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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.

 

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from                    to                    .

 

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Date of event requiring this shell company report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

Commission file number: 001-38638

NIO Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s Name Into English)

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

Building 20, No. 56 AnTuo Road, Anting Town, Jiading District

Shanghai 201804, People’s Republic of China

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Wei Feng, Chief Financial Officer

Building 20, No. 56 AnTuo Road, Anting Town, Jiading District

Shanghai 201804, People’s Republic of China

Telephone: +8621-6908 2018

Email: ir@nio.com

(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

    

Trading Symbol

    

Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered

American depositary shares (each representing one Class A ordinary share,

par value US$0.00025 per shar

NIO

New York Stock Exchange

Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00025 per s

9866

The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:

As of December 31, 2021, there were (i) 1,415,333,557 Class A ordinary shares outstanding, par value US$0.00025 per share, (ii) 128,293,932 Class B ordinary shares outstanding, par value US$0.00025 per share and (iii) 148,500,000 Class C ordinary shares outstanding, par value US$0.00025 per share. All of the Class B ordinary shares were converted to Class A ordinary shares on March 10, 2022.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

†The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. § 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the

Other

International Accounting Standards Board

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes No

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

1

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

3

Part I.

5

Item 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

5

Item 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

5

Item 3. KEY INFORMATION

5

Item 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

75

Item 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

119

Item 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

137

Item 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

147

Item 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

150

Item 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING

151

Item 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

152

Item 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

163

Item 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

165

Part II.

170

Item 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

170

Item 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

170

Item 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

170

Item 16. A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

171

Item 16. B. CODE OF ETHICS

171

Item 16. C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

171

Item 16. D. EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

172

Item 16. E. PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

172

Item 16. F. CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

172

Item 16. G. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

172

Item 16. H. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

172

Item 16. I. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

172

Part III.

172

Item 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

172

Item 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

173

Item 19. EXHIBITS

174

i

INTRODUCTION

In this annual report on Form 20-F, or this annual report, except where the context otherwise requires and for purposes of this annual report only:

“AD” refers to autonomous driving.
“ADAS” refers to advanced driver assistance system;
“ADRs” refer to the American depositary receipts that evidence the ADSs;
“ADSs” refer to our American depositary shares, each of which represents one Class A ordinary share;
“AI” refers to artificial intelligence;
“BEVs” refer to battery electric passenger vehicles;
“China” or the “PRC” refers to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purpose of this annual report only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;
“Class A ordinary shares” refer to our Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00025 per share;
“Class B ordinary shares” refer to our Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.00025 per share;
“Class C ordinary shares” refer to our Class C ordinary shares, par value US$0.00025 per share;
“EVs” refer to electric passenger vehicles;
“FOTA” refers to firmware over-the-air;
“Hong Kong” or “HK” refers to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China;
“Hong Kong Listing Rules” are to the Rules Governing the Listing of Securities on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited, as amended or supplemented from time to time;
“Hong Kong Stock Exchange” are to The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited;
“ICE” refers to internal combustion engine;
“Main Board” are to the stock market (excluding the option market) operated by the Hong Kong Stock Exchange which is independent from and operated in parallel with the Growth Enterprise Market of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange;
“NEVs” refer to new energy passenger vehicles;
“NIO,” “we,” “us,” “our company,” and “our” refer to NIO Inc., our Cayman Islands holding company and its subsidiaries, and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, the VIE as of the date of this annual report, and depending on the context, may also refer to Shanghai Anbin Technology Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Anbin, which is no longer a consolidated VIE as of March 31, 2021, and its subsidiaries;
“Ordinary shares” refer to our Class A ordinary shares, Class B ordinary shares and Class C ordinary shares, each of par value US$0.00025 per share;
“RMB” or “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of China;

1

“US$,” “dollars” or “U.S. dollars” refer to the legal currency of the United States.

Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to Renminbi in this annual report are made at a rate of RMB6.3726 to US$1.00, the exchange rate in effect as of December 30, 2021 as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. We make no representation that any Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all. Unless otherwise specified, the description of our vehicles, services and business models in this report refers to our business in China.

2

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This annual report contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. These forward-looking statements are made under the “safe-harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors,” may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

You can identify these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “likely to,” “potential,” “continue” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

our goals and growth strategies;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;
our future business development, financial condition and results of operations;
the expected growth of the electric vehicles industry;
our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our products and services;
our expectations regarding our relationships with customers, contract manufacturers, component suppliers, third-party service providers, strategic partners and other stakeholders;
competition in our industry;
relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry; and
assumptions underlying or related to any of the foregoing.

These forward-looking statements involve various risks and uncertainties. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect. Our actual results could be materially different from our expectations. Other sections of this annual report include additional factors that could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. You should read thoroughly this annual report and the documents that we refer to with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from, or worse than, what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

This annual report contains certain data and information that we obtained from various government and private publications. Statistical data in these publications also include projections based on a number of assumptions. The electric vehicles industry may not grow at the rate projected by market data, or at all. Failure of this market to grow at the projected rate may have a material adverse effect on our business and the market price of our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares. In addition, the rapidly evolving nature of the electric vehicles industry results in significant uncertainties for any projections or estimates relating to the growth prospects or future condition of our market. Furthermore, if any one or more of the assumptions underlying the market data are later found to be incorrect, actual results may differ from the projections based on these assumptions. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

3

The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this annual report and the documents that we refer to in this annual report and exhibits to this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

4

PART I.

ITEM 1.       IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2.       OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3.       KEY INFORMATION

Our Holding Company Structure and Contractual Arrangements with the VIE

NIO Inc. is not an operating company in China but a Cayman Islands holding company with no equity ownership in its consolidated variable interest entities, or VIEs. We conduct our operations in China through (i) our PRC subsidiaries and (ii) Beijing NIO Network Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing NIO, the VIE with which we have maintained contractual arrangements. We have also established subsidiaries in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Norway and other overseas jurisdictions to promote our services and businesses, entering into business contracts with offshore counterparties and holding overseas intellectual properties.

PRC laws and regulations restrict and impose conditions on foreign investment in value-added telecommunication services, including without limitation, performing internet information services as well as holding certain related licenses. Accordingly, we operate these businesses in China through the VIE, and rely on contractual arrangements among a PRC subsidiary of ours, the VIE and its nominee shareholders to control the business operations of the VIE. As used in this annual report, “NIO,” “we,” “us,” “our company,” and “our” refer to NIO Inc., our Cayman Islands holding company and its subsidiaries, and in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, the VIE, Beijing NIO, and its subsidiaries, and depending on the context, may also refer to Shanghai Anbin, which is no longer a VIE as of March 31, 2021, and its subsidiaries.

5

The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure, including our principal subsidiaries and the VIE, as of the date of this annual report:

Graphic

In April 2018, we entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO, the two VIEs at the time, and their respective shareholders, to conduct certain future operations in China. These contractual arrangements enable us to:

receive the economic benefits that could potentially be significant to the VIEs in consideration for the services provided by our subsidiaries;
exercise effective control over the VIEs; and
hold an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in the VIEs when and to the extent permitted by PRC law.

These contractual agreements include an exclusive business cooperation agreement, exclusive option agreement, equity interest pledge agreement, loan agreement and power of attorney. For more details of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure— Contractual Agreements with the VIE and Its Shareholders.”

6

We intended to rely on the subsidiaries of Shanghai Anbin to conduct vehicle manufacturing, and we operate value-added telecommunication services, including without limitation, performing internet information services as well as holding certain related licenses, through Beijing NIO. The contractual arrangements with Shanghai Anbin were terminated in March 2021. Beijing NIO and Shanghai Anbin, the current and past VIEs, and their subsidiaries, taking into account all of their respective business with or without foreign investment restrictions under PRC laws, did not contribute any external revenue to our total revenues in 2019, 2020 and 2021. The current and past VIEs and their subsidiaries provided services internally to our subsidiaries, and such services amounted to nil, RMB0.2 million, and RMB0.6 million (US$0.1 million) for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. As of December 31, 2020 and 2021, Beijing NIO and Shanghai Anbin, the current and past consolidated VIEs, did not have significant operations or any material assets or liabilities.

Holdings of our ADSs and Class A ordinary shares are not holding equity interests in the VIE in China but instead hold equity interests in a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We do not have any equity interests in the VIE, Beijing NIO. However, as a result of contractual arrangements, we have effective control over and are considered the primary beneficiary of Beijing NIO, and we have consolidated the financial results of it in our consolidated financial statements. The nominee shareholders of Beijing NIO, Bin Li and Lihong Qin, are directors of our company. We consider Mr. Li and Mr. Qin suitable to act as the nominee shareholders of Beijing NIO because of, among other considerations, their contribution to our company, their competence and their length of service with and loyalty to our company. However, the contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over the VIE and we may incur substantial costs to enforce the terms of the arrangements. If Beijing NIO or the nominee shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we could be limited in our ability to enforce the contractual arrangements that give us effective control over Beijing NIO. Furthermore, if we are unable to maintain effective control, we would not be able to continue to consolidate the financial results of Beijing NIO in our financial statements. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—We rely on contractual arrangements with the VIE and its shareholders to exercise control over our business, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control” and “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—The shareholders of the VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.”

There are also substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules regarding the status of the rights of our Cayman Islands holding company with respect to its contractual arrangements with the VIE and its nominee shareholders. It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to contractual arrangements will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. If we or any of the existing or past VIEs is found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures. Our Cayman Islands holding company, our PRC subsidiaries and VIE, and investors of our company face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with the VIE and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of the VIE and our company as a whole. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government deems that our contractual arrangements with the VIE do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.”

PRC government’s significant authority in regulating our operations and its oversight and control over offerings conducted overseas by, and foreign investment in, China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors. Implementation of industry-wide regulations in this nature may cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or become worthless. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PRC government’s significant oversight and discretion over our business operation could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs.”

Risks and uncertainties arising from the legal system in China, including risks and uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws and quickly evolving rules and regulations in China, could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”

7

Permissions Required from the PRC Authorities for Our Operations

Our operations in China are governed by PRC laws and regulations. As of the date of this annual report, our PRC subsidiaries and VIE have obtained the requisite licenses and permits from the PRC government authorities that are material for the main business operations of our holding company, our PRC subsidiaries and the VIE in China, including, among others, the ICP license. Given the uncertainties of interpretation and implementation of relevant laws and regulations and the enforcement practice by relevant government authorities, we may be required to obtain additional licenses, permits, filings or approvals for our business operations in the future. For more detailed information, see “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulations on internet-related business, automotive businesses and other business carried out by our PRC subsidiaries and VIE.”

Meanwhile, the PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight and control over capital raising activities of listed companies that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers. For more detailed information, see “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The approval of or the filing with the CSRC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with our future offshore listings and capital raising activities under PRC law, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval or filing.”

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, was enacted on December 18, 2020. The HFCA Act states if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), or the PCAOB, for three consecutive years beginning in 2021, the SEC shall prohibit our shares or ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange. Since our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB has been unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditor is not currently inspected by the PCAOB, which may impact our ability to remain listed on a United States or other foreign exchange. The related risks and uncertainties could cause the value of our ADSs to significantly decline. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PCAOB is currently unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections over our auditor deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections” and “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Our ADSs will be prohibited from trading in the United States under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA, in 2024 if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or fully investigate auditors located in China, or in 2023 if proposed changes to the law are enacted. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.”

Cash Flows through Our Organization

NIO Inc. is a holding company with no material operations of its own. We conduct our operations in China primarily through our subsidiaries and the VIE in China. As a result, although other means are available for us to obtain financing at the holding company level, NIO Inc.’s ability to pay dividends to the shareholders and to service any debt it may incur may depend upon dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries and service fees paid by the VIE in China. If any of our subsidiaries incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing such debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends to NIO Inc. In addition, our PRC subsidiaries are permitted to pay dividends to NIO Inc. only out of their retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Further, our PRC subsidiaries and VIE are required to make appropriations to certain statutory reserve funds or may make appropriations to certain discretionary funds, which are not distributable as cash dividends except in the event of a solvent liquidation of the companies. For more details, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — B. Liquidity and Capital Resources — Holding Company Structure”.

8

Under PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiaries and VIE are subject to certain restrictions with respect to paying dividends or otherwise transferring any of their net assets to us. Remittance of dividends by a wholly foreign-owned enterprise out of China is also subject to examination by the banks designated by the State Administration of Foreign Exchange of the PRC, or SAFE. The amounts restricted include the paid-up capital and the statutory reserve funds of our PRC subsidiaries and the net assets of the VIE in which we have no legal ownership, totaling RMB20,733.5 million, RMB20,656.8 million and RMB38,902.1 million (US$6,104.6 million) as of December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively, and the net assets of the VIE that are restricted was nil as of each of these dates. For risks relating to the fund flows of our operations in China, see “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — We may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business”.

For purposes of illustration, the following discussion reflects the hypothetical taxes that might be required to be paid within China, assuming that: (i) we have taxable earnings, and (ii) we determine to pay dividends in the future.

    

Tax calculation (1)

 

Hypothetical pre-tax earnings

 

100

%

Tax on earnings at statutory rate of 25% (2)

 

(25)

%

Net earnings available for distribution

 

75

%

Withholding tax at standard rate of 10% (3)

 

(7.5)

%

Net distribution to Parent/Shareholders

 

67.5

%

Notes:

(1)

For purposes of this example, the tax calculation has been simplified. The hypothetical book pre-tax earnings amount, not considering timing differences, is assumed to equal taxable income in China.

(2)

Certain of our subsidiaries qualifies for a 15% preferential income tax rate in China. For purposes of this hypothetical example, the table above reflects a maximum tax scenario under which the full statutory rate would be effective.

(3)

The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law imposes a withholding income tax of 10% on dividends distributed by a foreign invested enterprise to its immediate holding company outside of China. A lower withholding income tax rate of 5% is applied if the FIE’s immediate holding company is registered in Hong Kong or other jurisdictions that have a tax treaty arrangement with China, subject to a qualification review at the time of the distribution. For purposes of this hypothetical example, the table above assumes a maximum tax scenario under which the full withholding tax would be applied.

Under PRC law, NIO Inc. may provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through capital contributions or loans, and to the VIE only through loans, subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration and approval requirements. In 2019, 2020 and 2021, NIO Inc. provided funding to our intermediate holding companies and subsidiaries through capital contributions. NIO Inc. also extended loans to its intermediate holding companies and subsidiaries with outstanding principal amount of RMB22.7 million, RMB19.7 million and RMB0.08 million (US$0.01 million) as of December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. These amounts were subsequently loaned to the nominee shareholders of the VIE for their investment in the VIE. In addition, the Company, through its subsidiary, also extended loans of RMB100 million to Shanghai Anbin and its subsidiary for the investment in NIO New Energy for the Company’s manufacturing plant in Shanghai in 2018. Upon the cancellation of this plan in 2020, Shanghai Anbin and its subsidiary incurred loss of RMB38.5 million for this investment due to start-up expenditure in manufacturing plant, and repaid the remaining RMB61.5 million to the Company’s subsidiary accordingly.

Pursuant to the exclusive business cooperation agreements dated April 19, 2018 and April 12, 2021, respectively, between Beijing NIO and NIO Co., Ltd., or Shanghai NIO, Shanghai NIO may adjust the payment time and payment method of the service fees, and Beijing NIO will accept any such adjustment. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, Shanghai NIO paid Beijing NIO nil, RMB0.2 million and RMB0.6 million (US$0.1 million), respectively, of service fees pursuant to the contractual arrangements.

NIO Inc. has not declared or paid any cash dividends, nor does it have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business. See “Item 8. Financial Information — A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information — Dividend Policy.”  For Cayman Islands, PRC and United States federal income tax considerations of an investment in our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares, see “Item 10. Additional Information — E. Taxation.”

9

As of December 31, 2020 and 2021 and for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, Beijing NIO and Shanghai Anbin, the current and past consolidated VIEs, did not have significant operations or any material assets or liabilities. As a result, the financial information related to the consolidated VIEs were insignificant to our consolidated financial statements.

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

The following selected consolidated statements of comprehensive loss data for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2020 and 2021 and selected consolidated cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. The following selected consolidated statements of comprehensive loss data for the year ended December 31, 2017 and 2018, the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019, and the selected consolidated cash flow data for the year ended December 31, 2017 and 2018 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that are not included in this annual report. Our historical results do not necessarily indicate results expected for any future periods. The selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” below. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP.

10

For the Year Ended December 31,

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

(in thousands, except for per share data)

Selected Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss:

 

  

 

  

 

Revenues(1)

 

  

  

 

  

 

Vehicle sales

 

4,852,470

7,367,113

 

15,182,522

 

33,169,740

5,205,056

Other sales

 

98,701

457,791

 

1,075,411

 

2,966,683

465,537

Total revenues

 

4,951,171

7,824,904

 

16,257,933

 

36,136,423

5,670,593

Cost of sales:(2)

 

  

  

 

 

Vehicle sales

 

(4,930,135)

(8,096,035)

 

(13,255,770)

 

(26,516,643)

(4,161,040)

Other sales

 

(276,912)

(927,691)

 

(1,128,744)

 

(2,798,347)

(439,122)

Total cost of sales

 

(5,207,047)

(9,023,726)

 

(14,384,514)

 

(29,314,990)

(4,600,162)

Gross (loss)/profit

 

(255,876)

(1,198,822)

 

1,873,419

 

6,821,433

1,070,431

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

Research and development(2)

 

(2,602,889)

(3,997,942)

(4,428,580)

 

(2,487,770)

 

(4,591,852)

(720,562)

Selling, general and administrative(2)

 

(2,350,707)

(5,341,790)

(5,451,787)

 

(3,932,271)

 

(6,878,132)

(1,079,329)

Other operating (loss)/income, net

(61,023)

152,248

23,891

Total operating expenses

 

(4,953,596)

(9,339,732)

(9,880,367)

 

(6,481,064)

 

(11,317,736)

(1,776,000)

Loss from operations

 

(4,953,596)

(9,595,608)

(11,079,189)

 

(4,607,645)

 

(4,496,303)

(705,569)

Interest and investment income

 

22,468

133,384

160,279

 

166,904

 

911,833

143,086

Interest expenses

 

(18,084)

(123,643)

(370,536)

 

(426,015)

 

(637,410)

(100,024)

Shares of (loss)/income of equity investees

 

(5,375)

(9,722)

(64,478)

 

(66,030)

 

62,510

9,809

Other (losses)/income, net

 

(58,681)

(21,346)

66,160

 

(364,928)

 

184,686

28,981

Loss before income tax expenses

 

(5,013,268)

(9,616,935)

(11,287,764)

 

(5,297,714)

 

(3,974,684)

 

(623,717)

Income tax expenses

 

(7,906)

(22,044)

(7,888)

 

(6,368)

 

(42,265)

 

(6,632)

Net loss

 

(5,021,174)

(9,638,979)

(11,295,652)

 

(5,304,082)

 

(4,016,949)

 

(630,349)

Accretion on convertible redeemable preferred value

 

(2,576,935)

(13,667,291)

 

 

 

Accretion on redeemable non-controlling interests to redemption value

 

(63,297)

(126,590)

 

(311,670)

 

(6,586,579)

 

(1,033,578)

Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests

 

36,440

41,705

9,141

 

4,962

 

31,219

 

4,899

Net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders of NIO Inc.

 

(7,561,669)

(23,327,862)

(11,413,101)

 

(5,610,790)

 

(10,572,309)

 

(1,659,028)

Net loss

 

(5,021,174)

(9,638,979)

(11,295,652)

 

(5,304,082)

 

(4,016,949)

 

(630,349)

Other comprehensive (loss)/income

 

 

 

 

Change in unrealized gains related to available-for-sale debt securities, net of tax

24,224

3,801

Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of nil tax

 

(124,374)

(20,786)

(168,340)

 

137,596

 

(230,345)

 

(36,146)

Total other comprehensive (loss)/income

 

(124,374)

(20,786)

(168,340)

 

137,596

 

(206,121)

 

(32,345)

Total comprehensive loss

 

(5,145,548)

(9,659,765)

(11,463,992)

 

(5,166,486)

 

(4,223,070)

 

(662,694)

Accretion on convertible redeemable preferred shares to redemption value

 

(2,576,935)

(13,667,291)

 

 

 

Accretion on redeemable non-controlling interests to redemption value

 

(63,297)

(126,590)

 

(311,670)

 

(6,586,579)

 

(1,033,578)

Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests

36,440

41,705

9,141

 

4,962

 

31,219

 

4,899

Other comprehensive income attributable to non-controlling interests

(4,727)

(742)

Comprehensive loss attributable to ordinary shareholders of NIO Inc.

 

(7,686,043)

(23,348,648)

(11,581,441)

 

(5,473,194)

 

(10,783,157)

 

(1,692,115)

Weighted average number of ordinary shares used in computing net loss per share

 

 

 

 

Basic and diluted

 

21,801,525

332,153,211

1,029,931,705

 

1,182,660,948

 

1,572,702,112

 

1,572,702,112

Net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders

 

 

 

 

Basic and diluted

 

(346.84)

(70.23)

(11.08)

 

(4.74)

 

(6.72)

 

(1.05)

Notes:

(1)We began generating revenues in June 2018, when we began making deliveries and sales of the ES8. We currently generate revenues from vehicle sales and other sales.
(2)Share-based compensation expenses were allocated in cost of sales and operating expenses as follows:

For the Year Ended December 31,

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

(in thousands)

Cost of sales

 

9,289

9,763

 

5,564

 

34,009

 

5,337

Research and development expenses

 

23,210

109,124

82,680

 

51,024

 

406,940

 

63,858

Selling, general and administrative expenses

 

67,086

561,055

241,052

 

130,506

 

569,191

 

89,318

Total

 

90,296

679,468

333,495

 

187,094

 

1,010,140

 

158,513

11

The following table presents our selected consolidated balance sheet data as of the dates indicated.

As of December 31,

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

(in thousands, except for share data)

Selected Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

Cash and cash equivalents

 

7,505,954

3,133,847

862,839

 

38,425,541

 

15,333,719

 

2,406,195

Restricted cash

 

10,606

57,012

82,507

 

78,010

 

2,994,408

 

469,888

Long-term restricted cash

 

14,293

33,528

44,523

 

41,547

 

46,437

 

7,287

Property, plant and equipment, net

 

1,911,013

4,853,157

5,533,064

 

4,996,228

 

7,399,516

 

1,161,146

Total assets

 

10,468,034

18,842,552

14,582,029

 

54,641,929

 

82,883,601

 

13,006,246

Total liabilities

 

2,402,028

10,692,210

19,403,841

 

22,779,686

 

44,820,178

 

7,033,265

Total mezzanine equity

 

19,657,786

1,329,197

1,455,787

 

4,691,287

 

3,277,866

 

514,369

Ordinary shares

 

60

1,809

1,827

 

2,679

 

2,892

 

454

Total shareholders’ (deficit)/equity

 

(11,591,780)

6,821,145

(6,277,599)

 

27,170,956

 

34,785,557

 

5,458,612

Total shares outstanding

 

23,850,343

1,050,799,032

1,064,472,660

 

1,526,539,388

 

1,643,669,180

 

1,643,669,180

The following table presents our selected consolidated cash flow data for the years indicated.

For the Year Ended December 31,

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

(in thousands)

Selected Consolidated Cash Flow Data:

Net cash (used in)/provided by operating activities

 

(4,574,719)

(7,911,768)

(8,721,706)

 

1,950,894

 

1,966,386

 

308,566

Net cash (used in)/ provided by investing activities

 

(1,190,273)

(7,940,843)

3,382,069

 

(5,071,060)

 

(39,764,704)

 

(6,239,949)

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

12,867,334

11,603,092

3,094,953

 

41,357,435

 

18,128,743

 

2,844,795

Effects of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

(168,120)

(56,947)

10,166

 

(682,040)

 

(500,959)

 

(78,609)

Net increase/(decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

6,934,222

(4,306,466)

(2,234,518)

 

37,555,229

 

(20,170,534)

 

(3,165,197)

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at the beginning of year

 

596,631

7,530,853

3,224,387

 

989,869

 

38,545,098

 

6,048,567

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at the end of year

 

7,530,853

3,224,387

989,869

 

38,545,098

 

18,374,564

 

2,883,370

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B.          Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.          Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.          Risk Factors

Summary of Risk Factors

An investment in our ADSs and Class A ordinary shares involves significant risks. Below is a summary of material risks we face, organized under relevant headings. These risks are discussed more fully in Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Risks and uncertainties related to our business and industry include, but are not limited to, the following:

Our ability to develop and manufacture vehicles of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and on a large scale is still evolving;
We have not been profitable, and have only recently generated positive cash flows from operations in certain periods;
Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic;
We have a limited operating history and face significant challenges as a new entrant into our industry;
Manufacturing in collaboration with partners is subject to risks;
The unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives or government policies which are favorable for electric vehicles and domestically produced vehicles could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects;
Our vehicles may not perform in line with customer expectations;
Any delays in the manufacturing and launch of the commercial production vehicles in our pipeline could have a material adverse effect on our business;
We may face challenges providing our power solutions;
We rely on Battery Asset Company to work together with us to provide Battery as a Service to our users. If Battery Asset Company fails to achieve smooth and stable operations, our Battery as a Service and reputation may be materially and adversely affected;
Our services may not be generally accepted by our users. If we are unable to provide good customer service, our business and reputation may be materially and adversely affected;
We are dependent on our suppliers, many of whom are our single source suppliers for the components they supply; and
Our business is subject to a variety of laws, regulations, rules, policies and other obligations regarding cybersecurity, privacy, data protection and information security. Any failure to comply with these laws, regulations and other obligations or any losses, unauthorized access or releases of confidential information or personal data could subject us to significant reputational, financial, legal and operational consequences.

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Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

We are also subject to risks and uncertainties related to our corporate structure, including, but not limited to, the following:

We are a Cayman Islands holding company with no equity ownership in the VIE and we conduct our operations in China through (i) our PRC subsidiaries and (ii) the VIE with which we have maintained contractual arrangements. Investors in our ADSs and Class A ordinary shares thus are not purchasing equity interests in the VIE in China but instead are purchasing equity interests in a Cayman Islands holding company. If the PRC government deems that our contractual arrangements with the VIE do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations. Our holding company in the Cayman Islands, the VIE and investors of our company face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with the VIE and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of the VIE and our company as a group;
We rely on contractual arrangements with the VIE and its shareholders to exercise control over our business, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control;
Our ability to enforce the equity pledge agreements between us and the VIE’s shareholders may be subject to limitations based on PRC laws and regulations; and
The shareholders of the VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

We face risks and uncertainties related to doing business in China in general, including, but not limited to, the following:

Changes in China’s political or social conditions or government policies could have a material and adverse effect on our business and results of operations;
Risks and uncertainties arising from the legal system in China, including risks and uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws and quickly evolving rules and regulations in China, could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs and Class A ordinary shares. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us”;
The PRC government’s significant authority in regulating our operations and its oversight and control over capital raising activities of listed companies conducted overseas by, and foreign investment in, China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors. Implementation of industry-wide regulations in this nature may cause the value of such securities to significantly decline. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The PRC government’s significant oversight and discretion over our business operation could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs”;
The approval of or the filing with the CSRC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with our future offshore listings and capital raising activities under PRC law, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval or filing;
We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulations on internet-related business, automotive businesses and other business carried out by our PRC subsidiaries and VIE; and

14

Our ADSs will be delisted or prohibited from being traded over-the-counter under the HFCA Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect auditors who are located in China. The delisting or the cessation of trading of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted or prohibited from being traded, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections. The work of our auditor as it relates to the China operations of itself and of any registrant that it serves is currently not inspected by the PCAOB. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report to notify the SEC its determinations that it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in the mainland of China, and identifies the registered public accounting firms in the mainland of China that are subject to such determinations. Our auditor is identified by the PCAOB and is subject to the determination.

Risks Related to Our ADSs and Class A Ordinary Shares

In addition to the risks described above, we are subject to risks related to our ADSs and Class A ordinary shares:

We adopt different practices as to certain matters as compared with many other companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange;
If we change the listing venue of our securities, including delisting from either of New York Stock Exchange and Hong Kong Stock Exchange, you may lose the shareholder protection mechanisms afforded under the regulatory regimes of the applicable securities exchange;
The trading prices of our listed securities have been and are likely to continue to be, volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors;
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs, the market price for our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs and trading volume could decline; and
Our multi-class voting structure will limit the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs to influence corporate matters, provide certain shareholders of ours with substantial influence and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Our ability to develop and manufacture vehicles of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and on a large scale is still evolving.

Our future business depends in large part on our ability to execute on our plans to develop, manufacture, market and sell our electric vehicles. We plan to manufacture our vehicles in higher volumes than our present production capabilities.

Our continued development and manufacturing of our current and future vehicle models are and will be subject to risks, including with respect to:

our ability to secure necessary funding;
the equipment we use being able to accurately manufacture the vehicle within specified design tolerances;
compliance with environmental, workplace safety and similar regulations;
securing necessary components on acceptable terms and in a timely manner;
delays in delivery of final component designs to our suppliers, or delays in the development and delivery of our core technologies and new vehicle models, such as our NIO Autonomous Driving, or NAD, and technologies for batteries;
our ability to attract, recruit, hire and train skilled employees;

15

quality controls;
delays or disruptions in our supply chain;
our ability to maintain solid partnership with our manufacturing partners and suppliers; and
other delays in manufacturing and production capacity expansion, and cost overruns.

We began making deliveries of the seven-seater ES8 in June 2018, the six-seater ES8 in March 2019, the ES6 in June 2019, the all-new ES8 in April 2020, and the EC6 in September 2020. In January 2021, we launched the ET7, a flagship premium smart electric sedan, and started its delivery in March 2022. In December 2021, we launched the ET5, a mid-size premium smart electric sedan, and estimated to start the delivery of the ET5 in September 2022. Our vehicles may not meet customer expectations and our future models may not be commercially viable.

Historically, automobile customers have expected auto companies to periodically introduce new and improved vehicle models. In order to meet these expectations, we may be required to introduce new vehicle models and enhanced versions of existing vehicle models. To date we have limited experience designing, testing, manufacturing, marketing and selling our electric vehicles and therefore cannot assure you that we will be able to meet customer expectations.

Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and growth prospects.

We have not been profitable, and have only recently generated positive cash flows from operations in certain periods.

We have not been profitable since our inception, and have only recently generated positive cash flows from operations in certain periods. We incurred net losses of RMB11,295.7 million, RMB5,304.1 million and RMB4,016.9 million (US$630.3 million) for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. In addition, although we generated positive cash flows from operation in 2020 and 2021, we had negative cash flows from operating activities of RMB8,721.7 million in 2019 and had negative cash flows from operation in the second and third quarters of 2021.

There can be no assurance that we will not experience liquidity problems in the future. We may not be able to fulfill our obligations in providing vehicles, embedded products or services to our users in respect of advances from customers, the failure of which may negatively affect our cash flow position. If we fail to generate sufficient revenue from our operations, or if we fail to maintain sufficient cash and financing, we may not have sufficient cash flows to fund our business, operations and capital expenditure and our business and financial position will be adversely affected.

We have made significant up-front investments in research and development, service network, and sales and marketing to rapidly develop and expand our business. We expect to continue to invest significantly in research and development and sales and service network, and in production capacity expansion, to further develop and expand our business, and these investments may not result in an increase in revenue or positive cash flow on a timely basis, or at all. We may continue to record net losses in the near future. We may not generate sufficient revenues or we may incur substantial losses for a number of reasons, including lack of demand for our vehicles and services, increasing competition, challenging macro-economic environment due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as other risks discussed herein, and we may incur unforeseen expenses, or encounter difficulties, complications and delays in generating revenue or achieving profitability. If we are unable to achieve profitability, we may have to reduce the scale of our operations, which may impact our business growth and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our continuous operation depends on our capability to improve operating cash flows as well as our capacity to obtain sufficient external equity or debt financing. If we do not succeed in doing so, we may have to limit the scale of our operations, which may limit our business growth and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Since the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in temporary closure of many corporate offices, retail stores, manufacturing facilities and factories across China and the world. In early 2020, in response to intensifying efforts to contain the spread of COVID-19, the Chinese government took a number of actions, which included, among others, extending the Chinese New Year holiday, quarantining and otherwise treating individuals who had contracted COVID-19, asking residents to remain at home and to avoid gathering in public. While such restrictive measures have been gradually lifted, our business has been and could continue to be adversely impacted by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although COVID-19 has been largely controlled in China, there have been

16

occasional outbreaks in several cities. To the extent we have service centers and vehicle delivery centers in these locations, we are susceptible to factors adversely affecting one or more of these locations as a result of COVID-19. Our results of operations have been and could continue to be adversely affected to the extent the COVID- 19 pandemic or any other epidemic harms the Chinese economy in general. We have experienced and may continue to experience impacts to certain of our customers and/or suppliers as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic occurring in one or more of these locations, which have materially and adversely affected our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In particular, in late March and April 2022, our vehicle production has been impacted by the supply chain volatilities and other constraints caused by a new wave of COVID-19 outbreaks in certain regions in China. The vehicle production has not reached full capacity of operations as of the date of this annual report. We will closely monitor the situation and its impact to our business and financial conditions. In addition, our operations have experienced and may continue to experience disruptions, such as temporary closure of our offices and/or those of our customers or suppliers and suspension of services, resulting in a reduction of vehicles manufactured and in turn fewer vehicles delivered, which have affected and may continue to materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow. Further, to the extent the COVID- 19 pandemic adversely affects our business and financial results, it has and may continue to have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this annual report, such as those relating to our level of indebtedness, our need to generate sufficient cash flows to service our indebtedness and our ability to comply with the covenants contained in the agreements that govern our indebtedness.

As a result of COVID-19, normal economic life throughout China was sharply curtailed and there were disruptions to normal operation of businesses in various areas, including the manufacturing and sales of vehicles in China. In addition, the ongoing global pandemic may adversely affect the supply chains, which in turn may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. The global pandemic, especially the situation in Europe, may also delay the execution of our overseas market expansion plan. Relaxation of restrictions on economic and social life may lead to new cases, which may lead to the re-imposition of restrictions. As a result, the duration of such business disruption and the resulting financial and operational impact on us cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may further impact our business and financial performance will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and largely beyond our control. Even if the economic impact of COVID-19 gradually recedes, the pandemic will have a lingering, long-term effect on business activities and consumption behavior. There is no assurance that we will be able to adjust our business operations to adapt to these changes and the increasingly complex environment in which we operate.

We have a limited operating history and face significant challenges as a new entrant into our industry.

We were formed in 2014 and began making deliveries to the public of our first volume manufactured vehicle, the seven-seater ES8, in June 2018. We began making deliveries of our second volume manufactured vehicle, the ES6, in June 2019. We began making deliveries of the all-new ES8 in April 2020, and our third volume manufactured vehicle, the EC6, in September 2020. In January 2021, we launched the ET7, a flagship premium smart electric sedan, and started its delivery in March 2022. In December 2021, we launched the ET5, a mid-size premium smart electric sedan, and estimated to commence the delivery of the ET5 in September 2022.

You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and challenges we face as a new entrant into our industry, including, among other things, with respect to our ability to:

design and produce safe, reliable and quality vehicles on an ongoing basis;
build a well-recognized and respected brand;
establish and expand our customer base;
successfully market not just our vehicles but also our other services, including our service package, energy package and other services we provide;
properly price our services, including our power solutions and service package and successfully anticipate the take-rate and usage of such services by users;
improve and maintain our operational efficiency;
maintain a reliable, secure, high-performance and scalable technology infrastructure;
attract, retain and motivate talented employees;

17

anticipate and adapt to changing market conditions, including technological developments and changes in competitive landscape; and
navigate an evolving and complex regulatory environment.

If we fail to address any or all of these risks and challenges, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

We have limited experience to date in high volume manufacturing of our electric vehicles. We cannot assure you that we will be able to develop efficient, automated, cost-efficient manufacturing capability and processes, and reliable sources of component supply that will enable us to meet the quality, price, engineering, design and production standards, as well as the production volumes required to successfully mass market our current and future vehicle models.

Furthermore, our vehicles are highly technical products that will require maintenance and support. If we were to cease or cut back operations, even years from now, buyers of our vehicles from years earlier might encounter difficulties in maintaining their vehicles and obtaining satisfactory support. We also believe that our service offerings, including user confidence in our ability to provide our power solutions and honor our obligations under our service package, will be key factors in marketing our vehicles. As a result, consumers will be less likely to purchase our vehicles now if they are not convinced that our business will succeed or that our operations will continue for many years. Similarly, suppliers and other third parties will be less likely to invest time and resources in developing business relationships with us if they are not convinced that our business will succeed.

Manufacturing in collaboration with partners is subject to risks.

Since 2016, Jianghuai Automobile Group Ltd., or JAC, a major state-owned automobile manufacturer in China, has been our partner for the joint manufacturing of our vehicles. In May 2021, we entered into renewed manufacturing agreements regarding the joint manufacturing of our vehicles and related fee arrangements with JAC and Jianglai Advanced Manufacturing Technology (Anhui) Co., Ltd., or Jianglai, the joint venture for operation management established by JAC and us where we hold 50% equity interests as of the date of this annual report. JAC built the JAC-NIO manufacturing plant in Hefei for the production of the ES8 and subsequently for the production of the ES6 and EC6 with a modified production line, as well as the ET7 and other future vehicles with us. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, we paid JAC for each vehicle produced on a per-vehicle basis monthly, and all of our vehicles were manufactured in the JAC-NIO manufacturing plant.

Pursuant to the renewed joint manufacturing arrangement we entered into with JAC and Jianglai in May 2021, from May 2021 to May 2024, JAC will continue to manufacture the ES8, ES6, EC6, ET7 and potentially other NIO models in the pipeline. In addition, JAC will expand its annual vehicle and component production capacity to 240,000 units (calculated based on 4,000 working hours per year) in order to meet the growing demand for our vehicles. We will be in charge of vehicle development and engineering, supply chain management, manufacturing techniques, and quality management and assurance. Jianglai will be responsible for parts assembly and operation management.

Collaboration with third parties for the manufacturing of vehicles is subject to risks with respect to operations that are outside our control. We could experience delays to the extent our partners do not meet agreed-upon timelines or experience capacity constraints. The volume of vehicles manufactured could fall short of expectation if there are any adverse changes in our partners’ liquidity position that causes their inability to discharge their obligations to manufacture vehicles. There is risk of potential disputes with partners, and we could be affected by adverse publicity related to our partners whether or not such publicity is related to their collaboration with us. Our ability to successfully build a premium brand could also be adversely affected by perceptions about the quality of our partners’ vehicles. In addition, although we are involved in each step of the supply chain and manufacturing process, given that we also rely on our partners to meet our quality standards, there can be no assurance that we will successfully maintain quality standards.

Our joint manufacturing arrangement with JAC will terminate in May 2024, upon which we will need to renew the contract with JAC or locate other manufacturing partners. We may be unable to enter into new agreements or extend existing agreements with JAC and other third-party manufacturing partners on terms and conditions acceptable to us and therefore may need to contract with other third parties or significantly add to our own production capacity. There can be no assurance that in such event we would be able to partner with other third parties or establish or expand our own production capacity to meet our needs on acceptable terms or at all. The expense and time required to complete any transition, and to assure that vehicles manufactured at facilities of new third-party partners comply with our quality standards and regulatory requirements, may be greater than anticipated. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

18

The unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives or government policies which are favorable for electric vehicles and domestically produced vehicles could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

Our growth depends significantly on the availability and amounts of government subsidies, economic incentives and government policies that support the growth of new energy vehicles. Favorable government incentives and subsidies in China include one-time government subsidies, exemption from vehicle purchase tax, exemption from license plate restrictions in certain cities, preferential utility rates for charging facilities and more. Changes in government subsidies, economic incentives and government policies to support NEVs could adversely affect the results of our operations.

China’s central government provides subsidies for purchasers of certain NEVs until 2022 and reviews and further adjusts the subsidy standard on an annual basis. The 2019 subsidy standard, effective from March 26, 2019, reduced the amount of national subsidies and canceled local subsidies, resulting in a significant reduction in the total subsidy amount applicable to the ES8 and ES6 as compared to 2018. The 2020 subsidy standard, effective from April 23, 2020, reduces the base subsidy amount in general by 10% for each NEV, sets subsidies for two million vehicles as the upper limit of annual subsidy scale; and provides that national subsidy shall only apply to NEVs that are either (i) with the sale price under RMB300,000 or (ii) equipped with battery swapping mechanism. Given that all of our vehicles are equipped with battery swapping mechanism, purchasers of all of our vehicles, regardless of sales price, are eligible to enjoy the PRC government’s subsidies to purchasers of new energy vehicles. We believe that our sales performance of ES8, ES6 and EC6 in 2019, 2020 and 2021 was negatively affected by the reduction in the subsidy standard to some extent. In addition, the current 2022 subsidy standard, effective from January 1, 2022, reduced by 30% compared to the standard of 2021, which could further affect our sales performance in 2022.

Our vehicles sales may also be impacted by government policies such as tariffs on imported vehicles and foreign investment restrictions in the industry. The tariff in China on imported passenger vehicles (other than those originating in the United States of America) was reduced to 15% starting from July 1, 2018. As a result, pricing advantage of domestically manufactured vehicles could be diminished. There used to be a certain limitation on foreign ownership of automakers in China, but for automakers of NEVs, such limit was lifted in 2018. Further, pursuant to the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access (2021 Version), or 2021 Negative List, most recently jointly promulgated by the Ministry of Commerce of the PRC, or the MOFCOM, and the National Development and Reform Commission of the PRC, or the NDRC, on December 27, 2021 and became effective on January 1, 2022, the limit on foreign ownership of automakers for ICE passenger vehicles was also lifted. As a result, foreign NEV competitors could build wholly-owned facilities in China without the need for a domestic joint venture partner. These changes could affect the competitive landscape of the NEV industry and reduce our pricing advantage, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Apart from vehicle purchase subsidies, China’s central government has adopted an NEV credit scheme that incentivizes OEMs to increase the production and sale of NEVs. Excess positive NEV credits (“automotive regulatory credits”) are tradable and may be sold to other enterprises through a credit trading scheme established by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the PRC, or the MIIT. For further information relating to automotive regulatory credits, please refer to “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations Relating to Parallel Credits Policy on Vehicle Manufacturers and Importers.” We have earned positive NEV credits through manufacturing new energy vehicles and sold some of our excess positive NEV credits to other vehicle manufacturers or importers. We generated revenue from the sale of automotive regulatory credits totaled RMB516.5 million (US$81.1 million) in 2021. The credits earned are calculated based on the formula published by the MIIT, which is dependent on various metrics such as vehicle mileage and battery energy efficiency. There is no guarantee that we will continue to earn a similar level or amount of credits going forward. Moreover, as the prices for automotive regulatory credits are subject to market demand, which affects the amount of regulatory credits generated by other vehicle manufacturers during a given period, we cannot assure you that we will continue to sell our automotive regulatory credits at the current price or a higher price. Any changes in government policies to restrict or eliminate such automotive regulatory credits trading could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Such negative influence and our undermined sales performance resulted therefrom could continue. Furthermore, China’s central government provides certain local governments with funds and subsidies to support the roll-out of charging infrastructure. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Favorable Government Policies Relating to New Energy Vehicles in the PRC.” These policies are subject to change and beyond our control. We cannot assure you that any changes would be favorable to our business. Furthermore, any reduction, elimination, delayed payment or discriminatory application of government subsidies and economic incentives because of policy changes, the reduced need for such subsidies and incentives due to the perceived success of electric vehicles, fiscal tightening or other factors may result in the diminished competitiveness of the alternative fuel vehicle industry

19

generally or our electric vehicles in particular. In addition, as we seek to increase our revenues from vehicle sales, we may also experience an increase in accounts receivable relating to government subsidies. However, the collection of the government subsidies is subject to the appropriation arrangement and cadence of the relevant governmental authority. Any uncertainty or delay in collection of the government subsidies may also have an adverse impact on our financial condition. For more details, please refer to “11. Other Non-current Assets” set forth in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Our vehicles may not perform in line with customer expectations.

Our vehicles may not perform in line with customers’ expectations. For example, our vehicles may not have the durability or longevity of other vehicles in the market, and may not be as easy and convenient to repair as other vehicles in the market. Any product defects or any other failure of our vehicles to perform as expected could harm our reputation and result in adverse publicity, lost revenue, delivery delays, product recalls, product liability claims, harm to our brand and reputation, and significant warranty and other expenses, and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

In addition, the range of our vehicles on a single charge declines principally as a function of usage, time and charging patterns as well as other factors. For example, a customer’s use of his or her electric vehicle as well as the frequency with which he or she charges the battery can result in additional deterioration of the battery’s ability to hold a charge.

Furthermore, our vehicles may contain defects in design and manufacture that may cause them not to perform as expected or that may require repair. We have delivered our vehicles with certain features of our NIO Pilot ADAS system initially disabled, and subsequently turned on some of these features. We have delivered the ET7 with certain features of the NAD, our next generation, proprietary full stack autonomous driving technology, and plan to gradually turn on more features of the NAD. We activated most of the announced functions of the NIO Pilot in 2019 and 2020, and plan to continue to explore more features of the NIO Pilot system in the future. We cannot assure you that our NIO Pilot system and NAD will ultimately perform in line with expectations. Our vehicles use a substantial amount of software code to operate and software products are inherently complex and often contain defects and errors when first introduced.

While we have performed extensive internal testing on our vehicles’ software and hardware systems, we have a limited frame of reference by which to evaluate the long-term performance of our systems and vehicles. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in the vehicles prior to their sale to consumers. If any of our vehicles fail to perform as expected, we may need to delay deliveries, initiate product recalls and provide servicing or updates under warranty at our expense, which could adversely affect our brand in our target markets and could adversely affect our business, prospects and results of operations.

Any delays in the manufacturing and launch of the commercial production vehicles in our pipeline could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We generally target to launch at least one new model every year in the near future as we ramp up our business. Auto companies often experience delays in the design, manufacture and commercial release of new vehicle models. We are planning to target a broader market with our future vehicles, and to the extent we need to delay the launch of our vehicles, our growth prospects could be adversely affected as we may fail to grow our market share. We also plan to periodically perform facelifts or refresh existing models, which could also be subject to delays. Furthermore, we rely on third-party suppliers for the provision and development of many of the key components and materials used in our vehicles. To the extent our suppliers experience any delays in providing us with or developing necessary components, we could experience delays in delivering on our timelines. Any delay in the manufacture or launch of our current or future vehicle models, including in the build-out of the manufacturing facilities in China for these models or due to any other factors, or in refreshing or performing facelifts to existing models, could subject us to customer complaints and materially and adversely affect our reputation, demand for our vehicles, results of operations and growth prospects.

We may face challenges providing our power solutions.

We provide our users with comprehensive power solutions. We install home chargers for users where practicable, and provide other solutions, including battery swapping, supercharging, charging through publicly accessible charging infrastructure and charging using our fast-charging vans. Our users are able to use our One Click for Power valet charging service where their vehicles are picked up, charged and then returned. For each of our vehicle models, we currently offer two battery options: (i) the 70 kWh and 75 kWh battery, or the Standard Range Battery; (ii) the 100 kWh battery, or the Long Range Battery. In January 2021, we announced the 150 kWh battery, or the Ultra-long Range Battery, with the next generation battery technology.

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We have very limited experience in the actual provision of our power solutions to users and providing these services is subject to challenges, including the challenges associated with sorting out the logistics of rolling out our network and teams in appropriate areas, inadequate capacity or over capacity of our services in certain areas, security risks or risk of damage to vehicles during One Click for Power valet services and the potential for lack of user acceptance of our services. In addition, although the Chinese government has supported the roll-out of a public charging network, the current number of charging infrastructures is generally considered to be insufficient. We also face uncertainties with regard to governmental support and public infrastructure as we roll out our power solutions, including whether we can obtain and maintain access to sufficient charging infrastructure, whether we can obtain any required permits and land use rights and complete any required filings, and whether the government support in this area may discontinue.

Furthermore, given our limited experience in providing power solutions, there could be unanticipated challenges which may hinder our ability to provide our solutions or make the provision of our solutions costlier than anticipated. To the extent we are unable to meet user expectations or experience difficulties in providing our power solutions, our reputation and business may be materially and adversely affected.

We rely on Battery Asset Company to work together with us to provide Battery as a Service to our users. If Battery Asset Company fails to achieve smooth and stable operations, our Battery as a Service and reputation may be materially and adversely affected.

On August 20, 2020, we introduced the Battery as a Service, or BaaS, which allows users to purchase electric vehicles and subscribe for the usage of batteries separately. If users opt to purchase a vehicle and subscribe for the battery under the BaaS, they can enjoy a deduction off the original vehicle purchase price and pay a monthly subscription fee for the battery.

Under the BaaS, we sell a battery to Wuhan Weineng Battery Asset Co., Ltd., or the Battery Asset Company, and the user subscribes for the usage of the battery from the Battery Asset Company. The service we provide to our users under the BaaS relies, in part, on the smooth operation of and stability and quality of service delivered by the Battery Asset Company, which we cannot guarantee. We invested in the Battery Asset Company with CATL, Hubei Science Technology Investment Group Co., Ltd. and a subsidiary of Guotai Junan International Holdings Limited, which we refer to as the Initial BaaS Investors in this annual report. We and the Initial BaaS Investors each invested RMB200 million and held 25% equity interests in the Battery Asset Company at its establishment. In August 2021, we invested an additional RMB270 million in the Battery Asset Company in connection with its series B financing. As a result of the several rounds of financings of the Battery Asset Company, we currently beneficially own approximately 19.8% of the equity interests in the Battery Asset Company. We refer to the Initial BaaS Investors together with the other investors of the Battery Asset Company that subsequently joined as the Battery Asset Company Investors. As a result, we only have limited control over the business operations of the Battery Asset Company. If it fails in delivering smooth and stable operations, we will suffer from negative customer reviews and even returns of products or services and our reputation may be materially and adversely affected.

Additionally, given that we generate a portion of our total revenues from sales of battery purchases and provision of service to the Battery Asset Company, our results of operations and financial performance will be negatively affected if the Battery Asset Company fails to operate smoothly. The Battery Asset Company may finance the purchase of batteries through issuance of equity and debt or bank borrowing. If the Battery Asset Company is unable to obtain future financings from the Battery Asset Company Investors or other third parties to meet its operational needs, it may not be able to continue purchasing batteries from us and providing them to our users through battery subscription, or otherwise maintain its healthy and sustainable operations. On the other hand, if the Battery Asset Company bears a significant rate of customer default on its payment obligations, its results of operations and financial performance may be materially impacted, which will in turn reduce the value of our and the Battery Asset Company Investors’ investments in the Battery Asset Company. In addition, in furtherance of the BaaS, we agreed to provide guarantee to the Battery Asset Company for the default in payment of monthly subscription fees from users, while the maximum amount of guarantee that can be claimed shall not be higher than the accumulated service fees we receive from the Battery Asset Company. As the BaaS user base is expanding, if an increased number of default occurs, our results of operations and financial performance will be negatively affected. As of December 31, 2021, the guarantee liability we provided to Battery Asset Company was immaterial.

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Our services may not be generally accepted by our users. If we are unable to provide good customer service, our business and reputation may be materially and adversely affected.

We aim to provide users with a good customer service experience, including by providing our users with access to a full suite of services conveniently through our mobile application and vehicle applications. In addition, we seek to engage with our users on an ongoing basis using online and offline channels, in ways which are non-traditional for automakers. We are also expanding our service scope to meet our users’ evolving demands. For example, in January 2021, we launched NIO Certified, our official used car business, where our users can sell their NIO vehicles to us and we will resell them for value. We have established a nationwide used vehicle business network, covering services including vehicle inspection, evaluation, acquisition and sales. In addition, we have also started to offer auto financing arrangements to our users directly through our subsidiary, NIO Financial Leasing Co., Ltd., in late 2020. New service offerings will subject us to unknown risks. We cannot assure you that our services, including our service package and energy package, our used car service, our auto financing services or our efforts to engage with our users using both our online and offline channels, will be successful, which could impact our revenues as well as our customer satisfaction and marketing.

Our servicing will partially be carried out through third parties certified by us. Although such servicing partners may have experience in servicing other vehicles, we and such partners have very limited experience in servicing our vehicles. Servicing electric vehicles is different from servicing ICE vehicles and requires specialized skills, including high voltage training and servicing techniques. There can be no assurance that our service arrangements will adequately address the service requirements of our users to their satisfaction, or that we and our partners will have sufficient resources to meet these service requirements in a timely manner as the volume of vehicles we deliver increases.

In addition, if we are unable to roll out and establish a widespread service network, user satisfaction could be adversely affected, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our sales, results of operations and prospects.

We have received only a limited number of reservations for our vehicles, all of which are subject to cancellation.

Intention orders and reservations for our vehicles are subject to cancellation by the customer until delivery of the vehicle. We have experienced cancellations in the past. Notwithstanding the non-refundable deposits we charge for the reservations, which are less than 1.5% of the MSRP, our users may still cancel their reservations for many reasons outside of our control. The potentially long wait from the time a reservation is made until the time the vehicle is delivered could also impact user decisions on whether to ultimately make a purchase, due to potential changes in preferences, competitive developments and other factors. If we encounter delays in the delivery our current or future vehicle models, we believe that a significant number of reservations may be cancelled. As a result, no assurance can be made that reservations will not be cancelled and will ultimately result in the final purchase, delivery, and sale of the vehicle. Such cancellations could harm our financial condition, business, prospects and operating results.

The automotive market is highly competitive, and we may not be successful in competing in this industry.

The automotive market is highly competitive. We have strategically entered into this market in the premium EV segment and we expect this segment will become more competitive in the future as additional players enter into this segment. Our vehicles also compete with ICE vehicles in the premium segment. Many of our current and potential competitors, particularly international competitors, have significantly greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than we do and may be able to devote greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sale and support of their products. We expect competition in our industry to intensify in the future in light of increased demand and regulatory push for alternative fuel vehicles, continuing globalization and consolidation in the worldwide automotive industry. Factors affecting competition include, among others, product quality and features, innovation and development time, pricing, reliability, safety, fuel economy, customer service and financing terms. Increased competition may lead to lower vehicle unit sales and increased inventory, which may result in downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects. Our ability to successfully compete in our industry will be fundamental to our future success in existing and new markets and our market share. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully in our markets. If our competitors introduce new vehicles or services that successfully compete with or surpass the quality or performance of our vehicles or services at more competitive prices, we may be unable to satisfy existing customers or attract new customers at the prices and levels that would allow us to generate attractive rates of return on our investment.

Furthermore, our competitive advantage as the company with the first-to-market and leading premium EV volume-manufactured domestically in China will be severely compromised if our competitors begin making deliveries earlier than expected, or offer more favorable price than we do.

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We may also be affected by the growth of the overall China automotive market. There have been fluctuations in the retail sales of the passenger vehicles in China in recent years. If the demand for automobiles in China decreases, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

We may face challenges in expanding our business and operations internationally and our ability to conduct business in international markets may be adversely affected by legal, regulatory, political and economic risks.

We face challenges and risks associated with expanding our business and operations globally into new geographic markets. New geographic markets may have competitive conditions, user preferences, and discretionary spending patterns that are more difficult to predict or satisfy than our existing markets. In certain markets, we have relatively little operating experience and may not benefit from any first-to-market advantages or otherwise succeed. We may also face protectionist policies that could, among other things, hinder our ability to execute our business strategies and put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to domestic companies. Local companies may have a substantial competitive advantage because of their greater understanding of, and focus on, the local users, as well as their more established local brand names, requiring us to build brand awareness in that market through greater investments in advertising and promotional activity. International expansion may also require significant capital investment, which could strain our resources and adversely impact current performance, while adding complexity to our current operations. We are subject to PRC law in addition to the laws of the foreign countries in which we operate. If any of our overseas operations, or our associates or agents, violate such laws, we could become subject to sanctions or other penalties, which could negatively affect our reputation, business and operating results.

In addition, we may face operational issues that could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and results of operations, if we fail to address certain factors including, but not limited to, the following:

lack of acceptance of our products and services, and challenges of localizing our offerings to appeal to local tastes;
conforming our products to regulatory and safety requirements and charging and other electric infrastructures;
failure to attract and retain capable talents with international perspectives who can effectively manage and operate local businesses;
challenges in identifying appropriate local business partners and establishing and maintaining good working relationships with them;
availability, reliability and security of international payment systems and logistics infrastructure;
challenges of maintaining efficient and consolidated internal systems, including technology infrastructure, and of achieving customization and integration of these systems with the other parts of our technology platform;
challenges in replicating or adapting our company policies and procedures to operating environments different from that of China;
national security policies that restrict our ability to utilize technologies that are deemed by local governmental regulators to pose a threat to their national security;
the need for increased resources to manage regulatory compliance across our international businesses;
compliance with privacy laws and data security laws and compliance costs across different legal systems;
heightened restrictions and barriers on the transfer of data between different jurisdictions;
differing, complex and potentially adverse customs, import/export laws, tax rules and regulations or other trade barriers or restrictions related compliance obligations and consequences of non-compliance, and any new developments in these areas;
business licensing or certification requirements of the local markets;
challenges in the implementation of BaaS and other innovative business models in countries and regions outside of China;

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exchange rate fluctuations; and
political instability and general economic or political conditions in particular countries or regions, including territorial or trade disputes, war and terrorism.

Failure to manage these risks and challenges could negatively affect our ability to expand our business and operations overseas as well as materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our industry and its technology are rapidly evolving and may be subject to unforeseen changes. Developments in alternative technologies or improvements in the internal combustion engine may materially and adversely affect the demand for our electric vehicles.

We operate in China’s electric vehicle market, which is rapidly evolving and may not develop as we anticipate. The regulatory framework governing the industry is currently uncertain and may remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. As our industry and our business develop, we may need to modify our business model or change our services and solutions. These changes may not achieve expected results, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and prospects.

Furthermore, we may be unable to keep up with changes in electric vehicle technology and, as a result, our competitiveness may suffer. Our research and development efforts may not be sufficient to adapt to changes in electric vehicle technology. As technologies change, we plan to upgrade or adapt our vehicles and introduce new models in order to provide vehicles with the latest technology, in particular digital technologies, which could involve substantial costs and lower our return on investment for existing vehicles. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete effectively with alternative vehicles or source and integrate the latest technology into our vehicles, against the backdrop of our rapidly evolving industry. Even if we are able to keep pace with changes in technology and develop new models, our prior models could become obsolete more quickly than expected, potentially reducing our return on investment.

Developments in alternative technologies, such as advanced diesel, ethanol, fuel cells or compressed natural gas, or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects in ways we do not currently anticipate. For example, fuel which is abundant and relatively inexpensive in China, such as compressed natural gas, may emerge as consumers’ preferred alternative to petroleum based propulsion. Any failure by us to successfully react to changes in existing technologies could materially harm our competitive position and growth prospects.

We may be unable to adequately control the costs associated with our operations.

We have required significant capital to develop and grow our business, including developing our vehicle models as well as building our brand. We expect to incur significant costs which will impact our profitability, including research and development expenses as we roll out new models and improve existing models, raw material procurement costs and selling and distribution expenses as we build our brand and market our vehicles. In addition, we may incur significant costs in connection with our services, including providing power solutions and honoring our commitments under our service package. Our ability to become profitable in the future will not only depend on our ability to successfully market our vehicles and other products and services but also to control our costs. If we are unable to cost efficiently design, manufacture, market, sell and distribute and service our vehicles and services, our margins, profitability and prospects will be materially and adversely affected.

We could experience cost increases or disruptions in supply of raw materials or other components used in our vehicles.

We incur significant costs related to procuring raw materials required to manufacture and assemble our vehicles. We use various raw materials in our vehicles including aluminum, steel, carbon fiber, non-ferrous metals such as copper, lithium, nickel as well as cobalt. The prices for these raw materials fluctuate depending on factors beyond our control, including market conditions and global demand for these materials, and could adversely affect our business and operating results. Our business also depends on the continued supply of batteries for our vehicles. Battery manufacturers may refuse to supply electric vehicle manufacturers to the extent they determine that the vehicles are not sufficiently safe. We are exposed to multiple risks relating to availability and pricing of quality lithium-ion battery cells. These risks include:

the inability or unwillingness of current battery manufacturers to build or operate battery manufacturing plants to supply the numbers of lithium-ion cells required to support the growth of the electric or plug-in hybrid vehicle industry as demand for such cells increases;

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disruption in the supply of cells due to quality issues or recalls by the battery manufacturers; and
an increase in the cost of raw materials, such as lithium, nickel and cobalt, used in lithium-ion cells.

Furthermore, currency fluctuations, tariffs or shortages in petroleum and other economic or political conditions may result in significant increases in freight charges and raw material costs. Substantial increases in the prices for our raw materials or components would increase our operating costs, and could reduce our margins. In addition, a growth in popularity of electric vehicles without a significant expansion in battery production capacity could result in shortages which would result in increased costs in raw materials to us or impact of prospects.

We are dependent on our suppliers, many of whom are our single source suppliers for the components they supply.

Each of our vehicle models uses a great amount of purchased parts from suppliers, many of whom are currently our single source suppliers for these components, and we expect that this will be similar for any future vehicle we may produce. The supply chain exposes us to multiple potential sources of delivery failure or component shortages. While we obtain components from multiple sources whenever possible, similar to other players in our industry, many of the components used in our vehicles are purchased by us from a single source. To date, we have not qualified alternative sources for most of the single sourced components used in our vehicles and we generally do not maintain long-term agreements with our single source suppliers.

Furthermore, qualifying alternative suppliers or developing our own replacements for certain highly customized components of our vehicles, such as the air suspension system and the steering system, may be time-consuming and costly. Any disruption in the supply of components, whether or not from a single source supplier, could temporarily disrupt the production of our vehicles until an alternative supplier is fully qualified by us or is otherwise able to supply us with the required material. There can be no assurance that we would be able to successfully retain alternative suppliers or supplies on a timely basis, on acceptable terms or at all. Changes in business conditions, force majeure, governmental changes and other factors beyond our control or which we do not presently anticipate, could also affect our suppliers’ ability to deliver components to us on a timely basis. For example, the current global supply constraint of semiconductor chips has negatively impacted our production activity and volume, as a result of which, we temporarily suspended the vehicle production activity in the JAC-NIO manufacturing plant in Hefei for five working days starting from March 29, 2021. In May 2021, our vehicle delivery was adversely impacted for several days due to the volatility of semiconductor supply and certain logistical adjustments. In April 2022, we suspended our vehicle production as a result of the component shortages. See “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business and Industry —Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.” Our production activity and results of operations may be further impacted should the semiconductor chip shortage continue. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Our business is subject to a variety of laws, regulations, rules, policies and other obligations regarding cybersecurity, privacy, data protection and information security. Any failure to comply with these laws, regulations and other obligations or any losses, unauthorized access or releases of confidential information or personal data could subject us to significant reputational, financial, legal and operational consequences.

We use our vehicles’ electronic systems to log information about each vehicle’s use, such as charge time, battery usage, mileage and driving behavior, in order to aid us in vehicle diagnostics, repair and maintenance, as well as to help us customize and optimize the driving and riding experience. Our users may object to the use of this data, which may hinder our capabilities in conducting our business. Collection, possession and use of our user’s data in conducting our business may subject us to legislative and regulatory burdens in China and other jurisdictions that could require notification of any data breach, restrict our use of such information and hinder our ability to acquire new customers or market to existing customers. If users allege that we have improperly collected, used, transmitted, released or disclosed their personal information, we could face legal claims and reputational damage. We may incur significant expenses to comply with privacy, consumer protection and security standards and protocols imposed by laws, regulations, industry standards or contractual obligations. If third parties improperly obtain and use the personal information of our users, we may be required to expend significant resources to resolve these problems.

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In general, we expect that data security and data protection compliance will receive greater attention and focus from regulators, both domestically and globally, as well as attract continued or greater public scrutiny and attention going forward, which could increase our compliance costs and subject us to heightened risks and challenges associated with data security and protection. If we are unable to manage these risks, we could become subject to penalties, including fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, and our reputation and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

The PRC regulatory and enforcement regime with regard to data security and data protection is evolving and may be subject to different interpretations or significant changes. Moreover, different PRC regulatory bodies, including the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of China, or the SCNPC, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT, the Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, the Ministry of Public Security, or the MPS and the State Administration for Market Regulation, or the SAMR, have enforced data privacy and protections laws and regulations with varying standards and applications. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on Internet Information Security and Privacy Protection.” The following are examples of certain recent PRC regulatory activities in this area:

Data Security

In June 2021, the SCNPC promulgated the Data Security Law, which took effect in September 2021. The Data Security Law, among other things, provides for security review procedure for data-related activities that may affect national security. In July 2021, the State Council of the PRC promulgated the Regulations on the Protection of the Security of Critical Information Infrastructure, which became effective on September 1, 2021. Pursuant to this regulation, critical information infrastructure means key network facilities or information systems of critical industries or sectors, such as public communication and information service, energy, transportation, water conservation, finance, public services, e-government affairs and national defence science, the damage, malfunction or data leakage of which may endanger national security, people’s livelihoods and the public interest. In December 2021, the CAC, together with other authorities, jointly promulgated the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which became effective on February 15, 2022 and replaces its predecessor regulation. Pursuant to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, critical information infrastructure operators that procure internet products and services and network platform operators that conduct data process activities must be subject to the cybersecurity review if their activities affect or may affect national security. The Cybersecurity Review Measures further stipulates that network platform operators that hold personal information of over one million users shall apply with the Cybersecurity Review Office for a cybersecurity review before any public offering at a foreign stock exchange. As of the date of this annual report, no detailed rules or implementation rules have been issued by any authority and we have not been informed that we are a critical information infrastructure operator by any government authorities. Furthermore, the exact definition, scope or criteria of “critical information infrastructure operators”, “network platform operators” and “users’ personal information” under the current regulatory regime remains unclear, and the PRC government authorities may have wide discretion in the interpretation and enforcement of the applicable laws. Therefore, it is uncertain whether we would be deemed to be a critical information infrastructure operator or network platform operator under PRC law. If we are deemed to be a critical information infrastructure operator or network platform operator under the PRC cybersecurity laws and regulations, we may be subject to obligations in addition to what we have fulfilled under the PRC cybersecurity laws and regulations.

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In November 2021, the CAC released the Administration Regulations on the Cyber Data Security (Draft for Comments), or the Draft Regulations. The Draft Regulations provide that data processors refer to individuals or organizations that, during their data processing activities such as data collection, storage, utilization, transmission, publication and deletion, have autonomy over the purpose and the manner of data processing. In accordance with the Draft Regulations, data processors shall apply for a cybersecurity review for certain activities, including, among other things, (i) the listing abroad of data processors that process the personal information of more than one million users and (ii) any data processing activity that affects or may affect national security. However, there have been no clarifications from the relevant authorities as of the date of this annual report as to the standards for determining whether an activity is one that “affects or may affect national security.” In addition, the Draft Regulations requires that data processors that process “important data” or are listed overseas must conduct an annual data security assessment by itself or commission a data security service provider to do so, and submit the assessment report of the preceding year to the municipal cybersecurity department by the end of January each year. As of the date of this annual report, the Draft Regulations was released for public comment only, and their respective provisions and anticipated adoption or effective date may be subject to change with substantial uncertainty.

Personal Information and Privacy

In August 2021, the SCNPC promulgated the Personal Information Protection Law, which integrates the scattered rules with respect to personal information rights and privacy protection and took effect on November 1, 2021. We update our policies and binding contracts related to personal data and cybersecurity protection from time to time to meet the latest regulatory requirements of applicable PRC laws and regulations, and adopt technical measures to protect such data and ensure cybersecurity in a systematic manner. Nonetheless, the Personal Information Protection Law elevates the protection requirements for personal information processing, and many specific requirements of this law remain to be clarified by the CAC, other regulatory authorities, and courts in practice. We may be required to make further adjustments to our business practices to comply with the personal information protection laws and regulations.

Many of the data-related legislations are relatively new and certain concepts thereunder remain subject to interpretation by the regulators. If any data that we possess belongs to data categories that are subject to heightened scrutiny, we may be required to adopt stricter measures for protection and management of such data. The Cybersecurity Review Measures and the Draft Regulations remain unclear on whether the relevant requirements will be applicable to companies that are already listed in the United States, such as us. We cannot predict the impact of the Cybersecurity Review Measures and the Draft Regulations, if any, at this stage, and we will closely monitor and assess any development in the rule-making process. If the Cybersecurity Review Measures and the enacted version of the Draft Regulations mandate clearance of cybersecurity review and other specific actions to be taken by issuers like us, we face uncertainties as to whether these additional procedures can be completed by us timely, or at all, which may subject us to government enforcement actions and investigations, fines, penalties, suspension of our non-compliant operations, or removal of our app from the relevant application stores, and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. As of the date of this annual report, we have not been involved in any formal investigations on cybersecurity review made by the CAC on such basis.

In general, compliance with the existing PRC laws and regulations, as well as additional laws and regulations that PRC regulatory bodies may enact in the future, related to data security and personal information protection, may be costly and result in additional expenses to us, and subject us to negative publicity, which could harm our reputation and business operations. There are also uncertainties with respect to how such laws and regulations will be implemented and interpreted in practice.

In addition, regulatory authorities around the world have adopted or are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection. These legislative and regulatory proposals, if adopted, and the uncertain interpretations and application thereof could, in addition to the possibility of fines, result in an order requiring that we change our data practices and policies, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. The European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which came into effect on May 25, 2018, includes operational requirements for companies that receive or process personal data of residents of the European Economic Area. The GDPR establishes new requirements applicable to the processing of personal data, affords new data protection rights to individuals and imposes penalties for serious data breaches. Individuals also have a right to compensation under the GDPR for financial or non-financial losses. Although we do not conduct any business in the European Economic Area, in the event that residents of the European Economic Area access our website or our mobile platform and input protected information, we may become subject to provisions of the GDPR.

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Our business and prospects depend significantly on our ability to build our NIO brand. We may not succeed in continuing to establish, maintain and strengthen the NIO brand, and our brand and reputation could be harmed by negative publicity regarding our company or products.

Our business and prospects are heavily dependent on our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the “NIO” brand. If we do not continue to establish, maintain and strengthen our brand, we may lose the opportunity to build a critical mass of customers. Promoting and positioning our brand will likely depend significantly on our ability to provide high quality vehicles and services and engage with our customers as intended and we have limited experience in these areas. In addition, we expect that our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the NIO brand will depend heavily on the success of our user development and branding efforts. Such efforts mainly include building a community of online and offline users engaged with us through our mobile application, NIO Houses, NIO Spaces as well as other branding initiatives such as our annual NIO Day, Formula E team sponsorship, and other automotive shows and events. Such efforts may be non-traditional and may not achieve the desired results. To promote our brand, we may be required to change our user development and branding practices, which could result in substantially increased expenses, including the need to use traditional media such as television, radio and print. If we do not develop and maintain a strong brand, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be materially and adversely impacted.

In addition, if incidents occur or are perceived to have occurred, whether or not such incidents are our fault, we could be subject to adverse publicity. In particular, given the popularity of social media, including WeChat/Weixin in China, any negative publicity, whether true or not, could quickly proliferate and harm consumer perceptions and confidence in our brand. Furthermore, there is the risk of potential adverse publicity related to our manufacturing and other partners, such as JAC and NIO Capital, whether or not such publicity related to their collaboration with us. Our ability to successfully position our brand could also be adversely affected by perceptions about the quality of JAC’s vehicles.

In addition, from time to time, our vehicles are evaluated and reviewed by third parties. Any negative reviews or reviews which compare us unfavorably to competitors could adversely affect consumer perception about our vehicles.

Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our executive officers, key employees and qualified personnel, and our operations may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.

Our success depends substantially on the continued efforts of our executive officers and key employees. If one or more of our executive officers or key employees were unable or unwilling to continue their services with us, we might not be able to replace them easily, in a timely manner, or at all. As we build our brand and become more well-known, the risk that competitors or other companies may poach our talent increases. Our industry is characterized by high demand and intense competition for talent and therefore we cannot assure you that we will be able to attract or retain qualified staff or other highly skilled employees. In addition, because our electric vehicles are based on a different technology platform than traditional ICE vehicles, individuals with sufficient training in electric vehicles may not be available to hire, and we will need to expend significant time and expense training the employees we hire. We also require sufficient talent in areas such as software development. Furthermore, as our company is relatively young, our ability to train and integrate new employees into our operations may not meet the growing demands of our business, which may materially and adversely affect our ability to grow our business and our results of operations.

If any of our executive officers and key employees terminates his or her services with us, our business may be severely disrupted, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel. We have not obtained any “key person” insurance on our key personnel. If any of our executive officers or key employees joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose customers, know-how and key professionals and staff members. To the extent permitted by laws, each of our executive officers and key employees has entered into an employment agreement and a non-compete agreement with us. However, if any dispute arises between our executive officers or key employees and us, the non-competition provisions contained in their non-compete agreements may not be enforceable, especially in China, where these executive officers reside, on the ground that we have not provided adequate compensation to them for their non-competition obligations, which is required under relevant PRC laws.

Our future growth is dependent on the demand for, and upon consumers’ willingness to adopt, electric vehicles.

Demand for automobile sales depends to a large extent on general, economic, political and social conditions in a given market and the introduction of new vehicles and technologies. As our business grows, economic conditions and trends will impact our business, prospects and operating results as well.

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Demand for our electric vehicles may also be affected by factors directly impacting automobile prices or the cost of purchasing and operating automobiles, such as sales and financing incentives, prices of raw materials and parts and components, cost of fuel and governmental regulations, including tariffs, import regulation and other taxes. Volatility in demand may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which may result in further downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

In addition, the demand for our vehicles and services will highly depend upon the adoption by consumers of new energy vehicles in general and electric vehicles in particular. The market for new energy vehicles is still rapidly evolving, characterized by rapidly changing technologies, competitive pricing and competitive factors, evolving government regulation and industry standards and changing consumer demands and behaviors.

Other factors that may influence the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles, and specifically electric vehicles, include:

perceptions about electric vehicle quality, safety, design, performance and cost, especially if adverse events or accidents occur that are linked to the quality or safety of electric vehicles, whether or not such vehicles are produced by us or other companies;
perceptions about vehicle safety in general, in particular safety issues that may be attributed to the use of advanced technology, including electric vehicle and regenerative braking systems;
the limited range over which electric vehicles may be driven on a single battery charge and the speed at which batteries can be recharged;
the decline of an electric vehicle’s range resulting from deterioration over time in the battery’s ability to hold a charge;
concerns about electric grid capacity and reliability;
the availability of new energy vehicles, including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles;
improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine;
the availability of service for electric vehicles;
the environmental consciousness of consumers;
access to charging stations, standardization of electric vehicle charging systems and consumers’ perceptions about convenience and cost to charge an electric vehicle;
the availability of tax and other governmental incentives to purchase and operate electric vehicles or future regulation requiring increased use of nonpolluting vehicles;
perceptions about and the actual cost of alternative fuel; and
macroeconomic factors.

Any of the factors described above may cause current or potential customers not to purchase our electric vehicles and use our services. If the market for electric vehicles does not develop as we expect or develops more slowly than we expect, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be affected.

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We depend on revenue generated from a limited number of models and in the foreseeable future will be significantly dependent on a limited number of models.

Our business currently depends substantially on the sales and success of a limited number of models that we have launched. Historically, automobile customers have come to expect a variety of vehicle models offered in a company’s fleet and new and improved vehicle models to be introduced frequently. In order to meet these expectations, we plan in the future to introduce on a regular basis new vehicle models as well as enhance versions of existing vehicle models. To the extent our product variety and cycles do not meet consumer expectations, or cannot be produced on our projected timelines and cost and volume targets, our future sales may be adversely affected. Given that for the foreseeable future our business will depend on a limited number of models, to the extent a particular model is not well-received by the market, our sales volume could be materially and adversely affected. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

We are subject to risks related to customer credit.

We provided our users with the option of a battery payment arrangement, where users can make battery payments in installments. For the ES8 ordered before January 15, 2019, there is an RMB 100,000 deduction in the purchase price and users adopting this arrangement pay RMB1,280 per month, payable over 78 months. For the ES8, ES6 and EC6 ordered between January 16, 2019 and August 19, 2020, there is an RMB 100,000 deduction in the purchase price and users adopting this arrangement pay RMB 1,660 per month, payable over 60 months. We are exposed to the creditworthiness of our users since we expect them to make monthly payments for vehicle batteries under the battery payment arrangement.

We also offer auto financing arrangements to users directly through our subsidiaries. Under the financing arrangements we typically receive a small portion of the total vehicle purchase price at the commencement of the financing term, followed by a stream of payments over the financing term. To the extent our users fail to make payments on time under any of the foregoing arrangements, our results of operations may be adversely affected. As of December 31, 2021, the amount of auto financing receivables was RMB3,974.0 million (US$623.6 million). As we continue to grow our business, we may increase the amount of our auto financing receivables. We may fail to effectively manage the credit risks related to our auto financing arrangements. To the extent our users default on their obligations to us or fail to make payments on time under any of the foregoing arrangements, our results of operations may be adversely affected.

We may be exposed to credit risk of trade receivable.

Our trade receivable primarily includes amounts of vehicle sales in relation of government subsidy to be collected from government on behalf of customers, auto financing receivables, current portion of battery installment and receivables due from vehicle users. We have identified the relevant risk characteristics of our customers and the related receivables, prepayments, deposits and other receivables which include size, type of the services or the products we provide, or a combination of these characteristics. Receivables with similar risk characteristics have been grouped into pools. For each pool, we consider the historical credit loss, current economic conditions, supportable forecasts of future economic conditions, and any recoveries in assessing the lifetime expected credit losses. Other key factors that influence the expected credit loss analysis include customer demographics, payment terms offered in the normal course of business to customers, and industry-specific factors that could impact our receivables. Additionally, external data and macroeconomic factors are also considered. In 2021, we recorded RMB54.3 million (US$8.5 million) expected credit loss expense in selling, general and administrative expenses. As of December 31, 2021, the expected credit loss provision for the current and non-current assets were RMB91.3 million (US$14.3 million). We cannot assure you that all of our customers will not default on their obligations to us in the future, despite our efforts to conduct credit assessment on them.

We face inventory risks that, if not properly managed, could harm our financial condition, operating results, and prospects.

We are exposed to significant inventory risks that may adversely affect our operating results as a result of increased competition, seasonality, new models launches, rapid changes in vehicle life cycles and pricing, defective vehicles, changes in consumer demand and consumer spending patterns, and other factors. We endeavor to accurately predict these trends and avoid overstocking or understocking issues. Demand for our vehicles, however, can change significantly between the time inventory or components are ordered and the date of sale. We may misjudge customer demand, resulting in inventory buildup and possible significant inventory write-down. It may also make it more difficult for us to inspect and control quality and ensure proper handling, storage and delivery. We may experience higher return rates on new vehicles, receive more customer complaints about them and face costly product liability claims as a result of selling them, which would harm our brand and reputation as well as our financial performance.

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We might not be able to fulfil our obligation in respect of deferred revenue, which might have impact on our cash or liquidity position.

Our recognition of deferred revenue is subject to future performance obligations, mainly including the transaction price allocated to the performance obligations that are unsatisfied, or partially satisfied, which mainly arises from the undelivered home chargers, the vehicle connectivity service, the extended warranty service, the points offered to customers as well as battery swapping service embedded in the vehicle sales contract. We may have multiple performance obligations identified in the vehicle sales contract and the sales of service and energy packages to transfer goods or services to a customer for which we have received consideration, or an amount of consideration is due, from the customer, which is recorded as deferred revenue. Due to potential future changes in customer preferences and the need for us to satisfactorily perform product support and other services, deferred revenue at any particular date may not be representative of actual revenue for any current or future period. Any failure to fulfil the obligations in respect of deferred revenue may have an adverse impact on our results of operations and liquidity.

Fluctuation of fair value change of short-term investments we made may affect our results of operations.

For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, our short-term investments consisted primarily of investments in fixed deposits with maturities between three months and one year and investments in money market funds and financial products issued by banks. The methodologies that we use to assess the fair value of the short-term investment involve a significant degree of management judgment and are inherently uncertain. In addition, we are exposed to credit risks in relation to our short-term investments, which may adversely affect the net changes in their fair value. We cannot assure you that market conditions will create fair value gains on our short-term investment or we will not incur any fair value losses on our short-term investment in the future. If we incur such fair value losses, our results of operations, financial condition and prospects may be adversely affected.

We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.

We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. The automotive industry experiences significant product liability claims and we face inherent risk of exposure to claims in the event our vehicles do not perform as expected or malfunction resulting in property damage, personal injury or death. Our risks in this area are particularly pronounced given we have limited field experience of our vehicles. In addition, we may be subject to product liability claims for defective components and parts that are manufactured by our third-party partners. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. Moreover, a product liability claim could generate substantial negative publicity about our vehicles and business and inhibit or prevent commercialization of our future vehicle candidates which would have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, prospects and operating results. Any insurance coverage might not be sufficient to cover all potential product liability claims. Any lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages may have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and financial condition.

Our vehicles are subject to motor vehicle standards and the failure to satisfy such mandated safety standards would have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

All vehicles sold must comply with various standards of the market where the vehicles were sold. In China, vehicles must meet or exceed all mandated safety standards. Rigorous testing and the use of approved materials and equipment are among the requirements for achieving such standards. Vehicles must pass various tests and undergo a certification process and be affixed with the CCC certification, before receiving delivery from the factory, being sold, or being used in any commercial activity. In addition, the Access Administration Opinion requires vehicles manufacturing enterprises to ensure the compliance of vehicle products with relevant laws, regulations, technical standards and technical specification and file for record with the MIIT prior to over-the-air updates, and shall file with the MIIT in the event of any change to the safety, energy saving, environment protection, anti-theft and other technical parameters and shall ensure conformance by vehicle products and production. Without the approval, no over-the-air update shall be conducted to add or update the autonomous driving function. Any delays or lags of the over-the-air updates due to the MIIT prior filing procedures may materially and adversely affect our business and operating results. Furthermore, given we commenced delivery of our vehicles in Norway, we are also subject to mandated safety standards in Norway. Failure by us to have any of our current or future vehicle models satisfy motor vehicle standards or any new laws and regulations in China, Norway or other markets where our vehicles are sold would have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

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We may be subject to risks associated with autonomous driving technologies.

Through NIO Pilot and NAD, we provide an enhanced advanced driver assistance system, or ADAS, and plan to offer higher levels of autonomous driving functionalities, and through our research and development, we continually update and improve our autonomous driving technologies. Regulatory, safety and reliability issues, or the perception thereof, many of which are beyond our control, could cause the public, our users or our potential business partners to lose confidence in autonomous driving solutions in general. The safety of such technology depends in part on end users of vehicles equipped with ADAS and higher levels of automated driving systems, as well as other drivers, pedestrians, other obstacles on the roadways or other unforeseen events. For example, there have been traffic accidents involving vehicles equipped with ADASs, including our NIO vehicles. Even though the actual causes of such traffic accidents may not be associated with the use of ADAS, they resulted in, and any future similar accidents could result in, significant negative publicity, and, in the future, could result in suspension or prohibition of vehicles equipped with ADAS and other automated driving systems, as well as regulatory investigations, recalls, systems or features modifications and related actions. In addition, to the extent accidents associated with our ADAS and other automated driving systems (once launched) occur, we could be subject to liability, government scrutiny and further regulation. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects.

We may be compelled to undertake product recalls or take other actions, which could adversely affect our brand image and financial performance.

Recalls of our vehicles can cause adverse publicity, damage to our brand and liability for costs. In June 2019, we identified problems with certain batteries on ES8 vehicles following safety incidents occurred in Shanghai and other locations in China. We then voluntarily recalled 4,803 ES8s, and replaced the batteries in the NIO battery swap network equipped with the malfunctioned modules. We undertook to compensate all users who had incurred property losses as a result of incidents caused by battery quality issues. Total recall costs accrued in the second quarter of 2019 were RMB339.1 million, including RMB283.3 million recorded in cost of vehicle sales and RMB55.8 million recorded in cost of other sales, respectively. After a detailed analysis and repeated testing, our investigation on the vehicle recall concluded that the batteries used in the vehicles involved were equipped with a module specification NEV-P50, and the voltage sampling cable harness in the module may be pressed by the upper cover of the module due to improper positioning. In extreme cases, the insulation on the pressed voltage sampling cable harness may wear out and cause a short circuit, creating a safety issue. In the future, we may at various times, voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate a recall if any of our vehicles, including any systems or parts sourced from our suppliers, prove to be defective or non-compliant with applicable laws and regulations. Such recalls, whether voluntary or involuntary or caused by systems or components engineered or manufactured by us or our suppliers, could involve significant expense and could adversely affect our brand image in our target markets, as well as our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

The long-term viability of our distribution model is unproven.

Our vehicles are generally made to order. We conduct vehicle sales directly to users primarily through our mobile application, NIO Houses and NIO Spaces, rather than through dealerships. This model of vehicle distribution subjects us to substantial risk as it requires, in the aggregate, significant expenditures and provides for slower expansion of our distribution and sales systems than may be possible by utilizing the traditional dealer franchise system commonly applied for the sales of ICE vehicles and other EV companies. For example, we will not be able to utilize long established sales channels developed through a franchise system to increase our sales volume. Moreover, we will be competing with companies with well established distribution channels. Our success will depend in large part on our ability to effectively develop our own sales channels and marketing strategies. Implementing our business model is subject to numerous significant challenges, including obtaining permits and approvals from government authorities, and we may not be successful in addressing these challenges.

In addition, the lead time in fulfilling our orders could lead to cancelled orders. Our aim for the fulfilling speed is 21 to 28 days from the order placement date to delivery to users. If we are unable to achieve this target, our customer satisfaction could be adversely affected, harming our business and reputation.

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Our financial results may vary significantly from period to period due to the seasonality of our business and fluctuations in our operating costs.

Our operating results may vary significantly from period to period due to many factors, including seasonal factors that may have an effect on the demand for our electric vehicles. Demand for new vehicles in the automotive industry in general typically declines over the summer season, while sales are generally higher in the fourth quarter and springtime, especially from October to December and from March to April each year. Our limited operating history makes it difficult for us to judge the exact nature or extent of the seasonality of our business. Also, any unusually severe weather conditions in some markets may impact demand for our vehicles. Our operating results could also suffer if we do not achieve revenue consistent with our expectations for this seasonal demand because many of our expenses are based on anticipated levels of annual revenue.

We also expect our period-to-period operating results to vary based on our operating costs which we anticipate will increase significantly in future periods as we, among other things, design, develop and manufacture our electric vehicles and electric powertrain components, build and equip new manufacturing facilities to produce such components, open new NIO Houses and NIO Spaces, increase our sales and marketing activities, and increase our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations.

As a result of these factors, we believe that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results are not necessarily meaningful and that these comparisons cannot be relied upon as indicators of future performance. Moreover, our operating results may not meet expectations of equity research analysts or investors. If this occurs, the trading price of our ADSs could fall substantially either suddenly or over time.

If our vehicle owners customize our vehicles or change the charging infrastructure with aftermarket products, the vehicle may not operate properly, which may create negative publicity and could harm our business.

Automobile enthusiasts may seek to “hack” our vehicles to modify their performance which could compromise vehicle safety systems. Also, customers may customize their vehicles with after-market parts that can compromise driver safety. We do not test, nor do we endorse, such changes or products. In addition, the use of improper external cabling or unsafe charging outlets can expose our customers to injury from high voltage electricity. Such unauthorized modifications could reduce the safety of our vehicles and any injuries resulting from such modifications could result in adverse publicity which would negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

We are subject to risks related to the investment in NIO China.

In February 2020, we entered into a collaboration framework agreement with the municipal government of Hefei, Anhui province, where the JAC-NIO Hefei manufacturing plant, our main manufacturing hub, is located. Subsequently from April to June 2020, we entered into definitive agreements, as amended and supplemented, or the Hefei Agreements, for investments in NIO China with a group of investors, which we refer to as the Hefei Strategic Investors in this annual report. Under the Hefei Agreements, the Hefei Strategic Investors agreed to invest an aggregate of RMB7 billion in cash into NIO Holding Co., Ltd. (previously known as NIO (Anhui) Holding Co., Ltd.), or NIO China, a legal entity wholly owned by us pre-investment. We agreed to inject our core businesses and assets in China, including vehicle research and development, supply chain, sales and services and NIO Power, or together as the Asset Consideration, valued at RMB 17.77 billion in total, into NIO China, and invest RMB4.26 billion in cash into NIO China. For more information, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Certain Other Cooperation Arrangements—Hefei Strategic Investors” included elsewhere in this annual report.

Pursuant to the Hefei Agreements, NIO China will establish its headquarters in the Hefei Economic and Technological Development Area, or HETA, where our main manufacturing hub is located, for its business operations, research and development, sales and services, supply chain and manufacturing functions. We will collaborate with the Hefei Strategic Investors and HETA to develop NIO China’s business and to support the accelerated development of the smart electric vehicle sectors in Hefei in the future.

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Subsequent to the entry into the Hefei Agreements, the cash contribution obligations of us and the Hefei Strategic Investors have all been fulfilled. In September 2020, we, through one of our wholly-owned subsidiaries, redeemed 8.612% equity interests in NIO China from one of the Hefei Strategic Investors and subscribed for certain newly increased registered capital to increase our shareholding in NIO China. In addition, in February 2021, we, through one of our wholly-owned subsidiaries, also purchased from two of the Hefei Strategic Investors an aggregate of 3.305% equity interests in NIO China for a total consideration of RMB5.5 billion and subscribed for newly increased registered capital of NIO China at a subscription price of RMB10.0 billion. In September 2021, we, through one of our wholly-owned subsidiaries, purchased from a minority strategic investor of NIO China an aggregate of 1.418% equity interests in NIO China for a total consideration of RMB2.5 billion and subscribed for newly increased registered capital of NIO China at a subscription price of RMB7.5 billion. As a result of these transactions, as of the date of this annual report, the registered capital of NIO China is RMB6.429 billion, and we held 92.114% controlling equity interests in NIO China. We have fulfilled all obligations due to be fulfilled under the Hefei Agreements as of the date of this annual report.

In connection with this investment, NIO China granted certain minority shareholders’ rights to the Hefei Strategic Investors, including, among others, the right of first refusal, co-sale right, preemptive right, anti-dilution right, redemption right, liquidation preference and conditional drag-along right. You would not enjoy these preferential rights or treatment through investing in our ADSs and the underlying ordinary shares. Exercise of these preferential rights by the Hefei Strategic Investors may also adversely affect your investment in our Company.

In particular, the Hefei Strategic Investors may require us to redeem the shares of NIO China they hold under various circumstances, at a redemption price equal to the total amount of the investment price of the Hefei Strategic Investors plus an investment income calculated at a compound rate of 8.5% per annum upon the occurrence of certain events. If any of the triggering events of redemption occurs, we will need substantial capital to redeem the shares of NIO China held by the Hefei Strategic Investors, and the value of your investment in our Company will be negatively affected. In particular, if NIO China fails to apply for the qualified initial public offering in July 2024, which is 48 months following the Hefei Strategic Investors’ payment of the first installment, or if NIO China fails to complete the qualified initial public offering in July 2025, which is 60 months following the Hefei Strategic Investors’ payment of the first installment, the Hefei Strategic Investors may request us to redeem the equity interest in NIO China then held by them. In addition, if we pursue the initial public offering of NIO China, we will be subject to various requirements under the Hong Kong Listing Rules and relevant practice notes, including, among others, the requirement in the level of operations and assets of the remaining business in our company following the spin-off to maintain listing status, the approval of the Stock Exchange and shareholder approval. As a result, the application for and the completion of the qualified initial public offering are subject to substantial uncertainties. If we do not have adequate cash available or cannot obtain additional financing, or our use of cash is restricted by applicable laws, regulations or agreements governing our current or future indebtedness, we may not be able to redeem shares of NIO China when required under the Hefei Shareholders Agreement, which would constitute an event of default under the Hefei Shareholders Agreement and subject us to liabilities.

In addition, before NIO China completes its potential qualified initial public offering, without the prior written consent of the Hefei Strategic Investors, we may not directly or indirectly transfer, pledge or otherwise dispose of NIO China’s shares to a third party that may result in our shareholding in NIO China falling below 60%. Without the prior written consent of the Hefei Strategic Investors, we have the right to directly or indirectly transfer, pledge or otherwise dispose of no more than 15% of NIO China’s shares.

Because we have injected the core businesses and assets into NIO China, the Hefei Strategic Investors will have senior claims over the assets of NIO China compared to NIO China’s other shareholders (i.e., our other subsidiaries) when a liquidation event of NIO China occurs. As a result, holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs will be structurally subordinated to the Hefei Strategic Investors, which may negatively affect the value of the investment of ADS holders and holders of Class A ordinary shares in our company. We may not have sufficient funding to repay our existing debts. Pursuant to the articles of association of NIO China and the shareholders agreement among the shareholders of NIO China, all corporate matters can be approved by shareholders holding majority of or more than 2/3 of the total equity interests in NIO China, provided that if the shareholders intend to terminate the operations of NIO China early, unanimous voting of the shareholders is required for the dissolution and liquidation of NIO China. As a result, we essentially control the daily operation of and substantially all of the corporate matters of NIO China. Notwithstanding this, the Hefei Strategic Investors have voting rights with respect to various significant corporate matters of NIO China and its consolidated entities, such as change in NIO China’s corporate structure, change of its core business and amendment to its articles of association, which may limit our ability to make certain major corporate decisions with regard to NIO China. Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect your investment in our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs.

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Our business plans require a significant amount of capital. In addition, our future capital needs may require us to issue additional equity or debt securities that may dilute our shareholders or introduce covenants that may restrict our operations or our ability to pay dividends.

We will need significant capital to, among other things, conduct research and development and expand our production capacity as well as roll out our power and servicing network and our NIO Houses and NIO Spaces. As we ramp up our production capacity and operations we may also require significant capital to maintain our property, plant and equipment and such costs may be greater than anticipated. We expect our capital expenditures to continue to be significant in the foreseeable future as we expand our business, and that our level of capital expenditures will be significantly affected by user demand for our products and services. The fact that we have a limited operating history means we have limited historical data on the demand for our products and services. As a result, our future capital requirements may be uncertain and actual capital requirements may be different from those we currently anticipate. We plan to seek equity or debt financing to finance a portion of our capital expenditures. Such financing might not be available to us in a timely manner or on terms that are acceptable, or at all. Our substantial amount of currently outstanding indebtedness may also affect our ability to obtain financing in a timely manner and on reasonable terms.

Our ability to obtain the necessary financing to carry out our business plan is subject to a number of factors, including general market conditions and investor acceptance of our business plan. These factors may make the timing, amount, terms and conditions of such financing unattractive or unavailable to us. If we are unable to raise sufficient funds, we will have to significantly reduce our spending, delay or cancel our planned activities or substantially change our corporate structure. We might not be able to obtain any funding, and we might not have sufficient resources to conduct our business as projected, both of which could mean that we would be forced to curtail or discontinue our operations.

In addition, our future capital needs and other business reasons could require us to issue additional equity or debt securities or obtain a credit facility. The sale of additional equity or equity-linked securities could dilute our shareholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could result in operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations or our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders.

Failure of information security and privacy concerns could subject us to penalties, damage our reputation and brand, and harm our business and results of operations.

We face significant challenges with respect to information security and privacy, including the storage, transmission and sharing of confidential information. We transmit and store confidential and private information of our vehicle buyers, such as personal information, including names, accounts, user IDs and passwords, and payment or transaction related information.

We are required by PRC law to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, availability and authenticity of the information of our customers, which is also essential to maintaining their confidence in our vehicles and services. We have adopted strict information security policies and deployed advanced measures to implement the policies, including, among others, advanced encryption technologies. However, advances in technology, an increased level of sophistication and diversity of our products and services, an increased level of expertise of hackers, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or others can still result in a compromise or breach of the measures that we use. If we are unable to protect our systems, and hence the information stored in our systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction, such problems or security breaches could cause a loss, give rise to our liabilities to the owners of confidential information or even subject us to fines and penalties. In addition, complying with various laws and regulations could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices, including our data practices, in a manner adverse to our business.

In addition, we may need to comply with increasingly complex and rigorous regulatory standards enacted to protect business and personal data in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere. For example, the European Union adopted the General Data Protection Regulation, or the GDPR, which became effective on May 25, 2018. The GDPR imposes additional obligations on companies regarding the handling of personal data and provides certain individual privacy rights to persons whose data is stored. Compliance with existing, proposed and recently enacted laws (including implementation of the privacy and process enhancements called for under GDPR) and regulations can be costly; any failure to comply with these regulatory standards could subject us to legal and reputational risks.

We generally comply with industry standards and are subject to the terms of our own privacy policies. Compliance with any additional laws could be expensive, and may place restrictions on the conduct of our business and the manner in which we interact with our customers. Any failure to comply with applicable regulations could also result in regulatory enforcement actions against us, and misuse of or failure to secure personal information could also result in violation of data privacy laws and regulations, proceedings against us by governmental entities or others, damage to our reputation and credibility and could have a negative impact on revenues and profits.

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Significant capital and other resources may be required to protect against information security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by such breaches or to comply with our privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations. The resources required may increase over time as the methods used by hackers and others engaged in online criminal activities are increasingly sophisticated and constantly evolving. Any failure or perceived failure by us to prevent information security breaches or to comply with privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized release or transfer of personally identifiable information or other customer data, could cause our customers to lose trust in us and could expose us to legal claims. Any perception by the public that online transactions or the privacy of user information are becoming increasingly unsafe or vulnerable to attacks could inhibit the growth of online retail and other online services generally, which may reduce the number of orders we receive.

Our warranty reserves may be insufficient to cover future warranty claims which could adversely affect our financial performance.

For the initial owner of our vehicles in China, in addition to the warranty required under the relevant PRC law, including (i) a bumper-to-bumper three-year or 120,000-kilometer warranty, (ii) for critical EV components (battery, electric motors, power electric unit and vehicle control unit) an eight-year or 120,000-kilometer warranty, and (iii) a two-year or 50,000 kilometer warranty covering vehicle repair, replacement and refund, we also provide an extended warranty, subject to certain conditions. For the initial owner of the ES8 in Europe, we provide an extended warranty subject to certain conditions, in addition to the warranty required under the applicable laws and regulations. Our warranty program is similar to other auto company’s warranty programs intended to cover all parts and labor to repair defects in material or workmanship in the body, chassis, suspension, interior, electric system, battery, electric powertrain and brake system. We plan to record and adjust warranty reserves based on changes in estimated costs and actual warranty costs.

However, because we only started making delivery of the ES8 in June 2018, of the ES6 in June 2019, of the EC6 in September of 2020 and of the ET7 in March 2022, and we will not start making deliveries of the ET5 until September 2022, we have little experience with warranty claims regarding our vehicles or with estimating warranty reserves. As of December 31, 2021, we had warranty reserves in respect of our vehicles of RMB1,963.0 million (US$308.0 million). We cannot assure you that such reserves will be sufficient to cover future claims. We could, in the future, become subject to significant and unexpected warranty claims, resulting in significant expenses, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

We may need to defend ourselves against patent or trademark infringement claims, which may be time-consuming and would cause us to incur substantial costs.

Companies, organizations or individuals, including our competitors, may hold or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights that would prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use, develop, sell or market our vehicles or components, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time, we may receive communications from holders of patents or trademarks regarding their proprietary rights. Companies holding patents or other intellectual property rights may bring suits alleging infringement of such rights or otherwise assert their rights and urge us to take licenses. Our applications and uses of trademarks relating to our design, software or artificial intelligence technologies could be found to infringe upon existing trademark ownership and rights. In addition, if we are determined to have infringed upon a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to do one or more of the following:

cease selling, incorporating certain components into, or using vehicles or offering goods or services that incorporate or use the challenged intellectual property;
pay substantial damages;
seek a license from the holder of the infringed intellectual property right, which license may not be available on reasonable terms or at all;
redesign our vehicles or other goods or services; or
establish and maintain alternative branding for our products and services.

In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us and our failure or inability to obtain a license to the infringed technology or other intellectual property right, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs, negative publicity and diversion of resources and management attention.

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We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.

We regard our trademarks, service marks, patents, domain names, trade secrets, proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property as critical to our success. We rely on trademark and patent law, trade secret protection and confidentiality and license agreements with our employees and others to protect our proprietary rights.

We have invested significant resources to develop our own intellectual property. Failure to maintain or protect these rights could harm our business. In addition, any unauthorized use of our intellectual property by third parties may adversely affect our current and future revenues and our reputation.

Implementation and enforcement of PRC intellectual property-related laws have historically been deficient and ineffective. Accordingly, protection of intellectual property rights in China may not be as effective as in the United States or other countries with more developed intellectual property laws. Furthermore, policing unauthorized use of proprietary technology is difficult and expensive. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws and restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, third parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property or seek court declarations that they do not infringe upon our intellectual property rights. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and we cannot assure you that the steps we have taken or will take will prevent misappropriation of our intellectual property. From time to time, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources.

As our patents may expire and may not be extended, our patent applications may not be granted and our patent rights may be contested, circumvented, invalidated or limited in scope, our patent rights may not protect us effectively. In particular, we may not be able to prevent others from developing or exploiting competing technologies, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business operations, financial condition and results of operations.

As of December 31, 2021, we had 2,843 issued patents and 1,801 patent applications pending. For our pending application, we cannot assure you that we will be granted patents pursuant to our pending applications. Even if our patent applications succeed and we are issued patents in accordance with them, it is still uncertain whether these patents will be contested, circumvented or invalidated in the future. In addition, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with meaningful protection or competitive advantages. The claims under any patents that issue from our patent applications may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar or that achieve results similar to ours. The intellectual property rights of others could also bar us from licensing and exploiting any patents that issue from our pending applications. Numerous patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields in which we have developed and are developing our technology. These patents and patent applications might have priority over our patent applications and could subject our patent applications to invalidation. Finally, in addition to those who may claim priority, any of our existing or pending patents may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are otherwise invalid or unenforceable.

We have limited insurance coverage, which could expose us to significant costs and business disruption.

We have limited liability insurance coverage for our products and business operations. A successful liability claim against us due to injuries suffered by our users could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and reputation. In addition, we do not have any business disruption insurance. Any business disruption event could result in substantial costs to us and diversion of our resources.

We have a significant amount of debt, including our convertible senior notes, that are senior in capital structure and cash flow, respectively, to our shareholders. Satisfying the obligations relating to our debt could adversely affect the amount or timing of distributions to our shareholders or result in dilution.

As of December 31, 2021, we had RMB9,739.2 million (US$1,528.3 million) in total long-term borrowings outstanding, consisting primarily of (i) our 4.50% convertible senior notes due 2024; (ii) our convertible senior notes due 2022 issued in September 2019 to an affiliate of Tencent Holdings Limited; (iii) our 0.00% convertible senior notes due 2026 and 0.50% convertible senior notes due 2027 and (iv) our long-term bank debt, excluding the current portions of (i), (ii) and (iv) that are due within one year from December 31, 2021. Meanwhile, as of December 31, 2021, we had RMB7,298.0 million (US$1,145.2 million) in total short-term borrowings including the current portions of long-term borrowings.

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In February 2019, we issued US$750 million aggregate principal amount of 4.50% convertible senior notes due 2024, or the 2024 Notes. The 2024 Notes are unsecured debt and are not redeemable by us prior to the maturity date except for certain changes in tax law. In accordance with the indenture governing the 2024 Notes, or the 2024 Notes Indenture, holders of the 2024 Notes may require us to purchase all or any portion of their notes on February 1, 2022 at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2024 Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest. Such repurchase right offer expired on January 28, 2022. None of the noteholders exercised their repurchase right, and no Notes were surrendered for repurchase. Holders of the 2024 Notes may also require us, upon a fundamental change (as defined in the 2024 Notes Indenture), to repurchase for cash all or part of their 2024 Notes at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2024 Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest. In connection with the issuance of the 2024 Notes, we entered into capped call transactions and zero-strike call option transactions. Shortly after the pricing of the 2026 Notes and the 2027 Notes in January 2021, we entered into separate and individually privately negotiated agreements with certain holders of the 2024 Notes to exchange approximately US$581.7 million principal amount of the outstanding 2024 Notes for ADSs (each, a “2024 Notes Exchange” and collectively, the “2024 Notes Exchanges”). The 2024 Notes Exchanges closed on January 15, 2021. In connection with the 2024 Notes Exchanges, we also entered into agreements with certain financial institutions that are parties to our existing capped call transactions (which we had entered into in February 2019 in connection with the issuance of the 2024 Notes) shortly after the pricing of the 2026 Notes and the 2027 Notes to terminate a portion of the relevant existing capped call transactions in a notional amount corresponding to the portion of the principal amount of such 2024 Notes exchanged. In connection with such terminations of the existing capped call transactions, we received deliveries of ADSs in such amounts as specified pursuant to such termination agreements on January 15, 2021.

In September 2019, each of an affiliate of Tencent Holdings Limited and Mr. Bin Li, our founder, chairman of the board of directors and chief executive officer, subscribed for US$100 million principal amount of convertible notes, each in two equally split tranches, collectively the Affiliate Notes. The Affiliate Notes issued in the first tranche matured in 360 days from the issuance date, bore no interest, and required us to pay a premium at 2% of the principal amount at maturity. The Affiliate Notes issued in the second tranche will mature in three years from the issuance date, bear no interest, and require us to pay a premium at 6% of the principal amount at maturity. The 360-day Affiliate Notes are convertible into our Class A ordinary shares (or ADSs) at a conversion price of US$2.98 per ADS at the holder’s option from the 15th day immediately prior to maturity, and the three-year Affiliate Notes are convertible into our Class A ordinary shares (or ADSs) at a conversion price of US$3.12 per ADS at the holder’s option from the first anniversary of the issuance date. The holders of the three-year Affiliate Notes will have the right to require us to repurchase for cash all of the convertible notes or any portion thereof on February 1, 2022. In 2020, the 360-day Affiliate Notes issued to each of an affiliate of Tencent Holdings Limited and Mr. Bin Li were converted to Class A ordinary shares and the three-year Affiliate Notes issued to the wholly owned company of Mr. Bin Li were converted to ADSs.

In February and March 2020, we issued and sold convertible notes in an aggregate principal amount of US$435 million due 2021, or the 2021 Notes, to several unaffiliated Asia based investment funds. The 2021 Notes bore zero interest. The holders of the 2021 Notes issued in February 2020 have the right to convert either all or part of the principal amount of the 2021 Notes into our Class A ordinary shares (or ADSs), prior to maturity and (a) from the date that is six months after the issuance date, at a conversion price of US$3.07 per ADS, or (b) upon the completion of a bona fide issuance of equity securities of our company for fundraising purposes, at the conversion price derived from such equity financing. The holders of the 2021 Notes issued in March 2020 have the right to convert either all or part of the principal amount of the 2021 Notes into our Class A ordinary shares (or ADSs), prior to maturity and from September 5, 2020, at a conversion price of US$3.50 per ADS, subject to certain adjustments. As of December 31, 2020, all of the 2021 Notes had been converted to ADSs.

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In January 2021, we issued US$750 million aggregate principal amount of 0.00% convertible senior notes due 2026, or the 2026 Notes, and US$750 million aggregate principal amount of 0.50% convertible senior notes due 2027, or the 2027 Notes. The 2026 Notes and the 2027 Notes are unsecured debt. Prior to August 1, 2025, in the case of the 2026 Notes, and August 1, 2026, in the case of the 2027 Notes, the 2026 Notes and the 2027 Notes, as applicable, will be convertible at the option of the holders only upon satisfaction of certain conditions and during certain periods. Holders may convert their 2026 Notes or 2027 Notes, as applicable, at their option at any time on or after August 1, 2025, in the case of the 2026 Notes, or August 1, 2026, in the case of the 2027 Notes, until the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the relevant maturity date. Upon conversion, we will pay or deliver to such converting holders, as the case may be, cash, ADSs, or a combination of cash and ADSs, at our election. The initial conversion rate of the 2026 Notes is 10.7458 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount of such 2026 Notes. The initial conversion rate of the 2027 Notes is 10.7458 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount of such 2027 Notes. The relevant conversion rate for such series of the 2026 Notes and the 2027 Notes is subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain events. Holders of the 2026 Notes and the 2027 Notes may require us to repurchase all or part of their 2026 Notes and 2027 Notes for cash on February 1, 2024, in the case of the 2026 Notes, and February 1, 2025, in the case of the 2027 Notes, or in the event of certain fundamental changes, at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2026 Notes or the 2027 Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the relevant repurchase date. In addition, on or after February 6, 2024, in the case of the 2026 Notes, and February 6, 2025, in the case of the 2027 Notes, until the 20th scheduled trading day immediately prior to the relevant maturity date, we may redeem the 2026 Notes or the 2027 Notes, as applicable for cash subject to certain conditions, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2026 Notes or the 2027 Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the relevant optional redemption date. Furthermore, we may redeem all but not part of the 2026 Notes or the 2027 Notes in the event of certain changes in the tax laws.

Satisfying the obligations of all these indebtedness and interest liabilities could adversely affect the amount or timing of any distributions to our shareholders. We may choose to satisfy, repurchase, or refinance any of these liabilities through public or private equity or debt financings if we deem such financings available on favorable terms. If we do not have adequate cash available or cannot obtain additional financing, or our use of cash is restricted by applicable law, regulations or agreements governing our current or future indebtedness, we may not be able to repurchase any of these notes when required under the respective transaction documents, which would constitute an event of default under the respective transaction documents. An event of default could also lead to a default under other agreements governing our current and future indebtedness, and if the repayment of such other indebtedness were accelerated, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase any of these notes or make cash payments upon conversion of any of these notes. In addition, the holders of any of these notes may convert their notes to a number of our ADSs in accordance with the respective transaction documents. Any conversion will result in immediate dilution to the ownership interests of existing shareholders and such dilution could be material. Lastly, we are exposed to interest rate risk related to our portfolio of investments in debt securities and the debt that we have issued. Among other things, some of our bank loans carry floating interest, and increases in interest rates would result in a decrease in the fair value of our outstanding debt. In the event that we incur a decrease in the fair value of our outstanding debt, our financial performance will be adversely affected.

We may seek to obtain future financing through the issuance of debt or equity, which may have an adverse effect on our shareholders or may otherwise adversely affect our business.

If we raise funds through the issuance of additional equity or debt, including convertible debt or debt secured by some or all of our assets, holders of any debt securities or preferred shares issued will have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our ordinary shares in the event of liquidation. The terms of the convertible notes we issued do not restrict our ability to issue additional debt. If additional debt is issued, there is a possibility that once all senior claims are settled, there may be no assets remaining to pay out to the holders of ordinary shares. In addition, if we raise funds through the issuance of additional equity, whether through private placements or public offerings, such an issuance would dilute ownership of our current shareholders that do not participate in the issuance. If we are unable to obtain any needed additional funding, we may be required to reduce the scope of, delay, or eliminate some or all of, our planned research, development, manufacturing and marketing activities, any of which could materially harm our business.

Furthermore, the terms of any additional debt securities we may issue in the future may impose restrictions on our operations, which may include limiting our ability to incur additional indebtedness, pay dividends on or repurchase our share capital, or make certain acquisitions or investments. In addition, we may be subject to covenants requiring us to satisfy certain financial tests and ratios, and our ability to satisfy such covenants may be affected by events outside of our control.

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The terms of the convertible notes we issued could delay or prevent an attempt to take over our company.

The terms of the 2024 Notes, Affiliate Notes, 2026 Notes and 2027 Notes require us to repurchase the respective Notes in the event of a fundamental change. A takeover of our company would constitute a fundamental change. This could have the effect of delaying or preventing a takeover of our company that may otherwise be beneficial to our shareholders.

We are or may be subject to risks associated with strategic alliances or acquisitions.

We have entered into and may in the future enter into strategic alliances, including joint ventures or minority equity investments, with various third parties to further our business purpose from time to time. These alliances could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance by the third party and increased expenses in establishing new strategic alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have limited ability to monitor or control the actions of these third parties and, to the extent any of these strategic third parties suffers negative publicity or harm to their reputation from events relating to their business, we may also suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation by virtue of our association with any such third party.

In addition, we may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. In addition to possible shareholder approval, we may have to obtain approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for the acquisitions and to comply with any applicable PRC laws and regulations, which could result in increased delay and costs, and may derail our business strategy if we fail to do so. Furthermore, past and future acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant.

If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may not be able to market and sell our vehicles successfully.

We have expanded our operations, and as we ramp up our production, further significant expansion will be required, especially in connection with potential increased sales, providing our users with high-quality servicing, providing power solutions, expansion of our NIO House and NIO Space network and managing different models of vehicles. Our future operating results depend to a large extent on our ability to manage this expansion and growth successfully. Risks that we face in undertaking this expansion include, among others:

managing a larger organization with a greater number of employees in different divisions;
controlling expenses and investments in anticipation of expanded operations;
establishing or expanding design, manufacturing, sales and service facilities;
implementing and enhancing administrative infrastructure, systems and processes; and
addressing new markets and potentially unforeseen challenges as they arise.

Any failure to manage our growth effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

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We have granted, and may continue to grant options and other types of awards under our share incentive plan, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.

We adopted share incentive plans in 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018, which we refer to as the 2015 Plan, the 2016 Plan, the 2017 Plan and the 2018 Plan, respectively, in this annual report, for the purpose of granting share-based compensation awards to employees, directors and consultants to incentivize their performance and align their interests with ours. The 2018 Plan became effective as of January 1, 2019. We recognize expenses in our consolidated statement of income in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Under our share incentive plans, we are authorized to grant options and other types of awards. Under the 2015 Plan, the 2016 Plan and the 2017 Plan, the maximum numbers of Class A ordinary shares which may be issued pursuant to all awards are 46,264,378, 18,000,000 and 33,000,000, respectively. Under the 2018 Plan, a maximum number of 23,000,000 Class A ordinary shares may be issued pursuant to all awards. This amount should automatically increase each year by the number of shares representing 1.5% of the then total issued and outstanding share capital of our company as of the end of each preceding year. As of December 31, 2021, awards to purchase an aggregate amount of 94,536,087 Class A ordinary shares under the 2015 Plan, the 2016 Plan, the 2017 Plan and the 2018 Plan had been granted and were outstanding, excluding awards that were forfeited or cancelled after the relevant grant dates. In addition, one of our subsidiaries also adopted a share incentive plan in 2021, pursuant to which the subsidiary can grant share options to its employees. As of December 31, 2021, our unrecognized share-based compensation expenses related to the stock option and restricted shares amounted to RMB5,909.0 million (US$925.9 million).

We believe the granting of share-based awards is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel and employees, and we will continue to grant share-based compensation to employees in the future. As a result, our expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Furthermore, prospective candidates and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. Thus, our ability to attract or retain highly skilled employees may be adversely affected by declines in the perceived value of our equity or equity awards. Furthermore, there are no assurances that the number of shares reserved for issuance under our share incentive plans will be sufficient to grant equity awards adequate to recruit new employees and to compensate existing employees.

If we do not appropriately maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

We are subject to reporting obligations under the U.S. securities laws. The SEC, as required under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, adopted rules requiring every public company to include a management report on such company’s internal control over financial reporting in its document, which contains management’s assessment of the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting. We were subject to such requirement starting from the fiscal year of 2019. In addition, an independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting.

In connection with the preparation and external audit of our consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified one material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting and concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was ineffective as of December 31, 2019. The material weakness identified was that we do not have sufficient competent financial reporting and accounting personnel with an appropriate understanding of U.S. GAAP to (i) design and implement formal period-end financial reporting policies and procedures to address complex U.S. GAAP technical accounting issues and (ii) prepare and review our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures in accordance with U.S. GAAP and the financial reporting requirements set forth by the SEC.

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We implemented a number of remedial measures to address the material weakness, including (i) establishing clear roles and responsibilities for accounting and financial reporting staff to address accounting and financial reporting issues; (ii) strengthening our financial reporting team by hiring additional personnel with experience in U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting from reputable accounting firms; (iii) further increasing the accounting and SEC reporting acumen and accountability of our finance organization employees through training programs designed to enhance these employees’ competency with respect to U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting; (iv) enhancing our monitoring controls over financial reporting, including additional review by our chief financial officer, financial vice president, and other senior finance staff over the application of U.S. GAAP accounting requirements, the selection and evaluation of U.S. GAAP accounting policies, critical accounting judgments and estimates, reporting and disclosures; (v) establishing related policies and procedures to support the operation of internal controls at the entity level and process level; and (vi) strengthening our internal audit function by hiring additional personnel with industry internal audit experience and experience in compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. As a result, this material weakness had been remediated as of December 31, 2020.

Our management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2021. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm has audited the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021.

In the future, our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report with adverse opinion if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us.

If we fail to implement and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our consolidated financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations, and lead to a decline in the trading price of our listed securities. Furthermore, we may need to incur additional costs and use additional management and other resources as our business and operations further expand or in an effort to remediate any significant control deficiencies that may be identified in the future. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we list, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions.

If our suppliers fail to use ethical business practices and comply with applicable laws and regulations, our brand image could be harmed due to negative publicity.

Our core values, which include developing high quality electric vehicles while operating with integrity, are an important component of our brand image, which makes our reputation sensitive to allegations of unethical business practices. We do not control our independent suppliers or their business practices. Accordingly, we cannot guarantee their compliance with ethical business practices, such as environmental responsibilities, fair wage practices, and compliance with child labor laws, among others. A lack of demonstrated compliance could lead us to seek alternative suppliers, which could increase our costs and result in delayed delivery of our products, product shortages or other disruptions of our operations.

Violation of labor or other laws by our suppliers or the divergence of an independent supplier’s labor or other practices from those generally accepted as ethical in the markets in which we do business could also attract negative publicity for us and our brand. This could diminish the value of our brand image and reduce demand for our electric vehicles if, as a result of such violation, we were to attract negative publicity. If we, or other players in our industry, encounter similar problems in the future, it could harm our brand image, business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

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If we update our manufacturing equipment more quickly than expected, we may have to shorten the useful lives of any equipment to be retired as a result of any such update, and the resulting acceleration in our depreciation could negatively affect our financial results.

We and JAC have invested and expect to continue to invest significantly in what we believe is state of the art tooling, machinery and other manufacturing equipment for the product lines where the vehicles are manufactured, and we depreciate the cost of such equipment over their expected useful lives. However, manufacturing technology may evolve rapidly, and we or JAC may decide to update our manufacturing process with advanced equipment more quickly than expected. Moreover, as our engineering and manufacturing expertise and efficiency increase, we or JAC may be able to manufacture our products using less of our installed equipment. The useful life of any equipment that would be retired early as a result would be shortened, causing the depreciation on such equipment to be accelerated, and to the extent we own such equipment, our results of operations could be negatively impacted. Furthermore, under the renewal joint manufacturing arrangement we entered into with JAC and Jianglai in May 2021, we agreed to pay JAC the asset depreciation and amortization with regard to the assets JAC invested and to invest for the manufacture of NIO models as actually incurred, payable monthly and subject to adjustment annually. An increased amount of investment made by JAC into the manufacturing plant will lead to an increased cost in asset depreciation and amortization, which could negatively affect our results of operations and financial conditions.

The construction and operation of our manufacturing facilities are subject to regulatory approvals or filings and may be subject to changes, delays, cost overruns or may not produce expected benefits.

In 2017, we signed a framework agreement with the Shanghai Jiading government and its authorized investment entity to build and develop our own manufacturing facility in Jiading, Shanghai. In 2019, we agreed with the related contractual parties to cease construction of this planned manufacturing facility and terminate this development project.

In February 2020, we entered into a collaboration framework agreement with the municipal government of Hefei, Anhui province, where our main manufacturing hub is located. Subsequently from April to June 2020, we entered into definitive agreements, as amended and supplemented, for investments in NIO China. Pursuant to the definitive agreements, we will collaborate with the Hefei Strategic Investors and HETA to develop NIO China’s business and to support the accelerated development of the smart electric vehicle sectors in Hefei in the future. In February 2021, we, through NIO China, entered into a further collaboration framework agreement with the municipal government of Hefei, Anhui province, pursuant to which the Hefei government and NIO China agreed in principle to jointly build a world-class industrial campus to support the development and innovations of the smart electric vehicle industry and related supply chains led by NIO China. In addition, the Hefei government and its associated parties plan to re-invest their returns from the equity investments in NIO China to support the further cooperation in Hefei.

Under PRC law, construction projects are subject to broad and strict government supervision and approval procedures, including but not limited to project approvals and filings, construction land and project planning approvals, environment protection approvals, pollution discharge permits, work safety approvals, fire protection approvals, and the completion of inspection and acceptance by relevant authorities. Some of the construction projects being carried out by us are undergoing necessary approval procedures as required by law. As a result, the relevant entities operating such construction projects may be subject to administrative uncertainty, and construction projects in question may be subject to fines or the suspension of use of such projects. Failure to complete the construction projects on schedule and within budget, and failure to obtain necessary approvals or any incompliance with relevant government supervision could have a material adverse impact on our operations, and we may not be able to find commercially reasonable alternatives.

Our vehicles make use of lithium-ion battery cells, which have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.

The batteries that we produce make use of lithium-ion cells. On rare occasions, lithium-ion cells can rapidly release the energy they contain by venting smoke and flames in a manner that can ignite nearby materials as well as other lithium-ion cells. In June 2019, certain safety incidents resulting from the batteries on ES8 vehicles occurred in Shanghai and other locations in China. We then voluntarily recalled 4,803 ES8s, and replaced the batteries in the NIO battery swap network equipped with the malfunctioned modules. While we have designed the battery to passively contain any single cell’s release of energy without spreading to neighboring cells, and have taken measures to enhance the safety of our battery designs, a field or testing failure of our vehicles or other batteries that we produce could occur in the future, which could subject us to lawsuits, product recalls, or redesign efforts, all of which would be time-consuming and expensive. Also, negative public perceptions regarding the suitability of lithium-ion cells for automotive applications or any future incident involving lithium-ion cells such as a vehicle or other fire, even if such incident does not involve our vehicles, could seriously harm our business.

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In addition, we store a significant number of lithium-ion cells at our facilities. Any mishandling of battery cells may cause disruption to the operation of our facilities. While we have implemented safety procedures related to the handling of the cells, a safety issue or fire related to the cells could disrupt our operations. Such damage or injury could lead to adverse publicity and potentially a safety recall. Moreover, any failure of a competitor’s electric vehicle or energy storage product may cause indirect adverse publicity for us and our products. Such adverse publicity could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

Interruption or failure of our information technology and communications systems could impact our ability to effectively provide our services.

We aim to provide our users with an innovative suite of services through our mobile application. In addition, our in-car services depend, to a certain extent, on connectivity. The availability and effectiveness of our services depend on the continued operation of our information technology and communications systems. Our systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among other adverse effects, fire, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, power loss, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, computer denial of service attacks or other attempts to harm our systems. Our data centers are also subject to break-ins, sabotage, and intentional acts of vandalism, and potential disruptions. Some of our systems are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning cannot account for all eventualities. Any problems at our data centers could result in lengthy interruptions in our service. In addition, our products and services are highly technical and complex and may contain errors or vulnerabilities, which could result in interruptions in our services or the failure of our systems.

We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to administrative, civil and criminal fines and penalties, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.

We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws and regulations in various jurisdictions in which we conduct activities, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, and other anti-corruption laws and regulations. The FCPA and the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 prohibit us and our officers, directors, employees and business partners acting on our behalf, including agents, from corruptly offering, promising, authorizing or providing anything of value to a “foreign official” for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The FCPA also requires companies to make and keep books, records and accounts that accurately reflect transactions and dispositions of assets and to maintain a system of adequate internal accounting controls. The U.K. Bribery Act also prohibits non-governmental “commercial” bribery and soliciting or accepting bribes. A violation of these laws or regulations could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.

We have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies and state-owned affiliated entities in the ordinary course of business. We have also entered into joint ventures and/or other business partnerships with government agencies and state-owned or affiliated entities. These interactions subject us to an increased level of compliance-related concerns. We are in the process of implementing policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance by us and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents and business partners with applicable anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws and regulations. However, our policies and procedures may not be sufficient and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents, and business partners could engage in improper conduct for which we may be held responsible.

Non-compliance with anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering or financial and economic sanctions laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, and severe administrative, civil and criminal sanctions, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation. In addition, changes in economic sanctions laws in the future could adversely impact our business and investments in our shares.

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Any unauthorized control or manipulation of our vehicles’ systems could result in loss of confidence in us and our vehicles and harm our business.

Our vehicles contain complex information technology systems. For example, our vehicles are designed with built-in data connectivity to accept and install periodic remote updates from us to improve or update the functionality of our vehicles. We have designed, implemented and tested security measures intended to prevent unauthorized access to our information technology networks, our vehicles and their systems. However, hackers may attempt in the future, to gain unauthorized access to modify, alter and use such networks, vehicles and systems to gain control of, or to change, our vehicles’ functionality, user interface and performance characteristics, or to gain access to data stored in or generated by the vehicle. Vulnerabilities could be identified in the future and our remediation efforts may not be successful. Any unauthorized access to or control of our vehicles or their systems or any loss of data could result in legal claims or proceedings. In addition, regardless of their veracity, reports of unauthorized access to our vehicles, their systems or data, as well as other factors that may result in the perception that our vehicles, their systems or data are capable of being “hacked,” could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

We face risks related to natural disasters, health epidemics and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our operations.

Our business could be adversely affected by the effects of epidemics. In recent years, there have been outbreaks of epidemics in China and globally. In recent years, there have been outbreaks of epidemics in China and globally. Our business operations could be disrupted if any of our employees are suspected of having epidemics, since it could require our employees to be quarantined and/or our offices to be disinfected. In addition, our results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that the outbreak harms the Chinese economy in general.

We are also vulnerable to natural disasters and other calamities. Our vehicle production, sales and delivery and our service operations and capacities could be materially and adversely affected by natural disasters and other calamities in the areas where we operate and where our vehicles are sold to. For example, in July 2021, our deliveries of vehicles and power services were interrupted due to the flood in Henan province and the typhoon in Shanghai and several other neighboring cities. Although we have servers that are hosted in an offsite location, our backup system does not capture data on a real-time basis and we may be unable to recover certain data in the event of a server failure. We cannot assure you that any backup systems will be adequate to protect us from the effects of fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures, break-ins, war, riots, terrorist attacks or similar events. Any of the foregoing events may give rise to interruptions, breakdowns, system failures, technology platform failures or internet failures, which could cause the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to provide services on our platform.

Our revenues and financial results may be adversely affected by any economic slowdown in China as well as globally.

The success of our business ultimately depends on consumer spending. We derive substantially all of our revenues from China. As a result, our revenues and financial results are impacted to a significant extent by economic conditions in China and globally. The global macroeconomic environment is facing numerous challenges. The growth rate of the Chinese economy has gradually slowed down since 2010 and the trend may continue. Any slowdown could significantly reduce domestic commerce in China, including through the internet generally and through us. In addition, there is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. The conflicts in Ukraine and the imposition of broad economic sanctions on Russia could raise energy prices and disrupt global markets. Unrest, terrorist threats and the potential for war in the Middle East and elsewhere may increase market volatility across the globe. There have also been concerns about the relationship between China and other countries, including the surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially have economic effects. In particular, there is significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and China with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. In addition, the COVID- 19 pandemic has negatively impacted the economies of China, the United States and numerous other countries around the world, and is expected to result in a severe global recession. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global or Chinese economy may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Sales of high-end and luxury consumer products, such as our performance electric vehicles, depend in part on discretionary consumer spending and are even more exposed to adverse changes in general economic conditions. In response to their perceived uncertainty in economic conditions, consumers might delay, reduce or cancel purchases of our electric vehicles and our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

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Shutdowns of the U.S. federal government could materially impair our business and financial condition.

Development of our product candidates and/or regulatory approval may be delayed for reasons beyond our control. For example, over the last several years the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the SEC, have had to furlough critical SEC and other government employees and stop critical activities. In our operations as a public company, future government shutdowns could impact our ability to access the public markets, such as delaying the declaration of effectiveness of registration statements and obtaining necessary capital to properly capitalize and continue our operations.

Rising international political tension, including changes in U.S. and international trade policies, particularly with regard to China, may adversely impact our business and operating results.

The U.S. government has made statements and taken certain actions that may lead to potential changes to U.S. and international trade policies towards China. In January 2020, the “Phase One” agreement was signed between the United States and China on trade matters. However, it remains unclear what additional actions, if any, will be taken by the U.S. or other governments with respect to international trade agreements, the imposition of tariffs on goods imported into the U.S., tax policy related to international commerce, or other trade matters. While cross-border business may not currently be an area of our focus, any unfavorable government policies on international trade, such as capital controls or tariffs, may affect the demand for our products and services, impact the competitive position of our products or prevent us from selling products in certain countries. Moreover, many of the recent policy updates in the U.S., including the Clean Network project initiated by the U.S. Department of State in August 2020 and the Entity List regime maintained and regularly updated by the U.S. Bureau of Industry and Security, may have unforeseen implications for our business. If any new tariffs, legislation and/or regulations are implemented, or if existing trade agreements are renegotiated or, in particular, if the U.S. government takes retaliatory trade actions due to the recent U.S.-China trade tension, such changes could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Additionally, the United States and various foreign governments have imposed controls, export license requirements and restrictions on the import or export of technologies and products (or voiced the intention to do so), especially related to semiconductor chips, AI and other high-tech areas, which may have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For instance, India banned a large number of apps in 2020 out of national security concerns, many of which are China-based apps, escalating regional political and trade tensions.

Recent disruptions in the financial markets and economic conditions could affect our ability to raise capital.

In recent years, the United States and global economies suffered dramatic downturns as the result of a deterioration in the credit markets and related financial crisis as well as a variety of other factors including, among other things, extreme volatility in security prices, severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, rating downgrades of certain investments and declining valuations of others. The United States and certain foreign governments have taken unprecedented actions in an attempt to address and rectify these extreme market and economic conditions by providing liquidity and stability to the financial markets. If the actions taken by these governments are not successful, the return of adverse economic conditions may cause a significant impact on our ability to raise capital, if needed, on a timely basis and on acceptable terms or at all.

There are uncertainties relating to our users trust arrangement involving a portion of our chairman’s shareholding in our company.

In conjunction with our pursuit of being a user enterprise and with the goal of building a deeper connection between NIO and our users, Mr. Bin Li, our founder, chairman of the board of directors and chief executive officer, transferred certain of his ordinary shares to NIO Users Trust after the completion of the initial public offering of our ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange in September 2018. Currently, NIO Users Trust holds 16,967,776 Class A ordinary shares and 33,032,224 Class C ordinary shares through a holding company controlled by it. Mr. Li continues to retain the voting rights of these shares. In 2019, our user committee adopted the NIO Users Trust Charter by way of voting, and established a User Council to generally discuss and give advice on the management and the operation of NIO Users Trust. In this way, our users have the opportunity to discuss and propose the use of the economic benefits from the shares in NIO Users Trust, which is intended to be composed mainly of the dividends from the shares that it holds future interests accrued from and investment returns generated by cash assets to be held under the trust, and proceeds from the pledging of such shares from time to time, through the User Council consisting of members of our user community elected by our users. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—User Development and User Community—NIO Users Trust” for further details about NIO Users Trust.

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The current NIO Users Trust Charter provides certain mechanisms for the User Council to discuss the management and supervision of the operations of NIO Users Trust. There is no assurance that such current mechanisms for managing the operations of NIO Users Trust we have adopted are to the satisfaction of all of our users, or that such mechanisms will be carried out in the way it was intended. The User Council may not be able to achieve its intended work focus or carry out their work effectively and efficiently as the power to give instructions to the trustee vests with the settlor, protector and investment advisor of the trust. Furthermore, depending on the proposed use of the economic interests of the shares held by the NIO Users Trust in the future, there could be accounting implications to us that cannot presently be ascertained.

We and certain of our directors and officers have been named as defendants in several shareholder class action lawsuits, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation.

Several shareholder class action lawsuits have been filed against us and certain of our directors and officers. See “Item 8. Financial Information—A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings” for more details. We are currently unable to estimate the potential loss, if any, associated with the resolution of such lawsuits, if they proceed. We anticipate that we will continue to be a target for lawsuits in the future, including class action lawsuits brought by shareholders. There can be no assurance that we will be able to prevail in our defense or reverse any unfavorable judgment on appeal, and we may decide to settle lawsuits on unfavorable terms. Any adverse outcome of these cases, including any plaintiffs’ appeal of the judgment in these cases, could result in payments of substantial monetary damages or fines, or changes to our business practices, and thus have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation. In addition, there can be no assurance that our insurance carriers will cover all or part of the defense costs, or any liabilities that may arise from these matters. The litigation process may utilize a significant portion of our cash resources and divert management’s attention from the day-to-day operations of our company, all of which could harm our business. We also may be subject to claims for indemnification related to these matters, and we cannot predict the impact that indemnification claims may have on our business or financial results.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

If the PRC government deems that our contractual arrangements with the VIE do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.

Foreign ownership of certain areas of businesses is subject to restrictions under current PRC laws and regulations. For example, foreign investors are not allowed to own more than 50% of the equity interests in a value-added telecommunication service provider (other than for e-commerce, domestic multi-parties communications, storage and forwarding categories, call centers) pursuant to the 2021 Negative List.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and our PRC subsidiaries are considered foreign-invested enterprises. To comply with the applicable PRC laws and regulations, we had planned to conduct certain operations that were then subject to restrictions on foreign investment in China through Shanghai NIO Energy Automobile Co., Ltd., or NIO New Energy. NIO Co., Ltd. owns 50% equity interests in NIO New Energy. Our founders Bin Li and Lihong Qin, through holding equity interests in Shanghai Anbin indirectly own 40% and 10%, respectively, of the equity interests in NIO New Energy. With respect to the 50% equity interests of NIO New Energy indirectly held by the founders, we had entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Shanghai Anbin, and its shareholders, which enabled us to (i) ultimately exercise effective control over such 50% equity interests of NIO New Energy, (ii) receive 50% of substantially all of the economic benefits and bear the obligation to absorb 50% of substantially all of the losses of NIO New Energy, and (iii) have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in Shanghai Anbin when and to the extent permitted by PRC laws, as a result of which we indirectly owned all or part of such 50% equity interests in NIO New Energy. Because of the ownership of 50% equity interests of NIO New Energy and these contractual arrangements, we were the primary beneficiary of NIO New Energy and hence consolidated its financial results as the VIE under U.S. GAAP. On March 31, 2021, NIO Co., Ltd., and Shanghai Anbin and each shareholder of Shanghai Anbin entered into a termination agreement pursuant to which each of the contractual agreements among Shanghai NIO, Shanghai Anbin and its shareholders terminated as of the date of the agreement. In addition, we have also entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Beijing NIO, and its shareholders that enable us to hold all the required Internet content provision service, or the ICP, and related licenses in China. For a detailed description of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Contractual Agreements with the VIE and Its Shareholders.”

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In the opinion of Han Kun Law Offices, our PRC legal counsel, (i) the ownership structures of NIO Co., Ltd. and the VIE in China do not result in any violation of PRC laws and regulations currently in effect; and (ii) the contractual arrangements between our subsidiary NIO Co., Ltd., the VIE and its shareholders governed by PRC laws will not result in any violation of PRC laws or regulations currently in effect. However, we have been advised by our PRC legal counsel that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules, and there can be no assurance that the PRC regulatory authorities will take a view that is consistent with the opinion of our PRC legal counsel. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations— Regulations on Foreign Investment in China” and “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Our business may be significantly affected by the newly enacted Foreign Investment Law.” It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to VIE structures will be adopted or, if adopted, what they would provide.

If the ownership structure, contractual arrangements and businesses of our PRC subsidiaries or the VIE are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or our PRC subsidiaries or the VIE fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures, including:

revoking the business licenses and/or operating licenses of such entities;
shutting down our servers or blocking our website, or discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operation through any transactions between our PRC subsidiaries and VIE;
imposing fines, confiscating the income from our PRC subsidiaries or the VIE, or imposing other requirements with which we or the VIE may not be able to comply;
requiring us to restructure our ownership structure or operations, including terminating the contractual arrangements with the VIE and deregistering the equity pledge of the VIE, which in turn would affect our ability to consolidate, derive economic interests from, or exert effective control over the VIE; or
restricting or prohibiting our use of the proceeds of any financing outside China to finance our business and operations in China, and taking other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business.

Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of these occurrences results in our inability to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact their economic performance, and/or our failure to receive the economic benefits from the VIE, we may not be able to consolidate the entities in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Currently, Beijing NIO and Shanghai Anbin, the current and past consolidated VIEs, taking into account all of their respective business with or without foreign investment restrictions under PRC laws, did not contribute any external revenue to our total revenues in 2019, 2020 and 2021. As of December 31, 2020 and 2021, the consolidated VIEs did not have significant operations or any material assets or liabilities.

We rely on contractual arrangements with the VIE and its shareholders to exercise control over our business, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control.

We have relied on contractual arrangements with Shanghai Anbin and its shareholders to conduct a portion of our operations in China. On March 31, 2021, the contractual agreements with Shanghai Anbin and its shareholders were terminated. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Contractual Agreements with the VIE and Its Shareholders” for more information. We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with Beijing NIO and its shareholders to conduct a portion of our operations in China. For a description of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Contractual Agreements with the VIE and Its Shareholders.” The shareholders of Beijing NIO may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. If we had direct ownership of the VIE, or VIE, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to control the VIE to exercise rights of shareholders to effect changes in the board of directors of the VIE, which in turn could implement changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management and operational level. However, under the contractual arrangements, we would rely on legal remedies under PRC law for breach of contract in the event that Beijing NIO and its shareholders did not perform their obligations under the contracts. These legal remedies may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over Beijing NIO.

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If Beijing NIO or its shareholders fail to perform their obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements, and rely on legal remedies under PRC laws, including contractual remedies, which may not be sufficient or effective. All of the agreements under our contractual arrangements are governed by and interpreted in accordance with PRC laws, and disputes arising from these contractual arrangements will be resolved through arbitration in China. However, the legal framework and system in China, particularly those relating to arbitration proceedings, are not as developed as in some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a VIE should be interpreted or enforced under PRC law. There remain significant uncertainties regarding the ultimate outcome of such arbitration should legal action become necessary. In addition, under PRC laws, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and if the losing parties fail to carry out the arbitration awards within a prescribed time limit, the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in the PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would require additional expenses and delay. If we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or face other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over the VIE, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected. See “Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”

Our ability to enforce the equity pledge agreements between us and the VIE’s shareholders may be subject to limitations based on PRC laws and regulations.

Pursuant to the equity pledge agreements between Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO, the current and past VIEs, and NIO Co., Ltd., our PRC subsidiary, and the respective shareholders of Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO, each shareholder of Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO agrees to pledge its equity interests in Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO to our subsidiary to secure Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO’s performance of its obligations under the relevant contractual arrangements. The equity interest pledges of shareholders of each of Beijing NIO and Shanghai Anbin under relevant equity pledge agreements have been registered with the relevant local branch of the SAMR. In addition, in the registration forms of the local branch of the SAMR for the pledges over the equity interests under the equity pledge agreements, the aggregate amount of registered equity interests pledged to NIO Co., Ltd. represents 100% of the registered capital of Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO. On March 31, 2021, equity pledge agreements among Shanghai NIO, Shanghai Anbin and its shareholders were terminated, and the deregistration of the equity interest pledges of shareholders of Shanghai Anbin under its equity pledge agreements that were previously registered with the relevant local branch of the SAMR was completed. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Contractual Agreements with the VIE and Its Shareholders” for more information.

The equity pledge agreements with the VIE’s shareholders provide that the pledged equity interests shall constitute continuing security for any and all of the indebtedness, obligations and liabilities under all of the principal service agreements and the scope of pledge shall not be limited by the amount of the registered capital of that VIE. However, a PRC court may take the position that the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms represents the full amount of the collateral that has been registered and perfected. If this is the case, the obligations that are supposed to be secured in the equity pledge agreements in excess of the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms could be determined by the PRC court as unsecured debt, which typically takes last priority among creditors.

The shareholders of the VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Our founders, Bin Li and Lihong Qin, own 80% and 20%, respectively, of the equity interests in the VIEs, Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO. On March 31, 2021, the contractual agreements with Shanghai Anbin and its shareholders were terminated. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Contractual Agreements with the VIE and Its Shareholders” for more information. As shareholders of Beijing NIO, they may have potential conflicts of interest with us. These shareholders may breach, or cause the VIE to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with them and the VIE, which would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to effectively control the VIE and receive economic benefits from it. For example, the shareholders may be able to cause our agreements with Beijing NIO to be performed in a manner adverse to us by, among other things, failing to remit payments due under the contractual arrangements to us on a timely basis. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, any or all of these shareholders will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor.

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Currently, we do not have any arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest between these shareholders and our company. Each of Bin Li and Lihong Qin is also a director and executive officer of our company. We rely on Bin Li and Lihong Qin to abide by the laws of the Cayman Islands and China, which provide that directors owe a fiduciary duty to the company that requires them to act in good faith and in what they believe to be the best interests of the company and not to use their position for personal gain. There is currently no specific and clear guidance under PRC laws that addresses any conflict between PRC laws and the laws of Cayman Islands in respect of any conflict relating to corporate governance. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and the shareholders of Beijing NIO, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

Our contractual arrangements with the current and past VIEs may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or the current or past VIEs owe additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition.

Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year when the transactions are conducted. The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law requires every enterprise in China to submit its annual enterprise income tax return together with a report on transactions with its related parties to the relevant tax authorities. The tax authorities may impose reasonable adjustments on taxation if they have identified any related party transactions that are inconsistent with arm’s length principles. We may face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements between NIO Co., Ltd., our subsidiary in China, Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO, the current and past VIEs in China, and