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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
_________________________________
FORM 10-Q
_________________________________
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from          to            
Commission File Number: 001-38347
__________________________________________________________________
Nine Energy Service, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
__________________________________________________________________
Delaware80-0759121
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
2001 Kirby Drive, Suite 200
Houston, TX 77019
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(281) 730-5100
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareNINENew York Stock Exchange
      
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
   Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes    No  x
The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding at November 2, 2023 was 35,324,861.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  
   
   
   
   
   
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   




CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements that are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. All statements other than statements of historical fact, including those regarding our strategy, future operations, financial position, our ability to continue as a going concern, estimated revenues and losses, projected costs, prospects, plans, and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. When used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the words “could,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “expect,” “may,” “continue,” “predict,” “potential,” “project,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain such identifying words.
All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q; we disclaim any obligation to update these statements unless required by law, and we caution you not to place undue reliance on them. Although we believe that our plans, intentions, and expectations reflected in or suggested by the forward-looking statements we make in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are reasonable, we can give no assurance that these plans, intentions, or expectations will be achieved.
We disclose important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from our expectations under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part I in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022. These factors, some of which are beyond our control, include the following:
Our business is cyclical and depends on capital spending and well completions by the onshore oil and natural gas industry, and the level of such activity is volatile and strongly influenced by current and expected oil and natural gas prices. If the prices of oil and natural gas decline, our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and prospects may be materially and adversely affected. Significant factors that are likely to affect near-term commodity prices include actions by the members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) and other oil exporting nations; U.S. energy, monetary, and trade policies; the pace of economic growth in the U.S. and throughout the world; and geopolitical and economic developments in the U.S. and globally, including conflicts, instability, acts of war, and terrorism, particularly in Russia, Ukraine, and the Middle East.
Inflation may adversely affect our financial position and operating results; in particular, cost inflation with labor or materials could offset any price increases for our products and services.
If we are unable to attract and retain key employees, technical personnel, and other skilled and qualified workers, our business, financial condition, or results of operations could suffer.
We may be unable to maintain existing prices or implement price increases on our products and services, and intense competition in the markets for our dissolvable plug products may lead to pricing pressures, reduced sales, or reduced market share.
Our substantial debt obligations could have significant adverse consequences on our business and future prospects, and restrictions in our debt agreements could limit our growth and our ability to engage in certain activities.
Our current and potential competitors may have longer operating histories, significantly greater financial or technical resources, and greater name recognition than we do.
Our operations are subject to conditions inherent in the oilfield services industry, such as equipment defects, liabilities arising from accidents or damage involving our fleet of trucks or other equipment, explosions and uncontrollable flows of gas or well fluids, and loss of well control.
If we are unable to accurately predict customer demand, including that of our international customers, or if customers cancel their orders on short notice, we may hold excess or obsolete inventory, which would reduce gross margins. Conversely, insufficient inventory would result in lost revenue opportunities and potentially loss of market share and damaged customer relationships.
We are dependent on customers in a single industry. The loss of one or more significant customers, including certain of our customers outside of the U.S., could adversely affect our financial condition, prospects, and results of operations. Sales to customers outside of the U.S. also exposes us to risks inherent in doing business internationally, including political, social, and economic instability and disruptions, export controls, economic sanctions, embargoes or trade restrictions, and fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
We may be subject to claims for personal injury and property damage or other litigation, which could materially adversely affect our financial condition, prospects, and results of operations.



We are subject to federal, state, and local laws and regulations regarding issues of health, safety, and protection of the environment. Under these laws and regulations, we may become liable for penalties, damages, or costs of remediation or other corrective measures. Any changes in laws or government regulations could increase our costs of doing business.
Our success may be affected by the use and protection of our proprietary technology as well as our ability to enter into license agreements. There are limitations to our intellectual property rights and, thus, our right to exclude others from the use of our proprietary technology.
Our success may be affected by our ability to implement new technologies and services.
If our systems for protecting against cyber security risks prove not to be sufficient, we could be adversely affected by, among other things, loss or damage of intellectual property, proprietary information, customer or business data; interruption of business operations; or additional costs to prevent, respond to, or mitigate cyber security attacks.
Our future financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted by asset impairment charges.
Increased attention to climate change and conservation measures may reduce oil and natural gas demand, and we face various risks associated with increased activism and related litigation against oil and natural gas exploration and development activities.
Seasonal and adverse weather conditions adversely affect demand for our products and services.
Additional risks or uncertainties that are not currently known to us, that we currently deem to be immaterial, or that could apply to any company could also materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, or future results.
These cautionary statements qualify all forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf.



PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
NINE ENERGY SERVICE, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
 September 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Assets  
Current assets  
Cash and cash equivalents$12,159 $17,445 
Accounts receivable, net85,103 105,277 
Income taxes receivable897 741 
Inventories, net58,663 62,045 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets5,718 11,217 
Total current assets162,540 196,725 
Property and equipment, net83,979 89,717 
Operating lease right of use assets, net43,299 36,336 
Finance lease right of use assets, net60 547 
Intangible assets, net93,258 101,945 
Other long-term assets3,708 1,564 
Total assets$386,844 $426,834 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
Current liabilities
Accounts payable$22,897 $42,211 
Accrued expenses24,862 28,391 
Current portion of long-term debt 2,267 
Current portion of operating lease obligations10,340 7,956 
Current portion of finance lease obligations37 178 
Total current liabilities58,136 81,003 
Long-term liabilities
Long-term debt319,006 338,031 
Long-term operating lease obligations33,854 29,370 
Other long-term liabilities1,964 1,937 
Total liabilities412,960 450,341 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 10)
Stockholders’ equity (deficit)
Common stock (120,000,000 shares authorized at $0.01 par value; 35,345,494 and 33,221,266 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively)
353 332 
Additional paid-in capital794,528 775,006 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(5,072)(4,828)
Accumulated deficit(815,925)(794,017)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)(26,116)(23,507)
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity (deficit)$386,844 $426,834 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
1


NINE ENERGY SERVICE, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2023202220232022
Revenues
Service$108,058 $126,634 $356,254 $324,075 
Product32,559 40,798 109,199 102,638 
140,617 167,432 465,453 426,713 
Cost and expenses
Cost of revenues (exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown separately below)
Service91,131 92,920 287,928 252,812 
Product26,545 30,498 84,308 77,665 
General and administrative expenses13,060 13,475 47,007 37,766 
Depreciation7,285 6,593 22,138 19,608 
Amortization of intangibles2,895 2,896 8,687 10,568 
Loss on revaluation of contingent liability493 46 412 237 
(Gain) loss on sale of property and equipment21 1,242 (407)795 
Income (loss) from operations(813)19,762 15,380 27,262 
Interest expense12,858 8,125 38,306 24,335 
Interest income(462)(134)(946)(171)
Gain on extinguishment of debt (2,843) (2,843)
Other income(162)(161)(486)(547)
Income (loss) before income taxes(13,047)14,775 (21,494)6,488 
Provision for income taxes215 489 414 79 
Net income (loss)$(13,262)$14,286 $(21,908)$6,409 
Earnings (loss) per share
Basic$(0.39)$0.46 $(0.66)$0.21 
Diluted$(0.39)$0.45 $(0.66)$0.20 
Weighted average shares outstanding
Basic33,659,386 31,100,712 33,090,792 30,810,648 
Diluted33,659,386 31,932,613 33,090,792 31,750,425 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of $0 tax in each period
$(22)$(225)$(244)$(391)
Total other comprehensive loss, net of tax(22)(225)(244)(391)
Total comprehensive income (loss)$(13,284)$14,061 $(22,152)$6,018 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
2


NINE ENERGY SERVICE, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
(In thousands, except share amounts)
(Unaudited)
Common StockAdditional
Paid-in Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Retained
Earnings
(Accumulated Deficit)
Total
Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
SharesAmounts
Balance, June 30, 202335,375,614 $354 $793,947 $(5,050)$(802,663)$(13,412)
Issuance of common stock under stock compensation plan, net of forfeitures(30,120)(1)1 — —  
Stock-based compensation expense— — 580 — — 580 
Vesting of restricted stock and stock units— — — — — — 
Other comprehensive loss— — (22)— (22)
Net loss— — — (13,262)(13,262)
Balance, September 30, 202335,345,494 $353 $794,528 $(5,072)$(815,925)$(26,116)

Common StockAdditional
Paid-in Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Retained
Earnings
(Accumulated Deficit)
Total
Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
SharesAmounts
Balance, June 30, 202233,369,148 $334 $774,335 $(4,701)$(816,287)$(46,319)
Issuance of common stock under stock compensation plan, net of forfeitures(13,174)— — — — — 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 521 — — 521 
Vesting of restricted stock and stock units(122,868)(2)(346)— — (348)
Other comprehensive loss— — (225)— (225)
Net income— — — 14,286 14,286 
Balance, September 30, 202233,233,106 $332 $774,510 $(4,926)$(802,001)$(32,085)

Common StockAdditional
Paid-in Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Retained
Earnings
(Accumulated Deficit)
Total
Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
SharesAmounts
Balance, December 31, 202233,221,266 $332 $775,006 $(4,828)$(794,017)$(23,507)
Issuance of common stock associated with the 2028 Units offering1,500,000 15 17,939 — — 17,954 
Issuance of common stock under stock compensation plan, net of forfeitures623,711 6 (6)— —  
Stock-based compensation expense— — 1,591 — — 1,591 
Vesting of restricted stock and stock units517 — (2)— — (2)
Other comprehensive loss— — (244)— (244)
Net loss— — — (21,908)(21,908)
Balance, September 30, 202335,345,494 $353 $794,528 $(5,072)$(815,925)$(26,116)

Common StockAdditional
Paid-in Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Retained
Earnings
(Accumulated Deficit)
Total
Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
SharesAmounts
Balance, December 31, 202132,826,325 $328 $773,350 $(4,535)$(808,410)$(39,267)
Issuance of common stock under stock compensation plan, net of forfeitures634,924 7 (7)— —  
Stock-based compensation expense— — 1,943 — — 1,943 
Vesting of restricted stock and stock units(228,143)(3)(776)— — (779)
Other comprehensive loss— — (391)— (391)
Net income— — — 6,409 6,409 
Balance, September 30, 202233,233,106 $332 $774,510 $(4,926)$(802,001)$(32,085)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
3


NINE ENERGY SERVICE, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20232022
Cash flows from operating activities  
Net income (loss)$(21,908)$6,409 
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by operating activities
Depreciation22,138 19,608 
Amortization of intangibles8,687 10,568 
Amortization of operating leases9,070 6,268 
Amortization of deferred financing costs5,685 1,919 
Provision for (recovery of) doubtful accounts333 (172)
Provision for inventory obsolescence1,965 2,566 
Stock-based compensation expense1,591 1,943 
Gain on extinguishment of debt (2,843)
(Gain) loss on sale of property and equipment(407)795 
Loss on revaluation of contingent liability412 237 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities
Accounts receivable, net19,841 (39,751)
Inventories, net1,278 (13,543)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets4,798 1,537 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses(23,044)18,825 
Income taxes receivable/payable(153)212 
Other assets and liabilities(9,101)(6,347)
Net cash provided by operating activities21,185 8,231 
Cash flows from investing activities
Proceeds from sales of property and equipment530 2,939 
Proceeds from property and equipment casualty losses840 175 
Purchases of property and equipment(16,085)(9,361)
Net cash used in investing activities(14,715)(6,247)
Cash flows from financing activities
Proceeds from ABL Credit Facility40,000 12,000 
Payments on ABL Credit Facility(15,000) 
Proceeds from Units offering, net of discount279,750  
Redemption of 2023 Notes(307,339) 
Purchases of 2023 Notes (10,081)
Payments of short-term debt(2,267)(968)
Cost of debt issuance(6,290) 
Payments on Magnum Promissory Notes (844)
Payments on finance leases(197)(999)
Payments of contingent liability(251)(135)
Vesting of restricted stock and stock units(2)(779)
Net cash used in financing activities(11,596)(1,806)
Impact of foreign currency exchange on cash(160)(197)
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents(5,286)(19)
Cash and cash equivalents
4


Cash and cash equivalents beginning of period$17,445 $21,509 
Cash and cash equivalents end of period$12,159 $21,490 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
Cash paid for interest$30,188 $15,597 
Cash paid (refunded) for income taxes$560 $(110)
Cash paid for operating leases$8,934 $6,340 
Right of use assets obtained in exchange for operating lease obligations$14,364 $6,002 
Supplemental schedule of non-cash investing and financing activities:
Right of use assets obtained in exchange for finance lease obligations$56 $308 
Capital expenditures in accounts payable and accrued expenses$3,507 $1,192 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
5


NINE ENERGY SERVICE, INC.
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited)
1. Company and Organization
Background
Nine Energy Service, Inc. (the “Company” or “Nine”), a Delaware corporation, is an oilfield services business that provides services integral to the completion of unconventional wells through a full range of tools and methodologies. The Company is headquartered in Houston, Texas.
The Company’s chief operating decision maker, which is its Chief Executive Officer, and its board of directors allocate resources and assess performance based on financial information presented at a consolidated level. Accordingly, the Company determined that it operates as one reportable segment, known as Completion Solutions.
Risks and Uncertainties
The Company’s business depends, to a significant extent, on the level of unconventional resource development activity and corresponding capital spending of oil and natural gas companies. These activity and spending levels are strongly influenced by current and expected oil and natural gas prices. Following an extreme decline in activity levels and pricing in 2020, the Company has been focused on strategically implementing price increases and gaining market share. In 2022, oil and natural gas prices improved, and activity levels increased, compared to 2021, resulting in higher demand for the Company’s products and services, and the Company implemented price increases in most service lines. Throughout the first nine months of 2023, commodity prices have been lower compared to 2022, resulting in the rig count declining by over 150 rigs since the end of 2022. Going forward, the Company’s earnings will be affected by its customers’ activity plans (which are strongly influenced by commodity prices), the Company’s ability to maintain current pricing levels, the impact of wage and labor inflation, and labor shortage and supply chain constraints.
2. Basis of Presentation
Condensed Consolidated Financial Information
In the opinion of the Company, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments, consisting of only normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair statement of its financial position as of September 30, 2023, and its results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, and cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022. These condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), in a manner consistent with the accounting policies described in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, unless otherwise disclosed herein, and should be read in conjunction therewith. The Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 31, 2022 was derived from audited financial statements but does not include all disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Operating results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year.
Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Nine and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. These estimates are based on management’s best knowledge of current events and actions that the Company may undertake in the future. Such estimates include fair value assumptions used in analyzing long-lived assets for possible impairment, useful lives used in depreciation and amortization expense, recognition of provisions for contingencies, and stock-based compensation fair value. It is at least reasonably possible that the estimates used will change within the next year.
6


3. New Accounting Standards
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. ASU 2016-13 requires a financial asset (or a group of financial assets) measured at amortized cost basis to be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. The amendments in ASU 2016-13 replace the current incurred loss impairment methodology in current GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information. ASU 2016-13 was effective for SEC filers, excluding smaller reporting companies, for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. As an emerging growth company, the Company was permitted to adopt the new standard for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The adoption of ASU 2016-13 in the first quarter of 2023 did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, or liquidity.
4. Revenues
Disaggregation of Revenues
Disaggregated revenues for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 were as follows:
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
(in thousands)(in thousands)
Cement$51,867 $63,904 $172,449 $164,372 
Tools32,559 40,798 109,199 102,638 
Coiled tubing27,867 33,418 94,888 82,660 
Wireline28,324 29,312 88,917 77,043 
Total revenues$140,617 $167,432 $465,453 $426,713 
The Company recognizes revenues from the sales of products at a point in time and revenues from the sales of services over time.
5. Inventories
Inventories, consisting primarily of finished goods and raw materials, are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined on an average cost basis. The Company reviews its inventory balances and writes down its inventory for estimated obsolescence or excess inventory equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated market value based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions. The reserve for obsolescence was $7.9 million and $6.7 million at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.
Inventories, net as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 were comprised of the following: 
 September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
 (in thousands)
Raw materials$34,556 $39,249 
Work in progress292 161 
Finished goods31,764 29,345 
Inventories66,612 68,755 
Reserve for obsolescence(7,949)(6,710)
Inventories, net$58,663 $62,045 
7


6. Intangible Assets
The gross carrying amount and accumulated amortization of intangible assets as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 was as follows:
September 30, 2023
Gross Carrying AmountAccumulated AmortizationNet Carrying AmountWeighted Average Amortization Period
(in thousands, except weighted average amortization period information)
Customer relationships$63,270 $(51,928)$11,342 4.1
Non-compete agreements6,500 (6,466)34 0.1
Technology125,110 (43,228)81,882 10.0
Total$194,880 $(101,622)$93,258 
December 31, 2022
Gross Carrying AmountAccumulated AmortizationNet Carrying AmountWeighted Average Amortization Period
(in thousands, except weighted average amortization period information)
Customer relationships$63,270 $(49,845)$13,425 4.8
Non-compete agreements6,500 (6,166)334 0.8
Technology125,110 (36,924)88,186 10.7
Total$194,880 $(92,935)$101,945 
Amortization of intangibles expense was $2.9 million and $8.7 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, respectively. Amortization of intangibles expense was $2.9 million and $10.6 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, respectively.
Future estimated amortization of intangibles (in thousands) is as follows:
Year Ending December 31,
Remainder of 2023$2,829 
202411,183 
202511,183 
202611,082 
202710,315 
20288,000 
Thereafter38,666 
Total$93,258 
7. Accrued Expenses
Accrued expenses as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 consisted of the following:
September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
(in thousands)
Accrued interest$7,397 $5,012 
Accrued compensation and benefits6,559 10,283 
Accrued bonus170 3,979 
Accrued legal fees and settlements203 145 
Other accrued expenses10,533 8,972 
Accrued expenses$24,862 $28,391 
8


8. Debt Obligations
The Company’s debt obligations as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 were as follows: 
 September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
 (in thousands)
2028 Notes$300,000 $ 
2023 Notes 307,339 
ABL Credit Facility57,000 32,000 
Other short-term debt (1)
 2,267 
Total debt before deferred financing costs$357,000 $341,606 
Deferred financing costs(37,994)(1,308)
Total debt$319,006 $340,298 
Less: Current portion of long-term debt (2,267)
Long-term debt$319,006 $338,031 
(1)The weighted average interest rate of short-term debt at December 31, 2022 was 6.0%.
Units Offering and 2028 Notes
Units
On January 30, 2023, the Company completed its public offering of 300,000 units with an aggregate stated amount of $300.0 million (the “Units”). Each Unit consists of $1,000 principal amount of the Company’s 13.000% Senior Secured Notes due 2028 (collectively, the “2028 Notes”) and five shares of common stock (the “Common Stock”) of the Company. The Company received proceeds of $279.8 million from the Units offering, after deducting underwriting discounts and commission, which was used to fund a portion of the redemption price of the 2023 Notes (as defined and described below). These proceeds were allocated to the 2028 Notes and the Common Stock based on their relative fair value at the time of issuance.
Each Unit separated into its constituent securities (the 2028 Notes and shares of Common Stock) automatically on October 27, 2023. A holder of Units could have elected to separate its Units into its constituent securities, in whole but not in part, on or after March 31, 2023. Prior to such date, the Units could not be separated at the option of the holder. Once a Unit has been separated into its constituent securities at the option of a holder, it cannot be recreated.
Holders of Units were entitled to the rights of a holder of Common Stock, including, without limitation, the right to vote and consent to or receive notice as a stockholder.
During the nine months ended September 30, 2023, the Company recorded approximately $41.7 million of deferred financing costs in connection with the Units offering. These costs are direct deductions from the carrying amount of the 2028 Notes and are being amortized through interest expense through the maturity date of the 2028 Notes using the effective interest method. The unamortized portion of these deferred financing costs was $38.0 million at September 30, 2023.
2028 Notes
On January 30, 2023, the Company and certain of its subsidiaries entered into an indenture, dated as of January 30, 2023 (the “2028 Notes Indenture”), with U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association, as the trustee and as notes collateral agent, pursuant to which the 2028 Notes, which form a part of the Units, were issued. The 2028 Notes will mature on February 1, 2028 and bear interest at an annual rate of 13.000% payable in cash semi-annually in arrears on each of February 1 and August 1, commencing August 1, 2023. The 2028 Notes are senior secured obligations of the Company and are guaranteed on a senior secured basis by each of the Company’s current domestic subsidiaries and will be so guaranteed by certain future subsidiaries, in each case, subject to agreed guaranty and security principles and certain exclusions.
Prior to February 1, 2026, the Company may, on any one or more occasions, redeem all or a part of the 2028 Notes at a redemption price equal to 100.0% of the principal amount of the 2028 Notes redeemed, plus a “make-whole” premium, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the date of redemption. In addition, prior to February 1, 2026, the Company may, from time to time, redeem up to 35.0% of the aggregate principal amount of the 2028 Notes with an amount of cash not greater than the net cash proceeds of certain equity offerings at a redemption price equal to 113.0% of the principal amount of the 2028 Notes redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the date of redemption,
9


provided that at least 65.0% of the aggregate principal amount of the 2028 Notes originally issued under the 2028 Notes Indenture on January 30, 2023 remains outstanding immediately after such redemption and the redemption occurs within 180 days of the closing date of such equity offering. Also, prior to February 1, 2026, the Company may redeem during each 12-month period beginning on January 30, 2023, up to 10% of the aggregate principal amount of the 2028 Notes outstanding at a redemption price equal to 103.0% of the aggregate principal amount of the 2028 Notes being redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the date of redemption.
On and after February 1, 2026, the Company may redeem the 2028 Notes, in whole or in part, at the redemption prices (expressed as percentages of principal amount of the 2028 Notes to be redeemed) set forth below, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding the date of redemption, if redeemed during the periods indicated:
Redemption Price
February 1, 2026 to January 31, 2027106.500 %
February 1, 2027 to October 31, 2027103.250 %
November 1, 2027 and thereafter100.000 %
On each May 15 and November 14, commencing November 14, 2023 (each, an “Excess Cash Flow Offer Date”), the Company is required to make an offer (an “Excess Cash Flow Offer”) to all holders of the 2028 Notes and, if required by the terms of any Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness (as defined in the 2028 Notes Indenture), to any holders of any Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness to purchase, prepay or redeem, together on a pro-rata basis, the maximum principal amount of the 2028 Notes and any such Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness (plus all accrued interest (including additional interest, if any) on the 2028 Notes and any such Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness and the amount of all fees and expenses, including premiums, incurred in connection therewith) that may be purchased, prepaid or redeemed using an amount of cash equal to the Excess Cash Flow Amount (as defined in the 2028 Notes Indenture and which is 75.0% of Excess Cash Flow (as defined in the 2028 Notes Indenture), as determined immediately prior to the Excess Cash Flow Offer Date), if any, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the 2028 Notes Indenture. The offer price in any such offer will be equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2028 Notes and any such Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness (or, in respect of any such Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness, such lesser price, if any, as may be provided for by the terms of such Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness), plus accrued and unpaid interest and additional interest, if any, to, but excluding, the date of purchase, prepayment or redemption, subject to the rights of holders of the 2028 Notes or any such Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness on the relevant record date to receive interest due on an interest payment date that is on or prior to the date of purchase, prepayment or redemption, and will be payable in cash.
If the Company experiences certain changes of control, each holder of 2028 Notes may require the Company to repurchase all or a portion of its 2028 Notes for cash at a price equal to 101.0% of the principal amount of such 2028 Notes, plus any accrued but unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the date of repurchase.
The 2028 Notes Indenture contains covenants that, among other things and subject to certain exceptions and qualifications, limit the Company’s ability and the ability of its restricted subsidiaries to (i) incur additional indebtedness and guarantee indebtedness; (ii) pay dividends or make other distributions of capital stock; (iii) prepay, redeem or repurchase certain debt; (iv) issue certain preferred stock or similar equity securities, (v) make loans and investments; (vi) sell assets; (vii) incur liens; (viii) enter into transactions with affiliates; (ix) enter into agreements restricting its subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends; or (x) consolidate, merge, or sell all or substantially all of its assets. The Company was in compliance with the provision of the 2028 Notes Indenture at September 30, 2023.
Upon an event of default, the trustee of the 2028 Notes or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of then outstanding 2028 Notes may declare the 2028 Notes immediately due and payable, except that a default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency with respect to the Company, any significant subsidiary or any group of restricted subsidiaries that, taken together, would constitute a significant subsidiary, will automatically cause all outstanding 2028 Notes to become due and payable.
2023 Notes
On October 25, 2018, the Company issued $400.0 million principal amount of 8.750% Senior Notes due 2023 (the “2023 Notes”). The 2023 Notes were issued under an indenture, dated as of October 25, 2018, by and among the Company, certain subsidiaries of the Company and Wells Fargo, National Association, as trustee. The 2023 Notes bore interest at an annual rate of 8.750% payable on May 1 and November 1 of each year, commencing May 1, 2019. The 2023 Notes were senior unsecured obligations of the Company and were fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a senior unsecured basis by each of the Company’s domestic subsidiaries.
10


On February 1, 2023, with proceeds received from its public offering of Units and borrowings under its ABL Credit Facility (as defined and described below), the Company redeemed all of the outstanding 2023 Notes at a redemption price of 100.0% of outstanding principal amount thereof ($307.3 million), plus accrued and unpaid interest ($6.7 million). The Company also wrote off unamortized deferred financing costs in the amount of $1.2 million associated with the 2023 Notes in conjunction with the redemption.
ABL Credit Facility
On October 25, 2018, the Company entered into a credit agreement dated as of October 25, 2018 (the “2018 ABL Credit Agreement”), by and among the Company, Nine Energy Canada, Inc., JP Morgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent and as an issuing lender, and certain other financial institutions party thereto as lenders and issuing lenders. The 2018 ABL Credit Agreement permitted aggregate borrowings of up to $200.0 million, subject to a borrowing base, including a Canadian tranche with a sub-limit of up to $25.0 million and a sub-limit of $50.0 million for letters of credit (the “ABL Credit Facility”). Pursuant to the 2018 ABL Credit Agreement, the ABL Credit Facility was set to mature on October 25, 2023 or, if earlier, on the date that was 180 days before the scheduled maturity date of the 2023 Notes if they had not been redeemed or repurchased by such date.
Pursuant to the 2018 ABL Credit Agreement, loans to the Company and its domestic related subsidiaries (the “U.S. Credit Parties”) under the ABL Credit Facility were base rate loans or London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) loans; and loans to Nine Energy Canada Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of Alberta, Canada, and its restricted subsidiaries (the “Canadian Credit Parties”) under the Canadian tranche were Canadian Dollar Offered Rate (“CDOR”) loans or Canadian prime rate loans. The applicable margin for base rate loans and Canadian prime rate loans varied from 0.75% to 1.25%, and the applicable margin for LIBOR loans or CDOR loans varied from 1.75% to 2.25%, in each case depending on the Company’s leverage ratio. In addition, a commitment fee of 0.50% per annum was charged on the average daily unused portion of the revolving commitments.
On January 17, 2023, the Company entered into the First Amendment to Credit Agreement (the “ABL Facility Amendment”) with JP Morgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent, and the lender parties thereto, which amends certain terms of the 2018 ABL Credit Agreement (as amended, the “ABL Credit Agreement”). The ABL Facility Amendment became effective on January 30, 2023.
Pursuant to the ABL Facility Amendment, the maturity date of the ABL Credit Facility was extended from October 25, 2023 to January 29, 2027. In addition, the ABL Facility Amendment, among other changes, revised the terms of the ABL Credit Facility as follows: (a) decreased the size of the ABL Credit Facility from $200.0 million to $150.0 million, subject to the borrowing base (the “Loan Limit”), (b) changed the interest rate benchmark from LIBOR to Term Secured Overnight Financing Rate with a 10 basis point spread adjustment and increased pricing from the existing range of 1.75% to 2.25% to a range of 2.00% to 2.50%, in each case depending on the Company’s leverage ratio, (c) modified the financial covenant, enhanced reporting and cash dominion triggers in the ABL Credit Facility from the existing minimum availability threshold of the greater of $18.75 million and 12.5% of the Loan Limit to a minimum availability threshold of (i) $12.5 million from January 30, 2023 until May 31, 2023 and (ii) the greater of $17.5 million and 12.5% of the Loan Limit thereafter, (d) decreased the Canadian tranche sub-limit from $25.0 million to $5.0 million, (e) decreased the letter of credit sub-limit from $50.0 million to $10.0 million and (f) made satisfaction of the Payment Conditions (as defined in the ABL Facility Amendment) a condition to an Excess Cash Flow Offer in addition to a condition to voluntary payments of the 2028 Notes. The Payment Conditions in summary are (A) no default or event of default on a pro forma basis and (B) immediately after and at all times during the 30 days prior, on a pro forma basis, (1) (x) availability under the ABL Credit Facility shall not be less than the greater of 15% of the Loan Limit and $22.5 million and (y) the fixed charge coverage ratio shall be at least 1.00 to 1.00 or (2) availability under the ABL Credit Facility shall not be less than the greater of 20% of the Loan Limit and $30.0 million.
The ABL Credit Agreement contains various affirmative and negative covenants, including financial reporting requirements and limitations on indebtedness, liens, mergers, consolidations, liquidations and dissolutions, sales of assets, dividends and other restricted payments, investments (including acquisitions), and transactions with affiliates. In addition, the ABL Credit Agreement contains a financial covenant requiring a minimum fixed charge ratio of 1.00 to 1.00 that is tested quarterly when (a) the availability under the ABL Credit Facility drops below (i) at any time on or before May 31, 2023, $12.5 million and (ii) at any time thereafter, the greater of $17.5 million and 12.5% of the Loan Limit or (b) a default has occurred. This financial covenant applies until the availability exceeds the applicable threshold for 30 consecutive days and no default is ongoing. The Company was in compliance with all covenants under the ABL Credit Agreement at September 30, 2023.
Pursuant to the ABL Credit Agreement, all of the obligations under the ABL Credit Facility are secured by security interests (subject to permitted liens) in substantially all of the personal property of U.S. Credit Parties, excluding certain assets.
11


The obligations under the Canadian tranche are further secured by security interests (subject to permitted liens) in substantially all of the personal property of Canadian Credit Parties, excluding certain assets.
Both the ABL Credit Facility and the Units collateralization were completed within 30 days after closing of the Units offering in accordance with the terms of the ABL Facility Amendment and the 2028 Notes Indenture.
At September 30, 2023, the Company had $57.0 million outstanding borrowings under the ABL Credit Facility, and its availability under the ABL Credit Facility was approximately $22.7 million, net of outstanding letters of credit of $1.3 million.
Magnum Promissory Notes
On October 25, 2018, pursuant to the terms of a Securities Purchase Agreement, dated October 15, 2018 (as amended on June 7, 2019, the “Magnum Purchase Agreement”), the Company acquired all of the equity interests of Magnum Oil Tools International, LTD, Magnum Oil Tools GP, LLC, and Magnum Oil Tools Canada Ltd. (such entities collectively, “Magnum”). The Magnum Purchase Agreement included the potential for additional future payments in cash of (i) up to 60% of net income (before interest, taxes, and certain gains or losses) for the “E-Set” tools business in 2019 through 2026 and (ii) up to $25.0 million based on sales of certain dissolvable plug products in 2019 (the “Magnum Earnout”).
On June 30, 2020, pursuant to an amendment to the Magnum Purchase Agreement to terminate the remaining Magnum Earnout and all obligations related thereto, the Company issued promissory notes with an aggregate principal amount of $2.3 million (the “Magnum Promissory Notes”) to the sellers of Magnum. The Magnum Promissory Notes bore interest at a rate of 6.0% per annum. The principal amount of the Magnum Promissory Notes was paid in equal quarterly installments which began January 1, 2021. The remaining outstanding balance was paid on October 1, 2022.
Other Short-Term Debt
In the fourth quarter of 2022, the Company renewed certain insurance policies, and it financed the premium for its excess policy for $4.1 million. At September 30, 2023, there was no outstanding balance on this premium.
Fair Value of Debt Instruments
The estimated fair value of the Company’s debt obligations as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 was as follows:
 September 30, 2023December 31, 2022
 (in thousands)
2028 Notes$278,250 $ 
2023 Notes$ $300,700 
ABL Credit Facility$57,000 $32,000 
Other short-term debt$ $2,267 
The fair value of the 2028 Notes, 2023 Notes, ABL Credit Facility, and other short-term debt is classified as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy. The fair value of the 2028 Notes and the 2023 Notes is established based on observable inputs in less active markets. The fair value of the ABL Credit Facility and other short-term debt approximates their carrying value.
9. Related Party Transactions
The Company leases office space, yard facilities, and equipment and purchases building maintenance and repair services from entities owned by David Crombie, an executive officer of the Company. Total lease expense and building maintenance and repair expense associated with these entities was $0.3 million and $1.1 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, respectively, and $0.3 million and $0.9 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, respectively. The Company also purchased $0.8 million and $2.7 million of products and services during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, respectively, and $0.8 million and $2.2 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, respectively, from an entity in which Mr. Crombie is a limited partner. There were outstanding payables due to this entity relating to equipment purchases of $0.1 million at both September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022.
In addition, the Company leases office space in Corpus Christi, Texas and previously leased office space in Midland, Texas from an entity (the “Leasing Entity”) affiliated with Warren Lynn Frazier, a beneficial owner of more than 5% of the Common Stock. From the third quarter of 2020 through mid-2022, another entity affiliated with Mr. Frazier sub-leased a portion of such space in Corpus Christi, Texas from the Company. Total rental expense associated with these office spaces, net
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of sub-leasing income, was $0.3 million and $0.9 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, respectively, and $0.4 million and $1.1 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, respectively. There were net outstanding payables due to the Leasing Entity of $0.1 million at both September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022.
The Company provides products and rentals to National Energy Reunited Corp. (“NESR”), where one of the Company’s directors serves as a director. The Company billed NESR $0.5 million and $1.1 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, respectively, and $0.4 million and $0.6 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, respectively. Total outstanding receivables due to the Company from NESR were $0.9 million and $0.2 million at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.
Ann G. Fox, President and Chief Executive Officer and a director of the Company, is a director of Devon Energy Corporation (“Devon”). The Company generated revenue from Devon of $1.0 million and $1.9 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, respectively, and $0.2 million and $1.3 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, respectively. There were outstanding receivables due from Devon of $0.8 million and $0.5 million at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.
10. Commitments and Contingencies
Litigation
From time to time, the Company has various claims, lawsuits, and administrative proceedings that are pending or threatened with respect to personal injury, workers’ compensation, contractual matters, and other matters. Although no assurance can be given with respect to the outcome of these claims, lawsuits, or proceedings or the effect such outcomes may have, the Company believes any ultimate liability resulting from the outcome of such claims, lawsuits, or administrative proceedings, to the extent not otherwise provided for or covered by insurance, will not have a material adverse effect on its business, operating results, or financial condition.
Self-insurance
The Company uses a combination of third-party insurance and self-insurance for health insurance claims. The self-insured liability represents an estimate of the undiscounted ultimate cost of uninsured claims incurred as of the balance sheet date. The estimate is based on an analysis of trailing months of incurred medical claims to project the amount of incurred but not reported claims liability. The estimated liability for self-insured medical claims was $1.5 million and $1.2 million at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, and is included under the caption “Accrued expenses” in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Although the Company does not expect the amounts ultimately paid to differ significantly from the estimates, the self-insurance liability could be affected if future claims experience differs significantly from historical trends and actuarial assumptions.
Contingent Liabilities
On October 1, 2018, pursuant to the terms and conditions of a Securities Purchase Agreement (the “Frac Tech Purchase Agreement”), the Company acquired Frac Technology AS (“Frac Tech”), a Norwegian private limited company focused on the development of downhole technology, including a casing flotation tool and a number of patented downhole completion tools. The Frac Tech Purchase Agreement, as amended, includes, among other things, the potential for additional future payments, based on certain Frac Tech revenue metrics through December 31, 2025 (the “Frac Tech Earnout”).
The Company’s contingent liability (Level 3) associated with the Frac Tech Earnout (in thousands) at September 30, 2023 and 2022 was as follows:
Balance at December 31, 2022$1,169 
Revaluation adjustments412 
Payments(251)
Balance at September 30, 2023$1,330 
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Balance at December 31, 2021$910 
Revaluation adjustments237 
Payments(135)
Balance at September 30, 2022$1,012 
All contingent liabilities that relate to contingent consideration are reported at fair value, based on a Monte Carlo simulation model. Significant inputs used in the fair value measurement include forecasted sales of the plugs, terms of the agreement, a risk-adjusted discount factor (ranging from 5.1% to 5.6%), and a credit-adjusted rate (ranging from 13.0% to 13.2%). Contingent liabilities include $0.7 million and $0.4 million reported in “Accrued expenses” at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, and $0.6 million and $0.8 million reported in “Other long-term liabilities” at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The impact of the revaluation adjustments is included in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income and Comprehensive Income (Loss).
11. Taxes
The Company’s provision (benefit) for income taxes included in its Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income and Comprehensive Income (Loss) was as follows:
Three Months Ended September 30,
20232022
(in thousands, except percentages)
Provision for income taxes$215 $489 
Effective tax rate(1.6)%3.3 %

Nine Months Ended September 30,
20232022
(in thousands, except percentages)
Provision for income taxes$414 $79 
Effective tax rate(1.9)%1.2 %
The Company’s provision (benefit) for income taxes for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 was primarily attributed to state and non-U.S. income taxes. At September 30, 2023, the Company continued to record a full valuation allowance against its net deferred tax asset positions in the U.S. and Canada.
12. Earnings (Loss) Per Share
Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares of Common Stock outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings (loss) per share is based on the weighted average number of shares outstanding during each period and the exercise of potentially dilutive stock options assumed to be purchased from the proceeds using the average market price of the Common Stock for each of the periods presented as well as the potentially dilutive restricted stock, restricted stock units, and performance stock units.
Basic and diluted earnings (loss) per share of Common Stock was computed as follows: 
 Three Months Ended September 30, 2023Three Months Ended September 30, 2022
Net LossAverage Shares OutstandingLoss Per ShareNet IncomeAverage Shares OutstandingEarnings Per Share
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Basic$(13,262)33,659,386 $(0.39)$14,286 31,100,712 $0.46 
Unvested restricted stock and stock units— — — — 831,901 — 
Diluted$(13,262)33,659,386 $(0.39)$14,286 31,932,613 $0.45 
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 Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023Nine Months Ended September 30, 2022
Net LossAverage Shares OutstandingLoss Per ShareNet IncomeAverage Shares OutstandingEarnings Per Share
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Basic$(21,908)33,090,792 $(0.66)$6,409 30,810,648 $0.21 
Unvested restricted stock and stock units— — — — 934,614 — 
Unvested performance stock units— — — — 5,163 — 
Diluted$(21,908)33,090,792 $(0.66)$6,409 31,750,425 $0.20 

The diluted earnings (loss) per share calculation excludes all stock options, unvested restricted stock, unvested restricted stock units, and unvested performance stock units for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive given the Company was in a net loss position. The average number of securities that were excluded from diluted earnings (loss) per share that would potentially dilute earnings (loss) per share for the periods in which the Company experienced a net loss were as follows:
2023
Three months ended September 30,806,722
Nine months ended September 30,1,267,609
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ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, included in Item 1 of Part I of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the consolidated financial statements and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” including “Critical Accounting Estimates,” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.
This section contains forward-looking statements based on our current expectations, estimates, and projections about our operations and the industry in which we operate. Our actual results may differ materially from those discussed in any forward-looking statement because of various risks and uncertainties, including those described in the sections titled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part I of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.
OVERVIEW
Company Description
Nine Energy Service, Inc. (either individually or together with its subsidiaries, as the context requires, the “Company,” “Nine,” “we,” “us,” and “our”) is a leading completion services provider that targets unconventional oil and gas resource development within North America and abroad. We partner with our exploration and production (“E&P”) customers across all major onshore basins in the U.S., as well as within Canada and abroad, to design and deploy downhole solutions and technology to prepare horizontal, multistage wells for production. We focus on providing our customers with cost-effective and comprehensive completion solutions designed to maximize their production levels and operating efficiencies. We believe our success is a product of our culture, which is driven by our intense focus on performance and wellsite execution as well as our commitment to forward-leaning technologies that aid us in the development of smarter, customized applications that drive efficiencies and reduce emissions.
We provide (i) cementing services, which consist of blending high-grade cement and water with various solid and liquid additives to create a cement slurry that is pumped between the casing and the wellbore of the well, (ii) an innovative portfolio of completion tools, including technologies used for completing the toe stage of a horizontal well, liner installations used in refrac operations, casing flotation devices, and fully-composite, dissolvable, and extended range frac plugs to isolate stages during plug-and-perf operations, (iii) wireline services, including electric wireline units, the majority of which consist of plug-and-perf completions, which is a multistage well completion technique for cased-hole wells that consists of deploying perforating guns and isolation tools to a specified depth, and (iv) coiled tubing services, which perform wellbore intervention operations utilizing a continuous steel pipe that is transported to the wellsite wound on a large spool, providing a cost-effective solution for well work due to the ability to deploy efficiently and safely into a live well.
How We Generate Revenue and the Costs of Conducting Our Business
We generate our revenues by providing completion services to E&P customers across all major onshore basins in the U.S., as well as within Canada and abroad. We primarily earn our revenues pursuant to work orders entered into with our customers on a job-by-job basis. We typically enter into a Master Service Agreement (“MSA”) with each customer that provides a framework of general terms and conditions of our services that will govern any future transactions or jobs awarded to us. Each specific job is obtained through competitive bidding or as a result of negotiations with customers. The rate we charge is determined by location, complexity of the job, operating conditions, duration of the contract, and market conditions. In addition to MSAs, we have entered into a select number of longer-term contracts with certain customers relating to our wireline and cementing services, and we may enter into similar contracts from time to time to the extent beneficial to the operation of our business. These longer-term contracts address pricing and other details concerning our services, but each job is performed on a standalone basis.
The principal expenses involved in conducting our business include labor costs, materials and freight, the costs of maintaining our equipment, and fuel costs. Our direct labor costs vary with the amount of equipment deployed and the utilization of that equipment. Another key component of labor costs relates to the ongoing training of our field service employees, which improves safety rates and reduces employee attrition.
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How We Evaluate Our Operations
We evaluate our performance based on a number of financial and non-financial measures, including the following:
Revenue: We compare actual revenue achieved each month to the most recent projection for that month and to the annual plan for the month established at the beginning of the year. We monitor our revenue to analyze trends in the performance of our operations compared to historical revenue drivers or market metrics. We are particularly interested in identifying positive or negative trends and investigating to understand the root causes.
Adjusted Gross Profit (Loss): Adjusted gross profit (loss) is a key metric that we use to evaluate operating performance. We define adjusted gross profit (loss) as revenues less direct and indirect costs of revenues (excluding depreciation and amortization). Costs of revenues include direct and indirect labor costs, costs of materials, maintenance of equipment, fuel and transportation freight costs, contract services, crew cost, and other miscellaneous expenses. For additional information, see “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below.
Adjusted EBITDA: We define Adjusted EBITDA as EBITDA (which is net income (loss) before interest, taxes, and depreciation and amortization) further adjusted for (i) goodwill, intangible asset, and/or property and equipment impairment charges, (ii) transaction and integration costs related to acquisitions, (iii) fees and expenses relating to our Units (as defined and described below) offering and other refinancing activities, (iv) loss or gain on revaluation of contingent liabilities, (v) loss or gain on extinguishment of debt, (vi) loss or gain on the sale of subsidiaries, (vii) restructuring charges, (viii) stock-based compensation and cash award expense, (ix) loss or gain on sale of property and equipment, and (x) other expenses or charges to exclude certain items which we believe are not reflective of ongoing performance of our business, such as legal expenses and settlement costs related to litigation outside the ordinary course of business. For additional information, see “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below.
Return on Invested Capital (“ROIC”): We define ROIC as after-tax net operating profit (loss), divided by average total capital. We define after-tax net operating profit (loss) as net income (loss) plus (i) goodwill, intangible asset, and/or property and equipment impairment charges, (ii) transaction and integration costs related to acquisitions, (iii) fees and expenses relating to our Units offering and other refinancing activities, (iv) interest expense (income), (v) restructuring charges, (vi) loss (gain) on the sale of subsidiaries, (vii) loss (gain) on extinguishment of debt, and (viii) the provision (benefit) for deferred income taxes. We define total capital as book value of equity (deficit) plus the book value of debt less balance sheet cash and cash equivalents. We compute the average of the current and prior period-end total capital for use in this analysis. For additional information, see “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below.
Safety: We measure safety by tracking the total recordable incident rate (“TRIR”), which is reviewed on a monthly basis. TRIR is a measure of the rate of recordable workplace injuries, defined below, normalized and stated on the basis of 100 workers for an annual period. The factor is derived by multiplying the number of recordable injuries in a calendar year by 200,000 (i.e., the total hours for 100 employees working 2,000 hours per year) and dividing this value by the total hours actually worked in the year. Recordable workplace injuries include occupational death, nonfatal occupational illness, and other occupational injuries that involve loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, transfer to another job, or medical treatment other than first aid.
Industry Trends and Outlook
Our business depends, to a significant extent, on the level of unconventional resource development activity and corresponding capital spending of oil and natural gas companies. These activity and spending levels are strongly influenced by current and expected oil and natural gas prices. In recent years, oil and natural gas prices have been extremely volatile. In 2020, oil and natural gas prices as well as E&P capital spending reached historic lows, driving down the pricing for our services and technologies. In the first quarter of 2021, oil and natural gas prices began to rebound and steadily increased throughout 2021 and remained supportive into 2022, with oil prices reaching a 13-year high in March 2022, primarily as a result of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine igniting fears of shortages. In late 2022, due to the rise in interest rates, economic uncertainty and recessionary fears, oil prices began to decline. Commodity prices have continued to be volatile thus far in 2023, with both oil and natural gas prices generally lower than in most of 2022. The Baker Hughes rig count was down by over 150 rigs from the end of the fourth quarter of 2022 to the end of the third quarter of 2023, and U.S. completions in the third quarter of 2023 were down 4% compared to the fourth quarter of 2022 according to the Energy Information Administration.
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With the decline in commodity prices and overall activity levels, we received pricing pressure from customers across service lines and basins, impacting both our revenue and margins. The market remains volatile, but we are cautiously optimistic that the rig count is stabilizing, and we could begin to see rigs being added back into the market starting in early 2024. The U.S. rig count and frac crew count are both good market indicators for both our revenue outlook and potential pricing leverage; however, the magnitude and timing of potential price changes will depend on a number of factors, as discussed below.
We also remain cautiously optimistic on the long-term outlook for the energy sector despite the uncertainty and recessionary fears in the global market. OPEC has maintained production cuts, and public U.S. producers remaining committed to capital discipline, rather than increasing drilling, could help lessen the impact of any supply surplus. Additionally, the conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and in the Middle East provide additional uncertainty with global supply.
Significant factors that are likely to affect commodity prices moving forward include actions of the members of OPEC and other oil exporting nations that relate to or impact oil production or supply; the effect of energy, monetary, and trade policies of the U.S.; the pace of economic growth in the U.S. and throughout the world, including the potential for macro weakness; geopolitical and economic developments in the U.S. and globally, including conflicts, instability, acts of war or terrorism in oil producing countries or regions, particularly Russia, the Middle East, South America and Africa; changes to energy regulations and policies, including those of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other governmental bodies; and overall North American oil and natural gas supply and demand fundamentals, including the pace at which export capacity grows. Furthermore, although as noted above, our customers’ activity and spending levels, and thus demand for our services and products, are strongly influenced by current and expected oil and natural gas prices, even with price improvements in oil and natural gas, operator activity may not materially increase, as operators remain focused on operating within their capital plans and uncertainty remains around supply and demand fundamentals.
Results of Operations
Results for the Three Months Ended September 30, 2023 Compared to the Three Months Ended September 30, 2022
 Three Months Ended September 30, 
 20232022ChangePercentage Change
 (in thousands, except percentage change)
Revenues$140,617 $167,432 $(26,815)(16)%
Cost of revenues (exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown separately below)117,676 123,418 (5,742)(5)%
Adjusted gross profit$22,941 $44,014 $(21,073)(48)%
General and administrative expenses$13,060 $13,475 $(415)(3)%
Depreciation7,285 6,593 692 10 %
Amortization of intangibles2,895 2,896 (1)— %
Loss on revaluation of contingent liability493 46 447 972 %
Loss on sale of property and equipment21 1,242 (1,221)(98)%
Income (loss) from operations(813)19,762 (20,575)(104)%
Non-operating expense12,234 4,987 7,247 145 %
Income (loss) before income taxes(13,047)14,775 (27,822)(188)%
Provision for income taxes215 489 (274)(56)%
Net income (loss)$(13,262)$14,286 $(27,548)(193)%
Revenues
Revenues decreased $26.8 million, or 16%, to $140.6 million for the third quarter of 2023. The decrease was prevalent across all lines of service and was primarily due to activity decreases, which were driven by a reduction in the U.S. rig count in comparison to the third quarter of 2022. More specifically, cementing revenue (including pump downs) decreased $12.0 million, or 19%, as total cement job count decreased 23% in comparison to the third quarter of 2022. In addition, tools revenue decreased $8.2 million, or 20%, as completion tools stages decreased 24%, coiled tubing revenue decreased $5.6 million, or 17%, as total days worked decreased 14%, and wireline revenue decreased $1.0 million, or 3%, as total completed wireline stages decreased 1%, each in comparison to the third quarter of 2022.
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Cost of Revenues (Exclusive of Depreciation and Amortization)
Cost of revenues decreased $5.7 million, or 5%, to $117.7 million for the third quarter of 2023. The decrease in comparison to the third quarter of 2022 was primarily driven by a decrease in activity for all lines of service in comparison to the third quarter of 2022. More specifically, the decrease was the result of a $4.2 million decrease in materials installed and consumed while performing services, a $0.9 million decrease in employee costs, and a $0.6 million decrease in other costs such as vehicle and facility expenses, each in comparison to the third quarter of 2022.
Adjusted Gross Profit (Loss)
Adjusted gross profit decreased $21.1 million to $22.9 million for the third quarter of 2023 due to the factors described above under “Revenues” and “Cost of Revenues.”
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses decreased $0.4 million to $13.1 million for the third quarter of 2023. The decrease was attributed to a $1.4 million decrease in employee costs in comparison to the third quarter of 2022. The overall decrease was partially offset by a $1.0 million increase in other general and administrative costs such as marketing and communication costs, as well as professional fees, each in comparison to the third quarter of 2022.
Depreciation
Depreciation expense increased $0.7 million to $7.3 million for the third quarter of 2023. The increase in comparison to the third quarter of 2022 was primarily due to an increase in capital expenditures across certain lines of service over the last twelve months.
Amortization of Intangibles
Amortization of intangibles, which was primarily comprised of technology and customer relationships, was $2.9 million for both the third quarter of 2023 and the third quarter of 2022.
(Gain) Loss on Revaluation of Contingent Liability
We recorded a $0.5 million loss on revaluation of contingent liability for the third quarter of 2023. The increased loss in comparison to the third quarter of 2022 was primarily associated with an increase in the fair value during the period of the earnout associated with our acquisition of Frac Technology AS (“Frac Tech”).
(Gain) Loss on Sale of Property and Equipment
Loss on sale of property and equipment for the third quarter of 2023 decreased $1.2 million in comparison to the third quarter of 2022. The decrease was primarily attributed to certain damaged equipment that was fully disposed of in the third quarter of 2022 that did not recur in the third quarter of 2023.
Non-Operating (Income) Expenses
Non-operating expenses increased $7.2 million to $12.2 million for the third quarter of 2023. The increase in comparison to the third quarter of 2022 was primarily due to an increased interest rate as a result of the issuance of the 2028 Notes (as defined below) in the first quarter of 2023 in connection with the public offering of Units. The increase was also partially due to a $2.8 million gain on the extinguishment of debt related to the repurchase of our 2023 Notes (as defined below) in the third quarter of 2022 that did not recur in the third quarter of 2023.
Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes
We recorded an income tax provision of $0.2 million for the third quarter of 2023 compared to an income tax provision of $0.5 million for the third quarter of 2022. The difference between the periods was primarily attributed to our income tax position in state and foreign tax jurisdictions.
Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted EBITDA decreased $21.0 million to $11.6 million for the third quarter of 2023. The Adjusted EBITDA decrease was primarily due to the changes in revenues and expenses discussed above. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for further explanation.
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Results for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023 Compared to the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2022
 Nine Months Ended September 30, 
 20232022ChangePercentage Change
 (in thousands, except for percentage change)
Revenues$465,453 $426,713 $38,740 %
Cost of revenues (exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown separately below)372,236 330,477 41,759 13 %
Adjusted gross profit$93,217 $96,236 $(3,019)(3)%
General and administrative expenses$47,007 $37,766 $9,241 24 %
Depreciation22,138 19,608 2,530 13 %
Amortization of intangibles8,687 10,568 (1,881)(18)%
Loss on revaluation of contingent liability412 237 175 74 %
(Gain) loss on sale of property and equipment(407)795 (1,202)(151)%
Income from operations15,380 27,262 (11,882)(44)%
Non-operating expense36,874 20,774 16,100 78 %
Income (loss) before income taxes(21,494)6,488 (27,982)(431)%
Provision for income taxes414 79 335 424 %
Net income (loss)$(21,908)$6,409 $(28,317)(442)%
Revenues
Revenues increased $38.7 million, or 9%, to $465.5 million for the first nine months of 2023; while the average U.S. rig count remained relatively flat in comparison to the first nine months of 2022, the overall increase was prevalent across all lines of service and attributable to a number of factors, including activity and pricing increases, as well as a change in product mix. More specifically, coiled tubing revenue increased $12.2 million, or 15%, due to increased activity, as total days worked increased 13%, and wireline revenue increased $11.9 million, or 15%, due to increased activity, as total completed wireline stages increased 7%. In addition, although completion tools stages decreased 2% in comparison to the first nine months of 2022, tools revenue increased $6.5 million, or 6%, due to a significant international sale made to a customer during the first nine months of 2023 that did not occur during the first nine months of 2022, as well as a change in product mix between periods. Furthermore, although total cement job count decreased 12%, cementing revenue (including pump downs) increased $8.1 million, or 5%, due to pricing increases, in comparison to the first nine months of 2022.
Cost of Revenues (Exclusive of Depreciation and Amortization)
Cost of revenues increased $41.8 million, or 13%, to $372.2 million for the first nine months of 2023. The increase in comparison to the first nine months of 2022 was consistent with the increase in revenue identified above and primarily driven by increased activity in coiled tubing and wireline, coupled with cost inflation over all lines of service associated with both labor and materials as well as headcount increases. More specifically, the increase was due to an $18.3 million increase in employer related costs, a $17.5 million increase in materials installed and consumed while performing services, and a $6.0 million increase in other costs such as repairs and maintenance, travel, and vehicle expenses, in comparison to the first nine months of 2022.
Adjusted Gross Profit (Loss)
Adjusted gross profit decreased $3.0 million to $93.2 million for the first nine months of 2023 due to the factors described above under “Revenues” and “Cost of Revenues.”
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses increased $9.2 million to $47.0 million for the first nine months of 2023. The increase was primarily due to $6.4 million in costs associated with the Units offering in the first quarter of 2023 that did not occur in 2022. The increase was also partially attributed to a $1.1 million increase in employee costs, a $0.7 million increase in marketing costs, a $0.6 million increase in communication costs, and a $0.4 million increase in travel costs, each in comparison
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to the first nine months of 2022.
Depreciation
Depreciation expense increased $2.5 million to $22.1 million for the first nine months of 2023. The increase in comparison to the first nine months of 2022 was primarily due to an increase in capital expenditures over the last twelve months.
Amortization of Intangibles
Amortization of intangibles, which was primarily comprised of technology and customer relationships, decreased $1.9 million to $8.7 million for the first nine months of 2023. The decrease in comparison to the first nine months of 2022 was due to certain intangible assets being fully amortized in the last twelve months.
(Gain) Loss on Revaluation of Contingent Liability
We recorded a $0.4 million loss on revaluation of contingent liability for the first nine months of 2023 compared to a $0.2 million loss on revaluation of contingent liability for the first nine months of 2022. The increased loss in comparison to the first nine months of 2022 was associated with an increase in the fair value during the period of the earnout associated with our acquisition of Frac Tech.
(Gain) Loss on Sale of Property and Equipment
We recorded a gain on sale of property and equipment of $0.4 million for the first nine months of 2023 compared to a loss on sale of property and equipment of $0.8 million for the first nine months of 2022. The $1.2 million change was primarily attributed to certain damaged equipment that was fully disposed of in the first nine months of 2022 that did not recur in the first nine months of 2023.
Non-Operating (Income) Expenses
Non-operating expenses increased $16.1 million to $36.9 million for the first nine months of 2023. The increase in comparison to the first nine months of 2022 was primarily due to an increased interest rate as a result of the issuance of the 2028 Notes in the first quarter of 2023 in connection with the Units offering. The increase was also partially due to a $2.8 million gain on the extinguishment of debt related to the repurchase of our 2023 Notes in the first nine months of 2022 that did not recur in the first nine months of 2023.
Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes
We recorded an income tax provision of $0.4 million for the first nine months of 2023 compared to an income tax provision of $0.1 million for the first nine months of 2022. The difference between the periods was primarily attributed to our income tax position in state and foreign tax jurisdictions.
Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted EBITDA decreased $5.4 million to $58.3 million for the first nine months of 2023. The Adjusted EBITDA decrease was primarily due to the changes in revenues and expenses discussed above. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for further explanation.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure that is used by management and external users of our financial statements, such as industry analysts, investors, lenders, and rating agencies.
We define Adjusted EBITDA as EBITDA (which is net income (loss) before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization) further adjusted for (i) goodwill, intangible asset, and/or property and equipment impairment charges, (ii) transaction and integration costs related to acquisitions, (iii) fees and expenses relating to our Units offering and other refinancing activities, (iv) loss or gain on revaluation of contingent liabilities, (v) loss or gain on extinguishment of debt, (vi) loss or gain on the sale of subsidiaries, (vii) restructuring charges, (viii) stock-based compensation and cash award expense, (ix) loss or gain on sale of property and equipment, and (x) other expenses or charges to exclude certain items which we believe are not reflective of ongoing performance of our business, such as legal expenses and settlement costs related to litigation
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outside the ordinary course of business.
Management believes Adjusted EBITDA is useful because it allows us to more effectively evaluate our operating performance and compare the results of our operations from period to period without regard to our financing methods or capital structure. We exclude the items listed above from net income (loss) in arriving at this measure because these amounts can vary substantially from company to company within our industry depending upon accounting methods and book values of assets, capital structures, and the method by which the assets were acquired. Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as an alternative to, or more meaningful than, net income (loss) as determined in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) or as an indicator of our operating performance. Certain items excluded from Adjusted EBITDA are significant components in understanding and assessing a company’s financial performance, such as a company’s cost of capital and tax structure, as well as the historic costs of depreciable assets, none of which are components of Adjusted EBITDA. Our computation of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies.
The following table presents a reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure of Adjusted EBITDA to the GAAP financial measure of net income (loss) for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022: 
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
(in thousands)(in thousands)
Adjusted EBITDA reconciliation:
Net income (loss)$(13,262)$14,286 $(21,908)$6,409 
Interest expense12,858 8,125 38,306 24,335 
Interest income(462)(134)(946)(171)
Provision for income taxes215 489 414 79 
Depreciation7,285 6,593 22,138 19,608 
Amortization of intangibles2,895 2,896 8,687 10,568 
EBITDA$9,529 $32,255 $46,691 $60,828 
Loss on revaluation of contingent liability (1)
493 46 412 237 
Gain on the extinguishment of debt— (2,843)— (2,843)
Certain refinancing costs (2)
— — 6,396 — 
Restructuring charges315 729 1,204 1,819 
Stock-based compensation and cash award expense1,208 1,113 3,969 2,798 
(Gain) loss on sale of property and equipment21 1,242 (407)795 
Legal fees and settlements (3)
29 10 53 55 
Adjusted EBITDA$11,595 $32,552 $58,318 $63,689 
(1)Amounts relate to the revaluation of a contingent liability associated with a 2018 acquisition. The impact is included in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income and Comprehensive Income (Loss). For additional information on contingent liabilities, see Note 10 – Commitments and Contingencies included in Item 1 of Part I of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
(2)Amounts represent fees and expenses relating to our Units offering and other refinancing activities, including cash incentive compensation to employees following the successful completion of the Units offering, that were not capitalized.
(3)Amounts represent fees, legal settlements, and/or accruals associated with legal proceedings brought pursuant to the Fair Labor Standards Act and/or similar state laws.
Return on Invested Capital
ROIC is a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure. We define ROIC as after-tax net operating profit (loss), divided by average total capital. We define after-tax net operating profit (loss) as net income (loss) plus (i) goodwill, intangible asset, and/or property and equipment impairment charges, (ii) transaction and integration costs related to acquisitions, (iii) fees and expenses relating to our Units offering and other refinancing activities, (iv) interest expense (income), (v) restructuring charges, (vi) loss (gain) on the sale of subsidiaries, (vii) loss (gain) on extinguishment of debt, and (viii) the provision (benefit) for deferred income taxes. We define total capital as book value of equity (deficit) plus the book value of debt less balance sheet cash and cash equivalents. We compute the average of the current and prior period-end total capital for use in this analysis.
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Management believes ROIC is a meaningful measure because it quantifies how well we generate operating income relative to the capital we have invested in our business and illustrates the profitability of a business or project taking into account the capital invested. Management uses ROIC to assist them in capital resource allocation decisions and in evaluating business performance. Although ROIC is commonly used as a measure of capital efficiency, definitions of ROIC differ, and our computation of ROIC may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies.
The following table provides an explanation of our calculation of ROIC for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022:
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
(in thousands)(in thousands)
Net income (loss)$(13,262)$14,286 $(21,908)$6,409 
Add back:
Interest expense12,858 8,125 38,306 24,335 
Interest income(462)(134)(946)(171)
Certain refinancing costs (1)
— — 6,396 — 
Restructuring charges315 729 1,204 1,819 
Gain on extinguishment of debt— (2,843)— (2,843)
After-tax net operating income (loss)$(551)$20,163 $23,052 $29,549 
Total capital as of prior period-end:
Total stockholders’ deficit$(13,412)$(46,319)$(23,507)$(39,267)
Total debt372,329 348,148 341,606 337,436 
Less cash and cash equivalents(41,122)(22,408)(17,445)(21,509)
Total capital as of prior period-end$317,795 $279,421 $300,654 $276,660 
Total capital as of period-end:
Total stockholders’ deficit$(26,116)$(32,085)$(26,116)$(32,085)
Total debt357,000 334,620 357,000 334,620 
Less cash and cash equivalents(12,159)(21,490)(12,159)(21,490)
Total capital as of period-end$318,725 $281,045 $318,725 $281,045 
Average total capital$318,260 $280,233 $309,690 $278,853 
ROIC(0.7)%28.8%9.9%14.1%
(1)    Amounts represent fees and expenses relating to our Units offering and other refinancing activities, including cash incentive compensation to employees following the successful completion of the Units offering, that were not capitalized.
Adjusted Gross Profit (Loss)
GAAP defines gross profit (loss) as revenues less cost of revenues and includes depreciation and amortization in costs of revenues. We define adjusted gross profit (loss) as revenues less direct and indirect costs of revenues (excluding depreciation and amortization). This measure differs from the GAAP definition of gross profit (loss) because we do not include the impact of depreciation and amortization, which represent non-cash expenses.
Management uses adjusted gross profit (loss) to evaluate operating performance. We prepare adjusted gross profit (loss) to eliminate the impact of depreciation and amortization because we do not consider depreciation and amortization indicative of our core operating performance. Adjusted gross profit (loss) should not be considered as an alternative to gross profit (loss), operating income (loss), or any other measure of financial performance calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP. Adjusted gross profit (loss) may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies because other companies may not calculate adjusted gross profit (loss) or similarly titled measures in the same manner as we do.
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The following table presents a reconciliation of adjusted gross profit (loss) to GAAP gross profit (loss) for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022:
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
(in thousands)(in thousands)
Calculation of gross profit:
Revenues$140,617 $167,432 $465,453 $426,713 
Cost of revenues (exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown separately below)117,676 123,418 372,236 330,477 
Depreciation (related to cost of revenues)6,775 6,131 20,588 18,235 
Amortization of intangibles2,895 2,896 8,687 10,568 
Gross profit$13,271 $34,987 $63,942 $67,433 
Adjusted gross profit reconciliation:
Gross profit$13,271 $34,987 $63,942 $67,433 
Depreciation (related to cost of revenues)6,775 6,131 20,588 18,235 
Amortization of intangibles2,895 2,896 8,687 10,568 
Adjusted gross profit$22,941 $44,014 $93,217 $96,236 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources and Uses of Liquidity
Historically, we have met our liquidity needs principally from cash on hand, cash flow from operations and, if needed, external borrowings and issuances of debt securities. Our principal uses of cash are to fund capital expenditures, service our outstanding debt, and fund our working capital requirements. Due to our high level of variable costs and the asset-light make-up of our business, we have historically been able to quickly implement cost-cutting measures and will continue to adapt as the market dictates. We have also used cash to make open market repurchases of our debt and may, from time to time, continue to make such repurchases when it is opportunistic to do so to manage our debt maturity profile.
We continually monitor potential capital sources, including equity and debt financing, to meet our investment and target liquidity requirements. Our future success and growth will be highly dependent on our ability to continue to access outside sources of capital.
Although we do not budget for acquisitions, pursuing growth through acquisitions may continue to be a part of our business strategy. Our ability to make significant additional acquisitions for cash will require us to obtain additional equity or debt financing, which we may not be able to obtain on terms acceptable to us or at all.
At September 30, 2023, we had $12.2 million of cash and cash equivalents and $22.7 million of availability under the ABL Credit Facility (as defined and described below), which resulted in a total liquidity position of $34.9 million. Our liquidity position will be impacted by the semi-annual interest payments ($19.5 million based on amounts outstanding as of September 30, 2023) to the holders of the 2028 Notes, which began on August 1, 2023. We believe that, based on our current forecasts, our cash on hand, together with cash flow from operations and borrowings under the ABL Credit Facility, should be sufficient to fund our capital requirements for at least the next twelve months from the issuance date of our condensed consolidated financial statements. However, we can make no assurance regarding our ability to achieve our forecasts, which are materially dependent on our financial performance and the ever-changing market.
Units Offering and 2028 Notes
On January 30, 2023, we issued 300,000 units with an aggregate stated amount of $300.0 million (the “Units”). Each Unit consisted of $1,000 principal amount of our 13.000% Senior Secured Notes due 2028 (collectively, the “2028 Notes”) and five shares of our common stock (the “Common Stock”). We received proceeds of $279.8 million from the Units offering, after deducting underwriting discounts and commission, which was used to fund a portion of the redemption price of our 8.750% Senior Notes due 2023 (the “2023 Notes”).
Each Unit separated into its constituent securities (the 2028 Notes and the shares of our Common Stock) automatically on October 27, 2023. A holder of Units could have elected to separate its Units into its constituent securities, in whole but not in
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part, on or after March 31, 2023. Prior to such date, the Units could not be separated at the option of the holder.
On January 30, 2023, we, and certain of our subsidiaries entered into an indenture, dated as of January 30, 2023 (the “2028 Notes Indenture”), with U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association, as the trustee and as notes collateral agent, pursuant to which the 2028 Notes, which form a part of the Units, were issued. The 2028 Notes will mature on February 1, 2028 and bear interest at an annual rate of 13.000% payable in cash semi-annually in arrears on each of February 1 and August 1, commencing August 1, 2023. The 2028 Notes are our senior secured obligations and are guaranteed on a senior secured basis by each of our current domestic subsidiaries and will be so guaranteed by certain future subsidiaries, in each case, subject to agreed guaranty and security principles and certain exclusions.
On each May 15 and November 14, commencing November 14, 2023 (each, an “Excess Cash Flow Offer Date”), we are required to make an offer (an “Excess Cash Flow Offer”) to all holders of the 2028 Notes and, if required by the terms of any Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness (as defined in the 2028 Notes Indenture), to any holders of any Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness to purchase, prepay or redeem, together on a pro-rata basis, the maximum principal amount of the 2028 Notes and any such Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness (plus all accrued interest (including additional interest, if any) on the 2028 Notes and any such Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness and the amount of all fees and expenses, including premiums, incurred in connection therewith) that may be purchased, prepaid or redeemed using an amount of cash equal to the Excess Cash Flow Amount (as defined in the 2028 Notes Indenture and which is 75.0% of Excess Cash Flow (as defined in the 2028 Notes Indenture), as determined immediately prior to the Excess Cash Flow Offer Date), if any, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the 2028 Notes Indenture. The offer price in any such offer will be equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2028 Notes and any such Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness (or, in respect of any such Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness, such lesser price, if any, as may be provided for by the terms of such Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness), plus accrued and unpaid interest and additional interest, if any, to, but excluding, the date of purchase, prepayment or redemption, subject to the rights of holders of the 2028 Notes or any such Pari Passu Notes Lien Indebtedness on the relevant record date to receive interest due on an interest payment date that is on or prior to the date of purchase, prepayment or redemption, and will be payable in cash. For the Excess Cash Flow Offer Date of November 14, 2023, the Excess Cash Flow Amount will be $0 and, as such, no Excess Cash Flow Offer will be made.
The 2028 Notes Indenture contains covenants that, among other things and subject to certain exceptions and qualifications, limit our ability and the ability of our restricted subsidiaries to engage in certain activities. We were in compliance with the provision of the 2028 Notes Indenture at September 30, 2023.
For additional information on the Units and the 2028 Notes, see Note 8 – Debt Obligations included in Item 1 of Part I of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
2023 Notes
On October 25, 2018, we issued $400.0 million of 2023 Notes under an indenture, dated as of October 25, 2018 (the “2023 Notes Indenture”), by and among us, including certain of our subsidiaries, and Wells Fargo, National Association, as trustee. The 2023 Notes bore interest at an annual rate of 8.750% payable on May 1 and November 1 of each year. The 2023 Notes were senior unsecured obligations and were fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a senior unsecured basis by each of our domestic subsidiaries.
On February 1, 2023, all of the outstanding 2023 Notes were redeemed at a redemption price of 100.0% of the principal amount thereof ($307.3 million), plus accrued and unpaid interest ($6.7 million), and the 2023 Notes Indenture was discharged as of January 30, 2023.
For additional information on the 2023 Notes, see Note 8 – Debt Obligations included in Item 1 of Part I of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
ABL Credit Facility
On October 25, 2018, we entered into a credit agreement dated as of October 25, 2018 (the “2018 ABL Credit Agreement”) that permitted aggregate borrowings of up to $200.0 million, subject to a borrowing base, including a Canadian tranche with a sub-limit of up to $25.0 million and a sub-limit of $50.0 million for letters of credit (the “ABL Credit Facility”). Pursuant to the 2018 ABL Credit Agreement, the ABL Credit Facility was set to mature on October 25, 2023 or, if earlier, on the date that was 180 days before the scheduled maturity date of the 2023 Notes if they had not been redeemed or repurchased by such date.
On January 17, 2023, we entered into the First Amendment to Credit Agreement (the “ABL Facility Amendment”)
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with JP Morgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent, and the lender parties thereto, which amended certain terms of the 2018 ABL Credit Agreement (as amended, the “ABL Credit Agreement”). The ABL Facility Amendment became effective on January 30, 2023.
Pursuant to the ABL Facility Amendment, the maturity date of the ABL Credit Facility was extended from October 25, 2023 to January 29, 2027. In addition, the ABL Facility Amendment, among other changes, revised the terms of the ABL Credit Facility as follows: (a) decreased the size of the ABL Credit Facility from $200.0 million to $150.0 million, subject to the borrowing base (the “Loan Limit”), (b) changed the interest rate benchmark from London Interbank Offered Rate to Term Secured Overnight Financing Rate with a 10 basis point spread adjustment and increased pricing from the existing range of 1.75% to 2.25% to a range of 2.00% to 2.50%, in each case depending on our leverage ratio, (c) modified the financial covenant, enhanced reporting and cash dominion triggers in the ABL Credit Facility from the existing minimum availability threshold of the greater of $18.75 million and 12.5% of the Loan Limit to a minimum availability threshold of (i) $12.5 million from January 30, 2023 until May 31, 2023 and (ii) the greater of $17.5 million and 12.5% of the Loan Limit thereafter, (d) decreased the Canadian tranche sub-limit from $25.0 million to $5.0 million, (e) decreased the letter of credit sub-limit from $50.0 million to $10.0 million and (f) made satisfaction of the Payment Conditions (as defined in the ABL Facility Amendment) a condition to an Excess Cash Flow Offer in addition to a condition to voluntary payments of the 2028 Notes. The Payment Conditions in summary are (A) no default or event of default on a pro forma basis and (B) immediately after and at all times during the 30 days prior, on a pro forma basis, (1) (x) availability under the ABL Credit Facility shall not be less than the greater of 15% of the Loan Limit and $22.5 million and (y) the fixed charge coverage ratio shall be at least 1.00 to 1.00 or (2) availability under the ABL Credit Facility shall not be less than the greater of 20% of the Loan Limit and $30.0 million.
The ABL Credit Agreement contains various affirmative and negative covenants, including financial reporting requirements and limitations on indebtedness, liens, mergers, consolidations, liquidations and dissolutions, sales of assets, dividends and other restricted payments, investments (including acquisitions) and transactions with affiliates. We were in compliance with all covenants under the ABL Credit Agreement as of September 30, 2023.
Pursuant to the ABL Credit Agreement, all obligations under the ABL Credit Facility are secured by security interests (subject to permitted liens) in substantially all of the personal property of our domestic subsidiaries, excluding certain assets. The obligations under the Canadian tranche are further secured by security interests (subject to permitted liens) in substantially all of the personal property of Nine Energy Canada, Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of Alberta, Canada, and its restricted subsidiaries, excluding certain assets.
Both the ABL Credit Facility and the Units collateralization were completed within 30 days after closing of the Units offering in accordance with the terms of the ABL Facility Amendment and the 2028 Notes Indenture.
At September 30, 2023, we had $57.0 million of borrowings under the ABL Credit Facility, and our availability under the ABL Credit Facility was approximately $22.7 million, net of outstanding letters of credit of $1.3 million.
Cash Flows
Cash flows provided by (used in) operations by type of activity were as follows for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022: 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
20232022
(in thousands)
Operating activities$21,185 $8,231 
Investing activities(14,715)(6,247)
Financing activities(11,596)(1,806)
Impact of foreign exchange rate on cash(160)(197)
Net change in cash and cash equivalents$(5,286)$(19)
Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities was $21.2 million in the first nine months of 2023 compared to net cash provided of $8.2 million in the first nine months of 2022. The change was primarily attributed to a $32.7 million increase in cash provided by working capital, including an increase in cash collections in comparison to the first nine months of 2022. The change was partially offset by a $19.7 million decrease in cash flow provided by operations, adjusted for any non-cash items, in comparison to the first nine months of 2022.
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Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $14.7 million during the first nine months of 2023 compared to $6.2 million net cash used in the first nine months of 2022. The increase in net cash used was attributed to a $6.7 million increase in cash purchases of property and equipment, coupled with a $1.8 million decrease in proceeds from the sale of property and equipment (including insurance), in each case, in comparison to the first nine months of 2022.
Financing Activities
Net cash used in financing activities was $11.6 million during the first nine months of 2023 compared to $1.8 million net cash used in the first nine months of 2022. The increase in net cash used was primarily attributed to the $307.3 million redemption of the 2023 Notes and $6.3 million in debt issuance costs associated with the Units offering in the first nine months of 2023 that did not occur in the first nine months of 2022. The increase was also partly attributed to $15.0 million in payments on the ABL Credit Facility during the first nine months of 2023 that did not occur in the first nine months of 2022. The overall increase was largely offset by $279.8 million in proceeds received from the Units offering in the first nine months of 2023 that did not occur in the first nine months of 2022. The overall increase was also partially offset with an increase of $28.0 million in proceeds received in connection with the ABL Credit Facility in comparison to the first nine months of 2022 as well as $10.1 million of purchases of the 2023 Notes and $0.8 million of payments of the Magnum Promissory Notes (as defined in Note 8 – Debt Obligations) in the first nine months of 2022 that did not recur in the first nine months of 2023.
Critical Accounting Estimates
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of our financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Our critical accounting estimates, which are estimates made in accordance with GAAP that involve a significant level of estimation uncertainty and have had or are reasonably likely to have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations, are described in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Estimates” in Item 7 of Part II of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022. There have been no material changes to our critical accounting estimates as described therein.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 3 – New Accounting Standards included in Item 1 of Part I of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for a summary of recently issued accounting pronouncements.
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ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
As a “smaller reporting company,” as defined under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), we are not required to provide the information required by this Item.
ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Disclosure controls and procedures are controls and other procedures of an issuer that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the issuer in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by an issuer in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the issuer’s management, including its principal executive and financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
As required by Rule 13a-15(b) under the Exchange Act, our management, with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act) as of September 30, 2023. Based upon that evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of September 30, 2023.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during the quarterly period ended September 30, 2023 that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act).
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PART II – OTHER INFORMATION
ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time, we have various claims, lawsuits, and administrative proceedings that are pending or threatened with respect to personal injury, workers’ compensation, contractual matters, and other matters. Although no assurance can be given with respect to the outcome of these claims, lawsuits, or proceedings or the effect such outcomes may have, we believe any ultimate liability resulting from the outcome of such claims, lawsuits, or administrative proceedings, to the extent not otherwise provided for or covered by insurance, will not have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, or financial condition.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
There have been no material changes to the risk factors disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022. For a detailed discussion of known material factors which could materially affect our business, financial condition, or future results, refer to “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part I in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.
ITEM 2. UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES, USE OF PROCEEDS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
None.
ITEM 3. DEFAULTS UPON SENIOR SECURITIES
None.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
ITEM 5. OTHER INFORMATION
None.
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ITEM 6. EXHIBITS
The exhibits required to be filed or furnished by Item 601 of Regulation S-K are listed below.
Exhibit
Number
Description
3.1
  
3.2
31.1*
  
31.2*
  
32.1**
  
32.2**
101*Interactive Data Files (Formatted as inline XBRL).
104*Cover Page Interactive Data File (Formatted as inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101).
*    Filed herewith.
**    Furnished herewith in accordance with Item 601(b)(32) of Regulation S-K.
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized. 
   Nine Energy Service, Inc.
      
Date:November 6, 2023 By: /s/ Ann G. Fox
     Ann G. Fox
     President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
     (Principal Executive Officer)
      
Date:November 6, 2023 By: /s/ Guy Sirkes
     Guy Sirkes
     Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
     (Principal Financial Officer)

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