Company Quick10K Filing
National Bankshares
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$0.00 7 $250
10-K 2020-03-11 Annual: 2019-12-31
10-Q 2019-11-07 Quarter: 2019-09-30
10-Q 2019-08-07 Quarter: 2019-06-30
10-Q 2019-05-08 Quarter: 2019-03-31
10-K 2019-03-13 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-11-07 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-08-08 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-05-09 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2018-03-14 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-11-08 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-08-09 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-05-10 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2017-03-08 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-11-04 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-08-05 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-05-09 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2016-03-09 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-11-05 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-08-06 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-05-07 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2015-03-11 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-11-03 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-08-06 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-05-12 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2014-03-12 Annual: 2013-12-31
10-Q 2013-11-08 Quarter: 2013-09-30
10-Q 2013-08-08 Quarter: 2013-06-30
10-Q 2013-05-08 Quarter: 2013-03-31
10-K 2013-03-08 Annual: 2012-12-31
10-Q 2012-11-07 Quarter: 2012-09-30
10-Q 2012-08-08 Quarter: 2012-06-30
10-Q 2012-05-09 Quarter: 2012-03-31
10-K 2012-03-09 Annual: 2011-12-31
10-Q 2011-11-09 Quarter: 2011-09-30
10-Q 2011-08-08 Quarter: 2011-06-30
10-Q 2011-05-09 Quarter: 2011-03-31
10-K 2011-03-11 Annual: 2010-12-31
10-Q 2010-11-03 Quarter: 2010-09-30
10-Q 2010-08-06 Quarter: 2010-06-30
10-Q 2010-05-05 Quarter: 2010-03-31
10-K 2010-03-12 Annual: 2009-12-31
8-K 2020-03-23 Amend Bylaw, Exhibits
8-K 2020-01-30 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-11-13 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-07-18 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-05-15 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-05-14 Officers, Shareholder Vote
8-K 2019-04-18 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-03-13 Amend Bylaw, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-13 Other Events
8-K 2019-01-31 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-14 Officers
8-K 2018-11-14 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-18 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-15 Officers
8-K 2018-07-26 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-10
8-K 2018-05-09 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-08 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-04-26 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-08 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-22 Earnings, Exhibits
NKSH 2019-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Note 1: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2: Restriction on Cash
Note 3: Securities
Note 4: Related Party Transactions
Note 5: Allowance for Loan Losses, Nonperforming Assets and Impaired Loans
Note 6: Premises and Equipment
Note 7: Deposits
Note 8: Employee Benefit Plans
Note 9: Income Taxes
Note 10: Restrictions on Dividends
Note 11: Minimum Regulatory Capital Requirement
Note 12: Condensed Financial Statements of Parent Company
Note 13: Financial Instruments with Off-Balance Sheet Risk
Note 14: Concentrations of Credit Risk
Note 15: Fair Value Measurements
Note 16: Components of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Note 17. Intangible Assets and Goodwill
Note 18: Revenue Recognition
Note 19: Leases
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. 10-K Summary
EX-21 ex_174668.htm
EX-31.I ex_174664.htm
EX-31.II ex_174665.htm
EX-32.I ex_174666.htm
EX-32.II ex_174667.htm

National Bankshares Earnings 2019-12-31

NKSH 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

Comparables ($MM TTM)
Ticker M Cap Assets Liab Rev G Profit Net Inc EBITDA EV G Margin EV/EBITDA ROA
FVCB 243 1,565 1,390 0 0 12 30 223 7.5 1%
RBNC 270 1,852 1,633 1 0 16 37 219 0% 6.0 1%
ACNB 244 1,736 1,550 0 0 19 29 199 6.8 1%
PKBK 247 1,598 1,425 0 0 23 47 96 2.0 1%
ORRF 253 2,314 2,090 0 0 13 36 265 7.4 1%
ATLO 265 1,500 1,314 0 0 13 26 232 9.0 1%
FCBP 258 1,656 1,397 2 0 22 43 78 0% 1.8 1%
NKSH 262 1,273 1,085 5 0 13 17 262 0% 15.1 1%
FDBC 236 1,011 907 0 0 12 21 217 10.2 1%
LCNB 234 1,644 1,419 0 0 19 34 211 6.2 1%

10-K 1 nksh20191231_10k.htm FORM 10-K nksh20191231_10k.htm
 

 

Table of Contents



 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

 

☒ Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2019

 

☐ Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the transition period from ________ to ________.

Commission File Number: 0-15204

 

NATIONAL BANKSHARES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 

 

Virginia
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

54-1375874
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

101 Hubbard Street

Blacksburg, Virginia 24062-9002

(540) 951-6300

(Address and telephone number of principal executive offices)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $1.25 per share

NKSH

Nasdaq Capital Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐    No ☒

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐    No ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒    No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T(§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such period that the registrant was required to submit files). Yes ☒  No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer ☐     Accelerated filer ☒     Non-accelerated filer ☐     Smaller reporting company ☒     Emerging growth company ☐

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐    No ☒

 

The aggregate market value of the voting common stock of the registrant held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 28, 2019 (the last business day of the most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $253,261,996. As of March 10, 2020, the registrant had 6,489,574 shares of voting common stock outstanding.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the following documents are incorporated herein by reference into the Part of the Form 10-K indicated.

 

Document

Part of Form 10-K into which incorporated

National Bankshares, Inc. Proxy Statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders

Part III

 

 

 

NATIONAL BANKSHARES, INC. 

Form 10-K

Index

Part I

 

Page

     

Item 1.

Business

3

     

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

12

     

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

16

     

Item 2.

Properties

16

     

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

16

     

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

16

     

Part II

   
     

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

16

     

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

18

     

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

19

     

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

46

     

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

47

     

Item 9.

Changes In and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure 

94

     

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

94

     

Item 9B.

Other Information

95

     

Part III

   
     

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

95

     

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

96

     

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters  

96

     

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

96

     

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

96

     

Part IV

   
     

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

97

     

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

98

     

Signatures

 

99

     
 

 

 

 

Part I

$ in thousands, except per share data

 

Item 1. Business

 

History and Business

 

National Bankshares, Inc. (the “Company” or “NBI”) is a financial holding company that was organized in 1986 under the laws of Virginia and is registered under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956. It conducts most of its operations through its wholly-owned community bank subsidiary, the National Bank of Blacksburg (the “Bank” or “NBB”). It also owns National Bankshares Financial Services, Inc. (“NBFS”), which does business as National Bankshares Insurance Services and National Bankshares Investment Services. References in this report to “we,” “us,” or “our” refer to NBI unless the context indicates that the reference is to NBB.

 

The National Bank of Blacksburg

 

The National Bank of Blacksburg, which does business as National Bank, was originally chartered in 1891 as the Bank of Blacksburg. Its state charter was converted to a national charter in 1922 and it became the National Bank of Blacksburg. In 2004, NBB purchased Community National Bank of Pulaski, Virginia. In May, 2006, Bank of Tazewell County, a Virginia bank which since 1996 was a wholly-owned subsidiary of NBI, was merged with and into NBB.

NBB is community-oriented and offers a full range of retail and commercial banking services to individuals, businesses, non-profits and local governments from its headquarters in Blacksburg, Virginia and its twenty-four branch offices throughout southwest Virginia and one loan production office in Roanoke Virginia. NBB has telephone, mobile and internet banking and it operates twenty-four automated teller machines in its service area.

The Bank’s primary source of revenue stems from lending activities.  The Bank focuses lending on small and mid-sized businesses and individuals. Loan types include commercial and agricultural, commercial real estate, construction for commercial and residential properties, residential real estate, home equity and various consumer loan products. The Bank believes its prudent lending policies align its underwriting and portfolio management with its risk tolerance and income strategies. Underwriting and documentation requirements are tailored to the unique characteristics and inherent risks of each loan category.

The Bank’s loan policy is updated and approved by the Board of Directors annually and disseminated to lending and loan portfolio management personnel to ensure consistent lending practices. The policy communicates the Company’s risk tolerance by prescribing underwriting guidelines and procedures, including approval limits and hierarchy, documentation standards, requirements for collateral and loan-to-value limits, debt coverage, overall creditworthiness and guarantor support.

Of primary consideration is the repayment ability of the borrowers and (if secured) the collateral value in relation to the principal balance.  Collateral lowers risk and may be used as a secondary source of repayment. The credit decision must be supported by documentation appropriate to the type of loan, including current financial information, income verification or cash flow analysis, tax returns, credit reports, collateral information, guarantor verification, title reports, appraisals (where appropriate) and other documents.  A discussion of underwriting policies and procedures specific to the major loan products follows.

Commercial Loans.  Commercial and agricultural loans primarily finance equipment acquisition, expansion, working capital, and other general business purposes.  Because these loans have a higher degree of risk, the Bank generally obtains collateral such as inventory, accounts receivables or equipment and personal guarantees from the borrowing entity’s principal owners.  The Bank’s policy limits lending up to 60% of the appraised value for inventory, up to 90% of the lower of cost of market value of equipment and up to 70% for accounts receivables less than 90 days old.  Credit decisions are based upon an assessment of the financial capacity of the applicant, including the primary borrower’s ability to repay within proposed terms, a risk assessment, financial strength of guarantors and adequacy of collateral. Credit agency reports of individual owners’ credit history supplement the analysis.

Commercial Real Estate Loans. Commercial mortgages and construction loans are offered to investors, developers and builders primarily within the Bank’s market area in southwest Virginia. These loans generally are secured by first mortgages on real estate. The loan amount is generally limited to 80% of the collateral value and is individually determined based on the property type, quality, location and financial strength of any guarantors. Commercial properties financed include retail centers, office space, hotels and motels, apartments, and industrial properties.

Underwriting decisions are based upon an analysis of the economic viability of the collateral and creditworthiness of the borrower. The Bank obtains appraisals from qualified certified independent appraisers to establish the value of collateral properties. The property’s projected net cash flows compared to the debt service requirement (often referred to as the “debt service coverage ratio”) is required to be 115% or greater and is computed after deduction for a vacancy factor and property expenses, as appropriate. Borrower cash flow may be supplemented by a personal guarantee from the principal(s) of the borrower and guarantees from other parties. The Bank requires title insurance, fire, extended coverage casualty insurance and flood insurance, if appropriate, in order to protect the security interest in the underlying property. In addition, the Bank may employ stress testing techniques on higher balance loans to determine repayment ability in a changing rate environment before granting loan approval.

Public Sector and Industrial Development Loans. The Bank provides both long and short term loans to municipalities and other governmental entities within its geographical footprint. Borrowers include general taxing authorities such as a city or county, 

industrial/economic development authorities or utility authorities. Repayment sources are derived from taxation, such as property taxes and sales taxes, or revenue from the project financed with the loan. The Company’s underwriting considers local economic and population trends, reserves and liabilities, including pension liabilities.

 

 

 

Construction Loans. Construction loans are underwritten against projected cash flows from rental income, business and/or personal income from an owner-occupant or the sale of the property to an end-user. Associated risks may be mitigated by requiring fixed-price construction contracts, performance and payment bonding, controlled disbursements, and pre-sale contracts or pre-lease agreements.

Consumer Real Estate Loans.  The Bank offers a variety of first mortgage and junior lien loans secured by primary residences to individuals within our markets.  Credit decisions are primarily based on loan-to-value (“LTV”) ratios, debt-to-income (“DTI”) ratios, liquidity and net worth.  Income and financial information is obtained from personal tax returns, personal financial statements and employment documentation.  A maximum LTV ratio of 80% is generally required, although higher levels are permitted.  The DTI ratio is limited to 43% of gross income.

Consumer real estate mortgages may have fixed interest rates for the entire term of the loan or variable interest rates subject to change after the first, third, or fifth year.  Variable rates are based on the weekly average yield of United States Treasury Securities and are underwritten at fully-indexed rates. We do not offer certain high risk loan products such as interest-only consumer mortgage loans, hybrid loans, payment option adjustable rate mortgages (“ARMs”), reverse mortgage loans, loans with initial teaser rates or any product with negative amortization. Hybrid loans are loans that start out as a fixed rate mortgage, but after a set number of years they automatically adjust to an ARM. Payment option ARMs usually have adjustable rates, for which borrowers choose their monthly payment of either a full payment, interest only, or a minimum payment which may be lower than the payment required to reduce the balance of the loan in accordance with the originally underwritten amortization.

Home equity loans are secured primarily by second mortgages on residential property. The underwriting policy for home equity loans generally permits aggregate (the total of all liens secured by the collateral property) borrowing availability up to 80% of the appraised value of the collateral. We offer both fixed rate and variable rate home equity loans, with variable rate loans underwritten at fully-indexed rates. Decisions are primarily based on LTV ratios, DTI ratios, liquidity and credit history. We do not offer home equity loan products with reduced documentation.

Consumer Loans. Consumer loans include loans secured by automobiles, loans to consumers secured by other non-real estate collateral and loans to consumers that are unsecured. Automobile loans include loans secured by new or used automobiles. We originate automobile loans on a direct basis.  During 2018 and years prior, automobile loans were also originated on an indirect basis through selected dealerships.  This program was discontinued in 2019. We require borrowers to maintain collision insurance on automobiles securing consumer loans. Our procedures for underwriting consumer loans include an assessment of an applicant’s overall financial capacity, including credit history and the ability to meet existing obligations and payments on the proposed loan. An applicant’s creditworthiness is the primary consideration, and if the loan is secured by an automobile or other collateral, the underwriting process also includes a comparison of the value of the collateral security to the proposed loan amount.

Other Products and Services.  Deposit products offered by the Bank include interest-bearing and non-interest bearing demand deposit accounts, money market deposit accounts, savings accounts, certificates of deposit, health savings accounts and individual retirement accounts. Deposit accounts are offered to both individuals and commercial businesses. Business and consumer debit and credit cards are available. NBB offers other miscellaneous services normally provided by commercial banks, such as letters of credit, night depository, safe deposit boxes, utility payment services and automatic funds transfer. NBB conducts a general trust business that has wealth management, trust and estate services for individual and business customers.

At December 31, 2019, NBB had total assets of $1,318,594 and total deposits of $1,119,961. NBB’s net income for 2019 was $18,011, which produced a return on average assets of 1.43% and a return on average equity of 9.82%. Refer to Note 11 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for NBB’s risk-based capital ratios.

 

National Bankshares Financial Services, Inc.

 

In 2001, National Bankshares Financial Services, Inc. was formed in Virginia as a wholly-owned subsidiary of NBI. NBFS offers non-deposit investment products and insurance products for sale to the public. NBFS works cooperatively with Infinex Investments, Inc. to provide investments and with Bankers Insurance, LLC for insurance products. NBFS does not significantly contribute to NBI’s net income.

 

 

Operating Revenue

 

The following table displays components that contributed 15% or more of the Company’s total operating revenue for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.

 


Period


Class of Service

 

Percentage of
Total Revenues

December 31, 2019

Interest and Fees on Loans

    62.79

%

 

Interest on Investments

    18.09

%

 

Noninterest Income

    16.30

%

December 31, 2018

Interest and Fees on Loans

    61.49

%

 

Interest on Investments

    22.02

%

 

Noninterest Income

    15.17

%

December 31, 2017

Interest and Fees on Loans

    61.22

%

 

Interest on Investments

    21.55

%

 

Noninterest Income

    15.62

%

 

Market Area

 

The Company’s market area in southwest Virginia is made up of the counties of Montgomery, Roanoke, Giles, Pulaski, Tazewell, Wythe, Smyth and Washington. It includes the independent cities of Roanoke, Radford and Galax, and the portions of Carroll and Grayson Counties that are adjacent to Galax. The Company also serves those portions of Mercer County and McDowell County, West Virginia that are contiguous with Tazewell County, Virginia and portions of Monroe County, West Virginia that are contiguous with Giles County, Virginia. Although largely rural, the market area is home to two major universities, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (“Virginia Tech”) and Radford University, and to three community colleges. Virginia Tech, located in Blacksburg, Virginia, is the area’s largest employer and is Virginia’s second largest university. A second state supported university, Radford University, is located nearby. In recent years, Virginia Tech’s Corporate Research Center has brought a number of technology-related companies to Montgomery County.

In addition to education, the market area has a diverse economic base with manufacturing, agriculture, tourism, healthcare, retail and service industries. Large manufacturing facilities in the region include Celanese Acetate, the largest employer in Giles County, and Volvo Heavy Trucks, the largest company in Pulaski County. Both of these firms have experienced cycles of hiring and layoffs within the past several years. Tazewell County is largely dependent on the coal mining industry and on agriculture for its economic base. Coal production is a cyclical industry that has declined significantly in recent years and suffered from increased regulations. Montgomery County, Bluefield in Tazewell County and Abingdon in Washington County are regional retail centers and have facilities to provide basic health care for the region.

NBI’s market area offers the advantages of a good quality of life, scenic beauty, moderate climate and historical and cultural attractions. The region has had some recent success attracting retirees, particularly from the Northeast and urban northern Virginia.

Because NBI’s market area is economically diverse and includes large public employers, it has historically avoided the most extreme effects of past economic downturns. If the economy wavers or experiences recession, it is likely that unemployment will rise and that other economic indicators will negatively impact the Company's market.

 

Competition

 

The banking and financial services industry is highly competitive. The competitive business environment is a result of changes in regulation, changes in technology and product delivery systems and competition from other financial institutions as well as non-traditional financial services. NBB competes for loans and deposits with other commercial banks, credit unions, securities and brokerage companies, mortgage companies, insurance companies, retailers, automobile companies and other nonbank financial service providers. Many of these competitors are much larger in total assets and capitalization, have greater access to capital markets and offer a broader array of financial services than NBB. In order to compete, NBB relies upon a deep knowledge of its markets, a service-based business philosophy, personal relationships with customers, specialized services tailored to meet customers’ needs and the convenience of office locations. In addition, the Bank is generally competitive with other financial institutions in its market area with respect to interest rates paid on deposit accounts, interest rates charged on loans and other service charges on loans and deposit accounts.

 

 

Cybersecurity

 

As a financial institution, NBI is subject to cybersecurity risks and has suffered two cybersecurity incidents.  To manage and mitigate cybersecurity risk, the Company limits certain transactions and interactions with customers.  The Company does not offer online account openings or loan originations, limits the dollar amount of online banking transfers to other banks, does not permit customers to submit address changes or wire requests through online banking, requires a special vetting process for commercial customers who wish to originate ACH transfers, and limits certain functionalities of mobile banking.  The Company also requires assurances from key vendors regarding their cybersecurity.  While these measures reduce the likelihood and scope of the risk of further cybersecurity breaches, in light of the evolving sophistication of system intruders, the risk of such breaches continues to exist.  We maintain insurance for these risks but insurance policies are subject to exceptions, exclusions and terms whose applications have not been widely interpreted in litigation.  Accordingly, insurance can provide less than complete protection against the losses that result from cybersecurity breaches and pursuing recovery from insurers can result in significant expense.  In addition, some risks such as reputational damage and loss of customer goodwill, which can result from cybersecurity breaches cannot be insured against.

 

Organization and Employment

 

NBI, NBB and NBFS are organized in a holding company/subsidiary structure. At December 31, 2019, NBB had 235 full time equivalent employees and NBFS had 3 full time employees. NBB performs services and charges commensurate fees to NBI and NBFS.

 

Regulation, Supervision and Government Policy

 

NBI and NBB are subject to state and federal banking laws and regulations that provide for general regulatory oversight of all aspects of their operations. As a result of substantial regulatory burdens on banking, financial institutions like NBI and NBB are at a disadvantage to other competitors who are not as highly regulated, and NBI and NBB’s costs of doing business are accordingly higher. Legislative efforts to prevent a repeat of the 2008 financial crisis culminated in the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (“the “Dodd-Frank Act”). This legislation, together with existing and planned regulations, dramatically increased the regulatory burden on commercial banks. The burden falls disproportionately on community banks like NBB, which must devote a higher proportion of their human and other resources to compliance than do their larger competitors. The financial crisis also heightened the examination focus by banking regulators, particularly on Bank Secrecy Act, real estate-related assets and commercial loans. However, with the passage of the Economic Growth, Regulatory  Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“EGRRCPA”) in 2018, a number of regulatory requirements for smaller financial institutions like the Company were reduced or eliminated (see below). The following is a brief summary of certain laws, rules and regulations that affect NBI and NBB.

 

National Bankshares, Inc.

 

NBI is a bank holding company qualified as a financial holding company under the federal Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (“BHCA”), which is administered by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”).  As such, NBI is subject to the supervision, examination, and reporting requirements of the BHCA and the regulations of the Federal Reserve. NBI is required to furnish to the Federal Reserve an annual report of its operations at the end of each fiscal year and such additional information as the Federal Reserve may require pursuant to the BHCA. The Federal Reserve is authorized to examine NBI and its subsidiaries. With some limited exceptions, the BHCA requires a bank holding company to obtain prior approval from the Federal Reserve before acquiring or merging with a bank or before acquiring more than 5% of the voting shares of a bank unless it already controls a majority of shares.

 

The Bank Holding Company Act. Under the BHCA, a bank holding company is generally prohibited from engaging in nonbanking activities unless the Federal Reserve has found those activities to be incidental to banking. Amendments to the BHCA that were included in the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 (see below) permitted any bank holding company with bank subsidiaries that are well-capitalized, well-managed and which have a satisfactory or better rating under the Community Reinvestment Act (see below) to file an election with the Federal Reserve to become a financial holding company. A financial holding company may engage in any activity that is (i) financial in nature (ii) incidental to a financial activity or (iii) complementary to a financial activity. Financial activities include insurance underwriting, insurance agency activities, securities dealing and underwriting and providing financial, investment or economic advising services. NBI is a financial holding company that currently engages in insurance agency activities and provides financial, investment or economic advising services.

 

The Virginia Banking Act. The Virginia Banking Act requires all Virginia bank holding companies to register with the Virginia State Corporation Commission (the “Commission”). NBI is required to report to the Commission with respect to its financial condition, operations and management. The Commission may also make examinations of any bank holding company and its subsidiaries and must approve the acquisition of ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any Virginia bank or bank holding company.

 

The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (“GLBA”) permits significant combinations among different sectors of the financial services industry, allows for expansion of financial service activities by bank holding companies and offers financial privacy protections to consumers. GLBA preempts most state laws that prohibit financial holding companies from engaging in insurance activities. GLBA permits affiliations between banks and securities firms in the same holding company structure, and it permits financial holding companies to directly engage in a broad range of securities and merchant banking activities.

 

 

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“SOX”) protects investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures. It impacts all companies with securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, including NBI. SOX creates increased responsibility for chief executive officers and chief financial officers with respect to the content of filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Section 404 of SOX and related Securities and Exchange Commission rules focused increased scrutiny by internal and external auditors on NBI’s systems of internal controls over financial reporting, which is designed to ensure that those internal controls are effective in both design and operation. SOX sets out enhanced requirements for audit committees, including independence and expertise, and it includes stronger requirements for auditor independence and limits the types of non-audit services that auditors can provide. Finally, SOX contains additional and increased civil and criminal penalties for violations of securities laws.

 

Capital and Related Requirements. In August, 2018, the Federal Reserve updated the Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement (the “Statement”), in compliance with the EGRRCPA.  The Statement, among other things, exempts bank holding companies that fall below a certain asset threshold from reporting consolidated regulatory capital ratios and from minimum regulatory capital requirements.  The interim final rule expands the exemption to bank holding companies with consolidated total assets of less than $3 billion. Prior to August 2018, the statement exempted bank holding companies with consolidated total assets of less than $1 billion. As a result of the interim final rule, the Company qualifies as of August, 2018 as a small bank holding company and is no longer subject to regulatory capital requirements on a consolidated basis.

The Bank continues to be subject to various capital requirements administered by banking agencies as described below. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements can trigger certain mandatory and discretionary actions by regulators that could have a direct material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. The Dodd-Frank Act was signed into law on July 21, 2010. Its wide ranging provisions affect all federal financial regulatory agencies and nearly every aspect of the American financial services industry. The Dodd-Frank Act created an independent Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”) which has the ability to write rules for consumer protections governing all financial institutions. All consumer protection responsibility formerly handled by other banking regulators was consolidated in the CFPB. It oversees the enforcement of all federal laws intended to ensure fair access to credit. For smaller financial institutions such as NBI and NBB, the CFPB coordinates its examination activities through their primary regulators.

 

The Dodd-Frank Act contains provisions designed to reform mortgage lending, which includes the requirement of additional disclosures for consumer mortgages, and the CFPB implemented many mortgage lending regulations to carry out its mandate. Additionally, in response to the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve issued rules in 2011 which had the effect of limiting the fees charged to merchants by credit card companies for debit card transactions. The Dodd-Frank Act also contains provisions that affect corporate governance and executive compensation.

The Dodd-Frank Act provisions are extensive and have required the Company and the Bank to deploy resources to comply with them. Several federal agencies, including the Federal Reserve, the CFPB and the Securities and Exchange Commission, have been in the process of issuing final regulations implementing major portions of the legislation, and this process will be affected by the EGRRCPA, which rolls back many provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act (see below).

 

Source of Strength. Federal Reserve policy has historically required bank holding companies to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to their subsidiary banks. The Dodd-Frank Act codified this policy as a statutory requirement. Under this requirement, the Company is expected to commit resources and capital to support NBB, including at times when the Company may not be in a financial position to provide such resources. Any capital loans by a bank holding company to any of its subsidiary banks are subordinate in right of payment to depositors and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary banks. In the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.

 

The Economic Growth, Regulatory Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2018.  In May 2018 the EGRRCPA amended provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and other statutes administered by banking regulators. Among these amendments are provisions to tailor applicability of certain of the enhanced prudential standards for Systemically Important Financial Institutions (“SIFI’s”) and to increase the $50 billion asset threshold in two stages to $250 billion to which these enhanced standards apply. The EGRRCPA exempts insured depository institutions (and their parent companies) with less than $10 billion in consolidated assets and that meet certain tests from the Volker Rule (which prohibits banks from conducting certain investment activities with their own accounts). As discussed above, pursuant to EGRRCPA, regulators finalized a new CBLR framework for financial institutions with less than $10 billion in consolidated assets. If the financial institution maintains its tangible equity above the CBLR it will be deemed in compliance with the various regulatory capital requirements currently in effect. The EGRRCPA increased the asset threshold from $1 billion to $3 billion for financial institutions to qualify for an 18 month on site examination schedule. The EGRRCPA changes numerous other regulatory requirements based on the size and complexity of financial institutions, particularly benefiting smaller institutions like the Company.

 

 

The National Bank of Blacksburg

 

NBB is a national banking association incorporated under the laws of the United States, and the bank is subject to regulation and examination by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the “OCC”). NBB’s deposits are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) up to the limits of applicable law. The OCC, as the primary regulator, and the FDIC regulate and monitor all areas of NBB’s operation. These areas include adequacy of capitalization and loss reserves, loans, deposits, business practices related to the charging and payment of interest, investments, borrowings, payment of dividends, security devices and procedures, establishment of branches, corporate reorganizations and maintenance of books and records. NBB is required to maintain certain capital ratios. It must also prepare quarterly reports on its financial condition for the OCC and conduct an annual audit of its financial affairs. The OCC requires NBB to adopt internal control structures and procedures designed to safeguard assets and monitor and reduce risk exposure. While appropriate for the safety and soundness of banks, these requirements add to overhead expense for NBB and other banks.

 

The Community Reinvestment Act. NBB is subject to the provisions of the Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”), which imposes an affirmative obligation on financial institutions to meet the credit needs of the communities they serve, including low and moderate income neighborhoods. The OCC monitors NBB’s compliance with the CRA and assigns public ratings based upon the bank’s performance in meeting stated assessment goals. Unsatisfactory CRA ratings can result in restrictions on bank operations or expansion. NBB received a “satisfactory” rating in its last CRA examination by the OCC.

In December 2019, the FDIC and the OCC jointly proposed rules that would significantly change existing CRA regulations. The proposed rules are intended to increase bank activity in low and moderate income communities where there is significant need for credit, more responsible lending, greater access to banking services, and improvements to critical infrastructure. The proposals change four key areas: (i) clarifying what activities qualify for CRA credit; (ii) updating where activities count for CRA credit; (iii) providing a more transparent and objective method for measuring CRA performance; and (iv) revising CRA-related data collection, record keeping, and reporting.  The Bank is evaluating what impact this proposed rule, if implemented, may have on its operations.

 

Privacy Legislation. Several recent laws, including the Right to Financial Privacy Act and the GBLA, and related regulations issued by the federal bank regulatory agencies, also provide new protections against the transfer and use of customer information by financial institutions. A financial institution must provide to its customers information regarding its policies and procedures with respect to the handling of customers’ personal information. Each institution must conduct an internal risk assessment of its ability to protect customer information. These privacy provisions generally prohibit a financial institution from providing a customer’s personal financial information to unaffiliated parties without prior notice and approval from the customer.

 

The USA Patriot Act. The USA Patriot Act (“Patriot Act”) facilitates the sharing of information among government entities and financial institutions to combat terrorism and money laundering. The Patriot Act imposes an obligation on NBB to establish and maintain anti-money laundering policies and procedures, including a customer identification program. The Bank must screen all customers against government lists of known or suspected terrorists. The Patriot Act, particularly as it relates to money laundering, is a significant focus of regulators and there is substantial regulatory oversight to insure compliance.

 

Consumer Laws and Regulations. There are a number of laws and regulations that regulate banks’ consumer loan and deposit transactions. Among these are the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, the Fair Debt Collections Practices Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Service Members Civil Relief Act, laws governing flood insurance, federal and state laws prohibiting unfair and deceptive business practices, foreclosure laws and various regulations that implement some or all of the foregoing. NBB is required to comply with these laws and regulations in its dealings with customers. In addition, the CFPB has adopted and may continue to refine rules regulating consumer mortgage lending pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act. There are numerous disclosure and other compliance requirements associated with the consumer laws and regulations. The EGRRCPA modified a number of these requirements, including, for qualifying institutions with less than $10 billion in assets, a safe harbor for compliance with the “ability to pay” requirements for consumer mortgage loans.

 

Deposit Insurance. NBB has deposits that are insured by the FDIC. The FDIC maintains a Deposit Insurance Fund (“DIF”) that is funded by risk-based insurance premium assessments on insured depository institutions. Assessments are determined based upon several factors, including the level of regulatory capital and the results of regulatory examinations. The FDIC may adjust assessments if the insured institution’s risk profile changes or if the size of the DIF declines in relation to the total amount of insured deposits. Beginning April 1, 2011, an institution’s assessment base became consolidated total assets less its average tangible equity as defined by the FDIC. The FDIC has authority to impose (and has imposed during the recent financial crisis) special measures to boost the deposit insurance fund such as prepayments of assessments and additional special assessments.

After giving primary regulators an opportunity to first take action, FDIC may initiate an enforcement action against any depository institution it determines is engaging in unsafe or unsound actions or which is in an unsound condition, and the FDIC may terminate that institution’s deposit insurance. NBB has no knowledge of any matter that would threaten its FDIC insurance coverage.

 

 

Capital Requirements. NBB is subject to the rules implementing the Basel III capital framework and certain related provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act (the “Basel III Capital Rules”) as applied by the OCC.  The Basel III Capital Rules require NBB to comply with minimum capital ratios plus a “capital conservation buffer” designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress.  The implementation period for the capital conservation buffer began in 2016 and it was fully phased in on January 1, 2019.  The following table presents the required minimum ratios along with the required minimum ratios including the capital conservation buffer:

 

Regulatory Capital Ratios

 

Minimum Ratio

 

Minimum Ratio With Capital Conservation Buffer

 

Common Equity Tier 1 Capital to Risk Weighted Assets

 

4.50

%

 

7.00

%

 

Tier 1 Capital to Risk Weighted Assets

 

6.00

%

 

8.50

%

 

Total Capital to Risk Weighted Assets

 

8.00

%

 

10.50

%

 

Leverage Ratio

 

4.00

%

 

4.00

%

 

 

Risk-weighted assets are assets on the balance sheet as well as certain off-balance sheet items, such as standby letters of credit, to which weights between 0% and 1250% are applied, according to the risk of the asset type.  Common Equity Tier 1 Capital (“CET1”) is capital according to the balance sheet, adjusted for goodwill and intangible assets and other prescribed adjustments.  At NBB’s election, CET1 is also adjusted to exclude accumulated other comprehensive income.  Tier 1 Capital is CET1 adjusted for additional capital deductions.  Total Capital is Tier 1 Capital increased for the allowance for loan losses and adjusted for other items. The Leverage Ratio is the ratio of Tier 1 Capital to total average assets, less goodwill and intangibles and certain deferred tax assets.  As of December 31, 2019, NBB’s capital ratios exceeded the above minimum ratios including the capital conservation buffer.

NBB is also subject to the “prompt corrective action” regulations pursuant to Section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act of 1950, which were revised, effective as of January 1, 2015, to incorporate a CET1 ratio and to increase certain other capital ratios. To be classified as well capitalized under the revised regulations, NBB must have the following minimum capital ratios: (i) a CET1 ratio of at least 6.5%; (ii) a Tier 1 Capital to Risk Weighted Assets ratio of at least 8.0%; (iii) a Total Capital to Risk Weighted Assets ratio of at least 10.0%; and (iv) a Leverage Ratio of at least 5.0%.  NBB exceeded the thresholds to be considered well capitalized as of December 31, 2019.

Pursuant to the EGRRCPA regulators have provided for an optional, simplified measure of capital adequacy, which is commonly known as the “community bank leverage ratio” framework (“CBLR”), for qualifying community banking organizations.  Banks that qualify, including NBB, may opt in to the CBLR framework beginning January 1, 2020 or any time thereafter.  The CBLR framework eliminates the requirement to comply with capital ratios disclosed above and, instead, requires the disclosure of a single leverage ratio, with a minimum requirement of 9%.  The Company and the Bank are evaluating whether to opt in to the CBLR framework.

In December 2017, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision published standards that it described as the finalization of the Basel III post-crisis regulatory reforms (the standards are commonly referred to as “Basel IV”). Among other things, these standards revise the standardized approach for credit risk (including by recalibrating risk weights and introducing new capital requirements for certain “unconditionally cancellable commitments,” such as unused credit card lines of credit) and provide a new standardized approach for operational risk capital. Under the proposed framework, these standards will generally be effective on January 1, 2022, with an aggregate output floor phasing-in through January 1, 2027. Under the current capital rules, operational risk capital requirements and a capital floor apply only to “advanced approaches” institutions, and not to the Company or the Bank. The impact of Basel IV on the Company and the Bank will depend on the manner in which it is implemented by the federal bank regulatory agencies.

 

Limits on Dividend Payments. A significant portion of NBI’s income is derived from dividends paid by NBB. As a national bank, NBB may not pay dividends from its capital, and it may not pay dividends if the bank would become undercapitalized, as defined by regulation, after paying the dividend. Without prior OCC approval, NBB’s dividend payments in any calendar year are restricted to the bank’s retained net income for that year, as that term is defined by the laws and regulations, combined with retained net income from the preceding two years, less any required transfer to surplus.

The OCC and FDIC have authority to limit dividends paid by NBB if the payments are determined to be an unsafe and unsound banking practice. Any payment of dividends that depletes the bank’s capital base could be deemed to be an unsafe and unsound banking practice.

 

Branching. As a national bank, NBB is required to comply with the state branch banking laws of Virginia, the state in which the main office of the bank is located. NBB must also have the prior approval of the OCC to establish a branch or acquire an existing banking operation. Under Virginia law, NBB may open branch offices or acquire existing banks or bank branches anywhere in the state. Virginia law also permits banks domiciled in the state to establish a branch or to acquire an existing bank or branch in another state. The Dodd-Frank Act permits the OCC to approve applications by national banks like NBB to establish de novo branches in any state in which a bank located in that state is permitted to establish a branch.

 

 

 

Ability-to-Repay and Qualified Mortgage Rule. Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the CFPB amended Regulation Z as implemented by the Truth in Lending Act, requiring mortgage lenders to make a reasonable and good faith determination based on verified and documented information that a consumer applying for a mortgage loan has a reasonable ability to repay the loan according to its terms. Mortgage lenders are required to determine consumers’ ability to repay in one of two ways. The first alternative requires the mortgage lender to consider the following eight underwriting factors when making the credit decision: (i) current or reasonably expected income or assets; (ii) current employment status; (iii) the monthly payment on the covered transaction; (iv) the monthly payment on any simultaneous loan; (v) the monthly payment for mortgage-related obligations; (vi) current debt obligations, alimony, and child support; (vii) the monthly debt-to-income ratio or residual income; and (viii) credit history. Alternatively, the mortgage lender can originate “qualified mortgages,” which are entitled to a presumption that the creditor making the loan satisfied the ability-to-repay requirements. In general, a “qualified mortgage” is a mortgage loan without negative amortization, interest-only payments, balloon payments or terms exceeding 30 years. In addition, to be a qualified mortgage the points and fees paid by a consumer cannot exceed 3% of the total loan amount. Qualified mortgages that are “higher-priced” (e.g. subprime loans) create a rebuttable presumption of compliance with the ability-to-repay rules, while qualified mortgages that are not “higher-priced” (e.g. prime loans) are given a safe harbor of compliance. The Company is predominantly an originator of compliant qualified mortgages.

 

 Office of Foreign Assets Control. The U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) is responsible for administering and enforcing economic and trade sanctions against specified foreign parties, including countries and regimes, foreign individuals and other foreign organizations and entities. OFAC publishes lists of prohibited parties that are regularly consulted by the Company in the conduct of its business in order to assure compliance. The Company is responsible for, among other things, blocking accounts of, and transactions with, prohibited parties identified by OFAC, avoiding unlicensed trade and financial transactions with such parties and reporting blocked transactions after their occurrence. Failure to comply with OFAC requirements could have serious legal, financial and reputational consequences for the Company.

 

Incentive Compensation. In June 2010, the federal bank regulatory agencies issued comprehensive final guidance on incentive compensation policies intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of financial institutions do not undermine the safety and soundness of such institutions by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The Interagency Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of a financial institutions, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a financial institution’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide incentives that do not encourage risk-taking beyond the institution’s ability to effectively identify and manage risks, (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management, and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the financial institution’s board of directors.

Section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act requires the federal banking agencies and the Securities and Exchange Commission to establish joint regulations or guidelines prohibiting incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities that encourage inappropriate risk-taking by providing an executive officer, employee, director or principal shareholder with excessive compensation, fees, or benefits or that could lead to material financial loss to the entity. The federal banking agencies issued such proposed rules in March 2011 and issued a revised proposed rule in June 2016 implementing the requirements and prohibitions set forth in Section 956. The revised proposed rule would apply to all banks, among other institutions, with at least $1 billion in average total consolidated assets for which it would go beyond the existing Interagency Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies to (i) prohibit certain types and features of incentive-based compensation arrangements for senior executive officers, (ii) require incentive-based compensation arrangements to adhere to certain basic principles to avoid a presumption of encouraging inappropriate risk, (iii) require appropriate board or committee oversight, (iv) establish minimum recordkeeping, and (v) mandate disclosures to the appropriate federal banking agency.

The Federal Reserve will review, as part of the regular, risk-focused examination process, the incentive compensation arrangements of financial institutions, such as the Company, that are not “large, complex banking organizations.” These reviews will be tailored to each financial institution based on the scope and complexity of the institution’s activities and the prevalence of incentive compensation arrangements. The findings of the supervisory initiatives will be included in reports of examination. Deficiencies will be incorporated into the institution’s supervisory ratings, which can affect the institution’s ability to make acquisitions and take other actions. Enforcement actions may be taken against a financial institution if its incentive compensation arrangements, or related risk-management control or governance processes, pose a risk to the institution’s safety and soundness and the financial institution is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had not been made aware of any instances of non-compliance with the final guidance.

 

Cybersecurity. In March 2015, federal regulators issued two related statements regarding cybersecurity. One statement indicates that financial institutions should design multiple layers of security controls to establish lines of defense and to ensure that their risk management processes also address the risk posed by compromised customer credentials, including security measures to reliably authenticate customers accessing internet-based services of the financial institution. The other statement indicates that a financial institution’s management is expected to maintain sufficient business continuity planning processes to ensure the rapid recovery, resumption and maintenance of the institution’s operations after a cyber-attack involving destructive malware. A financial institution is also expected to develop appropriate processes to enable recovery of data and business operations and address rebuilding network capabilities and restoring data if the institution or its critical service providers fall victim to this type of cyber-attack. If the Company fails to observe the regulatory guidance, it could be subject to various regulatory sanctions, including financial penalties.

 

 

Monetary Policy

 

The monetary and interest rate policies of the Federal Reserve, as well as general economic conditions, affect the business and earnings of NBI. NBB and other banks are particularly sensitive to interest rate fluctuations. The spread between the interest paid on deposits and that which is charged on loans is the most important component of the bank’s earnings. In addition, interest earned on investments held by NBI and NBB has a significant effect on earnings. U.S. fiscal policy, including deficits requiring increased governmental borrowing also can affect interest rates. As conditions change in the national and international economy and in the money markets, the Federal Reserve’s actions, particularly with regard to interest rates, and the effects of fiscal policies can impact loan demand, deposit levels and earnings at NBB. It is not possible to accurately predict the effects on NBI of economic and interest rate changes.

 

Other Legislative and Regulatory Concerns

 

Federal and state laws and regulations are regularly proposed that could affect the regulation of financial institutions. New, revised or rescinded regulations could add to the regulatory burden on banks and other financial service providers and increase the costs of compliance, or they could change the products that can be offered and the manner in which financial institutions do business. We cannot foresee how regulation of financial institutions may change in the future and how those changes might affect NBI.

 

Company Website

 

NBI maintains a website at www.nationalbankshares.com. The Company’s annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports are made available on its website as soon as is practical after the material is electronically filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Company’s proxy materials for the 2020 annual meeting of stockholders are also posted on a separate website at www.investorvote.com/NKSH. Access through the Company’s websites to the Company’s filings is free of charge. The Securities and Exchange Commission maintains an internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy, and information statements, and other information the Company files electronically with the SEC.

 

Executive Officers of the Company

The following is a list of names and ages of all executive officers of the Company; their terms of office as officers; the positions and offices within the Company held by each officer; and each person’s principal occupation or employment during the past five years.

 

Name

Age

Offices and Positions Held

Year Elected an Officer/Director

F. Brad Denardo

67

National Bankshares, Inc.: Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”), May 2019 to Present; President and CEO, September 2017 – May 2019; Executive Vice President, April 2008 – August 2017.

The National Bank of Blacksburg: Chairman, September 2017 to Present; President & CEO, July 2014 to Present; Executive Vice President/Chief Operating Officer, October 2002 – July 2014.

National Bankshares Financial Services, Inc.: Chairman, President and CEO of National Bankshares Financial Services, Inc., September 2017 to Present; Treasurer, June 2011 to Present.

1989

David K. Skeens

53

National Bankshares, Inc.: Treasurer and Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”), January 2009 to Present.

The National Bank of Blacksburg: Senior Vice President/Operations & Risk Management & CFO, January 2009 to Present; Senior Vice President/Operations & Risk Management, February 2008 – January 2009; Vice President/Operations & Risk Management, April 2004- February 2008.

2009

Lara E. Ramsey

51

National Bankshares, Inc.: Corporate Secretary, June 2016 to Present.

National Bankshares, Inc.: Senior Vice President/Administration, June 2011 to Present.

National Bankshares, Inc.: Vice President/Human Resources, January 2001 – June 2011.

2016

Paul M. Mylum

53

The National Bank of Blacksburg: Executive Vice President, November 2019 to Present.

The National Bank of Blacksburg: Senior Vice President/Chief Lending Officer, August 2016 – November 2019.
The National Bank of Blacksburg: Senior Vice President/Loans, August 2012—August 2016.

2012

Rebecca M. Melton

49

The National Bank of Blacksburg: Senior Vice President/Chief Credit Officer, November 2018 to Present. 

Skyline National Bank: Chief Risk Officer, July 2016 – November 2018.
Skyline National Bank: Chief Credit Officer, June 2011 – July 2016.

2018

 

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

If economic trends reverse or recession returns, our credit risk will increase and there could be greater loan losses.

A reversal in economic trends or return to a recession is likely to result in a higher rate of business closures and increased job losses in the region in which we do business. In addition, reduced state funding for the public colleges and universities that are large employers in our market area could have an adverse effect on employment levels and on the area’s economy. These factors would increase the likelihood that more of our customers would become delinquent or default on their loans. A higher level of loan defaults could result in higher loan losses, which could adversely affect our result of operations and financial condition.

 

A reversal in economic trends, return to recession, or change in interest rates could increase the risk of losses in our investment portfolio.

The Company holds both corporate and municipal bonds in its investment portfolio. A reversal in economic trends or return to recession could increase the actual or perceived risk of default by both corporate and government issuers and, in either case, could adversely affect the value of these investments. In addition, the value of these investments could be adversely affected by a change in interest rates and related factors, including the pricing of securities.

 

A decline in the condition of the local real estate market could negatively affect our business.

Substantially all of the Company’s real property collateral is located in its market area. If there is a decline in real estate values, especially in the Company’s market area, the collateral for loans would deteriorate and provide significantly less security to the Company.  In the event the Company forecloses on a loan that is collateralized with property having reduced market value, the Company may suffer a recovery loss.

 

Focus on lending to small to mid-sized community-based businesses may increase our credit risk.

      Most of the Company’s commercial business and commercial real estate loans are made to small business or middle market customers. These businesses generally have fewer financial resources in terms of capital or borrowing capacity than larger entities and have a heightened vulnerability to economic conditions. If general economic conditions in the market areas in which the Company operates negatively impact this important customer sector, the Company’s results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.  Moreover, a portion of these loans have been made by the Company in recent years and the borrowers may not have experienced a complete business or economic cycle since becoming borrowers of the Bank. The deterioration of the borrowers’ businesses may hinder their ability to repay their loans with the Company, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

When market interest rates change, our net interest income can be negatively affected in the short term.

The direction and speed of interest rate changes affect our net interest margin and net interest income. In the short term, rising interest rates may negatively affect our net interest income if our interest-bearing liabilities (generally deposits) reprice sooner than our interest-earning assets (generally loans).  Falling interest rates may negatively affect our net interest income if our interest-earning assets reprice sooner than our interest-bearing liabilities.

 

The allowance for loan losses may not be adequate to cover actual losses.

In accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, an allowance for loan losses is maintained to provide for probable loan losses. The allowance for loan losses may not be adequate to cover actual credit losses, and future provisions for credit losses could materially and adversely affect operating results.  The allowance for loan losses is based on prior experience, as well as an evaluation of the risks in the current portfolio. The amount of future losses is susceptible to changes in economic, operating, and other outside forces and conditions, including changes in interest rates, all of which are beyond the Company’s control; and these losses may exceed current estimates. Federal regulatory agencies, as an integral part of their examination process, review the Company’s loans and allowance for loan losses. The Company also outsources an independent loan review. While management believes that the allowance for loan losses is adequate to cover current probable losses, it cannot make assurances that it will not further increase the allowance for loan losses or that regulators will not require it to increase this allowance. Either of these occurrences could adversely affect earnings.

The allowance for loan losses requires management to make significant estimates that affect the financial statements. Due to the inherent nature of this estimate, management cannot provide assurance that it will not significantly increase the allowance for loan losses, which could materially and adversely affect earnings.

 

Nonperforming assets take significant time to resolve and adversely affect the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.

The Company’s nonperforming assets adversely affect its net income in various ways. The Company expects to continue to incur additional losses relating to volatility in nonperforming loans. The Company does not record interest income on nonaccrual loans, which adversely affects its income and increases credit administration costs. When the Company receives collateral through foreclosures and similar proceedings, it is required to mark the related asset to the then fair market value of the collateral less estimated selling costs, which may, and often does, result in a loss. An increase in the level of nonperforming assets also increases the Company’s risk profile and may impact the capital levels regulators believe are appropriate in light of such risks. The Company utilizes various techniques such as workouts and restructurings to manage problem assets. Increases in or negative adjustments in the value of these problem assets, the underlying collateral, or in the borrowers’ performance or financial condition, could adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the resolution of nonperforming assets requires significant commitments of time from management and staff, which can be detrimental to the performance of their other responsibilities, including generation of new loans. There can be no assurance that the Company will avoid further increases in nonperforming loans in the future.

 

 

The Company relies upon independent appraisals to determine the value of the real estate which secures a significant portion of its loans, and the values indicated by such appraisals may not be realizable if the Company is forced to foreclose upon such loans.

A significant portion of the Company’s loan portfolio consists of loans secured by real estate. The Company relies upon independent appraisers to estimate the value of such real estate. Appraisals are only estimates of value and the independent appraisers may make mistakes of fact or judgment which adversely affect the reliability of their appraisals. In addition, events occurring after the initial appraisal may cause the value of the real estate to increase or decrease.  As a result of any of these factors, the real estate securing some of the Company’s loans may be more or less valuable than anticipated at the time the loans were made. If a default occurs on a loan secured by real estate that is less valuable than originally estimated, the Company may not be able to recover the outstanding balance of the loan and will suffer a loss.

 

If competition increases, our business could suffer.

The financial services industry is highly competitive, with a number of commercial banks, credit unions, insurance companies, stockbrokers and other nonbank financial service providers seeking to do business with our customers. If there is additional competition from new business or if our existing competitors focus more attention on our market, we could lose customers and our business could suffer.

 

Additional laws and regulations, or revisions and rescission of existing laws and regulations, could lead to a significant increase in our regulatory burden.

Both federal and state governments could enact new laws and regulations affecting financial institutions that would further increase our regulatory burden and could negatively affect our profits. Likewise, revisions or rescission of existing laws and regulations already implemented may result in additional compliance costs, at least in the short term or, if done imprudently, could ultimately create economic risks negatively affecting our revenues.

 

 Intense oversight by regulators could result in stricter requirements and higher overhead costs.

 Regulators for the Company and the Bank are tasked with ensuring compliance with applicable laws and regulations.  Laws and regulations are subject to a degree of interpretation.  If financial industry regulators take more extreme interpretations, the Company’s earnings could be adversely impacted.

 

Political, economic and social risks in the U.S. and the rest of the world could negatively affect the financial markets.

Political, economic and social risks in the U.S. and the rest of the world could affect financial markets and affect fiscal policy which could negatively affect our investment portfolio and earnings.

 

Our information systems may experience an interruption or security breach.

We rely heavily on communications and information systems to conduct our business. Any failure, interruption or breach in security of these systems could result in failures or disruptions of our internet banking, deposit, loan and other systems. While we have policies and procedures designed to prevent or limit the effect of the possible failure, interruption or security breach of our information systems, there can be no assurance that any such failure, interruption or security breach will not occur or, if it does occur, that it will be adequately addressed.

In the ordinary course of business, the Company collects and stores sensitive data, including proprietary business information and personally identifiable information of its customers and employees, in systems and on networks. The secure processing, maintenance and use of this information is critical to the Company’s operations and business strategy. The Company has invested in industry-accepted technologies, and annually reviews its processes and practices that are designed to protect its networks, computers and data from damage or unauthorized access. Despite these security measures, the Company’s computer systems experienced two cyber-intrusions, one in May 2016 and one in January 2017 in which certain customer information was compromised, but which did not cause interruption to the Company’s normal operations.  The Company has implemented additional security measures since the breaches. The Company’s computer systems and infrastructure may in the future be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. A breach of any kind could compromise systems and the information stored there could be accessed, damaged or disclosed. The occurrence of any failure, interruption or security breach of our communications and information systems could damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny or expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability. 

 

Cyber-attacks may disarm and/or bypass system safeguards and allow unauthorized access and misappropriation of financial data and assets.

As a financial institution, we are vulnerable to and the target of cyber-attacks that attempt to access our digital technology systems, disarm and/or bypass system safeguards, access customer data and ultimately increase the risk of economic and reputational loss.

The Company experienced two cyber-intrusions, one in May 2016 and one in January 2017 in which certain customer information was compromised. The Company has strengthened its multi-faceted approach to reduce the exposure of our systems to cyber-intrusions, strengthen our defenses against hackers and protect customer accounts and information relevant to customer accounts from unauthorized access.  These tools include digital technology safeguards, internal policies and procedures, and employee training.

The Company believes its cybersecurity risk management program reasonably addresses the risk from cybersecurity attacks.  However, it is not possible to fully eliminate exposure. We may experience human error or have unknown susceptibilities that allow our systems to become victim to a highly-sophisticated cyber-attack.  If hackers gain entry to our systems, they may disable other safeguards that limit loss, including limits on the number, amount and frequency of automated teller machine (“ATM”) withdrawals, as well as other loss-prevention or detection measures.

 

Cybersecurity attacks are probable and may result in additional costs.

The Company has experienced many attempted cybersecurity attacks, of which two resulted in a breach.  The Company estimates that the probability of future attempted cyber-attacks is high.  To reduce the risk of loss from cyber-attacks and to remediate vulnerabilities discovered through the breach investigations, the Company has incurred costs related to forensic investigations, legal and advisory expenses, insurance premiums, system monitoring and testing, and installing new technological infrastructure and defenses.  The Company has implemented every recommendation from the forensic investigations.  If the Company experiences another cyber-breach, these costs will increase and the Company will also likely incur additional litigation, reputational harm and regulatory costs.

   

 

Insurance may not cover losses from cybersecurity attacks.

The Company has invested in insurance related to cybersecurity. Insurance policies are necessary to protect the Company from major losses but may be written in such a way as to limit the protection from certain risks, including cyber risks for which the availability of insurance coverage is currently limited. If the insurance carrier denies coverage of losses the Company may litigate, resulting in additional legal expense. Because of policy technicalities, litigation may not result in a favorable outcome for the Company.

 

The Company relies on other companies to provide key components of the Company’s business infrastructure.

Third parties provide key components of the Company’s business operations such as data processing, recording and monitoring transactions, online banking interfaces and services, internet connections and network access. While the Company has selected these third party vendors carefully, it does not control their actions. Any problem caused by these third parties, including those resulting from disruptions in communication services provided by a vendor, failure of a vendor to handle current or higher volumes, failures of a vendor to provide services for any reason or poor performance of services, could adversely affect the Company’s ability to deliver products and services to its customers and otherwise conduct its business. Financial or operational difficulties of a third party vendor could also hurt the Company’s operations if those difficulties interface with the vendor’s ability to serve the Company.  Replacing these third party vendors could also create significant delay and expense and damage the Company’s ability to service its customers, resulting in a loss of customer goodwill. Accordingly, use of such third parties creates an unavoidable inherent risk to the Company’s business operations.

 

Consumers may increasingly decide not to use the Bank to complete their financial transactions, which would have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and operations.

Technology and other changes are allowing parties to complete financial transactions through alternative methods that historically have involved banks. For example, consumers can now maintain funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits in brokerage accounts, mutual funds or general-purpose reloadable prepaid cards. Consumers can also complete transactions such as paying bills and/or transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. The loss of these revenue streams and the lower cost of deposits as a source of funds could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

Changes in funding for higher education could materially affect our business.

Two major employers in the Company’s market area are Virginia Tech and Radford University, both state-supported institutions. If federal or state support for public colleges and universities wanes, our business may be adversely affected from declines in university programs, capital projects, employment, enrollment and other related factors.

 

The Company is dependent on key personnel and the loss of one or more of those key personnel may materially and adversely affect the Company’s operations and prospects.

The Company currently depends on the services of a number of key management personnel. The loss of key personnel could materially and adversely affect the results of operations and financial condition. The Company’s success also depends in part on the ability to attract and retain additional qualified management personnel. Competition for such personnel is strong and the Company may not be successful in attracting or retaining the personnel it requires.

 

Changes in accounting standards could impact reported earnings. 

The authorities who promulgate accounting standards, including the Financial Accounting Standards Board, SEC, and other regulatory authorities, periodically change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements. These changes are difficult to predict and can materially impact how the Company records and reports its financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, the Company could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in the restatement of financial statements for prior periods. Such changes could also require the Company to incur additional personnel or technology costs. Notably, guidance issued in June 2016 requires a change in the calculation of credit reserves from using an incurred loss model to using the current expected credit losses model (“CECL”). During 2019, the standard’s effective date was delayed for the Company and other qualifying institutions until January 1, 2023. The Company formed a management committee to prepare for the new standard. The committee implemented data collection measures, researched forecasting resources, studied applicable loss calculations and has begun running preliminary CECL models concurrent with the incurred loss model. The committee will analyze the CECL disclosures of companies who adopt the standard effective January 1, 2020 for consideration in further refining its CECL calculations. To implement the standard, the Company will incur costs related to data collection and documentation, technology, training and increased audit expenses to validate the model. Implementation could significantly impact our required credit reserves. Other impacts to capital levels, profit and loss and various financial metrics will also result.

 

 

The Company is subject to claims and litigation pertaining to fiduciary responsibility. 

From time to time, customers make claims and take legal action pertaining to the performance of the Company’s fiduciary responsibilities. Whether customer claims and legal action related to the performance of the Company’s fiduciary responsibilities are founded or unfounded, if such claims and legal actions are not resolved in a manner favorable to the Company, they may result in significant financial liability and/or adversely affect the market perception of the Company and its products and services, as well as impact customer demand for those products and services. Any financial liability or reputation damage could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

The Company’s ability to pay dividends depends upon the results of operations of its subsidiaries. 

The Company is a financial holding company and a bank holding company that conducts substantially all of its operations through NBB. As a result, the Company’s ability to make dividend payments on its common stock depends primarily on certain federal regulatory considerations and the receipt of dividends and other distributions from NBB. There are various regulatory restrictions on the ability of NBB to pay dividends or make other payments to the Company. Although the Company has historically paid a cash dividend to the holders of its common stock, holders of the common stock are not entitled to receive dividends, and regulatory or economic factors may cause the Company’s Board of Directors to consider, among other things, the reduction of dividends paid on the Company’s common stock.

 

While the Company’s common stock is currently traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market, it has less liquidity than stocks for larger companies quoted on a national securities exchange. 

The trading volume in the Company’s common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market has been relatively low when compared with larger companies listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market or other stock exchanges. There is no assurance that a more active and liquid trading market for the common stock will exist in the future. Consequently, stockholders may not be able to sell a substantial number of shares for the same price at which stockholders could sell a smaller number of shares. In addition, the Company cannot predict the effect, if any, that future sales of its common stock in the market, or the availability of shares of common stock for sale in the market, will have on the market price of the common stock. Sales of substantial amounts of common stock in the market, or the potential for large amounts of sales in the market, could cause the price of the Company’s common stock to decline, or reduce the Company’s ability to raise capital through future sales of common stock.

 

The Company’s liquidity needs could adversely affect results of operations and financial condition.

The Company’s primary sources of funds are deposits and loan repayments. While scheduled loan repayments are a relatively stable source of funds, they are subject to the ability of borrowers to repay the loans. The ability of borrowers to repay loans can be adversely affected by a number of factors, including, but not limited to, changes in economic conditions, reductions in real estate values or markets, availability of, and/or access to, sources of refinancing, business closings or lay-offs, and natural disasters. Additionally, deposit levels may be affected by a number of factors, including, but not limited to, rates paid by competitors, general interest rate levels, regulatory capital requirements, returns available to customers on alternative investments and general economic conditions. Accordingly, the Company may be required from time to time to rely on secondary sources of liquidity to meet withdrawal demands or otherwise fund operations. Such sources include Federal Home Loan Bank of Atlanta (“FHLB”) advances, sales of securities and loans, federal funds lines of credit from correspondent banks and borrowings from the Federal Reserve Discount Window, as well as additional out-of-market time deposits and brokered deposits. While the Company believes that these sources are currently adequate, there can be no assurance they will be sufficient to meet future liquidity demands, particularly if the Company continues to grow and experiences increasing loan demand. The Company may be required to slow or discontinue loan growth, capital expenditures or other investments or liquidate assets should such sources not be adequate.

 

Natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism, the impact of health epidemics and other adverse external events could detrimentally affect our financial condition and results of operations. 

Natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism, and other adverse external events could have a significant negative impact on our ability to conduct business or upon third parties who perform operational services for us or our customers.  Such events also could affect the stability of our deposit base, impair the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair the value of collateral securing loans, cause significant property damage, result in lost revenue or cause us to incur additional expenses.

The recent coronavirus outbreak could negatively impact the ability of our employees and customers to engage in banking and other financial transactions in the geographic areas in which the Company operates. The Company also could be adversely affected if key personnel or a significant number of employees were to become unavailable due to a coronavirus outbreak in our market areas. Although the Company has business continuity plans and other safeguards in place, there is no assurance that such plans and safeguards will be effective.  In the event of a natural disaster, the spread of the coronavirus to our market areas or other adverse external events, our business, services, asset quality, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

The effects of widespread public health emergencies may negatively affect our local economies or disrupt our operations, which would have an adverse effect on our business or results of operations.

Widespread health emergencies, such as the recent coronavirus outbreak, can disrupt our operations through their impact on our employees, customers and their businesses, and the communities in which we operate. Disruptions to our customers could result in increased risk of delinquencies, defaults, foreclosures and losses on our loans, negatively impact regional economic conditions, result in a decline in local loan demand, loan originations and deposit availability and negatively impact the implementation of our growth strategy. Any one or more of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

 

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

 

There are no unresolved staff comments.

 

Item 2. Properties

 

NBB owns and has a branch bank in NBI’s headquarters building located at 101 Hubbard Street, Blacksburg, Virginia. NBB’s main office is at 100 South Main Street, Blacksburg, Virginia. NBB owns an additional seventeen branch offices and it leases six branch locations and a loan production office. We believe that existing facilities are adequate for current needs and to meet anticipated growth.

 

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

 

NBI, NBB, and NBFS are not currently involved in any material pending legal proceedings. There are no legal proceedings against the Company related to cybersecurity.

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

 

Not applicable. 

    

Part II

 

Item 5. Market for Registrants Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

Common Stock Information and Dividends

 

National Bankshares, Inc.’s common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “NKSH.” As of December 31, 2019, there were 611 record stockholders of NBI common stock.

NBI’s primary source of funds for dividend payments is dividends from its bank subsidiary, NBB. Bank dividend payments are restricted by regulators, as more fully disclosed in “Regulation, Supervision and Government Policy” contained in Part I, Item 1, “Business” and Note 10 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Form 10-K.

On May 15, 2019, NBI’s Board of Directors approved the repurchase of up to 1,000,000 shares of the Company’s common stock. The authorization extends from June 1, 2019 to May 31, 2020.  During 2019, the Company repurchased 452,400 shares under a prior repurchase authorization and 16,000 shares under the repurchase program authorized in May 2019.  The Company may yet repurchase 984,000 shares under the program.

 

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer

Share repurchase activity during the fourth quarter of 2019 was as follows:

 

Period

 

Total

Number of

Shares

Purchased(1)

 

Average Price

Paid

Per Share

 

Total Number of

Shares Purchased as

Part of Publicly

Announced Program(1)

 

Number of

Shares that May Yet

Be Purchased

Under the Program(1)

October 1, 2019 – October 31, 2019

    ---       ---       ---       984,000  

November 1, 2019 – November 30, 2019

    ---       ---       ---       984,000  

December 1, 2019 – December 31, 2019

    ---       ---       ---       984,000  

Total during fourth quarter 2019

    ---       ---       ---          

 

(1) In May 2018, the Company announced the Board of Directors had authorized a 100,000 share repurchase program. In November 2018, the Company announced that the Board of Directors increased its authorization to repurchase up to 250,000 shares. In February 2019, the Company announced that the Board of Directors increased its authorization to repurchase up to 1,000,000 shares, with an expiration date of May 31, 2019. In May 2019, the Company renewed authorization to repurchase up to 1,000,000 shares, with an expiration date of May 31, 2020. The Company’s share repurchase program does not obligate it to acquire any specific number of shares, or any shares at all.

 

During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company repurchased 468,400 shares.

 

 

Stock Performance Graph

 

The following graph compares the yearly percentage change in the cumulative total of stockholder return on NBI common stock with the cumulative return on the Nasdaq Composite Index, and the Nasdaq Bank Index for the five-year period commencing on December 31, 2014. These comparisons assume the investment of $100 in National Bankshares, Inc. common stock in each of the indices on December 31, 2014, and the reinvestment of dividends.

 

 

  

   

2014

 

2015

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

2019

NATIONAL BANKSHARES, INC.

    100       121       153       165       136       173  

NASDAQ COMPOSITE INDEX

    100       107       117       151       147       201  

NASDAQ BANK INDEX

    100       108       150       158       133       167  

 

 

Item 6. Selected Financial Data

 

National Bankshares, Inc. and Subsidiaries

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

 

$ in thousands, except per share data

 

Year ended December 31,

   

2019

 

2018

 

2017

 

2016

 

2015

Selected Income Statement Data:

                                       

Interest income

  $ 45,147     $ 43,224     $ 41,260     $ 40,930     $ 42,914  

Interest expense

    7,380       5,047       4,125       4,166       4,183  

Net interest income

    37,767       38,177       37,135       36,764       38,731  

Provision for (recovery of) loan losses

    126       (81

)

    157       1,650       2,009  

Noninterest income

    8,790       7,729       7,636       7,115       6,764  

Noninterest expense

    25,754       27,276       24,229       23,335       22,913  

Income taxes

    3,211       2,560       6,293       3,952       4,740  

Net income

    17,466       16,151       14,092       14,942       15,833  
                                         

Per Share Data:

                                       

Basic net income

    2.65       2.32       2.03       2.15       2.28  

Diluted net income

    2.65       2.32       2.03       2.15       2.28  

Cash dividends declared

    1.39       1.21       1.17       1.16       1.14  

Book value

    28.31       27.34       26.57       25.62       24.74  
                                         

Selected Balance Sheet Data at End of Year:

                                       

Loans, net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs, and the allowance for loan losses

    726,588       702,409       660,144       639,452       610,711  

Total securities

    436,483       426,230       459,751       440,409       389,288  

Total assets

    1,321,837       1,256,032       1,256,757       1,233,942       1,203,519  

Total deposits

    1,119,753       1,051,942       1,059,734       1,043,442       1,018,859  

Stockholders’ equity

    183,726       190,238       184,896       178,263       172,114  
                                         

Selected Balance Sheet Daily Averages:

                                       

Loans, net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs, and the allowance for loan losses

    711,851       675,647       644,998       613,366       611,554  

Total securities

    394,356       455,810       442,101       420,915       379,805  

Total assets

    1,255,934       1,251,843       1,235,754       1,206,745       1,155,594  

Total deposits

    1,062,683       1,045,798       1,038,586       1,013,787       976,597  

Stockholders’ equity

    176,906       186,637       184,539       180,047       171,732  
                                         

Selected Ratios:

                                       

Return on average assets

    1.39

%

    1.29

%

    1.14

%

    1.24

%

    1.37

%

Return on average equity

    9.87

%

    8.65

%

    7.64

%

    8.30

%

    9.22

%

Dividend payout ratio

    51.71

%

    52.13

%

    57.77

%

    54.02

%

    50.09

%

Average equity to average assets

    14.09

%

    14.91

%

    14.93

%

    14.92

%

    14.86

%

Efficiency ratio(1)

    54.44

%

    53.20

%

    50.41

%

    49.32

%

    49.41

%

 

 

(1)

The efficiency ratio is a non-GAAP financial measure that the Company believes provides investors with important information regarding operational efficiency. Such information is not prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and should not be viewed as a substitute for GAAP. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” included in Item 7 of this Form 10-K.

 

 

Item 7. Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

$ in thousands, except per share data

 

The purpose of this discussion and analysis is to provide information about the results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and capital resources of of the Company. The discussion should be read in conjunction with the material presented in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Form 10-K.

Subsequent events have been considered through the date of this Form 10-K.

 

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

 

We make forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K that are subject to significant risks and uncertainties.  These forward-looking statements include statements regarding our profitability, liquidity, allowance for loan losses, interest rate sensitivity, market risk, growth strategy, and financial and other goals, and are based upon our management’s views and assumptions as of the date of this report.  The words “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “projects,” “contemplates,” “anticipates,” “forecasts,” “intends,” or other similar words or terms are intended to identify forward-looking statements.

These forward-looking statements are based upon or are affected by factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from historical results or from any results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These factors include, but are not limited to, effects of or changes in:

 

interest rates,

 

general and local economic conditions,

 

the legislative/regulatory climate,

 

monetary and fiscal policies of the U.S. Government, including policies of the U.S. Treasury, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Reserve, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and the impact of any policies or programs implemented pursuant to financial reform legislation,

 

unanticipated increases in the level of unemployment in the Company’s market,

 

the quality or composition of the loan and/or investment portfolios,

 

demand for loan products,

 

deposit flows,

 

competition,

 

demand for financial services in the Company’s market,

 

the real estate market in the Company’s market,

 

laws, regulations and policies impacting financial institutions, 

 

technological risks and developments, and cyber-threats, attacks or events,

 

the Company’s technology initiatives, 

 

applicable accounting principles, policies and guidelines, and

  business disruptions and/or impact due to the coronavirus or similar pandemic diseases.

These risks and uncertainties should be considered in evaluating the forward-looking statements contained in this report. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on those statements, which speak only as of the date of this report. This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the description of our “Risk Factors” in Item 1A. of this Form 10-K.

 

 

 

Non-GAAP Financial Measures 

 

The Company prepares financial information in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”), with the exception of certain financial measures which are computed under a basis other than GAAP (“non-GAAP”).  These measures include the efficiency ratio, the net interest margin and the noninterest margin.  Management believes such financial information is meaningful to the reader in understanding operating performance, but cautions that such information not be viewed as a substitute for GAAP. 

The efficiency ratio is computed by dividing noninterest expense, excluding certain items management deems unusual or non-recurring, by the sum of net interest income on a tax-equivalent basis and noninterest income, excluding certain items management deems unusual or non-recurring. The tax rate used to calculate fully taxable equivalent basis is 21% in 2019 and 2018 and 35% in 2017.  This is a non-GAAP financial measure that the Company believes provides investors with important information regarding operational efficiency. The components of the efficiency ratio calculation are summarized in the following table.

 

$ in thousands

 

Year ended December 31,

   

2019

 

2018

 

2017

Noninterest expense

  $ 25,754     $ 27,276     $ 24,229  

Less: write-down of insurance receivable

    ---       (2,010

)

    ---  

Noninterest expense for ratio calculation

  $ 25,754     $ 25,266     $ 24,229  
                         

Taxable-equivalent net interest income

  $ 39,056     $ 39,764     $ 40,432  

Noninterest income

    8,790       7,729       7,636  

Less: recovery of insurance receivable

    (538

)

    ---       ---  
Less: realized securities gains     (566 )     (17 )     (14 )

Total income for ratio calculation

  $ 46,742     $ 47,476     $ 48,054  
                         

Efficiency ratio

    55.10

%

    53.22

%

    50.42

%

 

The net interest margin is calculated by dividing taxable equivalent net interest income by total average earning assets. Because a portion of interest income earned by the Company is nontaxable, the tax equivalent net interest income is considered in the calculation of this ratio. Tax equivalent net interest income is calculated by adding the tax benefit realized from interest income that is nontaxable to total interest income then subtracting total interest expense. The tax rate utilized in calculating the tax benefit for 2019 and 2018 is 21% and for 2017 is 35%. The reconciliation of tax equivalent net interest income, which is not a measurement under GAAP, to net interest income, is reflected in the table below.

 

$ in thousands

 

Year ended December 31,

   

2019

 

2018

 

2017

GAAP measures:

                       

Interest and fees on loans

  $ 33,869     $ 31,333     $ 29,932  

Interest on interest-bearing deposits

    1,523       672       791  

Interest and dividends on securities - taxable

    6,725       6,856       5,711  

Interest on securities - nontaxable

    3,030       4,363       4,826  

Total interest income

  $ 45,147     $ 43,224     $ 41,260  
                         

Interest on deposits

  $ 7,380     $ 4,883     $ 4,125  

Interest on borrowings

    ---       164       ---  

Total interest expense

  $ 7,380     $ 5,047     $ 4,125  
                         

Net interest income

  $ 37,767     $ 38,177     $ 37,135  
                         

Non-GAAP measures:

                       

Tax benefit on nontaxable loan income

  $ 465     $ 406     $ 661  

Tax benefit on nontaxable securities income

    824       1,181       2,636  

Total tax benefit on nontaxable interest income

  $ 1,289     $ 1,587     $ 3,297  

Total tax-equivalent net interest income

  $ 39,056     $ 39,764     $ 40,432  

 

 

The noninterest margin is calculated by dividing noninterest expense (excluding the write-down of insurance receivable) less noninterest income (excluding realized securities gain/loss, net) by average year-to-date assets. The reconciliation of adjusted noninterest income and adjusted noninterest expense, which are not measurements under GAAP, is reflected in the table below.

 

$ in thousands

 

Year ended December 31,

   

2019

 

2018

 

2017

Noninterest expense under GAAP

  $ 25,754     $ 27,276     $ 24,229  

Less: write-down of insurance receivable

    ---       (2,010

)

    ---  

Noninterest expense for ratio calculation, non-GAAP

  $ 25,754     $ 25,266     $ 24,229  
                         

Noninterest income under GAAP

  $ 8,790     $ 7,729     $ 7,636  

Less: recovery of insurance receivable

    (538

)

    ---       ---  

Less: realized securities gains, net

    (566

)

    (17

)

    (14

)

Noninterest income for ratio calculation, non-GAAP

  $ 7,686     $ 7,712     $ 7,622  
                         

Net noninterest expense, non-GAAP

  $ 18,068     $ 17,554     $ 16,607  
                         

Average assets

  $ 1,255,934     $ 1,251,843     $ 1,235,755  
                         

Noninterest margin

    1.44

%

    1.40

%

    1.34

%

 

Critical Accounting Policies

 

General

 

The Company’s financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. The financial information contained within our statements is, to a significant extent, financial information based on measures of the financial effects of transactions and events that have already occurred. A variety of factors could affect the ultimate value obtained when earning income, recognizing an expense, recovering an asset or relieving a liability. Although the economics of the Company’s transactions may not change, the timing of events that would impact the transactions could change.

 

Allowance for Loan Losses

 

The allowance for loan losses is an estimate of probable losses inherent in our loan portfolio. The allowance is funded by the provision for loan losses, reduced by charge-offs of loans and increased by recoveries of previously charged-off loans. The determination of the allowance is based on two accounting principles, Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 450-20 (Contingencies) which requires that losses be accrued when occurrence is probable and the amount of the loss is reasonably estimable, and ASC Topic 310-10 (Receivables) which requires accrual of losses on impaired loans if the recorded investment exceeds fair value.

Probable losses are accrued through two calculations, individual evaluation of impaired loans and collective evaluation of the remainder of the portfolio. Impaired loans are larger non-homogeneous loans for which there is a probability that collection will not occur according to the loan terms, as well as loans whose terms have been modified in a troubled debt restructuring (“TDRs”). Impaired loans that are not TDRs with an estimated impairment loss are placed on nonaccrual status. TDRs with an impairment loss may accrue interest if they have demonstrated six months of timely payment performance.

 

Impaired loans

Impaired loans are identified through the Company’s credit risk rating process. Estimated loss for an impaired loan is the amount of recorded investment that exceeds the loan’s fair value. Fair value of an impaired loan is measured by one of three methods: the fair value of collateral (“collateral method”), the present value of future cash flows (“cash flow method”), or observable market price. The Company applies the collateral method to collateral-dependent loans, loans for which foreclosure is imminent and to loans for which the fair value of collateral is a more reliable estimate of fair value. The cash flow method is applied to loans that are not collateral dependent and for which cash flows may be estimated.

 

 

The Company bases collateral method fair valuation upon the “as-is” value of independent appraisals or evaluations. Valuations for impaired loans secured by residential 1-4 family properties with outstanding principal balances greater than $250 are based on an appraisal. Appraisals are also used to value impaired loans secured by commercial real estate with outstanding principal balances greater than $500. Collateral-method impaired loans secured by residential 1-4 family property with outstanding principal balances of $250 or less, or secured by commercial real estate with outstanding principal balances of $500 or less, are valued using an internal evaluation.

Appraisals and internal valuations provide an estimate of market value. Appraisals must conform to the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice and are prepared by an independent third-party appraiser who is certified and licensed and who is approved by the Company. Appraisals may incorporate market analysis, comparable sales analysis, cash flow analysis and market data pertinent to the property to determine market value.

Internal evaluations are prepared by third party providers and reviewed by employees of the Company who are independent of the loan origination, operation, management and collection functions. Evaluations provide a property’s market value based on the property’s current physical condition and characteristics and the economic market conditions that affect the collateral’s market value. Evaluations incorporate multiple sources of data to arrive at a property’s market value, including physical inspection, independent third-party automated tools, comparable sales analysis and local market information.

Updated appraisals or evaluations are ordered when the loan becomes impaired if the appraisal or evaluation on file is more than twenty-four months old. Appraisals and evaluations are reviewed for propriety and reasonableness and may be discounted if the Company determines that the value exceeds reasonable levels. If an updated appraisal or evaluation has been ordered but has not been received by a reporting date, the fair value may be based on the most recent available appraisal or evaluation, discounted for age.

The appraisal or evaluation value for a collateral-dependent loan for which recovery is expected solely from the sale of collateral is reduced by estimated selling costs. Estimated losses on collateral-dependent loans, as well as any other impairment loss considered uncollectible, are charged against the allowance for loan losses. Impairment losses that are not considered uncollectible or for loans that are not collateral dependent are accrued in the allowance. Impaired loans with partial charge-offs are maintained as impaired until the remaining balance is satisfied. Smaller homogeneous impaired loans that are not troubled debt restructurings and are not part of a larger impaired relationship are collectively evaluated.

TDRs are impaired loans and are measured for impairment under the same valuation methods as other impaired loans. TDRs are maintained in nonaccrual status until the loan has demonstrated reasonable assurance of repayment with at least six months of consecutive timely payment performance. TDRs may be removed from TDR status, and therefore from individual evaluation, if the restructuring agreement specifies a contractual interest rate that is a market interest rate at the time of restructuring and the loan is in compliance with its modified terms one year after the restructure was completed.

 

Collectively-evaluated loans

Non-impaired loans and smaller homogeneous impaired loans that are not TDRs and not part of a larger impaired relationship are grouped by portfolio segments. Portfolio segments are further divided into smaller loan classes. Loans within a segment or class have similar risk characteristics.

Probable loss is determined by applying historical net charge-off rates as well as additional percentages for trends and current levels of quantitative and qualitative factors. Loss rates are calculated for and applied to individual classes by averaging loss rates over the most recent eight quarters. The look-back period of eight quarters is applied consistently among all classes.

Two loss rates for each class are calculated: total net charge-offs for the class as a percentage of average class loan balance (“class loss rate”), and total net charge-offs for the class as a percentage of average classified loans in the class (“classified loss rate”). Classified loans are those with risk ratings that indicate credit quality is “substandard”, “doubtful” or “loss”. Net charge-offs in both calculations include charge-offs and recoveries of classified and non-classified loans as well as those associated with impaired loans. Class historical loss rates are applied to collectively-evaluated non-classified loan balances, and classified historical loss rates are applied to collectively-evaluated classified loan balances.

Qualitative factors are evaluated and allocations are applied to each class. Qualitative factors include delinquency rates, loan quality and concentrations, loan officers’ experience, changes in lending policies and changes in the loan review process. Economic factors such as unemployment rates, bankruptcy rates and others are evaluated, with standard allocations applied consistently to relevant classes.

The Company accrues additional allocations for criticized loans within each class and for loans designated high risk. Criticized loans include classified loans as well as loans rated “special mention”. Loans rated special mention indicate weakened credit quality but to a lesser degree than classified loans. High risk loans are defined as junior lien mortgages, loans with high loan-to-value ratios and loans with terms that require interest only payments. Both criticized loans and high risk loans are included in the base risk analysis for each class and are allocated additional reserves.

 

Estimation of the allowance for loan losses

The estimation of the allowance involves analysis of internal and external variables, methodologies, assumptions and our judgment and experience. Key judgments used in determining the allowance for loan losses include internal risk rating determinations, market and collateral values, discount rates, loss rates, and our view of current economic conditions. These judgments are inherently subjective and our actual losses could be greater or less than the estimate. Future estimates of the allowance could increase or decrease based on changes in the financial condition of individual borrowers, concentrations of various types of loans, economic conditions or the markets in which collateral may be sold. The estimate of the allowance accrual determines the amount of provision expense and directly affects our financial results.

 

 

The estimate of the allowance for December 31, 2019 considered market and portfolio conditions during 2019 as well as net charge-offs in the eight quarters prior to the quarter ended December 31, 2019. If the economy experiences a downturn, the ultimate amount of loss could vary from that estimate. For additional discussion of the allowance, see Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements and “Asset Quality,” and “Provision and Allowance for Loan Losses.”

 

 Goodwill

 

Goodwill is subject to at least an annual assessment for impairment by applying a fair value based test. The Company performs impairment testing in the fourth quarter of each year. The Company’s most recent impairment test was performed using data from September 30, 2019. Accounting guidance provides the option of performing preliminary assessment of qualitative factors before performing more substantial testing for impairment. The Company opted not to perform the preliminary assessment. The Company’s goodwill impairment analysis considered three valuation techniques appropriate to the measurement. The first technique uses the Company’s market capitalization as an estimate of fair value; the second technique estimates fair value using current market pricing multiples for companies comparable to the Company; while the third technique uses current market pricing multiples for change-of-control transactions involving companies comparable to the Company. Each measure indicated that the Company’s fair value exceeded its book value, validating that goodwill is not impaired.

Certain key judgments were used in the valuation measurement. Goodwill is held by the Company’s bank subsidiary. The bank subsidiary is 100% owned by the Company, and no market capitalization is available. Because most of the Company’s assets are comprised of the subsidiary bank’s equity, the Company’s market capitalization was used to estimate the Bank’s market capitalization. Other judgments include the assumption that the companies and transactions used as comparables for the second and third technique were appropriate to the estimate of the Company’s fair value, and that the comparable multiples are appropriate indicators of fair value, and compliant with accounting guidance.

 

Other Real Estate Owned (“OREO”)

 

Real estate acquired through, or in lieu of, foreclosure is held for sale and is stated at fair value of the property, less estimated disposal costs, if any. Any excess of cost over the fair value less costs to sell at the time of acquisition is charged to the allowance for loan losses. The fair value is reviewed periodically by management and any write-downs are charged against current earnings. Accounting policy and treatment is consistent with accounting for impaired loans described above.

 

Pension Plan

 

The Company’s actuary determines plan obligations and annual pension expense using a number of key assumptions. Key assumptions may include the discount rate, the estimated return on plan assets and the anticipated rate of compensation increases. Changes in these assumptions in the future, if any, or in the method under which benefits are calculated may impact pension assets, liabilities or expense.

 

Other Than Temporary Impairment ("OTTI") of Securities 

 

Impairment of securities occurs when the fair value of a security is less than its amortized cost.  For debt securities, impairment is considered other-than-temporary and recognized in its entirety in net income if either (i) the Company intends to sell the security or (ii) it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis.  If, however, the Company does not intend to sell the security and it is not more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery, the Company must determine what portion of the impairment is attributable to a credit loss, which occurs when the amortized cost basis of the security exceeds the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected from the security.  If there is no credit loss, there is no OTTI.  If there is a credit loss, OTTI exists, and the credit loss must be recognized in net income and the remaining portion of impairment must be recognized in other comprehensive income (loss).  The Company regularly reviews each investment security for OTTI based on criteria that include the extent to which cost exceeds market price, the duration of that market decline, the financial health of and specific prospects for the issuer, the Company’s best estimate of the present value of cash flows expected to be collected from debt securities, the Company’s intention with regard to holding the security to maturity and the likelihood that the Company would be required to sell the security before recovery.

 

Overview

 

National Bankshares, Inc. is a financial holding company incorporated under the laws of Virginia. Located in southwest Virginia, NBI has two wholly-owned subsidiaries, the National Bank of Blacksburg and National Bankshares Financial Services, Inc. NBB, which does business as National Bank from twenty-five office locations and one loan production office, is a community bank. NBB is the source of nearly all of the Company’s revenue. NBFS does business as National Bankshares Investment Services and National Bankshares Insurance Services. Income from NBFS is not significant at this time, nor is it expected to be so in the near future. 

National Bankshares, Inc. common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market and is traded under the symbol “NKSH.” National Bankshares, Inc. has been included in the Russell Investments Russell 3000 and Russell 2000 Indexes since June 29, 2009.

 

 

Performance Summary

 

The following table presents NBI’s key performance ratios for the years ending December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018:

 

   

Year Ended December 31,

   

2019

 

2018

Return on average assets

    1.39

%

    1.29

%

Return on average equity

    9.87

%

    8.65

%

Basic net earnings per common share

  $ 2.65     $ 2.32  

Fully diluted net earnings per common share

  $ 2.65     $ 2.32  

Net interest margin (1)

    3.29

%

    3.36

%

Noninterest margin (2)

    1.44

%

    1.40

%

 

 

(1)

Net Interest Margin – Non-GAAP measure of year-to-date tax equivalent net interest income divided by year-to-date average interest-earning assets.  Please see “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a reconciliation of non-GAAP measures to GAAP.

 

(2)

Noninterest Margin – Non-GAAP measure of noninterest expense (excluding the insurance receivable write-down, provision for bad debts and income taxes) less noninterest income (excluding securities gains and losses) divided by average year-to-date assets.  Please see “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a reconciliation of non-GAAP measures to GAAP.

 

The key performance ratios provide a summary of the Company’s results and allow comparison with results from prior years and with current peer results. The return on average assets for the year ended December 31, 2019 was 1.39%, an increase from 1.29% for the year ended December 31, 2018. The return on average equity increased from 8.65% for the year ended December 31, 2018 to 9.87% for the year ended December 31, 2019.

The net interest margin decreased from 3.36% for the year ended December 31, 2018 to 3.29% for the year ended December 31, 2019. The Federal Reserve interest rates were higher for most of 2019 compared with 2018, benefitting the yield on earning assets but increasing the cost of interest-bearing liabilities.

The noninterest margin increased from 1.40% to 1.44% over the same period, while      basic net earnings per common share increased from $2.32 for the year ended December 31, 2018 to $2.65 for the year ended December 31, 2019.

 

Growth

 

NBI’s key growth indicators are shown in the following table:

 

$ in thousands

 

12/31/2019

 

12/31/2018

Securities

  $ 436,483     $ 426,230  

Loans, net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs, and the allowance for loan losses

    726,588       702,409  

Deposits

    1,119,753       1,051,942  

Total assets

    1,321,837       1,256,032  

 

Securities, loans and total assets increased when amounts at December 31, 2019 are compared with amounts at December 31, 2018.  Customer deposits increased $67,811 or 6.45% from December 31, 2018, with increases mainly from interest-bearing demand deposits and certificates of deposit. The liquidity provided by the increase of deposits supported growth in loans of $24,179 or 3.44% and growth in securities of $10,253 or 2.41%.

 

 

Asset Quality

 

Key indicators of NBI’s asset quality are presented in the following table:

 

$ in thousands

 

12/31/2019

 

12/31/2018

Nonperforming loans(1)

  $ 3,375     $ 3,420  

Loans past due 90 days or more and accruing

    231       35  

Other real estate owned

    1,612       2,052  

Allowance for loan losses to loans(2)

    0.94

%

    1.04

%

Net charge-off ratio

    0.09

%

    0.07

%

 

 

(1)

Nonperforming loans include nonaccrual loans plus restructured loans in nonaccrual status. Accruing restructured loans are not included.

 

(2)

Loans are net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs.

 

The Company monitors asset quality indicators in managing credit risk and in determining the allowance and provision for loan losses. At December 31, 2019, nonperforming loans were $3,375 or 0.46% of loans net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs. This compares to $3,420 or 0.48% at December 31, 2018. Loans past due 90 days or more and still accruing at year-end 2019 totaled $231, an increase from $35 at December 31, 2018.  The net charge-off ratio increased from 0.07% for the year ended December 31, 2018 to 0.09% for the year ended December 31, 2019, while OREO decreased $440 for the same period.

The Company’s risk analysis determined an allowance for loan losses of $6,863 at December 31, 2019, resulting in a provision for the year of $126. This compares with an allowance for loan losses of $7,390 as of December 31, 2018, and a recovery of $81 for the year ended December 31, 2018. The ratio of the allowance for loan losses to loans decreased to 0.94% at December 31, 2019, from 1.04% at December 31, 2018. The methodology for determining the allowance for loan losses relies on historical charge-off trends, modified by trends in nonperforming loans and economic indicators. More information about the level and calculation methodology of the allowance for loan losses is provided in “Provision and Allowance for Loan Losses”,  “Balance Sheet – Loans – Risk Elements,” “Balance Sheet – Loans – Troubled Debt Restructurings,” as well as Notes 1 and 5 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Sufficient resources have been dedicated to working out problem assets, and exposure to loss is somewhat mitigated because most of the nonperforming loans are collateralized. More information about nonaccrual and past due loans is provided in “Balance Sheet – Loans – Risk Elements” and Note 5 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. The Company continues to monitor risk levels within the loan portfolio and expects that any further increase in the allowance for loan losses would be the result of the refinement of loss estimates and would not dramatically affect net income.

 

Net Interest Income

 

Net interest income was $37,767 for the year ended December 31, 2019, $38,177 for the year ended December 31, 2018 and $37,135 for the year ended December 31, 2017. The net interest margin was 3.29% for 2019, 3.36% for 2018 and 3.45% for 2017.  Total interest income was $45,147 for the year ended December 31, 2019, $43,224 for the year ended December 31, 2018 and $41,260 for the year ended December 31, 2017. Interest expense was $7,380 for the year ended December 31, 2019, $5,047 for the year ended December 31, 2018 and $4,125 for the year ended December 31, 2017.

The amount of net interest income earned is affected by various factors, including changes in market interest rates due to the Federal Reserve‘s monetary policy, U.S. fiscal policy, competitive pressure, the level and composition of the interest-earning assets and the composition of interest-bearing liabilities.

The Federal Reserve increased its target federal funds rate by 25 basis points in March, June, September and December, 2018 and then decreased the rate by 25 basis points in July, September, and October 2019, ending the year at a target of 1.75%.  Changes in the Federal Reserve’s target interest rate immediately impact the yield on the Company’s interest-bearing deposits in other banks, and have a slightly delayed impact on other interest-earning assets. The Federal Reserve’s target interest rate also impacts the Company’s cost of interest-bearing liabilities.

The primary source of funds used to support the Company’s interest-earning assets is deposits. Deposits are obtained in the Company’s market through traditional marketing techniques. The cost of deposits is dependent on interest rate levels and competitive factors.  Increases in the Federal Reserve’s target interest rate may increase competitive pressure to raise deposit offering rates, while decreases in the Federal Reserve’s target interest rate allow reduced deposit offering rates.  Time deposits provide a measure of stability in the cost of funds, but partially delay the Company’s ability to respond to downward rate movements. The Company also has access to other funding sources, including the FHLB. 

Interest expense in 2019 was influenced by increased deposit offering rates in the latter part of 2018 that carried in to 2019 and were required to remain competitive in what was a rising interest rate environment.  Interest expense in 2018 included the cost of short-term borrowings to meet loan demand while anticipating maturity of securities and an increase in deposits that is typical during the fourth quarter. Please refer to the section titled “Analysis of Changes In Interest Income and Interest Expense” for further information related to rate and volume changes.

 

 

The net interest margin is a non-GAAP measure that incorporates the effect of tax-advantaged instruments, including qualifying investments and loans to municipalities.  For purposes of the net interest margin, interest income on tax-advantaged instruments is grossed up to reflect the value of lower tax expense.  The Tax Act became effective January 1, 2018 and decreased the Company’s tax rate from a marginal 35% in 2017 to a flat 21% in 2018 and 2019.  This decreased the value of tax-advantaged instruments when 2019 and 2018 are compared with 2017.

Management has the ability to respond over time to interest rate movements, statutory tax rate changes and other influencing factors to reduce volatility in the net interest margin. However, the frequency and/or magnitude of changes in market interest rates and legislative changes are difficult to predict and may have a greater impact on net interest income than adjustments by management.

 

Analysis of Net Interest Earnings

 

The following table shows the major categories of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, the interest earned or paid, the average yield or rate on the daily average balance outstanding, net interest income and net yield on average interest-earning assets for the years indicated.

 

   

December 31, 2019

 

December 31, 2018

 

December 31, 2017

$ in thousands

 


Average
Balance

 

Interest

 

Average
Yield/
Rate

 

Average
Balance

 

Interest

 

Average
Yield/
Rate

 

Average
Balance

 

Interest

 

Average
Yield/
Rate

Interest-earning assets:

                                                                       

Loans, net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs (1)(2)(3)(4)

  $ 719,916     $ 34,334       4.77

%

  $ 683,624     $ 31,739       4.64

%

  $ 653,756     $ 30,593       4.68

%

Taxable securities(5)

    304,292       6,725       2.21

%

    340,594       6,856       2.01

%

    313,255       5,711       1.82

%

Nontaxable securities (1)(5)

    89,631       3,854       4.30

%

    123,668       5,544       4.48

%

    131,762       7,462       5.66

%

Interest-bearing deposits

    74,527       1,523       2.04

%

    36,562       672       1.84

%

    71,603       791       1.10

%

Total interest-earning assets

  $ 1,188,366     $ 46,436       3.91

%

  $ 1,184,448     $ 44,811       3.78

%

  $ 1,170,376     $ 44,557       3.81

%

Interest-bearing liabilities:

                                                                       

Interest-bearing demand deposits

  $ 601,884     $ 5,126       0.85

%

  $ 606,766     $ 4,121       0.68

%

  $ 598,661     $ 3,344       0.56

%

Savings deposits

    142,985       449       0.31

%

    140,918       236       0.17

%

    140,997       244       0.17

%

Time deposits

    116,844       1,805       1.54

%

    105,674       526       0.50

%

    120,220       537       0.45

%

Borrowings

    ---       ---       ---       7,192       164       2.28

%

    ---       ---       ---  

Total interest-bearing liabilities

  $ 861,713     $ 7,380       0.86

%

  $ 860,550     $ 5,047       0.59

%

  $ 859,878     $ 4,125       0.48

%

Net interest income(1) and interest rate spread

          $ 39,056       3.05

%

          $ 39,764       3.19

%

          $ 40,432       3.33

%

Net yield on average interest-earning assets

                    3.29

%

                    3.36

%

                    3.45

%

 

 

(1)

Interest on nontaxable loans and securities is computed on a fully taxable equivalent basis using a Federal income tax rate of 21% in 2018 and 2019 and 35% in 2017.

 

(2)

Loan fees included in total interest income are $99 in 2019, $115 in 2018 and $303 in 2017.

 

(3)

Nonaccrual loans are included in average balances for yield computations.

  (4) Includes loans held for sale.
 

(5)

Daily averages are shown at amortized cost.

 

 

The following table reconciles net interest income on a fully-taxable equivalent basis to net interest income on a GAAP basis for the years indicated.

 

$ in thousands

 

December 31,

   

2019

 

2018

 

2017

Net interest income, GAAP

  $ 37,767     $ 38,177     $ 37,135  

Taxable equivalent adjustment

    1,289       1,587       3,297  

Net interest income, fully taxable equivalent

  $ 39,056     $ 39,764     $ 40,432  

 

 

Analysis of Changes in Interest Income and Interest Expense

 

The Company’s primary source of revenue is net interest income, which is the difference between the interest and fees earned on loans and investments and the interest paid on deposits and other funds. The Company’s net interest income is affected by changes in the amount and mix of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities and by changes in yields earned on interest-earning assets and rates paid on interest-bearing liabilities. The following table sets forth, for the years indicated, a summary of the changes in interest income and interest expense resulting from changes in average asset and liability balances (volume) and changes in average interest rates (rate).

 

$ in thousands

 

2019 Over 2018

 

2018 Over 2017

   

Changes Due To

         

Changes Due To

       
   

Rates(2)

 

Volume(2)

 

Net Dollar
Change

 

Rates(2)

 

Volume(2)

   

Net Dollar

Change

Interest income: (1)

                                               

Loans

  $ 880     $ 1,715     $ 2,595     $ (243

)

  $ 1,389     $ 1,146  

Taxable securities

    638       (769

)

    (131

)

    623       522       1,145  

Nontaxable securities

    (218

)

    (1,472

)

    (1,690

)

    (1,482

)

    (436

)

    (1,918

)

Interest-bearing deposits

    83       768       851       377       (496

)

    (119

)

Increase (decrease) in income on interest-earning assets

  $ 1,383     $ 242     $ 1,625     $ (725

)

  $ 979     $ 254  

Interest expense:

                                               

Interest-bearing demand deposits

  $ 1,038     $ (33

)

  $ 1,005     $ 731     $ 46     $ 777  

Savings deposits

    210       3       213       (8

)

    ---       (8

)

Time deposits

    1,217       62       1,279       58       (69

)

    (11

)

Short-term borrowings

    ---

 

    (164

)

    (164

)

    ---       164       164  

Increase (decrease) in expense of interest-bearing liabilities

  $ 2,465     $ (132

)

  $ 2,333     $ 781     $ 141     $ 922  

Increase (decrease) in net interest income

  $ (1,082

)

  $ 374     $ (708

)

  $ (1,506

)

  $ 838     $ (668

)

 

 

(1)

Taxable equivalent basis using a Federal income tax rate of 21% in 2018 and 2019 and 35% in 2017.

  (2) Variances caused by the change in rate times the change in volume have been allocated to rate and volume changes proportional to the relationship of the absolute dollar amounts of the change in each.

 

Net interest income on a taxable-equivalent basis decreased $708 when 2019 is compared with 2018. Total interest income on a taxable equivalent basis increased $1,625 while total interest expense increased by $2,333. Rate changes decreased net interest income by $1,000, partially offset by $292 from increased volume.

Compared with 2018, the interest rate environment in 2019 was elevated by Federal Reserve interest rate increases throughout 2018, partially offset by Federal Reserve rate decreases in the latter half of 2019.  The higher rate environment provided an increase of $83 in interest income on interest-bearing deposits, $638 on taxable securities and $880 (taxable equivalent) on loans when 2019 is compared with 2018.  Non-taxable securities generated lower taxable equivalent returns of $218 due to the loss of higher-yielding securities from sales, calls and maturities during 2019.  The Federal Reserve’s rate policies also gave rise to competitive pressures to boost customer deposit offering rates, resulting in an additional $2,465 in interest expense.

The average balance of loans grew $36,292 and the average balance of interest-bearing deposits grew $37,965 when 2019 is compared with 2018, providing additional interest income of $2,483.  The average balance of securities declined $70,339 when 2019 is compared with 2018, reducing interest income by $2,241.  During 2019, the Company implemented a plan to restructure its securities portfolio to manage interest rate risk.  Timing differences in sales and purchase activity increased the average balance of interest-bearing deposits.

 

 

The average balance of savings and time deposits grew by $13,237 when 2019 is compared with 2018, increasing interest expense by $65, partially offset by reduced expense of $33 associated with a lower average balance of interest-bearing demand deposits.

 

When 2018 is compared with 2017, net interest income on a taxable-equivalent basis decreased $668. Total interest income on a taxable equivalent basis increased $254 while total interest expense increased by $922. A decline in the yield of interest-earning assets and an increase in the yield on interest-bearing liabilities decreased net interest income by $1,506, offset by increases due to volume of $838.

The Federal Reserve increased rates by 25 basis points in December 2017 and four times in 2018. The rate increases had a direct and immediate effect on the Company’s interest-bearing deposits. Interest income on interest-bearing deposits increased $377 due to rates, but declined by $496 due to reduced volume, for a net decrease of $119 when 2018 is compared with 2017. Taxable securities also benefitted from the increased interest rate environment, as matured and called securities were invested at higher rates. Interest income on taxable securities increased $1,145 when 2018 is compared with 2017, the result of an increase of $522 due to volume along with an increase of $623 due to rates.

Taxable equivalent interest income on loans increased $1,146 when 2018 and 2017 are compared, due to robust growth in the loan portfolio. The average balance of loans increased from $653,756 in 2017 to $683,624 in 2018, increasing interest income by $1,389. The increase due to volume was offset slightly by a decrease of $243 due to yield. Taxable equivalent yields on tax-advantaged loans were negatively impacted by a decrease in the Company’s statutory tax rate from 35% in 2017 to 21% in 2018. If the 35% rate were applicable during 2018, yields would have shown an increase.

Taxable-equivalent interest on non-taxable securities declined $1,482 due to rates and $436 due to volume. The lower yields available upon reinvestment of called and matured securities negatively impacted income from securities during 2018.

Interest on time deposits declined $11 from 2017 to 2018, with a increase of $58 due to rates offset by a decline of $69 due to decreased volume.

See “Net Interest Income” for additional information related to interest income and expense.

 

Interest Rate Sensitivity

 

The Company considers interest rate risk to be a significant risk and has systems in place to measure the exposure of net interest income and fair market values to movement in interest rates. Among the tools available to management is interest rate sensitivity analysis, which provides information related to repricing opportunities. Interest rate shock simulations indicate potential economic loss due to future interest rate changes. Shock analysis is a test that measures the effect of a hypothetical, immediate and parallel shift in interest rates. The following table shows the results of a rate shock and the effects on the return on average assets and the return on average equity projected at December 31, 2019 and 2018. For purposes of this analysis, noninterest income and expenses are assumed to be flat.

 

Rate Shift (bp)

Return on Average Assets

 

Return on Average Equity

 

2019

   

2018

   

2019

   

2018

 
300   1.40

%

    1.38

%

    10.12

%

  8.84

%

200   1.40

%

    1.39

%

    10.14

%

  8.92

%

100   1.39

%

    1.40

%

    10.07

%

  8.95

%

(-)100   1.22

%

    1.32

%

    8.85

%

  8.46

%

(-)200   1.13

%

    1.16

%

    8.20

%

  7.47

%

(-)300   1.15

%

    1.12

%

    8.34

%

  7.32

%

 

Simulation analysis is another tool available to the Company to test asset and liability management strategies under rising and falling rate conditions. As a part of the simulation process, certain estimates and assumptions must be made. These include, but are not limited to, asset growth, the mix of assets and liabilities, rate environment and local and national economic conditions. Asset growth and the mix of assets can, to a degree, be influenced by management. Other areas, such as the rate environment and economic factors, cannot be controlled. In addition, competitive pressures can make it difficult to price deposits and loans in a manner that optimally minimizes interest rate risk. Therefore, actual results may vary materially from any particular forecast or shock analysis. This shortcoming is offset somewhat by the periodic reforecasting of the balance sheet to reflect current trends and economic conditions. Shock analysis must also be updated periodically as a part of the asset and liability management process.

 

 

Noninterest Income

 

The following table presents the Company’s noninterest income for the years indicated.  

 

$ in thousands

 

Year Ended

   

December 31, 2019

 

December 31, 2018

 

December 31, 2017

Service charges on deposits

  $ 2,453     $ 2,678     $ 2,776  

Other service charges and fees

    198       132       205  

Credit card fees

    1,398       1,431       1,205  

Trust fees

    1,622       1,565       1,530  

Bank-owned life insurance income

    910       901       758  

Other income

    1,643       1,005       1,148  

Realized securities gains

    566       17       14  

Total noninterest income

  $ 8,790     $ 7,729     $ 7,636  

 

Service charges on deposit accounts totaled $2,453 for the year ended December 31, 2019. This is a decrease of $225, or 8.40%, from $2,678 for the year ended December 31, 2018. Service charges on deposit accounts increased $98, or 3.53%, from 2017 to 2018. This income category is affected by the number of deposit accounts, the level of service charges and the number of checking account overdrafts. The decreases in 2019 and 2018 were driven by a decrease in fees from a lower volume of customer non-sufficient funds and overdraft activity.

Other service charges and fees include charges for official checks, income from the sale of checks to customers, safe deposit box rent, fees from letters of credit and income from commissions on the sale of credit life, accident and health insurance. These fees were $198 for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $66, or 50.00%, from $132 for 2018. The increase stemmed from higher check charges and service charges on letters of credit. The total for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $73 below the $205 posted for the year ended December 31, 2017, due to lower service charges on letters of credit and check charges. 

Credit card fees for the year ended December 31, 2019, were $33 below the $1,431 reported for the year ended December 31, 2018. From 2017 to 2018, credit card fees increased $226, or 18.76%. Credit card fees are presented net of certain processing expenses and are dependent on the volume of transactions.

Trust fees at $1,622 increased by $57 or 3.64% when the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 are compared. For the year ended December 31, 2018, trust fees were $1,565, an increase of $35, or 2.29%, from 2017. Trust fees are generated from a number of different types of accounts, including estates, personal trusts, employee benefit trusts, investment management accounts, attorney-in-fact accounts and guardianships. Trust income varies depending on the number and type of accounts under management and financial market conditions. The mix of account types affected the level of trust fees in 2018 and 2019.

Noninterest income from bank-owned life insurance (“BOLI”) increased from $901 for the year ended December 31, 2018 to $910 for 2019. Income from BOLI was affected by the performance of the variable rate policies, which has not varied significantly.  BOLI income for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $758. The Company purchased an additional $10 million in BOLI in June 2017. 

Other income is income from smaller balance accounts that cannot be classified in another category. Some examples include gains on mortgage loans sold, net gains from the sale of fixed assets and revenue from investment and insurance sales. When 2019 is compared to 2018, other income was $1,643, an increase of $638, or 63.48%. This was largely the result of a recovery from an insurance receivable. Other income for 2018 was $1,005, a decrease of $143, or 12.46%, when compared with $1,148 for the year ended December 31, 2017. In December 2017, the Company realized a gain on the sale of its Marion branch office of $134.

During 2019, the Company realized net securities gains of $566, including net gains of $438 on the sale of securities and $128 on calls of securities.  The sales of securities were pursuant to a restructuring plan to manage interest rate risk.  During 2018, the $17 realized securities gain stemmed from the call of one security with a gain of $1 and the sale of another security for a gain of $16.  During 2017, the Company sold a small investment in community bank stock that resulted in a gain of $4 while all other net realized gains resulted from calls of securities.

 

 

Noninterest Expense

 

The following table presents the Company’s noninterest expense for the years indicated.

 

$ in thousands

 

Year Ended

   

December 31, 2019

 

December 31, 2018

 

December 31, 2017

Salaries and employee benefits

  $ 15,298     $ 14,506     $ 13,670  

Occupancy, furniture and fixtures

    1,866       1,845       1,820  

Data processing and ATM

    3,171       2,784       2,280  

FDIC assessment

    167       359       364  

Intangibles amortization

    ---       50       68  

Net costs of other real estate owned

    47       553       205  

Franchise taxes

    1,333       1,278       1,315  

Write-down of insurance receivable

    ---       2,010       ---  

Other operating expenses

    3,872       3,891       4,507  

Total noninterest expense

  $ 25,754     $ 27,276     $ 24,229  

 

Salaries and employee benefits expense includes salaries, payroll taxes, health insurance, contributions to the employee stock ownership plan and employee 401(k), pension expense, incentives and salary continuation.  When 2019 is compared with 2018, salary and employee benefits expense increased $792, or 5.46%, from $14,506 for the year ended December 31, 2018 to $15,298 for 2019.  The increase was the result of normal staffing and compensation decisions.

Salary and benefits expense increased $836, or 6.12%, from $13,670 for the year ended December 31, 2017 to $14,506 for 2018. When compared to 2017, the expense in 2018 was increased by health insurance reserve requirements, higher contribution for the employee stock ownership plan and greater pension expense. In 2017, health insurance expense was reduced by a one-time $175 refund, while in 2018 the expense increased $240 for reserve requirements based on claims history.  The contribution to the employee stock ownership plan is determined by management based on overall Company performance, while the pension expense is determined by the Company’s actuarial calculations.

Occupancy, furniture and fixtures expense was $1,866 for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $21, or 1.14%, from the prior year. When 2018 is compared with 2017, the expense increased $25 or 1.37%.

Data processing and ATM expense was $3,171 in 2019, $2,784 in 2018 and $2,280 in 2017. The increase of $387 or 13.90% from 2018 to 2019 and $504 or 22.11% from 2017 to 2018 was due to increased maintenance expense associated with infrastructure upgrades. The Company is committed to maintaining up-to-date technology in a cost-effective manner.

When the years ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 are compared, the FDIC assessment expense decreased $192 or 53.48%. The total expense for 2019 was $167, which compares with $359 for 2018. The FDIC assessment is accrued based on a method provided by the FDIC. During the third quarter of 2019, the FDIC notified the Bank that it was eligible to use small bank assessment credits. The credits were applied to the Bank’s September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2019 assessments. If the FDIC’s Deposit Insurance Fund Reserve Ratio maintains a certain ratio, the Bank may be able to use additional credits for future assessments. The FDIC assessment expense for the year ended December 31, 2018 decreased $5 from $364 for 2017. 

Core deposit intangibles are the result of prior merger and acquisition activity and are amortized over a period of years. Amortization of the Company’s intangible assets was completed in 2018. This accounted for the decline in intangibles amortization expense of $50 when 2019 and 2018 are compared.  The expense for intangibles amortization decreased $18 from 2017 to 2018, due to certain core deposit intangibles becoming fully amortized.

Net costs of OREO decreased from $553 for the period ended December 31, 2018 to $47 for the year ended December 31, 2019. From 2017 to 2018, net costs of OREO increased $348 from $205. This expense category varies with the number of foreclosed properties owned by NBB and with the expense associated with each. It includes write-downs on OREO plus other costs associated with carrying these properties, as well as net gains or losses on the sale of other real estate. There were no write-downs on OREO in 2019. This compares with $476 in 2018 and $113 in 2017. Other real estate is initially accounted for at fair value less estimated costs to sell using current valuations, which include appraisals, real estate evaluations and realtor market opinions. If new valuation information indicates a decline from the initial basis, the Company records a write-down. Other costs for these properties in 2019 were $42, compared with $64 in 2018 and $80 in 2017. The Company recorded a loss of $5 on the sale of OREO in 2019, a loss of $13 for 2018 and a loss of $12 for 2017. The Company’s market area shows positive economic signs, and the national economy appears to show mixed economic signals.  There may be additional foreclosures in the future. The Company currently has loans of $509 in process of foreclosure.

Franchise taxes are based upon NBB’s total equity at the prior year-end, adjusted for real estate taxes and certain other items.  Franchise taxes were $1,333 for the period ended December 31, 2019 and $1,278 for 2018, an increase of $55 or 4.30%. Franchise tax expense decreased $37 in 2018 from $1,315 in 2017.

The write-down of insurance receivables totaled $2,010 for the year ended December 31, 2018. The write-down is associated with the two cybersecurity breaches. Please see additional information under the heading “Cybersecurity Risks and Incidents”.

 

 

The category of other operating expenses includes noninterest expense items such as professional services, stationery and supplies, telephone costs and charitable donations. For the year ended December 31, 2019, other operating expenses were $3,872. This compares with $3,891 for 2018 and $4,507 for 2017. The $616 decrease from 2017 to 2018 was due to a loss of $189 resulting from a wire fraud in 2017 and a decrease in expenses associated with consulting services related to the cybersecurity breaches and the non-servicing component of pension expense.

 

Cybersecurity Risks and Incidents

 

The Company treats cybersecurity risk seriously. The Company has a program to identify, mitigate and manage its cybersecurity risks. The program includes penetration testing and vulnerability assessment, technological defenses such as antivirus software, patch management, firewall management, email and web protections, an intrusion prevention system, a cybersecurity insurance policy which covers some but not all losses arising from cybersecurity breaches, as well as ongoing employee training. The costs of these measures were $365 for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, $345 for the twelve months ended December 31, 2018 and $277 for the twelve months ended December 31, 2017. These costs are included in various categories of noninterest expense.

The Company experienced two intrusions to its digital systems, one in May 2016 and one in January 2017. Hackers and related organized criminal groups obtained unauthorized access to certain customer accounts. The attacks disabled certain systems protections, including limits on the number, amount, and frequency of ATM withdrawals. The attacks resulted in the theft of funds disbursed through ATMs. In the May 2016 attack, hackers accessed customer funds and in the January 2017 intrusion, the hackers artificially inflated account balances and did not access customer funds. The Company notified all affected customers, and restored all funds so that no customer experienced a loss. The Company retained a nationally recognized firm to investigate and remediate the May 2016 intrusion and a separate nationally recognized firm to investigate and remediate the January 2017 intrusion. The Company adopted and implemented all of the recommendations provided through the investigations.

The financial impact of the attacks include the amount of the theft, as well as costs of investigation and remediation. The theft of funds totaled $570 in the May 2016 attack and $1,838 in the January 2017 attack. The Company recognized an estimated loss of $347 in 2016, and $2,010 in 2018, with a remaining insurance receivable of $50 at December 31, 2018. Costs for investigation, remediation, and legal consultation totaled $157 in 2019, $224 in 2018 and $407 in 2017. The Company’s litigation against the insurance carrier was settled during the first quarter of 2019, subject to a non-disclosure agreement. There has been no litigation against the Company to date associated with the breaches.

We have deployed a multi-faceted approach to limit the risk and impact of unauthorized access to customer accounts and to information relevant to customer accounts. We use digital technology safeguards, internal policies and procedures, and employee training to reduce the exposure of our systems to cyber-intrusions. However, it is not possible to fully eliminate exposure. The potential for financial and reputational losses due to cyber-breaches is increased by the possibility of human error, unknown system susceptibilities, and the rising sophistication of cyber-criminals to attack systems, disable safeguards and gain access to accounts and related information. The Company maintains insurance which provides a degree of coverage depending on the nature and circumstances of any cyber penetration but cannot be relied upon to reimburse fully the Company for all losses that may arise. The Company has adopted new protections and invested additional resources to increase its security.

 

Income Taxes

 

Income tax expense for 2019 was $3,211 compared to $2,560 in 2018 and $6,293 in 2017. During 2019 and 2018, the Company’s statutory tax rate was 21%; during 2017, the Company’s marginal tax rate was 35%.  The decrease in the tax rate was due to the enactment on December 22, 2017 of the Tax Act, which became effective January 1, 2018. 

The Company’s effective tax rates for 2019, 2018 and 2017 were 15.53%, 13.68% and 30.87%, respectively.  The expected income tax expense based on the Company’s statutory tax rate differs from the actual income tax expense due to tax exempt income on municipal securities and loans, and in 2017, the re-valuation of deferred tax assets from 35% to 21%. GAAP requires deferred tax assets to be valued at the tax rate at which the Company expects to realize them.  As a result of the change in the Company’s tax rate, the Company recognized a revaluation adjustment of $1,560 in 2017, with a corresponding charge to income tax expense.  See Note 9 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for information relating to income taxes.

 

Effects of Inflation

 

The Company’s consolidated statements of income generally reflect the effects of inflation. Since interest rates, loan demand and deposit levels are related to inflation, the resulting changes are included in net income. The most significant item which does not reflect the effects of inflation is depreciation expense. Historical dollar values used to determine depreciation expense do not reflect the effects of inflation on the market value of depreciable assets after their acquisition.

 

 

Provision and Allowance for Loan Losses

 

The Company’s risk analysis at December 31, 2019 determined an allowance for loan losses of $6,863 or 0.94% of loans net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs, a decrease from $7,390 or 1.04% at December 31, 2018.  The determination of the appropriate level for the allowance for loan losses resulted in a provision of $126 for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, compared with a recovery for the twelve month period ended December 31, 2018 of $81.  To determine the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses, the Company considers credit risk for certain loans designated as impaired and for non-impaired collectively evaluated loans. 

Individually evaluated impaired loans totaled $5,289 on a gross basis and net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs, with specific allocations to the allowance for loan losses totaling $110 at December 31, 2019.  Individually evaluated impaired loans at December 31, 2018 were $6,820 on a gross basis as well as net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs, with specific allocations to the allowance for loan losses of $139.  The specific allocation is determined based on criteria particular to each impaired loan.

Collectively evaluated loans totaled $728,738 on a gross basis and $728,162 net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs, with an allowance of $6,753 or 0.93% at December 31, 2019. At December 31, 2018, collectively evaluated loans totaled $703,577 on a gross basis and $702,979 net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs, with an allowance of $7,251 or 1.03%.

For collectively evaluated loans, the Company applies to each loan class a historical net charge-off rate, adjusted for qualitative factors that influence credit risk. Qualitative factors evaluated for impact to credit risk include economic measures, asset quality indicators, loan characteristics, and changes to internal Bank policies and management.

Net charge-off rates for each class are averaged over eight quarters (two years) to determine the historical net charge off rate applied to each class of collectively evaluated loans. Net charge-offs for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 were $653 or 0.09% of average loans, an increase from $454 or 0.07% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2018. The eight-quarter average historical loss rate applied to the calculation was 0.08% for the period ended December 31, 2019 and 0.07% for the period ended December 31, 2018. Increases in the net charge-off rate increase the required allowance for collectively evaluated loans, while decreases in the net charge-off rate decrease the required allowance for collectively evaluated loans.

Economic factors influence credit risk and impact the allowance for loan loss.  The Company considers economic indicators within its market area, including: unemployment, personal bankruptcy filings, business bankruptcy filings, the interest rate environment, residential vacancy rates, housing inventory for sale, and the competitive environment. Lower unemployment lowers credit risk and the allowance for loan losses, while higher unemployment increases credit risk.  Higher bankruptcy filings indicate heightened credit risk and increase the allowance for loan losses, while lower bankruptcy filings have a beneficial impact on credit risk.  The interest rate environment impacts variable rate loans.  As interest rates increase, the payment on variable rate loans increases, which may increase credit risk.  However the effect of gradual, measured interest rate changes does not affect credit risk as much as a volatile interest rate environment.  Residential vacancy rates and housing inventory for sale impact the Company’s residential construction customers and the consumer real estate market.  Higher levels increase credit risk.  Higher competition for loans increases credit risk, while lower competition decreases credit risk.

Within the Company’s market area, the number of personal bankruptcies increased from levels at December 31, 2018, indicating increased credit risk.  The competitive, legal and regulatory environments and the inventory of new and existing homes remained at similar levels to December 31, 2018.  Business bankruptcies, interest rates, residential vacancy rates and the unemployment rate decreased when compared with levels at December 31, 2018.  The Company assessed the decreases as positive indicators for credit risk, and reduced the risk allocation.

The Company considers other factors that impact credit risk, including the risk from changes in the legal and regulatory environments, changes to lending policies and loan review, and changes in management’s experience.  The legal and regulatory environment, lending policies, and management’s experience remained at similar levels to December 31, 2018.  Slight changes to the loan review system to align with regulatory guidance resulted in a slight increase in the allocation.

Asset quality indicators affect the level of the allowance for loan losses. Accruing loans past due 30-89 days were 0.15% of total loans, net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs at December 31, 2019,  a decrease from 0.23% at December 31, 2018. Accruing loans past due 90 days or more were 0.03% of total loans, net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs at December 31, 2019, and 0.00% at December 31, 2018. Nonaccrual loans at December 31, 2019 were 0.46% of total loans, net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs, a decrease from 0.48% at December 31, 2018. Decreases in past due and nonaccrual loans reduce the required level of the allowance for loan losses, while increases in past due and nonaccrual loans increase the required level of the allowance for loan losses.

Levels of high risk loans are considered in the determination of the level of the allowance for loan loss. High risk loans are defined by the Company as loans secured by junior liens, interest-only loans and loans with a high loan-to-value ratio. A decrease in the level of high risk loans within a class decreases the required allocation for the loan class, and an increase in the level of high risk loans within a class increases the required allocation for the loan class. Total high risk loans decreased $28,386 or 18.07% from the level at December 31, 2018, resulting in a decreased allocation.

Loans rated “special mention” and “classified” (together, “criticized assets”) indicate heightened credit risk. Higher levels of criticized assets increase the required level of the allowance for collectively evaluated loans, while lower levels of criticized assets reduce the required level of the allowance for collectively evaluated loans. Loans rated special mention receive a 50% greater allocation for qualitative risk factors, and loans rated classified receive a 100% greater allocation for qualitative risk factors. A classified loss rate is also applied to classified loans, calculated as net charge offs divided by classified loans.  During the third quarter of 2019, the Bank slightly revised the loan risk rating system to align with regulatory guidance.  After the revision, the “special mention” rating is no longer applied to consumer loans.  The allowance for loan losses includes a two basis point adjustment to account for the change. Collectively evaluated loans rated “special mention” were $135 at December 31, 2019 and $1,455 at December 31, 2018. Collectively evaluated loans rated classified were $961 at December 31, 2019 and $735 at December 31, 2018.

 

 

The calculation of the appropriate level for the allowance for loan losses incorporates analysis of multiple factors and requires management’s prudent and informed judgment. The ratio of the allowance for loan losses to total loans, net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs at December 31, 2019 was 0.94%, a decrease from 1.04% at December 31, 2018. The ratio of the allowance for collectively evaluated loan losses to collectively evaluated loans, net of unearned income and deferred fees and costs was 0.93%, compared with 1.03% at December 31, 2018. Improvements that decreased the required level of the allowance for loan losses from December 31, 2018 included loans past due 30-89 days, loans rated special mention and classified, loans considered high risk, the interest rate environment, business bankruptcies, residential vacancy rate, the unemployment rate and nonaccrual loans.  Other indicators slightly offset the improvements, including a slight worsening in personal bankruptcy and loans past due 90 days.  Based on analysis of historical indicators, asset quality and economic factors, management believes the level of allowance for loan losses is reasonable for the credit risk in the loan portfolio.

 

Quarterly Results of Operations

 

The following is a summary of the unaudited quarterly results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017:

 

$ in thousands, except per share data

 

2019

   

First
Quarter

 

Second
Quarter

 

Third
Quarter

 

Fourth
Quarter

Income Statement Data:

                               

Interest income

  $ 11,138     $ 11,293     $ 11,288     $ 11,428  

Interest expense

    1,793       1,914       1,865       1,808  

Net interest income

    9,345       9,379       9,423       9,620  

Provision for (recovery of) loan losses

    200       55       95       (224

)

Noninterest income

    2,489       1,856       2,098       2,347  

Noninterest expense

    6,465       6,453       6,386       6,450  

Income taxes

    726       733       788       964  

Net income

  $ 4,443     $ 3,994     $ 4,252     $ 4,777  

Per Share Data:

                               

Basic net income per common share

  $ 0.65     $ 0.61     $ 0.65     $ 0.74  

Fully diluted net income per common share

    0.65       0.61       0.65       0.74  

Cash dividends per common share

    ---       0.67       ---       0.72  

Book value per common share

    27.86       28.26       28.97       28.31  

 

 

$ in thousands, except per share data

 

2018

   

First
Quarter

 

Second
Quarter

 

Third
Quarter

 

Fourth
Quarter

Income Statement Data:

                               

Interest income

  $ 10,484     $ 10,726     $ 10,945     $ 11,069  

Interest expense

    1,081       1,145       1,245       1,576  

Net interest income

    9,403       9,581       9,700       9,493  

Provision for (recovery of) loan losses

    (472

)

    342       223       (174

)

Noninterest income

    2,023       1,868       1,914       1,924  

Noninterest expense

    8,164       6,424       6,463       6,225  

Income taxes

    438       642       677       803  

Net income

  $ 3,296     $ 4,041     $ 4,251     $ 4,563  

Per Share Data:

                               

Basic net income per common share

  $ 0.47     $ 0.58     $ 0.61     $ 0.66  

Fully diluted net income per common share

    0.47       0.58       0.61       0.66  

Cash dividends per common share

    ---       0.58       ---       0.63  

Book value per common share

    26.67       26.71       27.04       27.34  

 

 

$ in thousands, except per share data

 

2017

   

First
Quarter

 

Second
Quarter

 

Third
Quarter

 

Fourth
Quarter

Income Statement Data:

                               

Interest income

  $ 10,238     $ 10,295     $ 10,301     $ 10,426  

Interest expense

    1,028       1,048       1,021       1,028  

Net interest income

    9,210       9,247       9,280       9,398  

Provision for (recovery of) loan losses

    59       464       201       (567

)

Noninterest income

    1,850       1,731       1,884       2,171  

Noninterest expense

    6,283       5,974       6,031       5,941  

Income taxes

    1,069       970       1,147       3,107  

Net income

  $ 3,649     $ 3,570     $ 3,785     $ 3,088  

Per Share Data:

                               

Basic net income per common share

  $ 0.52     $ 0.51     $ 0.54     $ 0.46  

Fully diluted net income per common share

    0.52       0.51