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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.

 

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Date of event requiring this shell company report.

For the transition period from          to          .

 

Commission file number: 001-38638

NIO Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s Name into English)

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

Building 19, No. 1355, Caobao Road, Minhang District

Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Wei Feng, Chief Financial Officer

Building 19, No. 1355, Caobao Road, Minhang District

Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

Telephone: +8621-6908 2018

Email: ir@nio.com

(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

    

Trading Symbol

    

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

American depositary shares (each representing one Class A ordinary share),par value US$0.00025 per share

NIO

New York Stock Exchange

Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00025 per share

9866

The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited

Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00025 per share

NIO

The Singapore Exchange Securities Trading Limited

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:

As of December 31, 2023, there were (i) 1,932,063,749 Class A ordinary shares outstanding, par value US$0.00025 per share, and (ii) 148,500,000 Class C ordinary shares outstanding, par value US$0.00025 per share.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

†The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board

Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes No

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

1

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

3

PART I.

4

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

4

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

4

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

4

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

75

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

116

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

116

ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

133

ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

144

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

147

ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING

148

ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

149

ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

167

ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

168

PART II.

177

ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

177

ITEM 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

177

ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

178

ITEM 16.

179

ITEM 16A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

179

ITEM 16B. CODE OF ETHICS

179

ITEM 16C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

179

ITEM 16D. EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

179

ITEM 16E. PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

180

ITEM 16F. CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

180

ITEM 16G. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

180

ITEM 16H. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

180

ITEM 16I. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

180

ITEM 16J. INSIDER TRADING POLICIES

180

ITEM 16K. CYBERSECURITY

180

PART III.

181

ITEM 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

181

ITEM 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

181

ITEM 19. EXHIBITS

182

SIGNATURES

185

i

INTRODUCTION

In this annual report on Form 20-F, except where the context otherwise requires and for purposes of this annual report only:

“ADAS” refers to advanced driver assistance system;
“ADR” refers to the American depositary receipt that evidences the ADS;
“ADSs” refer to our American depositary shares, each of which represents one Class A ordinary share;
“AI” refers to artificial intelligence;
“Anhui NIO AT” refers to Anhui NIO AI Technology Co., Ltd., one of the VIEs;
“Anhui NIO DT” refers to Anhui NIO Data Technology Co., Ltd., one of the VIEs;
“Beijing NIO” refers to Beijing NIO Network Technology Co., Ltd., one of the VIEs;
“China” or the “PRC” refers to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purpose of this annual report only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;
“Class A ordinary shares” refer to our Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00025 per share;
“Class B ordinary shares” refer to the Class B ordinary shares that we historically authorized and issued, par value US$0.00025 per share. All the authorized Class B ordinary shares were redesignated as Class A ordinary shares at the annual general meeting held on August 25, 2022;
“Class C ordinary shares” refer to our Class C ordinary shares, par value US$0.00025 per share;
“EV” refers to electric passenger vehicle;
“Hong Kong” or “HK” refers to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China;
“Hong Kong Listing Rules” refer to the Rules Governing the Listing of Securities on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited, as amended or supplemented from time to time;
“Hong Kong Stock Exchange” refers to The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited;
“ICE” refers to internal combustion engine;
“Main Board of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange” refers to the stock market (excluding the option market) operated by the Hong Kong Stock Exchange which is independent from and operated in parallel with the Growth Enterprise Market of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange;
“Main Board of the Singapore Exchange” refers to the stock market operated by The Singapore Exchange Securities Trading Limited;
“NEVs” refer to new energy passenger vehicles;

1

“NIO,” “we,” “us,” “our company,” and “our” refer to NIO Inc., our Cayman Islands holding company and its subsidiaries, and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, include the VIEs, namely Beijing NIO, Anhui NIO AT and Anhui NIO DT, and their respective subsidiaries, where applicable;
“Ordinary shares” refer to our Class A ordinary shares and Class C ordinary shares, each of par value US$0.00025 per share;
“Relevant Period” refers to the period commencing from the date on which any of our shares first become secondary listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange to and including the date immediately before the day on which the secondary listing is withdrawn from the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. As of the date of this annual report, we are in the Relevant Period;
“RMB” or “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of China;
“Singapore Exchange” refers to The Singapore Exchange Securities Trading Limited; and
“US$,” “dollars” or “U.S. dollars” refer to the legal currency of the United States.

Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to Renminbi in this annual report are made at a rate of RMB7.0999 to US$1.00, the exchange rate in effect as of December 29, 2023 as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. We make no representation that any Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all. Unless otherwise specified, the description of our vehicles, services and business models in this report refers to our business in China.

2

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This annual report contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. These forward-looking statements are made under the “safe-harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors,” that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

You can identify these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “likely to,” “potential,” “continue” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about our goals and growth strategies, our future business development, financial condition and results of operations, our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our products and services, and assumptions underlying or related to any of the foregoing.

Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect. Our actual results could be materially different from our expectations. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

This annual report contains certain data and information that we obtained from various government and private publications. Statistical data in these publications also include projections based on a number of assumptions. The electric vehicles industry may not grow at the rate projected by market data, or at all. Failure of this market to grow at the projected rate may have a material adverse effect on our business and the market price of our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares. In addition, the rapidly evolving nature of the electric vehicles industry results in significant uncertainties for any projections or estimates relating to the growth prospects or future condition of our market. Furthermore, if any one or more of the assumptions underlying the market data are later found to be incorrect, actual results may differ from the projections based on these assumptions. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this annual report and the documents that we refer to in this annual report and exhibits to this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

3

PART I.

ITEM 1.       IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2.       OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3.       KEY INFORMATION

Our Holding Company Structure and Contractual Arrangements with the VIEs

NIO Inc. is not an operating company in China but a Cayman Islands holding company with no equity ownership in its consolidated variable interest entities, or VIEs. We conduct our operations in China (i) primarily through our PRC subsidiaries, and (ii) to a much lesser extent, through the VIEs, namely Beijing NIO, Anhui NIO AT, and Anhui NIO DT, with each of which we maintain contractual arrangements, and their subsidiary. We have also established subsidiaries in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Norway and other overseas jurisdictions to promote our services and businesses, entering into business contracts with offshore counterparties and holding overseas intellectual properties.

PRC laws and regulations (i) restrict and impose conditions on foreign investment in value-added telecommunication services, including without limitation, performing internet information services as well as holding certain related licenses; and (ii) prohibit foreign investment in certain services related to autonomous driving as well as the holding of licenses by foreign entities. Additionally, in practice, subject to the qualifications set by China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission for foreign shareholders of the insurance brokerage companies, the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission typically would not approve the establishment of foreign-invested insurance brokerage companies which perform insurance brokerage services and hold certain related licenses. Accordingly, we operate these businesses in China through Beijing NIO, Anhui NIO AT, and Anhui NIO DT, or as referred to as the VIEs, and their subsidiary. We rely on contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiaries, the VIEs and their nominee shareholders to maintain a controlling financial interest as the primary beneficiary of each VIE (as defined in U.S. GAAP, ASC 810). Under U.S. GAAP, we consolidate each VIE within our consolidated financial statements. Specifically, we operate value-added telecommunication services, including without limitation, performing internet information services, and hold certain related licenses, through Beijing NIO. We rely on the contractual arrangements with Anhui NIO DT and its shareholders to operate insurance brokerage services. NIO Insurance Broker Co., Ltd., the subsidiary of Anhui NIO DT, currently holds an insurance brokerage license and provides insurance brokerage services primarily related to vehicles and properties. We intend to obtain requisite licenses for certain supporting functions during the development of our assisted and intelligent driving technology through Anhui NIO AT. As of the date of this annual report, the business operations of the VIEs are insignificant in relation to our total revenues and net loss. As used in this annual report, “NIO,” “we,” “us,” “our company,” and “our” refer to NIO Inc., our Cayman Islands holding company and its subsidiaries, and in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, include the VIEs and their respective subsidiaries, where applicable.

4

The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure, including our principal subsidiaries and the VIEs, as of the date of this annual report:

Graphic

In April 2018, we entered into a series of contractual arrangements through one of our PRC subsidiaries with Beijing NIO and its shareholders, which were replaced by a new set of contractual arrangements we entered into with the same parties in April 2021. Further, in November 2022 and December 2022, we entered into a series of contractual arrangements through our respective PRC subsidiaries with each of Anhui NIO AT and Anhui NIO DT, respectively, and their respective shareholders, to conduct certain future operations in China. These contractual arrangements enable us to:

receive the economic benefits that could potentially be significant to the VIEs in consideration for the services provided by our subsidiaries;
exercise effective control over the VIEs; and

5

hold an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in the VIEs when and to the extent permitted by PRC law.

These contractual agreements include an exclusive business cooperation agreement, exclusive option agreement, equity pledge agreement, loan agreement and power of attorney. For more details of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Contractual Agreements with the VIEs and Their Shareholders.”

Beijing NIO, Anhui NIO AT, and Anhui NIO DT and its subsidiary, taking into account all of their respective business with or without foreign investment restrictions and prohibitions under PRC laws, contributed insignificantly to our total revenues, accounting for nil, nil and RMB13.8 million (US$2.0 million) for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. The VIEs provided services internally to our subsidiaries, and such services amounted to RMB0.6 million, RMB89.2 million and RMB110.5 million (US$15.6 million) for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. As of December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, none of Beijing NIO, Anhui NIO AT and Anhui NIO DT had significant operations or any material assets or liabilities.

Holdings of our ADSs and Class A ordinary shares are not holding equity interests in the VIEs in China but instead are holding equity interests in a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We do not have any equity interests in the VIEs. However, as a result of contractual arrangements, we have a controlling financial interest over and are considered the primary beneficiary of each of the VIEs, and we have consolidated the financial results, pursuant to U.S. GAAP, each of these entities in our consolidated financial statements. However, the contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over the VIEs and we may incur substantial costs to enforce the terms of the arrangements. If the VIEs or the nominee shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we could be limited in our ability to enforce the contractual arrangements that give us effective control over the VIEs. Furthermore, if we are unable to maintain effective control, we would not be able to continue to consolidate the financial results of the VIEs in our financial statements. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—We rely on contractual arrangements with the VIEs and their shareholders to hold a controlling financial interest over each VIE, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control” and “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—The shareholders of the VIEs have conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.”

There are also substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules regarding the status of the rights of our Cayman Islands holding company with respect to its contractual arrangements with the VIEs and their nominee shareholders. It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to contractual arrangements will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. If we or any of the VIEs is found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures. Our Cayman Islands holding company, our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs, and investors of our company face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with the VIEs and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of the VIEs and our company as a whole. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government deems that our VIE arrangements do not comply with PRC laws, or if these PRC laws change, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.”

PRC government’s significant authority in regulating our operations and its oversight and control over offerings conducted overseas by, and foreign investment in, China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors. Implementation of industry-wide regulations in this nature may cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or become worthless. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PRC government’s significant oversight over our business operation could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs.”

Risks and uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of laws and quickly evolving rules and regulations in China, could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”

6

Permissions Required from the PRC Authorities for Our Operations

Our operations in China are governed by PRC laws and regulations. As of the date of this annual report, our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs have obtained the requisite licenses and permits from the PRC government authorities that are material for the main business operations of our holding company, our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs in China, including, among others, a license for conducting internet content provision services, or the ICP license, and the insurance brokerage license. In addition, we have completed the filing process for our electric passenger vehicle investment project with the authorities in Anhui province and have been included in the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology’s catalogue of approved manufacturers. Given the uncertainties of interpretation and implementation of laws and regulations and the enforcement practice by government authorities, we may be required to obtain additional licenses, permits, filings or approvals for our business operations in the future. For more detailed information, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulations on internet-related business, automotive businesses and other business carried out by our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs.”

Meanwhile, the PRC government has sought to exert more oversight and control over capital raising activities of listed companies that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers. In December 2021, the Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, together with other authorities, jointly promulgated the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which took effect on February 15, 2022 and replaces its predecessor regulation. Pursuant to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, critical information infrastructure operators that procure internet products and services and network platform operators that conduct data process activities must be subject to the cybersecurity review if their activities affect or may affect national security. On February 17, 2023, China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, released several regulations regarding the filing requirements for overseas offerings and listings by domestic companies, including the Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies and five supporting guidelines, which were formally implemented on March 31, 2023. According to these rules, domestic enterprises like us that have completed overseas listings are not required to file with CSRC immediately, but shall carry out filing procedures as required if we conduct refinancing or fall within other circumstances that require filing with the CSRC. Any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining such approval or completing such procedures could subject us to restrictions and penalties imposed by the CSRC, the CAC or other PRC regulatory authorities, which could include fines and penalties on our operations in China, delays of or restrictions on the repatriation of the proceeds from our offshore offerings into China, or other actions that could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects, as well as the trading price of our ADSs. For more detailed information, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The approval of or the filing with the CSRC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with our future offshore listings and capital raising activities, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval or filing.”

7

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act

Pursuant to the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, which was enacted on December 18, 2020 and further amended by the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023, signed into law on December 29, 2022, or the HFCAA, if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspections by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), or the PCAOB, for two consecutive years, the SEC will prohibit our shares or ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report to notify the SEC of its determination that the PCAOB was unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong, including our auditor. In May 2022, the SEC conclusively listed NIO Inc. as a Commission-Identified Issuer under the HFCAA following the filing of our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB issued a report that vacated its December 16, 2021 determination and removed mainland China and Hong Kong from the list of jurisdictions where it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms. For this reason, we were not identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer under the HFCAA after we filed our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 and do not expect to be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer under the HFCAA after we file this annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023. Each year, the PCAOB will determine whether it can inspect and investigate completely audit firms in mainland China and Hong Kong, among other jurisdictions. If the PCAOB determines in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong and we use an accounting firm headquartered in one of these jurisdictions to issue an audit report on our financial statements filed with the SEC, we would be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer following the filing of the annual report on Form 20-F for the relevant fiscal year. There can be no assurance that we would not be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer for any future fiscal year, and if we were so identified for two consecutive years, we would become subject to the prohibition on trading under the HFCAA. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PCAOB had historically been unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of our auditor in the past has deprived our investors with the benefits of such inspections” and “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Our ADSs may be prohibited from trading in the United States under the HFCAA in the future if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely auditors located in China. The delisting or prohibition of trading of the ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted or prohibited from trading, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.”

Cash Flows through Our Organization

NIO Inc. is a holding company with no material operations of its own. We conduct our operations in China (i) primarily through our PRC subsidiaries, and (ii) to a much lesser extent, the VIEs and their subsidiary. As a result, although other means are available for us to obtain financing at the holding company level, NIO Inc.’s ability to pay dividends to the shareholders and to service any debt it may incur may depend upon dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries and service fees paid by the VIEs in China. If any of our subsidiaries incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing such debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends to NIO Inc. In addition, our PRC subsidiaries are permitted to pay dividends to NIO Inc. only out of their retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Further, our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs are required to make appropriations to certain statutory reserve funds or may make appropriations to certain discretionary funds, which are not distributable as cash dividends except in the event of a solvent liquidation of the companies. For more details, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — B. Liquidity and Capital Resources — Holding Company Structure.”

Under PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs are subject to certain restrictions with respect to paying dividends or otherwise transferring any of their net assets to us. Remittance of dividends by a wholly foreign-owned enterprise out of China is also subject to examination by the banks designated by the State Administration of Foreign Exchange of the PRC, or SAFE. The amounts restricted include the paid-up capital and the statutory reserve funds of our PRC subsidiaries and the net assets of the VIEs and their subsidiaries in which we have no legal ownership, totaling RMB38,902.1 million, RMB40,720.9 million and RMB42,256.2 million (US$5,951.7 million) as of December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively, and the net assets of the VIEs and their subsidiaries that are restricted was nil, RMB50.0 million and RMB54.7 million (US$7.7 million) as of December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. For risks relating to the fund flows of our operations in China, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We may rely on distributions by our PRC subsidiaries for our financing requirements, and any limitation on our PRC subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our business.”

8

For purposes of illustration, the following discussion reflects the hypothetical taxes that might be required to be paid within China, assuming that: (i) we have taxable earnings, and (ii) we determine to pay dividends in the future.

    

Tax calculation (1)

 

Hypothetical pre-tax earnings

 

100

%

Tax on earnings at statutory rate of 25% (2)

 

(25)

%

Net earnings available for distribution

 

75

%

Withholding tax at standard rate of 10% (3)

 

(7.5)

%

Net distribution to Parent/Shareholders

 

67.5

%

Notes:

(1)

For purposes of this example, the tax calculation has been simplified. The hypothetical book pre-tax earnings amount, not considering timing differences, is assumed to equal taxable income in China.

(2)

Certain of our subsidiaries qualifies for a 15% preferential income tax rate in China. For purposes of this hypothetical example, the table above reflects a maximum tax scenario under which the full statutory rate would be effective.

(3)

The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law imposes a withholding income tax of 10% on dividends distributed by a foreign invested enterprise to its immediate holding company outside of China. A lower withholding income tax rate of 5% is applied if the foreign invested enterprise’s immediate holding company is registered in Hong Kong or other jurisdictions that have a tax treaty arrangement with China, subject to a qualification review at the time of the distribution. For purposes of this hypothetical example, the table above assumes a maximum tax scenario under which the full withholding tax would be applied.

Under PRC law, NIO Inc. may provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through capital contributions or loans, and to the VIEs only through loans, subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration and approval requirements. NIO Inc. and its subsidiaries extended loans to the nominee shareholders of the VIEs for their investment in the VIEs, with outstanding principal amount of RMB0.1 million, RMB50.1 million and RMB50.1 million (US$7.1 million) as of December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. In addition, NIO Inc. and its subsidiaries also extended loans to the VIEs for operations with outstanding principal amount of RMB7.0 million, RMB32.8 million and RMB86.9 million (US$12.2 million) as of December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively.

Pursuant to the exclusive business cooperation agreements between NIO Co., Ltd., or Shanghai NIO, a wholly-owned subsidiary of our company, and Beijing NIO, Shanghai NIO may adjust the payment time and payment method of the service fees, and Beijing NIO will accept any such adjustment. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, no service under the contractual arrangements was provided by Shanghai NIO and no service fee was paid by Beijing NIO to Shanghai NIO accordingly. We intend to determine the amount of service fee and payment method based on the working capital needs of Shanghai NIO and Beijing NIO, and settle such service fees accordingly in the future. Pursuant to a separate service agreement, for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, Shanghai NIO paid Beijing NIO RMB0.6 million, RMB0.7 million and RMB0.7 million (US$0.1 million) for services provided by Beijing NIO.

Pursuant to the exclusive business cooperation agreement dated November 30, 2022 between Anhui NIO Autonomous Driving Technology Co., Ltd., or Anhui NIO AD, a wholly-owned subsidiary of our company, and Anhui NIO AT, Anhui NIO AD may adjust the payment time and payment method of the service fees, and Anhui NIO AT will accept any such adjustment. For the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2023, no service under the contractual arrangements was provided by Anhui NIO AD and no service fee was paid by Anhui NIO AT to Anhui NIO AD accordingly. We intend to determine the amount of service fee and payment method based on the working capital needs of Anhui NIO AD and Anhui NIO AT, and settle such service fees accordingly in the future. Pursuant to a separate service agreement, for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, Anhui NIO AD paid Anhui NIO AT nil, RMB70.1 million and RMB58.4 million (US$8.2 million) for services provided by Anhui NIO AT.

Pursuant to the exclusive business cooperation agreement dated December 12, 2022 between NIO Holding Co., Ltd., or NIO China, a PRC subsidiary in which we hold 92.114% controlling equity interests, and Anhui NIO DT, NIO China may adjust the payment time and payment method of the service fees, and Anhui NIO DT will accept any such adjustment. For the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2023, no service under the contractual arrangements was provided by NIO China and no service fee was paid by Anhui NIO DT to NIO China accordingly. We intend to determine the amount of service fee and payment method based on the working capital needs of NIO China and Anhui NIO DT, and settle such service fees accordingly in the future.

9

NIO Inc. has not declared or paid any cash dividends, nor does it have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business. See “Item 8. Financial Information — A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information — Dividend Policy.”  For Cayman Islands, PRC and United States federal income tax considerations of an investment in our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares, see “Item 10. Additional Information — E. Taxation.”

As of December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023 and for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, none of Beijing NIO, Anhui NIO AT and Anhui NIO DT had significant operations or any material assets or liabilities. As a result, the financial information related to the consolidated VIEs were insignificant to our consolidated financial statements.

A.          [Reserved]

B.          Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.          Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.          Risk Factors

Summary of Risk Factors

An investment in our ADSs and Class A ordinary shares involves significant risks. Below is a summary of material risks we face, organized under relevant headings. These risks are discussed more fully in “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors.”

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Risks and uncertainties related to our business and industry include, but are not limited to, the following:

The automotive market is highly competitive, and we face significant challenges in competing in our industry;
Our ability to develop and manufacture vehicles of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and on a large scale is still evolving;
We have not been profitable, and only generated positive cash flows from operations in certain periods;
We have limited experience in independent manufacturing. Any delays in the manufacturing and launching of our products, or ramping up of our production capacity, could have a material adverse effect on our business;
Manufacturing in collaboration with partners is subject to risks;
The unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives or governmental policies which are favorable for electric vehicles and domestically produced vehicles could have a material adverse effect on our business;
Our current or future vehicles may not perform in line with customer expectations;
We may face challenges providing our power solutions;
Our products and services may not be generally accepted by our users. If we are unable to provide or arrange satisfactory products or customer service for our users, our business and reputation may be materially and adversely affected;
We are dependent on our suppliers, many of whom are our single source suppliers for the components they supply; and

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We rely on Battery Asset Company to provide Battery as a Service to our users. If Battery Asset Company fails to achieve smooth and stable operations, our Battery as a Service may be materially and adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

We are also subject to risks and uncertainties related to our corporate structure, including, but not limited to, the following:

We are a Cayman Islands holding company with no equity ownership in the VIEs and we conduct our operations in China (i) primarily through our PRC subsidiaries, and (ii) to a much lesser extent, the VIEs with which we maintain contractual arrangements, and their subsidiary. Investors in our ADSs and Class A ordinary shares thus are not purchasing equity interests in the VIEs in China but instead are purchasing equity interests in a Cayman Islands holding company. If the PRC government deems that our VIE arrangements do not comply with PRC laws, or if these PRC laws change, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations. Our holding company in the Cayman Islands, the VIEs and investors of our company face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with the VIEs and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of the VIEs and our company as a group;
We rely on contractual arrangements with the VIEs and their shareholders to hold a controlling financial interest over each VIE, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control;
Our ability to enforce the equity pledge agreements between us and the VIEs’ shareholders may be subject to limitations based on PRC laws and regulations; and
The shareholders of the VIEs have conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

We face risks and uncertainties related to doing business in China in general, including, but not limited to, the following:

Changes in China’s political or social conditions or government policies could have a material and adverse effect on our business and results of operations;
Risks and uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of laws and quickly evolving rules and regulations in China, could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs and Class A ordinary shares. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us”;
The PRC government’s significant authority in regulating our operations and its oversight and control over capital raising activities of listed companies conducted overseas by, and foreign investment in, China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors. Implementation of industry-wide regulations in this nature may cause the value of such securities to significantly decline. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The PRC government’s significant oversight over our business operation could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs”;
The approval of or the filing with the CSRC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with our future offshore listings and capital raising activities, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval or filing;
We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulations on internet-related business, automotive businesses and other business carried out by our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs;

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The PCAOB had historically been unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of our auditor in the past has deprived our investors with the benefits of such inspections; and
Our ADSs may be prohibited from being traded in the United States under the HFCAA in the future if the PCAOB determines that it is unable to inspect or investigate completely auditor located in China. The delisting or prohibition of trading of the ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted or prohibited from trading, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Our ADSs may be prohibited from trading in the United States under the HFCAA in the future if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely auditors located in China. The delisting or prohibition of trading of the ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted or prohibited from trading, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.”

Risks Related to Our ADSs and Class A Ordinary Shares

In addition to the risks described above, we are subject to risks related to our ADSs and Class A ordinary shares:

We adopt different practices as to certain matters as compared with many other companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange;
If we change the listing venue of our securities, you may lose the shareholder protection mechanisms afforded under the regulatory regimes of the applicable securities exchange;
The trading prices of our listed securities have been and are likely to continue to be, volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors;
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs, the market price for our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs and trading volume could decline; and
Our dual-class voting structure will limit the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs to influence corporate matters, provide certain shareholders of ours with substantial influence and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

The automotive market is highly competitive, and we face significant challenges in competing in our industry.

The automotive market is highly competitive and we expect it will become more competitive in the future as additional players enter into this market. We compete with both NEV and ICE vehicles targeting the mid- to high-end segment. Many of our current and potential competitors, particularly international competitors, have significantly greater financial, engineering, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than we do and may be able to devote greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, promotion, sale and support of their products. Factors affecting competition include, among others, pricing, technological innovation, product design and performance, product quality and safety, service and charging options, user experience, and manufacturing efficiency. Increased competition may lead to lower vehicle unit sales and increased inventory, which may result in downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

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Moreover, we expect competition in the China automotive market to intensify in the future in light of intense price competition and phase-out of government subsidies. Increasing competition may lead to lower vehicle unit sales and increasing inventory, which may result in downward price pressure and may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. Furthermore, our competitive advantage as the company with the first-to-market and leading EV volume-manufactured domestically in China will be severely compromised if our competitors begin making deliveries earlier than expected, or offer more favorable pricing than we do. We may also be affected by the growth of the overall China automotive market. There have been fluctuations in the retail sales of the passenger vehicles in China in recent years. If the demand for automobiles in China decreases, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. Our ability to successfully compete in our industry will be fundamental to our future success in existing and new markets and our market share. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully in our markets. If our competitors introduce new vehicles or services that successfully compete with or surpass the quality or performance of our vehicles or services at more competitive prices, we may be unable to satisfy existing customers or attract new customers at the price levels that would allow us to generate attractive rates of return on our investment.

You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and challenges we face in our industry, including, among other things, with respect to our ability to:

design and produce safe, reliable and quality vehicles on an ongoing basis;
build a well-recognized and respected brand;
establish and expand our customer base;
successfully market our vehicles and services;
competitively price our products and services, and successfully anticipate the sales volume of our vehicle products and the take-rate of services provided to users;
improve and maintain our operational efficiency;
maintain a reliable, secure, high-performance and scalable technology infrastructure;
successfully develop and protect our core technologies;
attract, retain and motivate talented employees;
anticipate and adapt to changing market conditions, including technological developments and changes in competitive landscape; and
navigate an evolving and complex regulatory environment.

If we fail to address any or all of these risks and challenges, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

Furthermore, our vehicles are highly technical products that will require maintenance and support. If we were to cease or cut back operations, even years from now, buyers of our vehicles from years earlier might encounter difficulties in maintaining their vehicles and obtaining satisfactory support. We also believe that our service offerings, including user confidence in our ability to provide our power solutions and honor our obligations under our service package, will be key factors in marketing our vehicles. As a result, consumers will be less likely to purchase our vehicles now if they are not convinced that our business will succeed or that our operations will continue for many years. Similarly, suppliers and other third parties will be less likely to invest time and resources in developing business relationships with us if they are not convinced that our business will succeed.

Our ability to develop and manufacture vehicles of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and on a large scale is still evolving.

Our future business depends in large part on our ability to execute on our plans to develop, manufacture, market and sell our electric vehicles. We plan to manufacture our vehicles in higher volumes than our present production capabilities.

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Our continued development and manufacturing of our current and future vehicle models are and will be subject to risks, including with respect to:

our ability to secure necessary funding;
the equipment we use being able to accurately manufacture the vehicle within specified design tolerances;
compliance with environmental, workplace safety and similar regulations;
securing necessary components on acceptable terms and in a timely manner;
delays in delivery of final component designs to our suppliers, or delays in the development and delivery of our core technologies and new vehicle models, such as our NIO Assisted and Intelligent Driving, or NAD, and technologies for batteries;
our ability to attract, recruit, hire and train skilled employees;
quality controls;
delays or disruptions in our supply chain;
our ability to maintain solid partnership with our suppliers; and
other delays in manufacturing and production capacity expansion, and cost overruns.

Currently, our product portfolio consists of the ES8, a six-seater smart electric flagship SUV, the ES7 (or the EL7), a mid-large five-seater smart electric SUV, the ES6 (or the EL6), a five-seater all-round smart electric SUV, the EC7, a five-seater smart electric flagship coupe SUV, the EC6, a five-seater smart electric coupe SUV, the ET9, a smart electric executive flagship, the ET7, a smart electric flagship sedan, the ET5, a mid-size smart electric sedan, and the ET5T, a smart electric tourer. Our vehicles may not meet customer expectations and our future models may not be commercially viable. Historically, automobile customers have expected auto companies to periodically introduce new and improved vehicle models. In order to meet these expectations, we may be required to introduce new vehicle models and enhanced versions of existing vehicle models. To date, we have limited experience designing, testing, manufacturing, marketing and selling our electric vehicles and therefore cannot assure you that we will be able to meet customer expectations.

Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and growth prospects.

We have not been profitable, and only generated positive cash flows from operations in certain periods.

We have not been profitable since our inception, and only generated positive cash flows from operations in certain periods. We incurred net losses of RMB4,016.9 million, RMB14,437.1 million and RMB20,719.8 million (US$2,918.3 million) for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. In addition, although we generated positive operating cash flows in 2021, we had negative operating cash flows of RMB3,866.0 million and RMB1,381.5 million (US$194.6 million) in 2022 and 2023, respectively.

There can be no assurance that we will not experience liquidity problems in the future. We may not be able to fulfill our obligations in providing vehicles, embedded products or services to our users in respect of advances from customers, the failure of which may negatively affect our cash flow position. If we fail to generate sufficient revenue from our operations, or if we fail to maintain sufficient cash and financing, we may not have sufficient cash flows to fund our business, operations and capital expenditure and our business and financial position will be adversely affected.

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We have made significant up-front investments in research and development, power network, service network, and sales and marketing to rapidly develop and expand our business. We expect to continue to invest significantly in research and development, sales and service network, and in production capacity expansion, to further develop and expand our business, and these investments may not result in an increase in revenue or positive cash flow on a timely basis, or at all. For example, we are working on the development of electric vehicles targeting the mass market, assisted and intelligent driving technologies, other core technologies, and smart devices. We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully against existing or future competitors in those new areas. Additionally, the electric vehicle industry is witnessing a trend where numerous market players are resorting to aggressive pricing strategies to carve out a larger market share. Maintaining our current margins could become increasingly challenging amidst this price-cutting competition. Adjusting our pricing may become essential to remain competitive, while this could lead to a direct contraction of our margin levels, and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We may continue to record net losses and negative operating cash flows in the near future. We may not generate sufficient revenues, or we may incur substantial losses for a number of reasons, including lack of demand for our vehicles and services, increasing competition, challenging macro-economic environment, as well as other risks discussed herein, and we may incur unforeseen expenses, or encounter difficulties, complications and delays in generating revenue or achieving profitability. If we are unable to achieve profitability, we may have to reduce the scale of our operations, which may impact our business growth and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our continuous operation depends on our capability to improve operating cash flows as well as our capacity to obtain sufficient external equity or debt financing. If we do not succeed in doing so, we may have to limit the scale of our operations, which may limit our business growth and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We have limited experience in independent manufacturing. Any delays in the manufacturing and launching of our products, or ramping up of our production capacity, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Auto companies often experience delays in the design, manufacture and commercial release of new vehicle models. We had been, and will continue to target a broader market with our future vehicles, and to the extent we need to delay the launch of our vehicles, our growth prospects could be adversely affected as we may fail to grow our market share. We also plan to periodically perform facelifts or refresh existing models, which could also be subject to delays. We may introduce in the future new or unique manufacturing processes and design features for our products. As we expand our vehicle offerings and global footprint, there is no guarantee that we will be able to successfully and timely introduce and scale such processes or features. Furthermore, we rely on third-party suppliers for the provision and development of many of the key components and materials used in our vehicles. To the extent our suppliers experience any delays in providing us with or developing necessary components, we could experience delays in delivering on our timelines.

In addition, our manufacturing model has transitioned from joint manufacturing to independent manufacturing, potentially introducing new risks. Such a shift poses additional challenges due to our limited experience in manufacturing independently. The intricacies of overseeing all aspects of production independently, such as managing the entire production line and supervising production personnel, may lead to unforeseen obstacles in maintaining efficiency and timeliness, and, ultimately, delays in product launch and delivery. Therefore, we may be required to invest in more time and resources to assure that vehicles manufactured at our own facilities comply with our quality standards and regulatory requirements. We have limited experience in managing our manufacturing workforce, and we may also face challenges in providing training to our production personnel. Additionally, we cannot assure you that we will be able to attract or retain qualified personnel or other highly skilled employees in a timely and cost-efficient manner. Any failure to effectively manage or provide adequate training to our manufacturing workforce and production personnel, as well as attract or retain qualified personnel, may result in delays in production, reduced efficiency, and potential quality issues.

Furthermore, we may need to expand or convert our existing manufacturing facilities in the future to ramp up the production of our current and future vehicle models. The expansion or conversion of our manufacturing facilities could experience delays or other difficulties, potentially affecting the timeline for increasing production capacity. Moreover, as we increase our production capacity and improve our operation efficiency, significant capital may also be required to maintain our property, plant and equipment, and such costs may exceed our current anticipations. There is substantial uncertainty about our ability to achieve these objectives. We cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the expansion or conversion of our manufacturing bases or ramp up our production capacity on schedule and within budget.

Any delay in production ramp-up of our current vehicle models, or in the development, manufacture, launch and production ramp-up of our future vehicle models, including in the build-out of the manufacturing facilities in China for these models or due to any other factors, or in refreshing or performing facelifts to existing models, could subject us to customer complaints and materially and adversely affect our reputation, demand for our vehicles, results of operations and growth prospects.

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Manufacturing in collaboration with partners is subject to risks.

In the past, we partnered with Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd. (formerly known as Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Co., Ltd.), or JAC, a major state-owned automobile manufacturer in China, for the joint manufacturing of our vehicles in the first advanced manufacturing base, or the F1 Plant, and the second advanced manufacturing base, or the F2 Plant. Under our previous joint manufacturing arrangement, we and JAC jointly manufactured a series of our vehicle models in the F1 Plant and the F2 Plant. We were in charge of vehicle development and engineering, trademarks and technology licensing, supply chain management, manufacturing techniques and quality management and assurance. Jianglai Advanced Manufacturing Technology (Anhui) Co., Ltd., or Jianglai, a joint venture for operation management established by JAC and us, was responsible for parts assembly and operation management.

We entered into definitive agreements with JAC in December 2023, pursuant to which we agreed to acquire the manufacturing equipment and assets of the F1 Plant and the F2 Plant from JAC for a total consideration of approximately RMB3.16 billion, excluding tax. The asset transfer was completed in December 2023. In addition, we have completed the filing process for our electric passenger vehicle investment project with the authorities in Anhui province and have been included in the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology’s catalogue of approved manufacturers. Our manufacturing model has transitioned from joint manufacturing to independent manufacturing. We have commenced independent manufacturing of all our current vehicles models in the F1 Plant and the F2 Plant. We have also entered into a manufacturing technical services agreement with Jianglai, pursuant to which Jianglai provides certain technical support and services to us in support of our independent manufacturing, including logistics and planning, production quality control, and technical training and skills enhancement for our production personnel.

We were subject to operational risks under our previous joint manufacturing arrangement. Although we have transitioned to independent manufacturing, we expect Jianglai to provide technical support and services to us in support of our independent manufacturing. We may have limited ability to control the actions of Jianglai and its performance under the manufacturing technical services agreement. In addition, to the extent JAC or Jianglai are subject to negative publicity or harm to their reputation relating to their business, we may also suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation by virtue of our association with them. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives or governmental policies which are favorable for electric vehicles and domestically produced vehicles could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our growth has benefited significantly from the government subsidies, economic incentives and government policies that support the growth of new energy vehicles. Favorable government incentives and subsidies in China include one-time government subsidies, exemption from vehicle purchase tax, exemption from license plate restrictions in certain cities, preferential utility rates for charging facilities and more. Changes in government subsidies, economic incentives and government policies to support NEVs could adversely affect the results of our operations.

China’s central government provided subsidies for purchases of certain NEVs until 2022 and reviews and further adjusts the subsidy standard on an annual basis. We have seen a general decrease in the amount of government subsidies available to purchase of NEVs in recent years. For example, the 2020 subsidy standard, effective from April 23, 2020, reduces the base subsidy amount in general by 10% for each NEV, and sets subsidies for around two million vehicles as the upper limit of annual subsidy scale. The 2022 subsidy standard was further reduced by 30% compared to the standard of 2021. In addition, the subsidy policy for the purchase of NEVs in 2022 was terminated on December 31, 2022, and that subsidy will no longer be granted to vehicles where car licenses are issued after December 31, 2022. We believe that our sales performance in 2021, 2022 and 2023 was negatively affected by the reduction in the subsidy standard to some extent. In addition, local governments in China have been implementing incentives and subsidy policies for consumers, such as NEV replacement subsidies. If these favorable government incentives and subsidies are scaled back in the future, it could potentially reduce consumers’ willingness to purchase NEVs, thereby negatively impacting our vehicle sales.

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Our vehicle sales may also be impacted by government policies such as tariffs on imported vehicles and foreign investment restrictions in the industry. The tariff in China on imported passenger vehicles (other than those originating in the United States of America) was reduced to 15% starting from July 1, 2018. As a result, pricing advantage of domestically manufactured vehicles could be diminished. There used to be a certain limitation on foreign ownership of automakers in China, but for automakers of NEVs, such limit was lifted in 2018. Further, pursuant to the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access (2021 Version), or 2021 Negative List, most recently jointly promulgated by the Ministry of Commerce of the PRC and the National Development and Reform Commission of the PRC, or the NDRC, on December 27, 2021 and took effect on January 1, 2022, the limit on foreign ownership of automakers for ICE passenger vehicles was also lifted. As a result, foreign NEV competitors could build wholly-owned facilities in China without the need for a domestic joint venture partner. These changes could affect the competitive landscape of the NEV industry and reduce our pricing advantage, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Apart from vehicle purchase subsidies, China’s central government has adopted an NEV credit scheme that incentivizes OEMs to increase the production and sale of NEVs. On June 29, 2023, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the PRC, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Commerce, the General Administration of Customs of the PRC, and the State Administration for Market Regulation, jointly promulgated the Decision on Amending Measures for the Parallel Administration of the Average Fuel Consumption and New Energy Vehicle Credits of Passenger Vehicle Enterprises, which took effect on August 1, 2023. Under these measures, each of the vehicle manufacturers and vehicle importers above a certain scale is required to, among other things, maintain its new energy vehicles credits, or the NEV credits, and corporate average fuel consumption credits, above zero, regardless of whether NEVs or ICE vehicles are manufactured or imported by it, and NEV credits can be earned only by manufacturing or importing NEVs. Therefore, NEV manufacturers will enjoy preferences in obtaining and calculating NEV credits. Additionally, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology will establish an NEV credits pool for passenger vehicle enterprises to store or withdraw positive NEV credits, and decide whether to open such pool before July 30 each year based on the average fuel consumption of passenger vehicle enterprises across the country and the supply and demand of NEV credits. The positive NEV credits stored in the credit pool do not have a carryover ratio requirement and are valid for five years. Furthermore, NEV credits are equal to the aggregate actual scores of a vehicle manufacturer or a vehicle importer minus its aggregate targeted scores. The actual scores shall be calculated by multiplying the score of each new energy vehicle model, which depends on various metrics such as the driving range, battery energy efficiency and the rated power of fuel cell systems, and is calculated based on formula published by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (in the case of a battery electric vehicle, the NEV credit of each vehicle is calculated by multiplying 0.0034 by the vehicle’s mileage, adding 0.2 to the result, and then multiplying the total by the mileage adjustment coefficient, battery energy density adjustment coefficient, and electricity consumption coefficient), by the respective production or import volume, while the targeted scores shall be calculated by multiplying the annual production or import volume of traditional ICEs of a vehicle manufacturer or importer by the NEV credit ratio set by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The NEV credit ratios are 14%, 16% and 18% for the years of 2021, 2022 and 2023. Excess positive NEV credits, or the automotive regulatory credits, are tradable and may be sold to other enterprises through a credit trading scheme established by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology while excess positive corporate average fuel consumption credits can only be carried forward or transferred among related parties. Negative NEV credits can be offset by purchasing automotive regulatory credits from other manufacturers or importers. We have earned positive NEV credits through manufacturing new energy vehicles and sold some of our automotive regulatory credits to other vehicle manufacturers or importers. We generated revenue from the sale of automotive regulatory credits totaled RMB516.5 million, RMB67.3 million and RMB10.6 million (US$1.5 million) in 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. The credits earned are calculated based on the formula published by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, which is dependent on various metrics such as vehicle mileage and battery energy efficiency. There is no guarantee that we will continue to earn a similar level or amount of credits going forward. Moreover, as the prices for automotive regulatory credits are subject to market demand, which affects the amount of regulatory credits generated by other vehicle manufacturers during a given period, we cannot assure you that we will continue to sell our automotive regulatory credits at the current price or a higher price. Any changes in government policies to restrict or eliminate such automotive regulatory credits trading could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

On June 19, 2023, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Finance and the State Taxation Administration jointly promulgated the Announcement on Continuing and Optimizing the Vehicle Purchase Tax Reduction and Exemption Policies for New Energy Vehicles. Pursuant to such announcement, the NEVs purchased during the period from January 1, 2024 to December 31, 2025, shall be exempt from vehicle purchase tax, with the amount of tax exemption for each new energy passenger vehicle not exceeding RMB30,000, and the vehicle purchase tax on the NEVs purchased during the period from January 1, 2026 to December 31, 2027, shall be reduced by half, with the amount of tax reduction for each new energy passenger vehicle not exceeding RMB15,000.

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Such negative influence and our undermined sales performance resulted therefrom could continue. Furthermore, China’s central government provides certain local governments with funds and subsidies to support the roll-out of charging infrastructure. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Favorable Government Policies Relating to New Energy Vehicles in the PRC.” These policies are subject to change and beyond our control. We cannot assure you that any changes would be favorable to our business. Furthermore, any reduction, elimination, delayed payment or discriminatory application of government subsidies and economic incentives because of policy changes, the reduced need for such subsidies and incentives due to the perceived success of electric vehicles, fiscal tightening or other factors may result in the diminished competitiveness of the alternative fuel vehicle industry generally or our electric vehicles in particular. In addition, as we seek to increase our revenues from vehicle sales, we may also experience an increase in accounts receivable relating to government subsidies. However, the collection of the government subsidies is subject to the appropriation arrangement and cadence of the governmental authority. Any uncertainty or delay in collection of the government subsidies may also have an adverse impact on our financial condition. For more details, please refer to “10. Other Non-current Assets” set forth in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Our current or future vehicles may not perform in line with customer expectations.

Our current or future vehicles may not perform in line with customers’ expectations. For example, our vehicles may not have the durability or longevity of other vehicles in the market, and may not be as easy and convenient to repair as other vehicles in the market. Any product defects or any other failure of our vehicles to perform as expected could harm our reputation and result in adverse publicity, lost revenue, delivery delays, product recalls, product liability claims, harm to our brand and reputation, and significant warranty and other expenses, and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

In addition, the range of our vehicles on a single charge declines principally as a function of usage, time and charging patterns as well as other factors. For example, a customer’s use of his or her electric vehicle as well as the frequency with which he or she charges the battery can result in additional deterioration of the battery’s ability to hold a charge.

Furthermore, our vehicles may contain defects in design and manufacture that may cause them not to perform as expected or that may require repair. We have delivered vehicles based on NIO Technology 2.0, or NT2.0, with certain features of the NAD, and plan to gradually turn on more features of the NAD. We cannot assure you that the NAD will ultimately perform in line with expectations. Our vehicles use a substantial amount of software code to operate and software products are inherently complex and often contain defects and errors when first introduced.

While we have performed extensive internal testing on our vehicles’ software and hardware systems, we have a limited frame of reference by which to evaluate the long-term performance of our systems and vehicles. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in the vehicles prior to their sale to consumers. If any of our vehicles fail to perform as expected, we may need to delay deliveries, initiate product recalls and provide servicing or updates under warranty at our expense, which could adversely affect our brand in our target markets and could adversely affect our business, prospects and results of operations.

We may face challenges providing our power solutions.

We provide our users with comprehensive power solutions. Our power solutions include home charger, which we refer to as Power Home; battery swapping, which we refer to as Power Swap; supercharging piles, which we refer to as Power Charger; destination charging piles, which we refer to as Destination Charger; and mobile charging, which we refer to as Power Mobile. In addition, we offer our users our One Click for Power valet service where we pick up, charge and then return the vehicle. For each of our vehicle models, we currently offer two battery options: (i) the 75 kWh battery, or the Standard Range Battery and (ii) the 100 kWh battery, or the Long Range Battery. We expect to deliver the 150 kWh battery, or the Ultra-long Range Battery, with the next generation battery technology in the near future. We have experienced delays in delivering our power solutions in the past, and we cannot assure you that such delays will not occur again in the future.

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We have very limited experience in the actual provision of our power solutions to users and providing these services is subject to challenges, including the challenges associated with sorting out the logistics of rolling out our network and teams in appropriate areas, inadequate capacity or over capacity of our services in certain areas, security risks or risk of damage to vehicles during One Click for Power valet services and the potential for lack of user acceptance of our services. In addition, although the Chinese government has supported the roll-out of a public charging network, the current number of charging infrastructures is generally considered to be insufficient. We also face uncertainties with regard to governmental support and public infrastructure as we roll out our power solutions, including whether we can obtain and maintain access to sufficient charging infrastructure, whether we can obtain any required permits and land use rights and complete any required filings, and whether the government support in this area may discontinue. Furthermore, we may be subject to illegal activities perpetrated against us and our power solutions, which may disrupt our operations and damage user confidence in our vehicles and service offerings, thereby negatively affect our business and results of operations.

Furthermore, given our limited experience in providing power solutions, there could be unanticipated challenges which may hinder our ability to provide our solutions or make the provision of our solutions costlier than anticipated. To the extent we are unable to meet user expectations or experience difficulties in providing our power solutions, our reputation and business may be materially and adversely affected.

Our products and services may not be generally accepted by our users. If we are unable to provide or arrange satisfactory products or customer service for our users, our business and reputation may be materially and adversely affected.

We aim to provide users with satisfactory products and a good customer service experience, including by providing our users with access to a full suite of services conveniently through our mobile application and vehicle applications. In addition, we seek to engage with our users on an ongoing basis using online and offline channels, in ways which are non-traditional for automakers. We are also expanding our service scope to meet our users’ evolving demands. For example, in January 2021, we launched NIO Certified, our official used car business. We have established a nationwide used vehicle business network, covering services including vehicle inspection, evaluation, acquisition and sales. We also partner with various used car dealers through our NIO app to assist users in completing their used car transactions more efficiently and conveniently. In addition, we have also started to offer auto financing arrangements to our users directly through our subsidiary, NIO Financial Leasing Co., Ltd., in late 2020. New service offerings will subject us to unknown risks. In addition, we may from time to time roll out new vehicle models and upgraded versions of existing vehicle models to meet the evolving expectations and demands of our users. However, we cannot assure you that our products and services, including new vehicle models or upgraded versions of existing vehicle models, our service package and energy package, our power solution services, our used car service, our auto financing services or our efforts to engage with our users using both our online and offline channels, will be successful, which could impact our revenues as well as our customer satisfaction and marketing.

Our servicing will partially be carried out through third parties which we certified. Although such servicing partners may have experience in servicing other vehicles, we and such partners have very limited experience in servicing our vehicles. Servicing electric vehicles is different from servicing ICE vehicles and requires specialized skills, including high voltage training and servicing techniques. There can be no assurance that our service arrangements will adequately address the service requirements of our users to their satisfaction, or that we and our partners will have sufficient resources to meet these service requirements in a timely manner as the volume of vehicles we deliver increases.

In addition, if we are unable to roll out and establish a widespread service network, user satisfaction could be adversely affected, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our sales, results of operations and prospects.

We are dependent on our suppliers, many of whom are our single source suppliers for the components they supply.

Each of our vehicle models uses a great amount of purchased parts from suppliers, many of whom are currently our single source suppliers for these components, and we expect that this will be similar for any future vehicle we may produce. The supply chain exposes us to multiple potential sources of delivery failure or component shortages. While we obtain components from multiple sources whenever possible, similar to other players in our industry, many of the components used in our vehicles are components we purchased from a single source. To date, we have not qualified alternative sources for most of the single sourced components used in our vehicles and we do not maintain long-term agreements with some of our single source suppliers. In addition, part of our supply chain is geographically concentrated. The lack of geographic diversification in our suppliers could lead to increased costs and delays in production of our vehicles.

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Qualifying alternative suppliers or developing our own replacements for certain highly customized components of our vehicles, may be time-consuming and costly. Any disruption in the supply of components, whether or not from a single source supplier, could temporarily disrupt the production of our vehicles until an alternative supplier is fully qualified or is otherwise able to supply us with the required material. There can be no assurance that we would be able to successfully retain alternative suppliers or supplies on a timely basis, on acceptable terms or at all. Furthermore, our collaboration with startup suppliers poses a potential risk to our operations. These suppliers may lack the experience and resources to effectively manage their supply chains, leading to potential disruptions in the delivery of goods or services to us. In addition, operational inefficiencies within these suppliers may lead to inconsistencies in product or service quality, thereby affecting our own ability to deliver high-quality products or services to our customers. Some of these suppliers may have limited financial resources and rely on external financing to sustain their operations. If they experience financial constraints or fail to sustain their operations, it could impact their ability to meet our requirements, potentially causing delays or disruptions in our operations.

Changes in business conditions, force majeure and other factors beyond our control or which we do not presently anticipate, could also affect our suppliers’ ability to deliver components to us on a timely basis. For example, the global supply constraint of semiconductor chips had negatively impacted our production activity and volume, as a result of which, we temporarily suspended the vehicle production activity in the F1 Plant for five working days starting from March 29, 2021. In May 2021, our vehicle delivery was adversely impacted for several days due to the volatility of semiconductor supply and certain logistical adjustments. In April 2022, we suspended our vehicle production as a result of the component shortages. In July 2022, the production of our ET7 and EC6 was constrained by the short supply of casting parts. Although the reduced production volume and number of vehicles delivered as a result of supply chain volatilities have not had a material impact on our liquidity and capital resources, our results of operations in these periods have been negatively affected. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by natural disasters, health epidemics and other outbreaks.” While we have been working closely with supply chain partners and have been actively seeking alternative sources of supply, our production activity and results of operations may be impacted should the supply chain volatilities continue. In addition, even if we succeed in locating alternative sources of supply, cooperating with new suppliers will subject us to uncertainties with respect to the reliability of these suppliers and the quality of the components they provide. We cannot assure you that the new sources of component supply will enable us to meet the quality, price, design, engineering, and production standards, as well as the production volumes to satisfy the market demand for our vehicles. Any defects of or quality issues with these components or any non-compliance incidents associated with these third-party suppliers could result in quality issues with our vehicles and hence compromise our brand image and results of operations. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

We rely on Battery Asset Company to provide Battery as a Service to our users. If Battery Asset Company fails to achieve smooth and stable operations, our Battery as a Service may be materially and adversely affected.

On August 20, 2020, we introduced the Battery as a Service, or BaaS, which allows users to purchase electric vehicles and subscribe for the usage of batteries separately. If users opt to purchase a vehicle and subscribe for the battery under the BaaS, they can enjoy a deduction off the original vehicle purchase price and pay a monthly subscription fee for the battery.

For each user under the BaaS model, we sell a battery to Wuhan Weineng Battery Asset Co., Ltd., or the Battery Asset Company, and the user subscribes for the usage of the battery from the Battery Asset Company. The service we provide to our users under the BaaS relies, in part, on the smooth operation of and stability and quality of service delivered by the Battery Asset Company, which we cannot guarantee. We invested in the Battery Asset Company with CATL, Hubei Science Technology Investment Group Co., Ltd. and a subsidiary of Guotai Junan International Holdings Limited, which we refer to as the Initial BaaS Investors in this annual report. We and the Initial BaaS Investors each invested RMB200 million and held 25% equity interests in the Battery Asset Company at its establishment. In December 2020, April 2021, August 2021 and July 2022, respectively, the Battery Asset Company entered into agreements with new and existing investors for additional financing. We refer to the Initial BaaS Investors together with the other investors of the Battery Asset Company that subsequently joined as the Battery Asset Company Investors. As of the date of this annual report, we beneficially own approximately 19.4% of the equity interests in the Battery Asset Company. As a result, we have significant influence, but not control, over the business operations of the Battery Asset Company. If it fails in delivering smooth and stable operations, we will suffer from negative customer reviews and even returns of products or services and our reputation may be materially and adversely affected.

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Additionally, given that we generate a portion of our total revenues from sales of battery purchases and provision of service to the Battery Asset Company, our results of operations and financial performance will be negatively affected if the Battery Asset Company fails to operate smoothly. The Battery Asset Company may finance the purchase of batteries through issuance of equity and debt or bank borrowing. If the Battery Asset Company is unable to obtain future financings from the Battery Asset Company Investors or other third parties to meet its operational needs, it may not be able to make payments to us for the batteries purchased from us on time, to continue purchasing batteries from us and providing them to our users through battery subscription, or to otherwise maintain its healthy and sustainable operations. On the other hand, if the Battery Asset Company bears a significant rate of customer default on its payment obligations, its results of operations and financial performance may be materially impacted, which will in turn reduce the value of our and the Battery Asset Company Investors’ investments in the Battery Asset Company. In addition, in furtherance of the BaaS, we agreed to provide a guarantee to the Battery Asset Company for the default in payment of monthly subscription fees from users, while the maximum amount of guarantee that can be claimed shall not be higher than the accumulated service fees we receive from the Battery Asset Company. As the BaaS user base is expanding, if an increased number of default occurs, our results of operations and financial performance will be negatively affected. As of December 31, 2023, the guarantee liability we provided to Battery Asset Company was immaterial.

Reservations for our vehicles are subject to cancellation.

Reservations for our vehicles are subject to cancellation by the customer until delivery of the vehicle. We have experienced cancellations in the past. While we require a deposit of less than 2.0% of the manufacturer’s suggested retail price, such deposit becomes non-refundable after a certain period of time upon which the reservation will be automatically confirmed. Notwithstanding the non-refundable deposit, our users may still cancel their reservations for many reasons outside of our control. The potentially long wait from the time a reservation is made until the time the vehicle is delivered could also impact user decisions on whether to ultimately make a purchase, due to potential changes in preferences, competitive developments and other factors. If we encounter delays in the delivery our current or future vehicle models, we believe that a significant number of reservations may be cancelled. As a result, no assurance can be made that reservations will not be cancelled and will ultimately result in the final purchase, delivery, and sale of the vehicle. Such cancellations could harm our financial condition, business, prospects and operating results.

We may be subject to risks associated with assisted and intelligent driving technologies.

We provide an enhanced advanced driver assistance system, or ADAS, and plan to offer higher levels of assisted and intelligent driving functionalities, and through our research and development, we continually update and improve our assisted and intelligent driving technologies. Regulatory, safety and reliability issues, or the perception thereof, many of which are beyond our control, could cause the public, our users or our potential business partners to lose confidence in the assisted and intelligent driving solutions in general. The safety of such technology depends in part on end users of vehicles equipped with ADAS and higher levels of assisted and intelligent driving systems, as well as other drivers, pedestrians, other obstacles on the roadways or other unforeseen events. For example, there have been traffic accidents involving vehicles equipped with ADAS, including our NIO vehicles. Even though the actual causes of such traffic accidents may not be associated with the use of ADAS, they resulted in, and any future similar accidents could result in, significant negative publicity, and, in the future, could result in suspension or prohibition of vehicles equipped with ADAS and other assisted and intelligent driving systems, as well as regulatory investigations, recalls, systems or features modifications and related actions. In addition, to the extent accidents associated with our ADAS and other assisted and intelligent driving systems (once launched) occur, we could be subject to liability, government scrutiny and further regulation. For example, our research and development activities related to ADAS are subject to regulatory restrictions on surveying and mapping, as well as driverless road testing. Any further tightening of regulatory restrictions could significantly impede our development of assisted and intelligent driving technologies. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects.

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We may face challenges in expanding our business and operations internationally and our ability to conduct business in international markets may be adversely affected by legal, regulatory, political and economic risks.

We face challenges and risks associated with expanding our business and operations globally into new geographic markets. For example, following our entry into the Norwegian market in 2021, we announced our provision of products and services for Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden in October 2022. New geographic markets may have competitive conditions, user preferences, and discretionary spending patterns that are more difficult to predict or satisfy than our existing markets. In certain markets, we have relatively little operating experience and may not benefit from any first-to-market advantages or otherwise succeed. We may also face protectionist policies that could, among other things, hinder our ability to execute our business strategies and put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to domestic companies. For example, in September 2023, the European Commission announced that an investigation will be launched on whether to impose punitive tariffs to protect European Union producers against lower-priced Chinese electric vehicle imports it says are benefiting from state subsidies. If there are any adverse findings during or upon the conclusion of such investigation, the European Commission may impose countervailing duties or punitive tariffs, which may in turn negatively affect our operations and expansions in Europe. Local companies may have a substantial competitive advantage because of their greater understanding of, and focus on, the local users, as well as their more established local brand names, requiring us to build brand awareness in that market through greater investments in advertising and promotional activity. International expansion may also require significant capital investment, which could strain our resources and adversely impact current performance, while adding complexity to our current operations. We are subject to PRC law in addition to the laws of the foreign countries in which we operate. If any of our overseas operations, or our associates or agents, violate such laws, we could become subject to sanctions or other penalties, which could negatively affect our reputation, business and operating results.

In addition, we may face operational issues that could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and results of operations, if we fail to address certain factors including, but not limited to, the following:

lack of acceptance of our products and services, and challenges of localizing our offerings to appeal to local tastes;
conforming our products to regulatory and safety requirements and charging and other electric infrastructures;
failure to attract and retain capable personnel with international perspectives who can effectively manage and operate local businesses;
challenges in identifying appropriate local business partners and establishing and maintaining good working relationships with them;
availability, reliability and security of international payment systems and logistics infrastructure;
challenges of maintaining efficient and consolidated internal systems, including technology infrastructure, and of achieving customization and integration of these systems with the other parts of our technology platform;
challenges in replicating or adapting our company policies and procedures to operating environments different from that of China;
national security policies that restrict our ability to utilize technologies that are deemed by local governmental regulators to pose a threat to their national security;
the need for increased resources to manage regulatory compliance across our international businesses;
compliance with privacy laws and data security laws and compliance costs across different legal systems;
heightened restrictions and barriers on the transfer of data between different jurisdictions;
differing, complex and potentially adverse customs, import/export laws, tax rules and regulations or other trade barriers or restrictions related compliance obligations and consequences of non-compliance, and any new developments in these areas;
business licensing or certification requirements of the local markets;

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challenges in the implementation of BaaS and other innovative business models in countries and regions outside of China;
exchange rate fluctuations;
political instability and general economic or political conditions in particular countries or regions, including territorial or trade disputes, war and terrorism; and
significant capital required for entering into new geographical markets, including cost of promoting our current and future brands in the new markets, building sales and services networks and power infrastructures.

Failure to manage these risks and challenges could negatively affect our ability to expand our business and operations overseas as well as materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Rising international political tension, including changes in U.S. and international trade policies, particularly with regard to China, may adversely impact our business and operating results.

The U.S. government has made statements and taken certain actions that may lead to potential changes to U.S. and international trade policies towards China. In January 2020, the “Phase One” agreement was signed between the United States and China on trade matters. However, it remains unclear what additional actions, if any, will be taken by the U.S. or other governments with respect to international trade agreements, the imposition of tariffs on goods imported into the U.S., tax policy related to international commerce, or other trade matters. Any unfavorable government policies on international trade, such as capital controls or tariffs, may affect the demand for our products and services, impact the competitive position of our products or prevent us from selling products in certain countries. Moreover, many of the recent policy updates in the U.S., including the Clean Network project initiated by the U.S. Department of State in August 2020 and the Entity List regime maintained and regularly updated by the U.S. Bureau of Industry and Security, may have unforeseen implications for our business. In addition, in October 2022, the U.S. Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security imposed additional export controls on certain advanced computing semiconductor chips, integrated circuits, semiconductor manufacturing items and related transactions. These recent export controls are, in part, intended to restrict China’s ability to obtain advanced computing chips, develop and maintain supercomputers, and manufacture advanced semiconductors. The implementation, interpretation and impact on our business of these rules and other regulatory actions taken by the U.S. government is uncertain. These actions and/or other actions that may be taken by the governments of either the U.S. or China, or both (including in response to recent increased tensions), could hinder our ability to transfer our U.S.-origin software to China, source U.S.-origin software and components or otherwise access U.S. technology, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. If any new tariffs, legislation and/or regulations are implemented, or if existing trade agreements are renegotiated or, in particular, if the U.S. government takes retaliatory trade actions due to the recent U.S.-China trade tension, such changes could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Additionally, the United States and various foreign governments have imposed controls, export license requirements and restrictions on the import or export of technologies and products (or voiced the intention to do so), especially related to semiconductor chips, AI and other high-tech areas, which may have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Moreover, political tensions between the United States and China have escalated due to various incidents relating to trade dispute, tensions in the Taiwan Strait, U.S. sanctions on certain Chinese government officials and Chinese companies, and various restrictions relating to the Chinese semiconductor industry. On August 9, 2023, the Biden administration of the United States released an executive order directing the Department of Treasury to create an outbound foreign direct investment review program that will require reporting on or (in more narrow circumstances) will prohibit investments by U.S. persons involving “covered national security technologies and products,” which is defined to include “sensitive technologies and products in the semiconductors and microelectronics, quantum information technologies, and AI sectors that are critical for the military, intelligence, surveillance, or cyber-enabled capabilities” of China. The Department of Treasury issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking, which provided a conceptual framework for outbound investment controls focused on China. As of the date of this annual report, the final rules implementing the administrative order have not taken effect yet, and the scope of the outbound foreign direct investment review program may be materially different from what is currently contemplated by the advance notice. In response, China has implemented, and may further implement, measures in response to the changing trade policies, treaties, tariffs and sanctions and restrictions against Chinese companies initiated by the U.S. Moreover, our deployment of advanced core technologies in ADAS, whether developed internally or acquired from third parties, may exposes us to risks associated with sanctions imposed by the U.S. government.

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We may also face protectionist policies that could, among other things, hinder our ability to execute our business strategies and put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to domestic companies. For example, in September 2023, the European Commission announced that an investigation will be launched on whether to impose punitive tariffs to protect European Union producers against lower-priced Chinese electric vehicle imports it says are benefiting from state subsidies. If there are any adverse findings during or upon the conclusion of such investigation, the European Commission may impose countervailing duties or punitive tariffs, which may in turn negatively affect our operations and expansions in Europe.

Rising political tensions could reduce levels of trades, investments, technological exchanges, and other economic activities between the two major economies, which would have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations.

We face challenges in developing and operating our subscription business and leasing, and our vehicles used for subscription may be stolen or destroyed, or our car leasing partners may run into operational difficulties, which could negatively impact our business.

We began to offer subscription offerings in Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden starting from October 2022, which requires significant capital. We may incur losses or otherwise fail to introduce the service successfully. For example, we may incur insufficient utilization rate of our fleets under the subscription offering and therefore only generate lower-than-expected revenue. We also face risks in connection with the expansion of our customer base in Europe through our subscription offering. For example, customers of our vehicle subscription may have a higher-than-expected rate of default due to macroeconomic factors or if we fail to correctly assess their creditworthiness, which would result in increased costs incurred by our company.

In addition, we cooperate with partners in European market who engage in car leasing business. We sell vehicles to the car leasing partners who will then lease the cars purchased from us to the end customers. As such customers would use NIO vehicles and enjoy certain NIO services, such as using NIO app and entering into NIO House, if our car leasing partners run into any operational difficulties, our users’ experience may be negatively affected, our brand name could be compromised.

Furthermore, given that our vehicles are typically stored in unroofed parking lots under the vehicle subscription offering, force majeure events such as flooding, fires or hail may affect a large number of our vehicles. This type of parking lot also has an increased risk of theft or vandalism. Such events may cause us to incur large, uninsured damages, deprive us of a significant portion of our inventory and reduce customer satisfaction if we cannot deliver subscribed vehicles. In addition, vehicles provided to customers under our vehicle subscription service may be stolen, damaged or destroyed before being returned to us. While we carry insurance for our vehicles, the insurance coverage may not be sufficient.

With the expansion of the subscription business and leasing programs into international markets in the future, any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We are subject to the risk of a decrease in the residual value of used vehicles under our subscription offering.

As the economic owner of the vehicles under the subscription offering, we are exposed to the risk that the market value of our existing vehicles could decrease after new vehicle models are released, which will reduce our asset value. We are also exposed to the risk that the market value of the vehicles returned at the end of the subscription term may be lower than the calculated residual value at the time the subscription contract was entered into, which may in turn increases the likelihood that the future subscription price for the returned vehicle turns out to be lower than expected. A decline in the value of used vehicles can be caused by a broad range of external factors affecting the vehicle market, including adverse changes in customer confidence and preferences, economic conditions, government policies, exchange rates, marketing programs, price pressure in the new vehicle, the actual or perceived safety or reliability of vehicles, the price of raw materials regained from recycling or scrapping, or technological developments.

Uncertainties may also exist regarding the internal methods for calculating residual values. Although we continually employ residual value models and monitor used vehicle prices, demand and supply trends and other factors to forecast residual values, the assumptions on which residual value assessments are based may prove to be incorrect. In addition, in the case that actual residual values, due to changes in market or regulatory conditions, turn out to be lower than the amounts calculated for our subscription pricing, provisions for residual value risk may be insufficient. Similarly, if the market value of the used cars decreases, we may have to record write-downs beyond its existing reserves for used vehicle inventory risk. Finally, a significant decrease in the value of used vehicles may create pricing pressure for our new car business if customers are not willing to pay significantly higher prices in monthly subscription payments as a consequence of decreased residual values.

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As a result of the above factors, with the expansion of the subscription business in the future, if the market value of the used vehicles under our subscription service is significantly below our estimate, it may have a material adverse effect on our business, assets, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Our industry is rapidly evolving and may be subject to unforeseen changes. Developments in alternative technologies may materially and adversely affect the demand for our electric vehicles.

We operate in the electric vehicle market, which is rapidly evolving and may not develop as we anticipate. We face unanticipated risks such as an increase in lithium prices, which may reduce the demand of battery electric vehicle and negatively impact on our business. Also, the regulatory framework governing the industry is currently uncertain and may remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. As our industry and our business develop, we may need to modify our business model or change our services and solutions. These changes may not achieve expected results, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and prospects.

Furthermore, we may be unable to keep up with changes in electric vehicle technology and, as a result, our competitiveness may suffer. Our research and development efforts may not be sufficient to adapt to changes in electric vehicle technology. As technologies change, we plan to upgrade or adapt our vehicles and introduce new models in order to provide vehicles with the latest technology, in particular digital technologies, which could involve substantial costs and lower our return on investment for existing vehicles. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete effectively with alternative vehicles or source and integrate the latest technology into our vehicles, against the backdrop of our rapidly evolving industry. Even if we are able to keep pace with changes in technology and develop new models, our prior models could become obsolete more quickly than expected, potentially reducing our return on investment.

Developments in alternative technologies, such as advanced diesel, ethanol, fuel cells or compressed natural gas, or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects in ways we do not currently anticipate. For example, fuel which is abundant and relatively inexpensive in China, such as compressed natural gas, may emerge as consumers’ preferred alternative to petroleum based propulsion. Any of our failure to successfully react to changes in existing technologies could materially harm our competitive position and growth prospects.

We may be unable to adequately control the costs associated with our operations.

We have required significant capital to develop and grow our business, including entering into more markets, developing our products as well as building our brands. We expect to incur significant costs which will impact our profitability, including research and development expenses as we roll out new models and improve existing models, raw material procurement costs and selling and distribution expenses as we build our brand and market our vehicles. In addition, we may incur significant costs in connection with our services, including providing power solutions and honoring our commitments under our service package. Our ability to become profitable in the future will not only depend on our ability to successfully market our vehicles and other products and services but also to control our costs. If we are unable to cost efficiently design, manufacture, market, sell and distribute and service our vehicles and services, our margins, profitability and prospects will be materially and adversely affected.

We could experience cost increases or disruptions in supply of raw materials or other components used in our vehicles.

We incur significant costs related to procuring raw materials required to manufacture and assemble our vehicles. We use various raw materials in our vehicles including aluminum, steel, carbon fiber, non-ferrous metals such as copper, lithium, nickel as well as cobalt. The prices for these raw materials fluctuate depending on factors beyond our control, including market conditions and global demand for these materials, and could adversely affect our business and operating results. Our business also depends on the continued supply of batteries for our vehicles. Battery manufacturers may refuse to supply electric vehicle manufacturers to the extent they determine that the vehicles are not sufficiently safe. We are exposed to multiple risks relating to availability and pricing of quality lithium-ion battery cells. These risks include:

the inability or unwillingness of current battery manufacturers to build or operate battery manufacturing plants to supply the numbers of lithium-ion cells required to support the growth of the electric or plug-in hybrid vehicle industry as demand for such cells increases;
disruption in the supply of cells due to quality issues or recalls by the battery manufacturers; and

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an increase in the cost of raw materials, such as lithium, nickel and cobalt, used in lithium-ion cells.

In the long term, we intend to supplement cells from our suppliers with cells that we manufactured, which are customized to meet our specific requirements. However, our efforts to develop and manufacture such battery cells have required, and may continue to require, significant investments, and there can be no assurance that we will always be able to achieve these targets in the timeframes that we have planned or at all. If we are unable to do so, we may have to curtail our planned vehicle production or procure additional cells from suppliers at potentially greater costs, either of which may harm our business and operating results.

Furthermore, currency fluctuations, tariffs or shortages in petroleum and other economic or political conditions may result in significant increases in freight charges and raw material costs. Substantial increases in the prices for our raw materials or components would increase our operating costs, and could reduce our margins. In addition, a growth in popularity of electric vehicles without a significant expansion in battery production capacity could result in shortages which would result in increased costs in raw materials to us or impact of prospects.

Our business is subject to a variety of laws and regulations regarding cybersecurity, privacy, data protection and information security in China and elsewhere. Any failure to comply with these laws and regulations could subject us to significant adverse consequences.

We face significant challenges with respect to cybersecurity, privacy, data protection and information security in China and other jurisdictions that we operate in, including the collection, storage, transmission and sharing of confidential information. We use our vehicles’ electronic systems to log information about each vehicle’s use, such as charge time, battery usage, mileage and driving behavior, in order to aid us in vehicle diagnostics, repair and maintenance, as well as to help us customize and optimize the driving and riding experience. Our users may object to the use of this data, which may hinder our capabilities in conducting our business. We also transmit and store certain confidential and private information of our vehicle buyers, including certain personal information such as names, accounts, user IDs and passwords, and payment or transaction related information. Collection, transmission, possession and use of our user’s data in conducting our business may subject us to legislative and regulatory burdens in China and other jurisdictions that could require notification of any data breach, restrict our use of such information and hinder our ability to acquire new customers or market to existing customers.

We are required by PRC law to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, availability and authenticity of the information of our customers, which is also essential to maintaining their confidence in our vehicles and services. We have adopted strict information security policies and deployed advanced measures to implement the policies, including, among others, advanced encryption technologies. However, advances in technology, an increased level of sophistication and diversity of our products and services, an increased level of expertise of hackers, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or others can still result in a compromise or breach of the measures that we use. If we are unable to protect our systems, and hence the information stored in our systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction, such problems or security breaches could cause a loss, give rise to our liabilities to the owners of confidential information or even subject us to fines and penalties. If users allege that we have improperly collected, used, transmitted, released or disclosed their personal information, we could face legal claims and reputational damage. In addition, we may incur significant expenses to comply with privacy, consumer protection and security standards and protocols imposed by laws, regulations, industry standards or contractual obligations, some of which may not be compatible with our existing business practice. If third parties improperly obtain and use the personal information of our users, we may be required to expend significant resources to resolve these problems. In December 2022, we were made aware that certain user information and vehicle sales information in China before August 2021 was for sale on the internet by third parties for illegal purposes. We followed the PRC legal requirements on data leakage incident settlement, and also issued a public statement in China related to the incident, including providing a dedicated hotline and an email address to respond to user queries regarding the data leakage. We have also undertaken the responsibilities for the loss that the users may incur, if any, in connection with the data leakage. As of the date of this annual report, we were not aware of significant issues related to the security of our electronic systems nor did we receive any claims from users.

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In general, we expect that data security and data protection compliance will receive greater attention and focus from regulators, both domestically and globally, as well as attract continued or greater public scrutiny and attention going forward, which could increase our compliance costs and subject us to heightened risks and challenges associated with data security and protection. Significant capital and other resources may be required to protect against information security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by such breaches or to comply with our privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations. The resources required may increase over time as the methods used by hackers and others engaged in online criminal activities are increasingly sophisticated and constantly evolving. Any of our failure or perceived failure to prevent information security breaches or to comply with privacy policies or privacy-related legal requirements, or any security breach that results in the unauthorized release or transfer of personally identifiable information or other customer data, could cause our customers to lose trust in us and could expose us to legal claims. Any perception by the public that online transactions or the privacy of user information are becoming increasingly unsafe or vulnerable to attacks could inhibit the growth of online retail and other online services generally, which may reduce the number of orders we receive.

The PRC regulatory and enforcement regime with regard to data security and data protection is evolving and may be subject to different interpretations or significant changes. Moreover, different PRC regulatory bodies, including the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of China, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the CAC, the Ministry of Public Security, and the State Administration for Market Regulation have enforced a variety of laws and regulations regarding cybersecurity, privacy, data protection and information security with varying standards and applications in recent years, including, among others, the PRC National Security Law, the PRC Cyber Security Law, the PRC Personal Information Protection Law, the PRC Data Security Law, the Regulations on the Protection of the Security of Critical Information Infrastructure, the Cybersecurity Review Measures, the Several Provisions on Automobile Data Security Management (Trial Implementation), the Administration Measures on Data Security in the Field of Industry and Information Technology (Trial Implementation) and the Measures for the Security Assessment of Data Exit. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Internet Information Security and Privacy Protection.” The following are examples of certain recent PRC regulatory activities in this area:

Data Security

In July 2021, the State Council of the PRC promulgated the Regulations on the Protection of the Security of Critical Information Infrastructure, which took effect on September 1, 2021. Pursuant to this regulation, critical information infrastructure means key network facilities or information systems of critical industries or sectors, such as public communication and information service, energy, transportation, water conservation, finance, public services, e-government affairs and national defense science, the damage, malfunction or data leakage of which may endanger national security, people’s livelihoods and the public interest. In December 2021, the CAC, together with other authorities, jointly promulgated the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which took effect on February 15, 2022 and replaces its predecessor regulation. Pursuant to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, critical information infrastructure operators that procure internet products and services and network platform operators that conduct data process activities must be subject to the cybersecurity review if their activities affect or may affect national security. The Cybersecurity Review Measures further stipulates that network platform operators that hold personal information of over one million users shall apply with the Cybersecurity Review Office for a cybersecurity review before any public offering at a foreign stock exchange. PRC governmental authorities may also initiate cybersecurity review if they determine certain network products, services, or data processing activities affect or may affect national security. As of the date of this annual report, no detailed rules or implementation rules have been issued by any authority and we have not been informed that we are a critical information infrastructure operator by any government authorities. Furthermore, the scope of “network products or services or data processing activities that will or may affect national security” and the scope of operators of “critical information infrastructure” remains unclear, and the PRC government authorities may have wide discretion in the interpretation and enforcement of the applicable laws.

In November 2021, the CAC released the Administration Regulations on Cyber Data Security (Draft for Comments). These regulations provide that data processors refer to individuals or organizations that, during their data processing activities such as data collection, storage, utilization, transmission, publication and deletion, have autonomy over the purpose and the manner of data processing. In accordance with these regulations, data processors shall apply for a cybersecurity review for certain activities, including, among other things, (i) the listing abroad of data processors that process the personal information of more than one million users and (ii) any data processing activity that affects or may affect national security. However, there have been no clarifications from the authorities as of the date of this annual report as to the standards for determining whether an activity is one that “affects or may affect national security.” In addition, these regulations require that data processors that process “important data” or are listed overseas must conduct an annual data security assessment by itself or commission a data security service provider to do so, and submit the assessment report of the preceding year to the municipal cybersecurity department by the end of January each year. As of the date of this annual report, there is no definitive timetable as to when these regulations will be enacted.

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In 2021, the PRC government initiated cybersecurity reviews against a number of mobile applications operated by several US-listed Chinese companies and prohibited applications from registering new users during the review period. We expect that cybersecurity and data protection issues will receive greater and continued attention and scrutiny from regulators and the public going forward, which could increase our compliance costs and subject us to heightened risks and challenges associated with data security and protection, as well as negative publicity. If the Cybersecurity Review Measures and the enacted version of the Administration Regulations on Cyber Data Security (Draft for Comments) mandate clearance of cybersecurity review and other specific actions to be taken by overseas listed companies like us, we face uncertainties as to whether we can complete these additional procedures timely, or at all, which may subject us to government enforcement actions and investigations, fines, penalties, revocation of the required licenses, suspension of our non-compliant operations, or removal of our mobile application from the application stores, and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. As of the date of this annual report, we have not been involved in any formal investigations on cybersecurity review made by the CAC on such basis.

Personal Information and Privacy

On August 16, 2021, the CAC, the NDRC, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the Ministry of Transport jointly promulgated the Several Provisions on Automobile Data Security Management (Trial Implementation), which impose a series of additional personal information and data security protection obligations on automobile data processors like us, including, among other things, (i) in-car processing of automobile data in principle, (ii) enhanced notification and consent requirements, (iii) enhanced individual control over their automobile personal information, and (iv) submitting annual report for processing automobile important data. We may be required to make further adjustments to our business practices to comply with the personal information and data protection laws and regulations.

Many of the data-related legislations are relatively new and certain concepts thereunder remain subject to interpretation by the regulators. In general, compliance with the existing PRC laws and regulations, as well as additional laws and regulations that PRC regulatory bodies may enact in the future, related to data security and personal information protection, may be costly and result in additional expenses to us, and subject us to negative publicity, which could harm our reputation and business operations. There are also uncertainties with respect to how such laws and regulations will be implemented and interpreted in practice.

In addition, regulatory authorities in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere around the world have adopted or are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection. These legislative and regulatory proposals, if adopted, and the uncertain interpretations and application thereof could, in addition to the possibility of fines, result in an order requiring that we change our data practices and policies, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. For example, the European Union adopted the European Union General Data Protection Regulation, which took effect on May 25, 2018. This regulation includes operational requirements for companies that receive or process personal data of residents of the European Economic Area, and establishes new requirements applicable to the processing of personal data, affords new data protection rights to individuals and imposes penalties for serious data breaches. Individuals also have a right to compensation under this regulation for financial or non-financial losses. As we offer our products and services in European market, we are subject to provisions of this regulation.

Our business depends significantly on our ability to build our brands. We may not succeed in continuing to establish, maintain and strengthen our brands.

Our business and prospects are heavily dependent on our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the “NIO” brand. If we do not continue to establish, maintain and strengthen our brand, we may lose the opportunity to build a critical mass of customers. Promoting and positioning our brand will likely depend significantly on our ability to provide high quality vehicles and services and engage with our customers as intended and we have limited experience in these areas. In addition, we expect that our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the NIO brand will depend heavily on the success of our user development and branding efforts. Such efforts mainly include building a community of online and offline users engaged with us through our mobile application, NIO Houses, NIO Spaces as well as other branding initiatives such as our annual NIO Day. Such efforts may be non-traditional and may not achieve the desired results. To promote our brand, we may be required to change our user development and branding practices, which could result in substantially increased expenses, including the need to use traditional media such as television, radio and print. If we do not develop and maintain a strong brand, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be materially and adversely impacted.

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Additionally, we may decide to launch one or more electric vehicle brands, positioned and priced in a manner that varies from our existing “NIO” brand and our current vehicle models. The launch of a new brand within the electric vehicle market involves substantial risks related to market differentiation and consumer acceptance. Establishing a clear position and price range for the new brand in an already competitive landscape requires significant investment in branding, development and marketing efforts. We also face the inherent uncertainty of consumer response to the new brand, which poses a risk to achieving the desired market penetration and sales volumes. Moreover, introducing a new brand could cause potential dilution to the brand equity of our existing “NIO” brand and the diversion of our resources, leading to potential inefficiencies. Moreover, the vehicles under the new brand could potentially cannibalize sales from our existing vehicles, adversely affecting our current market position and revenue streams. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our ability to grow our business and our results of operations.

In addition, if incidents occur or are perceived to have occurred, whether or not such incidents are our fault, we could be subject to adverse publicity. In particular, given the popularity of social media, including WeChat/Weixin in China, any negative publicity, whether true or not, could quickly proliferate and harm consumer perceptions and confidence in our brand. Furthermore, there is the risk of potential adverse publicity related to our manufacturing and other partners, such as JAC and NIO Capital, whether or not such publicity related to their collaboration with us. Our ability to successfully position our brand could also be adversely affected by perceptions about the quality of JAC’s vehicles. Although we have transitioned to independent manufacturing, any product quality issues with vehicles that were historically jointly manufactured by our partners and us could adversely harm our brand and reputation.

Furthermore, from time to time, our vehicles are evaluated and reviewed by third parties. Any negative reviews or reviews which compare us unfavorably to competitors could adversely affect consumer perception about our vehicles.

Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our executive officers, key employees and qualified personnel, and our operations may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.

Our success depends substantially on the continued efforts of our executive officers and key employees. If one or more of our executive officers or key employees were unable or unwilling to continue their services with us, we might not be able to replace them easily, in a timely manner, or at all. As we build our brand and become more well-known, the risk that competitors or other companies may poach our talent increases. Our industry is characterized by high demand and intense competition for talent and therefore we cannot assure you that we will be able to attract or retain qualified staff or other highly skilled employees. In addition, because our electric vehicles are based on a different technology platform than traditional ICE vehicles, individuals with sufficient training in electric vehicles may not be available to hire, and we will need to expend significant time and expense training the employees we hire. We also require sufficient talent in areas such as software development. Furthermore, as our company is relatively young, our ability to train and integrate new employees into our operations may not meet the growing demands of our business, which may materially and adversely affect our ability to grow our business and our results of operations.

If any of our executive officers and key employees terminates his or her services with us, our business may be severely disrupted, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel. We have not obtained any “key person” insurance on our key personnel. If any of our executive officers or key employees joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose customers, know-how and key professionals and staff members. To the extent permitted by laws, each of our executive officers and key employees has entered into an employment agreement and a non-compete agreement with us. However, if any dispute arises between our executive officers or key employees and us, the non-competition provisions contained in their non-compete agreements may not be enforceable, especially in China, where these executive officers reside, on the ground that we have not provided adequate compensation to them for their non-competition obligations, which is required under PRC laws.

Our future growth is dependent on the demand for, and upon consumers’ willingness to adopt, electric vehicles.

Demand for automobile sales depends to a large extent on economic, political and social conditions in a given market and the introduction of new vehicles and technologies. As our business grows, economic conditions and trends will impact our business, prospects and operating results as well.

Demand for our electric vehicles may also be affected by factors directly impacting automobile prices or the cost of purchasing and operating automobiles, such as sales and financing incentives, prices of raw materials and parts and components, cost of fuel and governmental regulations, including tariffs, import regulation and other taxes. Volatility in demand may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which may result in further downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

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In addition, the demand for our vehicles and services will highly depend upon the adoption by consumers of new energy vehicles in general and electric vehicles in particular. The market for new energy vehicles is still rapidly evolving, characterized by rapidly changing technologies, evolving government regulation and industry standards and changing consumer demands and behaviors.

Other factors that may influence the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles, and specifically electric vehicles, include:

perceptions about electric vehicle quality, safety, design, performance and cost, especially if adverse events or accidents occur that are linked to the quality or safety of electric vehicles, whether or not such vehicles are produced by us or other companies;
perceptions about vehicle safety in general, in particular safety issues that may be attributed to the use of advanced technology;
the limited range over which electric vehicles may be driven on a single battery charge and the speed at which batteries can be recharged;
the decline of an electric vehicle’s range resulting from deterioration over time in the battery’s ability to hold a charge;
concerns about electric grid capacity and reliability;
the availability of new energy vehicles, including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles;
improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine;
the availability of service for electric vehicles;
the environmental consciousness of consumers;
access to charging stations, standardization of electric vehicle charging systems and consumers’ perceptions about convenience and cost to charge an electric vehicle;
the availability of tax and other governmental incentives to purchase and operate electric vehicles or future regulation requiring increased use of nonpolluting vehicles;
perceptions about and the actual cost of alternative fuel; and
macroeconomic factors.

Any of the factors described above may cause current or potential customers not to purchase our electric vehicles and use our services. If the market for electric vehicles does not develop as we expect or develops more slowly than we expect, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be affected.

We depend on revenue generated from a limited number of models, and in the foreseeable future will be significantly dependent on a limited number of models.

Our business currently depends substantially on the sales and success of a limited number of models that we have launched, including the ES8, the ES7 (or the EL7), the ES6 (or the EL6), the EC7, the EC6, the ET9, the ET7, the ET5 and the ET5T. Historically, automobile customers have come to expect a variety of vehicle models offered in a company’s fleet and new and improved vehicle models to be introduced frequently. In order to meet these expectations, we plan in the future to introduce new vehicle models as well as enhance versions of existing vehicle models. To the extent our product variety and cycles do not meet consumer expectations, or cannot be produced on our projected timelines and cost and volume targets, our future sales may be adversely affected. Given that for the foreseeable future our business will depend on a limited number of models, to the extent a particular model is not well-received by the market, our sales volume could be materially and adversely affected. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

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We are subject to risks related to customer credit.

We offer auto financing arrangements to users directly through our subsidiaries. Under the financing arrangements we typically receive a small portion of the total vehicle purchase price at the commencement of the financing term, followed by a stream of payments over the financing term. To the extent our users fail to make payments on time under any of the foregoing arrangements, our results of operations may be adversely affected. As of December 31, 2023, the amount of auto financing receivables was RMB4,906.7 million (US$691.1 million). As we continue to grow our business, we may increase the amount of our auto financing receivables. We may fail to effectively manage the credit risks related to our auto financing arrangements. To the extent our users default on their obligations to us or fail to make payments on time under any of the foregoing arrangements, our results of operations may be adversely affected.

We may be exposed to credit risk of trade receivables.

Our trade receivables primarily include amounts of vehicle sales in relation of government subsidy to be collected from government on behalf of customers, current portion of auto financing receivables, current portion of battery installment and others. We have identified the risk characteristics of our customers and the related receivables, prepayments, deposits and other receivables which include size, type of the services or the products we provide, or a combination of these characteristics. Receivables with similar risk characteristics have been grouped into pools. For each pool, we consider the historical credit loss, current economic conditions, supportable forecasts of future economic conditions, and any recoveries in assessing the lifetime expected credit losses. Other key factors that influence the expected credit loss analysis include customer demographics, payment terms offered in the normal course of business to customers, and industry-specific factors that could impact our receivables. Additionally, external data and macroeconomic factors are also considered. In 2023, we reversed RMB26.3 million (US$3.7 million) expected credit loss expense in selling, general and administrative expenses. As of December 31, 2023, the expected credit loss provision for the current and non-current assets were RMB113.7 million (US$16.0 million). We cannot assure you that all of our customers will not default on their obligations to us in the future, despite our efforts to conduct credit assessment on them.

We face inventory risks that, if not properly managed, could harm our financial condition, operating results, and prospects.

We are exposed to significant inventory risks that may adversely affect our operating results as a result of increased competition, seasonality, new models launches, rapid changes in vehicle life cycles and pricing, defective vehicles, changes in consumer demand and consumer spending patterns, and other factors. We endeavor to accurately predict these trends and avoid overstocking or understocking issues. Demand for our vehicles, however, can change significantly between the time inventory or components are ordered and the date of sale. We may misjudge customer demand, resulting in inventory buildup and possible significant inventory write-down. It may also make it more difficult for us to inspect and control quality and ensure proper handling, storage and delivery. We may experience higher return rates on new vehicles, receive more customer complaints about them and face costly product liability claims as a result of selling them, which would harm our brand and reputation as well as our financial performance.

We might not be able to fulfil our obligation in respect of deferred revenue, which might have impact on our cash or liquidity position.

Our recognition of deferred revenue is subject to future performance obligations, mainly including the transaction price allocated to the performance obligations that are unsatisfied, or partially satisfied, which mainly arises from the vehicle connectivity service, the extended warranty service, the points offered to customers, undelivered home chargers as well as free battery swapping service with certain limits embedded in the vehicle sales contract. We may have multiple performance obligations identified in the vehicle sales contract and the sales of packages to transfer goods or services to a customer for which we have received consideration, or an amount of consideration is due, from the customer, which is recorded as deferred revenue. Due to potential future changes in customer preferences and the need for us to satisfactorily perform product support and other services, deferred revenue at any particular date may not be representative of actual revenue for any future period. Any failure to fulfil the obligations in respect of deferred revenue may have an adverse impact on our results of operations and liquidity.

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Fluctuation of fair value change of short-term and long-term investments that we made may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

The fluctuation in the fair value of our short-term and long-term investments could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and prospects. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, our short-term investments consisted primarily of investments in fixed deposits with maturities between three months and one year, investments in money market funds and financial products issued by banks, and our long-term investments consisted primarily of equity investments in publicly traded companies and privately-held companies, and debt security investments. Determining the fair value of our short-term and long-term investments involves using certain valuation methodologies, which rely heavily on management judgment and are inherently uncertain. Factors beyond our control, such as changes in general economic conditions, market liquidity, asset values, and the performance of the companies we invested in, can lead to adverse changes in the estimates we use, thereby adversely affecting the fair value of our investments. In addition, we are exposed to credit risks in relation to our short-term and long-term investments, which may further affect the net changes in their fair value. We cannot assure you that market conditions will result in fair value gains on our short-term and long-term investments or we will not incur any fair value losses on these investments in the future. If we incur such fair value losses, our results of operations, financial condition and prospects may be adversely affected.

We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.

We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. The automotive industry experiences significant product liability claims and we face inherent risk of exposure to claims in the event our vehicles do not perform as expected or malfunction resulting in property damage, personal injury or death. Our risks in this area are particularly pronounced given we have limited field experience of our vehicles. In addition, we may be subject to product liability claims for defective components and parts that are manufactured by our third-party partners. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. Moreover, a product liability claim could generate substantial negative publicity about our vehicles and business and inhibit or prevent commercialization of our future vehicle candidates which would have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, prospects and operating results. Any insurance coverage might not be sufficient to cover all potential product liability claims. Any lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages may have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and financial condition.

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Our vehicles are subject to motor vehicle standards and the failure to satisfy such mandated safety standards would have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

All vehicles sold must comply with various standards of the market where the vehicles were sold. In China, vehicles must meet or exceed all mandated safety standards. Rigorous testing and the use of approved materials and equipment are among the requirements for achieving such standards. Vehicles must pass various tests and undergo a certification process and be affixed with the China Compulsory Certificate mark, before receiving delivery from the factory, being sold, or being used in any commercial activity. In addition, the Opinion on Strengthening the Access Administration of Intelligent Connected Vehicles Manufacturing Enterprises and Their Products requires vehicles manufacturing enterprises to ensure the compliance of vehicle products with laws, regulations, technical standards and technical specification and file for record with the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology prior to over-the-air updates, and shall file with the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology in the event of any change to the safety, energy saving, environment protection, anti-theft and other technical parameters and shall ensure conformance by vehicle products and production. Without the approval, no over-the-air update shall be conducted to add or update the autonomous driving function. Any delays or lags of the over-the-air updates due to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology prior filing procedures may materially and adversely affect our business and operating results. Furthermore, given we commenced delivery of our vehicles in Norway, Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden, we are also subject to mandated safety standards in these markets. If we fail to have any of our current or future vehicle models satisfy motor vehicle standards or any new laws and regulations in China, Norway or other markets where our vehicles are sold, it would have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

We may be compelled to undertake product recalls or take other actions, which could adversely affect our brand image and financial performance.

Recalls of our vehicles can cause adverse publicity, damage to our brand and liability for costs. For example, in January 2023, we voluntarily recalled 997 ET5 electric vehicles manufactured between September 7, 2022 and October 10, 2022 due to a potential safety hazard in extreme cases of a serious frontal collision, which could be retrofitted by adding a high-strength insulating protective cover. In the future, we may at various times, voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate a recall if any of our vehicles, including any systems or parts sourced from our suppliers, prove to be defective or non-compliant with applicable laws and regulations. Such recalls, whether voluntary or involuntary or caused by systems or components that we or our suppliers engineered or manufactured, could involve significant expense and could adversely affect our brand image in our target markets, as well as our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

The long-term viability of our distribution model is unproven.

Our vehicles are generally made to order. We conduct vehicle sales directly to users primarily through our NIO Houses, NIO Spaces and mobile application rather than through dealerships. This model of vehicle distribution subjects us to substantial risk as it requires, in the aggregate, significant expenditures and provides for slower expansion of our distribution and sales systems than may be possible by utilizing the traditional dealer franchise system commonly applied for the sales of ICE vehicles and other EV companies. For example, we will not be able to utilize long established sales channels developed through a franchise system to increase our sales volume. Moreover, we will be competing with companies with well established distribution channels. Our success will depend in large part on our ability to effectively develop our own sales channels and marketing strategies. Implementing our business model is subject to numerous significant challenges, including obtaining permits and approvals from government authorities, and we may not be successful in addressing these challenges.

In addition, the lead time in fulfilling our orders could lead to cancelled orders. Our aim for the fulfilling speed is 21 to 28 days from the order placement date to delivery to users. If we are unable to achieve this target, our customer satisfaction could be adversely affected, harming our business and reputation.

Our financial results may vary significantly from period to period due to the seasonality of our business and fluctuations in our operating costs.

Our operating results may vary significantly from period to period due to many factors, including seasonal factors that may have an effect on the demand for our electric vehicles. In the past few years, demand for new vehicles in the automotive industry were generally higher in the fourth quarter. Such variation may or may not continue in the future. Our limited operating history makes it difficult for us to judge the exact nature or extent of the seasonality of our business. Also, any unusually severe weather conditions in some markets may impact demand for our vehicles. Our operating results could also suffer if we do not achieve revenue consistent with our expectations for this seasonal demand because many of our expenses are based on anticipated levels of annual revenue.

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We also expect our period-to-period operating results to vary based on our operating costs which may increase in future periods as we, among other things, design, develop and manufacture our electric vehicles, build and equip new manufacturing facilities, open new NIO Houses and NIO Spaces, and develop charging and swapping networks.

As a result of these factors, we believe that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results are not necessarily meaningful and that these comparisons cannot be relied upon as indicators of future performance. Moreover, our operating results may not meet expectations of equity research analysts or investors. If this occurs, the trading price of our ADSs could fall substantially either suddenly or over time.

If our vehicle owners customize our vehicles or change the charging infrastructure with aftermarket products, the vehicle may not operate properly, which may create negative publicity and could harm our business.

Automobile enthusiasts may seek to “hack” our vehicles to modify their performance which could compromise vehicle safety systems. Also, customers may customize their vehicles with after-market parts that can compromise driver safety. We do not test, nor do we endorse, such changes or products. In addition, the use of improper external cabling or unsafe charging outlets can expose our customers to injury from high voltage electricity. Such unauthorized modifications could reduce the safety of our vehicles and any injuries resulting from such modifications could result in adverse publicity which would negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

We are subject to risks related to the investment in NIO China.

In February 2020, we entered into a collaboration framework agreement with the municipal government of Hefei, Anhui province, where our manufacturing hub is located. Subsequently from April to June 2020, we entered into definitive agreements, as amended and supplemented, or the Previous Hefei Agreements, for investments in NIO China with a group of investors, which we refer to as the Hefei Strategic Investors in this annual report. Under the Previous Hefei Agreements, the Hefei Strategic Investors agreed to invest an aggregate of RMB7 billion in cash into NIO Holding Co., Ltd. (previously known as NIO (Anhui) Holding Co., Ltd.), or NIO China, a legal entity that we wholly owned pre-investment. We agreed to inject our core businesses and assets in China, including vehicle research and development, supply chain, sales and services and NIO Power, collectively referred to as the Asset Consideration, valued at RMB17.77 billion in total, into NIO China, and invest RMB4.26 billion in cash into NIO China. For more information, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Certain Other Cooperation Arrangements—Hefei Strategic Investors” included elsewhere in this annual report.

On March 30, 2024, we entered into a shareholders agreement, or the 2024 Hefei Shareholders Agreement with (i) Hefei Jianheng New Energy Automobile Investment Fund Partnership (Limited Partnership), or Jianheng New Energy Fund, (ii) Advanced Manufacturing Industry Investment Fund II (Limited Partnership), or Advanced Manufacturing Industry Investment Fund, (iii) Anhui Jintong New Energy Automobile II Fund Partnership (Limited Partnership), or New Energy Automobile Fund, and (iv) Anhui Provincial Sanzhong Yichuang Industry Development Fund Co., Ltd., or Anhui Sanzhong Yichuang. The 2024 Hefei Shareholders Agreement amends certain shareholders’ rights in NIO China and supersedes the Previous Hefei Shareholders Agreement (as defined below).

Pursuant to the 2024 Hefei Shareholders Agreement, NIO China granted certain minority shareholders’ rights to the Hefei Strategic Investors, including, among others, the right of first refusal, co-sale right, preemptive right, anti-dilution right, redemption right, liquidation preference and conditional drag-along right. You would not enjoy these preferential rights or treatment through investing in our ADSs and the underlying ordinary shares. Exercise of these preferential rights by the Hefei Strategic Investors may also adversely affect your investment in our company.

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In particular, the Hefei Strategic Investors may require us to redeem the shares of NIO China they hold under various circumstances, at a redemption price equal to the total amount of the investment price of the Hefei Strategic Investors plus an investment income calculated at a compound rate of 8.5% per annum upon the occurrence of certain events. If any of the triggering events of redemption occurs, we will need substantial capital to redeem the shares of NIO China held by the Hefei Strategic Investors, and the value of your investment in our company will be negatively affected. In particular, if NIO China fails to complete the listing application or to issue the material assets restructuring plan related to the qualified initial public offering before December 31, 2027, or fails to complete the qualified initial public offering before December 31, 2028, the Hefei Strategic Investors may request us to redeem the equity interest in NIO China then held by them. In addition, if we pursue the initial public offering of NIO China, we will be subject to various requirements under the Hong Kong Listing Rules and practice notes, including, among others, the requirement in the level of operations and assets of the remaining business in our company following the spin-off to maintain listing status, the approval of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and shareholder approval. As a result, the application for and the completion of the qualified initial public offering are subject to substantial uncertainties. If we do not have adequate cash available or cannot obtain additional financing, or our use of cash is restricted by applicable laws, regulations or agreements governing our current or future indebtedness, we may not be able to redeem shares of NIO China when required under the 2024 Hefei Shareholders Agreement, which would constitute an event of default under the 2024 Hefei Shareholders Agreement and subject us to liabilities.

In addition, before NIO China completes its potential qualified initial public offering, without the prior written consent of the Hefei Strategic Investors, we may not directly or indirectly transfer, pledge or otherwise dispose of NIO China’s shares to a third party that may result in our shareholding in NIO China falling below 60%.

Because we have injected the core businesses and assets into NIO China, the Hefei Strategic Investors will have senior claims over the assets of NIO China compared to NIO China’s other shareholders (i.e., our other subsidiaries) when a liquidation event of NIO China occurs. As a result, holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs will be structurally subordinated to the Hefei Strategic Investors, which may negatively affect the value of the investment of ADS holders and holders of Class A ordinary shares in our company. We may not have sufficient funding to repay our existing debts. We essentially control the daily operation of and substantially all of the corporate matters of NIO China. Notwithstanding this, the Hefei Strategic Investors have voting rights with respect to various significant corporate matters of NIO China and its consolidated entities, such as change in NIO China’s corporate structure, change of its core business and amendment to its articles of association, which may limit our ability to make certain major corporate decisions with regard to NIO China. Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect your investment in our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs.

Our business plans require a significant amount of capital, and we may issue additional equity or debt securities that may have an adverse effect on our shareholders or may otherwise adversely affect our business.

We will need significant capital to, among other things, conduct research and development and expand our production capacity as well as roll out our power, sales and service network. As we ramp up our production capacity and operations, we may also require significant capital to maintain our property, plant and equipment and such costs may be greater than anticipated. We expect our capital expenditures to continue to be significant in the foreseeable future as we expand our business, and that our level of capital expenditures will be significantly affected by user demand for our products and services. The fact that we have a limited operating history means we have limited historical data on the demand for our products and services. As a result, our future capital requirements may be uncertain and actual capital requirements may be different from those we currently anticipate. We may seek equity or debt financing to finance a portion of our capital expenditures. Such financing might not be available to us in a timely manner or on terms that are acceptable, or at all. Our substantial amount of currently outstanding indebtedness may also affect our ability to obtain financing in a timely manner and on reasonable terms.

Our ability to obtain the necessary financing to carry out our business plan is subject to a number of factors, including general market conditions and investor acceptance of our business plan. These factors may make the timing, amount, terms and conditions of such financing unattractive or unavailable to us. If we are unable to raise sufficient funds, we will have to significantly reduce our spending of, delay or cancel some or all of our planned research, development, manufacturing and marketing activities or substantially change our corporate structure, any of which could materially harm our business. We might not be able to obtain any funding, and we might not have sufficient resources to conduct our business as projected, both of which could mean that we would be forced to curtail or discontinue our operations.

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In addition, our future capital needs and other business reasons could require us to issue additional equity or debt securities or obtain a credit facility. If we raise funds through the issuance of additional equity or debt, including convertible debt or debt secured by some or all of our assets, holders of any debt securities or preferred shares issued will have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our ordinary shares in the event of liquidation. The terms of the convertible notes we issued do not restrict our ability to issue additional debt. If additional debt is issued, there is a possibility that once all senior claims are settled, there may be no assets remaining to pay out to the holders of ordinary shares. In addition, if we raise funds through the issuance of additional equity, whether through private placements or public offerings, such an issuance would dilute ownership of our current shareholders that do not participate in the issuance.

Furthermore, the terms of any additional debt securities we may issue in the future may impose restrictions on our operations, which may include limiting our ability to incur additional indebtedness, pay dividends on or repurchase our share capital, or make certain acquisitions or investments. In addition, we may be subject to covenants requiring us to satisfy certain financial tests and ratios, and our ability to satisfy such covenants may be affected by events outside of our control.

The terms of the convertible notes we issued could delay or prevent an attempt to take over our company. The terms of the 2026 Notes, 2027 Notes, 2029 Notes and 2030 Notes require us to repurchase the respective notes in the event of a fundamental change. A takeover of our company would constitute a fundamental change. This could have the effect of delaying or preventing a takeover of our company that may otherwise be beneficial to our shareholders.

Our warranty reserves may be insufficient to cover future warranty claims which could adversely affect our financial performance.

For the initial owner of our vehicles in China, in addition to the warranty required under the PRC law, including (i) a bumper-to-bumper three-year or 120,000-kilometer warranty, (ii) for critical EV components (battery, electric motors, power electric unit and vehicle control unit) an eight-year or 120,000-kilometer warranty, and (iii) a two-year or 50,000 kilometer warranty covering vehicle repair, replacement and refund, we also provide an extended warranty, subject to certain conditions. For the owners of our vehicles in Europe, in addition to the warranty required under the applicable laws and regulations, we also provide an extended warranty subject to certain conditions. Our warranty program is similar to other auto company’s warranty programs intended to cover all parts and labor to repair defects in material or workmanship in the body, chassis, interior, electric system, battery, electric powertrain and other related vehicle parts. We plan to record and adjust warranty reserves based on changes in estimated costs and actual warranty costs.

However, because we only started making delivery of our first volume-manufactured vehicle model ES8 in June 2018, we have little experience with warranty claims regarding our vehicles or with estimating warranty reserves. As of December 31, 2023, we had warranty reserves in respect of our vehicles of RMB3,912.2 million (US$551.0 million). We cannot assure you that such reserves will be sufficient to cover future claims. We could, in the future, become subject to significant and unexpected warranty claims, resulting in significant expenses, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

We may need to defend ourselves against patent or trademark infringement claims, which may be time-consuming and would cause us to incur substantial costs.

Companies, organizations or individuals, including our competitors, may hold or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights that would prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use, develop, sell or market our vehicles or components, which could make it difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time, owners of patents or trademarks may contact us regarding their proprietary rights. Companies holding patents or other intellectual property rights may bring suits alleging infringement of such rights or otherwise assert their rights and urge us to take licenses. Our applications and uses of patented technologies and trademarks relating to, among others, our designs, software or artificial intelligence technologies could subject us to the risk of infringing existing intellectual property rights.

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For example, a German automotive manufacturer claimed that we infringed its trademark rights based on resemblance of model designations of certain of our vehicles with those of the manufacturer’s. For that purpose, the manufacturer has filed an infringement lawsuit with the Munich Regional Court against us and brought certain opposition and cancellation proceedings against our trademark applications and registrations of the aforesaid model designations in front of competent intellectual property authorities in certain jurisdictions. Although we believe the allegations of trademark infringement to be unjustified, we have taken precautionary measures and renamed certain car models involved in the infringement claim before our entry into the European market to avoid substantial impact on our sales operations in the Europe and other jurisdictions. As of the date of this annual report, the lawsuit and the proceedings are still ongoing and we have not yet received any final decisions. We cannot assure you that the final ruling will be in our favor. If we are not permitted to use these model names in Europe or other jurisdictions where our vehicles are offered, our sales performance there may be negatively affected, which in turn would harm our results of operations and financial condition.

If we are determined to have infringed upon a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to do one or more of the following:

cease selling, incorporating certain components into, or using vehicles or offering goods or services that incorporate or use the challenged intellectual property;
pay substantial damages;
seek a license from the holder of the infringed intellectual property right, which license may not be available on reasonable terms or at all;
redesign our vehicles or other goods or services; or
establish and maintain alternative branding for our products and services.

In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us and our failure or inability to obtain a license to the infringed technology or other intellectual property right, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs, negative publicity and diversion of resources and management attention.

We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.

We regard our trademarks, service marks, patents, domain names, trade secrets, proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property as critical to our success. We rely on trademark and patent law, trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements, and technology license agreements with our employees, business constituents and others to protect our proprietary rights.

We have invested significant resources to develop our own intellectual property. Failure to maintain or protect these rights could harm our business. In addition, any unauthorized use of our intellectual property by third parties may adversely affect our current and future revenues and our reputation.

Implementation and enforcement of PRC intellectual property-related laws have historically been challenging. Furthermore, policing unauthorized use or leakage of proprietary technology or various infringement on our intellectual property rights is difficult and expensive. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws and contractual restrictions on disclosure and usage to protect our intellectual property rights. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, third parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property or seek court declarations that they do not infringe upon our intellectual property rights. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and we cannot assure you that the steps we have taken or will take will prevent misappropriation of our intellectual property. From time to time, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources.

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Our patent rights may not protect us effectively, and we may not be able to prevent others from developing or exploiting competing technologies, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business.

As of December 31, 2023, we had 4,690 issued patents and 3,788 patent applications pending. For our pending application, we cannot assure you that we will be granted patents pursuant to our pending applications. Even if our patent applications succeed and we are issued patents in accordance with them, it is still uncertain whether these patents will be contested, circumvented or invalidated in the future. In addition, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with meaningful protection or competitive advantages. The claims under any patents that issue from our patent applications may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar or that achieve results similar to ours. The intellectual property rights of others could also bar us from licensing and exploiting any patents that issue from our pending applications. Numerous patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields in which we have developed and are developing our technology. These patents and patent applications might have priority over our patent applications and could subject our patent applications to invalidation. Finally, in addition to those who may claim priority, any of our existing or pending patents may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are otherwise invalid or unenforceable.

We have limited insurance coverage, which could expose us to significant costs and business disruption.

We have limited liability insurance coverage for our products and business operations. A successful liability claim against us due to injuries suffered by our users could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and reputation. In addition, we do not have any business disruption insurance. Any business disruption event could result in substantial costs to us and diversion of our resources.

We maintain a considerable level of debt that are senior in capital structure and cash flow to our shareholders. Satisfying these debt obligations could adversely affect the distributions to our shareholders or result in dilution.

We maintain a considerable level of indebtedness to finance our operations and business expansion. In February 2019, we issued US$750 million aggregate principal amount of 4.50% convertible senior notes due 2024, or the 2024 Notes. The 2024 Notes matured on February 1, 2024, and we repaid the then outstanding 2024 Notes that had not been redeemed, repurchased or converted in full. In January 2021, we issued US$750 million aggregate principal amount of 0.00% convertible senior notes due 2026, or the 2026 Notes, and US$750 million aggregate principal amount of 0.50% convertible senior notes due 2027, or the 2027 Notes. In September and October 2023, we issued US$575 million aggregate principal amount of 3.875% convertible senior notes due 2029, or the 2029 Notes, and US$575 million aggregate principal amount of 4.625% convertible senior notes due 2030, or the 2030 Notes. As of December 31, 2023, we had RMB13,042.9 million (US$1,837.0 million) in total long-term borrowings outstanding, consisting primarily of (i) our 4.50% convertible senior notes due 2024, (ii) our 0.00% convertible senior notes due 2026 and 0.50% convertible senior notes due 2027, (iii) our 3.875% convertible senior notes due 2029 and 4.625% convertible senior notes due 2030, and (iv) our long-term bank debt, excluding the current portions of (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) that are due within one year from December 31, 2023. Meanwhile, as of December 31, 2023, we had RMB9,821.5 million (US$1,383.3 million) in total short-term borrowings, including the current portions of long-term borrowings. Among the current portions of long-term borrowings, the 4.50% convertible senior notes due 2024 was repaid in full in February 2024. On February 1, 2024, we completed the repurchase right offer relating to 2026 Notes with aggregate principal amount of US$300.5 million.

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The 2026 Notes and the 2027 Notes are unsecured debt. Prior to August 1, 2025, in the case of the 2026 Notes, and August 1, 2026, in the case of the 2027 Notes, the 2026 Notes and the 2027 Notes, as applicable, will be convertible at the option of the holders only upon satisfaction of certain conditions and during certain periods. Holders may convert their 2026 Notes or 2027 Notes, as applicable, at their option at any time on or after August 1, 2025, in the case of the 2026 Notes, or August 1, 2026, in the case of the 2027 Notes, until the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date. Upon conversion, we will pay or deliver to such converting holders, as the case may be, cash, ADSs, or a combination of cash and ADSs, at our election. The initial conversion rate of the 2026 Notes is 10.7458 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount of such 2026 Notes. The initial conversion rate of the 2027 Notes is 10.7458 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount of such 2027 Notes. The conversion rate for such series of the 2026 Notes and the 2027 Notes is subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain events. Holders of the 2026 Notes and the 2027 Notes may require us to repurchase all or part of their 2026 Notes and 2027 Notes for cash on February 1, 2024, in the case of the 2026 Notes, and February 1, 2025, in the case of the 2027 Notes, or in the event of certain fundamental changes, at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2026 Notes or the 2027 Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the repurchase date. In addition, on or after February 6, 2024, in the case of the 2026 Notes, and February 6, 2025, in the case of the 2027 Notes, until the 20th scheduled trading day immediately prior to the maturity date, we may redeem the 2026 Notes or the 2027 Notes, as applicable for cash subject to certain conditions, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2026 Notes or the 2027 Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the optional redemption date. Furthermore, we may redeem all but not part of the 2026 Notes or the 2027 Notes in the event of certain changes in the tax laws. In 2022, we repurchased an aggregate principal amount of US$192.9 million of 2026 Notes for a total cash consideration of US$170.5 million. In September 2023, shortly after the pricing of the 2029 Notes and the 2030 Notes, we repurchased an aggregate principal amount of US$255.6 million of the 2026 Notes for a total cash consideration of US$249.9 million and an aggregate principal amount of US$244.4 million of the 2027 Notes for a total cash consideration of US$222.0 million. In February 2024, we completed the repurchase right offer relating to the 2026 Notes. US$300.5 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2026 Notes were validly surrendered and not withdrawn prior to the expiration of the repurchase right offer.

The 2029 Notes and the 2030 Notes are unsecured debt. The holders of the 2029 Notes and the 2030 Notes shall have the right, at such holder’s option, to convert all or any portion of their 2029 Notes or 2030 Notes, as applicable, at any time prior to the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date, i.e., October 15, 2029, in the case of the 2029 Notes, and October 15, 2030, in the case of the 2030 Notes. The initial conversion rate of the 2029 Notes is 89.9685 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount of such 2029 Notes. The Initial conversion rate of the 2030 Notes is 89.9685 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount of such 2030 Notes. The conversion rate is subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain events. Holders of the 2029 Notes and 2030 Notes may require us to repurchase all or any portion of their 2029 Notes and 2030 Notes for cash on October 15, 2027, in the case of the 2029 Notes, and October 15, 2028, in the case of 2030 Notes, or in the event of certain fundamental changes, at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2029 Notes or the 2030 Notes to be repurchased plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the repurchase date. In addition, on or after October 22, 2027, in the case of the 2029 Notes, and October 22, 2028, in the case of the 2030 Notes, until the 20th scheduled trading day immediately prior to the maturity date, i.e., October 15, 2029, in the case of the 2029 Notes, and October 15, 2030, in the case of the 2030 Notes, we may redeem all or part of the 2029 Notes and 2030 Notes, as applicable for cash subject to certain conditions, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2029 Notes or the 2030 Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the optional redemption date. Furthermore, we may redeem all but not part of the 2029 Notes or the 2030 Notes in the event of certain changes in the tax laws.

Satisfying the obligations of all these indebtedness and interest liabilities could adversely affect the amount or timing of any distributions to our shareholders. We may choose to satisfy, repurchase, or refinance any of these liabilities through public or private equity or debt financings if we deem such financings available on favorable terms. If we do not have adequate cash available or cannot obtain additional financing, or our use of cash is restricted by applicable law, regulations or agreements governing our current or future indebtedness, we may not be able to repurchase any of these notes when required under the respective transaction documents, which would constitute an event of default under the respective transaction documents. An event of default could also lead to a default under other agreements governing our current and future indebtedness, and if the repayment of such other indebtedness were accelerated, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase any of these notes or make cash payments upon conversion of any of these notes. In addition, the holders of any of these notes may convert their notes to a number of our ADSs in accordance with the respective transaction documents. Any conversion will result in immediate dilution to the ownership interests of existing shareholders and such dilution could be material. Lastly, we are exposed to interest rate risk related to our portfolio of investments in debt securities and the debt that we have issued. Among other things, some of our bank loans carry floating interest, and increases in interest rates would result in a decrease in the fair value of our outstanding debt. In the event that we incur a decrease in the fair value of our outstanding debt, our financial performance will be adversely affected.

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We are or may be subject to risks associated with strategic alliances or acquisitions.

We have entered into and may in the future enter into strategic alliances, including joint ventures or minority equity investments, with various third parties to further our business purpose from time to time. For example, we have opened our Power Swap network to the entire industry and signed strategic partnership agreements with Changan Automobile, Geely Group, JAC Group and Chery Automobile on battery swapping. We have partnered with multiple energy companies, and expect to join hands with more partners to collectively contribute towards the development of power network and the wider adoption of battery swapping. Furthermore, on February 26, 2024, we entered into a technology license agreement with Forseven Limited, or Forseven. Under this agreement, we granted a non-exclusive and non-transferrable worldwide license to Forseven to use certain of our technical information, technical solutions, software and intellectual property rights related to or subsisting in our existing and future smart electric vehicle platforms within certain period, for, among other things, the research and development, manufacturing, sales, import and export of vehicle models sold or marketed under Forseven’s brand, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the agreement. These alliances could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance by the third party and increased expenses in establishing new strategic alliances. We may have limited ability to monitor or control the actions of these third parties and, to the extent any of these strategic third parties suffer negative publicity or harm to their reputation from events relating to their business, we may also suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation by virtue of our association with any such third party. Specifically, any technical failure in the coordination with our Power Swap network partners can disrupt our charging and battery swapping services to users and delay the expansion of our Power Swap network and the adoption of our battery swapping technology. Also, inefficient processes or inadequate workforce training could lead to operational inefficiencies and increased costs. Furthermore, any problems arising from Forseven’s use of the licensed technologies, including product recalls, safety issues, or resulting legal disputes, could negatively harm our brand and reputation. Any of these risks may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operation and financial conditions.

In addition, we may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. In addition to possible shareholder approval, we may have to obtain approvals and licenses from government authorities for the acquisitions and to comply with any applicable PRC laws and regulations, which could result in increased delay and costs, and may derail our business strategy if we fail to do so. Furthermore, past and future acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant.

If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may not be able to execute our growth strategies successfully.

We have expanded our operations, and as we ramp up our production and sales, further significant expansion may be required, especially in connection with providing our users with high-quality service, expansion of our sale network and power infrastructures, and managing different models of vehicles. Our future operating results depend to a large extent on our ability to manage this expansion and growth successfully. Risks that we face in undertaking this expansion include, among others:

managing a larger organization with different divisions;
training a greater number of employees and managing their behaviors, including but not limited to deterring or preventing employee misconducts or illegal actions;
controlling expenses and investments in anticipation of expanded operations;
establishing or expanding design, manufacturing, sales and service facilities;
implementing and enhancing administrative infrastructure, systems and processes; and
addressing new markets and potentially unforeseen challenges as they arise.

Any failure to manage our growth effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

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We have granted, and may continue to grant options and other types of awards under our share incentive plan, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.

We adopted share incentive plans in 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2024, which we refer to as the 2015 Plan, the 2016 Plan, the 2017 Plan, the 2018 Plan and 2024 Plan, respectively, for the purpose of granting share-based compensation awards to employees, directors and consultants to incentivize their performance and align their interests with ours. The 2018 Plan became effective as of January 1, 2019 and expired on December 31, 2023. The 2024 Plan became effective as of February 7, 2024. We recognize expenses in our consolidated statement of income in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Under our share incentive plans, we are authorized to grant options and other types of awards. Under the 2015 Plan, the 2016 Plan and the 2017 Plan, the maximum numbers of Class A ordinary shares which may be issued pursuant to all awards are 46,264,378, 18,000,000 and 33,000,000, respectively. Under the 2018 Plan, a maximum number of 23,000,000 Class A ordinary shares may be issued pursuant to all awards. This amount should automatically increase each year by the number of shares representing 1.5% of the then total issued and outstanding share capital of our company as of the end of each preceding year during the term of the 2018 Plan. The maximum number of shares available for issuance pursuant to all awards under the 2024 Plan was initially 19,288,470 Class A ordinary shares, and the amount automatically increases at the beginning of each new year by the number of shares representing 1.2% of the then total issued and outstanding share capital of our company as of the last day of the immediately preceding fiscal year during the term of the 2024 Plan. In addition, any awards not granted under an earlier plan when it terminates are automatically added to the 2024 Plan. As of February 29, 2024, awards to purchase an aggregate amount of 123,804,348 Class A ordinary shares under the 2015 Plan, the 2016 Plan, the 2017 Plan, the 2018 Plan and the 2024 Plan had been granted and were outstanding, excluding awards that were forfeited or cancelled after the grant dates. In addition, one of our subsidiaries also adopted a share incentive plan in 2021, pursuant to which the subsidiary can grant share options to its employees. As of December 31, 2023, our unrecognized share-based compensation expenses related to the stock option and restricted shares amounted to RMB5,840.5 million (US$822.6 million).

We believe the granting of share-based awards is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel and employees, and we will continue to grant share-based compensation to employees in the future. As a result, our expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Furthermore, prospective candidates and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. Thus, our ability to attract or retain highly skilled employees may be adversely affected by declines in the perceived value of our equity or equity awards. Furthermore, there are no assurances that the number of shares reserved for issuance under our share incentive plans will be sufficient to grant equity awards adequate to recruit new employees and to compensate existing employees.

If we do not appropriately maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

We are subject to reporting obligations under the U.S. securities laws. The SEC, as required under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, adopted rules requiring public companies to include a report of management on such company’s internal control over financial reporting in its document, which contains management’s assessment of the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting. We were subject to such requirement starting from the fiscal year of 2019. In addition, an independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting.

Our management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2023. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm has audited the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023.

In the future, our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report with adverse opinion if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the requirements differently from us.

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If we fail to implement and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our consolidated financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations, and lead to a decline in the trading price of our listed securities. Furthermore, we may incur additional costs and use additional management and other resources as our business and operations further expand or in an effort to remediate any significant control deficiencies that may be identified in the future. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we list, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions.

If our suppliers fail to use ethical business practices and comply with applicable laws and regulations, our brand image could be harmed due to negative publicity.

Our core values, which include developing high quality electric vehicles while operating with integrity, are an important component of our brand image, which makes our reputation sensitive to allegations of unethical business practices. We do not control our independent suppliers or their business practices. Accordingly, we cannot guarantee their compliance with ethical business practices, such as environmental responsibilities, fair wage practices, and compliance with child labor laws, among others. A lack of demonstrated compliance could lead us to seek alternative suppliers, which could increase our costs and result in delayed delivery of our products, product shortages or other disruptions of our operations.

Violation of labor or other laws by our suppliers or the divergence of an independent supplier’s labor or other practices from those generally accepted as ethical in the markets in which we do business could also attract negative publicity for us and our brand. This could diminish the value of our brand image and reduce demand for our electric vehicles if, as a result of such violation, we were to attract negative publicity. If we, or other players in our industry, encounter similar problems in the future, it could harm our brand image, business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

If we update our manufacturing equipment more quickly than expected, we may have to shorten the useful lives of any equipment to be retired, which could negatively affect our financial results.

We have invested, and we expect to continue to invest, significantly in what we believe is state of the art tooling, machinery and other manufacturing equipment for the product lines where the vehicles are manufactured, and we depreciate the cost of such equipment over their expected useful lives. Manufacturing technology may evolve rapidly, and therefore we may decide to update our manufacturing process with advanced equipment more quickly than expected. Moreover, as our engineering and manufacturing expertise and efficiency increase, we may be able to manufacture our products using less of our installed equipment. The useful life of any equipment that would be retired early as a result would be shortened, causing the depreciation on such equipment to be accelerated, and to the extent we own such equipment, our results of operations could be negatively impacted. An increased amount of investment into the manufacturing plants will lead to an increased cost in asset depreciation and amortization, which could negatively affect our results of operations and financial conditions.

The construction and operation of our manufacturing facilities are subject to regulatory approvals or filings and may be subject to changes, delays, cost overruns or may not produce expected benefits.

In 2017, we signed a framework agreement with the Shanghai Jiading government and its authorized investment entity to build and develop our own manufacturing facility in Jiading, Shanghai. In 2019, we agreed with the related contractual parties to cease construction of this planned manufacturing facility and terminate this development project.

In February 2020, we entered into a collaboration framework agreement with the municipal government of Hefei, Anhui province. Subsequently from April to June 2020, we entered into definitive agreements, as amended and supplemented, for investments in NIO China. Pursuant to the definitive agreements, we will collaborate with the Hefei Strategic Investors and Hefei Economic and Technological Development Area to develop NIO China’s business and to support the accelerated development of the smart electric vehicle sectors in Hefei. In February 2021, we, through NIO China, entered into a further collaboration framework agreement with the municipal government of Hefei, Anhui province, pursuant to which the Hefei government and NIO China agreed in principle to jointly build a world-class industrial campus to support the development and innovations of the smart electric vehicle industry and related supply chains led by NIO China. In addition, the Hefei government and its associated parties plan to re­invest their returns from the equity investments in NIO China to support the further cooperation in Hefei.

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Under PRC law, construction projects are subject to broad and strict government supervision and approval procedures, including but not limited to project approvals and filings, construction land and project planning approvals, environment protection approvals, pollution discharge permits, work safety approvals, fire protection approvals, and the completion of inspection and acceptance by authorities. Some of the construction projects being carried out by us are undergoing necessary approval procedures as required by law. As a result, the entities operating such construction projects may be subject to administrative uncertainty, and construction projects in question may be subject to fines or the suspension of use of such projects. Failure to complete the construction projects on schedule and within budget, and failure to obtain necessary approvals or any incompliance with government supervision could have a material adverse impact on our operations, and we may not be able to find commercially reasonable alternatives.

Our vehicles make use of lithium-ion battery cells, which have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.

The batteries that we produce make use of lithium-ion cells. On rare occasions, lithium-ion cells can rapidly release the energy they contain by venting smoke and flames in a manner that can ignite nearby materials as well as other lithium-ion cells. In June 2019, certain safety incidents resulting from the batteries on ES8 vehicles occurred in Shanghai and other locations in China. We then voluntarily recalled 4,803 ES8s, and replaced the batteries in the NIO battery swap network equipped with the malfunctioned modules. While we have designed the battery to passively contain any single cell’s release of energy without spreading to neighboring cells, and have taken measures to enhance the safety of our battery designs, a field or testing failure of our vehicles or other batteries that we produce could occur in the future, which could subject us to lawsuits, product recalls, or redesign efforts, all of which would be time-consuming and expensive. Also, negative public perceptions regarding the suitability of lithium-ion cells for automotive applications or any future incident involving lithium-ion cells such as a vehicle or other fire, even if such incident does not involve our vehicles, could seriously harm our business.

In addition, we store a significant number of lithium-ion cells at our facilities. Any mishandling of battery cells may cause disruption to the operation of our facilities. While we have implemented safety procedures related to the handling of the cells, a safety issue or fire related to the cells could disrupt our operations. Such damage or injury could lead to adverse publicity and potentially a safety recall. Moreover, any failure of a competitor’s electric vehicle or energy storage product may cause indirect adverse publicity for us and our products. Such adverse publicity could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

Interruption or failure of our information technology and communications systems could impact our ability to effectively provide our services.

We aim to provide our users with an innovative suite of services through our mobile application. In addition, our in-car services depend, to a certain extent, on connectivity. The availability and effectiveness of our services depend on the continued operation of our information technology and communications systems. Our systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among other adverse effects, fire, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, power loss, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, computer denial of service attacks or other attempts to harm our systems. Our data centers are also subject to break-ins, sabotage, and intentional acts of vandalism, and potential disruptions. Some of our systems are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning cannot account for all eventualities. Any problems at our data centers could result in lengthy interruptions in our service. In addition, our products and services are highly technical and complex and may contain errors or vulnerabilities, which could result in interruptions in our services or the failure of our systems.

We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and similar laws, non-compliance with which can subject us to penalties and expenses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and reputation.

We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws and regulations in various jurisdictions in which we conduct activities, including, among others, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act 2010. These acts prohibit us and our officers, directors, employees and business partners acting on our behalf, including agents, from corruptly offering, promising, authorizing or providing anything of value to a “foreign official” for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act also requires companies to make and keep books, records and accounts that accurately reflect transactions and dispositions of assets and to maintain a system of adequate internal accounting controls. The U.K. Bribery Act also prohibits non-governmental “commercial” bribery and soliciting or accepting bribes. A violation of these laws or regulations could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.

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We have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies and state-owned affiliated entities in the ordinary course of business. We have also entered into joint ventures and/or other business partnerships with government agencies and state-owned or affiliated entities. These interactions subject us to an increased level of compliance-related concerns. We are in the process of implementing policies and procedures designed to ensure that we and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents and business partners comply with applicable anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws and regulations. However, our policies and procedures may not be sufficient and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents, and business partners could engage in improper conduct for which we may be held responsible.

Non-compliance with anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering or financial and economic sanctions laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, and severe administrative, civil and criminal sanctions, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation. In addition, changes in economic sanctions laws in the future could adversely impact our business and investments in our shares.

Any unauthorized control or manipulation of our vehicles’ systems could result in loss of confidence in us and our vehicles and harm our business.

Our vehicles contain complex information technology systems. For example, our vehicles are designed with built-in data connectivity to accept and install periodic remote updates from us to improve or update the functionality of our vehicles. We have designed, implemented and tested security measures intended to prevent unauthorized access to our information technology networks, our vehicles and their systems. However, hackers may attempt in the future, to gain unauthorized access to modify, alter and use such networks, vehicles and systems to gain control of, or to change, our vehicles’ functionality, user interface and performance characteristics, or to gain access to data stored in or generated by the vehicle. Vulnerabilities could be identified in the future and our remediation efforts may not be successful. Any unauthorized access to or control of our vehicles or their systems or any loss of data could result in legal claims or proceedings. In addition, regardless of their veracity, reports of unauthorized access to our vehicles, their systems or data, as well as other factors that may result in the perception that our vehicles, their systems or data are capable of being “hacked,” could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by natural disasters, health epidemics and other outbreaks.

Our business could be adversely affected by the effects of epidemics. In recent years, there have been outbreaks of epidemics in China and globally. Our results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that the outbreak harms the Chinese economy in general.

Since the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in temporary closure of many corporate offices, retail stores, manufacturing facilities and factories across China and the world. Our operations experienced disruptions, such as temporary closure of our offices and/or those of our customers or suppliers and suspension of services, resulting in a reduction of vehicles manufactured and delivered, which affected our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow. Our results of operations have been and could continue to be adversely affected to the extent the COVID-19 pandemic or any other epidemic harms the Chinese economy in general. Further, to the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business and financial results, it has and may continue to have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this annual report, such as those relating to our level of indebtedness, our need to generate sufficient cash flows to service our indebtedness and our ability to comply with the covenants contained in the agreements that govern our indebtedness.

We are also vulnerable to natural disasters and other calamities. Our vehicle production, sales and delivery and our service operations and capacities could be materially and adversely affected by natural disasters and other calamities in the areas where we operate and where our vehicles are sold to. For example, in July 2021, our deliveries of vehicles and power services were interrupted due to the flood in Henan province and the typhoon in Shanghai and several other neighboring cities. Although we have servers that are hosted in an offsite location, our backup system does not capture data on a real-time basis and we may be unable to recover certain data in the event of a server failure. We cannot assure you that any backup systems will be adequate to protect us from the effects of fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures, break-ins, war, riots, terrorist attacks or similar events. Any of the foregoing events may give rise to interruptions, breakdowns, system failures, technology platform failures or internet failures, which could cause the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to provide services on our platform.

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Our revenues and financial results may be adversely affected by any economic slowdown in China as well as globally.

The success of our business ultimately depends on consumer spending. We derive a substantial majority of our revenues from China. As a result, our revenues and financial results are impacted to a significant extent by economic conditions in China. The growth rate of the Chinese economy has gradually slowed down since 2010 and the Chinese population began to decline in 2022, and the trend may continue. Any slowdown could significantly reduce domestic commerce in China. In addition, as we continue to expand our global presence and offer products and services to markets outside China, we expect our results of operations will also be impacted by the global economic conditions. The global macroeconomic environment is facing numerous challenges. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic had a severe and negative impact on the Chinese and the global economy from 2020 through 2022. The Federal Reserve and other central banks outside of China have raised interest rates. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the previous expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China, and the ongoing transmission of monetary policy in the United States and Europe. The Russia-Ukraine conflict, the Hamas-Israel conflict and the attacks on shipping in the Red Sea have heightened geopolitical tensions across the world, while it has not had a direct impact on our business operations and financial results to date, it could raise energy prices, cause supply chain volatilities and disrupt global markets in general, and may negatively affect our business expansion in Europe and other international markets, which may adversely affect our results of operations and financial results. Regional unrest, terrorist threats and the potential for war may increase market volatility across the globe. There have also been concerns about the relationship between China and other countries, including the surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially have economic effects. In particular, there is significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and China with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global or Chinese economy may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Sales of high-end and luxury consumer products, such as our performance electric vehicles, depend in part on discretionary consumer spending and are even more exposed to adverse changes in general economic conditions. In response to their perceived uncertainty in economic conditions, consumers might delay, reduce or cancel purchases of our electric vehicles and our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We cannot predict the duration or direction of current trends or their impact on China and globally. If we experience unfavorable global market conditions, or if we cannot or do not maintain operations at a scope that is commensurate with such conditions or are later required to or choose to suspend such operations again, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be harmed.

Shutdowns of the U.S. federal government could materially impair our business and financial condition.

Development of our product candidates and/or regulatory approval may be delayed for reasons beyond our control. For example, over the last several years the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the SEC, have had to furlough critical SEC and other government employees and stop critical activities. In our operations as a public company, future government shutdowns could impact our ability to access the public markets, such as delaying the declaration of effectiveness of registration statements and obtaining necessary capital to properly capitalize and continue our operations.

Recent disruptions in the financial markets and economic conditions could affect our ability to raise capital.

In recent years, the United States and global economies suffered dramatic downturns as the result of a deterioration in the credit markets and related financial crisis as well as a variety of other factors including, among others, extreme volatility in security prices, severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, rating downgrades of certain investments and declining valuations of others. The United States and certain foreign governments have taken unprecedented actions in an attempt to address and rectify these extreme market and economic conditions by providing liquidity and stability to the financial markets. If the actions taken by these governments are not successful, the return of adverse economic conditions may cause a significant impact on our ability to raise capital, if needed, on a timely basis and on acceptable terms or at all.

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There are uncertainties relating to our users trust arrangement involving a portion of our chairman’s shareholding in our company.

In conjunction with our pursuit of being a user enterprise and with the goal of building a deeper connection between NIO and our users, Mr. Bin Li, our founder, chairman of the board of directors and chief executive officer, transferred certain of his ordinary shares to NIO Users Trust after the completion of the initial public offering of our ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange in September 2018. As of the date of this annual report, NIO Users Trust holds 16,967,776 Class A ordinary shares and 33,032,224 Class C ordinary shares through two holding companies controlled by it. Mr. Li continues to retain the voting rights of these shares. In 2019, our user committee adopted the NIO Users Trust Charter by way of voting, and established a User Council to generally discuss and give advice on the management and the operation of NIO Users Trust. In this way, our users have the opportunity to discuss and propose the use of the economic benefits from the shares in NIO Users Trust, which is intended to be composed mainly of the dividends from the shares that it holds future interests accrued from and investment returns generated by cash assets to be held under the trust, and proceeds from the pledging of such shares from time to time, through the User Council consisting of members of our user community elected by our users. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—User Development and User Community—NIO Users Trust” for further details about NIO Users Trust.

The current NIO Users Trust Charter provides certain mechanisms for the User Council to discuss the management and supervision of the operations of NIO Users Trust. There is no assurance that such current mechanisms for managing the operations of NIO Users Trust we have adopted are to the satisfaction of all of our users, or that such mechanisms will be carried out in the way it was intended. The User Council may not be able to achieve its intended work focus or carry out their work effectively and efficiently as the power to give instructions to the trustee vests with the settlor, protector and investment advisor of the trust. Furthermore, depending on the proposed use of the economic interests of the shares held by the NIO Users Trust in the future, there could be accounting implications to us that cannot presently be ascertained.

We and certain of our directors and officers have been named as defendants in shareholder class action lawsuits and legal proceedings, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, cash flows and reputation.

Several shareholder class action lawsuits have been filed against us and certain of our directors and officers. See “Item 8. Financial Information—A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings” for more details. We are currently unable to estimate the potential loss, if any, associated with the resolution of such lawsuits, if they proceed. We anticipate that we will continue to be a target for lawsuits in the future, including class action lawsuits brought by shareholders. From time to time, we may also be involved in legal proceedings in the ordinary course of our business. There can be no assurance that we will be able to prevail in our defense or reverse any unfavorable judgment on appeal, and we may decide to settle lawsuits on unfavorable terms. Any adverse outcome of these cases, including any plaintiffs’ appeal of the judgment in these cases, could result in payments of substantial monetary damages or fines, or changes to our business practices, and thus have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation. In addition, there can be no assurance that our insurance carriers will cover all or part of the defense costs, or any liabilities that may arise from these matters. The litigation process may utilize a significant portion of our cash resources and divert management’s attention from the day-to-day operations of our company, all of which could harm our business. We also may be subject to claims for indemnification related to these matters, and we cannot predict the impact that indemnification claims may have on our business or financial results.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

If the PRC government deems that our VIE arrangements do not comply with PRC laws, or if these PRC laws change, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.

Foreign ownership of certain areas of businesses is subject to restrictions and prohibitions under current PRC laws and regulations. For example, pursuant to the 2021 Negative List, foreign investors are not allowed to, among other things, (i) own more than 50% of the equity interests in a value-added telecommunication service provider (other than for e-commerce, domestic multi-parties communications, storage and forwarding categories, call centers); and (ii) invest in certain services related to autonomous driving. Additionally, in practice, subject to the qualifications set by the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission for foreign shareholders of the insurance brokerage companies, the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission typically would not approve the establishment of foreign-invested insurance brokerage companies.

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We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and our PRC subsidiaries are considered foreign-invested enterprises. Accordingly, we have entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Beijing NIO, Anhui NIO AT, Anhui NIO DT and their respective shareholders that enable us to hold or to apply for all the required licenses in China, including, among others, the ICP license, the insurance brokerage license and certain licenses relating to the operation of certain services related to autonomous driving. For a detailed description of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Contractual Agreements with the VIEs and Their Shareholders.”

In the opinion of Han Kun Law Offices, our PRC legal counsel, (i) the ownership structures of NIO Co., Ltd. and Beijing NIO, the ownership structure of Anhui NIO AD and Anhui NIO AT, and the ownership structure of NIO China and Anhui NIO DT, in China do not result in any violation of PRC laws and regulations currently in effect; and (ii) the contractual arrangements between our subsidiaries, the VIEs and their shareholders governed by PRC laws will not result in any violation of PRC laws or regulations currently in effect. However, we have been advised by our PRC legal counsel that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules, and there can be no assurance that the PRC regulatory authorities will take a view that is consistent with the opinion of our PRC legal counsel. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations— Regulations on Foreign Investment in China” and “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Our business may be significantly affected by the Foreign Investment Law.” It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to VIE structures will be adopted or, if adopted, what they would provide.

If the ownership structure, contractual arrangements and businesses of our PRC subsidiaries or the VIEs are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or our PRC subsidiaries or the VIEs fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures, including:

revoking the business licenses and/or operating licenses of such entities;
shutting down our servers or blocking our website, or discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operation through any transactions between our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs;
imposing fines, confiscating the income from our PRC subsidiaries or the VIEs, or imposing other requirements with which we or the VIEs may not be able to comply;
requiring us to restructure our ownership structure or operations, including terminating the contractual arrangements with the VIEs and deregistering the equity pledge of the VIEs, which in turn would affect our ability to consolidate, derive economic interests from, or exert effective control over the VIEs; or
restricting or prohibiting our use of the proceeds of any financing outside China to finance our business and operations in China, and taking other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business.

Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of these occurrences results in our inability to direct the activities of the VIEs that most significantly impact their economic performance, and/or our failure to receive the economic benefits from the VIEs, we may not be able to consolidate the entities in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Currently, Beijing NIO, Anhui NIO AT, and Anhui NIO DT, taking into account all of their respective business with or without foreign investment restrictions under PRC laws, contributed insignificantly to our total revenues in 2021, 2022 and 2023. As of December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, the consolidated VIEs did not have significant operations or any material assets or liabilities.

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We rely on contractual arrangements with the VIEs and their shareholders to hold a controlling financial interest over each VIE, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control.

We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with Beijing NIO, Anhui NIO AT, Anhui NIO DT and their shareholders to maintain a controlling financial interest as the primary beneficiary of each of them (as defined in U.S. GAAP, ASC 810) and to conduct a portion of our operations in China. For a description of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Contractual Agreements with the VIEs and Their Shareholders.” The shareholders of VIEs may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. If we had direct ownership of the VIEs, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to control the VIEs to exercise rights of shareholders to effect changes in the board of directors of the VIEs, which in turn could implement changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management and operational level. However, under the contractual arrangements, we would rely on legal remedies under PRC law for breach of contract in the event that the VIEs and their shareholders did not perform their obligations under the contracts. These legal remedies may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over the VIEs.

If the VIEs or their shareholders fail to perform their obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements, and rely on legal remedies under PRC laws, including contractual remedies, which may not be sufficient or effective. All of the agreements under our contractual arrangements are governed by and interpreted in accordance with PRC laws, and disputes arising from these contractual arrangements will be resolved through arbitration in China. Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a VIE should be interpreted or enforced under PRC law. There remain significant uncertainties regarding the ultimate outcome of such arbitration should legal action become necessary. In addition, under PRC laws, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and if the losing parties fail to carry out the arbitration awards within a prescribed time limit, the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in the PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would require additional expenses and delay. If we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or face other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over the VIEs, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected. See “Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”

Our ability to enforce the equity pledge agreements between us and the VIEs’ shareholders may be subject to limitations based on PRC laws and regulations.

Pursuant to the equity pledge agreements under our VIE contractual arrangements, each shareholder of the VIEs agrees to pledge its equity interests in the respective VIE to our PRC subsidiary to secure the respective VIE’s performance of its obligations under the contractual arrangements. The equity pledges of shareholders of each VIE under equity pledge agreements have been registered with the local branch of the State Administration for Market Regulation. In addition, in the registration forms of the local branch of the State Administration for Market Regulation for the pledges over the equity interests under the equity pledge agreements, the aggregate amount of registered equity interests pledged to NIO Co., Ltd. represents 100% of the registered capital of Beijing NIO, the aggregate amount of registered equity interests pledged to Anhui NIO AD represents 100% of the registered capital of Anhui NIO AT, and the aggregate amount of registered equity interests pledged to NIO China represents 100% of the registered capital of Anhui NIO DT See “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Contractual Agreements with the VIEs and Their Shareholders” for more information.

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The equity pledge agreements with the VIEs’ shareholders provide that the pledged equity interests shall constitute continuing security for any and all of the indebtedness, obligations and liabilities under all of the principal service agreements and the scope of pledge shall not be limited by the amount of the registered capital of that VIE. However, a PRC court may take the position that the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms represents the full amount of the collateral that has been registered and perfected. If this is the case, the obligations that are supposed to be secured in the equity pledge agreements in excess of the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms could be determined by the PRC court as unsecured debt, which typically takes last priority among creditors.

The shareholders of the VIEs have conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Our founders, Bin Li and Lihong Qin, own 80% and 20%, respectively, of the equity interests in Beijing NIO and Anhui NIO DT, and own 80% and 2.24%, respectively, of the equity interests in Anhui NIO AT. Shaoqing Ren, a vice president of our company, owns 17.76% of the equity interests in Anhui NIO AT. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Contractual Agreements with the VIEs and Their Shareholders” for more information. As shareholders of the VIEs, they have conflicts of interest with us. These shareholders may breach, or cause the VIEs to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with them and the VIEs, which would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to effectively control the VIEs and receive economic benefits from it. For example, the shareholders may be able to cause our agreements with the VIEs to be performed in a manner adverse to us by, among other things, failing to remit payments due under the contractual arrangements to us on a timely basis. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, any or all of these shareholders will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor.

Currently, we do not have any arrangements to address conflicts of interest between these shareholders and our company. Each of Bin Li and Lihong Qin is also a director and executive officer of our company, and Shaoqing Ren is a vice president of our company. We rely on Bin Li, Lihong Qin and Shaoqing Ren to abide by the laws of the Cayman Islands and China, which provide that directors and senior management owe a fiduciary duty to the company that requires them to act in good faith and in what they believe to be the best interests of the company and not to use their position for personal gain. There is currently no specific and clear guidance under PRC laws that addresses any conflict between PRC laws and the laws of Cayman Islands in respect of any conflict relating to corporate governance. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and the shareholders of VIEs, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

Our contractual arrangements with the VIEs may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or the VIEs owe additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition.

Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year when the transactions are conducted. The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law requires every enterprise in China to submit its annual enterprise income tax return together with a report on transactions with its related parties to the tax authorities. The tax authorities may impose reasonable adjustments on taxation if they have identified any related party transactions that are inconsistent with arm’s length principles. We may face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements between our PRC subsidiaries the VIEs in China, and the VIEs’ shareholders were not entered into on an arm’s length basis in such a way as to result in an impermissible reduction in taxes under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, and adjust VIEs’ income in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction of expense deductions recorded by VIEs for PRC tax purposes, which could in turn increase their tax liabilities without reducing our PRC subsidiary’s tax expenses. If any of our PRC subsidiaries requests the shareholders of the respective VIE to transfer their equity interests in such VIE at nominal or no value pursuant to the contractual agreements, such transfer could be viewed as a gift and subject our PRC subsidiary to PRC income tax. Furthermore, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties on VIEs for the adjusted but unpaid taxes according to the applicable regulations. Our financial position could be materially and adversely affected if any of the VIEs’ tax liabilities increase or if any VIE is required to pay late payment fees and other penalties.

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We may lose the ability to use and benefit from assets held by the VIEs that are material to the operation of our business if the VIEs go bankrupt or becomes subject to dissolution or liquidation proceedings.

As part of our contractual arrangements with the VIEs, the entities may in the future hold certain assets that are material to the operation of our business. If any VIE goes bankrupt and all or part of its assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Under the contractual arrangements, the VIEs may not, in any manner, sell, transfer, mortgage or dispose of their assets or legal or beneficial interests in the business without our prior consent. If any VIE undergoes voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceedings, unrelated third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Divestitures of businesses and assets may have a material and adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

We may undertake in the future, partial or complete divestitures or other disposal transactions in connection with certain of our businesses and assets, particularly ones that are not closely related to our core focus areas or might require excessive resources or financial capital, to help our company meet its objectives. These decisions are largely based on our management’s assessment of the business models and likelihood of success of these businesses. However, our judgment could be inaccurate, and we may not achieve the desired strategic and financial benefits from these transactions. Our financial results could be adversely affected by the impact from the loss of earnings and corporate overhead contribution/allocation associated with divested businesses.

Dispositions may also involve continued financial involvement in the divested business, such as through guarantees, indemnities or other financial obligations. Under these arrangements, performance by the divested businesses or other conditions outside of our control could affect our future financial results. We may also be exposed to negative publicity as a result of the potential misconception that the divested business is still part of our consolidated group. On the other hand, we cannot assure you that the divesting business would not pursue opportunities to provide services to our competitors or other opportunities that would conflict with our interests. If any conflicts of interest that may arise between the divesting business and us cannot be resolved in our favor, our business, financial condition, results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Furthermore, reducing or eliminating our ownership interests in these businesses might negatively affect our operations, prospects, or long-term value. We may lose access to resources or know-how that would have been useful in the development of our own business. Our ability to diversify or expand our existing businesses or to move into new areas of business may be reduced, and we may have to modify our business strategy to focus more exclusively on areas of business where we already possess the necessary expertise. We may sell our interests too early, and thus forego gains that we otherwise would have received had we not sold. Selecting businesses to dispose of or spin off, finding buyers for them (or the equity interests in them to be sold) and negotiating prices for what may be relatively illiquid ownership interests with no easily ascertainable fair market value will also require significant attention from our management and may divert resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business operations.

The Hong Kong Stock Exchange has granted us a waiver from strict compliance with the requirements in Paragraph 3(b) of Practice Note 15 to the Hong Kong Listing Rules such that we are able to list a subsidiary entity on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange within three years of the listing of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. While we currently do not have any plan with respect to any spin-off listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, we may consider a spin-off listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange for one or more of our businesses within the three-year period subsequent to our listing in Hong Kong. The waiver granted by the Hong Kong Stock Exchange is conditional upon us confirming to the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in advance of any spin-off that it would not render our company incapable of fulfilling the eligibility requirements under Rule 19C.05 of the Hong Kong Listing Rules based on the financial information of the entity or entities to be spun-off at the time of the listing of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange (calculated cumulatively if more than one entity is spun-off).

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Risks Related to Doing Business in China

The PCAOB had historically been unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of our auditor in the past has deprived our investors with the benefits of such inspections.

Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this annual report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. The auditor is located in mainland China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB was historically unable to conduct inspections and investigations completely before 2022. As a result, we and investors in the ADSs were deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China in the past has made it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB issued a report that vacated its December 16, 2021 determination and removed mainland China and Hong Kong from the list of jurisdictions where it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms. However, if the PCAOB determines in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong, and we use an accounting firm headquartered in one of these jurisdictions to issue an audit report on our financial statements filed with the SEC, we and investors in our ADSs would be deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections again, which could cause investors and potential investors in the ADSs to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.

Our ADSs may be prohibited from trading in the United States under the HFCAA in the future if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely auditors located in China. The delisting or prohibition of trading of the ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted or prohibited from trading, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.

Pursuant to the HFCAA, if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspections by the PCAOB for two consecutive years, the SEC will prohibit our shares or ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States.

On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report to notify the SEC of its determination that the PCAOB was unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and our auditor was subject to that determination. In May 2022, the SEC conclusively listed us as a Commission-Identified Issuer under the HFCAA following the filing of our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB removed mainland China and Hong Kong from the list of jurisdictions where it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms. For this reason, we were not identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer under the HFCAA after we filed our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 and do not expect to be so identified after we file this annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.

Each year, the PCAOB will determine whether it can inspect and investigate completely audit firms in mainland China and Hong Kong, among other jurisdictions. If the PCAOB determines in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong and we use an accounting firm headquartered in one of these jurisdictions to issue an audit report on our financial statements filed with the SEC, we would be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer following the filing of the annual report on Form 20-F for the relevant fiscal year. In accordance with the HFCAA, our securities would be prohibited from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States if we are identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer for two consecutive years in the future. Although our Class A ordinary shares have been listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and the Singapore Exchange, and the ADSs and Class A ordinary shares are fully fungible, we cannot assure you that an active trading market for our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and the Singapore Exchange will be sustained or that the ADSs can be converted and traded with sufficient market recognition and liquidity, if our shares and ADSs are prohibited from trading in the United States. A prohibition of being able to trade in the United States would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our ADSs when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with delisting would have a negative impact on the price of our ADSs. Also, such a prohibition would significantly affect our ability to raise capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all, which would have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and prospects.

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Changes in China’s political or social conditions or government policies could have a material and adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Substantially all of our revenues are expected to be derived in China in the near future and most of our operations, including all of our manufacturing, is conducted in China. Accordingly, our results of operations, financial condition and prospects are influenced by economic, political and legal developments in China. The PRC government may influence China’s economic growth through strategically allocating resources, controlling the payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, that growth has been uneven across different regions and between economic sectors. Any adverse changes in economic conditions in China, in the policies of the Chinese government or in the laws and regulations in China could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China. Such developments could adversely affect our business and operating results, leading to reduction in demand for our services and solutions and adversely affect our competitive position.

Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.

The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Our PRC subsidiaries are foreign-invested enterprises and are subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign-invested enterprises as well as various Chinese laws and regulations generally applicable to companies incorporated in China. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.

From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of protection we enjoy in China. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, and any failure to respond to changes in the regulatory environment in China could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

Our business may be significantly affected by the Foreign Investment Law.

On March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress of China promulgated the Foreign Investment Law, which took effect on January 1, 2020. However, uncertainties still exist in relation to its interpretation and implementation. The Foreign Investment Law does not explicitly classify whether VIEs that are controlled via contractual arrangements would be deemed as foreign invested enterprises if they are ultimately “controlled” by foreign investors. However, it has a catch-all provision under definition of “foreign investment” to include investments made by foreign investors in China through means stipulated by laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Therefore, it still leaves leeway for future laws, administrative regulations or provisions to provide for contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment. There can be no assurance that our contractual arrangements will not be deemed to be in violation of the market access requirements for foreign investment under the PRC laws and regulations.

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The Foreign Investment Law grants national treatment to foreign invested entities, except for those foreign invested entities that operate in industries deemed to be either “restricted” or “prohibited” in the “negative list” to be published. Because the “negative list” has yet been published, it is unclear as to whether it will differ from the 2021 Negative List currently in effect. The Foreign Investment Law provides that only foreign invested entities operating in foreign restricted or prohibited industries will require entry clearance and other approvals that are not required by PRC domestic entities or foreign invested entities operating in other industries. In the event that any VIE through which we operate our business is not treated as domestic investment and our operations carried out through such VIE are classified in the “restricted” or “prohibited” industry in the “negative list” under the Foreign Investment Law, such contractual arrangements may be deemed as invalid and illegal, and we may be required to unwind such contractual arrangements and/or dispose of such business.

Furthermore, if future laws, administrative regulations or provisions mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing contractual arrangements, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. In addition, the Foreign Investment Law provides that existing foreign invested enterprises established according to the existing laws regulating foreign investment may maintain their structure and corporate governance within five years after the implementation of the Foreign Investment Law, which means that we may be required to adjust the structure and corporate governance of certain of our PRC entities then. Failure to take timely and appropriate measures to cope with any of these or similar regulatory compliance challenges could materially and adversely affect our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

The approval of or the filing with the CSRC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with our future offshore listings and capital raising activities, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval or filing.

The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors require an overseas special purpose vehicle formed for listing purposes through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies and controlled by PRC persons or entities to obtain the approval of the CSRC, prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. The interpretation and application of the regulations remain unclear and uncertain. If the CSRC approval is required for any of our offshore listings and capital raising activities, it is uncertain whether we can or how long it will take us to obtain the approval and, even if we obtain such CSRC approval, such CSRC approval could be rescinded. Any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining the CSRC approval for our offshore listings and capital raising activities if such approval is required, or a rescission of such CSRC approval that we have obtained, would subject us to sanctions imposed by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory authorities, which could include fines and penalties on our operations in the PRC, restrictions or limitations on our ability to pay dividends outside of the PRC, and other forms of sanctions that may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

On July 6, 2021, the PRC government authorities issued the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down Illegal Securities Activities in Accordance with the Law, which called for the enhanced administration over illegal securities activities and supervision of overseas-listed China-based companies, proposed to revise the regulation governing the overseas issuance and listing of shares by such companies and clarified the responsibilities of competent domestic industry regulators and government authorities.

On February 17, 2023, the CSRC issued the Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies and five supporting guidelines, which took effect on March 31, 2023. According to these rules, the issuer or a major domestic operating company designated by the issuer, as the case may be, shall file with the CSRC, among other things, (i) with respect to its follow-on offering in the same foreign market within three business days, after completion of the follow-on offering, and (ii) with respect to its follow-on offering and listing in other foreign markets within three business days, after its initial filing of the listing application to the regulator in the place of such intended listing. Non-compliance with these rules or an overseas listing completed in breach of them may result in a warning on the domestic companies and a fine of RMB1 million to RMB10 million on them. Furthermore, the supervisors directly responsible and other directly responsible persons of the domestic enterprises may be warned, and fined between RMB500,000 to RMB5,000,000. The controlling shareholders or actual controllers of the domestic company which organize or instigate the illegal acts, or conceal matters resulting in the illegal acts, may be fined between RMB1 million to RMB10 million. On February 17, 2023, the CSRC issued the Notice on Administrative Arrangements for the Filing of Domestic Enterprise’s Overseas Offering and Listing, which stipulates the domestic enterprises like us that have completed overseas listings are not required to file with the CSRC in accordance with these rules immediately, but shall carry out filing procedures as required if we conduct refinancing or fall within other circumstances that require filing with the CSRC.

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Considering that these rules have been promulgated recently, there are still some uncertainties about how to further refine and implement the requirements, which needs to be further guided and clarified by the CSRC and other regulatory authorities. If we have subsequent filing or reporting matters in the future, such as future offshore listings, refinancing and other capital raising activities, as well as other major events, including but not limited to the change of control, investigated or punished by overseas securities regulatory authorities or competent authorities, changing listing status or listing sector, terminating the listing voluntarily or forcibly, and changing our major business activities, given the substantial uncertainties surrounding the latest CSRC filing requirements at this stage, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the filings or reporting and fully comply with the new rules and requirements in a timely manner or at all. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—M&A Rules and Overseas Listing.”

The CSRC or other PRC regulatory authorities also may take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt our offshore listings or future capital raising activities before settlement and delivery of the proceeds hereby. Consequently, if you engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to settlement and delivery, you do so at the risk that settlement and delivery may not occur. In addition, if the CSRC or other regulatory authorities later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals or accomplish the required filing or other regulatory procedures for our offshore listings or future capital raising activities, we may be unable to obtain a waiver of such approval requirements, if and when procedures are established to obtain such a waiver. Any uncertainties or negative publicity regarding such approval, filing or other requirements could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, reputation, and the proceeds of the shares.

We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulations on internet-related business, automotive businesses and other business carried out by our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs.

We operate in the automotive and internet industry, both of which are extensively regulated by the PRC government. For example, the PRC government imposes foreign ownership restrictions and licensing and permit requirements for companies in the internet industry. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Foreign Investment in China” and “—Regulations on Value-added Telecommunications Services.” Manufacturing of our vehicles is subject to extensive regulations in China. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations and Approvals Covering the Manufacturing of New Energy Vehicles.” These laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations and furthermore, we cannot assure you that we have complied or will be able to comply with all applicable laws at all times. Consequently, we could face the risks of being subject to governmental investigations, orders by the competent authorities for rectification, administrative penalties or other legal proceedings.

Currently, we rely on the contractual arrangements with Beijing NIO and its shareholders to hold an ICP license, and separately own the domain names and trademarks in connection with our internet services and operate our website and mobile application through NIO Co., Ltd. Our internet services may be treated as a value-added telecommunications business. If so, we may be required to transfer the domain names, trademark and the operations of the internet services from NIO Co., Ltd. to Beijing NIO, and we may also be subject to administrative penalties. We rely on the contractual arrangements with Anhui NIO DT and its shareholders to operate insurance brokerage services. NIO Insurance Broker Co., Ltd., the subsidiary of Anhui NIO DT, currently holds an insurance brokerage license and provides insurance brokerage services primarily related to vehicles and properties. We intend to apply for requisite licenses for Anhui NIO AT for certain supporting functions during the development of our assisted and intelligent driving technology. Any challenge to the validity of these arrangements may significantly disrupt our business, subject us to sanctions, compromise enforceability of our contractual arrangements, or have other harmful effects on us. It is uncertain, (i) if Beijing NIO or NIO Co., Ltd. will be required to obtain a separate operating license for certain services that we carried out through our mobile application in addition to the valued-added telecommunications business operating licenses for internet content provision services, and if Beijing NIO will be required to supplement our current ICP license in the future, (ii) if Anhui NIO DT, its subsidiary or NIO China will be required to obtain a separate operating license for certain services that we carried out in addition to the insurance brokerage license, and if Anhui NIO DT or its subsidiary will be required to supplement our current insurance brokerage license in the future; and (iii) if Anhui NIO AT or Anhui NIO AD will be required to obtain a separate operating license for certain services that we carried out in addition to certain required licenses to be applied for, and if Anhui NIO AT will be required to supplement certain required licenses to be applied for in the future.

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In addition, our mobile applications are also regulated by the Administrative Provisions on Information Services of Mobile Internet Applications promulgated by CAC in June 2022, which took effect on August 1, 2022 and replaces its predecessor regulation. According to these provisions, the providers of mobile applications shall be responsible for the information contents presented and shall not produce and disseminate illegal information and shall consciously prevent and resist unhealthy information. However, we cannot assure that all the information or content displayed on, retrieved from or linked to our mobile applications complies with the requirements of these provisions at all times. If our mobile applications were found to be violating these provisions, we may be subject to administrative penalties, including warning, service suspension or removal of our mobile applications from the mobile application store, which may materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

The interpretation and application of existing PRC laws, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies relating to the internet industry, particularly the policies relating to value-added telecommunications services, have created substantial uncertainties regarding the legality of existing and future foreign investments in the businesses and activities of internet businesses in China, including our business.

Several PRC regulatory authorities, such as the State Administration for Market Regulation, the NDRC, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and the Ministry of Commerce, oversee different aspects of our operations, and we are required to obtain a wide range of government approvals, licenses, permits and registrations in connection with our operations. For example, certain filings must be made by automobile dealers through the information system for the national automobile circulation operated by the commerce department within 90 days after the receipt of a business license. Furthermore, the NEV industry is relatively new in China, and the PRC government has not adopted a clear regulatory framework to regulate the industry. As some of the laws, rules and regulations that we may be subject to were primarily enacted with a view toward application to ICE vehicles, or are relatively new, there is significant uncertainty regarding their interpretation and application with respect to our business. For example, it remains unclear under PRC laws whether our charging vans need to be registered with related local traffic management authorities or obtain transportation operation licenses for their services, and whether we would be required to obtain any particular permit or license to be qualified to provide our charging services in cooperation with third-party charging stations. In addition, the PRC government may enact new laws and regulations that require additional licenses, permits, approvals and/or registrations for the operation of any of our existing or future business. As a result, we cannot assure you that we have all the permits, licenses, registrations, approvals and/or business license covering the sufficient scope of business required for our business or that we will be able to obtain, maintain or renew permits, licenses, registrations, approvals and/or business license covering sufficient scope of business in a timely manner or at all.

The PRC government’s significant oversight over our business operation could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs.

We conduct our business primarily in China. Our operations in China are governed by PRC laws and regulations. The PRC government has significant oversight over the conduct of our business, and may influence our operations as the government deems appropriate to advance regulatory and societal goals and policy positions. The PRC government has recently published new policies that significantly affected certain industries and we cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future release regulations or policies that directly or indirectly affect our industry or require us to seek additional permission to continue our operations, which could result in a material adverse change in our operation and/or the value of our ADSs. Therefore, investors of our company and our business face potential uncertainty from actions taken by the PRC government affecting our business.

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We may rely on distributions by our PRC subsidiaries for our financing requirements, and any limitation on our PRC subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our business.

We are a holding company, and we may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiaries for our cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders and service any debt we may incur. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us only out of their accumulated after-tax profits upon satisfaction of statutory conditions and procedures, if any, determined in accordance with Chinese accounting standards and regulations. In addition, each of our PRC subsidiaries is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds until the total amount set aside reaches 50% of its registered capital. As of December 31, 2023, most of our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs had not made appropriations to statutory reserves as our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs reported accumulated loss. For a detailed discussion of applicable PRC regulations governing distribution of dividends, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Dividend Distribution.” Additionally, if our PRC subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing their debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us. Furthermore, the PRC tax authorities may require our subsidiaries to adjust their taxable income under the contractual arrangements they currently have in place with the VIEs in a manner that would materially and adversely affect their ability to pay dividends and other distributions to us. See “Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—Our contractual arrangements with the VIEs may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or the VIEs owe additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition.” In addition, the incurrence of indebtedness by our PRC subsidiaries could result in operating and financing covenants and undertakings to creditors that would restrict the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us.

Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other distributions to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends, or otherwise fund and conduct our business. See “—If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders.”

Increases in labor costs and enforcement of stricter labor laws and regulations in the PRC may adversely affect our business and our profitability.

China’s overall economy and the average wage in China have increased in recent years and are expected to grow. The average wage level for our employees has also increased in recent years. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will increase. Unless we are able to pass on these increased labor costs to those who pay for our services, our profitability and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

In addition, we have been subject to stricter regulatory requirements in terms of entering into labor contracts with our employees, limitation with respect to utilization of labor dispatching, applying for foreigner work permits, labor protection and labor condition and paying various statutory employee benefits, including pensions, housing fund, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit of our employees. Pursuant to the PRC Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules, employers are subject to stricter requirements in terms of signing labor contracts, minimum wages, paying remuneration, determining the term of employee’s probation and unilaterally terminating labor contracts. In the event that we decide to terminate some of our employees or otherwise change our employment or labor practices, the PRC Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules may limit our ability to effect those changes in a desirable or cost-effective manner, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Companies registered and operating in China are required under the PRC Social Insurance Law (latest amended in 2018) and the Regulations on the Administration of Housing Funds (latest amended in 2019) to, apply for social insurance registration and housing fund deposit registration within 30 days of their establishment, and to pay for their employees different social insurance including pension insurance, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to the extent required by law. However, certain of our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs that do not hire any employees and are not a party to any employment agreement, have not applied for and obtained such registration, and instead of paying the social insurance payment on their own for their employees, certain of our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs use third-party agencies to pay in the name of such agency. We could be subject to orders by the competent labor authorities for rectification and failure to comply with the orders may further subject us to administrative fines.

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As the interpretation and implementation of labor-related laws and regulations are still evolving, our employment practices may violate labor-related laws and regulations in China, which may subject us to labor disputes or government investigations. We cannot assure you that we have complied or will be able to comply with all labor-related law and regulations including those relating to obligations to make social insurance payments and contribute to the housing provident funds. If we are deemed to have violated labor laws and regulations, we could be required to provide additional compensation to our employees and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected.

Furthermore, in order to control labor costs, we conducted a series of organizational restructuring to cut headcount in 2019, which we believe has negatively affected our reputation, brand image and our ability to retain the remaining qualified staff and skilled employees. We could undertake an organizational restructuring again in the future, the occurrence of which will pose negative implications on our competitive position, cost us qualified employees and subject us to potential employment lawsuits. Any of the above would negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.

The conversion of RMB into foreign currencies, including U.S. dollars, is based on rates set by the People’s Bank of China. The RMB has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. The value of RMB against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by changes in China’s political and economic conditions and by China’s foreign exchange policies, among other things. We cannot assure you that RMB will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between RMB and the U.S. dollar in the future.

Any significant appreciation or depreciation of RMB may materially and adversely affect our revenues, earnings and financial position, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, our ADSs in U.S. dollars. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we receive into RMB to pay our operating expenses, appreciation of RMB against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the RMB amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, a significant depreciation of RMB against the U.S. dollar may significantly reduce the U.S. dollar equivalent of our earnings, which in turn could adversely affect the price of our ADSs.

Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. While we have entered into and may continue to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited, and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert RMB into foreign currency. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.

PRC regulation on funding PRC subsidiaries by offshore entities and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from funding our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and business.

Under PRC laws and regulations, we are permitted to utilize the proceeds of any financing outside China to fund our PRC subsidiaries by making loans to or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, subject to applicable government registration, statutory limitations on amount and approval requirements. For more details, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Foreign Exchange.” These PRC laws and regulations may significantly limit our ability to use Renminbi converted from the net proceeds of any financing outside China to fund the establishment of new entities in China by our PRC subsidiaries, to invest in or acquire any other PRC companies through our PRC subsidiaries, or to establish new VIEs in China. Moreover, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans to our PRC subsidiaries or future capital contributions that we made to our PRC subsidiaries. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use the proceeds we received or expect to receive from our offshore offerings and to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

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On December 26, 2017, the NDRC issued the Management Rules for Overseas Investment by Enterprises. On February 11, 2018, the Catalog on Overseas Investment in Sensitive Industries (2018 Edition) was promulgated. Overseas investment governed by these rules refers to the investment activities conducted by an enterprise located in the territory of China either directly or via an overseas enterprise under its control through making investment with assets and equities or providing financing or guarantees in order to obtain overseas ownership, control, management rights and other related interests, and overseas investment by a PRC individual through overseas enterprises under his/her control is also subject to these rules. According to these rules, before being conducted, any overseas investment in a sensitive industry or any direct investment by a Chinese enterprise in a non-sensitive industry but with an investment amount over US$300 million requires approval from, or filing with, the NDRC, and for those non-sensitive investments indirectly by Chinese investors (including PRC individuals) with investment amounts over US$300 million need to be reported. However, uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation and application of these rules, we are not sure whether our using of proceeds will be subject to these rules. If we fail to obtain the approval, complete the filing or report our overseas investment with our proceeds (as the case may be) in a timely manner provided that these rules are applicable, we may be forced to suspend or cease our investment, or be subject to penalties or other liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects.

Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively.

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, such as profit distributions and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, approval from or registration with appropriate governmental authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into a foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses, such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Foreign Exchange.”

Since 2016, the PRC government has further tightened its foreign exchange policies and enhanced its scrutiny of major outbound capital movement. More restrictions and a substantial vetting process have been put in place by SAFE to regulate cross-border transactions falling under the capital account. The PRC government may also restrict access in the future to foreign currencies for current account transactions, at its discretion. We receive substantially all of our revenues in RMB. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs.

PRC regulations on offshore investment by PRC residents may prevent our PRC subsidiaries from distributing profits to us or expose us or our PRC resident beneficial owners to penalties under PRC law.

SAFE requires PRC residents or entities to register with SAFE or its local branch in connection with their establishment or control of an offshore entity established for the purpose of overseas investment or financing. In addition, such PRC residents or entities must update their SAFE registrations when the offshore special purpose vehicle undergoes certain material events. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Foreign Exchange—Offshore Investment.”

If our shareholders who are PRC residents or entities do not complete their registration with the local SAFE branches, our PRC subsidiaries may be prohibited from distributing their profits and any proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to us, and we may be restricted in our ability to contribute additional capital to our PRC subsidiaries. Moreover, failure to comply with SAFE registration requirements could result in liability under PRC laws for evasion of applicable foreign exchange restrictions.

However, we may not be informed of the identities of all the PRC residents or entities holding direct or indirect interests in our company, nor can we compel our beneficial owners to comply with SAFE registration requirements. As a result, we cannot assure you that all of our shareholders or beneficial owners who are PRC residents or entities have complied with, and will in the future make or obtain any applicable registrations or approvals required by, SAFE regulations. Failure by such shareholders or beneficial owners to comply with SAFE regulations, or our failure to amend the foreign exchange registrations of our PRC subsidiaries, could subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities, limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions or pay dividends to us or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.

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China’s M&A Rules and other regulations establish complex procedures for certain acquisitions of PRC companies by foreign investors, which could make it difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

A number of PRC laws and regulations have established procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities in China by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex. In addition to the Anti-Monopoly Law of China itself, these include the Rules on Acquisition of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, adopted by six PRC governmental and regulatory agencies in 2006 and amended in 2009, and the Rules of the Ministry of Commerce on Implementation of Security Review System of Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, promulgated in 2011. These laws and regulations impose requirements in some instances that the Ministry of Commerce be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. In addition, the Anti-Monopoly Law of China requires that the Ministry of Commerce be notified in advance of any concentration of undertaking if certain thresholds are triggered. Moreover, these rules specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise “national security” concerns are subject to strict review by the Ministry of Commerce, and prohibit any attempt to bypass a security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement. In the future, we may grow our business by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the regulations to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including approval from the Ministry of Commerce, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

Under SAFE regulations, PRC residents who participate in a stock incentive plan in an overseas publicly listed company are required to register with SAFE or its local branches and complete certain other procedures. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Employment and Social Welfare—Employee Stock Incentive Plan.” We and our PRC resident employees who participate in our share incentive plans are subject to these regulations since we became a public company listed in the United States. If we or any of these PRC resident employees fail to comply with these regulations, we or such employees may be subject to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional incentive plans for our directors, executive officers and employees under PRC law.

Discontinuation of any of the preferential tax treatments and government subsidies or imposition of any additional taxes and surcharges could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our PRC subsidiaries currently benefit from a number of preferential tax treatments. For example, one of our VIEs, Anhui NIO AT, is entitled to enjoy, after completing certain application formalities, a 15% preferential enterprise income tax from 2022 as it has been qualified as a “High and New Technology Enterprise” under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and related regulations. The discontinuation of any of the preferential income tax treatment that we currently enjoy could have a material and adverse effect on our result of operations and financial condition. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain or lower our current effective tax rate in the future.

In addition, our PRC subsidiaries have received various financial subsidies from PRC local government authorities. The financial subsidies result from discretionary incentives and policies adopted by PRC local government authorities. Local governments may decide to change or discontinue such financial subsidies at any time. The discontinuation of such financial subsidies or imposition of any additional taxes could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

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If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders.

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, an enterprise established outside of the PRC with a “de facto management body” within the PRC is considered a PRC resident enterprise. The implementation rules define the term “de facto management body” as the body that exercises full and substantial control over and overall management of the business, productions, personnel, accounts and properties of an enterprise. In 2009, the State Taxation Administration issued a circular, known as Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Although Circular 82 only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners like us, the criteria set forth in the circular may reflect the State Taxation Administration’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of all offshore enterprises. According to Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be regarded as a PRC tax resident by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its global income only if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the primary location of the day-to-day operational management is in the PRC; (ii) decisions relating to the enterprise’s financial and human resource matters are made or are subject to approval by organizations or personnel in the PRC; (iii) the enterprise’s primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholder resolutions, are located or maintained in the PRC; and (iv) at least 50% of voting board members or senior executives habitually reside in the PRC.

We believe that none of our entities outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body.” If the PRC tax authorities determine that we are a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, we will be subject to the enterprise income tax on our global income at the rate of 25% and we will be required to comply with PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations. In addition, we may be required to withhold a 10% withholding tax from interest or dividends we pay to our shareholders that are non-PRC resident enterprises, including the holders of our ADSs. In addition, non-PRC resident enterprise shareholders (including our ADS holders) may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 10% on gains realized on the sale or other disposition of our ADSs or ordinary shares, if such income is treated as sourced from within the PRC. Furthermore, if PRC tax authorities determine that we are a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, interest or dividends paid to our non-PRC individual shareholders (including our ADS holders) and any gain realized on the transfer of the ADSs or ordinary shares by such holders may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 20% (which, in the case of interest or dividends, we may withhold at source), if such gains are deemed to be from PRC sources. These rates may be reduced by an applicable tax treaty, but it is unclear whether our non-PRC shareholders would be able to claim the benefits of any tax treaties between their country of tax residence and the PRC in the event that we are treated as a PRC resident enterprise.

We may not be able to obtain certain benefits under tax arrangements on dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries to us through our Hong Kong subsidiary.

We are a holding company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and as such rely on dividends and other distributions on equity from our PRC subsidiaries to satisfy part of our liquidity requirements. Pursuant to the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, a withholding tax rate of 10% currently applies to dividends paid by a PRC “resident enterprise” to a foreign enterprise investor, unless any such foreign investor’s jurisdiction of incorporation has a tax treaty with China that provides for preferential tax treatment. Pursuant to the Arrangement between Mainland China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Tax Evasion on Income, such withholding tax rate may be lowered to 5% if a Hong Kong resident enterprise owns no less than 25% of a PRC enterprise. Furthermore, the Administrative Measures for Non-Resident Enterprises to Enjoy Treatments under Treaties, which took effect in January 2020, require non-resident enterprises to determine whether they are qualified to enjoy the preferential tax treatment under the tax treaties and file report and materials with the tax authorities. There are also other conditions for enjoying the reduced withholding tax rate according to other tax rules and regulations. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating Results—Taxation—PRC.” As of December 31, 2023, most of our subsidiaries and the VIEs located in the PRC reported accumulated loss and therefore they had no retained earnings for offshore distribution. In the future, we intend to re-invest all earnings, if any, generated from our PRC subsidiaries for the operation and expansion of our business in China. Should our tax policy change to allow for offshore distribution of our earnings, we would be subject to a significant withholding tax. Our determination regarding our qualification to enjoy the preferential tax treatment could be challenged by the tax authority and we may not be able to complete the necessary filings with the tax authority and enjoy the preferential withholding tax rate of 5% under the arrangement with respect to dividends to be paid by our PRC subsidiaries to our Hong Kong subsidiary.

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We face uncertainty with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.

In February 2015, the State Taxation Administration issued the Circular on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfers of Assets by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or Circular 7. Circular 7 extends its tax jurisdiction to not only indirect transfers but also transactions involving transfer of other taxable assets, through the offshore transfer of a foreign intermediate holding company. In addition, Circular 7 provides certain criteria on how to assess reasonable commercial purposes and has introduced safe harbors for internal group restructurings and the purchase and sale of equity through a public securities market. Circular 7 also brings challenges to both the foreign transferor and transferee (or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer) of the taxable assets. Where a non-resident enterprise conducts an “indirect transfer” by transferring the taxable assets indirectly by disposing of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, the non-resident enterprise being the transferor, or the transferee, or the PRC entity which directly owned the taxable assets may report to the tax authority such indirect transfer. Using a “substance over form” principle, the PRC tax authority may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company if it lacks a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10% for the transfer of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise. On October 17, 2017, the State Taxation Administration issued Circular on Issues of Tax Withholding regarding Non-PRC Resident Enterprise Income Tax, or Circular 37, which took effect on December 1, 2017 and was amended on June 15, 2018. Circular 37 further clarifies the practice and procedure of the withholding of nonresident enterprise income tax.

We face uncertainties on the reporting and consequences of future private equity financing transactions, share exchanges or other transactions involving the transfer of shares in our company by investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises. The PRC tax authorities may pursue such non-PRC resident enterprises with respect to a filing or the transferees with respect to withholding obligations, and request our PRC subsidiaries to assist in the filing. As a result, we and non-PRC resident enterprises in such transactions may become at risk of being subject to filing obligations or being taxed under Circular 7 and Circular 37, and may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with them or to establish that we and our non-PRC resident enterprises should not be taxed under these regulations, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

If the authorized users of our non-tangible assets, including our corporate chops and seals, fail to fulfill their responsibilities, or misuse these assets, our business could be materially and adversely affected.

Under PRC law, legal documents for corporate transactions are executed using the chops or seal of the signing entity or with the signature of a legal representative whose designation is registered and filed with the branch of the State Administration for Market Regulation.

Although we usually utilize chops to enter into contracts, the designated legal representatives of each of our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs have the apparent authority to enter into contracts on behalf of such entities without chops and bind such entities. All designated legal representatives of our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs are members of our senior management team who have signed employment agreements with us or our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs under which they agree to abide by various duties they owe to us. In order to maintain the physical security of our chops and chops of our PRC entities, we generally store these items in secured locations accessible only by the authorized personnel in the legal or finance department of each of our subsidiaries and the VIEs. Although we monitor such authorized personnel, there is no assurance such procedures will prevent all instances of abuse or negligence. Accordingly, if any of our authorized personnel misuse or misappropriate our corporate chops or seals, we could encounter difficulties in maintaining control over the entities and experience significant disruption to our operations. If a designated legal representative obtains control of the chops in an effort to obtain control over any of our PRC subsidiaries or the VIEs, we or our PRC subsidiaries or the VIEs would need to pass a new shareholders or board resolution to designate a new legal representative and we would need to take legal action to seek the return of the chops, apply for new chops with the authorities, or otherwise seek legal redress for the violation of the representative’s fiduciary duties to us, which could involve significant time and resources and divert management attention away from our regular business. In addition, the affected entity may not be able to recover corporate assets that are sold or transferred out of our control in the event of such a misappropriation if a transferee relies on the apparent authority of the representative and acts in good faith.

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Our interest in leased property may be defective or subject to lien and our right to lease, own or use the properties may be therefore challenged, which could cause significant disruption to our business.

Under PRC laws, all lease agreements are required to be registered with the local housing authorities. We presently lease several premises in China, some of which have not completed the registration of the ownership rights or the registration of our leases with the authorities. Failure to complete these required registrations may expose our landlords, lessors and us to potential monetary fines. If these registrations are not obtained in a timely manner or at all, we may be subject to monetary fines or may have to relocate our offices and incur the associated losses.

Some of the ownership certificates or other similar proof of certain leased properties have not been provided to us by the lessors. Therefore, we cannot assure you that such lessors are entitled to lease the real properties to us. If the lessors are not entitled to lease the real properties to us and the owners of such real properties decline to ratify the lease agreements between us and the respective lessors, we may not be able to enforce our rights to lease such properties under the respective lease agreements against the owners. If our lease agreements are claimed as null and void by third parties who are the real owners of such leased real properties, we could be required to vacate the properties, in the event of which we could only initiate the claim against the lessors under lease agreements for indemnities for their breach of the leasing agreements. In addition, we may not be able to renew our existing lease agreements before their expiration dates, in which case we may be required to vacate the properties. We cannot assure you that suitable alternative locations are readily available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, and if we are unable to relocate our operations in a timely manner, our operations may be adversely affected.

Some of our PRC subsidiaries have incurred or will incur indebtedness and may, in connection therewith, create mortgage, pledge or other lien over substantive operating assets, facilities or equity interests of certain PRC subsidiaries as guarantee to their repayment of indebtedness or as counter guarantee to third-party guarantors which provide guarantee to our PRC subsidiaries’ repayment of indebtedness. In the event that the PRC subsidiaries fail to perform their repayment obligations, or such guarantors perform their guarantee obligations, claims may be raised to our substantive operating assets, facilities or equity interests of the PRC subsidiaries in question. If we cannot continue to own or use such assets, facilities or equity interests, our operation may be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our ADSs and Class A Ordinary Shares

We adopt different practices as to certain matters as compared with many other companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

The trading of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange commenced on March 10, 2022 under the stock code “9866.” As a company listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange pursuant to Chapter 19C of the Hong Kong Listing Rules, we are not subject to certain provisions of the Hong Kong Listing Rules pursuant to Rule 19C.11, including, among others, rules on notifiable transactions, connected transactions, share option schemes, content of financial statements as well as certain other continuing obligations. In addition, in connection with the listing of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, we have applied for a number of waivers and/or exemptions from strict compliance with the Hong Kong Listing Rules, the Codes on Takeovers and Mergers and Shares Buy-backs issued by the Securities and Futures Commission, and the Securities and Futures Ordinance. As a result, we will adopt different practices as to those matters as compared with other companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange that do not enjoy those exemptions or waivers.

Our articles of association are specific to us and include certain provisions that may be different from the requirements under the Hong Kong Listing Rules and common practices in Hong Kong. In particular, in our amended articles of associations put forth in the first annual general meeting after the listing of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, or the First AGM, we refer to the Relevant Period as the period commencing from the date on which any of our Class A ordinary shares first become secondary listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange to and including the date immediately before the day which the secondary listing is withdrawn from the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. For example, in order to comply with applicable Hong Kong Listing Rules, during the Relevant Period, (i) NIO Users Trust will not have any director nomination right; (ii) our company shall have only one class of shares with enhanced or weighted voting rights; (iii) our directors shall not have the power to, amongst others, authorize share split or designate a new share class with enhanced or weighted voting rights; and (iv) certain restrictions on the weighted voting right structure of our company under Chapter 8A of the Hong Kong Listing Rules shall be applicable, such as, amongst others, no further increase in the proportion of WVR shares, that only a director or a director holding vehicle is permitted to hold WVR shares and automatic conversion of WVR shares into Class A ordinary shares under certain circumstances.

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Notwithstanding the above and at any time after the Relevant Period, the provisions which are subject to the Relevant Period will continue to apply in the circumstances where the Company has a change of listing status on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange other than in the case where the secondary listing of the Company is withdrawn from the Hong Kong Stock Exchange pursuant to the applicable Hong Kong Listing Rules.

Given certain shareholder protection under the Hong Kong Listing Rules will only be applicable during the Relevant Period, our investors may be afforded less protection after the Relevant Period under our amended articles of association adopted in the First AGM as compared with other companies secondarily listed in Hong Kong.

We may only cease to be secondary listed under Chapter 19C of the Hong Kong Listing Rules under one of the following situations:

withdrawal, in the case where we are primary listed on another stock exchange and voluntarily withdraw our secondary listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange;
migration of the majority of trading to the Hong Kong Stock Exchange’s markets, in the case where the majority of trading in our listed shares migrates to the Hong Kong Stock Exchange’s markets on a permanent basis;
primary conversion, i.e., our voluntary conversion to a dual-primary listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange;
overseas de-listing, where our shares or depositary receipts issued on our shares cease to be listed on the stock exchange which we are primary listed;
if the Hong Kong Stock Exchange cancels the listing of our securities; and
if the Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong directs the Hong Kong Stock Exchange to cancel the listing of our securities.

The scenarios under which we may cease to be secondary listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange are subject to the changing market conditions, our listing or de-listing in other jurisdictions, our compliance with the listing rules of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and other factors beyond our control. As a result, there are substantial uncertainties relating to applicability of the shareholders’ rights and protection under the aforementioned provisions of our amended articles of association put forth in the First AGM particularly in the case where the Company de-lists from the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

As we are listed as a Non-Grandfathered Greater China Issuer pursuant to Chapter 19C of the Hong Kong Listing Rules, our articles of association must comply with the requirements of the Hong Kong Listing Rules unless waived by the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. We have put forth resolutions to our shareholders at our first general meeting convened on August 25, 2022 to amend certain provisions of our articles in order to comply with the Hong Kong Listing Rules.

Furthermore, if 55% or more of the total worldwide trading volume, by dollar value, of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs over our most recent fiscal year takes place on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, the Hong Kong Stock Exchange will regard us as having a dual primary listing in Hong Kong and we will no longer enjoy certain exemptions or waivers from strict compliance with the requirements under the Hong Kong Listing Rules, the Codes on Takeovers and Mergers and Shares Buy-backs and the Securities and Futures Ordinance, which could result in us having to amend our corporate structure and articles of association and we may incur of incremental compliance costs.

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If we change the listing venue of our securities, you may lose the shareholder protection mechanisms afforded under the regulatory regimes of the applicable securities exchange.

As a company listed on the New York Stock Exchange, the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and the Singapore Exchange, we are subject to various listing standards and requirements that are aimed at protecting your rights as shareholders of our company, subject to certain permitted exceptions applicable to foreign companies. For example, after our listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, our thirteenth amended and restated memorandum and articles of association requires that there should only be one class of shares with enhanced voting rights, and that certain reserved matters under the Hong Kong Listing Rules are required to be voted on a one vote per share basis at the general meetings. In the event that we reduce the number of shares in issue, the holders of WVR shares shall reduce their voting rights in the Company proportionately through a conversion of a portion of their Class C shares or otherwise. If we choose to change the listing venue of our securities, including delisting from either exchanges, you may lose the shareholder protection mechanisms afforded under the regulatory regimes of the applicable securities exchange. In particular, various factors will be taken into consideration by the Company in relation to the circumstances under which it may be considered not desirable or viable for the shares to remain listed on a certain stock exchange, such as the then regulatory environment of the listing venue, whether the additional compliance burden arisen by remaining listed in a particular stock exchange will be unduly burdensome for the Company to further its interest, realize its vision or implementing certain business plans.

The trading prices of our listed securities have been and are likely to continue to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

The trading prices of our listed securities have been and are likely to continue to be volatile and could fluctuate widely in response to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. For example, in 2023, the trading price of our ADSs ranged from a low of US$7.15 to a high of US$15.46; the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange ranged from a low of HK$55.35 to a high of HK$122.60; the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares listed on the Main Board of the Singapore Exchange ranged from a low of US$7.07 to a high of US$15.78. The market price for our listed securities may continue to be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors including, but not limited to, the following:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations and cash flows;
changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;
conditions in automotive markets;
changes in the operating performance or market valuations of other automotive companies;
announcements we or our competitors made of new products, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
addition or departure of key personnel;
fluctuations of exchange rates between RMB and the U.S. dollar;
litigation, government investigation or other legal or regulatory proceeding;
release of lock-up and other transfer restrictions on our Class A ordinary shares or ADSs, issuance of ADSs or ordinary shares upon conversion of the convertible notes we issued, or any ordinary shares or sales of additional ADSs;
any actual or alleged illegal acts of our shareholders or management;
any share repurchase program; and
general economic or political conditions in China or elsewhere in the world.

Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the volume and price at which our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs will trade.

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In addition, the stock market in general, and the market prices for companies with operations in China in particular, have experienced volatility that often has been unrelated to the operating performance of such companies. The securities of some China-based companies that have listed their securities in the United States have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings in recent years, including, in some cases, substantial declines in the trading prices of their securities. The trading performances of these companies’ securities after their offerings may affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies listed in the United States in general, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting, corporate structure or other matters of other Chinese companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have engaged in any inappropriate activities. In particular, the global financial crisis and the ensuing economic recessions in many countries have contributed and may continue to contribute to extreme volatility in the global stock markets. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs. Volatility or a lack of positive performance in our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs price may also adversely affect our ability to retain key employees, most of whom have been granted options or other equity incentives.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs, the market price for our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs, the market price for our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the market price or trading volume for our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs to decline.

Our dual-class voting structure will limit the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs to influence corporate matters, provide certain shareholders of ours with substantial influence and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

We had historically adopted a triple-class voting structure such that our ordinary shares consisted of Class A ordinary shares, Class B ordinary shares and Class C ordinary shares. Upon the listing of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, all of our Class B ordinary shares, which used to be beneficially owned by Tencent entities, namely, Image Frame Investment (HK) Limited and Mount Putuo Investment Limited, were converted to Class A ordinary shares pursuant to the conversion notice delivered by the shareholders. The shareholding structure of Class B ordinary shares and provisions related to Class B ordinary shares have been removed in our thirteenth amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, approved by our shareholders at the annual general meeting held on August 25, 2022. Currently, our ordinary shares consist of Class A ordinary shares and Class C ordinary shares. Holders of Class A ordinary shares and Class C ordinary shares have the same rights other than voting and conversion rights. Each holder of our Class A ordinary shares is entitled to one vote per share, and each holder of our Class C ordinary shares is entitled to eight votes per share on all matters submitted to them for a vote. Our Class A ordinary shares and Class C ordinary shares vote together as a single class on all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, except as may otherwise be required by law. Each Class C ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share, whereas Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class C ordinary shares under any circumstances. Upon any transfer of Class C ordinary shares by a holder thereof to any person or entity which is not an affiliate of such holder, such Class C ordinary shares are automatically and immediately converted into the equal number of Class A ordinary shares.

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As of the date of this annual report, Mr. Bin Li, our founder, chairman and chief executive officer, together with his affiliates, beneficially own all of our issued Class C ordinary shares. Due to the disparate voting powers associated with our multi classes of ordinary shares, Mr. Li has considerable influence over important corporate matters. As of March 31, 2024, Mr. Li beneficially owned approximately 38.5% of the aggregate voting power of our company through mobike Global Ltd. and Originalwish Limited, companies wholly owned by Mr. Li, and through NIO Users Limited, a holding company ultimately controlled by Mr. Li and through NIO Users Community Limited, a company wholly owned by NIO Users Limited. Mr. Li has considerable influence over matters requiring shareholder approval, including electing directors and approving material mergers, acquisitions or other business combination transactions. This concentrated control will limit the ability of the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs to influence corporate matters and could also discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transaction, which could have the effect of depriving the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and our ADSs of the opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over the prevailing market price. Moreover, Mr. Li may increase the concentration of his voting power and/or share ownership in the future, which may, among other consequences, decrease the liquidity in our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs.

Techniques employed by short sellers may drive down the market price of our ADSs.

Short selling is the practice of selling securities that the seller does not own but rather has borrowed from a third party with the intention of buying identical securities back at a later date to return to the lender. The short seller hopes to profit from a decline in the value of the securities between the sale of the borrowed securities and the purchase of the replacement shares, as the short seller expects to pay less in that purchase than it received in the sale. As it is in the short seller’s interest for the price of the security to decline, many short sellers publish, or arrange for the publication of, negative opinions regarding the issuer and its business prospects in order to create negative market momentum and generate profits for themselves after selling a security short. These short attacks have, in the past, led to selling of shares in the market.

Public companies listed in the United States that have a substantial majority of their operations in China have been the subject of short selling. Much of the scrutiny and negative publicity have centered on allegations of a lack of effective internal control over financial reporting resulting in financial and accounting irregularities and mistakes, inadequate corporate governance policies or a lack of adherence thereto and, in many cases, allegations of fraud. As a result, many of these companies are now conducting internal and external investigations into the allegations and, in the interim, are subject to shareholder lawsuits and/or SEC enforcement actions.

On June 28, 2022, Grizzly Research LLC issued a short seller report that made certain allegations against us. On June 29, 2022, we announced that our board of directors, including the audit committee, was reviewing the allegations and considering the appropriate course of action to protect the interests of all shareholders. On July 11, 2022, our board of directors, including the audit committee of our board, decided to form an independent committee, consisting of independent directors Mr. Denny Ting Bun Lee, Mr. Hai Wu, and Ms. Yu Long, to oversee an independent internal review regarding the key allegations made in the short seller report. The internal review was performed by the independent committee with the assistance of third-party professional advisors including an international law firm and forensic accounting experts from a well-regarded forensic accounting firm that is not our auditor. On August 26, 2022, we announced that the internal review was substantially completed. Based on findings of the internal review, the independent committee has concluded that the allegations in the short seller report were not substantiated.

We may be the subject of unfavorable allegations made by short sellers again in the future. Any such allegations may be followed by periods of instability in the market price of our ordinary shares and ADSs and negative publicity. If and when we become the subject of any unfavorable allegations, whether such allegations are proven to be true or untrue, we would have to expend a significant amount of resources to investigate such allegations and/or defend ourselves. While we would strongly defend against any meritless short seller attacks, we may be constrained in the manner in which we can proceed against the short seller by principles of freedom of speech, applicable federal or state law or issues of commercial confidentiality. Moreover, while an internal investigation is ongoing and to ensure that its findings are reached independently without undue influence, we may also be constrained in our ability to offer a public rebuttal immediately even if the allegation can, in our view, be readily rebutted. Such a situation could be costly and time-consuming and could distract our management from growing our business. Even if such allegations are ultimately proven to be groundless, allegations against us could severely impact our business operations and shareholders’ equity, and the value of any investment in our ADSs could be greatly reduced or rendered worthless.

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The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs could adversely affect their market price.

Sales of substantial amounts of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs. In addition, certain holders of our existing shareholders are entitled to certain registration rights, including demand registration rights, piggyback registration rights, and Form F-3 or Form S-3 registration rights. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act of 1933, or the Securities Act, would result in these shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act immediately upon the effectiveness of the registration. Sales of these registered shares in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could cause the price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs to decline.

Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs must rely on price appreciation of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs for return on their investment.

We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.

Our board of directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, that we received from our subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return to ADS holders will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs. There is no guarantee that our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which Class A ordinary shares and/or ADS holders purchased the Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs. Our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADS holders may not realize a return on their investment in our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs and they may even lose their entire investment in our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs.

There can be no assurance that we will not be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders of our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares.

A non-U.S. corporation, such as our company, will be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year if either (i) 75% or more of its gross income for such year consists of certain types of “passive” income; or (ii) 50% or more of the value of its assets (generally determined on the basis of a quarterly average) during such year is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income.

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Although the law in this regard is not entirely clear, we treat the VIEs as being owned by us for U.S. federal income tax purposes because we control their management decisions and are entitled to substantially all of the economic benefits associated with these entities, and as a result, we consolidate their results of operations in our consolidated U.S. GAAP financial statements. If it were determined, however, that we do not own the VIEs for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we may be treated as a PFIC for the current taxable year and any subsequent taxable year.

Assuming that we are the owner of the VIEs for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and based upon our current and expected income and assets, we do not believe that we were a PFIC for the taxable year ended December 31, 2023. However, no assurance can be given that we will not be or become a PFIC in the current or future taxable years because the determination of whether we will be or become a PFIC is a factual determination made annually that will depend, in part, upon the nature and composition of our income and assets (in particular, the retention of substantial amounts of cash and investments). Fluctuations in the market price of our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares may cause us to be classified as a PFIC for the current or future taxable years because the value of our assets for purposes of the asset test, including the value of our goodwill and other unbooked intangibles, may be determined by reference to the market price of our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares, which may be volatile. In particular, recent declines in the market price of the ADSs and Class A ordinary shares increased our risk of becoming a PFIC. The market price of the ADSs and Class A ordinary shares may continue to fluctuate considerably and, consequently, we cannot assure you of our PFIC status for any taxable year. Furthermore, the composition of our income and assets may also be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our liquid assets. Under circumstances where our passive income significantly increases relative to our non-passive income, or where we determine not to deploy significant amounts of cash for active purposes, our risk of becoming classified as a PFIC may substantially increase. If we were to be or become a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. holder holds our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to such U.S. holders.

Our memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could have a material adverse effect on the rights of holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs.

Our thirteenth amended and restated memorandum and articles of association contain provisions that have the potential to limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, rights and terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our ordinary shares, in the form of ADS or otherwise. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

Our shareholders may face difficulties in protecting their interests, and ability to protect their rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our thirteenth amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands, or the Companies Act, and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, with respect to Cayman Islands companies, plaintiffs may face special obstacles, including but not limited to those relating to jurisdiction and standing, in attempting to assert derivative claims in state or federal courts of the United States.

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Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records (except for our memorandum and articles of association and our register of mortgages and charges) or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for our shareholders to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

As a Cayman Islands company listed on the New York Stock Exchange, we are subject to the NYSE corporate governance listing standards. However, the NYSE corporate governance listing standards permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from the NYSE corporate governance listing standards.

Pursuant to Sections 303A.01, 303A.04, 303A.05, 303A.07 and 302.00 of the New York Stock Exchange Listed Company Manual, a company listed on the New York Stock Exchange must have a majority of independent directors, a nominating and corporate governance committee composed entirely of independent directors, a compensation committee composed entirely of independent directors and an audit committee with a minimum of three members, and must hold an annual shareholders’ meeting during each fiscal year. We currently follow our home country practice in lieu of these requirements. We may also continue to rely on these and other exemptions available to foreign private issuers in the future, and to the extent that we choose to do so in the future, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under the NYSE corporate governance listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information, which would be made available to you, were you investing in a United States domestic issuer.

It may be difficult for overseas regulators to conduct investigations or collect evidence within China and it may also be challenging to export evidence from China for use in litigation.

Shareholder claims or regulatory investigations that are common in the United States generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to providing information needed for regulatory investigations or litigation initiated outside China. With respect to foreign regulatory investigations, although the authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the United States may not be efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. Furthermore, according to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law, which took effect in March 2020, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigations or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC. While detailed interpretation of or implementation rules under this article have yet to be promulgated, the inability of an overseas securities regulator to directly conduct investigations or evidence collection activities within China may further increase difficulties faced by you in protecting your interests. With respect to both foreign regulatory investigations and foreign litigation, Article 36 of the PRC Data Security Law, which took effect in September 2021, provides that any organization or individual within the territory of the PRC shall not provide any foreign judicial authority and law enforcement with any data stored within the territory of the PRC without the approval of the competent authority of the PRC. Since detailed interpretation of or implementation rules under this article have yet to be promulgated, the ambiguity of “competent authority” for approving data exportation and its relations with other applicable legal provisions including Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law may further increase difficulties faced by you in protecting your interests.

ADS holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreements, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares provides that, subject to the depositary’s right to require a claim to be submitted to arbitration, the federal or state courts in the City of New York have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine claims arising under the deposit agreement and in that regard, to the fullest extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our Class A ordinary shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under the U.S. federal securities laws.

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If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable based on the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with the applicable state and federal law. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver in connection with claims arising under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by the United States Supreme Court. However, we believe that a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable, including under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement. In determining whether to enforce a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision, courts will generally consider whether a party knowingly, intelligently and voluntarily waived the right to a jury trial. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. It is advisable that you consult legal counsel regarding the jury waiver provision before investing in the ADSs.

If any of the holders or beneficial owners of ADSs bring a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, such holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us and/or the depositary, lead to increased costs to bring a claim, limited access to information and other imbalances of resources between such holder and us, or limit such holder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that such holder finds favorable. If a lawsuit is brought against us and/or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have had, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

Nevertheless, if this jury trial waiver provision is not enforced, to the extent a court action proceeds, it would proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or ADSs shall relieve us or the depositary from our respective obligations to comply with the Securities Act and the Exchange Act nor serve as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs of compliance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and the majority of our assets are located outside of the United States. The most significant portion of our operations are conducted in China. In addition, a majority of our current directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States. Substantially all of the assets of these persons may be located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for our shareholders to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that such shareholders believe that their rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if such shareholders are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render them unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.

Because we are a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K with the SEC;
the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;
the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and
the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

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We are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our results on a quarterly basis through press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the New York Stock Exchange. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely than that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement, and they may not be able to exercise their right to vote their Class A ordinary shares.

Holders of our ADSs will only be able to exercise the voting rights with respect to the underlying Class A ordinary shares in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement, dated as of September 11, 2018 by and among NIO Inc., Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as ADS depositary, and the holders and beneficial owners of the ADSs issued thereunder and the deposit agreement for restricted securities, dated as of February 4, 2019 by and among NIO Inc., Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as depositary, and the holders and beneficial owners of the restricted ADSs issued thereunder (each, as the context requires and applicable to a particular ADS holder, the “deposit agreement”). Under the deposit agreement, ADS holders must vote by giving voting instructions to the depositary. If we ask for instructions of ADS holders, then upon receipt of such voting instructions, the depositary will try to vote the underlying Class A ordinary shares in accordance with these instructions. If we do not instruct the depositary to ask for instructions of ADS holders, the depositary may still vote in accordance with instructions given by holders of ADSs, but it is not required to do so. ADS holders will not be able to directly exercise their right to vote with respect to the underlying shares unless they withdraw the shares. When a general meeting is convened, an ADS holder may not receive sufficient advance notice to withdraw the shares underlying his or her ADSs to allow such holder to vote with respect to any specific matter. If we ask for instructions of holders of ADSs, the depositary will notify ADS holders of the upcoming vote and will arrange to deliver our voting materials to ADS holders. We have agreed to give the depositary at least 30 days’ prior notice of shareholders’ meetings. Nevertheless, we cannot assure you that ADS holders will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that ADS holders can instruct the depositary to vote their shares. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out ADS holders’ voting instructions. This means that an ADS holder may not be able to exercise the right to vote and may have no legal remedy if the shares underlying his or her ADSs are not voted as such holder requested.

The depositary for our ADSs will give us a discretionary proxy to vote our Class A ordinary shares underlying the ADSs if the holders of such ADSs do not vote at shareholders’ meetings, except in limited circumstances, which could adversely affect the interests of our ADS holders.

Under the deposit agreement for the ADSs, if any holder of the ADSs does not vote, the depositary will give us a discretionary proxy to vote our Class A ordinary shares underlying such ADSs at shareholders’ meetings unless:

we have failed to timely provide the depositary with notice of meeting and related voting materials;
we have instructed the depositary that we do not wish a discretionary proxy to be given;
we have informed the depositary that there is substantial opposition as to a matter to be voted on at the meeting;
a matter to be voted on at the meeting would have a material adverse impact on shareholders; or
the voting at the meeting is to be made on a show of hands.

The effect of this discretionary proxy is that if any such holder of the ADSs does not vote at shareholders’ meetings, such holder cannot prevent our Class A ordinary shares underlying such ADSs from being voted, except under the circumstances described above. This may make it more difficult for shareholders to influence the management of our company. Holders of our Class A ordinary shares are not subject to this discretionary proxy.

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An ADS holder’s right to pursue claims against the depositary is limited by the terms of the deposit agreement.

Under the deposit agreement, any action or proceeding against or involving the depositary, arising out of or based upon the deposit agreement or the transactions contemplated thereby or by virtue of owning the ADSs may only be instituted in a state or federal court in New York, New York, and a holder of our ADSs, will have irrevocably waived any objection which such holder may have to the laying of venue of any such proceeding, and irrevocably submitted to the exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such action or proceeding. However, there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce this exclusive jurisdiction provision. Furthermore, investors cannot waive compliance with the U.S. federal securities laws and rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

The depositary may, in its sole discretion, require that any dispute or difference arising from the relationship created by the deposit agreement be referred to and finally settled by an arbitration conducted under the terms described in the deposit agreement, although the arbitration provisions do not preclude an ADS holder from pursuing claims under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act in state or federal courts. Furthermore, if an ADS holder is unsuccessful in such arbitration, such holder may be responsible for the fees of the arbitrator and other costs incurred by the parties in connection with such arbitration pursuant to the deposit agreement. Also, we may amend or terminate the deposit agreement without the consent of any ADS holder. If an ADS holder continues to hold its ADSs after an amendment to the deposit agreement, such holder agrees to be bound by the deposit agreement as amended.

Our ADS holders may not receive dividends or other distributions on our Class A ordinary shares and the ADS holders may not receive any value for them, if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to the ADS holders.

The depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay the ADS holders the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on Class A ordinary shares or other deposited securities underlying our ADSs, after deducting its fees and expenses. Our ADS holders will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of Class A ordinary shares the underlying ADSs represent. However, the depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, it would be unlawful to make a distribution to a holder of ADSs if it consists of securities that require registration under the Securities Act but that are not properly registered or distributed under an applicable exemption from registration. The depositary may also determine that it is not feasible to distribute certain property through the mail. Additionally, the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may determine not to distribute such property. We have no obligation to register under U.S. securities laws any ADSs, Class A ordinary shares, rights or other securities received through such distributions. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, Class A ordinary shares, rights or anything else to holders of ADSs. This means that our ADS holders may not receive distributions we make on our Class A ordinary shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to the ADS holders. These restrictions may cause a material decline in the value of our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares.

Our ADS holders may experience dilution of their holdings due to inability to participate in rights offerings.

We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire securities. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not distribute rights to holders of ADSs unless the distribution and sale of rights and the securities to which these rights relate are either exempt from registration under the Securities Act with respect to all holders of ADSs or are registered under the provisions of the Securities Act. The depositary may, but is not required to, attempt to sell these undistributed rights to third parties, and may allow the rights to lapse. We may be unable to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to these rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have a registration statement declared effective. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution of their holdings as a result.

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We may need additional capital, and the sale of additional Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs or other equity securities could result in additional dilution to our shareholders, and the incurrence of additional indebtedness could increase our debt service obligations.

We may require additional cash resources due to changed business conditions, strategic acquisitions or other future developments. If these resources are insufficient to satisfy our cash requirements, we may seek to sell additional equity or debt securities or obtain additional credit facilities. The sale of additional equity and equity-linked securities could result in additional dilution to our shareholders. The sale of substantial amounts of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs (including upon conversion of our convertible notes) could dilute the interests of our shareholders and ADS holders and adversely impact the market price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could result in operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations. We cannot assure you that financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

Future sales or issuances, or perceived future sales or issuances, of substantial amounts of our ordinary shares or ADSs could adversely affect the price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADS.

If our existing shareholders sell, or are perceived as intending to sell, substantial amounts of our ordinary shares or ADSs, including those issued upon the exercise of our outstanding stock options, the market price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs could fall. Such sales, or perceived potential sales, by our existing shareholders might make it more difficult for us to issue new equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and place we deem appropriate. Ordinary shares held by our existing shareholders may be sold in the public market in the future subject to the restrictions contained in Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act and the applicable lock-up agreements. If any existing shareholder or shareholders sell a substantial amount of ordinary shares after the expiration of the applicable lock-up periods, the prevailing market price for our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs could be adversely affected.

In addition, certain of our shareholders or their transferees and assignees will have the right to cause us to register the sale of their shares under the Securities Act upon the occurrence of certain circumstances. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in these shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act immediately upon the effectiveness of the registration.

Our ADS holders may be subject to limitations on transfer of their ADSs.

Our ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may close its books from time to time for a number of reasons, including in connection with corporate events such as a rights offering, during which time the depositary needs to maintain an exact number of ADS holders on its books for a specified period. The depositary may also close its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of our ADSs generally when our share register or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

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The different characteristics of the capital markets in the U.S., Hong Kong and Singapore may negatively affect the trading prices of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs.

We are subject to the U.S., Hong Kong and Singapore listing and regulatory requirements concurrently. The NYSE, Hong Kong Stock Exchange and Singapore Exchange have different trading hours, trading characteristics (including trading volume and liquidity), trading and listing rules, and investor bases (including different levels of retail and institutional participation). As a result of these differences, the trading prices of our Class A ordinary shares and our ADSs may not be the same, even allowing for currency differences. Fluctuations in the price of our ADSs due to circumstances peculiar to the U.S. capital markets could materially and adversely affect the price of our Class A ordinary shares, or vice versa. Certain events having significant negative impact specifically on the U.S. capital markets may result in a decline in the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares notwithstanding that such event may not impact the trading prices of securities listed in Hong Kong and Singapore generally or to the same extent, or vice versa. Because of the different characteristics of the U.S., Hong Kong and Singapore capital markets, the historical market prices of our ADSs may not be indicative of the trading performance of our Class A ordinary shares after the listing of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and the Singapore Exchange.

Exchange between our Class A ordinary shares and our ADSs may adversely affect the liquidity and/or trading price of each other.

Our ADSs are currently traded on NYSE. Subject to compliance with U.S. securities law and the terms of the Deposit Agreement, holders of our Class A ordinary shares may deposit Class A ordinary shares with the depositary in exchange for the issuance of our ADSs. Any holder of ADSs may also surrender ADSs and withdraw the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by the ADSs pursuant to the terms of the Deposit Agreement for trading on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange or the Singapore Exchange. In the event that a substantial number of Class A ordinary shares are deposited with the depositary in exchange for ADSs or vice versa, the liquidity and trading price of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange or the Singapore Exchange and our ADSs on NYSE may be adversely affected.

The time required for the exchange between Class A ordinary shares and ADSs might be longer than expected and investor might not be able to settle or effect any sale of their securities during this period, and the exchange of Class A ordinary shares into ADSs involves costs.

There is no direct trading or settlement between the NYSE and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange or the Singapore Exchange on which our ADSs and our Class A ordinary shares are respectively traded. In addition, the time differences between New York and Hong Kong or Singapore, unforeseen market circumstances or other factors may delay the deposit of Class A ordinary shares in exchange for ADSs or the withdrawal of Class A ordinary shares underlying the ADSs. Investors will be prevented from settling or effecting the sale of their securities during such periods of delay. In addition, there is no assurance that any exchange for Class A ordinary shares into ADSs (and vice versa) will be completed in accordance with the timelines that investors may anticipate. Furthermore, the depositary for the ADSs is entitled to charge holders fees for various services including for the issuance of ADSs upon deposit of Class A ordinary shares, cancelation of ADSs, distributions of cash dividends or other cash distributions, distributions of ADSs pursuant to share dividends or other free share distributions, distributions of securities other than ADSs and annual service fees. As a result, shareholders who exchange Class A ordinary shares into ADSs, and vice versa, may not achieve the level of economic return the shareholders may anticipate.

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ITEM 4.       INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

A.          History and Development of the Company

We were founded in November 2014, as Nextev Inc., which was changed to our current name NIO Inc. in July 2017. Significant milestones in our development since 2023 include the following:

In July 2023, we closed the US$738.5 million strategic equity investment from CYVN Investments RSC Ltd, or CYVN Investments, an affiliate of CYVN Holdings L.L.C., which is an investment vehicle based in Abu Dhabi. CYVN Investments invested US$738.5 million in cash to subscribe 84,695,543 newly issued Class A ordinary shares of our company at a per share purchase price of US$8.72. In July 2023, CYVN Investments also acquired 40,137,614 Class A ordinary shares of our company from an affiliate of Tencent for an aggregate consideration of US$350 million. In December 2023, we closed the additional US$2.2 billion strategic equity investment from CYVN Investments. CYVN Investments invested an aggregate of US$2.2 billion in cash to subscribe for 294,000,000 newly issued Class A ordinary shares of our company at a per share purchase price of US$7.50. Following these transactions, CYVN Investments in aggregate beneficially owns approximately 20.1% of our total issued and outstanding shares.
In September and October 2023, we issued US$575 million aggregate principal amount of 3.875% convertible senior notes due 2029, or the 2029 Notes, and US$575 million aggregate principal amount of 4.625% convertible senior notes due 2030, or the 2030 Notes. Shortly after the pricing of the 2029 Notes and the 2030 Notes, we purchased, in separate privately negotiated transactions effected through one of the initial purchasers and its affiliates, approximately US$256 million aggregate principal amount of the 2026 Notes and approximately US$244 million aggregate principal amount the 2027 Notes for cash using the net proceeds from the offering of the 2029 Notes and the 2030 Notes.
In February 2024, we completed the repurchase right offer relating to the 2026 Notes. US$300.5 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2026 Notes were validly surrendered and not withdrawn prior to the expiration of the repurchase right offer. Following settlement of the repurchase, US$912,000.00 aggregate principal amount of the 2026 Notes remained outstanding and continue to be subject to the existing terms of the indenture and the 2026 Notes.

Our principal executive offices are located at Building 19, No. 1355, Caobao Road, Minhang District, Shanghai, PRC. Our telephone number at this address is +86-21-6908-2018. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the offices of Maples Corporate Services Limited, PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Puglisi & Associates, located at 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, Delaware 19711. We maintain our website at http://ir.nio.com/. The information contained on, or linked from, our website is not a part of this annual report.

The SEC maintains a web site at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC using its EDGAR system.

See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Capital Expenditures” for a discussion of our capital expenditures.

B.Business Overview

Our Chinese name, Weilai (蔚来), which means Blue Sky Coming, reflects our commitment to a more environmentally friendly future.

We are a pioneer and a leading company in the premium smart electric vehicle market. We design, develop, manufacture, and sell premium smart electric vehicles, driving innovations in next-generation technologies in assisted and intelligent driving, digital technologies, electric powertrains and batteries. We differentiate ourselves through our continuous technological breakthroughs and innovations, such as our industry-leading battery swapping technologies, Battery as a Service, or BaaS, as well as our proprietary NIO assisted and intelligent driving and its subscription services.

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Our Vehicles

We design, develop, manufacture and sell our vehicles in the premium smart electric vehicle market. We currently offer our products and services in China, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden and plan to expand into more global markets to capture the fast-growing EV demand.

We introduced the EP9 supercar in 2016, which was the then fastest electric vehicle, setting the Nurburgring Nordschleife all-electric vehicle lap record. Starting from December 2017, we launched a succession of well-positioned vehicle models and established a competitive product portfolio, including the ES8, a six-seater smart electric flagship SUV, the ES7 (or the EL7), a mid-large five-seater smart electric SUV, the ES6 (or the EL6), a five-seater all-round smart electric SUV, the EC7, a five-seater smart electric flagship coupe SUV, the EC6, a five-seater smart electric coupe SUV, the ET9, a smart electric executive flagship, the ET7, a smart electric flagship sedan, the ET5, a mid-size smart electric sedan, and the ET5T, a smart electric tourer.

In 2023, we completed our product lineup on the NIO Technology 2.0 (NT2.0) by starting deliveries of the EC7, All-New ES6, All-New ES8, ET5T, and All-New EC6. With enhanced driving and riding experiences with exquisite design, high performance, superior comfort, and advanced digital systems, our product portfolio caters to wide-ranging journeys of users for their family, business and leisure needs. In December 2023, we launched the ET9, a smart electric executive flagship. The ET9 embodies our latest advancements in technological research and development, presenting a combination of flagship-style exterior, innovative executive space, leading driving and riding experience, intelligent technologies, efficient power solutions, and comprehensive safety standards. We expect to start deliveries of the ET9 in the first quarter of 2025.

Inheriting our high-performance DNA marked by dual-motor intelligent All-Wheel-Drive system, all NIO models are able to achieve outstanding performances in 0-100 km/h and braking distance. Enabled by battery swapping technology, all our models are compatible with different battery packs including Standard Range Battery, Long Range Battery and Ultra-Long Range Battery, supporting different driving ranges and providing an upgradable and flexible user experience. We aim to deliver products with the highest safety and quality standards to our users in line with our core values and commitments.

We believe our vehicles are well-positioned in the premium smart electric vehicle market. We delivered 160,038 vehicles, including 92,186 premium smart electric SUVs and 67,852 premium smart electric sedans in 2023. In 2024, we expect to launch our new brand and commence deliveries of its first product, complementing our product portfolio and contributing to our vehicle sales. We are also developing more products to expand our addressable market segments.

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Notes:

Represent currently available models for sale.

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*

Represent China Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycle, or the CLTC, range. The driving ranges are based on the officially filed documents or engineering test results, which may vary due to different road types, weather and road conditions, battery level, loading and tires.

**150 kWh battery is expected to be available in the near future.

***Represent starting manufacturer’s suggested retail price, or the MSRP, in China as of the date of this annual report.

Our Key Technological Breakthroughs and Innovations

Since our inception, we have remained committed to innovation and dedicated to investing in research and development of core technologies. Our technological breakthroughs and innovations differentiate us from our peers, creating better user experiences and enhancing our users’ confidence in us. We have strategically focused on building in-house capabilities including battery swapping, assisted and intelligent driving, digital technologies, electric powertrain and battery, vehicle engineering and design, among others, to control the design and development of the vehicle software and hardware architecture and the critical components that go into our products. Our capabilities have given us greater flexibility to continually improve our current products and allow us to launch new products. By integrating these industry-leading technologies, all of our vehicles can create a relaxing, interactive, intelligent and immersive experience for our users.

We have strategically located our research and development offices in locations where we believe give us access to the best talent. Our global research and development center for production models is located in Shanghai. Our advanced vehicle manufacturing center is located in Hefei. Our global research and development center for software is located in Beijing. Our global research and development center for assisted and intelligent driving is located in San Jose. Our global design center is located in Munich. Our global research and development center for advanced engineering is located in Oxford.

Battery Swapping and BaaS

All of our smart electric vehicles are equipped with proprietary battery swapping technologies, providing our users with a “chargeable, swappable, upgradable” experience. We also offer Battery as a Service, or BaaS, an industry-first innovative model which allows users to purchase electric vehicles and subscribe for the usage of batteries separately. BaaS enables our users to benefit from lower vehicle purchase prices, flexible battery upgrade options and assurance of battery performance.

Battery Swapping. Supported by over 1,600 patented technologies as of December 31, 2023, all of our vehicles support battery swapping. It provides our users with convenient “recharging” experiences by simply swapping the user’s battery for another one within minutes. Moreover, it enables users to enjoy the benefits of battery technology advancements with upgrade options. Additionally, during each battery swap, a comprehensive health assessment on the battery and electric drive system is performed to ensure optimal condition of the vehicle. In December 2023, we introduced Power Swap Station 4.0, which boasts enhanced efficiency improvements and can reach a service capacity of up to 480 swaps per day. Equipped with Lidars and NVIDIA DRIVE Orin X chips, it possesses the capability to conduct fully automatic swap and handle complex environments for more intelligent vehicle-station connectivity. Power Swap Station 4.0 is compatible with multiple vehicle brands.
BaaS. Enabled by vehicle-battery separation and battery subscription, BaaS decouples the battery price from the purchase price of a vehicle and allows users to subscribe for battery usage separately. For each user under the BaaS model, we sell a battery to the Battery Asset Company, and the user subscribes for the usage of the battery from the Battery Asset Company. If users opt to purchase a NIO vehicle and subscribe for the battery under BaaS, they can enjoy a deduction off the original vehicle purchase price while paying a monthly subscription fee for the battery. NIO users are able to enjoy permanent or flexible upgrades to batteries with higher capacities or other future battery options with an additional fee as the battery technologies evolve.

Assisted and Intelligent Driving and Subscription

We believe that assisted and intelligent driving is the core of smart electric vehicles, and it has been our focus from day one. We are one of the first companies in China to offer enhanced ADAS capabilities and we have been dedicated to developing our proprietary full-stack assisted and intelligent driving capabilities.

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NIO assisted and intelligent driving, or NAD, our full-stack in-house developed assisted and intelligent driving capabilities, is equipped with our proprietary perception algorithms, localization, control strategy and platform software. The technology comprises NIO Adam, a super computing platform with outstanding computing power, and NIO Aquila, a super sensing system equipped with high-performance sensors including LiDAR. With the gradual release of certain features of the NAD through Navigate on Pilot Plus, or NOP+, a driving assist feature based on NT2.0 to users, our generalization capability and collective intelligence capability have seen rapid growth. Currently, NOP+ has been made available for expressways, urban areas, parking and battery swapping and we expect to release it to all NT2.0 users in the future to deliver a safer and more relaxing assisted and intelligent driving experience for our users. Our NOP+ is available for user subscription.

In addition, we have commenced our in-house research and development of the intelligent driving chipset to maximize the assisted and intelligent driving algorithm efficiency. In December 2023, we unveiled our first proprietary automotive-grade chip for assisted and intelligent driving, the NX9031. We intend to integrate this chip into our future products to enhance the intelligent driving experience for our users.

Digital Technologies

Digital System

Digital system is the foundation for us to achieve continuous upgrades through over-the-air updates, the digital platform for building our own proprietary software and algorithms and the security system for deep reassurance.

On top of our proprietary software architecture and cloud data platform, SkyOS, our all-domain vehicle operating system, has what we believe to be the industry-leading connectivity and remote service capabilities with an end-to-end security framework. By seamlessly integrating and efficiently collaborating various systems, including intelligent driving, vehicle control, digital cockpit, and connectivity, SkyOS provides a secure, intelligent and smooth driving experience to users.

Digital Cockpit

Our digital cockpit has an AI-driven, scalable and flexible architecture that presents users with an intelligent and immersive digital experience. We have built flexibility into the digital cockpit, so that we can continue to update the cockpit’s operating system with new features and applications.

Inspired by the concept of creating a mobile living space, providing a caring emotion companion while connecting products, services and community, we have launched PanoCinema, a panoramic digital cockpit with AR and VR capabilities, to bring immersive audio and visual experiences to our users. Inside our digital cockpit, NOMI, our in-car AI companion, can listen to, communicate and interact with users to build a strong emotional connection between vehicles and users. In addition, we expect to release our NOMI GPT, a multimodal large vision model, in the near future.

Electric Powertrain and Battery

Electric Powertrain

Starting from our first product, we have designed, developed and manufactured our own proprietary electric powertrains in-house. We possess in-house research and development capabilities across motors, electric controls, reducers, and high voltage charging and distribution systems.

Our electric powertrains are designed specifically for NIO’s vehicles, and through firmware over-the-air, we are able to continue to improve and update, and adjust according to our users’ driving behavior. Enabled by in-house research and development capabilities, our dual-motor configuration offers a variety of electric motors, including 150-300kW induction motor and 160-210 kW permanent magnet motor. We are in the process of developing our next generation electric powertrains based on the high-voltage architecture.

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Battery

We are committed to the research, development and innovations in battery technologies and have built up the research and development capabilities throughout the lifecycle of uni-pack battery. Our batteries are based on advanced battery pack design, battery management system and proprietary swapping mechanism.

Currently, we offer two battery options: Standard Range Battery and Long Range Battery. The Standard Range Battery currently on offer is a 75 kWh battery with lithium iron phosphate cells. With certain proprietary patents, the 100 kWh Long Range cell-to-pack battery features thermal propagation prevention, highly integrated design, all-climate thermal management and bi-directional cloud battery management system. We expect to commence the delivery of our 150 kWh battery, or the Ultra-long Range Battery with the next generation battery technology in the near future. In addition, we expect to collaborate with our partners in developing long-life batteries.

Vehicle Engineering and Design Capabilities

We have significant in-house vehicle engineering and design capabilities, covering all major areas of vehicle development starting from inception to completion, with a particular emphasis on software-driven technologies and fast iteration. For example, our in-house developed intelligent chassis controller enables redundancy control, electronic parking brake control, damper control, air spring leveling control, while achieving functional safety, cyber security and OTA updates. In addition, we have implemented integrated die casting to minimize the number of vehicle parts, reduce process steps, shorten production line length, and enhance overall efficiency.

Our global design team has comprehensive design capabilities across the board, from brand, vehicles, user interface/user experience, lifestyle products to accessories.

User Development and User Community

We reach out to and engage with our users directly through our own offline and online platforms, including NIO Houses, NIO Spaces and NIO app, and aim to build a community where we share joy and grow together with our users.

NIO House and NIO Space

NIO Houses and NIO Spaces serve as the offline channels for us to reach out to and serve our users, as well as the offline platforms for NIO user community.

NIO Houses have showroom functions while serving as a clubhouse for our users and their friends. Since we opened our first NIO House in Beijing in November 2017, we continue to expand our network of NIO Houses globally. As of December 31, 2023, we had 145 NIO Houses in total globally.

NIO Spaces are mainly showrooms for our brand, vehicles and services. Compared with NIO Houses, NIO Spaces are generally smaller in scale, more delicate and sales-focused. As of December 31, 2023, we had 335 NIO Spaces in total globally.

NIO App

NIO app, our mobile application, is designed to serve as a comprehensive portal. It allows users to not only place orders for and configure all NIO vehicles, but also to access vehicle control, power and other service, as well as purchase NIO Life product. Most importantly, it functions as an online platform for our user community.

NIO Day and NIO Events

Our annual NIO Day is an event jointly hosted by NIO and our users where we launch our new products and technologies and celebrate the user community. In December 2017 in Beijing, China, we held our first NIO Day and launched the ES8. We had since then held multiple NIO Days to launch new products and interact with our users and industry participants in the subsequent years. Most recently, in December 2023, we held the seventh NIO Day in Xi’an, China, with the official debut of ET9.

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In 2021, we held the Norway strategy conference, where we announced our entry into the Norwegian market. In 2022, we held NIO Berlin 2022, marking our expansion into Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden. Currently, we offer ES8, EL7, EL6, ET7, ET5 and ET5T in European markets. We offer our products in Europe through direct sales, leasing programs, and subscription programs.

NIO Life

We have established our lifestyle brand NIO Life, which has an online store on NIO app where users can purchase NIO lifestyle products. The product categories include clothing and accessories, home and living, consumer electronics, food and beverages. Since we launched our online store in December 2016, over 13 million NIO Life items have been delivered to our users through online and offline channels as of December 31, 2023.

NIO Points

We provide users with NIO Points to encourage user engagement and positive user behavior, such as to keep a safe driving record. NIO Points are earned, among other things, through the welcome packages upon the purchase of NIO vehicles, referrals for test drives and vehicle purchases, and active engagement in the user community. NIO Points can be used, both at our online store and at our NIO Houses and some of the NIO Spaces.

NIO Users Trust

In conjunction with our pursuit of being a user enterprise and with the goal of building a deeper connection between NIO and our users, Mr. Bin Li, our chairman of the board of directors and chief executive officer, transferred a certain amount of his ordinary shares to NIO User Trust in January 2019. Our users have the opportunity to discuss and propose the use of the economic benefits from the shares in NIO User Trust through a User Council consisting of members of our user community elected by our users. The User Council helps coordinate user activities in our community. According to the articles of association of NIO Users Trust, incomes and proceeds derived from the trust assets shall be mainly used for the following purposes: (i) environmental protection and sustainable development, (ii) NIO Users community care projects, (iii) community activities promoting common growth of users and other necessary projects, and (iv) operational expenses of the Users Trust.

Our Power Solutions

We offer a comprehensive and innovative suite of power solutions to address the charging and swapping needs of our users. Our power solutions include home charger called Power Home, battery swapping called Power Swap, supercharging piles called Power Charger, destination charging piles called Destination Charger, and mobile charging called Power Mobile, all of which are connected to cloud-enabled Power Cloud, which synchronizes users’ power consumption information and our power network, and intelligently suggests the appropriate services, according to the users’ locations and power consumption patterns. Our users not only get to check the availability of charging and swapping resources of NIO’s own network, but also have access to a network of public chargers and their real-time information through the Power Map on our NIO app. In addition, we offer our users our One Click for Power valet service where we pick up, charge and then return the vehicle. Our goal is to provide the most convenient power solutions to our users.

Power Home

Through Power Home, we install home chargers at our users’ homes upon our users’ requests if the installation is feasible. Currently we are offering our users standard home chargers and high-speed home chargers.

Power Swap

All of our vehicles support battery swapping. Once a vehicle is parked in the swap station and the swap function is activated, battery swapping will take place within minutes. Automatic battery and electric system checks are performed during each swap to enhance the safety and security of the vehicle and battery.

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In December 2023, we introduced Power Swap Station 4.0, which boasts enhanced efficiency improvements and can reach a service capacity of up to 480 swaps per day. Equipped with Lidars and NVIDIA DRIVE Orin X chips, it possesses the capability to conduct fully automatic swap and handle complex environments for more intelligent vehicle-station connectivity. Power Swap Station 4.0 is compatible with multiple vehicle brands. We have opened our Power Swap network to the entire industry and signed strategic partnership agreements with Changan Automobile, Geely Group, JAC Group and Chery Automobile on battery swapping. As of December 31, 2023, we had 2,350 Power Swap Stations covering urban areas and expressways globally, through which we had completed over 35 million battery swaps cumulatively.

We plan to strategically deploy more Power Swap Stations in selected geographical areas to ensure optimal battery swap experience for our growing user base and boost sales. We have partnered with multiple energy companies, including, among others, Anhui Province Energy Group Co., Ltd. and China Southern Power Grid Peak Load and Frequency Modulation (Guangdong) Energy Storage Technology Co., Ltd., and expect to join hands with more partners to collectively contribute towards the development of power network and the wider adoption of battery swapping.

Power Charger and Destination Charger

Through Power Charger, our supercharging piles, we provide our users a fast and reliable power solution. Users are able to locate, use and pay for the charging through our NIO app. Our Power Chargers are of a slim design and are located in parking lots and other locations easily accessible to our users. We currently offer up to 640kW Power Charger.

We also deploy chargers in tourist attractions, shopping malls, office buildings, and other types of destinations to expand the charging network for convenience and flexibility.

As of December 31, 2023, we had 21,091 Power Chargers and Destination Chargers in operation. We plan to further enhance the efficiency and expand the deployment of our chargers to cater to the growing user demand.

Power Mobile

Through Power Mobile, we provide charging services through fast charging vans with our proprietary fast-charging technologies, supplementing our swapping and charging network. Users are able to book Power Mobile services in advance through our NIO app.

We have a fleet of Power Mobile vans in operation in China. We regularly adjust the deployment of Power Mobile vans in China based on our user distribution and user needs and plan to improve the efficiency of these NIO Power Mobile vans to create better experiences for users.

Power Map

In addition to our own swapping and charging network, our users have access to a network of public chargers and their real-time information through the Power Map on our NIO app, which consisted of over 1,460,000 publicly accessible charging piles globally as of December 31, 2023. In order to further improve user experience, we have been working to increase the number of chargers with data synchronized to our Power Cloud.

One Click for Power

We offer our users our One Click for Power valet service. Through our NIO app, a user can have our team pick up his or her vehicle at the user’s designated parking location for valet charging, battery swapping or power mobile. We aim to provide users with the most convenient charging experience by identifying the most appropriate power solution based on the user’s travel habits through cloud-based smart scheduling.

Service and Warranty

Our users can access a full suite of innovative services on our NIO app, as part of our strategy of redefining the user experience. NIO Service, our one-stop service ecosystem marked by the innovative worry-free service plan, provides NIO users with a holistic end-to-end service experience. We believe our service capability is among the core competitiveness we possess.

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Service

Service Network

We currently provide servicing both through NIO service centers and authorized third-party service centers, both of which provide repair, maintenance and bodywork services.

For our NIO service centers, we have dedicated qualified technicians who receive regular professional trainings and skill tests, which ensures high-quality user services. As of December 31, 2023, we had 82 NIO service centers worldwide. For authorized third-party service centers, we have a devoted management team to carefully select and bring authorized service centers into our network, most with experience servicing high-end branded vehicles. As of December 31, 2023, we had 228 authorized service centers worldwide.

We also provide high-quality delivery service through NIO delivery centers, which serve as vital hubs in the user experience journey. At our NIO delivery centers, we offer users a full-service support package, including vehicle transportation and delivery, pre-delivery inspection (PDI) services, assistance with vehicle inspection, guidance and orientation on vehicle features, assistance with vehicle registration and insurance processing.

Service Plan