smaller projects, could be material. The full amount of an estimated loss on a contract is recognized in the period such losses are determined. Any such adjustments could result in reduced profitability and negatively affect our results of operations.
We derive a significant portion of our revenue from a few customers, and the loss of one or more of these customers, or a reduction in their demand for our services, could impair our financial performance.
Our business is concentrated among relatively few customers, and a substantial proportion of our services are provided on a non-recurring, project by project basis. Our revenue could significantly decline if we were to lose one or more of our significant customers, or if one or more of our customers elected to perform the work that we provide using in-house service teams. In addition, our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity could be negatively affected if our customers reduce the amount of business they provide to us, or if we complete the required work on non-recurring

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projects and cannot replace them with similar projects. Many of the contracts with our largest customers may be canceled on short or no advance notice. Any of these factors could negatively affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. See Note 1 - Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies, Note 13 - Segments and Related Information and Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies, in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which are incorporated by reference, for customer and project concentration information.
Amounts included in our backlog may not result in actual revenue or translate into profits. Our backlog is subject to cancellation and unexpected adjustments and is, therefore, an uncertain indicator of future operating results.
Our backlog consists of the estimated amount of revenue we expect to realize from future work on uncompleted contracts, including new contracts under which work has not begun, as well as revenue from change orders and renewal options and our proportionate share of estimated revenue from proportionately consolidated non-controlled contractual joint ventures. A significant portion of our 18-month backlog is attributable to master service agreements and other service agreements, none of which require our customers to purchase a minimum amount of services and are cancelable on short or no advance notice. The balance of our backlog is our estimate of work to be completed under contracts for specific projects. Backlog amounts are determined based on estimates that incorporate historical trends, anticipated seasonal impacts, experience from similar projects and from estimates of customer demand based on communications with our customers. These estimates may prove inaccurate, which could cause estimated revenue to be realized in periods later than originally expected, or not at all. In the past, we have experienced postponements, cancellations and reductions in expected future work due to changes in our customers’ plans, market volatility, regulatory delays and/or other factors. There can be no assurance as to our customers’ requirements or the accuracy of our estimates. As a result, our backlog as of any particular date is an uncertain indicator of future revenue and earnings. In addition, contracts included in our backlog may not be profitable. If our backlog fails to materialize, our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity would be materially and adversely affected.
We maintain a workforce based upon current and anticipated workloads. We could incur significant costs and reduced profitability from underutilization of our workforce if we do not receive future contract awards, if contract awards are delayed, or if there is a significant reduction in the level of services we provide.
Our estimates of future performance and results of operations depend, among other factors, on whether and when we receive new contract awards, which affect the extent to which we are able to utilize our workforce. The rate at which we utilize our workforce is affected by a variety of factors, including our ability to forecast the need for our services, which allows us to maintain an appropriately sized workforce, our ability to transition employees from completed projects to new projects or between internal business groups, our ability to manage attrition, and our need to devote resources to non-chargeable activities such as training or business development. While our estimates are based upon our good faith judgment, professional knowledge and experience, these estimates may not be accurate and may frequently change based on newly available information. In the case of large-scale projects where timing is often uncertain, it is particularly difficult to predict whether and when we will receive a contract award. The uncertainty of contract award timing can present difficulties in matching our workforce size to our project needs. If an expected contract award is delayed or not received, we could incur costs resulting from underutilization of our workforce, redundancy of facilities, or from efforts to right-size our workforce and/or operations, which could reduce our profitability and cash flows.
Many of our contracts do not obligate our customers to undertake any infrastructure projects or other work with us, and most of our contracts may be canceled on short or no advance notice, which could reduce our revenue. In addition, certain of our contracts are subject to our customers’ ability to secure financing or other conditions and therefore, may not result in revenue or profits.
We derive a significant portion of our revenue from multi-year master service and other service agreements, under which we provide project services through work orders within defined geographic areas on a fixed fee basis. Under these agreements, our customers have no obligation to undertake any infrastructure projects or other work with us. This makes it difficult to estimate our customers’ demand for our services. A significant decline in the volume of work our customers request us to perform under these service agreements could negatively affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. In addition, most of our contracts are cancelable on short or no advance notice, ranging from immediate cancellation to cancellation upon 180 days notice, even if we are not in default under the contract. Many of our contracts, including our service agreements, are periodically open to public bid. We may not be the successful bidder on existing contracts that are re-bid. For our services that are provided on a non-recurring, project-by-project basis, we could experience a reduction in revenue, profitability and liquidity if our customers cancel a significant number of contracts, or if we fail to win a significant number of existing contracts upon re-bid, or if we complete the required work under a significant number of our non-recurring projects and cannot replace them with similar projects. Additionally, from time to time, we enter into contracts that contain financing or other conditions that must be satisfied before we can begin work. Certain of these contracts may not result in revenue or profits if our customers are unable to obtain financing or to satisfy other conditions associated with such projects.
Our business is seasonal and affected by the spending patterns of our customers as well as weather conditions, which exposes us to variations in quarterly results.
Some of our customers reduce their expenditures and work order requests towards the end of the calendar year. In addition, adverse weather conditions, particularly during the winter season, can affect our ability to perform outdoor services in certain regions of North America. As a result, we generally experience reduced revenue in the first quarter of each calendar year. Natural catastrophes such as hurricanes or other severe weather, wildfires or flooding could also have an effect on demand for our services as well as on the economy overall, or could affect our ability to perform outdoor services or utilize equipment and crews in affected regions, which could negatively affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We have incurred goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges, and in the future, could incur additional impairment charges, which could harm our profitability.
We have significant amounts of long-lived assets, goodwill and intangible assets. When we acquire a business, we record goodwill equal to the excess of the amount we pay for the business, including anticipated future liabilities, over the estimated fair value of the net assets of the acquired business. We periodically review the carrying values of goodwill and intangible assets to determine whether such carrying values exceed their fair market values. Declines in the profitability of individual reporting units due to economic or market conditions or otherwise, as well as adverse changes in financial, competitive and other conditions, or other adverse changes in the key valuation assumptions contributing to the estimated fair value of our

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reporting units could adversely affect the estimated fair values of the related reporting units, which could result in an impairment of the recorded balances of goodwill or intangible assets. In the fourth quarter of 2018, we recorded $47.7 million of goodwill impairment related to a reporting unit in our Oil and Gas segment. See Note 3 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for additional details. Changes in economic and capital market conditions, as well as the operating performance of our reporting units, could result in future impairment charges, which could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
Acquisitions involve risks that could negatively affect our operating results, cash flows and liquidity.
We have made, and may continue to make, strategic acquisitions and investments. However, we may not be able to identify suitable acquisition or strategic investment opportunities, or may be unable to obtain the required consent of our lenders and, therefore, may not be able to complete such acquisitions or strategic investments. We may pay for acquisitions or strategic investments with our common stock or with debt instruments, including convertible debt securities, which could dilute the ownership interests of our common shareholders, or we may decide to pursue acquisitions with which our investors may not agree. Borrowings or issuances of debt associated with these acquisitions could also result in higher levels of indebtedness, which could negatively affect our ability to service our debt within the scheduled repayment terms. In addition, in connection with most of our acquisitions, we agree to substantial future earn-out arrangements. To the extent we defer payment of an acquisition’s purchase price through a cash earn-out arrangement, it will reduce our cash flows in subsequent periods.
Acquisitions may also expose us to operational challenges and risks, including:
the ability to profitably manage the acquired business or successfully integrate the acquired business’ operations, financial reporting and accounting control systems into our business;
the expense of integrating acquired businesses;
increased indebtedness and contingent earn-out obligations;
the ability to fund cash flow shortages that may occur if anticipated revenue is not realized or is delayed, whether by general economic or market conditions, or other unforeseen difficulties;
the availability of funding sufficient to meet increased capital needs;
diversion of management’s attention; and
the ability to retain or hire qualified personnel required for expanded operations.
In addition, acquired companies may have liabilities that we failed, or were unable, to discover in the course of performing due diligence investigations. We cannot assure you that the indemnifications granted to us by sellers of acquired companies will be sufficient in amount, scope or duration to fully offset potential liabilities associated with acquired businesses. We may learn additional information about the businesses we have acquired that could materially adversely affect us, such as unknown or contingent liabilities, unprofitable projects and liabilities related to compliance with applicable laws. Any such liabilities, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on our business. Failure to successfully manage the operational challenges and risks associated with, or resulting from, our acquisitions could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
In connection with our acquisitions, we generally require that key management and former principals of the businesses we acquire enter into non-competition agreements in our favor. Enforceability of these non-competition agreements varies from state to state, and state courts will generally examine all of the facts and circumstances at the time a party seeks to enforce a non-competition agreement; consequently, we cannot predict with certainty whether, if challenged, a court will enforce any particular non-competition agreement. If one or more former principals or members of key management of the businesses we acquire terminate their employment with us and the courts refuse to enforce the non-competition agreement entered into by such person or persons, we might be subject to increased competition, which could materially and adversely affect our operating results, cash flows and liquidity.
Our financial results are based, in part, upon estimates and assumptions that may differ from actual results. In addition, changes in accounting principles may cause unexpected fluctuations in our reported financial information.
In preparing our consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP, management makes a number of estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates and assumptions must be made because certain information used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements is either dependent on future events or cannot be calculated with a high degree of precision from data available. In some cases, these estimates are particularly uncertain and we must exercise significant judgment. Key estimates include: the recognition of revenue and project profit or loss, which we define as project revenue, less project costs of revenue, including project-related depreciation, in particular, on construction contracts accounted for under the cost-to-cost method, for which the recorded amounts require estimates of costs to complete and the amount of variable consideration included in the contract transaction price; allowances for doubtful accounts; fair value estimates, including those related to acquisitions, valuations of goodwill and intangible assets, acquisition-related contingent consideration and equity investments; asset lives used in computing depreciation and amortization; fair values of financial instruments; self-insurance liabilities; other accruals and allowances; income taxes; and the estimated effects of litigation and other contingencies. Actual results could differ materially from the estimates and assumptions that we use, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
In addition, accounting rules and regulations are subject to review and interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”), the SEC and various other governing bodies. A change in U.S. GAAP could have a significant effect on our reported financial results. Additionally, the adoption of new or revised accounting principles could require that we make significant changes to our systems, processes and controls. We cannot predict the effect of future changes to accounting principles, which could have a significant effect on our reported financial results and/or our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. See Note 1 - Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for information regarding new accounting pronouncements.

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We rely on information, communications and data systems in our operations. Systems and information technology interruptions and/or breaches in our data security could adversely affect our ability to operate and our operating results or could result in harm to our reputation.
We are heavily reliant on computer, information and communications technology and related systems in order to operate. We also rely, in part, on third-party software and information technology to run our certain of our critical accounting, project management and financial information systems. From time to time, we experience system interruptions and delays. Our operations could be interrupted or delayed, or our data security could be breached, if we are unable to deploy software and hardware, gain access to, or effectively maintain and upgrade our systems and network infrastructure and/or take other steps to improve and otherwise protect our systems. In addition, our information technology and communications systems and our operations could be damaged or interrupted by natural disasters, power loss, telecommunications failures, intentional or inadvertent user misuse or error, failures of information technology solutions, computer viruses, malicious code, ransomware attacks, acts of terrorism and physical or electronic security breaches, including breaches by computer hackers, cyber-terrorists and/or unauthorized access to or disclosure of our and/or our customers’ data. Furthermore, such unauthorized access or cyber attacks could go unnoticed for some period of time.
These events, among others, could cause system interruptions, delays and/or the loss or release of critical or sensitive data, including the unintentional disclosure of customer or our information, and could delay or prevent operations, including the processing of transactions and reporting of financial results or cause processing inefficiency or downtime, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and could harm our reputation and/or result in significant costs, fines or litigation. Similar risks could affect our customers and vendors, indirectly affecting us.
While we have security, internal control and technology measures in place to protect our systems and network, if these measures fail as a result of a cyber-attack, other third-party action, employee error, malfeasance or other security failure, and someone obtains unauthorized access to our or our customers’ information, our reputation could be damaged, our business may suffer and we could incur significant liability, or, in some cases, we may lose access to our business data. In the ordinary course of business, we have been targeted by malicious cyber-attacks. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not identified until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. As a result, we may be required to expend significant resources to protect against the threat of system disruptions and security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by these disruptions and breaches. Any of these events could damage our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Furthermore, while we maintain insurance policies that we consider to be adequate, our coverage may not specifically cover all types of losses or claims that may arise.
In addition, current and future laws and regulations governing data privacy and the unauthorized disclosure of confidential information may pose complex compliance challenges and/or result in additional costs. A failure to comply with such laws and regulations could result in penalties or fines, legal liabilities and/or harm our reputation. The continuing and evolving threat of cyber attacks has also resulted in increased regulatory focus on risk management and prevention. New cyber-related regulations or other requirements could require significant additional resources and/or cause us to incur significant costs, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.
We regularly evaluate the need to upgrade and/or replace our systems and network infrastructure to protect our information technology environment, to stay current on vendor supported products and to improve the efficiency and scope of our systems and information technology capabilities. The implementation of new systems and information technology could adversely impact our operations by requiring substantial capital expenditures, diverting management’s attention, and/or causing delays or difficulties in transitioning to new systems. In addition, our systems implementations may not result in productivity improvements at the levels anticipated. Systems implementation disruption and any other information technology disruption, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated, could have an adverse effect on our business.
In the ordinary course of our business, we may become subject to lawsuits, indemnity or other claims, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and cash flows.
From time to time, we are subject to various claims, lawsuits and other legal proceedings brought or threatened against us in the ordinary course of our business. These actions and proceedings may seek, among other things, compensation for alleged personal injury, workers’ compensation, employment discrimination and other employment-related damages, breach of contract, property damage, environmental liabilities, multiemployer pension plan withdrawal liabilities, liquidated damages, consequential damages, punitive damages and civil penalties or other losses, or injunctive or declaratory relief. We may also be subject to litigation in the normal course of business involving allegations of violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act and state wage and hour laws. In addition, we generally indemnify our customers for claims related to the services we provide and actions we take under our contracts, and, in some instances, we may be allocated risk through our contract terms for actions by our joint venture partners, equity investees, customers or other third parties.
Claimants may seek large damage awards and defending claims can involve significant costs. When appropriate, we establish accruals for litigation and contingencies that we believe to be adequate in light of current information, legal advice and our indemnity insurance coverages. We reassess our potential liability for litigation and contingencies as additional information becomes available and adjust our accruals as necessary. We could experience a reduction in our profitability and liquidity if we do not properly estimate the amount of required accruals for litigation or contingencies, or if our insurance coverage proves to be inadequate or becomes unavailable, or if our self-insurance liabilities are higher than expected. The outcome of litigation is difficult to assess or quantify, as plaintiffs may seek recovery of very large or indeterminate amounts and the magnitude of the potential loss may remain unknown for substantial periods of time. Furthermore, because litigation is inherently uncertain, the ultimate resolution of any such claim, lawsuit or proceeding through settlement, mediation, or court judgment could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, claims, lawsuits and proceedings may harm our reputation or divert management’s attention from our business or divert resources away from operating our business, and cause us to incur significant expenses, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.

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Our business is subject to operational and physical hazards that could result in substantial liabilities and weaken our financial condition.
Our business is subject to operational hazards due to the nature of services we provide and the conditions in which we operate, including electricity, fires, explosions, mechanical failures and weather-related incidents. Construction projects undertaken by us expose our employees to electrical lines, pipelines carrying potentially explosive or toxic materials, heavy equipment, transportation accidents, adverse weather conditions and the risk of damage to equipment and property. These hazards, among others, can cause personal injuries and loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property and equipment and other consequential damages and could lead to suspension of operations and large damage claims which could, in some cases, substantially exceed the amount we charge for the associated services. In addition, if serious accidents or fatalities occur, or if our safety records were to deteriorate, we may be restricted from bidding on certain work or obtaining new contracts, and certain existing contracts could be terminated. Our safety processes and procedures are monitored by various agencies and ratings bureaus. The occurrence of accidents in the course of our business could result in significant liabilities, employee turnover, increase the costs of our projects or harm our ability to perform under our contracts or enter into new customer contracts, all of which could materially adversely affect our revenue, profitability and liquidity.
Our operations could affect the environment or cause exposure to hazardous substances. In addition, our properties could have environmental contamination, which could result in material liabilities.
Our operations are subject to various environmental laws and regulations, including those dealing with the handling and disposal of waste products, polychlorinated biphenyls (“PCBs”), fuel storage and air quality. Certain of our current and historical construction operations have used hazardous materials and, to the extent that such materials are not properly stored, contained or recycled, they could become hazardous waste. Additionally, some of our contracts require that we assume the environmental risk of site conditions and require that we indemnify our customers for any damages, including environmental damages, incurred in connection with our projects. We may be subject to claims under various environmental laws and regulations, federal and state statutes and/or common law doctrines for toxic torts and other damages, as well as for natural resource damages and the investigation and clean-up of soil, surface water, groundwater, and other media under laws such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”). Such claims may arise, for example, out of current or former conditions at project sites, current or former properties owned or leased by us, or contaminated sites that have always been owned or operated by third parties. Liability may be imposed without regard to fault and may be strict and joint and several, such that we may be held responsible for more than our share of any contamination or other damages, or even for the entire share, and we may be unable to obtain reimbursement from the parties that caused the contamination.
A failure to comply with environmental laws could result in significant liabilities or harm our reputation, and new environmental laws or regulations could adversely affect our business.
Some of the work we perform is in underground environments. If the field location maps supplied to us are not accurate, or if objects are present in the soil that are not indicated on the field location maps, our underground work could strike objects in the soil containing pollutants and result in a rupture and discharge of pollutants. In such a case, we could incur significant costs, including clean-up costs, and we may be liable for significant fines and damages and could suffer reputational harm. Additionally, we sometimes perform directional drilling operations below certain environmentally sensitive terrains and water bodies. Due to the inconsistent nature of terrain and water bodies, it is possible that such directional drilling could cause a surface fracture releasing subsurface materials or drilling fluid. These releases alone or, in combination with releases that may contain contaminants in excess of amounts permitted by law, could potentially expose us to significant clean up and remediation costs, damages, fines and reputational harm, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We also own and lease several facilities at which we store our equipment. Some of these facilities contain fuel storage tanks that may be above or below ground. If these tanks were to leak, we could be responsible for the cost of remediation as well as potential fines. New environmental laws and regulations, stricter enforcement of existing laws and regulations, the discovery of previously unknown contamination or leaks, or the imposition of new clean-up requirements could require us to incur significant costs or result in new or increased liabilities that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. We are also subject to laws and regulations protecting endangered species. We may incur work stoppages to avoid violating these laws and regulations, or we may risk fines or other sanctions if we inadvertently violate these laws and regulations.
In addition, concerns about climate change could result in potential new regulations, regulatory actions or requirements to fund energy efficiency activities, any of which could negatively affect our customers and decrease demand for their services, or result in increased costs associated with our operations. There are significant environmental regulations under consideration to encourage the use of clean energy technologies and regulate emissions of greenhouse gases to address climate change. The establishment of rules limiting greenhouse gas emissions could affect our ability to perform construction services or to perform these services at current levels of profitability. For example, if new regulations were adopted regulating greenhouse gas emissions from sources such as cars and trucks, we could experience a significant increase in environmental compliance costs in light of our large fleet and the amount of construction machinery we own. New regulations may require us to acquire different equipment or change processes. The new equipment may not be available, or we may not be able to purchase or rent this equipment in a cost-effective manner. Compliance with any new laws or regulations regarding the reduction of greenhouse gases could result in significant changes to our operations and a significant increase in the cost of conducting our business. In addition, if our operations are perceived to result in high greenhouse gas emissions or to otherwise pose environmental risks, our reputation could suffer and/or we could experience a reduction in the amount of future work we are awarded. Project deferrals, delays or cancellations resulting from climate change initiatives and/or the effects of such regulations could adversely affect our business.
Many of our customers are highly regulated, and new regulations or changes in existing regulations could adversely affect their demand for our services and/or the profitability of those services.
Most of our communications customers are regulated by the FCC, and our energy customers are regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”). In addition, our utility customers are regulated by state public utility commissions. These agencies could change the way in which they interpret the application of current regulations and/or may impose additional regulations. Interpretative changes or new regulations having an adverse effect on our customers and the profitability of the services they provide could reduce demand for our services, which could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.

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Additionally, various federal, state, local, or foreign legislative and regulatory initiatives have been undertaken that could result in additional requirements or restrictions being imposed on drilling and completion operations. These regulations, and any future restrictions that might be adopted, could lead to operational delays and increased operating costs for our customers in the oil and gas industry, which could result in reduced capital spending and/or delays or cancellations of future oil and gas infrastructure projects that could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Our failure to comply with the regulations of OSHA, the U.S. DOT and other state and local agencies that oversee transportation and safety compliance could reduce our revenue, profitability and liquidity.
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, as amended, establishes certain employer responsibilities, including maintenance of a workplace free of recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious injury, compliance with standards promulgated by OSHA and various recordkeeping, disclosure and procedural requirements. Various standards, including standards for notices of hazards and safety in excavation and demolition work, may apply to our operations. We incur capital and operating expenditures and other costs in the ordinary course of business in complying with OSHA and other state and local laws and regulations, and could incur penalties and fines in the future, including, in extreme cases, criminal sanctions.
While we invest substantial resources in occupational health and safety programs, our industry involves a high degree of operational risk, and there can be no assurance that we will avoid significant liability. Although we have taken what we believe to be appropriate precautions, we have had employee injuries and fatalities in the past, and may suffer additional injuries or fatalities in the future. Serious accidents of this nature may subject us to substantial penalties, civil litigation or criminal prosecution. Personal injury claims for damages, including for bodily injury or loss of life, could result in substantial costs and liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. In addition, if our safety record were to deteriorate, or if we suffered substantial penalties or criminal prosecution for violation of health and safety regulations, customers could cancel existing contracts and not award future business to us, which could materially adversely affect our liquidity, cash flows and results of operations. From time to time, we have received notice from the DOT that our motor carrier operations will be monitored and that the failure to improve our safety performance could result in suspension or revocation of vehicle registration privileges. If we were not able to successfully resolve such issues, our ability to service our customers could be damaged, which could lead to a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We are subject to risks associated with climate change.
The potential effects of climate change on our operations is highly uncertain. Climate change may result in, among other things, an increase in extreme weather events, such as floods, hurricanes, wildfires, rising sea levels and limitations on water availability and quality. Such extreme weather conditions could limit the availability of resources, increase the costs of our projects, or could cause projects to be delayed or canceled. Our operating results are significantly influenced by weather. Therefore, major changes in weather patterns could have a significant effect on our future operating results. For example, if climate change results in a significant increase in adverse weather conditions in a given period, we could experience reduced productivity, which could negatively affect our revenue and profitability. Climate change could also affect our customers and the projects they award. Demand for power projects, underground pipelines or other projects could be negatively affected by significant changes in weather or from legislation or regulations governing climate change. Additionally, legislative and/or regulatory responses related to climate change could affect the availability of goods, increase our costs or otherwise negatively affect our operations. Reductions in project awards, increases in costs related to climate change and climate change regulations could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
If we are unable to attract and retain qualified managers and skilled employees, we will be unable to operate efficiently, which could reduce our revenue, profitability and liquidity.
Our business is labor intensive, and some of our operations experience a high rate of employee turnover. In addition, given the nature of the highly specialized work we perform, many of our employees are trained in, and possess, specialized technical skills that are necessary to operate our business and maintain productivity and profitability. At times of low unemployment, it can be difficult for us to find qualified and affordable personnel. We may be unable to hire and retain a sufficiently skilled labor force necessary to support our operating requirements and growth strategy. Our labor and training expenses may increase as a result of a shortage in the supply of skilled personnel. We may not be able to pass these expenses on to our customers, which could adversely affect our profitability. Additionally, our business is managed by a number of key executive and operational officers and is dependent upon retaining and recruiting qualified management. Labor shortages, increased labor or training costs, or the loss of key personnel could materially adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Our subcontractors may fail to satisfy their obligations to us or other parties, or we may be unable to maintain these relationships, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We depend on subcontractors to perform work for some of our projects. There is a risk that we could have disputes with subcontractors arising from, among other things, the quality and timeliness of the work they perform, customer concerns, or our failure to extend existing work orders or issue new work orders under a subcontracting arrangement. If any of our subcontractors fail to perform the agreed-upon services on a timely basis and/or deliver the agreed-upon supplies, our ability to fulfill our obligations as a prime contractor could be jeopardized. In addition, the absence of qualified subcontractors with whom we have satisfactory relationships could adversely affect our ability to perform under some of our contracts, or the quality of the services we provide. Additionally, in some cases, we pay our subcontractors before our customers pay us for the related services. We could experience a material decrease in profitability and liquidity if we choose, or are required, to pay our subcontractors for work performed for customers that fail to pay us, or delay paying us, for the related work. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We also rely on suppliers to obtain the necessary materials for certain projects, and on equipment manufacturers and lessors to provide us with the equipment we require to conduct our operations. Although we are not dependent on any single supplier or equipment manufacturer or lessor, any substantial limitation on the availability of suppliers or equipment, including from economic or market conditions, could negatively affect our operations. If we cannot acquire sufficient materials or equipment, it could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.

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Our participation in strategic arrangements, including joint ventures and equity investments, exposes us to numerous risks.
We have certain strategic arrangements, including joint ventures and equity investments, which provide us the opportunity to combine our skills and resources with those of others to allow for the performance of particular projects for which we do not control the day-to-day operations. The success of these arrangements depends, in large part, on whether our partners satisfy their contractual and performance obligations. In certain of these arrangements, we and our partners are jointly and severally liable for liabilities and obligations of the entity or joint venture. If one of our partners fails to perform or is financially unable to bear its portion of required capital contributions or other obligations, including liabilities stemming from claims or lawsuits, we could be required to make additional investments, provide additional services or pay more than our proportionate share of a liability to make up for our partner’s shortfall. Further, if we are unable to adequately address our partner’s performance issues, the projects could be terminated, which could result in legal liability to us, harm our reputation and could materially adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. In the past, we have incurred losses from our equity investments. We also have, and in the future could be subject to, a write-down of a portion or all of the net investment related to such arrangements. Market or other conditions, such as the inability of an entity in which we have invested to complete certain transactions, could subject us to a loss of some or all of the value of our investment. See Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies and Note 4 - Fair Value of Financial Instruments in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which are incorporated by reference, for additional information.
We may have additional tax liabilities associated with our domestic and international operations.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions. Management must exercise significant judgment in determining our provision for income taxes due to lack of clear and concise tax laws and regulations in certain jurisdictions. Tax laws are dynamic and subject to change as new laws are passed and new interpretations of laws are issued or applied, and such changes could materially affect our tax provisions. The U.S. enacted tax reform legislation in 2017, referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “2017 Tax Act”), and while this legislation has reduced our effective tax rate, certain provisions of this legislation may adversely affect us, including the limitation of certain deductions. In addition, the 2017 Tax Act significantly changes how the U.S. taxes corporations and requires complex computations to be performed that were not previously required under U.S. tax law. The provisions of the 2017 Tax Act require significant judgments and estimates to be made, and our interpretations of these provisions could differ from those of the U.S. Treasury Department or the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”), as many provisions of the 2017 Tax Act still do not have final guidance. As a result, it may be necessary to make future adjustments based on such new guidance. In addition, we are audited by various U.S. and foreign tax authorities, and in the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination may be uncertain. Although we believe that our tax estimates are reasonable, the final outcome of income tax examinations could be materially different from our expectations and the estimates that are reflected in our consolidated financial statements, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We are self-insured against many potential liabilities.
We are effectively self-insured for substantially all claims because most claims against us do not exceed the deductibles under our insurance policies. We actuarially determine any liabilities for unpaid claims and associated expenses, including losses incurred but not reported, and reflect the present value of those liabilities in our balance sheet as other current and other long-term liabilities, as appropriate. The determination of such claims and expenses and the appropriateness of the related liability is reviewed and updated quarterly. However, insurance liabilities are difficult to assess and estimate due to many factors, the effects of which are often unknown or difficult to estimate, including the severity of an injury, the determination of our liability in proportion to other parties’ liability, the number of incidents not reported and the effectiveness of our safety programs. If our insurance costs exceed our estimates of insurance liabilities, or if our insurance claims increase, or if our insurance coverage proves to be inadequate or becomes unavailable, we could experience a decline in profitability and liquidity.
The renewable energy industry is reliant on tax incentives, the availability of which may be uncertain and could adversely affect demand for our services.
Because the unsubsidized cost of electric power from renewable resources such as wind and solar often exceeds that of fossil fuel and nuclear generating facilities, the renewable energy industry is reliant on tax incentives. These tax incentives effectively reduce the market price at which renewable energy can be sold, which spurs investment in renewable energy facilities. These tax incentives typically have a finite duration, which creates uncertainty for developers of renewable energy facilities and may adversely affect investment in them and, accordingly, demand for our services. As a result, we cannot predict the effect that current or future tax incentive legislation and/or the expiration or extension of these incentives, including production tax credits, investment tax credits, or accelerated or bonus depreciation provisions, will have on demand for our services. Under the current tax credit structure, wind installations must be started by December 31, 2019. In addition, the investment tax credit applicable to the solar industry will be reduced from 30% to 26% after 2019.
Whether the investment tax credit will be effective in the future for renewable energy projects is uncertain, as are any future efforts to extend or renew the existing production tax and investment tax credits. Furthermore, the provisions regarding any extensions or renewals may not be as favorable as those that currently exist. We cannot assure you that any extensions or renewals of the existing production tax and/or the investment tax credits would be enacted prior to their expiration or, if allowed to expire, that any extensions or renewals enacted thereafter would be enacted with retroactive effect. We also cannot assure you that the tax laws providing for accelerated and bonus depreciation with respect to renewable energy generation assets will not be modified, amended or repealed in the future. If the investment tax credit is not effective or if the federal production tax credit is not extended or renewed, or is extended or renewed at a lower rate, these generating facilities may be less profitable to build and operate and the ability of our customers to obtain financing for these projects may be impaired or eliminated, which could materially and adversely affect our revenue and results of operations.
Changes to renewable portfolio standards and decreased demand for renewable energy projects could negatively affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
A portion of our business provides construction and/or installation services to owners and operators of wind power, solar power and other renewable energy facilities. The development of wind, solar and other renewable energy facilities is highly dependent upon federal tax credits, the existence of renewable portfolio standards and other tax or state incentives. Renewable portfolio standards are state specific statutory provisions requiring

20



that electric utilities generate a certain amount of electricity from renewable energy sources or devote a certain portion of operational/development capacity to renewable energy sources. Additionally, certified renewable energy generators earn certificates for every megawatt hour of electricity they produce and can sell these along with their electricity to their customers. In the past, these standards have spurred growth in the renewable energy industry and demand for renewable energy infrastructure construction services. However, revenue from renewable energy projects in the past have been, and in the future are expected to continue to be, highly volatile. Renewable portfolio standards or goals have been adopted in many states. Elimination of, or changes to, existing renewable portfolio standards or similar environmental policies could negatively affect demand for our services. Additionally, renewable energy is generally more expensive to produce and may require additional power generation sources as backup. The locations of renewable energy projects are often remote and are not viable unless connection to the grid to transport the power to demand centers is economically feasible. Furthermore, funding for renewable energy initiatives may not be available, particularly during periods of tight credit markets. These factors could result in fewer renewable energy projects than anticipated or a delay in the timing of construction of these projects and the related infrastructure, which would negatively affect demand for our services.
Warranty claims resulting from our services could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We generally warrant the work we perform for a one to two year period following substantial completion of a project, subject to further extensions of the warranty period following repairs or replacements. Warranty claims have historically not been material, but such claims could potentially increase. If warranty claims occur, we could be required to repair or replace warrantied items, or, if our customers elect to repair or replace the warrantied item using the services of another provider, we could be required to pay for the cost of the repair or replacement. Additionally, while we generally require that the materials provided to us by suppliers have warranties consistent with those we provide to our customers, if any of these suppliers default on their warranty obligations to us, we may incur costs to repair or replace the defective materials for which we are not reimbursed. The costs associated with such warranties, including any warranty-related legal proceedings, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Certain of our businesses have employees who are represented by unions or are subject to collective bargaining agreements. The use of a unionized workforce and any related obligations could adversely affect our operations.
Certain of our employees are represented by labor unions and collective bargaining agreements. Although all such collective bargaining agreements prohibit strikes and work stoppages, we cannot be certain that strikes or work stoppages will not occur despite the terms of these agreements. Strikes or work stoppages could adversely affect our relationships with our customers and cause us to lose business. Additionally, as current agreements expire, the labor unions may not be able to negotiate extensions or replacements on terms favorable to their members, or at all, or avoid strikes, lockouts or other labor actions that could affect their members. Therefore, it cannot be assured that new agreements will be reached with employee labor unions as existing contracts expire, or on desirable terms. Any action against us relating to the union workforce we employ could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, cash flows and results of operations.
Our participation in multiemployer pension plans may subject us to liabilities that could materially and adversely affect our liquidity, cash flows and results of operations.
Substantially all of our union and collective bargaining agreements require us to participate with other companies in multiemployer pension plans. To the extent that U.S.-registered plans are underfunded defined benefit plans, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended by the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980 (collectively, “ERISA”), which governs U.S.-registered multiemployer pension plans, subjects employers to substantial liabilities in the event of an employer’s complete or partial withdrawal from, or upon termination of, such plans. Under current law pertaining to employers that are contributors to U.S.-registered multiemployer defined benefit plans, a plan’s termination, an employer’s voluntary withdrawal from, or the mass withdrawal of contributing employers from, an underfunded multiemployer defined benefit plan requires participating employers to make payments to the plan for their proportionate share of the multiemployer plan’s unfunded vested liabilities. These liabilities include an allocable share of the unfunded vested benefits of the plan for all plan participants, not only for benefits payable to participants of the contributing employer. As a result, participating employers may bear a higher proportion of liability for unfunded vested benefits if the other participating employers cease to contribute to, or withdraw from, the plan. The allocable portion of liability to participating employers could be more disproportionate if employers that have withdrawn from the plan are insolvent, or if they otherwise fail to pay their proportionate share of the withdrawal liability. We currently contribute, and in the past have contributed to, plans that are underfunded, and, therefore, could have potential liability associated with a voluntary or involuntary withdrawal from, or termination of, these plans. In addition, the Pension Protection Act of 2006, as amended, requires pension plans that are underfunded to improve their funding ratios within prescribed intervals based on their level of underfunding, under which benefit reductions may apply and/or participating employers could be required to make additional contributions. In addition, if a multiemployer defined benefit plan fails to satisfy certain minimum funding requirements, the Internal Revenue Service may impose on the employers contributing to such plans a non-deductible excise tax of 5% of the amount of the accumulated funding deficiency.
Based upon the information available to us from plan administrators as of December 31, 2018, several of the multiemployer pension plans in which we participate are underfunded and, as a result, we could be required to increase our contributions, including in the form of a surcharge on future benefit contributions. The amount we may be obligated to pay or contribute in the future cannot be estimated, as these amounts are based on future levels of work of the union employees covered by these plans, investment returns and the level of underfunding of such plans. We do not have plans to withdraw from, and are not aware of circumstances that would reasonably lead to material claims against us in connection with the multiemployer pension plans in which we participate. There can be no assurance, however, that we will not be assessed liabilities in the future. Withdrawal liabilities, requirements to pay increased contributions and/or excise taxes in connection with any of the multiemployer pension plans in which we participate could negatively affect our cash flows, liquidity and results of operations.

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Our existing operations in international markets, or expanding into additional international markets, may not be successful and could expose us to risks, including failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and/or similar anti-bribery laws, which could harm our business and prospects.
We derive a portion of our revenue from international markets, and we may further expand the volume of international services we provide, as well as the foreign geographic territories in which we operate. See Note 13 - Segments and Related Information in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for foreign revenue information. Our foreign operations are presently conducted primarily in Canada and Mexico, but we have performed work in various other foreign countries, and the revenue we derive from, or the number of countries in which we operate, could expand in the future. Economic conditions, including those resulting from wars, geopolitical shifts, civil unrest, acts of terrorism and other conflicts, or volatility in the global markets may adversely affect our foreign customers, their demand for our services and/or their ability to pay for our services. In addition, there are numerous risks inherent in conducting business internationally, including, but not limited to, potential instability in international markets, changes in regulatory requirements applicable to international operations, including evolving standards regarding consumer protection and data use and security, foreign currency fluctuations, exchange controls and other limits on our ability to repatriate and reinvest earnings, political, economic and social conditions in foreign countries, tariffs and duties, and complex U.S. and foreign laws and treaties, including taxation laws and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”). These risks could restrict our ability to provide services to foreign customers or to operate our international businesses profitably, and our overall business and results of operations could be negatively affected by our foreign activities.
The FCPA and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions prohibit U.S.-based companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We pursue opportunities in certain parts of the world that experience corruption to some degree, and, in certain circumstances, compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. Our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws. Further, we require our subcontractors, agents and others who work for us or on our behalf to comply with the FCPA and other anti-bribery laws. There is no assurance that the policies and procedures we have in place to ensure that our employees and agents comply with the FCPA, or that anti-bribery laws will protect us against liability under the FCPA or other laws for actions taken by our agents, employees and/or intermediaries. If we are found to be liable for FCPA violations, either due to our own acts or our inadvertence, or due to the acts or inadvertence of others, we could incur severe criminal or civil penalties or other sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations or cash flows. In addition, detecting, investigating and resolving actual or alleged FCPA violations is expensive and can consume significant time and attention of our senior management.
We are subject to foreign exchange and currency risks that could adversely affect our operations and our ability to reinvest earnings from operations. In addition, our ability to mitigate our foreign exchange risk through hedging transactions may be limited.
We generally attempt to denominate our contracts in U.S. dollars or in the currencies of our costs. We have, and could in the future enter into contracts in foreign locations that are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, subjecting us to currency risk exposure, particularly when the contract revenue is denominated in a currency different from the contract costs. Certain portions of our consolidated revenue and operating expenses are in foreign currencies. As a result, we are subject to foreign currency risks, including risks resulting from changes in foreign exchange rates and limitations on our ability to reinvest earnings from operations in one country to fund the financing requirements of our operations in other countries.
We have incurred restructuring charges in the past, and in the future may incur additional restructuring charges, which could reduce our profitability.
From time to time, we review our operations in an effort to improve profitability. We may incur charges as a result of eliminating service offerings that no longer fit into our business plan, charges associated with the integration of acquired businesses, or charges associated with reducing, eliminating, or streamlining services or operations that do not produce adequate revenue or margins. Any such charges would be reflected as operating expenses and could materially reduce our profitability and liquidity.
Our credit facility and senior notes impose restrictions on us that may prevent us from engaging in transactions that might benefit us, including responding to changing business and economic conditions or securing additional financing, if needed.
The terms of our indebtedness contain customary events of default and covenants that prohibit us from taking certain actions without satisfying certain financial tests or obtaining the consent of the lenders, including, among other things:
making investments and acquisitions in excess of specified amounts;
incurring additional indebtedness in excess of specified amounts;
repurchasing shares or paying dividends in excess of specified amounts;
creating certain liens against our assets;
prepaying subordinated indebtedness;
engaging in certain mergers or combinations; and
engaging in transactions that would result in a “change of control,” as defined in the credit facility and the indentures governing our senior notes.
Our senior secured credit facility requires that we comply with a consolidated leverage ratio and a consolidated interest coverage ratio. Should we be unable to comply with the terms and covenants of our credit facility, we would be required to obtain consents from our bank group, further modify our credit facility or secure another source of financing to continue to operate our business, none of which may be available to us on reasonable terms or at all. A default could also result in the acceleration of our obligations under the credit facility or under the indentures relating to our senior notes. In addition, these covenants may prevent us from engaging in transactions that benefit us, including responding to changing business and economic conditions or securing additional financing, if needed. Our business is capital intensive and to the extent we need additional financing, we may not be able to obtain such financing at all or on favorable terms, which could materially decrease our profitability, cash flows and liquidity.

22



We may be unable to obtain sufficient bonding capacity to support certain service offerings, and the need for performance and surety bonds could reduce availability under our credit facility.
Some of our contracts require performance and payment bonds. If we are not able to renew or obtain a sufficient level of bonding capacity in the future, we may be precluded from being able to bid for certain contracts or successfully contract with certain customers. In addition, even if we are able to successfully renew or obtain performance or payment bonds, we may be required to post letters of credit in connection with the bonds, which would reduce availability under our credit facility. Furthermore, under standard terms in the surety market, sureties issue bonds on a project-by-project basis and can decline to issue bonds at any time or require the posting of additional collateral as a condition to issuing or renewing any bonds. If we were to experience an interruption or reduction in the availability of bonding capacity as a result of these or any other reasons, we may be unable to compete for or work on projects that require bonding.
A failure of our internal control over financial reporting could materially affect our business.
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. An internal control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met.  Further, the design of a control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints, and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs. Because of the inherent limitations in all internal control systems, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Any failure to maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting could limit our ability to report our financial results accurately and timely or to detect and prevent fraud, and could expose us to litigation, harm our reputation, and/or adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
Increases in the costs of fuel could reduce our operating margins.
The price of fuel required to run our vehicles and equipment is unpredictable and fluctuates based on events outside our control, including supply and demand for oil and gas, actions by oil and gas producers, geopolitical developments, war and unrest in oil producing countries, regional production patterns and environmental concerns. Any increase in fuel costs could materially reduce our profitability and liquidity because most of our contracts do not allow us to adjust our pricing for such expenses.
Risks Related to Our Company and Our Common Stock
There may be future sales of our common stock or other dilution of our equity that could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. In connection with certain completed acquisitions, we have issued shares of our common stock, and we additionally have the option to issue shares of our common stock instead of cash as consideration for future earn-out obligations. We may agree to issue additional shares in connection with other future acquisition or financing transactions, which, if issued, would dilute your share ownership and could lead to volatility in our common stock price.
We grow our business organically as well as through acquisition. One method of acquiring companies or otherwise funding our corporate activities is through the issuance of equity securities. In connection with certain acquisitions, we have the option to issue shares of our common stock instead of paying cash for the related earn-out obligations. Such issuances could have the effect of diluting our earnings per share as well as our existing shareholders’ individual ownership percentages and could lead to volatility in our common stock price. Our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation provide that we may issue up to a total 145.0 million shares of common stock, of which approximately 76.0 million shares were outstanding as of December 31, 2018.
We are not restricted from issuing additional common stock. The issuance of additional shares of our common stock in connection with future acquisitions, convertible securities or other issuances of our common stock, including restricted stock awards, restricted stock units and/or options, or otherwise, will dilute the ownership interest of our common shareholders. Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock or other equity-related securities in the public market could depress the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity or equity-linked securities. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of our common stock or other equity-related securities would have on the market price of our common stock.
We have a significant amount of debt. Our substantial indebtedness could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and our ability to meet our payment obligations.
We have a significant amount of debt and substantial debt service requirements. This level of debt could have significant consequences on our future operations, including:
making it more difficult for us to meet our payment and other obligations;
our failure to comply with the financial and other restrictive covenants contained in our debt agreements, which could trigger events of default that could result in all of our debt becoming immediately due and payable;
reducing the availability of our cash flows to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or strategic investments and other general corporate requirements, and limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for these purposes;
subjecting us to increased interest expense related to our indebtedness with variable interest rates, including borrowings under our credit facility;     
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, and increasing our vulnerability to changes in our business, the industry in which we operate and the general economy;
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt or are less leveraged; and
preventing us from paying dividends.

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Any of the above-listed factors could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and our ability to meet our payment obligations. Our ability to meet our payment and other obligations under our debt instruments depends on our ability to generate significant cash flow in the future. This, to some extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative and regulatory factors as well as other factors that are beyond our control. We cannot assure you that our business will generate cash flow from operations, or that future borrowings will be available to us under our credit facility in an amount sufficient to enable us to meet our payment obligations and to fund other liquidity needs. If we are not able to generate sufficient cash flow to service our debt obligations, we may need to refinance or restructure our debt, sell assets, reduce or delay capital investments, or seek to raise additional capital, and some of these activities may be on terms that are unfavorable or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. If we are unable to implement one or more of these alternatives, we may not be able to meet our payment obligations.
The market price of our common stock has been, and may continue to be, highly volatile.
The market price of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange has been volatile in recent years. We may continue to experience significant volatility in the market price of our common stock. Numerous factors could have a significant effect on the price of our common stock, including:
announcements of fluctuations in our operating results or the operating results of one of our competitors;
market conditions in our customers' industries;
capital spending plans of our significant customers;
global and domestic energy prices;
announcements by us or one of our competitors of new or terminated customers or new, amended or terminated contracts;
announcements of acquisitions by us or one of our competitors;
changes in recommendations or earnings estimates by securities analysts;
announcements of share repurchase programs, or repurchases of our common stock under existing repurchase programs; and
sales of our common stock or other securities, including any shares issued in connection with business acquisitions or earn-out obligations for any past or future acquisitions.
In addition, the stock market has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations in recent years, which have sometimes been unrelated or disproportionate to operating performance. Volatility in the market price of our common stock could cause shareholders to lose some or all of their investment in our common stock.
A small number of our existing shareholders have the ability to influence major corporate decisions.
Jorge Mas, our Chairman, and José R. Mas, our Chief Executive Officer, beneficially owned approximately 22% of the outstanding shares of our common stock as of December 31, 2018. Accordingly, they are in a position to influence:
the vote of most matters submitted to our shareholders, including any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets;
the nomination of individuals to our Board of Directors; and
a change in our control.
These factors may discourage, delay or prevent a takeover attempt that shareholders might consider in their best interests or that might result in shareholders receiving a premium for their common stock.
Our articles of incorporation and certain provisions of Florida law contain anti-takeover provisions that may make it more difficult to effect a change in our control.
Certain provisions of our articles of incorporation, by-laws and the Florida Business Corporation Act could delay or prevent an acquisition or change in control and the replacement of our incumbent directors and management, even if doing so might be beneficial to our shareholders by providing them with the opportunity to sell their shares possibly at a premium over the then market price of our common stock. For example, our Board of Directors is divided into three classes. At any annual meeting of our shareholders, our shareholders only have the right to appoint approximately one-third of the directors on our Board of Directors. Consequently, it will take at least two annual shareholder meetings to effect a change in control of our Board of Directors, which may discourage hostile takeover bids. In addition, our articles of incorporation authorize our Board of Directors, without further shareholder approval, to issue preferred stock. The issuance of preferred stock could also dilute the voting power of holders of our common stock, including the granting of voting control to others, which could delay or prevent an acquisition or change in control.
ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not applicable.
ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters, located in Coral Gables, Florida, is a leased facility approximating 38,000 square feet. As of December 31, 2018, our operations were conducted from approximately 380 locations, primarily within the United States and Canada. Substantially all of these properties

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were leased facilities, none of which were material to our operations because most of our services are performed on customers’ premises or on public rights of way and suitable alternative locations are available in substantially all areas where we currently conduct business.
We own property and equipment that had a net book value of approximately $748 million as of December 31, 2018, which is secured by a security interest under our senior secured credit facility. This property and equipment includes land, buildings, vans, trucks, tractors, trailers, bucket trucks, forklifts, backhoes, sidebooms, bulldozers, excavators, trenchers, graders, loaders, scrapers, drilling machines, directional boring machines, digger derricks, pile drivers, cranes, computers, computer software and office and building equipment, including furniture and fixtures. Substantially all of our equipment is obtained from third-party vendors. A portion of our equipment is acquired under capital lease or other financing arrangements. We are not dependent upon any single vendor and did not experience significant difficulties in obtaining desired equipment in 2018.
ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The information set forth in Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K is incorporated by reference.
ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
PART II
ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “MTZ.”
Holders. As of February 25, 2019, there were 1,417 holders of record of our common stock. In calculating the number of shareholders, we consider clearing agencies and security position listings as one shareholder for each agency or listing.
Dividends. We have historically not paid cash dividends and do not currently anticipate paying a cash dividend. We intend to retain future earnings for reinvestment. Our Board of Directors will make any future determination as to the payment of dividends at its discretion, and this determination will depend upon our operating results, financial condition and capital requirements, general business conditions and such other factors that the Board of Directors considers relevant. In addition, our credit agreements prohibit us from paying cash dividends or making other distributions of our common stock without prior consent of the lender. The indenture governing our senior notes also contains covenants that restrict our ability to make certain payments including the payment of dividends. See Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we repurchased a total of 7,197,006 shares of our common stock. See Note 11 - Equity, which is incorporated by reference, for additional information pertaining to our share repurchase programs.
The following table provides information about repurchases of our common stock during the three month period ended December 31, 2018:
 
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased (a) (b)
 
Average Price Paid per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Program (c)
 
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet be Purchased under the Programs (d)
October 1 through October 31
 


$

 

 
$
150,000,000

November 1 through November 30
 
933,822

 
$
43.97

 
933,548

 
$
108,956,064

December 1 through December 31
 
2,051,830

 
$
40.59

 
1,956,161

 
$
129,447,219

Total
 
2,985,652

 
 
 
2,889,709

 
 
(a)
Includes 2,889,709 of repurchases under share repurchase programs and 95,943 of shares withheld for income tax purposes in connection with shares issued under compensation and benefit programs.
(b)
Except to the extent described in (a) above with respect to share repurchases associated with compensation and benefit programs, all shares were acquired in open-market transactions.
(c)
Purchased under our September 2018 $150 million share repurchase program.
(d)
Includes $29.4 million available for repurchase under our September 2018 share repurchase program and $100 million available under our December 2018 $100 million share repurchase program.

25



Performance Graph
The performance graph below compares the cumulative five year total return for our common stock with the cumulative total return (including reinvestment of dividends) of the Standard and Poor’s 500 Composite Stock Index (“S&P 500”), and with that of our peer group, which is composed of Quanta Services, Inc., MYR Group, Inc., Dycom Industries, Inc., Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. and Primoris Services Corporation. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in our common stock, as well as that of the S&P 500 and our peer group, was $100 on December 31, 2013 and tracks it through December 31, 2018. The comparisons in the graph are based upon historical data and are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of our common stock.
The performance graph shall not be deemed incorporated by reference by any general statement incorporating by reference this Annual Report into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent we specifically incorporate this information by reference, and shall not otherwise be deemed filed under such acts.
COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among MasTec, Inc., the S&P 500 Index, and a Peer Group
chart-fd86065a1ff6589da87.jpg
*$100 invested on 12/31/13 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
Fiscal year ending December 31.
Copyright© 2019 Standard & Poor’s, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.

As of December 31,
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
MasTec, Inc.
$
100.00

 
$
69.10

 
$
53.12

 
$
116.90

 
$
149.60

 
$
123.96

S&P 500
$
100.00

 
$
113.69

 
$
115.26

 
$
129.05

 
$
157.22

 
$
150.33

Peer Group
$
100.00

 
$
82.36

 
$
76.30

 
$
108.41

 
$
128.27

 
$
99.47

ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected consolidated financial data has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and should be read together with our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto, as well as Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) in this Form 10-K. Our consolidated results of operations are not necessarily comparable from year to year due to the effect of acquisitions and certain other items, which are further described within MD&A.

26




For the Years Ended December 31,

2018 (a)

2017 (b)

2016

2015 (c)

2014

(in millions, except per share amounts)
Statement of Operations Data













Revenue
$
6,909.4

 
$
6,607.0

 
$
5,134.7

 
$
4,208.3

 
$
4,611.8

Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization
$
5,939.3

 
$
5,745.3

 
$
4,442.1

 
$
3,721.3

 
$
3,978.0

Net income (loss) from continuing operations
$
259.2

 
$
348.9

 
$
134.0

 
$
(79.7
)
 
$
122.0

Net income (loss) attributable to MasTec, Inc.
$
259.7

 
$
347.2

 
$
131.3

 
$
(79.1
)
 
$
115.9

Earnings (loss) per share from continuing operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
3.30

 
$
4.29

 
$
1.63

 
$
(0.98
)
 
$
1.53

Diluted
$
3.26

 
$
4.22

 
$
1.61

 
$
(0.98
)
 
$
1.42

(a)
Our 2018 results include $47.7 million of pre-tax goodwill impairment charges. See Note 3 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets in the notes to the consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for additional information.
(b)
Our 2017 results include a non-cash tax benefit of $120.1 million related to the 2017 Tax Act. See Note 12 - Income Taxes in the notes to the consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for additional information.
(c)
Our 2015 results include $78.6 million of pre-tax goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges.
 
As of December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
(in millions)
Balance Sheet Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Working capital
$
885.4

 
$
888.5

 
$
562.5

 
$
377.2

 
$
548.3

Property and equipment, net
$
747.8

 
$
706.5

 
$
549.1

 
$
558.7

 
$
623.1

Total assets
$
4,440.0

 
$
4,066.6

 
$
3,183.1

 
$
2,927.3

 
$
3,550.8

Total debt
$
1,406.9

 
$
1,368.6

 
$
1,026.0

 
$
1,010.3

 
$
1,121.6

Total equity
$
1,392.0

 
$
1,433.4

 
$
1,103.6

 
$
943.4

 
$
1,148.1


ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our business, financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. The discussion below contains forward-looking statements that are based upon our current expectations and is subject to uncertainty and changes in circumstances. Actual results may differ materially from these expectations due to inaccurate assumptions and known or unknown risks and uncertainties, including those identified in “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”
Business
See Item 1. “Business” for discussion pertaining to our business and reportable segments.
Recent acquisitions. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we completed two acquisitions, including (i) a construction management firm specializing in steel building systems and (ii) a wind turbine services company, both of which are included in our Power Generation and Industrial segment. In 2017, we completed three acquisitions, including: (i) a wireline/fiber deployment construction contractor, which is included in our Communications segment; (ii) a heavy civil construction services company, which is included in our Power Generation and Industrial segment, and (iii) an oil and gas pipeline equipment company, which is included in our Oil and Gas segment. For additional information, see Note 3 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference.
Economic, Industry and Market Factors
We closely monitor the effects of changes in economic and market conditions on our customers. General economic and market conditions can negatively affect demand for our customers’ products and services, which can affect our customers’ planned capital and maintenance budgets in certain end-markets. Market, regulatory and industry factors could affect demand for our services, including (i) changes to our customers’ capital spending plans; (ii) mergers and acquisitions among the customers we serve; (iii) new or changing regulatory requirements or other governmental policy changes or uncertainty; (iv) economic, market or political developments; (v) changes in technology, tax and other incentives; and (v) access to capital for customers in the industries we serve. Availability of transportation and transmission capacity and fluctuations in market prices for oil, gas and other fuel sources can also affect demand for our services, in particular, on pipeline and power generation construction services. These fluctuations, as well as the highly competitive nature of our industry, can result, and in the past, have resulted, in lower bids and lower profit on the services we provide. In the face of increased pricing pressure or other market developments, we strive to maintain our profit margins through productivity improvements, cost reduction programs and/or business streamlining efforts. While we actively monitor economic, industry and market factors that could affect our business,

27



we cannot predict the effect that changes in such factors may have on our future results of operations, liquidity and cash flows, and we may be unable to fully mitigate, or benefit from, such changes.
Effect of Seasonality and Cyclical Nature of Business
Our revenue and results of operations can be subject to seasonal and other variations. These variations are influenced by weather, customer spending patterns, bidding seasons, project schedules, holidays and timing, in particular, for large, non-recurring projects. Typically, our revenue is lowest at the beginning of the year and during the winter months because cold, snowy or wet conditions cause project delays. Revenue is generally higher during the summer and fall months due to increased demand for our services when favorable weather conditions exist in many of the regions in which we operate, but continued cold and wet weather can often affect second quarter productivity. In the fourth quarter, many projects tend to be completed by customers seeking to spend their capital budgets before the end of the year, which generally has a positive effect on our revenue. However, the holiday season and inclement weather can cause delays, which can reduce revenue and increase costs on affected projects. Any quarter may be positively or negatively affected by adverse or unusual weather patterns, including warm winter weather, excessive rainfall, flooding or natural catastrophes such as hurricanes or other severe weather, making it difficult to predict quarterly revenue and margin variations.
Additionally, our industry can be highly cyclical. Fluctuations in end-user demand within the industries we serve, or in the supply of services within those industries, can affect demand for our services. As a result, our business may be adversely affected by industry declines or by delays in new projects. Variations in project schedules or unanticipated changes in project schedules, in particular, in connection with large construction and installation projects, can create fluctuations in revenue, which may adversely affect us in a given quarter, even if not for the full year. In addition, revenue from master service and other service agreements, while generally predictable, can be subject to volatility. The financial condition of our customers and their access to capital; variations in project margins; regional, national and global economic, political and market conditions; regulatory or environmental influences; and acquisitions, dispositions or strategic investments/other arrangements can also materially affect quarterly results in a given period. Accordingly, our operating results in any particular period may not be indicative of the results that can be expected for any other period.
Understanding Our Results of Operations
Revenue. We provide engineering, building, installation, maintenance and upgrade services to our customers. We derive revenue from projects performed under master and other service agreements as well as from contracts for specific projects requiring the construction and installation of an entire infrastructure system or specified units within an infrastructure system. See Item 1. “Business” for discussion of our business and revenue-generating activities and “Comparison of Fiscal Year Results” below for revenue results by reportable segment.
Costs of Revenue, Excluding Depreciation and Amortization. Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization, consists principally of salaries, employee incentives and benefits, subcontracted services, equipment rentals and repairs, fuel and other equipment expenses, material costs, parts and supplies, insurance and facilities expenses. Project profit is calculated by subtracting a project’s costs of revenue, including project-related depreciation, from project revenue. Project profitability and corresponding project margins will generally be reduced if actual costs to complete a project exceed our project cost estimates. Estimated losses on contracts, or the excess of estimated costs to complete a contract over the contract’s remaining revenue, are recognized in the period in which such losses are determined. Factors impacting our costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization, include:
Project Mix. The mix of revenue derived from the projects we perform impacts overall project margins, as margin opportunities can vary by project. For example, installation work, which is often performed on a fixed price basis, has a higher level of margin risk than maintenance or upgrade work, which is often performed under pre-established or time and materials pricing arrangements. As a result, changes in project mix between installation work and maintenance or upgrade services can affect our project margins in a given period. Our project mix by industry can also affect our overall margins, as project margins can vary by industry and over time.
Seasonality, Weather and Geographic Mix. Seasonal patterns, which can be affected by weather conditions, can have a significant effect on project margins. Adverse or favorable weather conditions can affect project margins in a given period. For example, extended periods of rain or snowfall can negatively affect revenue and project margins due to reduced productivity from projects being delayed or temporarily halted. Conversely, when weather remains dry and temperatures are accommodating, more work can be done, sometimes with less cost, which can favorably affect project margins. In addition, the mix of business conducted in different geographic areas can affect project margins due to the particular characteristics of the physical locations where work is being performed, such as mountainous or rocky terrain versus open terrain. Site conditions, including unforeseen underground conditions, can also affect project margins.
Price and Performance Risk. Overall project margins may fluctuate due to project pricing, changes in the cost of labor and materials, job productivity and work volume. Job productivity can be affected by quality of the work crew and equipment, the quality of engineering specifications and designs, availability of skilled labor, environmental or regulatory factors, customer decisions or delays and crew productivity. Crew productivity can be influenced by weather conditions and job terrain, such as whether project work is in a right of way that is open or one that has physical obstructions or legal encumbrances.
Subcontracted Resources. Our use of subcontracted resources in a given period is dependent upon activity levels and the amount and location of existing in-house resources and capacity. Project margins on subcontracted work can vary from those on self-perform work. As a result, changes in the mix of subcontracted resources versus self-perform work can affect our overall project margins.
Material versus Labor Costs. In many cases, our customers are responsible for supplying their own materials on projects; however, under certain contracts, we may agree to provide all or part of the required materials. Project margins are typically lower on projects where we furnish a significant amount of materials due to the fact that margins on materials are generally lower than margins on labor costs. Therefore, increases in the percentage of work with significant materials requirements could decrease our overall project margins.
General and Administrative Expense. General and administrative expenses consist principally of compensation and benefit expenses, travel expenses and related costs for our finance, benefits, insurance and risk management, legal, facilities, information technology services and executive

28



functions. General and administrative expenses also include non-cash stock-based compensation expense, outside professional and accounting fees, expenses associated with information technology used in administration of the business, acquisition costs, including those related to acquisition integration, and certain restructuring charges.
Interest Expense, Net. Interest expense, net, consists of contractual interest expense on outstanding debt obligations, amortization of deferred financing costs and other interest expense, including interest expense related to financing arrangements. Interest expense is offset, in part, by interest earned on cash and other investments.
Other Income or Expense. Other income or expense consists primarily of gains or losses from sales, or disposals of, or changes in estimated recoveries from, assets and investments, certain legal/other settlements, gains or losses from changes to estimated earn-out accruals and certain purchase accounting adjustments.
Financial Performance Metrics
Our senior management team regularly reviews certain key financial performance metrics within our business, including:
revenue and profitability on an overall basis, by reportable segment and for selected projects;
revenue by customer and by contract type;
costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization; general and administrative expenses; depreciation and amortization; interest expense, net; other income or expense; and provision for income taxes;
earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) and adjusted EBITDA, which is EBITDA excluding certain items that may not be indicative of our core operating results, as well as items that can vary widely across different industries or among companies within the same industry. See discussion of our non-U.S. GAAP financial measures following the “Comparison of Fiscal Year Results” section below;
earnings per share and adjusted earnings per share, as defined in our non-U.S. GAAP financial measures discussion;
days sales outstanding, net of billings in excess of costs and earnings; and days payable outstanding;
interest and debt service coverage ratios; and
liquidity and cash flows.
Management’s analysis includes detailed discussions of proposed investments in new business opportunities or property and equipment, productivity improvement efforts, acquisition integration efforts, strategic arrangement opportunities and working capital and other capital management efforts. Measuring these key performance indicators is an important tool used by management to make informed and timely operational decisions, which we believe can help us improve our performance.
Critical Accounting Estimates
This discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our audited consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our audited consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis of making judgments about our operating results, including the results of construction contracts accounted for under the cost-to-cost method, and the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Given that management estimates, by their nature, involve judgments regarding future uncertainties, actual results may differ from these estimates if conditions change or if certain key assumptions used in making these estimates ultimately prove to be inaccurate. Our accounting policies and critical accounting estimates are reviewed periodically by the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.
We believe that our accounting estimates pertaining to: the recognition of revenue and project profit or loss, which we define as project revenue, less project costs of revenue, including project-related depreciation, in particular, on construction contracts accounted for under the cost-to-cost method, for which the recorded amounts require estimates of costs to complete and the amount of variable consideration included in the contract transaction price; fair value estimates, including those related to acquisitions, valuations of goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets and acquisition-related contingent consideration; income taxes; self-insurance liabilities; and litigation and other contingencies, are the most critical in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements as they are important to the portrayal of our financial condition and require significant or complex judgment and estimates on the part of management. Actual results could, however, vary materially from these accounting estimates. Refer to Note 1 - Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for discussion of our significant accounting policies.
Revenue Recognition
We adopted the requirements of Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which is also referred to as Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606 (“Topic 606”), under the modified retrospective transition approach effective January 1, 2018, with application to all existing contracts that were not substantially completed as of January 1, 2018. The difference between the recognition criteria under Topic 606 and our previous revenue recognition practices under the previous revenue recognition guidance, ASC Topic 605-35, was recognized through a cumulative effect adjustment of approximately $2 million that was made to the opening balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2018. Consistent with the modified retrospective transition approach, the comparative 2017 prior period was not adjusted to conform to the current period presentation.

29



Under Topic 606, revenue is recognized when, or as, control of promised goods and services is transferred to customers, and the amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for the goods and services transferred. The adoption of Topic 606 did not have a material effect on the timing or amount of revenue recognized as compared with our previous revenue recognition practices. We primarily recognize revenue over time utilizing the cost-to-cost measure of progress on contracts for specific projects and for certain master service and other service agreements, consistent with our previous revenue recognition practices.
Contracts. We derive revenue primarily from construction projects performed under: (i) master and other service agreements, which provide a menu of available services in a specific geographic territory that are utilized on an as-needed basis, and are typically priced using time and materials or a fixed price per unit basis; or (ii) contracts for specific projects requiring the construction and installation of an entire infrastructure system or specified units within an infrastructure system, which are subject to multiple pricing options, including fixed price, unit price, time and materials, or cost plus a markup.
The cost estimation process for recognizing revenue over time under the cost-to-cost method is based on the professional knowledge and experience of our project managers, engineers and financial professionals. Management reviews estimates of total contract transaction price and total project costs on an ongoing basis. Changes in job performance, job conditions and management’s assessment of expected variable consideration are factors that influence estimates of the total contract transaction price, total costs to complete those contracts and our profit recognition. Changes in these factors could result in revisions to revenue in the period in which the revisions are determined, which could materially affect our consolidated results of operations for that period. Provisions for losses on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses are determined. For the year ended December 31, 2018, project profit was affected by less than 5% as a result of changes in contract estimates included in projects that were in process as of December 31, 2017. Revenue recognized for the year ended December 31, 2018 as a result of changes in revenue estimates, including from variable consideration, from performance obligations satisfied, or partially satisfied, in prior periods totaled approximately $39 million.
Performance Obligations. A performance obligation is a contractual promise to transfer a distinct good or service to a customer, and is the unit of account under Topic 606. The transaction price of a contract is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when or as the performance obligation is satisfied. Our contracts often require significant services to integrate complex activities and equipment into a single deliverable, and are therefore generally accounted for as a single performance obligation, even when delivering multiple distinct services. Contract amendments and change orders, which are generally not distinct from the existing contract, are typically accounted for as a modification of the existing contract and performance obligation. The vast majority of our performance obligations are completed within one year.
When more than one contract is entered into with a customer on or close to the same date, management evaluates whether those contracts should be combined and accounted for as a single contract as well as whether those contracts should be accounted for as one, or more than one, performance obligation. This evaluation requires significant judgment and is based on the facts and circumstances of the various contracts.
Variable Consideration. Transaction prices for our contracts may include variable consideration, which comprises items such as change orders, claims and incentives. Management estimates variable consideration for a performance obligation utilizing estimation methods that we believe best predict the amount of consideration to which we will be entitled. Variable consideration is included in the estimated transaction price if it is probable that when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is resolved, there will not be a significant reversal of the cumulative amount of revenue that has been recognized. Management’s estimates of variable consideration and the determination of whether to include estimated amounts in the transaction price are based largely on engineering studies and legal opinions, past practices with the customer, specific discussions, correspondence or preliminary negotiations with the customer and all other relevant information that is reasonably available at the time of the estimate. The effect of variable consideration on the transaction price of a performance obligation is typically recognized as an adjustment to revenue on a cumulative catch-up basis, as such variable consideration, which typically pertains to changed conditions and scope, is generally for services encompassed under the existing contract. To the extent unapproved change orders, claims and other variable consideration reflected in transaction prices are not resolved in our favor, or to the extent incentives reflected in transaction prices are not earned, there could be reductions in, or reversals of, previously recognized revenue.
As of December 31, 2018, we included approximately $56 million of change orders and/or claims in the transaction price for certain contracts that were in the process of being resolved in the normal course of business, including through negotiation, arbitration and other proceedings. These transaction price adjustments are included within costs and earnings in excess of billings or accounts receivable, net of allowance, as appropriate. As of December 31, 2018, these change orders and/or claims were primarily related to certain pipeline construction projects in our Oil and Gas segment. We actively engage with our customers to complete the final approval process, and generally expect these processes to be completed within one year. Amounts ultimately realized upon final acceptance by customers could be higher or lower than such estimated amounts.
Business Combinations
The determination of the fair value of net assets acquired in a business combination and estimates of acquisition-related contingent consideration, or “earn-out” liabilities, requires estimates and judgments of future cash flow expectations for the acquired business and the related identifiable tangible and intangible assets. Fair values of net assets acquired are calculated using expected cash flows and industry-standard valuation techniques. Fair values of earn-out liabilities are estimated using income approaches such as discounted cash flows or option pricing models.
Due to the time required to gather and analyze the necessary data for each acquisition, U.S. GAAP provides a “measurement period” of up to one year in which to finalize these fair value determinations. During the measurement period, preliminary fair value estimates may be revised if new information is obtained about the facts and circumstances existing as of the date of acquisition, or based on the final net assets and working capital of the acquired business, as prescribed in the applicable purchase agreement. Such adjustments may result in the recognition, or adjust the fair values, of acquisition-related assets and liabilities and/or consideration paid, and are referred to as “measurement period” adjustments. For the year ended December 31, 2018, measurement period adjustments resulted in a net increase of approximately $5 million to goodwill. Other revisions to fair value estimates for acquisitions are reflected as income or expense, as appropriate. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the effect of other fair value adjustments for acquisitions was a net expense of $17.5 million, and related to earn-outs.
Significant changes in the assumptions or estimates used in the underlying valuations, including the expected profitability or cash flows of an

30



acquired business, could materially affect our operating results in the period such changes are recognized.
Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
We have goodwill and certain indefinite-lived intangible assets that have been recorded in connection with our acquisitions of businesses. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized, but instead are tested for impairment at least annually. We perform our annual impairment tests of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets during the fourth quarter of each year, and on a quarterly basis, we monitor these assets for potential indicators of impairment. Goodwill is required to be tested for impairment at the reporting unit level. A reporting unit is an operating segment or one level below the operating segment level, which is referred to as a component. We combine all of the components of our Electrical Transmission operating segment into one reporting unit and combine two of the components within our Power Generation and Industrial operating segment into one reporting unit. All of our other components each comprise one reporting unit.
Following is a summary of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets by segment as of December 31, 2018:
 
Communications
 
Oil and Gas
 
Electrical Transmission
 
Power Generation
and
Industrial
 
Total
Goodwill (in millions)
$
467.8

 
$
339.6

 
$
149.9

 
$
143.1

 
$
1,100.4

  Percentage of total
42.5
%
 
30.9
%
 
13.6
%
 
13.0
%
 
100.0
%
Indefinite-lived intangible assets (in millions)
$

 
$
42.7

 
$
31.3

 
$
34.5

 
$
108.5

  Percentage of total
%
 
39.4
%
 
28.8
%
 
31.8
%
 
100.0
%
For the year ended December 31, 2018, we performed a qualitative assessment for our goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets by examining relevant events and circumstances that could have an effect on their fair values, such as: macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions, entity-specific events, financial performance and other relevant factors or events that could affect earnings and cash flows.
Based on the results of the qualitative assessments for the year ended December 31, 2018, we performed quantitative testing for: (i) three reporting units within our Oil and Gas operating segment; (ii) our Electrical Transmission operating segment; and (iii) two reporting units within our Communications segment. We also performed quantitative testing during 2018 for an indefinite-lived pre-qualification intangible asset in our Oil and Gas operating segment and in our Electrical Transmission operating segment. Factors considered by management in determining the reporting units and indefinite-lived pre-qualification intangible assets for which quantitative assessments were performed included the passage of time since the last quantitative assessment, the effects of current or expected changes in market conditions on the future business outlook, success rates on new project awards and levels of operating productivity.
For the reporting units for which quantitative testing was performed, we estimated their fair values using a combination of market and income approaches. Under the market approach, fair values were estimated using published market multiples for comparable companies. Under the income approach, a discounted cash flow methodology was used, including: (i) management estimates, such as projections of revenue, operating costs and cash flows, taking into consideration historical and anticipated financial results; (ii) general economic and market conditions; and (iii) the impact of planned business and operational strategies. Estimated discount rates were determined using the weighted average cost of capital for each reporting unit at the time of the analysis, taking into consideration the risks inherent within each reporting unit individually. Significant assumptions used in testing the reporting units included terminal values based on terminal growth rates ranging from 2.4% to 3.5%, 4 to 9 years of discounted cash flows prior to the terminal value, and discount rates ranging from 11.0% to 16.0%. We believe the assumptions used in our quantitative goodwill impairment tests are reflective of the risks inherent in the business models of our reporting units and within our industry.
Based on the results of the quantitative assessments, the estimated fair value of one of the reporting units within our Oil and Gas operating segment was determined to be less than its carrying value, and a pre-tax, non-cash impairment charge of $47.7 million was recorded for the difference. This reporting unit has $14 million of goodwill remaining as of December 31, 2018. The estimated fair value of a separate reporting unit in our Oil and Gas operating segment, which has goodwill with a carrying value of approximately $15 million as of December 31, 2018, was determined to exceed its carrying value by approximately 5%, and the estimated fair values of the other reporting units for which quantitative testing was performed were determined to substantially exceed their carrying values as of December 31, 2018. A 100 basis point increase in the discount rate would not have resulted in any additional reporting units’ carrying values exceeding their fair values.
For the indefinite-lived pre-qualification intangible assets for which quantitative testing was performed, we estimated the fair values of these intangible assets using a cost methodology, incorporating estimates of the opportunity cost associated with the assets’ loss based on discounted cash flows over a 2 to 4-year period. The impairment tests incorporated estimated discount rates ranging from 13.0% to 14.0%. Based on the results of these assessments, we determined that the estimated fair value of the indefinite-lived pre-qualification asset in our Oil and Gas operating segment, which had a carrying value of $43 million, exceeded its carrying value by approximately 16%. The estimated fair value of the indefinite-lived pre-qualification asset in our Electrical Transmission operating segment was determined to substantially exceed its carrying value as of December 31, 2018.
As of December 31, 2018, we believe that the recorded balances of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are recoverable; however, there can be no assurance that these assets will not be impaired in future periods. Significant changes in the assumptions or estimates used in our impairment analyses, such as a reduction in profitability and/or cash flows, could result in non-cash goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment charges in the future, which could materially affect our results of operations.
See Note 1 - Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies and Note 3 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which are incorporated by reference, for additional discussion.

31



Income Taxes
Our provision for income taxes uses an effective tax rate based on annual pre-tax income, statutory tax rates, permanent tax differences and tax planning opportunities in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Significant factors that can affect our annual effective tax rate include our assessment of certain tax matters, the location and amount of taxable earnings, changes in certain non-deductible expenses and expected credits. Although we believe our provision for income taxes is correct and the related assumptions are reasonable, the final outcome of tax matters could be materially different from what we currently anticipate, which could result in significant costs or benefits to us. In December 2017, the 2017 Tax Act was enacted, which includes broad tax reform that was applicable to the Company. As a result, our U.S. deferred income tax balances were required to be remeasured as of December 31, 2017, for which we recognized a non-cash tax benefit of $120.1 million in 2017. We recognized a net tax benefit of approximately $16.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 related to revisions of this initial estimate, primarily from finalization of our tax return for the year ended December 31, 2017, as well as from certain tax accounting method changes and other adjustments. See Note 12 - Income Taxes in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for additional discussion.
We file income tax returns in numerous tax jurisdictions, including U.S. federal, most U.S. states and certain foreign jurisdictions. Although we believe our calculations for tax returns are correct and the positions taken thereon are reasonable, the final outcome of income tax examinations could be materially different from our expectations and the estimates that are reflected in our consolidated financial statements, which could have a material effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Self-Insurance
We are self-insured up to the amount of our deductible for our insurance policies. Liabilities under our insurance programs are accrued based upon our estimate of the ultimate liability for claims, with assistance from third-party actuaries. The determination of such claims and expenses and the appropriateness of the related liability is reviewed and updated quarterly, however, these insurance liabilities are difficult to assess and estimate due to unknown factors, including the severity of an injury, the determination of our liability in proportion to other parties and the number of incidents not reported. Accruals are based upon known facts and historical trends. Although we believe such accruals are adequate, a change in experience or actuarial assumptions could materially affect our results of operations in a particular period.
Litigation and Contingencies
Accruals for litigation and contingencies are based on our assessment, including advice of legal counsel, of the expected outcome of litigation or other dispute resolution proceedings and/or the expected resolution of contingencies. Significant judgment is required in both the determination of probability of loss and the determination as to whether the amount is reasonably estimable. As additional information becomes available, we reassess potential liabilities related to pending claims and litigation and may revise previous estimates, which could materially affect our results of operations in a given period.
2019 Outlook
We expect market opportunities in the following areas, as more fully described in Item 1. Business above:
Opportunities in our Communications Segment. Significant advances in technology and rapid innovation in service offerings to data consumers continue to increase demand for faster and more reliable wireless and wireline/fiber communications network services. With increased usage of mobile devices and advancements in the “internet of things,” the amount of data affecting network traffic has grown significantly, and is expected to continue to experience dramatic growth. In response to these growing demands, multiple major carriers have continued to expand, densify and optimize current wireless and wireline/fiber communications network capacity, while planning for next generation evolution technology including 5th generation (“5G”) wireless and fixed wireless network capacity, as well as enhanced broadband connection speeds. Multiple carriers tested and launched 5G initiatives in 2018, and nationwide fiber deployment projects are expected to continue to rapidly expand in the coming years. Large scale 5G deployments are expected over the next several years, which will include additional and improved tower capacity, as well as deployment of numerous higher bandwidth small/micro cells and distributed antenna systems to densify network performance. In addition, nationwide fiber projects in conjunction with 5G network deployment, such as Verizon Communications Inc.’s launch of “One Fiber,” expanded in 2018 and are expected to continue to rapidly expand to support network densification, data capacity and speed. These factors are expected to create incremental opportunities for investment in communications infrastructure in addition to the continued expansion and deployment by telephone companies and cable operators of fiber-to-the-home with 1-Gigabit-per-second high-speed internet connectivity. In addition, in 2017, AT&T was selected to build and run FirstNetTM, a dedicated nationwide broadband for first responders, to create a new wireless official public safety network throughout the United States, for which construction and limited operation commenced in 2018, and is expected to create additional demand for our services in 2019 and beyond.
Leveraging our expertise in home installation and our existing network of technicians, we believe that we will also benefit from opportunities driven by customers seeking to expand their service offerings in the areas of home automation, connected home security monitoring and control, home entertainment offerings and commercial energy management solutions.
We believe that we are well positioned as one of the largest providers of communications and install-to-the-home infrastructure services to significantly benefit from the significant and multiple infrastructure opportunities as previously described. These initiatives, as well as recent trends toward streamlining regulatory processes to speed the deployment of 5G technology, are expected to drive communications infrastructure investment as reflected in our record level of Communications segment backlog as of December 31, 2018.
Opportunities in our Oil and Gas Segment. We are one of the leading pipeline contractors in North America, with a balanced portfolio of service offerings, including the construction and maintenance of large diameter (“long-haul”) pipeline, midstream pipeline, gathering lines and related compressor and pumping stations and treatment plants, offering both union and non-union services. Demand for pipeline infrastructure and the related level of oil, natural gas and product pipeline construction activity has grown significantly in recent years as technological advances and increasingly cost-effective production technologies have significantly increased producible North American oil and natural gas reserves. The effect of these advances on oil and gas production activities in North America has also driven changes in the geographic locations of North American energy production. The

32



increase in oil and natural gas production driven by these advances, as well as from robust demand, has led to ‘takeaway’ capacity issues, whereby more pipeline infrastructure is required to move this increased level of production to market. For example, the Permian, Bakken and Marcellus/Utica basins have experienced significant growth in production for which additional takeaway capacity is required. Permian basin activity has grown substantially over the past two years, with predictions in IHS Markit’s June 2018 Market Outlook report that Permian oil production will more than double within five years. Additionally, industry reporting indicates that the abundance of low-cost North American natural gas will continue to drive growth of natural gas as a source of lower-carbon power generation, both in the U.S. and abroad. In 2018, the DOE predicted that the U.S., which is already a net exporter of natural gas, will become a net exporter of energy, including oil and natural gas, by the early 2020s. In addition, demand for liquified natural gas (“LNG”) exports has risen dramatically in recent years, driven in part by the easing of certain export regulations, which is expected to drive construction of pipeline infrastructure for the transport of LNG to coastal export facilities in North America.
These trends are expected to continue to drive demand for U.S. oil and gas production, creating expanded opportunities for new pipeline infrastructure throughout North America. Significant investment in pipeline infrastructure will be required to move the increased volumes of oil and gas production to refining centers, distribution hubs, LNG export facilities and industrial users throughout North America, as well as to meet demand resulting from the desire to convert the transportation of oil and gas from traditional methods, such as truck and rail transport, to lower cost and safer pipeline infrastructure. We anticipate that demand for pipeline infrastructure in North America will provide significant opportunities for years to come, and that our diverse capabilities and expertise will enable us to continue to be a leading service provider in this market. We also believe that future opportunities exist for upgrades to existing pipeline infrastructure, including pipeline integrity and maintenance upgrades, modernization efforts, including digitization and other technology upgrades and upgrades to address safety regulations.
We believe that the above mentioned trends will support continued expanded levels of project activity, and that we are well positioned to benefit from these trends.
Opportunities in our Electrical Transmission Segment. We believe that the nation’s aging electrical grid will continue to require significant ongoing maintenance, upgrade and expansion to continue delivery of reliable and affordable power, as well as to address future reliability needs. Additional investment in electrical infrastructure will be required to address power line congestion and to avoid delivery failure during peak periods, as well as to modernize the grid and strengthen aging infrastructure to withstand weather events, natural disasters and cyber threats. In addition, older power plants, including coal-fired and nuclear plants, continue to be retired, requiring replacement infrastructure. Regional shifts in population and industry could also create incremental demand for transmission and distribution construction and upgrades.
Future demand for electrical transmission and distribution infrastructure is also expected to result from technological innovations, deployment of digital capabilities, expected growth in usage of electric/hybrid vehicles, and the continued development of electrical power generation from renewable power sources, among others. The expected growth in demand for, and deployment of, electrical power generation from renewable energy sources will require significant investment in transmission lines, as wind and solar power generation resources are typically located in remote areas of the country, far from industrial users and major population centers. Electrical grid upgrades and expansions in Canada and Mexico may also create opportunities for electrical transmission and distribution infrastructure services. We believe significant capital investment in the transmission and distribution system will continue to be required to support these needs. We have proven expertise in handling complex and high voltage electrical transmission projects and believe that we are well positioned for these opportunities.
Opportunities in our Power Generation and Industrial Segment. Growing interest in climate change initiatives and the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, together with growing corporate initiatives and certain regulatory and other policy initiatives at the federal, state and municipal levels, have spurred demand for energy production from sustainable, “green” power sources, including environmentally sensitive electrical power production from renewable sources such as wind, solar and biomass. Currently, almost 40 states, as well as the District of Columbia and four territories, have adopted renewable portfolio standards (“RPS”) or renewable energy goals. These trends, coupled with advancing technologies and improvements in the cost performance and scalability of wind and solar power projects, are expected to continue to drive demand for construction of renewable resources throughout North America in the coming years.
In addition to expected growth in demand for construction of new wind power installations, additional opportunities in wind infrastructure are being driven by recent trends toward replacement of existing wind turbines with next generation, higher efficiency turbines, as well as from maintenance of aging wind farms, including the repowering of wind turbines and foundations, which enables existing wind farms to produce more electricity at a lower cost. In addition, industrial plant construction opportunities exist in a wide variety of industries, including in the renewable energy industry. The low price and environmental advantage of clean burning natural gas is expected to continue to drive demand for the conversion of coal-fired power plants and the construction of new gas-fired power plants. Additionally, a wide variety of industries may seek to expand, convert or construct new plants to take advantage of this economical, cleaner, lower cost and lower carbon fuel source. Industrial facilities and power plants in the biofuels/biomass, food processing, natural gas, petroleum and related industries present opportunities as additional domestic energy reserves are produced, transported and processed.
We are one of the leading renewables contractors in North America, with expertise in wind, solar and biomass, as well as industrial and other power plant construction, and expect to benefit from these market trends.
Our 2019 results could be adversely affected by the matters discussed in the “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Item 3. “Legal Proceedings” of this Form 10-K.

33



Comparison of Fiscal Year Results
The following table, which may contain slight summation differences due to rounding, reflects our consolidated results of operations in dollar and percentage of revenue terms for the periods indicated (dollar amounts in millions). Our consolidated results of operations are not necessarily comparable from period to period due to the effect of recent acquisitions and certain other items, which are described in the comparison of results section below.
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Revenue
$
6,909.4

 
100.0
 %
 
$
6,607.0

 
100.0
 %
 
$
5,134.7

 
100.0
 %
Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization
5,939.3

 
86.0
 %
 
5,745.3

 
87.0
 %
 
4,442.1

 
86.5
 %
Depreciation and amortization
212.9

 
3.1
 %
 
188.0

 
2.8
 %
 
164.9

 
3.2
 %
Goodwill impairment
47.7

 
0.7
 %
 

 
 %
 

 
 %
General and administrative expenses
287.3

 
4.2
 %
 
275.1

 
4.2
 %
 
261.4

 
5.1
 %
Interest expense, net
82.6

 
1.2
 %
 
61.0

 
0.9
 %
 
50.7

 
1.0
 %
Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates
(23.9
)
 
(0.3
)%
 
(21.3
)
 
(0.3
)%
 
(3.5
)
 
(0.1
)%
Other income, net
(1.8
)
 
(0.0
 )%
 
(13.0
)
 
(0.2
)%
 
(6.8
)
 
(0.1
)%
Income before income taxes
$
365.3

 
5.3
 %
 
$
371.8

 
5.6
 %
 
$
225.8

 
4.4
 %
Provision for income taxes
(106.1
)
 
(1.5
)%
 
(22.9
)
 
(0.3
)%
 
(91.8
)
 
(1.8
)%
Net income
$
259.2

 
3.8
 %
 
$
348.9

 
5.3
 %
 
$
134.0

 
2.6
 %
Net (loss) income attributable to non-controlling interests
(0.4
)
 
(0.0
 )%
 
1.7

 
0.0
 %
 
2.8

 
0.0
 %
Net income attributable to MasTec, Inc.
$
259.7

 
3.8
 %
 
$
347.2

 
5.3
 %
 
$
131.3

 
2.6
 %

We review our operating results by reportable segment. See Note 13 - Segments and Related Information in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference. Our reportable segments are: (1) Communications; (2) Oil and Gas; (3) Electrical Transmission; (4) Power Generation and Industrial and (5) Other. Management’s review of reportable segment results includes analyses of trends in revenue, EBITDA and EBITDA margin. EBITDA for segment reporting purposes is calculated consistently with our consolidated EBITDA calculation. See the discussion of our non-U.S. GAAP financial measures, including certain adjusted non-U.S. GAAP measures, as described, following the comparison of results discussion below. The following table presents revenue, EBITDA and EBITDA margin by reportable segment for the periods indicated (dollar amounts in millions):
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
 
Revenue
 
EBITDA and EBITDA Margin
Reportable Segment:
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Communications
$
2,556.8

 
$
2,424.4

 
$
2,323.6

 
$
290.4

 
11.4
%
 
$
247.4

 
10.2
%
 
$
244.6

 
10.5
 %
Oil and Gas
3,288.7

 
3,497.2

 
2,024.4

 
451.6

 
13.7
%
 
402.2

 
11.5
%
 
297.3

 
14.7
 %
Electrical Transmission
397.3

 
378.2

 
383.8

 
10.5

 
2.6
%
 
17.6

 
4.7
%
 
(42.9
)
 
(11.2
)%
Power Generation and Industrial
665.0

 
299.9

 
405.7

 
40.4

 
6.1
%
 
22.6

 
7.5
%
 
18.3

 
4.5
 %
Other
3.5

 
20.8

 
15.9

 
24.4

 
689.3
%
 
19.8

 
95.0
%
 
(2.6
)
 
(16.3
)%
Eliminations
(1.9
)
 
(13.5
)
 
(18.7
)
 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate

 

 

 
(156.4
)
 
NA
 
(88.7
)
 
NA
 
(73.1
)
 
NA
Consolidated Results
$
6,909.4

 
$
6,607.0

 
$
5,134.7

 
$
660.8

 
9.6
%
 
$
620.9

 
9.4
%
 
$
441.5

 
8.6
 %
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2018 and 2017
Revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2018, consolidated revenue totaled $6,909 million as compared with $6,607 million in 2017, an increase of $302 million, or 5% as compared with 2017. Revenue increases in our Power Generation and Industrial segment of $365 million, or 122%, in our Communications segment of $132 million, or 5%, and in our Electrical Transmission segment of $19 million, or 5%, were partially offset by a decrease in revenue in our Oil and Gas segment of $209 million, or 6%, and in our Other segment of $17 million, or 83%. Acquisitions contributed $154 million in revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 and organic revenue increased by approximately $148 million, or 2%, as compared with 2017.
Communications Segment. Communications revenue was $2,557 million in 2018, as compared with $2,424 million in 2017, an increase of $132 million, or 5%. Organic revenue increased by approximately $93 million, or 4%, as compared with 2017, and acquisitions contributed $39 million of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase in organic revenue was primarily driven by higher levels of wireline/fiber and wireless revenue, as well as from storm restoration services, partially offset by a decrease in install-to-the-home revenue.
Oil and Gas Segment. Oil and Gas revenue was $3,289 million in 2018, as compared with $3,497 million in 2017, a decrease in revenue of approximately $209 million, or 6%, due primarily to timing, including from regulatory and hurricane flooding related disruptions, of large long-haul pipeline construction project activity.

34



Electrical Transmission Segment. Electrical Transmission revenue was $397 million in 2018, as compared with $378 million in 2017, an increase of $19 million, or 5%, due primarily to project activity and timing.
Power Generation and Industrial Segment. Power Generation and Industrial revenue was $665 million in 2018, as compared with $300 million in 2017, an increase of $365 million, or 122%. Organic revenue increased by approximately $250 million, or 83%, as compared with 2017, and acquisitions contributed $115 million of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase in organic revenue was driven primarily by higher levels of renewable power project activity, including wind and biomass facility construction.
Other Segment. Other segment revenue decreased by $17 million in 2018 as compared with 2017 due primarily to a decrease in our international oil and gas operations.
Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization. Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization, increased by $194 million, or 3%, to $5,939 million in 2018 from $5,745 million in 2017. Higher levels of revenue contributed an increase of $263 million in costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization, offset, in part, by a decrease of approximately $69 million from improved productivity. Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization, as a percentage of revenue decreased by approximately 100 basis points, from 87.0% of revenue in 2017 to 86.0% of revenue in 2018. The basis point decrease was primarily driven by improved project efficiencies, closeouts and mix in our Oil and Gas segment, and from improved production efficiencies and mix in our Communications segment, including from storm restoration services. These improvements were offset, in part, by the effects of reduced project efficiencies and mix in our Power Generation and Industrial and Electrical Transmission segments. In addition, costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization for the year ended December 31, 2018 included approximately $1 million of gains on a proportionately consolidated non-controlled Canadian joint venture in our Other segment, which is managed by a third party, and for which we have minimal direct construction involvement, as compared with losses of approximately $8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017.
Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization was $213 million, or 3.1% of revenue in 2018, as compared with $188 million, or 2.8% of revenue in 2017, an increase of $25 million, or 13%. Acquisitions contributed $8 million of depreciation and amortization for the year ended December 31, 2018. As a percentage of revenue, depreciation and amortization increased by approximately 20 basis points due to acquisition activity as well as equipment purchases in support of growth in our businesses.
Goodwill impairment. We incurred $48 million of goodwill impairment in 2018 related to a reporting unit in our Oil and Gas segment. For additional details, see Note 3 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference.
General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses were $287 million, or 4.2% of revenue in 2018, as compared with $275 million, or 4.2% of revenue in 2017, an increase of $12 million, or 4%. Acquisitions contributed approximately $12 million of general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018. Excluding the effects of acquisitions, administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 were generally flat, as increased administrative costs to support growth in our businesses were offset by timing of legal matters and other settlements.
Interest expense, net. Interest expense, net of interest income, was $83 million, or 1.2% of revenue in 2018, as compared with $61 million, or 0.9% of revenue in 2017. The increase in interest expense related primarily to credit facility activity, reflecting a combination of higher average balances and higher weighted average interest rates, as well as an increase in discount charges on financing arrangements for the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared with 2017. The increase in the average balance on our senior secured credit facility (the “Credit Facility”) resulted from higher working capital requirements and share repurchase activity for the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared with 2017.
Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates. Equity in earnings or losses of unconsolidated affiliates includes our share of income or losses from equity investees. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, equity in earnings from unconsolidated affiliates totaled $24 million and $21 million, respectively, and related primarily to our investments in the Waha JVs, which commenced commercial pipeline operations in the first half of 2017.
Other income, net. Other income, net, consists primarily of gains or losses from sales of, or changes in estimated recoveries from, assets and investments, certain legal/other settlements and gains or losses from changes to estimated earn-out accruals. Other income, net, was $2 million in 2018, as compared with $13 million in 2017. For the year ended December 31, 2018, other income, net, included $17 million of gains on sales of equipment, net, offset by approximately $18 million of expense from changes to estimated earn-out accruals and $1 million of income, net, related to expected recoveries on certain matters. For the year ended December 31, 2017, other income, net, included approximately $12 million of income from changes to estimated earn-out accruals and gains on sales of equipment, net, of approximately $7 million, partially offset by $6 million of expense related to changes in expected recovery amounts for certain investments.
Provision for income taxes. Income tax expense was $106 million in 2018, as compared with $23 million in 2017. The increase in income tax expense was due primarily to a higher effective tax rate, which increased to 29.0% for the year ended December 31, 2018 from 6.2% in 2017. Income tax expense in 2017 included a tax benefit of approximately $120 million as a result of the 2017 Tax Act, which was effective as of January 1, 2018, as compared with a net tax benefit of approximately $13 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, primarily related to the 2017 Tax Act. The net tax benefit in 2018 was primarily related to the 2017 Tax Act, due to finalization of our 2017 tax return, certain tax accounting method changes and other adjustments to the initial remeasurement of our deferred tax balances as of December 31, 2017. Income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2018 also included approximately $2 million of excess tax benefits, net, from the vesting of share-based awards, as compared with $5 million, net, in 2017.
Analysis of EBITDA by Segment
Communications Segment. EBITDA for our Communications segment was $290 million, or 11.4% of revenue in 2018, as compared with $247 million, or 10.2% of revenue in 2017, an increase of $43 million, or 17%. As a percentage of revenue, EBITDA increased by approximately 120 basis points, or $29 million, primarily due to production efficiencies and mix, including from storm restoration services, as well as improved overhead

35



utilization from higher levels of revenue, partially offset by costs incurred to support future growth. Higher levels of revenue contributed a $14 million increase in EBITDA as compared with the prior year.
Oil and Gas Segment. EBITDA for our Oil and Gas segment was $452 million, or 13.7% of revenue in 2018, as compared with $402 million, or 11.5% of revenue in 2017, an increase of approximately $49 million, or 12%. As a percentage of revenue, segment EBITDA increased by approximately 220 basis points, or approximately $73 million, as compared with the prior year, due primarily to improved project efficiencies, closeouts and mix. The increase in EBITDA from improved productivity was offset, in part, by a decrease of $24 million from lower levels of revenue.
Electrical Transmission Segment. EBITDA for our Electrical Transmission segment was $10 million, or 2.6% of revenue in 2018, as compared with $18 million, or 4.7% of revenue in 2017, a decrease in EBITDA of approximately $7 million, or 40%. As a percentage of revenue, segment EBITDA decreased by approximately 200 basis points, or $8 million, as compared with the prior year, due primarily to a combination of reduced project efficiencies and mix.
Power Generation and Industrial Segment. EBITDA for our Power Generation and Industrial segment was $40 million, or 6.1% of revenue, in 2018, as compared with $23 million, or 7.5% of revenue in 2017, an increase in EBITDA of approximately $18 million, or 79%. Higher revenue contributed an increase in EBITDA of $28 million as compared with the prior year. As a percentage of revenue, segment EBITDA decreased by approximately 150 basis points, or $10 million, due primarily to a combination of reduced project efficiencies and mix.
Other Segment. EBITDA from Other businesses was $24 million in 2018, as compared with EBITDA of $20 million in 2017, an increase of approximately $5 million, or 24%. Other segment EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 included $24 million and $21 million, respectively, of equity in earnings from unconsolidated affiliates related to our investments in the Waha JVs, and approximately $1 million of gains and $8 million of losses, respectively, on a proportionately consolidated non-controlled Canadian joint venture, more fully described above in “Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization.” The remaining change in Other segment EBITDA was primarily attributable to a decrease in EBITDA from our international oil and gas operations.
Corporate. Corporate EBITDA was negative $156 million in 2018, as compared with EBITDA of negative $89 million in 2017, for a decrease in EBITDA of approximately $68 million. Corporate EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 2018 included $48 million of goodwill impairment. See Note 3 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for details regarding the 2018 goodwill impairment. In addition, Corporate EBITDA in 2018 included approximately $18 million of expense related to changes in estimated earn-out accruals, as compared with $12 million of income in 2017. Corporate EBITDA in 2018 also included $1 million of income, net, related to expected recoveries on certain matters, as compared with $6 million of expense in 2017. Excluding the effects of these items, other corporate expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 decreased by approximately $5 million as compared with the prior year. Increased administrative costs to support growth in our businesses were offset by timing of legal matters and other settlements.
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2017 and 2016
Revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2017, consolidated revenue increased to $6,607 million from $5,135 million, an increase of $1,472 million, or 29%, as compared with the year ended December 31, 2016, driven largely by our Oil and Gas segment, for which revenue increased by $1,473 million, or 73%. In addition, Communications revenue increased by $101 million, or 4% and Other segment revenue increased by $5 million, or 31%, whereas Power Generation and Industrial revenue decreased by $106 million, or 26% and Electrical Transmission revenue decreased by $6 million, or 2%. Organic revenue increased by $1,312 million, or 26%, and acquisitions contributed approximately $160 million of revenue.
Communications Segment. Communications revenue was $2,424 million in 2017, as compared with $2,324 million in 2016, an increase of approximately $101 million, or 4%. Acquisitions contributed approximately $110 million of revenue, which was offset by a decrease in organic revenue of $9 million, or 0.4%. The decrease in organic revenue was primarily driven by lower levels of install-to-the-home revenue, partially offset by an increase in wireless and wireline revenue.
Oil and Gas Segment. Oil and Gas revenue was $3,497 million in 2017, as compared with $2,024 million in 2016, an increase of $1,473 million, or 73%. The increase in Oil and Gas revenue was driven primarily by an increase in multiple large long-haul pipeline construction projects.
Electrical Transmission Segment. Electrical Transmission revenue was $378 million in 2017, as compared with $384 million in 2016, a decrease of approximately $6 million, or 2%, driven primarily by project activity and timing.
Power Generation and Industrial Segment. Power Generation and Industrial revenue was $300 million in 2017, as compared with $406 million in 2016, a decrease of $106 million, or 26%. Acquisitions contributed approximately $50 million of revenue, which was offset by a decrease in organic revenue of $156 million, or 39%. The decrease in organic revenue was driven primarily by lower industry levels of renewable power project activity and timing.
Other Segment. Other segment revenue was $21 million in 2017, as compared with $16 million in 2016, an increase of $5 million, or 31%. The increase was driven primarily by increased levels of activity from our oil and gas operations in Mexico, offset by a decrease in revenue from a proportionately consolidated non-controlled Canadian joint venture.
Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization. Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization, increased by $1,303 million, or 29%, to $5,745 million in 2017 from $4,442 million in 2016. Higher revenue resulted in an increase of $1,274 million in costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization, whereas decreased productivity resulted in an increase of approximately $29 million. Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization, as a percentage of revenue increased by approximately 50 basis points, from 86.5% of revenue in 2016 to 87.0% of revenue in 2017. The basis point increase was driven by reduced project efficiencies and mix in our Oil and Gas segment, offset, in part, by improved project efficiencies and mix in our Electrical Transmission, Power Generation and Industrial and Communications segments.

36



Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization was $188 million, or 2.8% of revenue in 2017, as compared with $165 million, or 3.2% of revenue in 2016, an increase of approximately $23 million, or 14%, driven primarily by increased levels of activity in our Oil and Gas segment. As a percentage of revenue, depreciation and amortization decreased by approximately 40 basis points due primarily to higher levels of revenue.
General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses were $275 million, or 4.2% of revenue in 2017, as compared with $261 million, or 5.1% of revenue in 2016, an increase of approximately $14 million, or 5.2%. Acquisitions contributed $17 million of incremental general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017, whereas general and administrative expenses in 2016 included certain restructuring charges of approximately $12 million related to our efforts to streamline our western Canadian oil and gas and our electrical transmission operations, which efforts were substantially completed in 2016. Excluding the above mentioned items, various administrative expenses increased by approximately $9 million, net, for the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared with 2016, primarily due to costs associated with growth initiatives, including incentive and compensation expense as well as the timing of legal matters and other settlements. Overall, for the year ended December 31, 2017, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenue improved by 90 basis points as compared with the same period in the prior year due primarily to improvements in overhead cost utilization from higher levels of revenue.
Interest expense, net. Interest expense, net of interest income, was $61 million in 2017, or 0.9% of revenue, as compared with $51 million, or 1.0% of revenue in 2016, an increase of $10 million, or 20.3%. The increase was driven primarily by higher levels of financing costs, including discount charges on financing arrangements, as well as an increase in interest expense on our Credit Facility, due primarily to higher levels of borrowings in 2017 as compared with 2016.
Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates.  Equity in earnings or losses of unconsolidated affiliates includes our share of income or losses from equity investees. For the year ended December 31, 2017, equity in earnings from unconsolidated affiliates of $21 million related to our investments in the Waha JVs, which commenced operations in 2017. Equity in earnings from unconsolidated affiliates for the year ended December 31, 2016 totaled approximately $4 million and related to expected recoveries from our interests in certain pre-acquisition equity investments of Pacer, of which the remaining investment is in the final stage of liquidation as of December 31, 2017.
Other income, net. Other income, net, was $13 million in 2017, as compared with $7 million in 2016. Other income, net, consists primarily of gains or losses from sales of, or changes in estimated recoveries from, assets and investments, certain legal/other settlements, gains or losses from changes to estimated earn-out accruals, certain purchase accounting adjustments, and restructuring charges related to losses on disposal of excess fixed assets. Gains on sales of equipment totaled approximately $7 million in 2017 as compared with $1 million in 2016. For the year ended December 31, 2017, other income, net, included $6 million of expense related to reduced recovery expectations on a long-term note receivable due to recent bankruptcy proceedings for a former customer, as well as changes in expected recovery amounts for an investment that is in the final stages of liquidation, offset by $12 million of income from changes to estimated earn-out accruals. Other income, net, in 2016 included approximately $10 million of income related to a settlement in connection with a previously acquired business, $3 million of restructuring charges related to estimated losses on the planned disposal of fixed assets held-for-sale and $3 million of expense from changes to estimated earn-out accruals.
Provision for income taxes. Income tax expense was $23 million in 2017 as compared with $92 million in 2016, a decrease of approximately $69 million. Pre-tax income was $372 million in 2017, as compared with pre-tax income of $226 million in 2016. Income tax expense in 2017 includes a benefit of approximately $120 million in connection with the initial remeasurement of our deferred tax liabilities as a result of the 2017 Tax Act and a benefit of approximately $5 million attributable to excess tax benefits from the vesting of share-based awards. Income tax expense in 2017 also includes the effect of certain other tax credits that were recognized in 2017.
Analysis of EBITDA by segment
Communications Segment. EBITDA for our Communications segment was $247 million, or 10.2% of revenue in 2017, compared to $245 million or 10.5% of revenue in 2016, an increase of $3 million, or 1%. Higher revenue contributed an increase of $11 million in EBITDA, offset, in part, by a decrease in EBITDA as a percentage of revenue of approximately 30 basis points, or approximately $8 million. This decrease was primarily due to the non-recurrence of a 2016 gain from a settlement in connection with a previously acquired business and certain expense reduction efforts in 2017, partially offset by production efficiencies and mix.
Oil and Gas Segment. EBITDA for our Oil and Gas segment was $402 million, or 11.5% of revenue in 2017, compared to $297 million, or 14.7% of revenue in 2016, an increase of $105 million, or 35%. Higher revenue contributed an increase of $216 million in EBITDA. As a percentage of revenue, Oil and Gas segment EBITDA decreased by approximately 320 basis points, or approximately $111 million, due to the effects of reduced project efficiencies and mix, partially offset by the non-recurrence of project losses of $14 million in 2016 on a western Canadian project and restructuring charges of approximately $6 million in 2016 related to efforts to streamline our western Canadian oil and gas operations.
Electrical Transmission Segment. EBITDA for our Electrical Transmission segment was $18 million, or 4.7% of revenue in 2017, as compared with negative EBITDA of $43 million, or negative 11.2% of revenue in 2016, an increase in EBITDA of approximately $60 million. The improvement in Electrical Transmission EBITDA in 2017 was due to a combination of project efficiencies and mix as well as the non-recurrence of a project loss of approximately $15 million in 2016 on a large transmission project and restructuring charges in 2016 of approximately $9 million related to efforts to streamline our operations.
Power Generation and Industrial Segment. EBITDA for our Power Generation and Industrial segment was $23 million in 2017, or 7.5% of revenue, as compared with EBITDA of $18 million in 2016, or 4.5% of revenue, an increase of approximately $4 million, or 24%. As a percentage of revenue, segment EBITDA improved by approximately 300 basis points due to improved project efficiencies and mix, offset, in part, by reduced cost and overhead utilization due to lower revenue.
Other Segment. EBITDA from Other businesses was $20 million in 2017 as compared with negative EBITDA of $3 million in 2016, an increase in EBITDA of approximately $22 million. Other segment EBITDA in 2017 included $21 million of equity in earnings from unconsolidated affiliates related to our investments in the Waha JVs, which commenced operations in 2017. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, Other segment EBITDA included $8 million and $5 million, respectively, of project losses from a proportionately consolidated non-controlled Canadian joint

37



venture. The remaining improvement in Other segment EBITDA in 2017 was driven by an increase in EBITDA from our oil and gas operations in Mexico.
Corporate. Corporate EBITDA was negative $89 million in 2017, as compared with negative EBITDA of $73 million in 2016, for a decrease in EBITDA of approximately $16 million. Corporate EBITDA in 2017 included approximately $6 million of expense related to reduced recovery expectations on a long-term note receivable due to recent bankruptcy proceedings for a former customer, as well as changes in expected recovery amounts for an investment that is in the final stages of liquidation, offset by $12 million of income from changes to estimated earn-out accruals. Other corporate expenses increased by $22 million in 2017 as compared with the same period in the prior year, primarily due to costs associated with growth initiatives, including incentive and compensation expense as well as the timing of legal matters and other settlements.
Foreign Operations
Our foreign operations are primarily in Canada and, to a lesser extent, in Mexico. See Note 13 - Segments and Related Information in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference.
Non-U.S. GAAP Financial Measures
As appropriate, we supplement our reported U.S. GAAP financial information with certain non-U.S. GAAP financial measures, including earnings before interest, income taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”), adjusted EBITDA (“Adjusted EBITDA”), adjusted net income (“Adjusted Net Income”) and adjusted diluted earnings per share (“Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share”). These “adjusted” non-U.S. GAAP measures exclude, as applicable to the particular periods: non-cash stock-based compensation expense; goodwill impairment; project results from a proportionately consolidated non-controlled Canadian joint venture that was underway when we acquired Pacer in 2014, and whose sole activity involves the construction of a bridge, a business in which we do not otherwise engage, is managed by a third party, and for which we have minimal direct construction involvement and automatically terminates upon completion of the project; certain restructuring charges; charges or recoveries from multi-employer pension plan withdrawals; and, for Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share, the tax effects of the adjusted items, including non-cash stock based compensation expense, and the effects of changes in statutory tax rates, including the effects of the 2017 Tax Act. The definitions of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA above are not the same as in our Credit Facility or in the indenture governing our notes; therefore, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA as presented in this discussion should not be used for purposes of determining our compliance with the covenants contained in our debt instruments.
We use EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA, as well as Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share to evaluate our performance, both internally and as compared with our peers, because these measures exclude certain items that may not be indicative of our core operating results, as well as items that can vary widely across different industries or among companies within the same industry, and for non-cash stock-based compensation expense, can also be subject to volatility from changes in the market price per share of our common stock or variations in the value and number of shares granted. Additionally, these measures provide a baseline for analyzing trends in our underlying business.
We believe these non-U.S. GAAP financial measures provide meaningful information and help investors understand our financial results and assess our prospects for future performance. Because non-U.S. GAAP financial measures are not standardized, it may not be possible to compare these financial measures with other companies’ non-U.S. GAAP financial measures having the same or similar names. These financial measures should not be considered in isolation from, as substitutes for, or alternative measures of, reported net income or diluted earnings per share, and should be viewed in conjunction with the most comparable U.S. GAAP financial measures and the provided reconciliations thereto. We believe these non-U.S. GAAP financial measures, when viewed together with our U.S. GAAP results and related reconciliations, provide a more complete understanding of our business. We strongly encourage investors to review our consolidated financial statements and publicly filed reports in their entirety and not rely on any single financial measure.
The following table presents a reconciliation of net income to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA in dollar and percentage of revenue terms, for the years indicated (dollar amounts in millions). The tables below may contain slight summation differences due to rounding.
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
EBITDA Reconciliation:
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net income
$
259.2

 
3.8
 %
 
$
348.9

 
5.3
%
 
$
134.0

 
2.6
%
Interest expense, net
82.6

 
1.2
 %
 
61.0

 
0.9
%
 
50.7

 
1.0
%
Provision for income taxes
106.1

 
1.5
 %
 
22.9

 
0.3
%
 
91.8

 
1.8
%
Depreciation and amortization
212.9

 
3.1
 %
 
188.0

 
2.8
%
 
164.9

 
3.2
%
EBITDA
$
660.8

 
9.6
 %
 
$
620.9

 
9.4
%
 
$
441.5

 
8.6
%
Non-cash stock-based compensation expense
13.5

 
0.2
 %
 
15.7

 
0.2
%
 
15.1

 
0.3
%
Goodwill impairment
47.7

 
0.7
 %
 

 
%
 

 
%
Project results from non-controlled joint venture
(1.0
)
 
(0.0
 )%
 
7.9

 
0.1
%
 
5.1

 
0.1
%
Restructuring charges

 
 %
 
0.6

 
0.0
%
 
15.2

 
0.3
%
Charges (recoveries) from multi-employer pension plan withdrawals

 
 %
 
0.7

 
0.0
%
 

 
%
Adjusted EBITDA
$
721.0

 
10.4
 %
 
$
645.6

 
9.8
%
 
$
476.9

 
9.3
%

38



A reconciliation of EBITDA to Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin by reportable segment for the years indicated is as follows:
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
EBITDA
$
660.8

 
9.6
 %
 
$
620.9

 
9.4
%
 
$
441.5

 
8.6
 %
Non-cash stock-based compensation expense
13.5

 
0.2
 %
 
15.7

 
0.2
%
 
15.1

 
0.3
 %
Goodwill impairment
47.7

 
0.7
 %
 

 
%
 

 
 %
Project results from non-controlled joint venture
(1.0
)
 
(0.0
 )%
 
7.9

 
0.1
%
 
5.1

 
0.1
 %
Restructuring charges

 
 %
 
0.6

 
0.0
%
 
15.2

 
0.3
 %
Charges (recoveries) from multi-employer pension plan withdrawals

 
 %
 
0.7

 
0.0
%
 

 
 %
Adjusted EBITDA
$
721.0

 
10.4
 %
 
$
645.6

 
9.8
%
 
$
476.9

 
9.3
 %
Reportable Segment:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Communications
$
290.4

 
11.4
 %
 
$
247.9

 
10.2
%
 
$
245.2

 
10.6
 %
Oil and Gas
451.6

 
13.7
 %
 
402.2

 
11.5
%
 
303.6

 
15.0
 %
Electrical Transmission
10.5

 
2.6
 %
 
18.2

 
4.8
%
 
(34.0
)
 
(8.9
)%
Power Generation and Industrial
40.4

 
6.1
 %
 
22.6

 
7.5
%
 
18.3

 
4.5
 %
Other
23.4

 
661.5
 %
 
27.6

 
132.8
%
 
2.6

 
16.1
 %
Corporate
(95.3
)
 
NA
 
(72.9
)
 
NA
 
(58.8
)
 
NA
Adjusted EBITDA
$
721.0

 
10.4
 %
 
$
645.6

 
9.8
%
 
$
476.9

 
9.3
 %
Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share
The table below, which may contain slight summation differences due to rounding, reconciles reported net income and reported diluted earnings per share, the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP financial measures, to Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share.
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
Net Income (in millions)
 
Diluted Earnings Per Share
 
Net Income (in millions)
 
Diluted Earnings Per Share
 
Net Income (in millions)
 
Diluted Earnings Per Share
Reported U.S. GAAP measure
$
259.2

 
$
3.26

 
$
348.9

 
$
4.22

 
$
134.0

 
$
1.61

Adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-cash stock-based compensation expense
13.5

 
0.17

 
15.7

 
0.19

 
15.1

 
0.19

Goodwill impairment
47.7

 
0.60

 

 

 

 

Project results from non-controlled joint venture
(1.0
)
 
(0.01
)
 
7.9

 
0.10

 
5.1

 
0.06

Restructuring charges

 

 
0.6

 
0.01

 
15.2

 
0.19

Charges (recoveries) from multi-employer pension plan withdrawals

 

 
0.7

 
0.01

 

 

Total adjustments, pre-tax
$
60.2

 
$
0.75

 
$
24.8

 
$
0.30

 
$
35.4

 
$
0.44

Income tax effect of adjustments (a)
(6.0
)
 
(0.08
)
 
(11.6
)
 
(0.14
)
 
(11.7
)
 
(0.14
)
Statutory tax rate effects
(12.8
)
 
(0.16
)
 
(120.1
)
 
(1.46
)
 

 

Adjusted non-U.S. GAAP measure
$
300.6

 
$
3.77

 
$
241.9

 
$
2.92

 
$
157.7

 
$
1.90

(a)
Represents the tax effect of the adjusted items that are subject to tax, including the tax effects of non-cash stock-based compensation expense, including net tax benefits of $1.6 million and $5.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, from the vesting of share-based awards. Tax effects are determined based on the tax treatment of the related items, the incremental statutory tax rate of the jurisdictions pertaining to each adjustment, and taking into consideration their effect on pre-tax income. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, our consolidated effective tax rates, as reported, were 29.0%, 6.2% and 40.6%, respectively, and as adjusted, were 29.3%, 39.0%, and 39.6%, respectively.
Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our primary sources of liquidity are cash flows from operations, availability under our Credit Facility and our cash balances. Our primary liquidity needs are for working capital, capital expenditures, insurance and performance collateral in the form of cash and letters of credit, earn-out obligations, equity investment funding requirements, debt service and income taxes. We also evaluate opportunities for strategic acquisitions and investments from time to time, and we may consider opportunities to borrow additional funds, or to repurchase, refinance or retire outstanding debt or repurchase additional shares of our outstanding common stock in the future under share repurchase authorizations, any of which may require our use

39



of cash.
Capital Expenditures. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we spent approximately $180 million on capital expenditures, or $141 million net of asset disposals, and incurred approximately $80 million of equipment purchases under capital lease and other financing arrangements. We estimate that we will spend approximately $100 million to $110 million on capital expenditures, or approximately $75 million to $85 million, net of asset disposals in 2019, and expect to incur approximately $150 million to $160 million of equipment purchases under capital lease or other financing arrangements. Actual capital expenditures may increase or decrease in the future depending upon business activity levels, as well as ongoing assessments of equipment lease versus buy decisions based on short and long-term equipment requirements.
Acquisitions and Earn-Out Liabilities. We typically utilize cash for business acquisitions and other strategic arrangements, and for the year ended December 31, 2018, we used $7 million of cash for this purpose. In addition, in most of our acquisitions, we have agreed to make future payments to the sellers that are contingent upon the future earnings performance of the acquired businesses, which we also refer to as “earn-out” payments. Earn-out payments may be paid in cash or, under specific circumstances, MasTec common stock, or a combination thereof, at our option. The estimated total value of future earn-out obligations as of December 31, 2018 was approximately $118 million. Of this amount, $30 million represents the liability for earn-out obligations that have been earned. The remainder is management’s estimate of potential earn-out obligations that are contingent upon future performance. Potential future earn-out obligations for acquisitions are measured at their estimated fair value as of the date of acquisition, with subsequent changes in fair value recorded in earnings as a component of other income or expense. During the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, we made payments of $23 million, $19 million and $20 million, respectively, related to earn-out obligations.
Income Taxes. Tax refunds, net of tax payments, were approximately $22 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, and for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, tax payments, net of tax refunds were approximately $79 million and $59 million, respectively. Our tax payments vary with changes in taxable income and earnings, and for the year ended December 31, 2018, decreased due to the effects of the 2017 Tax Act, which reduced the U.S. corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018. Our tax payments for the year ended December 31, 2018 also benefited from the application of certain tax accounting methods and the utilization of tax credits, as well as the tax effect of an increase in tax depreciation under the new tax provisions of the 2017 Tax Act.
Working Capital. We need working capital to support seasonal variations in our business, primarily due to the effect of weather conditions on external construction and maintenance work and the spending patterns of our customers, both of which influence the timing of associated spending to support related customer demand. Working capital needs are generally higher during the summer and fall months due to increased demand for our services when favorable weather conditions exist in many of the regions in which we operate. Conversely, working capital needs are typically converted to cash during the winter months. These seasonal trends, however, can be offset by changes in the timing of projects, which can be affected by project delays or accelerations and/or other factors that may affect customer spending.
Working capital requirements also tend to increase when we commence multiple projects or particularly large projects because labor, including subcontractor costs, and certain other costs, including inventory, become payable before the receivables resulting from work performed are collected. The timing of billing milestones and project close-outs can contribute to changes in unbilled revenue. As of December 31, 2018, we expect that substantially all of our costs and earnings in excess of billings (“CIEB”) will be billed to customers in the normal course of business within the next twelve months. Total accounts receivable, which consists of contract billings, CIEB and retainage, net of allowance, increased to $1.9 billion as of December 31, 2018 from $1.6 billion as of December 31, 2017, due primarily to higher levels of fourth quarter revenue and project activity in 2018 as compared with 2017.
Our payment billing terms are generally net 30 days, and some of our contracts allow our customers to retain a portion of the contract amount (generally, from 5% to 10% of billings) until the job is completed. As part of our ongoing working capital management practices, we evaluate opportunities to improve our working capital cycle time through contractual provisions and certain financing arrangements. For certain customers, we maintain inventory to meet the materials requirements of the contracts. Occasionally, certain of our customers pay us in advance for a portion of the materials we purchase for their projects, or allow us to pre-bill them for materials purchases up to specified amounts. Vendor terms are generally 30 days. Our agreements with subcontractors often contain a “pay-if-paid” provision, whereby our payments to subcontractors are made only after we are paid by our customers.
Summary of Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources
We anticipate that funds generated from operations, borrowings under our Credit Facility and our cash balances will be sufficient to meet our working capital requirements, anticipated capital expenditures, debt service obligations, insurance and performance collateral requirements, letter of credit needs, earn-out obligations, required income tax payments, acquisition and other investment funding requirements, share repurchase activity and other liquidity needs for at least the next twelve months.
Sources and Uses of Cash
As of December 31, 2018, we had $885 million in working capital, defined as current assets less current liabilities, as compared with $889 million as of December 31, 2017, a decrease of approximately $3 million. Cash and cash equivalents totaled $27 million and $40 million as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

40



Sources and uses of cash are summarized below (in millions):
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
530.0

 
$
144.1

 
$
205.6

Net cash used in investing activities
$
(181.8
)
 
$
(272.7
)
 
$
(141.0
)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
$
(361.1
)
 
$
130.3

 
$
(29.5
)
Operating Activities. Cash flow from operations is primarily influenced by changes in the timing of demand for our services and operating margins, but can also be affected by working capital needs associated with the various types of services we provide. Working capital is affected by changes in accounts receivable, net, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and billings in excess of costs and earnings (“BIEC”), all of which tend to be related. These working capital items are affected by changes in revenue resulting from the timing and volume of work performed, variability in the timing of customer billings and collections of receivables, as well as settlement of payables and other obligations. Net cash provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $530 million as compared with $144 million in 2017, an increase of $386 million, primarily due to the positive effect of working capital-related changes in assets and liabilities, net.
Our days sales outstanding (“DSO”), net of BIEC, was 81 as of both December 31, 2018 and 2017. DSO, net of BIEC, is calculated as accounts receivable, net, less BIEC, divided by average daily revenue for the most recently completed quarter as of the balance sheet date. DSOs can fluctuate from period to period due to timing of collections and settlements, timing of project close-outs and retainage collections, changes in project and customer mix, and the effect of working capital initiatives. Other than matters subject to litigation, we do not anticipate material collection issues related to our outstanding accounts receivable balances, nor do we have material amounts due from customers experiencing financial difficulties. We expect to collect substantially all of our outstanding accounts receivable, net, within the next twelve months.
Investing Activities. Net cash used in investing activities decreased by $91 million to $182 million in 2018 from $273 million in 2017. We spent $180 million on capital expenditures, or $141 million, net of asset disposals, for the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared with capital expenditures of $123 million, or $103 million, net of asset disposals, in 2017, for an increase in cash used in investing activities of $38 million, primarily to support growth in our businesses. Cash paid for acquisitions, net, decreased by $109 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $116 million in 2017, during which we acquired three businesses. Payments for other investments totaled $39 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, of which approximately $28 million related to our equity investment in the Waha JVs and $10 million related to an equity investment in a telecommunications entity. In 2017, payments for other investments related primarily to our equity investment in the Waha JVs and totaled $77 million, for a decrease in cash used in investing activities of $38 million. Proceeds from other investments, which related primarily to recoveries from an investment that is in the final stages of liquidation and is being managed by a receiver, decreased by $18 million in 2018 as compared with 2017.
Financing Activities. Net cash used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $361 million, as compared with $130 million of net cash provided by financing activities in the prior year, for an increase in cash used in financing activities of approximately $491 million. Credit facility-related activity, net, for the year ended December 31, 2018, totaled $59 million of borrowings, net of repayments as compared with $242 million in 2017, for a decrease in cash provided by financing activities from credit facility-related activities, net, of approximately $183 million. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we repurchased 7.2 million shares of our common stock for $319 million, of which $5 million was settled in January 2019, whereas in 2017, repurchases totaled $2 million. As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately $130 million available for share repurchases under existing share repurchase authorizations. Payments of acquisition-related contingent consideration included within financing activities totaled $16 million in 2018 as compared with $7 million in 2017. Total payments of acquisition-related contingent consideration, including payments in excess of acquisition-date liabilities, which are classified within operating activities, totaled $23 million in 2018 and $19 million and 2017. In addition, in 2017, we paid $23 million to holders of our non-controlling interests, primarily as consideration to acquire the remaining interests of one of these entities.
Senior Secured Credit Facility
We have a senior secured credit facility (the “Credit Facility”). Aggregate borrowing commitments under the Credit Facility total approximately $1.5 billion, composed of $1.1 billion of revolving commitments and a term loan totaling approximately $0.4 billion. Borrowings under the Credit Facility are used for working capital requirements, capital expenditures and other corporate purposes, including equity investments, potential acquisitions or other strategic arrangements, the repurchase or prepayment of indebtedness and share repurchases.
We are dependent upon borrowings and letters of credit under the Credit Facility to fund our operations. Should we be unable to comply with the terms and conditions of the Credit Facility, we would be required to obtain modifications to the Credit Facility or obtain an alternative source of financing to continue to operate, neither of which may be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. The Credit Facility is subject to certain provisions and covenants. For additional information regarding the terms of our Credit Facility, see Note 7 - Debt in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference.
4.875% Senior Notes
We have $400 million of 4.875% senior notes due March 15, 2023 (our “4.875% Senior Notes”) outstanding, which were issued in 2013 in a registered public offering. The 4.875% Senior Notes are guaranteed by certain of our subsidiaries and are subject to certain provisions and covenants, as more fully described in Note 7 - Debt and Note 17 - Supplemental Guarantor Condensed Consolidating Financial Information in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which are incorporated by reference.
Debt Covenants
We were in compliance with the provisions and covenants contained in our outstanding debt instruments as of December 31, 2018.

41



Additional Information
For detailed discussion and additional information pertaining to our debt instruments, see Note 7 - Debt in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference.
Contractual Payment Obligations
The following table sets forth our contractual payment obligations as of December 31, 2018 during the periods indicated below (in millions):
Contractual Obligations
 
Total
 
Less than
1 Year
 
1 - 3
Years
 
3 - 5
Years
 
More than 5 Years and Thereafter
Senior secured credit facility
 
$
833.8

 
$
20.0

 
$
40.0

 
$
773.8

 
$

4.875% Senior Notes
 
400.0