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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Form 20-F

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15 (d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Commission File Number: 001-38091

 

NATIONAL ENERGY SERVICES REUNITED CORP.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Not Applicable

(Translation of registrant’s name into English)

 

British Virgin Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

777 Post Oak Blvd., Suite 730

Houston, Texas 77056

(Address of principal executive office)

 

Christopher L. Boone

Chief Financial Officer

777 Post Oak Blvd., Suite 730

Houston, Texas 77056

Phone (832) 925-3777

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

 

Title of each class   Trading Symbols   Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary shares, no par value per share   NESR   The Nasdaq Capital Market
Warrants to purchase one-half of one ordinary share   NESRW   The Nasdaq Capital Market

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act. None.

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act. None.

 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the Annual Report:

 

As of December 31, 2020, there were [87,777,553] ordinary shares and [35,540,380] warrants outstanding.

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☒ Non-accelerated filer ☐ Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP

 

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ☐

 

Other ☐

 

If this is an Annual Report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No

 

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes ☐ No ☐

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 5
BASIS OF THIS ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 20-F 6
FINANCIAL INFORMATION AND CURRENCY OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 6
PART I 7
ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS 7
ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE 7
ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION 7
A. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA 7
B. CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS 9
C. REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS 9
D. RISK FACTORS 9
ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY 26
A. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY 26
B. BUSINESS OVERVIEW 26
C. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE 31
D. PROPERTY, PLANT, & EQUIPMENT 31
ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS 31
ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS 31
A. OPERATING RESULTS 32
B. LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES 43
C. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, PATENTS AND LICENSES, ETC. 47
D. TREND INFORMATION 47
E. OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS 47
F. TABULAR DISCLOSURE OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS 47
G. SAFE HARBOR 48
ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES 48
A. DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT 48
B. COMPENSATION 52
C. BOARD PRACTICES 54
D. EMPLOYEES 57
E. SHARE OWNERSHIP 58
ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS 58
A. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS 58
B. RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS 59
C. INTERESTS OF EXPERTS AND COUNSEL 59
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION 59
A. CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION 59
B. SIGNIFICANT CHANGES 59

 

2

 

 

ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING 59
A. OFFER AND LISTING DETAILS 59
B. PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 59
C. MARKETS 60
D. SELLING SHAREHOLDERS 60
E. DILUTION 60
F. EXPENSES OF THE ISSUE 60
ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 60
A. SHARE CAPITAL 60
B. MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION 60
C. MATERIAL CONTRACTS 63
D. EXCHANGE CONTROLS 64
E. TAXATION 64
F. DIVIDENDS AND PAYING AGENTS 66
G. STATEMENT BY EXPERTS 66
H. DOCUMENTS ON DISPLAY 66
I. SUBSIDIARY INFORMATION 66
ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK 66
ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES 67
A. DEBT SECURITIES 67
B. WARRANTS AND RIGHTS 67
C. OTHER SECURITIES 67
D. AMERICAN DEPOSITORY SHARES 67
PART II 68
ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES 68
ITEM 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS 68
ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES 68
A. DISCLOSURE CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES 68
B. MANAGEMENT’S ANNUAL REPORT ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING 68
C. ATTESTATION REPORT OF THE REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM 70
D. CHANGES IN INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING 70
ITEM 16. RESERVED 70
ITEM 16A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT 70
ITEM 16B. CODE OF ETHICS 70
ITEM 16C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES 71
ITEM 16D. EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES 71
ITEM 16E. PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS 71
ITEM 16F. CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT 71

 

3

 

 

ITEM 16G. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 71
ITEM 16H. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE 71
PART III 72
ITEM 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 72
ITEM 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 72
ITEM 19. EXHIBITS 72
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM 75
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS 76
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS 77
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME 78
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY 79
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS 80
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 81
1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS 81
2. BASIS OF PRESENTATION 81
3. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES 83
4. BUSINESS COMBINATIONS 89
5. REVENUE 94
6. ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 95
7. SERVICE INVENTORIES 95
8. PROPERTY, PLANT, & EQUIPMENT 96
9. GOODWILL AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS 96
10. DEBT 97
11. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING 99
12. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS 100
13. SHARE-BASED COMPENSATION 102
14. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES 103
15. EQUITY 105
16. EARNINGS PER SHARE 106
17. INCOME TAXES 108
18. RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS 110
19. REPORTABLE SEGMENTS 111
Exhibit 8.1  
Exhibit 12.1  
Exhibit 12.2  
Exhibit 13.1  
Exhibit 13.2  
Exhibit 15.1  

 

4

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This Annual Report on Form 20-F (this “Annual Report”) contains forward-looking statements (as such term is defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)). Any and all statements contained in this Annual Report that are not statements of historical fact, including statements regarding the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the Company’s response to COVID-19, may be deemed forward-looking statements. Terms such as “may,” “might,” “would,” “should,” “could,” “project,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “strategy,” “anticipate,” “attempt,” “develop,” “plan,” “help,” “believe,” “continue,” “intend,” “expect,” “future,” and terms of similar import (including the negative of any of these terms) may identify forward-looking statements. However, not all forward-looking statements may contain one or more of these identifying terms. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report may include, without limitation, statements regarding the plans and objectives of management for future operations, projections of income or loss, earnings or loss per share, capital expenditures, dividends, capital structure or other financial items, our future financial performance, including any such statement contained in a discussion and analysis of financial condition by management or in the results of operations included pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), expansion plans and opportunities, completion and integration of acquisitions including the acquisition of Sahara Petroleum Services Company S.A.E. (“SAPESCO”), and the assumptions underlying or relating to any such statement.

 

The forward-looking statements are not meant to predict or guarantee actual results, performance, events or circumstances and may not be realized because they are based upon our current projections, plans, objectives, beliefs, expectations, estimates and assumptions and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties and other influences, many of which we have no control over. Actual results and the timing of certain events and circumstances may differ materially from those described by the forward-looking statements as a result of these risks and uncertainties. Factors that may influence or contribute to the accuracy of the forward-looking statements or cause actual results to differ materially from expected or desired results may include, without limitation:

 

  Changing commodity prices, market volatility and other market trends that affect our customers’ demand for our services;
     
  Disruptions to economic and market conditions caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) and other public health crises and threats;
     
  The level of capital spending by our customers;
     
  Political, market, financial and regulatory risks, including those related to the geographic concentration of our customers;
     
  Our operations, including maintenance, upgrades and refurbishment of our assets, may require significant capital expenditures, which may or may not be available to us;
     
  Operating hazards inherent in our industry and the ability to secure sufficient indemnities and insurance;
     
  Our ability to successfully integrate acquisitions;
     
  Competition, including for capital and technological advances; and
     
  Other risks and uncertainties set forth in Part I, Item 3D, “Risk Factors” included in this Annual Report.

 

5

 

 

Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements because of the risks and uncertainties related to them and to the risk factors. We disclaim any obligation to update the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report to reflect any new information or future events or circumstances or otherwise, except as required by law. Readers should read this Annual Report in conjunction with the discussion under Part I, Item 3D, “Risk Factors” included in this Annual Report, our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included in this Annual Report, and other documents which we may furnish from time to time with the SEC.

 

BASIS OF THIS ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 20-F

 

On June 6, 2018, National Energy Services Reunited Corp. (“NESR,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “us” or similar terms) acquired all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of NPS Holdings Limited (“NPS”) and Gulf Energy S.A.O.C. (“GES” and, together with NPS, the “Subsidiaries”) (collectively, the “NPS/GES Business Combination”). As a result of the NPS/GES Business Combination, NESR is the accounting acquirer for accounting purposes, NPS and GES are acquirees and NPS is the accounting predecessor. The NPS/GES Business Combination was accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting, and the Successor (as defined below) financial statements reflect a new basis of accounting that is based on fair value of net assets acquired. On June 1, 2020, NESR further expanded its footprint within the Middle East and North Africa (“MENA”) region when its NPS subsidiary acquired SAPESCO. See Note 4, Business Combinations, to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 18, “Financial Statements” of this Annual Report for further discussion of the NPS/GES Business Combination as well as the acquisition of SAPESCO (collectively, the “Business Combinations”).

 

The historical financial information contained in this Annual Report includes periods that ended prior to the NPS/GES Business Combination. In this Annual Report, unless we have indicated otherwise, or the context otherwise requires, references to the “Company” for time periods up to and prior to June 6, 2018 refer to NPS, which is the “Predecessor” for accounting purposes, and for time periods from and after June 7, 2018 refer to NESR and its consolidated subsidiaries, which is the “Successor” for accounting purposes. The financial statements of our Predecessor may not be indicative of the financial results that are or will be reported by us for periods subsequent to the NPS/GES Business Combination.

 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION AND CURRENCY OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

The financial statements included in Item 18, “Financial Statements” of this Annual Report have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). Unless otherwise indicated, all references in this Annual Report to “dollars,” “$,” or “US$” are to U.S. dollars, which is the reporting currency of the consolidated financial statements.

 

6

 

 

PART I

 

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

 

A. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 

You should read the following selected consolidated financial data in conjunction with Item 5, “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and our historical consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The financial information included in this Annual Report may not be indicative of our future financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

 

Set forth below are (i) selected historical consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the periods from June 7, 2018 to December 31, 2018, and January 1, 2018 to June 6, 2018, which have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included in Item 18, “Financial Statements” of this Annual Report, and (ii) selected historical consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2018, June 6, 2018, December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016 and for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, which have been derived from audited consolidated financial statements not included in this Annual Report.

 

7

 

 

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 

 

    (In US$ thousands, except share data and per share amounts)  
    Successor (NESR)       Predecessor (NPS)  
    Period from     Period from     Period from       Period from              
    January 1 to     January 1 to     June 7 to       January 1 to     Year ended     Year ended  
    December 31,     December 31,     December 31,       June 6,     December 31,     December 31,  
    2020     2019     2018       2018     2017     2016  
                                       
Statement of Operations Data:                                                  
                                                   
Revenues   $   834,146     $    658,385     $          348,590       $  137,027     $         271,324     $      224,115  
Cost of services     (678,720 )     (506,799 )     (249,159 )       (104,242 )     (200,149 )     (157,382 )
Gross profit     155,426       151,586       99,431         32,785       71,175       66,733  
Selling, general and administrative expense     (72,077 )     (63,840 )     (36,705 )       (19,969 )     (30,336 )     (25,954 )
Amortization     (15,817 )     (15,932 )     (9,373 )       (10 )     (607 )     (22,663 )
Operating income     67,532       71,814       53,353         12,806       40,232       18,116  
Interest expense, net     (15,879 )     (18,971 )     (14,383 )       (4,090 )     (6,720 )     (5,677 )
Other income / (expense), net     9,139       (408 )     5,441         362       (573 )     (1,441 )
Income before income tax     60,792       52,435       44,411         9,078       32,939       10,998  
Income tax expense     (10,705 )     (13,071 )     (9,431 )       (2,342 )     (4,586 )     (2,648 )
Net income / (loss)     50,087       39,364       34,980         6,736       28,353       8,350  
Net income / (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests     -       -       (163 )       (881 )     (2,273 )     (193 )
Net income attributable to shareholders   $ 50,087     $ 39,364     $ 35,143       $ 7,617     $ 30,626     $ 8,543  
                                                   
Weighted average shares outstanding:                                                  
Basic     88,845,618       86,997,554       85,569,020         348,524,566       342,250,000       340,932,192  
Diluted     88,990,657       86,997,554       86,862,983         370,000,000       370,000,000       368,682,192  
                                                   
Net earnings per share:                                                  
Basic   $ 0.56     $ 0.45     $ 0.41       $ 0.02     $ 0.09     $ 0.02  
Diluted   $ 0.56     $ 0.45     $ 0.40       $ 0.02     $ 0.08     $ 0.02  

 

    (In US$ thousands, except share data and per share amounts)  
    Successor (NESR)       Predecessor (NPS)  
    December 31,     December 31,     December 31,       June 6,     December 31,     December 31,  
    2020     2019     2018       2018     2017     2016  
Balance sheet data:                                                  
Cash and cash equivalents   $            75,012            73,201             24,892       $          31,656             24,502             25,534  
Property, plant and equipment, net     437,743       419,307       328,727         257,955       264,269       259,969  
Total assets     1,687,054       1,522,364       1,343,309         633,872       619,572       602,910  
Long-term debt     308,614       330,564       225,172         147,199       147,024       149,071  
Total equity     944,418       886,472       830,991         347,173       389,429       382,081  

 

8

 

 

B. CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

 

Not applicable.

 

C. REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Not applicable.

 

D. RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our ordinary shares or warrants involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully the following risk factors, as well as the other information contained in this Annual Report, before making an investment in our ordinary shares or warrants. Any of the risk factors described below could significantly and negatively affect our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. In addition, these risks represent important factors that can cause our actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in our forward-looking statements.

 

Risk Factor Summary

 

Risks Related to Our Business and Operations

 

  Continued or prolonged decreases in commodity prices may cause our customers to continue to reduce capital spending.
     
  The global COVID-19 pandemic may continue to cause economic and financial disruptions to markets and the worldwide economy.
     
  The geographic concentration of our customers increases our exposure to economic, political and financial risks.
     
  Our operations, including maintenance, upgrades and refurbishment of our assets, may require significant capital expenditures, which may or may not be available to us.
     
  Our top four major customers in the region generate 76% of our revenue, and our largest customer accounted for 57% of our revenue in 2020.
     
  Our future growth may be limited if we are unable to successfully integrate the operations of businesses or companies we acquire.
     
  We compete with diversified multinational companies with substantially larger operating staffs and greater capital resources than us.
     
  The inability to hire needed personnel or to access capital could negatively affect our ability to keep pace with technological advances.

 

Financial, Regulatory, Legal and Compliance Risks

 

  A significant portion of our consolidated revenue and consolidated operating expenses is in foreign currencies, exposing us to risks arising from fluctuating exchange rates and currency control restrictions.
     
  We will be required to transition from the use of the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) index in the future.
     
  If we determine that the value of goodwill has become impaired, an accounting charge for the amount of the impairment during the period in which the determination is made may be recognized.
     
  We may not have sufficient indemnities or insurance to cover liability claims.
     
  We are subject to a wide array of governmental regulations and contractual restrictions and the failure to comply with such regulations and restrictions could negatively affect our ability to operate our business and our financial status.
     
Risks Related to Our Capital Structure
     
  Fluctuations in the price of our ordinary shares and warrants caused by market conditions, our financial results or other factors could cause our shareholders to lose all or part of their investment.
     
  Our public warrants could expire worthless.
     
  Because we are incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands and our significant assets are located offshore, our investors’ ability to seek redress in U.S. courts is limited.

 

Risk Factors

 

Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations

 

Trends in oil and natural gas prices affect the level of exploration, development, and production activity of our customers and the demand for our services and products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

Demand for our services and products is sensitive to the level of exploration, development, and production activity of, and the corresponding capital spending by, oil and natural gas companies. The level of exploration, development, and production activity is directly affected by trends in oil and natural gas prices, which historically have been volatile and are likely to continue to be volatile. Prices for oil and natural gas are subject to large fluctuations in response to relatively minor changes in the supply of and demand for oil and natural gas, market uncertainty, and a variety of other economic factors that are beyond our control. The following table illustrates the high degree of variability in Europe Brent spot prices per barrel over the last three years:

 

   Highest Closing Price   Lowest Closing Price 
2018  $86.07   $50.57 
2019   74.94    53.23 
2020   70.25    9.12 

 

Additionally, during the 5-year period ended December 31, 2020, average prices for both crude oil and natural gas have been lower than the previous 5-year period. The prolonged reduction in oil and natural gas prices, depressed levels of exploration, development, and production activity over the past several years and incremental further reductions could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Even the perception of longer-term lower oil and natural gas prices by oil and natural gas companies can result in the reduction or deferral of major expenditures given the long-term nature of many large-scale development projects.

 

Factors affecting the prices of oil and natural gas include:

 

  the global and regional level of supply and demand for oil and natural gas including liquefied natural gas imports and exports;
     
  governmental regulations, including the policies of governments regarding the exploration for and production and development of their oil and natural gas reserves, including environmental regulations;
     
  increased attention to environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) matters and conservation measures may adversely impact our business;
     
  weather conditions, natural disasters, and public health crises and threats, such as coronavirus (COVID-19);
     
  worldwide political, military, and economic conditions;
     
  the ability or willingness of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) to set and maintain oil production levels and quotas and member country compliance with quotas;
     
  the level of oil and gas production by non-OPEC countries;
     
  oil refining capacity and shifts in end-customer preferences toward fuel efficiency and the use of natural gas;

 

9

 

 

  the cost of producing and delivering oil and natural gas;
     
  technological advances affecting energy consumption; and
     
  potential acceleration of the development of alternative fuels.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on business and economic conditions could negatively affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and the trading value of our securities.

 

In December 2019, the emergence of a new strain of the coronavirus (COVID-19) was reported in China that has subsequently spread across the globe, including the MENA region where we operate. As a result of the outbreak, travel restrictions, quarantines and similar measures taken by governments and companies have had a significant impact on global commerce. Beginning in early March 2020, the global oil markets have experienced a precipitous decline in oil prices in response to concerns regarding the potential impacts of the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak on worldwide oil demand and the anticipated increases in oil production from Russia and OPEC, primarily from Saudi Arabia. We have implemented business continuity and emergency response plans to continue to provide services to customers and support our operations, while taking health and safety measures such as implementing worker distancing measures and using a remote workforce where possible. However, there is no assurance that the continued spread of COVID-19 and efforts to contain the virus (including, but not limited to, voluntary and mandatory quarantines, restrictions on travel, limiting gatherings of people, and reduced operations and extended closures of many businesses and institutions) will not materially impact our business, results of operations and financial condition. In particular, the continued spread of COVID-19 and efforts to contain the virus could:

 

  reduce the availability and productivity of our employees, including due to the availability of personal protective equipment;
  cause us to experience an increase in costs as a result of our emergency measures and delayed payments from our customers;
  cause delays and disruptions in the availability of and timely delivery of materials and components used in our operations;
  cause delays and disruptions in the supply chain resulting in disruptions in the commercial operation dates of certain projects;
  cause reductions, delays or cancellations of planned operations by our customers;
  cause a deterioration of the credit quality of our counterparties;
  cause impairment of goodwill or long-lived assets;
  result in our inability to meet the requirements of the covenants in our existing credit facilities;
  cause an increase in cybersecurity attacks and breach attempts;
  impact our liquidity position and cost of and ability to access funds from financial institutions and capital markets;
  heighten the other risks that impact us; and
  cause other unpredictable events.

 

The situation surrounding COVID-19 remains fluid and the likelihood of an impact on us that could be material increases the longer the virus impacts global activity levels. Therefore, it is difficult to predict with certainty the potential impact of the virus on our business, operations and financial condition.

 

Our business is dependent on capital spending by our customers, and reductions in capital spending could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

Our business is directly affected by changes in capital expenditures by our customers and reductions in our customers’ capital spending could reduce demand for our services and products and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Most of our contracts can be cancelled or renegotiated by our customers at any time. Some of the items that may impact our customer’s capital spending include:

 

  oil and natural gas prices, including volatility of oil and natural gas prices and expectations regarding future prices, including due to the impacts of COVID-19;
     
  changes in government incentives and tax regimes;
     
  the inability of our customers to access capital on economically favorable terms;
     
  customer personnel changes; and
     
  adverse developments in the business or operations of our customers, including write-downs of reserves and borrowing base reductions under customer credit facilities.

 

As a result of the decrease in commodity prices, including as a result of lower global activity due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many of our customers have reduced capital spending over the last few years. The short-term duration of most of our contracts and the extreme financial stress experienced by our customers have combined to generate demands by many of our customers for reductions in the prices of our products and services. With respect to national oil company (“NOC”) customers, we are also subject to risk of policy, regime, currency and budgetary changes, all of which may affect our customers’ capital expenditures. Commodity prices are expected to remain range bound, with limited prospects for rising prices and continued risk of further reductions, which may result in further capital budget reductions in the future.

 

Our assets require capital for maintenance, upgrades and refurbishment and we may require significant capital expenditures for new equipment.

 

Our revenue is generated principally from providing services and related equipment as well as renting tools and equipment. Our tools and equipment require capital investment in maintenance, upgrades and refurbishment to maintain our competitiveness. To the extent we are unable to fund such projects, we may have less equipment available for service or our equipment may not be attractive to potential or current customers. Additionally, increased demand, competition, advances in technology within our industry, and/or new emissions control requirements in the geographies that we operate in may require us to update or replace existing equipment. Such demands on our capital or reductions in demand for our equipment and the increase in cost to maintain labor necessary for such maintenance and improvement, in each case, could have a material adverse effect on our business, liquidity position, financial condition, prospects and results of operations.

 

The geographic concentration of our customers exposes us to the risks of the regional economy and other regional adverse conditions. The credit risks of our concentrated customer base in the energy industry could result in losses. In addition, we depend on a small number of customers for a significant portion of our revenues. Therefore, the loss of any of these customers could result in a decline in our revenues and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

 

Our primary customers are in the Middle East and North Africa and all are in the energy industry. Among our customers are NOCs. Given the importance of NOCs, which dominate the petroleum industry in our countries of operation, our business is more susceptible to regional economic, budgetary and political conditions than other, more geographically diversified competitors. Any changes in market conditions, unforeseen circumstances, or other events affecting the area in which our assets are located could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating result, and financial condition.

 

As of December 31, 2020, we had 20 contracts with two major customers in the region which generated 69% of our revenue, one of which accounted for 57% of our revenue. Furthermore, during the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, a substantial portion of both legacy organization revenues came from those two major customers. Overall, we have 31 contracts with five major customers in the region which generated 78% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020. Given the terms of our customer contracts, there remains a risk of termination of one or more of such contracts and/or a lack of engagement in the same manner, or to the same level, as has been the case historically. The loss of all or even a portion of the business from a major customer, the failure to extend or replace the contracts with the major customer, or the extension or replacement of such contracts on less favorable terms, as a result of competition or otherwise, could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

 

We operate in multiple countries across the Middle East, North Africa, and Asia. Therefore, our operations will be subject to political and economic instability and risk of government actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

We will be exposed to risks inherent in doing business in each of the countries in which we operate. Our operations will be subject to various risks unique to each country that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. With respect to any particular country, these risks may include but are not limited to:

 

  civil unrest, acts of terrorism, force majeure, war, other armed conflict, and sanctions;
     
  recent efforts toward modernization in the region could have unanticipated consequences to cause unrest or political change that could cause loss of contracts;
     
  inflation;
     
  currency fluctuations, devaluations, and conversion restrictions;
     
  government actions that may result in expropriation and nationalization of assets in that country;
     
  confiscatory taxation or other adverse tax policies;
     
  actions that limit or disrupt markets or our operations, restrict payments, limit the movement of funds or result in the deprivation of contract rights;
     
  actions that result in the inability to obtain or retain licenses required for operation; and
     
  retaliatory actions that may be taken by one country against other countries in the region.

 

For example, due to the unsettled political conditions in many oil-producing countries, our operations, revenue, and profits will be subject to the adverse consequences of war, the effects of terrorism, civil unrest, strikes, currency controls, and governmental actions. These and other risks described above could result in the loss of our personnel or assets, cause us to evacuate our personnel from certain countries, cause us to increase spending on security, cause us to cease operating in certain countries, disrupt financial and commercial markets, including the supply of and pricing for oil and natural gas, disrupt the supply of equipment required to operate in a country, result in labor shortages and generate greater political and economic instability in some of the geographic areas in which we operate. Any possible reprisals as a consequence of military or other action, such as acts of terrorism in the United States or elsewhere, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

10

 

 

Physical dangers are inherent in our operations and may expose us to significant potential losses. Personnel and property may be harmed during the process of drilling for oil and natural gas.

 

Drilling for and producing hydrocarbons, and the associated products and services that we provide, include inherent dangers that may lead to property damage or damage to geological formations, personal injury or loss of life, or the discharge of hazardous materials into the environment. Many of these events are outside our control. Typically, we provide products and services at a well site where our personnel and equipment are located together with personnel and equipment of our customer and third parties, such as other service providers. At many sites, we depend on other companies and personnel to conduct drilling operations in accordance with appropriate safety standards. From time to time, personnel are injured or equipment or property is damaged or destroyed as a result of accidents, failed equipment, faulty products or services, failure of safety measures, uncontained formation pressures or other dangers inherent in drilling for oil and natural gas. Any of these events can be the result of human error. With increasing frequency, our products and services are deployed on more challenging prospects both onshore and offshore, where the occurrence of the types of events mentioned above can have an even more catastrophic impact on people, equipment and the environment. These risks could expose us to substantial liability for personal injury, wrongful death, property damage, loss of oil and natural gas production, pollution and other environmental damages and could expose us to a variety of claims, losses and remedial obligations.

 

If we do not effectively or efficiently integrate the operations of businesses or companies we acquire, including the integration of the operations of our Subsidiaries, our future growth will be limited.

 

We may not achieve expected returns and other benefits as a result of various factors, including integration and collaboration challenges. The success of any acquisition is subject to various risks, including:

 

the inability to integrate the operations of recently acquired assets;
   
the diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;
   
the failure to realize expected volumes, revenues, profitability, or growth;
   
the failure to realize any expected synergies and cost savings;
   
the coordination of geographically disparate organizations, systems, and facilities;
   
the assumption of unknown liabilities;
   
the loss of customers or key employees; and
   
potential environmental or regulatory liabilities and title problems.

 

The assessment by our management of these risks is inexact and may not reveal or resolve all existing and potential risks. Realization of any of these risks could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

We operate in a highly competitive industry, and many of our competitors are larger than us and have greater resources than we do.

 

Several of our primary competitors are diversified multinational companies with substantially larger operating staffs and greater capital resources. These larger competitors’ greater resources could allow them to better withstand industry downturns and to compete more effectively on the basis of technology, geographic scope and retained skilled personnel.

 

If we are unable to keep pace with technology developments in the industry, this could adversely affect our ability to maintain or grow market share.

 

The oilfield service industry is subject to the introduction of new drilling and completion techniques, services using new technologies, and emissions control requirements that could yield service innovations, some of which may be subject to patent or other intellectual property protections. We intend to introduce and integrate new technologies and procedures used by North American and European based oilfield service companies; however, we cannot be certain that we will be able to develop and implement new technologies or services on a timely basis or at an acceptable cost. The oilfield service industry is highly competitive and dominated by a few large players that have resources to invest in new technologies. Our ability to continually provide competitive technology and services can impact our ability to maintain or increase prices for our services, maintain market share, and negotiate acceptable contract terms with our customers. If we are unable to continue to acquire or develop competitive technology or deliver it to our clients in a timely and cost-competitive manner in the various markets we serve, it could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

Financial, Regulatory, Legal and Compliance Risks

 

Impairment in the carrying value of goodwill could result in the incurrence of impairment charges.

 

As of December 31, 2020, we had goodwill of $620.9 million. We review the carrying value of our goodwill for impairment annually or more frequently if certain indicators are present. In the event we determine that the value of goodwill has become impaired, an accounting charge for the amount of the impairment during the period in which the determination is made may be recognized. While we have not recorded any impairment charge for goodwill for the periods presented in this Annual Report, future changes in our business and operations or external market conditions, among other factors, could require us to record an impairment charge for goodwill, which could lead to decreased assets and reduced net income. If a significant write down is required, the charge could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may not be fully indemnified against financial losses in all circumstances where damage to or loss of property, personal injury, death or environmental harm occur.

 

As is customary in our industry, our contracts typically require that our customers indemnify us for claims arising from the injury or death of their employees (and those of their other contractors), the loss or damage of their equipment (and that of their other contractors), damage to the well or reservoir and pollution originating from the customer’s equipment or from the reservoir (including uncontained oil flow from a reservoir) and claims arising from catastrophic events, such as a well blowout, fire, explosion and from pollution below the surface. Conversely, we typically indemnify our customers for claims arising from the injury or death of our employees, the loss or damage of our equipment (other than equipment lost in the hole) or pollution originating from our equipment above the surface of the earth or water.

 

Our indemnification arrangements may not protect us in every case. For example, from time to time we may enter into contracts with less favorable indemnities or perform work without a contract that protects us. Our indemnity arrangements may also be held to be overly broad in some courts and/or contrary to public policy in some jurisdictions, and to that extent unenforceable. Additionally, some jurisdictions which permit indemnification nonetheless limit its scope by statute. We may be subject to claims brought by third parties or government agencies with respect to which we are not indemnified. Furthermore, the parties from which we seek indemnity may not be solvent, may become bankrupt, may lack resources or insurance to honor their indemnities or may not otherwise be able to satisfy their indemnity obligations to us. The lack of enforceable indemnification could expose us to significant potential losses.

 

Further, our assets generally are not insured against loss from political violence such as war, terrorism or civil commotion. If any of our assets are damaged or destroyed as a result of an uninsured cause, we could recognize a loss of those assets.

 

We operate in multiple countries and earn revenue in different currencies and as such may be exposed to risks arising from fluctuating exchange rates and currency control restrictions, which may limit our ability to reinvest earnings from operations in one country to fund the capital needs of our operations in other countries or to repatriate assets from some countries.

 

A portion of our consolidated revenue and consolidated operating expenses is in foreign currencies. As a result, we will be subject to risks, including:

 

  foreign currency exchange risks resulting from changes in foreign currency exchange rates and the implementation of exchange controls; and
     
  potential limitations that might be imposed on their ability to reinvest earnings from operations in one country to fund the capital needs of our operations in other countries.

 

11

 

 

Changes in or new interpretations of tax laws could impact the determination of our income tax liabilities for a tax year.

 

We have operations in over 15 countries. Consequently, we are subject to the jurisdiction of a significant number of taxing authorities. The income earned in these various jurisdictions is taxed on differing bases, including income actually earned, income deemed earned, and revenue-based tax withholding. The final determination of our income tax liabilities involves the interpretation of local tax laws, tax treaties, and related regulations in each jurisdiction, as well as the significant use of estimates and assumptions regarding the scope of future operations and the nature of income earned and expenditures incurred. Changes in the operating environment, including changes in or new interpretations of tax laws, could impact the determination of our income tax liabilities for the year.

 

Effective January 1, 2018, the Gulf Cooperation Council (“GCC”) countries agreed to impose a value added tax (“VAT”) across the GCC, however, as of year-end 2020 only Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman formalized and/or implemented their plans. Under these VAT rules, most goods and services are taxed at rates ranging from 5-15%. Businesses subject to the VAT must keep detailed financial and business records. This includes collecting invoices and accounting for the goods or services bought and sold, as well as the VAT paid and charged going forward.

 

Lack of consolidation in a taxpaying jurisdiction prevents offsetting some losses against taxable profits.

 

NESR is a British Virgin Islands corporation. NESR is not taxed by the British Virgin Islands on income generated outside of the British Virgin Islands. As a result of our legal entity structure, annual losses in one of our subsidiaries may not be eligible to be offset against profits in another subsidiary to reduce consolidated tax liabilities.

 

The owners of NESR ordinary shares are subject to tax risks due to the possibility of changes in tax rules and regulations in foreign countries.

 

The British Virgin Islands does not impose income taxes on British Virgin Islands companies for dividends received or subsidiary operating profits generated outside of the British Virgin Islands. The law could change to impose such taxes. In addition, our subsidiaries operate in many countries that have different tax rates and systems which may change including jurisdictions that currently do not impose tax on corporations. U.S. shareholders must report on their tax returns all investments in foreign stocks, including ordinary shares.

 

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If our Subsidiaries are unable to comply with the restrictions and covenants in their debt agreements, they could default under the terms of such agreements, which could result in an acceleration of repayment.

 

If our Subsidiaries are unable to comply with the restrictions and covenants in their debt agreements, they could default under the terms of these agreements. Our Subsidiaries’ ability to comply with these restrictions and covenants, including meeting financial ratios and tests, may be affected by events beyond their control. As a result, we cannot assure that our Subsidiaries will be able to comply with these restrictions and covenants or meet such financial ratios and tests.

 

If our Subsidiaries are unable to generate sufficient cash flow and are otherwise unable to obtain funds necessary to meet required payments of principal, premium (if any), and interest on their indebtedness, or if they otherwise fail to comply with the various covenants, including financial and operating covenants in the instruments governing their indebtedness they could default under the terms of the agreements governing such indebtedness. In the event of such a default, the holders of such indebtedness could elect to declare all the funds borrowed thereunder to be due and payable, together with accrued and unpaid interest, the lenders under our Subsidiaries’ debt agreements could terminate their commitments to lend, cease making further loans, seize collateral and institute foreclosure proceedings against their assets, and our Subsidiaries could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. If any of these events occur, the assets of our Subsidiaries might not be sufficient to repay in full all of their outstanding indebtedness and we may be unable to find alternative financing. Even if we could obtain alternative financing, it might not be on terms that are favorable or acceptable to us or our Subsidiaries. Additionally, we may not be able to amend their debt agreements or obtain needed waivers on satisfactory terms.

 

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To service our indebtedness, we may require a significant amount of cash, and our ability to generate cash will depend on many factors beyond our control.

 

Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our Subsidiaries’ indebtedness and to fund planned capital expenditures depends in part on our ability to generate cash in the future. Our growth and capital expenditure plan require substantial capital, and any inability to obtain such capital could lead to a decline in our ability to sustain our current business, access new service markets or grow our business. Our Subsidiaries’ debt is required to be repaid through an installment structure that may unduly strain our ability to meet our growth objectives. Our ability to service such indebtedness is, to a certain extent, subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. We cannot provide assurance that we will generate sufficient cash flow from operations, that we will realize operating improvements on schedule, or that future borrowings will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to service and repay our Subsidiaries’ indebtedness or to fund their other liquidity needs. If we are unable to satisfy our Subsidiaries’ debt obligations, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans, such as:

 

  refinancing or restructuring their debt;
     
  selling assets;
     
  reducing or delaying capital investments; or
     
  seeking to raise additional capital.

 

Collection of receivables from work performed may not be sufficient to fund working capital needs. We have arranged financing in anticipation of our projected cash requirements, but events beyond our control could cause cash collection to be less than projected and cause us not to meet our Subsidiaries’ debt obligations.

 

We cannot provide assurance that any additional refinancing or debt restructuring would be possible, that any assets could be sold or that, if sold, the timing of the sales and the amount of proceeds realized from those sales would be favorable to us or that additional financing could be obtained on acceptable terms. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy the debt obligations, or to obtain alternative financing, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. For more information on our outstanding indebtedness and the terms and conditions related thereto, please see Note 10., Debt, to the consolidated financial statements.

 

We will be required to transition from the use of the LIBOR interest rate index in the future.

 

We have $395.5 million in loans indexed to the LIBOR to calculate the loan interest rate. LIBOR is expected to be discontinued on December 31, 2021. At this time, no consensus exists as to what rate or rates may become acceptable alternatives to LIBOR. Regulators, industry groups and certain committees (e.g. the Alternative Reference Rates Committee) have published recommended fallback language for LIBOR-linked financial instruments, identified recommended alternatives for the LIBOR (e.g. the Secured Overnight Financing Rate), and proposed implementations of the recommended alternatives in floating-rate financial instruments. At this time, it is not possible to predict whether these specific recommendations and proposals will be broadly accepted. The implementation of a substitute index or indices for the calculation of interest rates under our loan agreements may result in NPS Bahrain for Oil and Gas Wells Services WLL and its Kuwait branch, Gulf Energy SAOC and National Petroleum Technology Company as our borrowers incurring significant expenses in effecting the transition and may result in disputes or litigation with lenders over the appropriateness or comparability to LIBOR of the substitute index or indices, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

 

Our borrowings under our various loan agreements and other financing arrangements expose us to interest rate risk and such arrangements also include restrictive covenants that may impact our Subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions to us.

 

Our earnings are exposed to interest rate risk associated with $398.5 million in borrowings under our various loan agreements and other financing arrangements as of December 31, 2020. Each of these arrangements requires the payment of floating interest rates based upon short-term interest rate indices. If interest rates increase, so will our interest costs, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Additionally, the terms of these financing arrangements, including the restrictive covenants therein, may restrict the ability of our Subsidiaries to make distributions to us, which could materially adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition.

 

We are exposed to the credit risk of our customers and counterparties, and a general increase in the delay or non-payment and non-performance by our customers could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

 

We are subject to risks of loss resulting from non-payment or non-performance by our customers and other counterparties. Customers may also delay payments by imposing complex administrative processes, by disputing or rejecting invoices, or through other means. Any increase in the non-payment and non-performance by our customers could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows. Additionally, equity values for many of our customers continue to be low. The combination of a reduction of cash flow resulting from lower commodity prices, a reduction in borrowing bases under reserve-based credit facilities, and the lack of availability of debt or equity financing may result in a significant reduction in the liquidity of our customers and their ability to make payment or perform on their obligations to us. Furthermore, some of our customers may be leveraged and subject to their own operating and regulatory risks, which increases the risk that they may default on their obligations to us.

 

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Limitations on our ability to protect our intellectual property rights, including our trade secrets, could cause a loss in revenue and any competitive advantage.

 

Some of our products or services, and the processes they use to produce or provide products and services, constitute trade secrets and confidential know how. We may lose employees who have important trade secrets and who may not be prohibited in the relevant countries in which they work from using such trade secrets to compete with us. Our business may be adversely affected if any acquired patents are unenforceable, the claims allowed under their patents are not sufficient to protect our technology, our patent applications are denied, or our trade secrets are not adequately protected. In addition, our competitors may be able to independently develop technology that is similar to the technology used by us without infringing on our patents or gaining access to our trade secrets, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

We may be subject to litigation if another party claims that we have infringed upon such third party’s intellectual property rights.

 

The tools, techniques, methodologies, programs and components that we use to provide our services may infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others. Infringement claims generally result in significant legal and other costs and may distract our management from running our core business. Royalty payments under licenses from third parties, if available, and developing non-infringing technologies would increase our costs. If a license were required and not available, we might not be able to continue providing a particular service or product, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

Environmental compliance costs and liabilities could reduce our earnings and cash available for operations.

 

We are subject to increasingly stringent laws and regulations relating to the importation and use, storage, handling, transportation, use and disposal of hazardous materials, radioactive materials, chemicals and explosives, and to environmental protection and health and safety, including laws and regulations governing air emissions, hydraulic fracturing, water and other discharges and waste management and natural resources. For more information, see our regulatory disclosures titled “Environmental Regulation” and “Health and Safety Regulation.” We expect to incur capital and operating costs to comply with environmental laws and regulations. The technical requirements of these laws and regulations are becoming increasingly complex, stringent and expensive to implement.

 

Our operations use and generate hazardous substances and wastes. Accordingly, we could become subject to material liabilities relating to the investigation and clean-up of potentially contaminated properties, and to claims alleging personal injury or property damage as the result of exposures to, or releases of, hazardous substances or wastes. Applicable laws may provide for “strict liability” for remediation costs, damages to natural resources or threats to public health and safety. Strict liability can render a party liable for damages without regard to negligence or fault on the part of the party. Some environmental laws provide for joint and several liabilities for remediation of spills and releases of hazardous substances and wastes. Joint and several liability can render one party liable for all damages arising from a spill or release even if other parties also contributed to the spill or release.

 

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In addition, stricter enforcement of existing laws and regulations, new laws and regulations, the discovery of previously unknown contamination or the imposition of new or increased requirements could require us to incur costs, become the basis for new or increased liabilities, subject us to certain government-imposed penalties or result in certain licenses being revoked. Any of these developments could reduce our earnings and cash available for operations or otherwise result in interruptions or delays in our operations that could have an adverse effect on our financial position.

 

We could be subject to substantial liability claims, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

The technical complexities of our operations expose us to a wide range of significant health, safety and environmental risks. Our products and service offerings involve production-related activities, radioactive materials, chemicals, explosives, and other equipment and services that are deployed in challenging exploration, development, and production environments. An accident involving these services or equipment, or a failure of a product, could cause personal injury, loss of life, damage to or destruction of property, equipment or the environment, or suspension of operations. Our insurance may not protect us against liability for certain kinds of events, including events involving pollution, or against losses resulting from business interruption. Moreover, we may not be able to maintain insurance for certain risks or at levels of risk coverage or policy limits that we deem adequate. Any damages caused by our services or products that are not covered by insurance or are in excess of policy limits or subject to substantial deductibles, could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

Demand for our products and services could be reduced by existing and future legislation or regulations.

 

Environmental advocacy groups and regulatory agencies in the United States and other countries have been focusing considerable attention on the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases and their role in climate change. Existing or future legislation and regulations related to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, as well as government or private sector initiatives to conserve energy or promote the use of alternative energy sources, or reduce greenhouse gas emissions, may significantly curtail demand and production of fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas in areas of the world where our customers operate and thus adversely affect future demand for our services. For more information, see our regulatory disclosure titled “Environmental Regulation.” Additionally, scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, and floods and other adverse climatic events. If any such effects were to occur, they could result in damage to our equipment and our clients’ facilities and have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Some international, national and local governments and agencies have also adopted laws and regulations or are evaluating proposed legislation and regulations that are focused on the extraction of shale gas or oil using hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing is a stimulation treatment routinely performed on oil and gas wells in low-permeability reservoirs. Specially engineered fluids with proppants are pumped at high pressure and rate into the reservoir interval to be treated, causing cracks in the target formation. Future hydraulic fracturing-related legislation or regulations could limit or ban hydraulic fracturing, or lead to operational delays and increased costs, including for the capture of fugitive methane emissions, and therefore reduce demand for our pressure pumping services. If such additional international, national, or local legislation or regulations are enacted, it could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

Increased attention to ESG matters and conservation measures may adversely impact our business.

 

Increasing attention to climate change, societal expectations on companies to address climate change, investor and societal expectations regarding voluntary ESG disclosures, and consumer demand for alternative forms of energy may result in increased costs, reduced demand for our services, reduced profits, increased investigations and litigation, and negative impacts on our stock price and access to capital markets. Increasing attention to climate change and environmental conservation, for example, may result in demand shifts for oil and natural gas products and additional governmental investigations and private litigation against oil and natural gas operators. To the extent that societal pressures or political or other factors are involved, it is possible that such liability could be incurred without regard to our causation of or contribution to the asserted damage, or to other mitigating factors. All of these factors have the potential to adversely affect demand for our services, our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

Moreover, while we may make voluntary statements regarding ESG matters from time to time, many of the statements in those voluntary disclosures are based on hypothetical expectations and assumptions that may or may not be representative of current or actual risks or events or forecasts of expected risks or events, including the costs associated therewith. Such expectations and assumptions are necessarily uncertain and may be prone to error or subject to misinterpretation given the long timelines involved and the lack of an established single approach to identifying, measuring and reporting on many ESG matters. Consequently, while we continue to examine potential ESG related risks and opportunities, set goals, and implement mitigation measures, we cannot guarantee that these efforts will be successful. In addition, as this is a continuously evolving area, we can provide no assurance that our current assessment of ESG-related risks and opportunities is comprehensive or that the risks we identify and our conclusions about their effects and potential mitigation will not be subject to change.

 

In addition, organizations that provide information to investors on corporate governance and related matters have developed ratings processes for evaluating companies on their approach to ESG matters. Such ratings are used by some investors to inform their investment and voting decisions. Unfavorable ESG ratings and recent activism directed at shifting funding away from companies with energy-related assets could lead to increased negative investor sentiment toward us and our industry and to the diversion of investment to other industries, which could have a negative impact on our stock price and our access to and costs of capital. Also, institutional lenders may decide not to provide funding for fossil fuel energy companies based on climate change related concerns, which could affect our access to capital.

 

Some of our customers may require bids for contracts in the form of long-term, fixed pricing contracts that may require us to assume additional risks associated with cost over-runs, operating cost inflation, labor availability and productivity, supplier and contractor pricing and performance, and potential claims for liquidated damages.

 

Some of our customers, primarily NOCs, may require bids for contracts in the form of long-term, fixed pricing contracts that may require us to provide integrated project management services outside our normal discrete businesses to act as project managers as well as service providers, and may require us to assume additional risks associated with cost over-runs. These customers may provide us with inaccurate information in relation to their reserves, which is a subjective process that involves location and volume estimation that may result in cost over-runs, delays, and project losses. In addition, NOCs often operate in countries with unsettled political conditions, war, civil unrest, or other types of community issues that may also result in cost over-runs, delays, and project losses.

 

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Providing services on an integrated basis or long-term may also require us to assume additional risks associated with operating cost inflation, labor availability and productivity, supplier pricing and performance, and potential claims for liquidated damages. We might rely on third-party subcontractors and equipment providers to assist our customers with the completion of these types of contracts. To the extent that we cannot engage subcontractors or acquire equipment or materials in a timely manner and on reasonable terms or on terms consistent with the customer contract, our ability to complete a project in accordance with stated deadlines or at a profit may be impaired. If the amount we are required to pay for these goods and services exceeds the amount we have estimated in bidding for fixed-price work, we could experience losses in the performance of these contracts. These delays and additional costs may be substantial, and we may be required to compensate our customers for these delays. This may reduce the profit to be realized or result in a loss on a project and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

Our failure to comply with complex U.S. and foreign laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our operations.

 

We are subject to complex U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and various other anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws. At this time, the U.K. Bribery Act has not been adopted to apply to British Virgin Islands companies, but does apply to any employees of us or our Subsidiaries that are U.K. citizens or residents, including any British overseas territory citizens, and any subsidiaries formed in the U.K. We may also be subject to trade control (including export controls) and trade sanctions laws and regulations that restrict the movement of certain goods and technologies to, and certain operations in, various countries or with certain persons. Thus, our ability to transfer people and products among certain countries will be subject to maintaining required licenses and complying with these laws and regulations. The internal controls, policies and procedures, and employee training and compliance programs we expect to implement to deter prohibited practices may not be effective in preventing employees, contractors or agents from violating or circumventing such internal policies or violating applicable laws and regulations. Any determination that we have violated or are responsible for violations of anti-bribery, trade control, trade sanctions or anti-corruption laws could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and may result in fines and penalties, administrative remedies or restrictions on business conduct, and could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and our business.

 

Regulatory enforcement and accountability mechanisms have steadily changed the financial landscape for companies organized in the British Virgin Islands. One major regulatory development came in 2014 following the enactment in the United States of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) which was designed primarily to reduce tax evasion by U.S. persons using overseas accounts and financial services entities or institutions. FATCA requires certain types of foreign entities to identify and report specific information to the United States Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) about U.S. taxpayers holding foreign accounts and financial assets. The reporting obligations under FATCA were directly implemented into British Virgin Islands Law in 2014, in relation to BVI entities carrying on certain activities.

 

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Another key regulatory change came following the British Virgin Islands’ implementation of the “Common Reporting Standard” (“CRS”) into its financial services legislation and oversight. CRS reporting in the British Virgin Islands commenced during the second half of 2017. CRS obligations were specifically designed to fight against tax evasion, and, as with FATCA, the CRS system requires certain types of financial services entities or institutions established in the CRS jurisdiction to report certain financial account information to their national tax or other relevant authority, who then share that information automatically on an annual basis with other CRS partner jurisdictions. We are not currently required to comply with either CRS or FATCA.

 

We and U.S. persons working for us are subject to sanctions and export control regimes adopted by the United States and other jurisdictions.

 

We and U.S. persons working for us are subject to laws, reporting requirements or sanctions imposed by the United States or by other jurisdictions where we do business that may restrict or even prohibit us, U.S. persons, or certain of our affiliates from doing business in certain countries, or with designated companies in the oil and natural gas sector. The Middle East, Asia, and Africa are among the locations in which from time to time the United States, the United Nations, the United Kingdom or the European Union has imposed economic sanctions that restrict or impede contracting in identified sanctioned countries. We cannot predict what sanctions might be imposed in the future against any country in which we or our Subsidiaries might operate or might receive contracts for performing services. In addition, the U.S. Commerce Department and State Department administer export controls that regulate the types of commodities and technologies that can be sold or provided to certain countries or recipients if those items are subject to U.S. jurisdiction, and such controls are modified from time to time. Trade restrictions, export controls and sanctions could adversely impact our potential income, or our ability to pursue new undeveloped business objectives.

 

The United States government has implemented mechanisms to collect information on companies registered on the U.S. stock exchange related to certain business activities that might be sanctionable under the various U.S. sanctions programs if the foreign companies or their subsidiaries are U.S. companies. Section 219 of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 requires an annual or quarterly “219 Report” to be filed with the SEC by any company registered on a U.S. stock exchange, and requires the company to disclose, as if the listed company were a U.S. entity, certain business activities relating to U.S. sanctions, which includes certain activities involving the Iranian energy sector, even if the activity is not prohibited by U.S. sanctions for the foreign company. Such reporting of any future activities that we or our Subsidiaries may engage in, could initiate an investigation by the U.S. government and require us to engage counsel to monitor or respond to such investigations. A 219 Report is required for knowingly engaging in certain activities, including activities that constitute an investment in the Iranian energy sector of $5 million each, or in the aggregate of over $20 million in a 12-month period, among other types of transactions. A 219 Report is also required for knowingly engaging in any transaction with certain individuals or entities identified in the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control’s (“OFAC”) List of Specially Designated Nationals (“SDNs”) and Blocked Persons (“SDN List”), whether or not located in Iran, depending on the reason such persons were designated as SDNs. The risk of an investigation or inadvertent action that relates to sanctioned activity could increase costs and have an adverse impact on financial conditions and results of operations.

 

Our operations in the Middle East and other countries could require us to incur additional costs in order to comply with U.S., U.K. and EU sanctions-related regulations restricting or prohibiting activities with certain individuals and entities.

 

The United States government, the UK government and the EU have established lists of corporations and people with which engaging in business by a person subject to the jurisdiction of such government authority is prohibited without a license. Persons or entities identified on the SDN List, under which the property and interests in property of designated persons (individuals and entities) are recorded, are blocked in the United States and when in the possession or control of U.S. persons. U.S. persons are broadly prohibited from engaging in transactions of any nature with persons on the SDN List. OFAC may designate an individual or entity on the SDN List for a variety of reasons, depending on the applicable sanctions program that serves as the authority for the designation. There is no advance notice or advance due process for the listed person. If any person were to be identified to an SDN List, no U.S. persons can be involved in contracting or providing services to or with such listed person without a license. Disclosure in a 219 Report is also required for knowingly engaging in any transaction or dealing with certain SDNs.

 

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Similarly, the UK Government publishes a UK Sanctions List, which provides details of those persons or entities designated under the UK Sanctions and Anti-Money Laundering Act 2018, and the Office of Financial Sanctions Implementation (“OFSI”) also publishes a Consolidated List of Financial Sanction Targets, which covers all financial sanction designations imposed by the UK. UK financial sanctions apply to any individual or entity within the UK’s territory, or that carry out activities within the UK’s territory. UK nationals and entities, including their overseas branches, must comply with UK sanctions regardless of where they are located or where their activities take place. Financial sanction measures can include targeted asset freezes on individuals and entities, which may prohibit any persons or companies from (i) dealing with funds or economic resources belonging to, or controlled by, a designated person, or (ii) making any funds available, directly, indirectly or otherwise for the benefit of a designated person. Any suspected or actual breach must be reported to the OFSI, and breach of any financial sanctions may result in significant fines (or carry a penal sentence for individuals).

 

EU sanctions also target companies, groups, organizations, or individuals through similar measures including asset freezes or other economic measures. The European Commission similarly maintains an EU-specific consolidated list of persons, groups and entities subject to EU financial sanctions, with EU sanctions being binding on EU nationals or persons located in the EU or companies doing business in the EU.

 

Although we cannot be assured that no individual or entity in the Middle East or elsewhere with which we or our Subsidiaries have done business will not be identified on the SDN List or other relevant denied party lists in the future, we have confirmed that none our key employees, key vendors, or any companies with which we are currently conducting business, nor or any of our Subsidiaries, their key employees, key vendors, or any company with which they are currently conducting business are listed on the SDN List or similar lists in the EU and UK. If any customer, employee or vendor were to be listed on the SDN List in the future (or similar lists in the EU and UK), we will need to incur costs to seek legal advice to determine whether any further business could be conducted with such person or whether all business relationships with such person must cease.

 

We are subject to litigation risks that may not be covered by insurance.

 

In the ordinary course of business, we and our Subsidiaries may become the subject of various claims, lawsuits, and administrative proceedings seeking damages or other remedies concerning our commercial operations, employees, and other matters. We maintain insurance to cover certain potential losses and are subject to various self-insurance retentions and deductibles under our insurance policies. It is possible, however, that a judgment could be rendered against us in cases in which we could be uninsured and beyond the amounts that we currently have reserved or anticipate incurring for such matters. If we were to be sued under any of the agreements related to the Business Combinations or if we were made a party to lawsuits to which our Subsidiaries are currently a party, we could be exposed to one or more judgments that are in excess of what our management may believe that it should pay and would not likely be covered by insurance.

 

We may be unable to obtain or renew permits necessary for our operations, which could inhibit our ability to do business.

 

In order to perform our operations, we are required to obtain and maintain a number of government permits, licenses and approvals with terms and conditions containing a significant number of prescriptive limits and performance standards. While this is a common scenario for foreign investors operating in the region, we must comply with relevant foreign ownership restrictions and/or applicable licenses, permits, and approvals for the operation of foreign owned entities in the jurisdictions of the GCC. The GCC has made efforts to increase local content and in country value requirements. All the permits, licenses, approval limits, and standards require a significant amount of monitoring, record keeping, and reporting in order to demonstrate compliance with the underlying permit, license, approval limit or standard. Noncompliance or incomplete documentation of our compliance status may result in the imposition of fines, penalties and injunctive relief. A decision by a government agency to deny or delay the issuance of a new or existing material permit or other approval, or to revoke or substantially modify an existing permit or other approval, could adversely affect our ability to initiate or continue operations at the affected location or facility. Furthermore, such a decision could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

 

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We might require additional equity or debt financing to fund operations and/or future acquisitions.

 

We may need access to additional debt or equity capital to fund operations or to fund potential acquisitions. If additional capital is required, we may not be able to obtain debt and/or equity financing on terms favorable to us, or at all. The failure to obtain additional funding could result in a curtailment of our operations and future development, which in turn could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

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The assessment by our management of these risks is inexact and may not reveal or resolve all existing and potential risks. Realization of any of these risks could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

Risks Related to Our Capital Structure

 

The market price of our ordinary shares and warrants may decline.

 

Fluctuations in the price of our ordinary shares and warrants could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. The trading price of our ordinary shares and warrants could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment and our ordinary shares and warrants may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our ordinary shares and warrants may not recover and may experience a further decline.

 

Factors affecting the trading price of our ordinary shares and warrants may include:

 

  actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;
     
  changes in the market’s expectations about our operating results;
     
  success of competitors;
     
  our operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;
     
  changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning us or the market in general;
     
  operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;
     
  our ability to market new and enhanced products on a timely basis;
     
  changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
     
  commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;
     
  changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;
     
  the volume of securities available for public sale;
     
  any major change in our board or management;
     
  the sale of a substantial amount of our ordinary shares and warrants by our directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and
     
  general economic and political conditions such as recession, world health events, changes in interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations, and acts of war or terrorism, and the uncertainty and ongoing efforts to mitigate the spread of impacts of COVID-19, including, but not limited to, the severity and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, the extent and effectiveness of containment measures, the availability and distribution of effective vaccines against COVID-19, the potential resurgence of COVID-19 or related strains, how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating activity can resume, and the severity and duration of the global economic downturn that has resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

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Many of the factors listed above are beyond our control. In addition, broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our ordinary shares and warrants irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general, including the Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”), has experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of our ordinary shares and warrants, which currently trade on the Nasdaq, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for retail stocks or the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to us could depress the price of our securities regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our ordinary shares and warrants also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business, or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our securities adversely, the price and trading volume of our ordinary shares and warrants could decline.

 

The trading market for our ordinary shares and warrants relies in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. We do not control these analysts. Furthermore, if one or more of the analysts who do cover us downgrade or provide negative outlook on our stock or our industry, or the stock of any of our competitors, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our ordinary shares and warrants could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our business or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

 

We are a holding company. Our sole material asset is our equity interest in our subsidiaries and we are accordingly dependent upon distributions from them to cover our corporate and other overhead expenses.

 

We are a holding company and have no material assets other than our equity interest in our Subsidiaries. We have no independent means of generating revenue. To the extent the Subsidiaries have available cash, we intend to cause them to make non-pro rata payments to us to reimburse us for our corporate and other overhead expenses. To the extent that we need funds and the Subsidiaries are restricted from making such distributions or payments under applicable law or regulation or under the terms of any financing arrangements due to restrictive covenants or otherwise, or are otherwise unable to provide such funds, our liquidity and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

 

Future sales of our ordinary shares could reduce our stock price, and any additional capital raised by us through the sale of equity or convertible securities may dilute your ownership in us.

 

We may sell additional securities in subsequent public or private offerings. On December 31, 2020, 87,777,553 ordinary shares were outstanding and 35,540,380 warrants were outstanding. Our outstanding ordinary shares do not include ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of the warrants, which may be resold in the public market.

 

Downward pressure on the market price of our ordinary shares that likely will result from sales of our ordinary shares issued in connection with the exercise of the warrants could encourage short sales of our ordinary shares by market participants. Generally, short selling means selling a security, contract or commodity not owned by the seller. The seller is committed to eventually purchase the financial instrument previously sold. Short sales are used to capitalize on an expected decline in the security’s price. Such sales of ordinary shares could have a tendency to depress the price of the stock, which could increase the potential for short sales.

 

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We cannot predict the size of future issuances of our ordinary shares or the effect, if any, that future issuances and sales of shares of our ordinary shares will have on the market price of our ordinary shares. Sales of substantial amounts of our ordinary shares (including shares issued in connection with an acquisition), or the perception that such sales could occur, may adversely affect prevailing market prices of our ordinary shares.

 

Because we currently have no plans to pay cash dividends on our ordinary shares, you may not receive any return on investment unless you sell your ordinary shares for a price greater than that what you paid for it.

 

We currently do not expect to pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares. Any future determination to pay cash dividends or other distributions on our ordinary shares will be at the discretion of the board of directors and will be dependent on our earnings, financial condition, operation results, capital requirements, and contractual, regulatory and other restrictions, including restrictions contained in the agreements governing any existing and future outstanding indebtedness we or our Subsidiaries may incur, on the payment of dividends by us or by our Subsidiaries to us, and other factors that our board of directors deems relevant.

 

As a result, you may not receive any return on an investment in our ordinary shares unless you sell the ordinary shares for a price greater than that what you paid for it.

 

There is no guarantee that the public warrants will remain in the money, and they may expire worthless.

 

The exercise price for our warrants is $5.75 per one-half of an ordinary share. Warrants must be exercised for whole ordinary shares. While the warrants are currently “in the money,” there is no guarantee that the warrants will remain in the money at all times prior to their expiration on June 6, 2023 (five years after the completion of the NPS/GES Business Combination), and as such, the warrants may expire worthless.

 

Other Risks Associated with Our Business

 

Cybersecurity risks and threats could adversely affect our business.

 

We rely heavily on information systems to conduct our business. There can be no assurance that the systems we have designed to prevent or limit the effects of cyber incidents or attacks will be sufficient to prevent or detect such incidents or attacks, or to avoid a material impact on our systems when such incidents or attacks do occur. If our systems for protecting against cybersecurity risks are circumvented or breached, this could result in the loss of our intellectual property or other proprietary information, including customer data, and disruption of our business operations.

 

 A cyber incident or attack could result in the disclosure of confidential or proprietary customer information, employee information, theft or loss of intellectual property, damage to our reputation with our customers and the market, failure to meet customer requirements or customer dissatisfaction, theft or exposure to litigation and enforcement actions including under data privacy laws and regulations, damage to equipment (which could cause environmental or safety issues) and other financial costs and losses. In addition, as cybersecurity threats continue to evolve, we may be required to devote additional resources to continue to enhance our protective measures or to investigate or remediate any cybersecurity vulnerabilities. We do not presently maintain insurance coverage to protect against cybersecurity risks. If we procure such coverage in the future, we cannot ensure that it will be sufficient to cover any particular losses we may experience as a result of such cyberattacks.

 

We depend on our suppliers to provide services and equipment in a timely manner and any delays, interruptions or failures by suppliers could expose us to increased costs or inability to meet contractual obligations.

 

We rely on suppliers of equipment and spare parts as well as suppliers of technical labor to perform certain contractual obligations with our clients. Failure by suppliers to provide goods and services in a timely manner could lead to delays by us in fulfilling contractual obligations, the inability to fulfill such obligations, or additional costs in seeking replacement suppliers.

 

We have engaged in a number of related party transactions, the termination of which may inhibit business, and such transactions present possible conflicts of interest that could have an adverse effect on us.

 

We rely at times upon services and products supplied by related parties if no other suitable alternatives are available. For example, a related party vendor provides software services that supports certain of our operations in a country where we have a perpetual license to use an Enterprise Resource Planning system. However, the termination of the software services could result in a disruption of supporting business processes and require time and resources for sourcing replacement services and products.

 

In addition, these related party transactions create the possibility of conflicts of interest with regard to transactions involving Mubbadrah Investment LLC, Heavy Equipment Manufacturing & Trading LLC, Prime Business Solutions LLC, Nine Energy Service, Inc. and Basin Holdings US LLC. Such a conflict could cause such persons to seek to advance their economic interests above ours. Further, the appearance of conflicts of interest created by related party transactions could impair the confidence of our investors. While our board of directors regularly reviews these transactions, related party transactions presenting a conflict of interest could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, results of operations and financial condition.

  

The loss or unavailability of any of our executive officers or other key employees could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

We depend on the efforts of our executive officers and other key employees to manage our operations. The loss or unavailability of any of our executive officers or other key employees could have a material adverse effect on our business. Although we expect all of our key personnel to remain with us, it is possible that we will lose some key personnel, the loss of which could negatively impact our business operations and profitability. In addition, the delivery of our services and products requires personnel with specialized skills and experience. Our ability to be productive and profitable will depend upon our ability to employ and retain such skilled workers.

 

Our growth potential and ability to operate could be materially and adversely affected if we cannot employ and retain technical personnel at a competitive cost.

 

Many of the products and services we provide and sell are complex and highly engineered and often must perform in harsh conditions. Our success depends upon our ability to employ and retain technical personnel with the ability to design, utilize, and enhance these services and products. A significant increase in the wages paid by competing employers could result in increased competition for the skilled labor force we require, increases in the wage rates that we must pay, or both. If either of these events were to occur, our cost structures could increase, our margins could decrease, and our growth potential, if any, could be impaired.

 

We are not subject to the supervision of the Financial Services Commission of the British Virgin Islands and so our shareholders are not protected by any regulatory inspections in the British Virgin Islands.

 

We are not an entity subject to any regulatory supervision in the British Virgin Islands by the Financial Services Commission. As a result, shareholders are not protected by any regulatory supervision or inspections by any regulatory agency in the British Virgin Islands and we are not required to observe any restrictions in respect of our conduct save as disclosed in this Annual Report or our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association.

 

An investment in our securities may result in uncertain U.S. federal income tax consequences.

 

An investment in our securities may result in uncertain U.S. federal income tax consequences. For example, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a cashless exercise of warrants included in the units sold in our initial public offering is unclear under current U.S. law. Prospective investors are urged to consult their tax advisers with respect to these and other tax consequences when purchasing, holding or disposing of our securities.

 

A majority of our directors live outside the United States and substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States; therefore, investors may not be able to enforce U.S. federal securities laws or their other legal rights.

 

A majority of our directors reside outside of the United States and substantially all of our assets are located outside of the United States. Thus, it may be difficult, or in some cases not possible, for investors in the United States to enforce their legal rights, to effect service of process upon all of our directors or to enforce judgments of United States courts predicated upon civil liabilities and criminal penalties on our directors under United States laws.

 

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As a foreign private issuer in the United States, we are subject to different U.S. securities laws and rules than a domestic U.S. issuer.

 

We are a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act and, as a result, are exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act. Under the Exchange Act we are subject to reporting obligations that, in certain respects, permit less detailed and/or less frequent disclosures than those of U.S. domestic reporting companies, which may limit the information publicly available to our shareholders. The rules we are exempt from include the proxy rules that impose certain disclosure and procedural requirements for proxy solicitations. In addition, we are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently, promptly or in as much detail as U.S. companies with securities registered under the Exchange Act. We are not required to comply with Regulation FD, which imposes certain restrictions on the selective disclosure of material information. Moreover, our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules under the Exchange Act with respect to their purchases and sales of our ordinary shares. Although the Company currently prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, it is not required to do so, or to reconcile to U.S. GAAP, if it instead elects to prepare its financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board. As a result of such varied reporting obligations, shareholders should not expect to receive the same information at the same time as information provided by U.S. domestic companies.

 

We could lose our status as a “foreign private issuer” under current SEC rules and regulations if more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities become directly or indirectly held of record by U.S. holders and any one of the following is true: (i) the majority of our directors or executive officers are U.S. citizens or residents; (ii) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States; or (iii) our business is administered principally in the United States. If we lose our status as a foreign private issuer, we would not be eligible to use foreign issuer forms and would be required to file periodic and current reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms with the SEC, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. In addition, we may lose the ability to rely upon exemptions from Nasdaq corporate governance requirements that are available to foreign private issuers. If this were to happen, we would likely incur substantial costs in fulfilling these additional regulatory requirements and members of our management would likely have to divert time and resources from other responsibilities to ensuring these additional regulatory requirements are fulfilled.

 

We are an “emerging growth company” and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our securities less attractive to investors.

 

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended (the “JOBS Act”). We will remain an “emerging growth company” for up to the first five years after our initial public offering. However, if our non-convertible debt issued within a three-year period exceeds $1.0 billion or revenues exceeds $1.07 billion, or the market value of our ordinary shares that are held by non-affiliates (as defined by the SEC) exceeds $700 million on the last day of the second fiscal quarter of any given fiscal year, we would cease to be an emerging growth company as of the following fiscal year. As an emerging growth company, we are not required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”). We cannot predict if investors will find our ordinary shares less attractive because we may rely on these provisions. If some investors find our ordinary shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our shares and our share price may be more volatile.

 

Further, Section 102(b) (1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such an election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, will not adopt the new or revised standard until the time private companies are required to adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

 

We may re-incorporate in another jurisdiction, and the laws of such jurisdiction will likely govern all of our material agreements and we may not be able to enforce our legal rights.

 

We may relocate the home jurisdiction of our business from the British Virgin Islands to another jurisdiction. If we determine to do this, the laws of such jurisdiction could govern any of our material agreements where jurisdiction has not been contractually established. The system of laws and the enforcement of existing laws in such jurisdiction may not be as certain in implementation and interpretation as in the British Virgin Islands. Furthermore, certain U.S. laws would continue to apply to us regardless of where we are incorporated. The inability to enforce or obtain a remedy under any of our future agreements could result in a significant loss of business, business opportunities or capital.

 

Investors may face difficulties in protecting their interests, and their ability to protect their rights through the U.S. federal courts may be limited, because we are formed under British Virgin Islands law.

 

We are a company formed under the laws of the British Virgin Islands. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to enforce judgments obtained in the United States courts against some of our directors or officers.

 

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Our corporate affairs will be governed by our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Act and the common law of the British Virgin Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under British Virgin Islands law are governed by the Companies Act and the common law of the British Virgin Islands. The common law of the British Virgin Islands is derived from English common law, and while the decisions of the English courts are of persuasive authority, they are not binding on a court in the British Virgin Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under British Virgin Islands law may not be as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the British Virgin Islands has a less developed body of securities laws as compared to the United States, and some states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law. In addition, while statutory provisions do exist in British Virgin Islands law for derivative actions to be brought in certain circumstances, shareholders in British Virgin Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States. The circumstances in which any such action may be brought, and the procedures and defenses that may be available in respect to any such action, may result in the rights of shareholders of a British Virgin Islands company being more limited than those of shareholders of a company organized in the United States. Accordingly, shareholders may have fewer alternatives available to them if they believe that corporate wrongdoing has occurred.

 

The British Virgin Islands Courts are also unlikely:

 

  to recognize or enforce against us judgments of courts of the United States based on certain civil liability provisions of U.S. securities laws where that liability is in respect of penalties, taxes, fines or similar fiscal or revenue obligations of the company; and
     
  to impose liabilities against us, in original actions brought in the British Virgin Islands, based on certain civil liability provisions of U.S. securities laws that are penal in nature.

 

There is no statutory recognition in the British Virgin Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, although the courts of the British Virgin Islands will in certain circumstances recognize such a foreign judgment and treat it as a cause of action in itself which may be sued upon as a debt at common law so that no retrial of the issues would be necessary provided that:

 

  the U.S. court issuing the judgment had jurisdiction in the matter and the company either submitted to such jurisdiction or was resident or carrying on business within such jurisdiction and was duly served with process;
     
  the judgment is final and for a liquidated sum;
     
  the judgment given by the U.S. court was not in respect of penalties, taxes, fines or similar fiscal or revenue obligations of the company;
     
  in obtaining judgment there was no fraud on the part of the person in whose favor judgment was given or on the part of the court;
     
  recognition or enforcement of the judgment would not be contrary to public policy in the British Virgin Islands; and
     
  the proceedings pursuant to which judgment was obtained were not contrary to natural justice.

 

In appropriate circumstances, a British Virgin Islands Court may give effect in the British Virgin Islands to other kinds of final foreign judgments such as declaratory orders, orders for performance of contracts and injunctions.

 

As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a U.S. company.

 

Our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association permit the board of directors by resolution to create additional classes of securities, including shares with rights, preferences, designations and limitations as they determine which may have an anti-takeover effect.

 

Our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association permits the board of directors by resolution to amend the memorandum and articles of association to designate rights, preferences, designations and limitations attaching to the preferred shares as they determine in their discretion, without shareholder approval with respect to the terms or the issuance. If issued, the rights, preferences, designations and limitations of the preferred shares would be set by the board of directors and could operate to the disadvantage of the outstanding ordinary shares the holders of which would not have any pre-emption rights in respect of such an issue of preferred shares. Such terms could include, among others, preferences as to dividends and distributions on liquidation, or could be used to prevent possible corporate takeovers.

 

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ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

 

A. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY

 

The Company

 

National Energy Services Reunited Corp. is a British Virgin Islands corporation headquartered in Houston, Texas. The Company, through its wholly-owned subsidiaries, NPS and GES, is a regional provider of products and services to the oil and gas industry in the MENA and Asia Pacific regions. Our principal executive offices are located at 777 Post Oak Blvd., Suite 730, Houston, Texas 77056 and our telephone number is +1 (832) 925 3777. Our registered agent in the British Virgin Islands is Intertrust Corporate Services (BVI) Limited, which is located at Ritter House, Wickhams Cay II, P.O. Box 4041, Road Town, VG1110 Tortola, British Virgin Islands.

 

History and Business Development

 

NESR is one of the largest oilfield services providers in the MENA region.

 

Formed in January 2017, NESR started as a special purpose acquisition company (“SPAC”) designed to invest in the oilfield services space globally. NESR filed a registration statement for its initial public offering in May 2017. In November 2017, NESR announced the acquisition of two oilfield services companies in the MENA region: NPS and GES. The formation of NESR as an operating entity was completed on June 7, 2018, after the transactions were approved by NESR shareholders. On June 1, 2020, NESR further expanded its footprint within the MENA region when its NPS subsidiary acquired SAPESCO.

 

NESR’s revenues are primarily derived by providing production services (“Production Services”) such as hydraulic fracturing, cementing, coiled tubing, filtration, completions, stimulation, pumping and nitrogen services. NESR also provides drilling and evaluation services (“Drilling and Evaluation Services”) such as drilling downhole tools, directional drilling, fishing tools, testing services, wireline, slickline, fluids and rig services. NESR has significant operations throughout the MENA region including Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Iraq, Algeria, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Libya and Kuwait.

 

Capital Expenditures

 

During the three most recent fiscal years, the Company’s capital expenditures were $231.3 million in the aggregate, comprising $90.3 million from the 2020 Successor Period, $107.9 million from the 2019 Successor Period, $23.2 million from the 2018 Successor Period, and $9.9 million from the 2018 Predecessor Period. The Company has utilized these capital expenditures to purchase equipment to support ongoing revenue growth. For more information on our capital expenditures and requirements, see Item 5B, “Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

 

Electronic Information about the Company

 

The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. Our Company website can be found at http://www.nesr.com. Information on our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report or otherwise made part of this Annual Report.

 

B. BUSINESS OVERVIEW

 

The Company’s services are similar to one another in that they consist of oilfield services and related offerings, whose customers are oil and gas companies. The Company has organized its service lines into two reportable segments, Production Services and Drilling and Evaluation Services.

 

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Principal Activities

 

Production Services. Our Production Services segment includes the results of operations from services that are generally offered and performed during the production stage of a well’s lifecycle. These services include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

  Hydraulic Fracturing – Hydraulic fracturing services are performed to enhance production of oil and natural gas from formations with low permeability and restricted flow of hydrocarbons. The process of hydraulic fracturing involves pumping a highly viscous, pressurized fracturing fluid, typically a mixture of water, chemicals and proppant, into a well casing or tubing in order to fracture underground mineral formations. These fractures release trapped hydrocarbon particles and free a channel for the oil or natural gas to flow freely to the wellbore for collection. Fracturing fluid mixtures include proppant that becomes lodged in the cracks created by the hydraulic fracturing process, “propping” them open to facilitate the flow of hydrocarbons upward through the well.
     
  Coiled Tubing – We provide various coiled tubing services ranging from basic nitrogen lifting, fishing, milling, clean-out, scale removal and other complex well applications. We employ design software to predict the performance of coiled tubing string and fluid behavior. The work history and integrity of each coiled tubing work string is constantly monitored in real-time to allow our engineers to continually evaluate developments in coiled tubing applications. Our coiled tubing units are suitable for both onshore and offshore.
     
  Stimulation & Pumping – We employ stimulation and pumping services in our operations. We currently offer acidizing of wells, cleaning jobs, the release of stuck pipes during drilling, pressure testing wells and inhibition jobs on gas wells.
     
  Cementing – We have over 25 years of experience in primary and remedial cementing services across the MENA and Asia Pacific regions. Our cementing solutions include cementing equipment with complete automated density control capabilities, large volume batch mixers allowing larger volume of slurries to be mixed and pumped at homogeneous density and customized cement systems for specific applications such as gas migration, ultra-light weight, flexible cement, HTHP (high-temperature/high-pressure) and self-healing cement. We also have an extensive database of knowledge and experience.
     
  Nitrogen Services – We offer a complete nitrogen service package through our nitrogen fleets. Our equipment incorporates a combination of low, intermediate, and high-rate units. Our operational capabilities range from stand-alone nitrogen services such as freeing stuck drill pipe and unloading or cleaning out wellbores, to supplying our coiled tubing, stimulation and cementing service with the essential gaseous components necessary for positive results in various applications.
     
  Filtration Services – We provide filtration services through our two-stage, skid mounted, easy to handle filtration vessels. The primary and a secondary filtration stages are usually carried out together. We have filtered thousands of barrels on rig sites for reduced damage drilling as well as for UBD (Under Balanced Drilling) operations. We also provide frac tanks and pumping units as necessary.
     
  Pipelines and Industrial Services – We provide pipeline services to plants and refineries including water filling and hydro testing, nitrogen purging, de-gassing and pressure testing, as well as cutting/welding and cooling down piping/vessels systems. Our equipment and resources include an existing fleet of nitrogen pump units, pig launchers and receivers, intelligent pigs, high rate pumping units at high and low pressure, and pipeline inspection services.
     
  Water and Production Assurance –Our fleet of water well drilling rigs and portfolio of water treatment technologies (chemicals and filtration) allow us to serve the full water cycle. This includes the sourcing and treatment of water for oil and gas, municipal and industrial use and the disposal of water into selected aquifers. We also provide a portfolio of production assurance chemicals to assist hydrocarbon production from a specific reservoir in meeting the desired production target. This is achieved by collaborating with selected chemical companies and academic institutes and establishing an in-house technical team of engineers and laboratory capabilities.
     
  Laboratory Services – Certain of our locations have a central laboratory to carry out analyses for field operations. These base laboratories are run by qualified personnel who provide support and services to mobile labs in the sites where we operate. Our laboratory services include cementing tests, thickening time, rheology, fluid loss, compressive strength, mud compatibility, and free water.
     
  Artificial Lift Services – We provide vertical, deviated and horizontal rod pumping systems, analysis and optimization recommendations for fluid level and dynamometer testing, artificial lift optimization and data interpretation, long term monitoring and optimization, and associated field services. We also provide gas lift systems and downhole monitoring systems. We maintain a downhole pump workshop that is equipped with up-to-date equipment and tools, including pump testers, barrel honing and API beam pump gauges.
     
  Completions – We provide surface and subsurface safety systems, high-pressure packer systems, flow controls, service tools, expandable liner technology, VIT (Vacuum Insulated Tubing) technology for steam applications, and engineering capabilities with manufacturing capacity and testing facilities. We focus on in-country value by taking a systems approach to well completions for maximum recovery in addition to intelligent completion architectures.

 

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Drilling and Evaluation Services. Our Drilling and Evaluation Services segment includes the results of operations from services that are generally offered and performed during pre-production stages of a well’s lifecycle and related mainly to the operation of oil rigs. These services include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

  Rigs and Integrated Services – Our fleet of rigs range from 200 horsepower (HP) to 1,500 HP and offer drilling capabilities for all type of wells with depths up to 4,000 meters. Our fleet includes 750 HP truck-mounted, fast moving rigs, which are ideal for both light and heavy work over campaigns as both rigs are equipped with full edge mud systems that can handle normal drilling activities. In addition, we provide a “One Stop Solution” that includes delivering and managing the full spectrum of services involved in the upstream sector from the provision of the rig to completion and testing of the well.
     
  Fishing & Downhole – We provide highly innovative and reliable drilling tools and machine shop services for conventional and unconventional drilling applications. Our manufacturing capabilities include manufacturing flanges, subs, pup joints, pony drill collars and all types of cross overs. We also have the provision of threading and repair services for the oil and gas industry including the re-cutting of tubing and casing, repair of drilling and production tubular and well heads.
     
  Thru-Tubing Intervention – We provide comprehensive oilfield solutions for all thru-tubing intervention requirement, from milling to thru-tubing fishing and thru-tubing well intervention.
     
  Tubular Running Services – We provide traditional Tubular Running Services operated by highly trained personnel focused on safety, quality, efficiency and well integrity. Our Casing Running Tool technology enables simultaneous connection make-up, break-out, circulation and rotation, increasing the chance of getting casing to total depth safely and efficiently the first time.
     
  Directional Drilling – Our directional drilling services provide a suite of solutions from conventional to unconventional drilling applications, including directional drilling, measurement while drilling, logging while drilling, drilling optimization, drilling engineering, borehole surveying, and surface mud logging.

 

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  Drilling Fluids – We provide drilling fluid systems and related technologies for a number of projects, including development drilling, exploration drilling and HPHT drilling, in accordance with international standards and regulations for both onshore and offshore projects.
     
  Pressure Control – With a full range of wellhead products, flow control equipment and frac equipment, we can provide safe and efficient drilling and production. From pre-engineered products, to fully customized designs, we offer solutions for every application.
     
  Well Testing Services – Our well testing services are used to measure solids, gas, oil and water produced from a well. We offer integrated well testing services in the exploration, appraisal and development phases of oil and gas wells. Our aim is to provide newer, faster and more precise testing results though innovation and superior service quality, and our services include surface well testing onshore and offshore, flow back packages, sand management, burner boom stack for gas flaring, smokeless burner, multi-phase flow meters (MPFM), zero-flaring packages, and water treatment and filtration.
     
  Wireline Logging Services – Our fleet of logging trucks, offshore units, logging tools and pressure control equipment provides a wide variety of cased-hole logging services to our clients, including production and injection performance evaluation, stimulation performance evaluation, water shutoff determination, tubing and multiple casing integrity, acoustic leak detection, perforation, pipe recovery, cased hole formation evaluation, and interval isolation and borehole seal.
     
  Slickline Services – Our slickline services cover the basic removal of scale, wax and sand build-up, setting plugs, changing out gas lift valves, fishing and other complex well applications.

 

ESG IMPACT. In January 2021, we launched a new Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance IMPACT (“ESG IMPACT”) initiative to introduce innovative energy solutions and develop a portfolio of product lines and services aimed to mitigate climate change, enhance water management and conservation, and minimize environmental waste in the industry.

 

Management of produced water is a significant factor in the profitability and ESG KPIs of oil and gas companies. As an industry worldwide, the oil and gas sector produces more than 200 billion barrels of water per year. Approximately half of this amount is used for pressure management with the remainder put in disposable wells or left to evaporate. This in-field stranded produced water does not currently have infrastructure linking it to existing water-handling facilities or it is not economical to do so.

 

Our objective is to provide field-based solutions that deliver fresh water from produced water as well as to deliver alternatives to traditional industry use of higher quality aquifer water for oil field applications. We are currently working with Salttech SA, a water-treatment technology company based in the Netherlands, on developing several plants to convert high salinity produced water into fresh water. In the aquifer space, our focus is on providing water from previously unusable water resources due to high sulphate content in order to reduce industry reliance on high quality aquifers. We are evaluating potential plant and field capabilities with Clean TeQ, an Australian-based clean technology company that currently operates an antimony treatment plant in Oman.

 

Our ultimate goal with respect to water conservation is to impact the community and provide fresh water to villages around us. Depending on the location of the treated produced water, we believe it can be reused for agriculture activity around the oil fields, for trees planted to capture CO2 and methane for carbon credits, and for different drilling or fracking operations resulting in a reduction in our (and the industry’s) carbon footprint.

 

Another focus of ESG IMPACT is the development of advanced technologies in the areas of methane detection and control to reduce emissions. Our prospective climate change mitigation product line is expected to include state-of-the-art real-time monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions from all aspects of operations, including well-head, gathering stations and gas processing facilities, and we are in the process of evaluating key monitoring technologies. We are also pursuing technology that we believe will enable us to use excess gas at the well site, which is traditionally flared, to power the potential water treatment plants.

 

Principal Markets

 

The Company’s operations and activities are located within certain geographies, primarily in the MENA region. The revenue earned by geographic area, based on drilling location, was as follows for the periods presented:

 

   Successor (NESR)   Predecessor (NPS) 
   Period from   Period from   Period from   Period from 
   January 1   January 1   June 7   January 1 
   to December 31,   to December 31,   to December 31,   to June 6, 
   2020   2019   2018   2018 
                 
MENA  $823,247   $647,434   $345,047   $134,479 
Rest of World   

10,899

    10,951    3,543    2,548 
Total  $

834,146

   $658,385   $348,590   $137,027 

 

Seasonality

 

Seasonal changes in weather and significant weather events affect the demand and price of oil and therefore the demand for our services. Furthermore, customer spending patterns for oilfield services and products generally result in higher activity in the fourth quarter of each year as clients seek to utilize their annual budgets.

 

Sources and Availability of Raw Materials

 

We purchase various raw materials and component parts in connection with delivering our products and services. These materials are generally, but not always, available from multiple sources and may be subject to price volatility. While we generally do not experience significant long-term shortages of these materials, we have from time to time experienced temporary shortages of particular raw materials. We are always seeking ways to ensure the availability of resources, as well as manage costs of raw materials.

 

Marketing Channels

 

We sell to our customers through direct and indirect channels. Our primary sales channel is through our direct sales force, which has a strong country focus with local teams close to the customer.

 

Intellectual Property

 

We own and control a variety of intellectual property, including but not limited to proprietary information and software tools and applications that, in the aggregate, are material to our business. No individual instance of intellectual property is material to the Company.

 

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Customers

 

Revenues from four customers of the Successor (NESR) individually accounted for 57%, 12%, 4% and 3% of the Successor’s (NESR’s) consolidated revenues in the year ended December 31, 2020, 45%, 16%, 8% and 6% of the Successor’s (NESR’s) consolidated revenues in the year ended December 31, 2019, 42%, 17%, 10% and 5% of the Successor’s (NESR’s) consolidated revenues in the period from June 7 to December 31, 2018, 49%, 0%, 16% and 9% of Predecessor’s (NPS’) consolidated revenues in the period from January 1 to June 6, 2018.

 

Competition

 

We provide products and services in the MENA region in highly competitive markets, with competitors comprised of both small and large companies. Our revenues and earnings can be affected by several factors, including changes in competition, fluctuations in drilling and completion activity, perceptions of future prices of oil and gas, government regulation, disruptions caused by weather and general economic conditions. We believe that the principal competitive factors are price, performance, product and service quality, safety, response time and breadth of products and services.

 

Material Effects of Governmental Regulations

 

Our business is significantly affected by country, regional, and local laws and other regulations. These laws and regulations relate to, among other things:

 

  worker safety standards;
     
  the protection of the environment and natural resources;
     
  the storage, handling, transportation, use and disposal of hazardous materials; and
     
  the mobilization of our equipment to, and operations conducted at, our work sites.

 

Numerous permits are required for the conduct of our business and operation of our various facilities and equipment. These permits can be revoked, modified or renewed by issuing authorities based on factors both within and outside our control.

 

We cannot predict the level of enforcement of existing laws and regulations or how such laws and regulations may be interpreted by enforcement agencies or court rulings in the future. We also cannot predict whether additional laws and regulations will be adopted, including changes in regulatory oversight, increase of federal, state or local taxes, increase of inspection costs, or the effect such changes may have on us, our businesses or our financial condition. However, failure to comply with laws, regulations, or permits may result in fines, the imposition of remedial obligations, or other penalties that have a material impact on our operations, including (in some instances) the revocation of necessary authorizations.

 

Environmental Regulation

 

In the countries where we operate, we are subject to environmental laws and regulations governing the discharge of materials into the environment or otherwise relating to environmental protection and occupational health and safety, including regulations related to greenhouse gas emissions and hydraulic fracturing. The trend in environmental regulation has been to place more restrictions and limitations on activities that may adversely affect the environment, and thus any changes in environmental laws and regulations or re-interpretation of enforcement policies that result in more stringent and costly regulatory requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business, liquidity position, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We may be unable to pass on such increased compliance costs to our customers. Where applicable we have obtained and maintain licenses to operate through the local ministry of environment or similar governmental authority. We have established and implemented an environmental health and safety management system based on ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001. In addition, we remain accountable to each customer or operator we service and ensure that full compliance is maintained based on each customer’s requirements. Although our operations are subject to a variety of regulations across multiple jurisdictions, a summary of the most pertinent regulations affecting our operations is provided below.

 

Air and Climate

 

Certain of our operations result in the emissions of regulated air pollutants, which may require permits in certain jurisdictions where we operate. Many countries impose limitations on air emissions and require adherence to certain maintenance, work practice, reporting, recordkeeping, and other requirements. Failure to obtain a permit or to comply with permit or other regulatory requirements could result in the imposition of sanctions, including administrative, civil and criminal penalties. In addition, we or our customers could be required to shut down or retrofit existing equipment, leading to additional capital or operating expenses and operational delays.

 

Additionally, the threat of climate change continues to attract considerable attention in the United States and foreign countries. Numerous proposals have been made and could continue to be made at multiple levels of government to monitor and limit existing emissions of greenhouse gases as well as to restrict or eliminate such future emissions. As a result, our operations as well as the operations of our oil and natural gas exploration and production customers are subject to a series of risks associated with the production and processing of fossil fuels and emission of greenhouse gases.

 

Multiple jurisdictions have adopted laws that require the monitoring, reporting, or reduction of emissions of certain greenhouse gases from the oil and gas sector. Additionally, several jurisdictions have adopted policies to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels, which may ultimately result in decreased demand for our services. Internationally, the United Nations-sponsored Paris Agreement requires member states to submit non-binding, individually-determined reduction goals every five years after 2020. Most of the jurisdictions where we operate have ratified the Paris Agreement and, as a result, developed emissions reduction goals, several of which focus on reducing the emissions from the oil and gas sector or promoting the use of renewable energy or energy efficiency technologies.

 

Litigation risks are also increasing, as various parties (including individuals, local governments, and environmental activists) have brought suit in a number of jurisdictions. Although novel legal theories continue to be developed, many of these suits are brought on one of the following themes: (1) governments have a duty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions within their jurisdiction; (2) oil and gas companies are liable for various asserted damages associated with the production of fuels that contributed to climate change; or (3) oil and gas companies have been aware of the adverse effects of climate change for some time but failed to adequately disclose those impacts to investors or consumers.

 

There are also increasing financial risks for fossil fuel companies. Shareholders may elect in the future to shift some or all of their investments into non-energy related sectors. Institutional lenders who provide financing to fossil fuel energy companies also have become more attentive to sustainable lending practices and some of them may elect not to provide funding for fossil fuel energy companies. There is also a risk that financial institutions will be required to adopt policies that have the effect of reducing the funding provided to the fossil fuel sector. Multiple financial regulators have adopted, or are considering adopting, climate stress-testing or disclosure requirements.

 

The adoption and implementation of new or more stringent legislation, regulations or other regulatory initiatives that impose more stringent standards for greenhouse gas emissions from the oil and natural gas sector or otherwise restrict the areas in which this sector may produce oil and natural gas or generate greenhouse gas emissions could result in increased costs of compliance or costs of consuming, and thereby reduce demand for, oil and natural gas, which could reduce demand for our services and products. Additionally, litigation and financial risks may result in our oil and natural gas customers restricting or cancelling production activities, incurring liability for infrastructure damages as a result of climatic changes, or impairing their ability to continue to operate in an economic manner, which also could reduce demand for our services and products.

 

Water

 

Most of the countries in which we operate have laws and regulations in place referencing water discharge particularly in the vicinity of inhabited areas or regulated waterways. Multiple jurisdictions also regulate the disposal of produced water associated with the hydraulic fracturing process. Restrictions and controls regarding the unauthorized discharge of pollutants, including produced waters and other oil and gas wastes, into regulated waters are in place but not always subject to formal assessments by the regulators. We are working to ensure that our facilities have adequate drainage, sumps, and appropriate sedimentation tanks where required. Integrity of primary and secondary containment systems, and ensure spill prevention controls and countermeasures plans are in place to minimize the impact of potential releases or spills.

 

Waste and Hazardous Materials

 

Our operations use and generate hazardous substances and wastes. Accordingly, we could become subject to material liabilities relating to the investigation and cleanup of potentially contaminated properties, and to claims alleging personal injury or property damage as the result of exposures to, or releases of, hazardous substances or wastes. Applicable laws may provide for “strict liability” for remediation costs, damages to natural resources or threats to public health and safety. Some environmental laws provide for joint and several liability for remediation of spills and releases of hazardous substances and wastes. Joint and several liability can render one party liable for all damages arising from a spill or release even if other parties also contributed to the spill or release.

 

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Health and Safety Regulation

 

We are subject to certain requirements that regulate the protection of health and safety. We are committed to providing a safe workplace. Our health and safety (HSE) standards are influenced by a combination of the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Act and the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers, a global forum whose members identify and share best practices to achieve improvements. Our HSE policy objectives include:

 

  identifying risks to health and safety and implementing measures to control risk to an acceptable level;
     
  periodically setting and publishing specific health and safety targets in consultation with employees and monitoring progress towards achieving such targets;
     
  providing appropriate financial and physical resources to implement our health and safety targets;
     
  recognizing that management of health and safety is a prime responsibility of line management;
     
  devoting sufficient resources to ensure environmentally friendly performance;
     
  encouraging full commitment of employees, by involving and consulting them on HSE matters;
     
  ensuring employees receive appropriate information and training;
     
  periodic reviewing and auditing our health and safety system to ensure its adequacy and effectiveness; and defining internal standards on HSE reporting, service quality reporting, injury and loss prevention, mechanical lifting, driving and journey management, hazard effects and management plan, environmental management, and audit and training.

 

We review and implement many practices to meet these objectives, but we cannot guarantee that we will implement every practice that we review or that these practices will fully achieve our stated objectives.

 

C. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

 

For a full listing of our significant subsidiaries as of December 31, 2020, see Exhibit 8.1 to this Annual Report.

 

D. PROPERTY, PLANT, & EQUIPMENT

 

Properties

 

We lease our headquarters in Houston, Texas. We own or lease many facilities in the various areas in which we operate throughout the world. No single tangible fixed asset is individually material to our operations.

 

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

 

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with Item 3A, “Selected Financial Data” and the accompanying consolidated financial statements and related notes included in Item 18, “Financial Statements” in this Annual Report.

 

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A. OPERATING RESULTS

 

Overview

 

We are a regional provider of services to the oil and gas industry in the MENA and Asia Pacific regions. We currently operate in over 15 countries, with a strong presence in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Iraq, Algeria, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Libya and Kuwait. Our company was founded with a vision of creating a regional provider for oilfield services that offers a full portfolio of solutions for our customers throughout the region with a strong focus on supporting the economies in which we operate. Environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) considerations are central to our company, and we believe that employing local staff and fully integrating with regional economies is a critical part of the social component of our ESG philosophy; in addition, we have found that promoting high local content in our operations optimizes our cost structure, enhancing our ability to generate free cash flow in various commodity price environments. With its vast reserves of oil and gas, the MENA region continues to dominate in its role as a vital source of global energy supply and stability. Our services include a broad suite of offerings that are essential in the drilling and completion of new oil and natural gas wells and in the remedial work on existing wells, both onshore and offshore, including completion services and equipment and drilling and evaluation services and equipment.

 

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Factors Affecting our Results of Operations

 

Global E&P Trends and Oil Prices

 

We provide oilfield services to exploration and production companies with operations in the onshore and offshore oil and gas sectors in the MENA region, particularly the Middle East, and Asia Pacific regions. Demand for our services is mainly driven by our customers’ operations and is therefore linked to global commodity prices and expectations about future prices, rig activity and other factors.

 

In December 2019, the emergence of a new strain of the COVID-19 was reported in China that subsequently spread across China, the MENA region, and the rest of the world, including the United States. As a result of the outbreak, travel restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders and similar measures taken by governments and companies have had a significant impact on global commerce and the price of oil. Since early March 2020, the global oil markets have experienced a precipitous decline in oil prices in response to concerns regarding the potential impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak on worldwide oil demand. On April 20, 2020, oil prices for May deliveries of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil turned negative as demand for oil collapsed despite OPEC countries and Russia agreeing to cut production. Prices have subsequently rallied on the strength of production cuts from most oil producing countries.

 

To date, the outbreak of COVID-19 and decrease in worldwide oil prices and demand have not significantly impacted our business operations and financial position. Occasional invoice processing delays for both accounts receivable and accounts payable have been mitigated by improved working capital management. The extent to which our future financial results are affected by COVID-19 will depend on factors and consequences beyond our control, such as the length and scope of the pandemic, the development, distribution, and administration of COVID-19 vaccines and the efficacy thereof, further actions taken by governments and the private sector in response to the pandemic, and the rate and effectiveness of responses to combat COVID-19. The risk factors identified elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F could be further aggravated by the conditions of the global economy originating from COVID-19. In addition, our operational results may also be materially adversely affected in a manner that is either not currently known or that we do not currently consider to be a significant risk.

 

Cyclical Nature of Sector

 

The oilfield services sector is a highly cyclical industry. As a result, our operating results can fluctuate from quarter to quarter and period to period. However, due to the lower average cost per barrel in the Middle East and the need for infrastructure spending to sustain or increase current production levels of these oil rich countries, we believe that we are less affected by oil price volatility as compared to oilfield services companies that operate in other regions, as discussed below.

 

Drilling Environments

 

Based on energy industry data, the bulk of oil production comes from onshore activity while offshore oil production currently provides an estimated 30% of all global oil supply. We provide services to exploration and production (“E&P”) companies with both onshore and offshore drilling operations. Offshore drilling generally provides higher margins to service providers due to greater complexity, logistical challenges and the need for innovative solutions.

 

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Geographic Concentration; Middle Eastern Operations

 

During 2020, 98% of our revenue came from the MENA region, particularly the Middle East. The Middle East has almost half of the world’s proven oil reserves and accounts for almost a third of oil production, according to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2020 (69th edition). Given the low break-even price of production, it is a key region for oilfield service companies. Most oil and gas fields in the Middle East are legacy fields on land or in shallow waters. These fields are largely engaged in development drilling activity, driven by the need for redevelopment, enhanced oil recovery via stimulation and the drilling of new production wells. Further, a number of gas fields scheduled to be developed in the near future will require oilfield services. As a result, our capital expenditure and related financing needs may increase materially in the future.

 

In addition, regional drilling operations may be impacted by local political and economic trends. Due to the concentration of our operations in the MENA region, and particularly the Middle East, our financial condition and results of operations may be impacted by geopolitical, political or economic instability affecting the countries in which we operate, including reduced production and drilling activities and disruptions from the COVID-19 outbreak, extended periods of low oil prices and decreased oil demand, armed conflict, imposition of economic sanctions, changes in governments and currency devaluations, among others.

 

Many MENA countries rely on the energy sector as the major source of national revenues. Even at lower oil and gas prices, such oil and gas dependent economies have continued to maintain significant production and drilling activities. Further, given that Middle East markets have among the lowest break-even prices of production, they can continue to produce profitably at significantly lower commodity prices.

 

Key Components of Revenues and Expenses

 

Revenues

 

We earn revenue from our broad suite of oilfield services, including coiled tubing, hydraulic fracturing, cementing, stimulation and pumping, well testing services, drilling services and rental, fishing and remediation, drilling and workover rigs, nitrogen services, wireline logging services, turbines drilling, directional drilling, filtration services and slickline services, among others. Revenues are recognized when performance obligations are satisfied in accordance with contractual terms, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for services rendered or rentals provided. A performance obligation arises under contracts with customers to render services or provide rentals and is the unit of account under Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The Company accounts for services rendered and rentals provided separately if they are distinct and the service or rental is separately identifiable from other items provided to a customer and if a customer can benefit from the services rendered or rentals provided on its own or with other resources that are readily available to the customer. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. A contract’s standalone selling prices are determined based on the prices that the Company charges for its services rendered and rentals provided. Most of the Company’s performance obligations are satisfied over time, which is generally represented by a period of 30 days or less. The Company’s payment terms vary by the type of products or services offered. The term between invoicing and when the payment is due is typically 30-60 days per contract.

 

Cost of services

 

Cost of services primarily includes staff costs for service personnel, purchase of non-capitalized material and equipment (such as tools and rental equipment), depreciation relating to capital assets used in our operations, vehicle and equipment rental and maintenance and repair.

 

Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expense

 

SG&A expense primarily includes salary and employee benefits for non-production personnel (primarily management and administrative personnel), professional service fees, office facilities and equipment, office supplies and non-capitalized office equipment and depreciation of office furniture and fixtures.

 

Amortization

 

Amortization expense primarily includes amortization of intangible assets associated with acquired customer contracts, trademarks and tradenames.

 

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Interest expense, net

 

Interest expense primarily consists of interest on outstanding debt, net of interest income.

 

Other income (expense), net

 

Other operating income (expenses) primarily consists of adjustments to contingent consideration liabilities recognized in business combination accounting, gain/loss on disposal of Property, plant and equipment, net, bank charges and foreign exchange gains and losses.

 

Key Performance Indicators

 

Historically, we have tracked two principal non-financial performance indicators that are important drivers of our results of operations: oil price and rig count. Oil price is important because the level of spending by E&P companies, our principal customers, is significantly influenced by anticipated future prices of oil, which is typically indicative of expected supply and demand. Changes in E&P spending, in turn, typically result in an increased or decreased demand for our services. Rig count, particularly in the regions in which we operate, is an indicator of the level of activity and spending by our E&P customers and has historically been an important indicator of our financial performance and activity levels. More recently, our customers in certain parts of the MENA region have increased their efforts to commercialize natural gas, particularly from unconventional formations. Over time, we anticipate that the market for natural gas will also become a key performance indicator for the Company.

 

The following table shows rig count (Source: Baker Hughes Published Rig Count Data) and oil prices as of the dates indicated:

 

    As of December 31,  
    2020     2019     2018  
                   
Rig count:                        
MENA     276       491       456  
Rest of World – outside of North America     389       613       569  
Total     665       1,104       1,025  
                         
Europe Brent Spot Price FOB (per barrel)   $ 51.22     $ 67.77     $ 50.57  

 

Basis of Presentation of Financial Information

 

Business Combination Accounting and Presentation of Results of Operations

 

As a result of the NPS/GES Business Combination, NESR was determined to be the accounting acquirer and NPS was determined to be the predecessor for SEC reporting purposes. Pursuant to Accounting Standard Codification (“ASC”) 805, Business Combinations (“ASC 805”), the acquisition-date fair value of the purchase consideration paid by NESR to affect the NPS/GES Business Combination was allocated to the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. As a result of the application of the acquisition method of accounting resulting from the NPS/GES Business Combination, the financial statements and certain notes to the financial statements included in Item 18, “Financial Statements” of this Annual Report separate our presentations into two distinct sets of reporting periods, the period before the date of consummation of the NPS/GES Business Combination (“Predecessor Period”) and the period after that date (“Successor Period”), to indicate the application of the different basis of accounting between the periods presented. The Predecessor Period reflects the historical financial information of NPS prior to the NPS/GES Business Combination, while the Successor Period reflects our consolidated financial information, including the results of NPS and GES, after the NPS/GES Business Combination. The successor period is from June 7, 2018 to December 31, 2018 (“2018 Successor Period”), January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019 (“2019 Successor Period”), and January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020 (“2020 Successor Period”), and the predecessor period is from January 1, 2018 to June 6, 2018 (“2018 Predecessor Period”). References to the “2018 periods” below refers to the aggregation of results from the 2018 Predecessor Period and 2018 Successor Period to enhance comparability with 2019 amounts.

 

35

 

 

Our statement of operations subsequent to the NPS/GES Business Combination includes depreciation and amortization expense on the NPS and GES property, plant, and equipment and intangible assets balances resulting from the fair value adjustments made under the new basis of accounting. Certain other items of income and expense, particularly depreciation and amortization were also impacted and NPS stand-alone results are presented as the Predecessor. Therefore, our financial information prior to the NPS/GES Business Combination is not comparable to our financial information subsequent to the NPS/GES Business Combination.

 

Segments

 

We operate our business and report our results of operations through two operating and reporting segments, Production Services and Drilling and Evaluation Services, which aggregate services performed during distinct stages of a typical life cycle of an oil well.

 

Production Services. Our Production Services segment includes the results of operations from services that are generally offered and performed during the production stage of a well’s lifecycle. These services mainly include hydraulic fracturing, cementing, coiled tubing, filtration, completions, stimulation, pumping and nitrogen services. Our Production Services accounted for 67%, 62%, 62%, and 82% of our revenues for the 2020 Successor Period, 2019 Successor Period, 2018 Successor Period, and 2018 Predecessor Period, respectively.

 

Drilling and Evaluation Services. Our Drilling and Evaluation Services segment includes the results of operations from services that are generally offered and performed during pre-production stages of a well’s lifecycle and related mainly to the operation of oil rigs. The services mainly include well testing services, drilling services and rental, fishing and remediation, drilling and workover rigs, wireline logging services, turbines drilling, directional drilling, slickline services and drilling fluids, among others. Our Drilling and Evaluation Services accounted for 33%, 38%, 38%, and 18% of our revenues for the 2020 Successor Period, 2019 Successor Period, 2018 Successor Period, 2018 Predecessor Period, respectively. Please see Item 4B, “Business Overview” in this Annual Report for a description of our reportable segments.

 

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Results of Operations

 

The discussions below relating to significant line items from our consolidated statements of operations are based on available information and represent our analysis of significant changes or events that impact the fluctuations in or comparability of reported amounts. Where appropriate, we have identified specific events and changes that affect comparability or trends. In addition, the discussions below for revenues are on an aggregate basis for each fiscal period, as the business drivers for all services are similar.

 

2020 compared to 2019

 

The following table presents our consolidated statement of operations data for the periods indicated:

 

   (In US$ thousands, except share data and per share amounts)
   Successor (NESR)
   Period from  Period from
   January 1  January 1
   to December 31,  to December 31,
Description  2020  2019
           
Revenues  $834,146   $658,385 
Cost of services   (678,720)   (506,799)
Gross profit   155,426    151,586 
Selling, general and administrative expense   (72,077)   (63,840)
Amortization   (15,817)   (15,932)
Operating income   67,532    71,814 
Interest expense, net   (15,879)   (18,971)
Other income / (expense), net   9,139    (408)
Income before income tax   60,792    52,435 
Income tax expense   (10,705)   (13,071)
Net income / (loss)   50,087    39,364 
Net income / (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests   -    - 
Net income attributable to shareholders  $50,087   $39,364 
           
Weighted average shares outstanding:          
Basic   88,845,618    86,997,554 
Diluted   88,990,657    86,997,554 
           
Net earnings per share:          
Basic  $0.56   $0.45 
Diluted  $0.56   $0.45 

 

Revenue. Revenue was $834.1 million for the 2020 Successor Period, compared to $658.4 million for the 2019 Successor Period.

 

The table below presents our revenue by segment for the periods indicated:

 

   (In US$ thousands, except share data and per share amounts) 
   Successor (NESR) 
   Period from   Period from 
   January 1   January 1 
   to December 31,   to December 31, 
Description  2020   2019 
         
Reportable Segment:          
Production Services  $556,121   $405,654 
Drilling and Evaluation Services   278,025    252,731 
Total Revenue  $

834,146

   $658,385 

 

Production Services revenue was $556.1 million for the 2020 Successor Period, compared to $405.7 million for the 2019 Successor Period. The increase in revenue was primarily due to increased hydraulic fracturing activities in Saudi Arabia.

 

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Drilling and Evaluation Services revenue was $278 million for the 2020 Successor Period, compared to $252.7 million for the 2019 Successor Period. The increase in revenue was primarily due to additional activity in Saudi Arabia.

 

Cost of services. Cost of services was $678.7 million for the 2020 Successor Period, compared to $506.8 million for the 2019 Successor Period. The increase in cost of services was primarily due to increased hydraulic fracturing activities in Saudi Arabia. Cost of services as a percentage of total revenue was 81% and 77% for the 2020 Successor Period and the 2019 Successor Period, respectively. The change in cost of services as a percentage of total revenue is mainly due to a change in revenue mix between business lines with lower and higher margins. Cost of services included depreciation expense of $105.0 million and $72.2 million for the 2020 Successor Period and the 2019 Successor Period, respectively. Depreciation expense has increased due to additional capital expenditures throughout 2020.

 

Gross profit. Gross profit as a percentage of total revenue was 19% and 23% for the 2020 Successor Period, and the 2019 Successor Period, respectively. The reason for the change is described under “Revenue” and “Cost of services.”

 

SG&A expense. SG&A expense, which represents costs associated with managing and supporting our operations, was $72.1 million for the 2020 Successor Period, compared to $63.8 million for the 2019 Successor Period. SG&A as a percentage of total revenue was 9% and 10% for the 2020 Successor Period and the 2019 Successor Period, respectively. The decrease in SG&A expense as a percentage of total revenue from 2019 to 2020 is primarily due to an increase in activity without a corresponding increase in costs associated with managing and supporting our operations.

 

Amortization expense. Amortization expense was $15.8 million for the 2020 Successor Period, compared to $15.9 million for the 2019 Successor Period. Amortization expense is driven mainly by acquired intangible assets resulting from the acquisitions of GES and NPS in 2018 and to a lesser extent, intangible assets acquired in the acquisition of SAPESCO during the second quarter of 2020.

 

Interest expense, net. Interest expense, net, was $15.9 million for the 2020 Successor Period, compared to $19.0 million for the 2019 Successor Period. The decrease in interest expense during the 2020 Successor Period as compared to the 2019 Successor Period, is mainly attributable to lower interest rates obtained in the May 2019 refinancing of our credit facilities.

 

Other (expense) income, net. Other (expense) income, net, was $9.1 million for the 2020 Successor Period, compared to ($0.4) million for the 2019 Successor Period. The difference between periods is primarily due to a gain recognized on the difference between the value of SAPESCO contingent consideration on the acquisition date as compared to expected settlement value as of the reporting date. See note 4. Business Combinations.

 

Income tax expense (benefit). Income tax expense (benefit) was $10.7 million for the 2020 Successor Period, compared to $13.1 million for the 2019 Successor Period. The decrease in the effective tax rate from 2019 to 2020 is primarily the result of the non-taxable gain recognized on SAPESCO contingent consideration. See Note 17, Income Taxes, to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18, “Financial Statements” of this Annual Report.

 

Net income. As a result of the foregoing, net income was $50.1 million for the 2020 Successor Period, compared to $39.4 million for the 2019 Successor Period.

 

Supplemental Segment Operating Income Discussion

 

During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company modified its segment reporting disclosure to present segment operating income. All periods presented have been restated to reflect the change. The change better aligns the Company’s disclosure with the U.S. GAAP measure of profit used by the Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”) in making decisions about allocating resources and assessing performance. Segment operating income does not include general corporate expenses, such as corporate overhead (costs incurred at the Company’s global and regional headquarter locations), share-based compensation, and transaction and integration costs, as these expenses are not allocated to the Company’s reportable segments and not reported to the Company’s CODM. See Note 19, Reportable Segments, to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18, “Financial Statements” of this Annual Report.

 

   (In US$ thousands, except share data and per share amounts) 
   Successor (NESR) 
  Period from   Period from 
   January 1   January 1 
   to December 31,   to December 31, 
Description  2020   2019 
         
Reportable Segment:          
Production Services  $

74,472

   $

79,571

 
Drilling and Evaluation Services   

32,391

    

29,031

 

 

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Production Services segment operating income was $74.4 million for the 2020 Successor Period, compared to $79.6 million for the 2019 Successor Period. The change in segment operating income was largely attributable to higher depreciation expense.

 

Drilling and Evaluation segment operating income was $32.4 million for the 2020 Successor Period, compared to $29.0 million for the 2019 Successor Period. The change in segment operating income was largely attributable to higher revenue period-over-period.

 

2019 Compared to 2018

 

The following table presents our consolidated statement of operations data for the periods indicated:

 

   (In US$ thousands, except share data and per share amounts) 
   Successor (NESR)     Predecessor (NPS) 
Description 

Period from

January 1

to December 31,

2019

  

Period from

June 7

to December 31,

2018

    

Period from

January 1

to June 6,

2018

 
               
Revenues  $658,385   $348,590     $137,027 
Cost of services   (506,799)   (249,159)     (104,242)
Gross profit   151,586    99,431      32,785 
Selling, general and administrative expense   (63,840)   (36,705)     (19,969)
Amortization   (15,932)   (9,373)     (10)
Operating income   71,814    53,353      12,806 
Interest expense, net   (18,971)   (14,383)     (4,090)
Other income / (expense), net   (408)   5,441      362 
Income before income tax   52,435    44,411      9,078 
Income tax expense   (13,071)   (9,431)     (2,342)
Net income / (loss)   39,364    34,980      6,736 
Net income / (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests   -    (163)     (881)
Net income attributable to shareholders  $39,364   $35,143     $7,617 
                  
Weighted average shares outstanding:                 
Basic   86,997,554    85,569,020      348,524,566 
Diluted   86,997,554    86,862,983      370,000,000 
                  
Net earnings per share:                 
Basic  $0.45   $0.41     $0.02 
Diluted  $0.45   $0.40     $0.02 

 

Revenue. Revenue was $658.4 million for the 2019 Successor Period compared to $137.0 million for the 2018 Predecessor Period and $348.6 million for the 2018 Successor Period, or $485.6 million in total for the 2018 periods.

 

The table below presents our revenue by segment for the periods indicated:

 

   (In US$ thousands, except share data and per share amounts) 
   Successor (NESR)     Predecessor (NPS) 
Description 

Period from

January 1

to December 31,

2019

  

Period from

June 7

to December 31,

2018

    

Period from

January 1

to June 6,

2018

 
Reportable Segment:                 
Production Services  $405,654   $215,791     $112,295 
Drilling and Evaluation Services   252,731    132,799      24,732 
Total revenue  $658,385   $348,590     $137,027 

 

Production Services revenue was $405.7 million for the 2019 Successor Period compared to $215.8 million for the 2018 Successor Period and $112.3 million for the 2018 Predecessor Period, or $328.1 million in total for the 2018 periods. The increase in revenue was primarily due to higher coil tubing and stimulation activities in Saudi Arabia, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates.

 

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Drilling and Evaluation Services revenue was $252.7 million for the 2019 Successor Period compared to $132.8 million for the 2018 Successor Period and $24.7 million for the 2018 Predecessor Period, or $157.5 million in total for the 2018 periods. The increase in revenue was primarily due to higher well testing, logging and drilling services activities in Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Algeria.

 

Cost of services. Cost of services was $506.8 million for the 2019 Successor Period compared to $249.2 million for the 2018 Successor Period and $104.2 million for the 2018 Predecessor Period, or $353.4 million in total for the 2018 periods. Cost of services as a percentage of total revenue was 77%, 71% and 76%, for the 2019 Successor Period, 2018 Successor Period, and 2018 Predecessor Period, respectively. The change in cost of services as a percentage of total revenue is mainly due to a change in revenue mix between business lines with lower and higher margins and new contract startup costs. Cost of services included depreciation expense of $72.2 million, $33.0 million, and $17.3 million, in the 2019 Successor Period, 2018 Successor Period, and 2018 Predecessor Period, respectively. Depreciation expense during the Successor Period has increased due to additional capital expenditures throughout the Successor Period, especially as compared to the Predecessor Period.

 

Gross profit. Gross profit as a percentage of total revenue in the 2019 Successor Period, the 2018 Successor Period and the 2018 Predecessor Period was 23%, 29% and 24%, respectively. The reason for the change is described above.

 

Selling, general and administrative expense. SG&A expense, which represents costs associated with managing and supporting our operations, was $63.8 million for the 2019 Successor Period compared to $36.7 million for the 2018 Successor Period and $20.0 million for the 2018 Predecessor Period, or $56.7 million in total for the 2018 periods. SG&A as a percentage of total revenue was 10%, 11% and 15%, for the 2019 Successor Period, 2018 Successor Period, and 2018 Predecessor Period, respectively. The reduction of expenses as percentage of revenue for the 2019 Successor Period is primarily due to integration cost savings realized following the NPS/GES Business Combination, along with revenue growth.

 

Amortization expense. Amortization expense was $15.9 million for the 2019 Successor Period compared to $10 thousand for the 2018 Predecessor Period and $9.4 million for the 2018 Successor Period, or $9.4 million in total for the 2018 periods. The increase in the Successor Period amortization was driven mainly by acquired intangible assets resulting from the NPS/GES Business Combination.

 

Interest expense, net. Interest expense, net, was $19.0 million for the 2019 Successor Period compared to $14.4 million for the 2018 Predecessor Period and $4.1 million for the 2018 Successor Period, or $18.5 million in total for the 2018 periods. The increase in interest expense during the 2019 Successor Period as compared to the 2018 periods is mainly attributable to the impact of the loan arrangement fees write-off of the prior credit facilities following the May 2019 refinancing of our credit facilities as well as the incremental impact of including GES throughout the 2019 Successor Period, as compared to only post-acquisition in the 2018 periods, offset by lower interest rates obtained in the May 2019 refinancing of our credit facilities.

 

Other (expense) income, net. Other (expense) income, net, was ($0.4) million for the 2019 Successor Period compared to $5.4 million for the 2018 Predecessor Period and $0.4 million for the 2018 Successor Period, or $5.8 million in total for the 2018 periods. Differences between periods were mainly attributed to a one-time gain during the 2018 Successor Period related to the settlement of a contingent liability for the NPS earn-out.

 

Income tax expense (benefit). Income tax expense (benefit) was $13.1 million for the 2019 Successor Period compared to $2.3 million for the 2018 Predecessor Period and $9.4 million for the 2018 Successor Period, or $11.8 million in total for the 2018 periods. The increase in the effective tax rate from 2018 to 2019 is primarily the result of higher qualifying and start-up costs in 2019 that did not benefit the rate. See Note 17, Income Taxes, to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18, “Financial Statements” of this Annual Report.

 

Net income. As a result of the foregoing, net income was $39.4 million for the 2019 Successor Period compared to $6.7 million for the 2018 Predecessor Period and $35.0 million for the 2018 Successor Period, or $41.7 million in total for the 2018 periods.

 

Supplemental Segment Operating Income Discussion

 

    (In US$ thousands, except share data and per share amounts)  
    Successor (NESR)       Predecessor (NPS)  
Description  

Period from

January 1

to December 31,

2019

   

Period from

June 7

to December 31,

2018

     

Period from

January 1

to June 6,

2018

 
Reportable Segment:                          
Production Services   $ 79,571     $ 59,007       $ 25,459  
Drilling and Evaluation Services     29,031      

24,931

        893  

 

Production Services segment operating income was $79.6 million for the 2019 Successor Period compared to $59.0 million for the 2018 Successor Period and $25.5 million for the 2018 Predecessor Period, or $84.5 million in total for the 2018 periods. The change in segment operating income was due primarily to product mix.

 

Drilling and Evaluation Services segment operating income was $29.0 million for the 2019 Successor Period compared to $24.9 million for the 2018 Successor Period and $0.9 million for the 2018 Predecessor Period, or $25.8 million in total for the 2018 periods. The increase in segment operating income was driven by strong well testing activities in Saudi and Iraq.

 

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

We have defined a critical accounting estimate as one that is both important to the portrayal of either our financial condition or results of operations and requires us to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments or estimates about matters that are uncertain. We believe that the following are the critical accounting estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. There are other items within our consolidated financial statements that require estimation and judgment, but they are not deemed critical as defined above. This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this Annual Report.

 

Goodwill

 

Goodwill is the excess cost of an acquired entity over the amounts assigned to assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. The goodwill relating to each reporting unit is tested for impairment annually as well as when an event, or change in circumstances, indicates an impairment may have occurred.

 

Goodwill is evaluated for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently if circumstances require. We perform our goodwill impairment assessment for each reporting unit, which is the same as our reportable segments, Production Services and Drilling and Evaluation Services. We perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of the applicable reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If we determine, as a result of its qualitative assessment, that it is not more-likely-than-not that the fair value of the applicable reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, no further testing is required. If we determine, as a result of its qualitative assessment, that it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of the applicable reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, a goodwill impairment assessment is performed using a two-step, fair value-based test. Under the first step, goodwill is reviewed for impairment by comparing the carrying value of the reporting unit’s net assets (including allocated goodwill) to the fair value of the reporting unit. The fair value of the reporting units is determined using a discounted cash flow approach based on management’s short-term and long-term forecast of operating performance and a market multiples-based approach using published information for comparable companies. Equal weights were applied to each of the valuation methods in determining the fair value of the reporting units as the Company judged the discounted cash flow and market multiples-based approaches to be equally representative of the reporting units’ fair value.

 

Determining the fair value of a reporting unit requires judgment and the use of significant estimates and assumptions. Such estimates and assumptions include revenue growth rates, discount rates operating margins, forecasted capital expenditures, weighted average costs of capital, market share and future market conditions, among others. If the reporting unit’s carrying value is greater than its fair value, a second step is performed whereby the implied fair value of goodwill is estimated by allocating the fair value of the reporting unit in a hypothetical purchase price allocation analysis. If the amount of goodwill resulting from this hypothetical purchase price allocation is less than the carrying value of the reporting unit’s goodwill, the recorded carrying value of goodwill is written down to the implied fair value.

 

The Company estimated that the aggregate fair value of its two reporting units as of October 1, 2020, its most recent annual goodwill impairment test date, was $1.4 billion. The Company’s market capitalization as of October 1, 2020 was $544.2 million based on an October 1, 2020 share price of $6.20 and 87,777,553 common shares outstanding. It is the Company’s opinion that the share price was not representative of the implied fair value as of October 1, 2020 due to control premium, the Company’s strong operational performance in comparison to the prevailing trends in oil prices and the financial performance of industry peers, and non-public information of which management is privy but is not reflected in the share price. In determining the control premium, management has considered current and historical industry transactions prior to valuation.

 

Intangible assets

 

Our intangible assets with finite lives consist of customer contracts and trademarks and trade names primarily acquired in connection with the NPS/GES Business Combination. The cost of intangible assets with finite lives is amortized over the estimated period of economic benefit, ranging from eight to 10 years. Asset lives are adjusted whenever there is a change in the estimated period of economic benefit. No residual value has been assigned to these intangible assets.

 

Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. These conditions may include a change in the extent or manner in which the asset is being used or a change in future operations. We assess the recoverability of the carrying amount by preparing estimates of future revenue, margins, and cash flows. In reviewing for impairment, the carrying value of such assets is compared to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected from the use of the assets and their eventual disposition. If such cash flows are not sufficient to support the asset’s recorded value, an impairment charge is recognized to reduce the carrying value of the asset to its estimated fair value. The determination of future cash flows as well as the estimated fair value of assets involves significant estimates on the part of management. If there is a material change in economic conditions or other circumstances influencing the estimate of future cash flows or fair value, we could be required to recognize impairment charges in the future. Fair value of these assets may be determined by a variety of methodologies, including discounted cash flow models.

 

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Revenue recognition

 

Effective December 31, 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”). The Company adopted this ASU using the modified retrospective adoption method. There was no impact on the consolidated financial statements, no cumulative effect adjustment was recognized, and no contract assets or liabilities were recorded.

 

The Company recognizes revenue from contracts with customers upon transfer of control of promised services to customers at an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to receive in exchange of services. We typically receive “callouts” from our customers for specific services at specific customer locations, typically initiated by the receipt of a purchase/service order or similar document from the customer. Customer callouts request that the Company provide a “suite of services” to fulfill the service order, encompassing personnel, use of Company equipment, and supplies required to perform the work. Rates for these services are defined in the Company’s contracts with customers. The term between invoicing and when the payment is due is typically 30-60 days.

 

Revenue is recognized for each performance obligation when the customer obtains control of the service the Company is providing. For most services, control is obtained over time as (1) the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Company’s performance as Company employees perform and (2) the Company’s performance creates or enhances an asset that the customer controls. Revenue is recorded based on daily drilling logs, recognized at the standalone selling price of the services provided as reduced proportionately for management’s estimate of volume or early pay discount where applicable. Amounts collected on behalf of third parties in conjunction with revenue, such as taxes, are generally presented gross as the Company is typically the principal in each taxing jurisdiction.

 

Costs of obtaining a customer contract that are incremental and expected to be recovered are recognized as an asset. Costs are subsequently amortized over the term of the contract or less if circumstances indicate that a shorter deferral period better matches these costs with the revenue they generate.

 

Income taxes

 

Income tax expense represents the sum of current tax and deferred tax. Interest and penalties relating to income tax are also included in the income tax expense. Income tax is recognized in the statements of operations, except to the extent that it relates to items recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case the related tax is recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity. Current tax is based on the taxable profit for the period. Taxable profit differs from net profit as reported in the statements of operations because it is determined in accordance with the rules established by the applicable taxation authorities. It therefore excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other periods as well as items that are never taxable or deductible. Our liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

 

Deferred tax is provided, using the liability method, on temporary differences at the balance sheet date between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes. Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences except:

 

  where the deferred tax liability arises on the initial recognition of goodwill;
     
  where the deferred tax liability arises on the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a Business Combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss; and
     
  In respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and associates and interests in joint arrangements, where we are able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

 

Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences, carry-forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses, to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and the carry-forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized except where the deferred tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss. In respect of deductible temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and associates and interests in joint arrangements, deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that it is probable that the temporary differences will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilized.

 

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each balance sheet date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilized.

 

The computation of our income tax expense and liability involves the interpretation of applicable tax laws and regulations in many jurisdictions throughout the world. The resolution of tax positions taken by us, through negotiations with relevant tax authorities or through litigation, can take several years to complete and in some cases it is difficult to predict the ultimate outcome. Therefore, judgment is required to determine provisions for income taxes. In addition, we have carry-forward tax losses and tax credits in certain taxing jurisdictions that are available to offset against future taxable profit. However, deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses or tax credits can be utilized. Management judgment is exercised in assessing whether this is the case and estimates are required to be made of the amount of future taxable profits that will be available.

 

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Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

 

Please refer to Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18, “Financial Statements” of this Annual Report for a discussion of recent accounting pronouncements and their anticipated impact.

 

B. LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

 

Our objective in financing our business is to maintain sufficient liquidity, adequate financial resources and financial flexibility to fund the requirements of our business. We had cash and cash equivalents of $75.0 million as of December 31, 2020 and $73.2 million as of December 31, 2019. Our outstanding borrowings were $398.5 million as of December 31, 2020 and $383.5 million as of December 31, 2019. Current available borrowing capacity totaled $29.1 million as of December 31, 2020. We believe that our cash on hand, cash flows generated from operations, and liquidity available through our credit facilities, including recently drawn facilities, will provide sufficient liquidity to manage our global cash needs. See “Capital Resources” below.

 

Cash Flows

 

    (In US$ thousands, except share data and per share amounts)  
    Successor (NESR)       Predecessor (NPS)  
    Period from     Period from     Period from