Company Quick10K Filing
Netlist
Price0.32 EPS-0
Shares154 P/E-3
MCap49 P/FCF-5
Net Debt8 EBIT-15
TEV57 TEV/EBIT-4
TTM 2019-09-28, in MM, except price, ratios
10-Q 2021-04-03 Filed 2021-05-18
10-K 2021-01-02 Filed 2021-03-26
10-Q 2020-09-26 Filed 2020-11-10
10-Q 2020-06-27 Filed 2020-08-11
10-Q 2020-03-28 Filed 2020-05-08
10-K 2019-12-28 Filed 2020-03-10
10-Q 2019-09-28 Filed 2019-11-05
10-Q 2019-06-29 Filed 2019-08-09
10-Q 2019-03-30 Filed 2019-05-14
10-K 2018-12-29 Filed 2019-03-22
10-Q 2018-09-29 Filed 2018-11-13
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-08-14
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10-K 2017-12-30 Filed 2018-03-30
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-11-14
10-Q 2017-07-01 Filed 2017-08-15
10-Q 2017-04-01 Filed 2017-05-16
10-K 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-03-31
10-Q 2016-10-01 Filed 2016-11-15
10-Q 2016-07-02 Filed 2016-08-16
10-Q 2016-04-02 Filed 2016-05-17
10-K 2016-01-02 Filed 2016-03-04
10-Q 2015-09-26 Filed 2015-11-10
10-Q 2015-06-27 Filed 2015-08-11
10-Q 2015-03-28 Filed 2015-05-12
10-K 2014-12-27 Filed 2015-03-27
10-Q 2014-09-27 Filed 2014-11-12
10-Q 2014-06-28 Filed 2014-08-12
10-Q 2014-03-29 Filed 2014-05-13
10-K 2013-12-28 Filed 2014-03-18
10-Q 2013-09-28 Filed 2013-11-12
10-Q 2013-06-29 Filed 2013-08-13
10-Q 2013-03-30 Filed 2013-05-14
10-K 2012-12-29 Filed 2013-03-29
10-Q 2012-09-29 Filed 2012-11-13
10-Q 2012-06-30 Filed 2012-08-14
10-Q 2012-03-31 Filed 2012-05-15
10-K 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-02-28
10-Q 2011-10-01 Filed 2011-11-15
10-Q 2011-07-02 Filed 2011-08-15
10-Q 2011-04-02 Filed 2011-05-12
10-K 2011-01-01 Filed 2011-03-03
10-Q 2010-10-02 Filed 2010-11-16
10-Q 2010-07-03 Filed 2010-08-12
10-Q 2010-04-03 Filed 2010-05-17
10-K 2010-01-02 Filed 2010-02-19
8-K 2020-11-10
8-K 2020-08-14
8-K 2020-08-11
8-K 2020-08-07
8-K 2020-06-15
8-K 2020-05-06
8-K 2020-04-07
8-K 2020-03-05
8-K 2020-01-31
8-K 2020-01-29
8-K 2019-11-04
8-K 2019-08-14
8-K 2019-08-08
8-K 2019-07-01
8-K 2019-06-24
8-K 2019-05-14
8-K 2019-04-16
8-K 2019-02-27
8-K 2019-01-31
8-K 2018-11-08
8-K 2018-09-25
8-K 2018-09-12
8-K 2018-08-27
8-K 2018-08-15
8-K 2018-07-31
8-K 2018-07-06
8-K 2018-05-17
8-K 2018-05-17
8-K 2018-05-15
8-K 2018-04-16
8-K 2018-03-29
8-K 2018-03-27
8-K 2018-03-20
8-K 2018-01-16
8-K 2018-01-03

NLST 10Q Quarterly Report

Part I. - Financial Information
Item 1.Financial Statements
Note 1 - Description of Business
Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3 - Supplemental Financial Information
Note 4 - Credit Agreement
Note 5 - Debt
Note 6 - Leases
Note 7 - Commitments and Contingencies
Note 8 - Stockholders' Equity
Note 9 - Stock - Based Awards
Item 2.Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Part II. - Other Information
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
Item 1A.Risk Factors
Item 6.Exhibits
EX-10.1 nlst-20210403ex101e3b236.htm
EX-31.1 nlst-20210403ex311ff4ad0.htm
EX-31.2 nlst-20210403ex312dd7800.htm
EX-32 nlst-20210403xex32.htm

Netlist Earnings 2021-04-03

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
3021123-6-152012201420172020
Assets, Equity
201482-4-102012201420172020
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
151050-5-102012201420172020
Ops, Inv, Fin

10-Q 1 nlst-20210403x10q.htm 10-Q

]

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended April 3, 2021

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _____ to _____

Commission file number: 001-33170

Graphic

NETLIST, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

95-4812784

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

175 Technology Drive, Suite 150

Irvine, California

92618

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(949) 435-0025

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes    No 

As of May 11, 2021, there were 215,600,939 outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock.


NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Form 10-Q

For the Quarter Ended April 3, 2021

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2


PART I. — FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.

Financial Statements

NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except par value)

April 3,

January 2,

    

2021

    

2021

ASSETS

Current Assets:

Cash and cash equivalents

$

21,616

$

13,326

Restricted cash

4,900

3,200

Accounts receivable, net of allowances of $217 (2021) and $157 (2020)

5,678

4,680

Inventories

8,556

3,198

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

710

514

Total current assets

41,460

24,918

Property and equipment, net

190

182

Operating lease right-of-use assets

117

114

Other assets

58

58

Total assets

$

41,825

$

25,272

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIT)

Current Liabilities:

Accounts payable

$

11,104

$

5,327

Revolving line of credit

4,640

3,678

Accrued payroll and related liabilities

793

806

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

791

777

Long-term debt due within one year

17,207

17,056

Total current liabilities

34,535

27,644

Long-term debt

41

146

Other liabilities

105

102

Total liabilities

34,681

27,892

Commitments and contingencies

Stockholders' equity (deficit):

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value—10,000 shares authorized: Series A preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 1,000 shares authorized; none issued and outstanding

Common stock, $0.001 par value450,000 shares authorized; 215,013 (2021) and 195,978 (2020) shares issued and outstanding

215

195

Additional paid-in capital

205,832

192,071

Accumulated deficit

(198,903)

(194,886)

Total stockholders' equity (deficit)

7,144

(2,620)

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity (deficit)

$

41,825

$

25,272

See accompanying notes.

3


NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations (Unaudited)

(in thousands, except per share amounts)

Three Months Ended

April 3,

March 28,

    

2021

    

2020

Net sales

$

14,897

$

14,631

Cost of sales

13,396

12,522

Gross profit

1,501

2,109

Operating expenses:

Research and development

1,124

654

Intellectual property legal fees

2,287

625

Selling, general and administrative

1,957

2,221

Total operating expenses

5,368

3,500

Operating loss

(3,867)

(1,391)

Other expense, net:

Interest expense, net

(147)

(148)

Other expense, net

(2)

(3)

Total other expense, net

(149)

(151)

Loss before provision for income taxes

(4,016)

(1,542)

Provision for income taxes

1

Net loss

$

(4,017)

$

(1,542)

Net loss per common share:

Basic and diluted

$

(0.02)

$

(0.01)

Weighted-average common shares outstanding:

Basic and diluted

205,680

169,719

See accompanying notes.

4


NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit) (Unaudited)

(in thousands)

Additional

Total

Common Stock

Paid-in

Accumulated

Stockholders'

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Deficit

    

Equity (Deficit)

Balance, January 2, 2021

195,978

$

195

$

192,071

$

(194,886)

$

(2,620)

Net loss

(4,017)

(4,017)

Issuance of common stock, net

11,700

12

9,349

9,361

Exercise of stock options

476

376

376

Exercise of warrants

6,508

7

3,975

3,982

Stock-based compensation

338

338

Restricted stock units vested and distributed

501

1

(1)

Tax withholdings related to net share settlements of equity awards

(150)

(276)

(276)

Balance, April 3, 2021

215,013

$

215

$

205,832

$

(198,903)

$

7,144

Additional

Total

Common Stock

Paid-in

Accumulated

Stockholders'

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Deficit

    

Deficit

Balance, December 28, 2019

169,539

$

169

$

179,086

$

(187,618)

$

(8,363)

Net loss

(1,542)

(1,542)

Issuance of commitment shares

1,529

2

(2)

Stock-based compensation

206

206

Restricted stock units vested and distributed

362

Tax withholdings related to net share settlements of equity awards

(135)

(32)

(32)

Balance, March 28, 2020

171,295

$

171

$

179,258

$

(189,160)

$

(9,731)

See accompanying notes.

5


NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)

(in thousands)

Three Months Ended

April 3,

March 28,

    

2021

    

2020

Cash flows from operating activities:

Net loss

$

(4,017)

$

(1,542)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

Depreciation and amortization

33

39

Interest accrued on convertible promissory notes

76

75

Amortization of debt discounts

53

53

Non-cash lease expense

112

136

Stock-based compensation

338

206

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

Accounts receivable

(998)

(1,444)

Inventories

(5,358)

(2,478)

Prepaid expenses and other assets

(196)

(26)

Accounts payable

5,777

623

Accrued payroll and related liabilities

(13)

97

Accrued expenses and other liabilities

(98)

(119)

Net cash used in operating activities

(4,291)

(4,380)

Cash flows from investing activities:

Acquisition of property and equipment

(41)

(12)

Net cash used in investing activities

(41)

(12)

Cash flows from financing activities:

Net borrowings under line of credit

962

1,459

Payments on note payable

(83)

(138)

Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net

9,361

Proceeds from exercise of stock options and warrants

4,358

Payments for taxes related to net share settlement of equity awards

(276)

(32)

Net cash provided by financing activities

14,322

1,289

Net change in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

9,990

(3,103)

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period

16,526

11,716

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

$

26,516

$

8,613

Reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period:

Cash and cash equivalents

$

21,616

$

5,713

Restricted cash

4,900

2,900

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

$

26,516

$

8,613

See accompanying notes.

6


NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

Note 1—Description of Business

Netlist, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries (collectively the “Company” or “Netlist”) provides high-performance modular memory subsystems to customers in diverse industries that require enterprise and storage class memory solutions to empower critical business decisions. The Company has a history of introducing disruptive new products, such as one of the first load-reduced dual in-line memory modules (“LRDIMM”) based on its distributed buffer architecture, which has been adopted by the industry for DDR4 LRDIMM. The Company was also one of the first to bring NAND flash memory (“NAND flash”) to the memory channel with its NVvault non-volatile dual in-line memory modules using software-intensive controllers and merging dynamic random access memory integrated circuits (“DRAM ICs” or “DRAM”) and NAND flash to solve data bottleneck and data retention challenges encountered in high-performance computing environments. The Company has introduced a new generation of storage class memory products called HybriDIMM to address the growing need for real-time analytics in Big Data applications, in-memory databases, high performance computing and advanced data storage solutions. The Company's NVMe SSD portfolio provides industry-leading performance offered in multiple capacities and form factors. The Company also resells SSD, NAND flash, DRAM products and other component products to end-customers that are not reached in the distribution models of the component manufacturers, including storage customers, appliance customers, system builders and cloud and datacenter customers.

Note 2—Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto as of and for the year ended January 2, 2021, included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 26, 2021 (the “2020 Annual Report”).

In the opinion of management, all adjustments for the fair presentation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements have been made. The adjustments are of a normal recurring nature except as otherwise noted. The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for other periods or the full fiscal year. The Company has evaluated events occurring subsequent to April 3, 2021, through the filing date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and concluded that there were no events that required recognition and disclosures, other than those discussed elsewhere in the notes hereto.

Principles of Consolidation

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Netlist, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Fiscal Year

The Company’s fiscal year is the 52- or 53-week period that ends on the Saturday nearest to December 31. The Company’s fiscal year 2021 will include 52 weeks and ends on January 1, 2022 and its fiscal year 2020 included 53 weeks and ended on January 2, 2021. The four quarters of fiscal year 2021 each includes 13 weeks. The first three quarters of fiscal year 2020 each included 13 weeks and the fourth quarter included 14 weeks. Unless otherwise stated,

7


references to particular years, quarters, months and periods refer to the Company’s fiscal years ended in January and the associated quarters, months and periods of those fiscal years.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported. Actual results may differ materially from those estimates.

Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance

In the first quarter of 2021, the Company adopted the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB” Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740) Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which eliminates certain exceptions related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. This ASU also clarifies and simplifies other aspects of the accounting for income taxes. The adoption of this ASU did not have an impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.

Recently Issued Accounting Guidance

In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. This ASU amends the guidance on convertible instruments and the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity's own equity, and also improves and amends the related earnings per share guidance for both Subtopics. The ASU will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, including interim periods within those fiscal years and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements.

Note 3—Supplemental Financial Information

Inventories

Inventories consisted of the following (in thousands):

April 3,

January 2,

 

2021

2021

Raw materials

$

2,352

$

578

Work in process

820

2

Finished goods

5,384

2,618

$

8,556

$

3,198

Net Loss Per Share

The following table shows the computation of basic and diluted net loss per share of common stock (in thousands, except per share data):

Three Months Ended

April 3,

March 28,

 

2021

 

2020

Numerator: Net loss

$

(4,017)

$

(1,542)

Denominator: Weighted-average common shares outstanding—basic and diluted

205,680

169,719

Net loss per share—basic and diluted

$

(0.02)

$

(0.01)

8


The table below shows potentially dilutive weighted average common share equivalents, consisting of shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants using the treasury stock method, shares issuable upon conversion of the SVIC Note (see Note 5) using the “if-converted” method, and the vesting of restricted stock units (“RSUs”). These potential weighted average common share equivalents have been excluded from the diluted net loss per share calculations above as their effect would be anti-dilutive (in thousands):

Three Months Ended

April 3,

March 28,

    

2021

    

2020

Weighted average common share equivalents

17,082

13,335

Disaggregation of Net Sales

The following table shows disaggregated net sales by major source (in thousands):

Three Months Ended

April 3,

March 28,

    

2021

2020

Resales of third-party products

$

11,358

$

10,896

Sale of the Company's modular memory subsystems

3,539

3,735

Total net sales

$

14,897

$

14,631

Major Customers and Products

The Company’s net sales have historically been concentrated in a small number of customers. The following table sets forth the percentage of net sales made to customers that each comprise 10% or more of total net sales:

Three Months Ended

April 3,

March 28,

2021

2020

Customer A

10%

11%

Customer B

10%

*

*

Less than 10% of net sales during the period.

As of April 3, 2021, two customers represented 26% and 17% of aggregate gross receivables, respectively. As of January 2, 2021, one customer represented approximately 50% of aggregate gross receivables. The loss of the significant customers or a reduction in sales to or difficulties collecting payments from these customers could significantly reduce the Company’s net sales and adversely affect its operating results. The Company mitigates risks associated with foreign receivables by purchasing comprehensive foreign credit insurance.

The Company resells certain component products to end-customers that are not reached in the distribution models of the component manufacturers, including storage customers, appliance customers, system builders and cloud and datacenter customers. For the three months ended April 3, 2021 and March 28, 2020, resales of these products represented approximately 76% and 74% of net sales, respectively.

Note 4—Credit Agreement

On October 31, 2009, the Company and Silicon Valley Bank (“SVB”) entered into a credit agreement (as the same may from time to time be amended, modified, supplemented or restated, the “SVB Credit Agreement”), which provides for a revolving line of credit up to $5.0 million. The borrowing base is limited to 85% of the eligible accounts receivable, subject to certain adjustments. As of April 3, 2021, the borrowings under the SVB Credit Agreement bore interest based on the Wall Street Journal prime rate (“Prime Rate”) plus 2.75%. On April 9, 2021, the Company entered into an amendment to the SVB Credit Agreement to accrue interest on borrowings at a per annum rate equal to the greater of 2.25% above the Prime Rate or 5.50% and to extend the maturity date to December 30, 2021. The amount

9


available for borrowing may be increased to $7.0 million and the maturity date will be extended to April 29, 2022 upon the Company’s request, if the Company meets certain conditions.

The SVB Credit Agreement requires letters of credit to be secured by cash, which is classified as restricted cash in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. As of April 3, 2021 and January 2, 2021, (i) outstanding letters of credit were $4.9 million and $3.2 million, respectively, (ii) outstanding borrowings were $4.6 million and $3.7 million, respectively, and (iii) availability under the revolving line of credit was $0.4 million and $0.1 million, respectively.

On April 12, 2017, the Company and SVB entered into an amendment to the SVB Credit Agreement to, among other things, obtain SVB’s consent in connection with the Company’s rights agreement with Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as rights agent (see Note 8), and make certain administrative changes in connection with the Company’s funding arrangement with TR Global Funding V, LLC, an affiliate of TRGP Capital Management, LLC (“TRGP”) (see Note 7).

For all periods before April 20, 2017, all obligations under the SVB Credit Agreement were secured by a first priority security interest in the Company’s tangible and intangible assets, other than its patent portfolio, which was subject to a first priority security interest held by Samsung Venture Investment Co.(“SVIC”) (see Note 5). On May 3, 2017, TRGP entered into an intercreditor agreement with each of SVIC and SVB, and on April 20, 2017, SVIC and SVB entered into an intercreditor agreement with each other (such intercreditor agreements, collectively, the “Intercreditor Agreements”). Pursuant to the terms of the Intercreditor Agreements, SVB’s security interests in the Company’s assets have been modified as follows: SVB has a first priority security interest in all of the Company’s tangible and intangible assets other than its patent portfolio and its claims underlying and any proceeds it may receive from its legal proceedings against SK hynix, Inc. a South Korean memory semiconductor supplier (“SK hynix”); a second priority security interest in the Company’s patent portfolio other than the patents that are the subject of the SK hynix proceedings; and a third priority security interest in the Company’s patents that are the subject of the SK hynix proceedings (see Note 7).

The SVB Credit Agreement subjects the Company to certain affirmative and negative covenants, including financial covenants with respect to the Company’s liquidity and restrictions on the payment of dividends. As of April 3, 2021, the Company was in compliance with its covenants under the SVB Credit Agreement.

Note 5—Debt

The Company’s debt consisted of the following (in thousands):

April 3,

January 2,

   

2021

   

2021

Secured convertible note, due December 2021, including accrued interest of $1,613 (2021) and $1,538 (2020), respectively

$

16,613

$

16,538

Paycheck protection program loan, due April 2022, including accrued interest of $6 (2021) and $4 (2020), respectively

643

641

Notes payable

167

251

Unamortized debt discounts and issuance costs

(175)

(228)

Total debt

17,248

17,202

Less: amounts due within one year

(17,207)

(17,056)

Long-term debt

$

41

$

146

10


Secured Convertible Note

On November 18, 2015, in connection with entering into the Joint Development and License Agreement with Samsung, the Company issued to SVIC a secured convertible note (“SVIC Note”) and stock purchase warrant (“SVIC Warrant”). The SVIC Note has an original principal amount of $15.0 million, accrues interest at a rate of 2.0% per year, is due and payable in full on December 31, 2021, and is convertible into shares of the Company’s common stock at a conversion price of $1.25 per share, subject to certain adjustments, on the maturity date of the SVIC Note. Upon a change of control of the Company prior to the maturity date of the SVIC Note, the SVIC Note may, at the Company’s option, be assumed by the surviving entity or be redeemed upon the consummation of such change of control for the principal and accrued but unpaid interest as of the redemption date. The SVIC Warrant grants SVIC a right to purchase 2,000,000 shares of the Company’s common stock at an exercise price of $0.30 per share, subject to certain adjustments, is only exercisable in the event the Company exercises its right to redeem the SVIC Note on or prior to its maturity date, and expires on December 31, 2025.

The SVIC Warrant was valued at $1.2 million, based on its relative fair value, and was recorded as a debt discount. The Company also recorded $0.2 million of debt issuance costs as a debt discount for professional services fees rendered in connection with the transaction. These amounts are being amortized to interest expense over the term of the SVIC Note using the interest method. For the three months ended April 3, 2021, interest expense related to the amortization of the issuance costs associated with the liability component was not material. The effective interest rate, including accretion of the SVIC Note to par and amortization of debt issuance costs, was approximately 3.4%. As of April 3, 2021, the outstanding principal and accrued interest on the SVIC Note was $16.6 million, and the outstanding SVIC Note balance, net of unamortized debt discounts and issuance costs, was $16.4 million.

In connection with the SVIC Note, SVIC was granted a first priority security interest in the Company’s patent portfolio and a second priority security interest in all of the Company’s other tangible and intangible assets. Upon issuance of the SVIC Note, the Company, SVB and SVIC entered into an Intercreditor Agreement pursuant to which SVB and SVIC agreed to their relative security interests in the Company’s assets. In May 2017, SVIC, SVB and TRGP entered into additional Intercreditor Agreements to modify certain of these lien priorities (see Note 7). Additionally, upon issuance of the SVIC Note and the SVIC Warrant, the Company and SVIC entered into a Registration Rights Agreement pursuant to which the Company is obligated to register with the Securities and Exchange Commission, upon demand by SVIC, the shares of the Company’s common stock issuable upon conversion of the SVIC Note or upon exercise of the SVIC Warrant.

The SVIC Note subjects the Company to certain affirmative and negative operating covenants. As of April 3, 2021, the Company was in compliance with its covenants under the SVIC Note.

Paycheck Protection Program Loan

On April 23, 2020, the Company entered into an unsecured promissory note with a principal amount of $0.6 million through Hanmi Bank under the Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”) (“PPP Loan”) administered by the Small Business Administration (“SBA”) and established as part of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act. The PPP Loan bore interest at 1.0% per annum and would mature on April 23, 2022 with the first six months of interest and principal payments deferred. The amount borrowed under the PPP Loan was guaranteed by the SBA and was eligible for forgiveness in an amount equal to the sum of the eligible costs, including payroll, benefits, rent and utilities, incurred by the Company during the 24-week period beginning on the date the Company received the proceeds. The PPP Loan contained customary events of default, and the occurrence of an event of default might result in a claim for the immediate repayment of all amounts outstanding under the PPP Loan. In May 2021, the full amounts outstanding under the PPP Loan was forgiven.

Note 6—Leases

The Company has operating and finance leases primarily associated with office and manufacturing facilities and certain equipment. The determination of which discount rate to use when measuring the lease obligation was deemed a significant judgment.

11


Lease cost and supplemental cash flow information related to operating leases was as follows (in thousands):

Three Months Ended

April 3,

March 28,

    

2021

2020

Lease cost:

Operating lease cost

$

119

$

154

Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:

Operating cash flows from operating leases

119

151

For the three months ended April 3, 2021 and March 28, 2020, finance lease costs and cash flows from finance lease were immaterial.

Supplemental balance sheet information related to leases was as follows (in thousands):

April 3,

January 2,

2021

2021

Operating Leases

Operating lease right-of-use assets

$

117

$

114

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

$

116

$

118

Operating lease liabilities

Total operating lease liabilities

$

116

$

118

Finance Leases

Property and equipment, at cost

$

96

$

96

Accumulated depreciation

(38)

(34)

Property and equipment, net

$

58

$

62

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

$

19

$

19

Other liabilities

41

46

Total finance lease liabilities

$

60

$

65

The following table includes supplemental information:

April 3,

January 2,

2021

2021

Weighted Average Remaining Lease Term (in years)

Operating lease

0.4

0.4

Finance lease

3.0

3.3

Weighted Average Discount Rate

Operating lease

6.0%

6.1%

Finance lease

5.1%

5.1%

12


Maturities of lease liabilities as of April 3, 2021 were as follows (in thousands):

Fiscal Year

Operating Leases

Finance Leases

2021 (remainder of the year)

$

118

$

16

2022

22

2023

22

2024

5

Total lease payments

118

65

Less: imputed interest

(2)

(5)

Total

$

116

$

60

On April 28, 2021, the Company entered into a lease agreement for its corporate headquarters with a term of five years in Irvine, CA with future payments of approximately $2.0 million. The lease is estimated to commence during 2021 and provides one three-year renewal option.

Note 7—Commitments and Contingencies

TRGP Agreement and Related Intercreditor Agreements

On May 3, 2017, the Company and TRGP entered into an investment agreement (the “TRGP Agreement”), which generally provided that TRGP directly fund the costs incurred by or on behalf of the Company in connection with the Company’s first action in the U.S. International Trade Commission (“ITC”) and its U.S. district court proceedings, but excluding all other proceedings (all such funded costs, collectively, the “Funded Costs”). In exchange for such funding, the Company agreed that, if the Company recovered any proceeds in connection with the funded SK hynix proceedings relating to certain patents, it would pay to TRGP the amount of the Funded Costs paid by TRGP plus an escalating premium based on when any such proceeds are recovered. In addition, pursuant to the terms of a separate security agreement between the Company and TRGP dated May 3, 2017 (the “Security Agreement”), the Company granted to TRGP (i) a first priority lien on, and security in, the claims of certain patents underlying the funded SK hynix proceedings and any proceeds that may be received by the Company in connection with these proceedings relating to certain patents, and (ii) a second priority lien on, and security in, certain of the Company’s patents that are the subject of the funded SK hynix proceedings. The TRGP Agreement and its amendment do not impose financial covenants on the Company. On January 23, 2020, the Company and TRGP entered into an amendment to the TRGP Agreement to alter the recovery sharing formula related to claims against SK hynix for alleged infringement of the Company’s patents.

In connection with the TRGP Agreement, in May 2017, TRGP, SVIC and SVB entered into the Intercreditor Agreements. Pursuant to the terms of the Intercreditor Agreements, TRGP, SVB and SVIC have agreed to their relative security interest priorities in the Company’s assets, such that: (i) TRGP has a first priority security interest in the Company’s claims underlying the funded SK hynix proceedings related to certain patents and any proceeds that may be received by the Company in connection with these proceedings related to certain patents, and a second priority security interest in certain of the Company’s patents that are the subject of the funded SK hynix proceedings, (ii) SVIC has a first priority security interest in the Company’s complete patent portfolio and a second priority security interest in all of the Company’s other tangible and intangible assets (other than the Company’s claims underlying and any proceeds it may receive from the SK hynix proceedings funded under the TRGP Agreement), and (iii) SVB has a first priority security interest in all of the Company’s tangible and intangible assets other than its patent portfolio and its claims underlying and any proceeds it may receive from the SK hynix proceedings funded under the TRGP Agreement, a second priority security interest in the Company’s patent portfolio other than the patents that are the subject of the SK hynix proceedings funded under the TRGP Agreement, and a third priority security interest in the Company’s patents that are the subject of the SK hynix proceedings funded under the TRGP Agreement. The Company consented and agreed to the terms of each of the Intercreditor Agreements.

Legal expenses incurred by the Company but paid by TRGP pursuant to the terms of the TRGP Agreement are excluded from the condensed consolidated financial statements. During the years ended December 29, 2018 and December 30, 2017, the Company excluded legal expenses of $1.8 million and $10.2 million, respectively, as a result of TRGP’s payment of these expenses under the TRGP Agreement. No further legal expenses will be paid by TRGP under

13


this agreement. Any settlement or other cash proceeds the Company may recover in the future in connection with the funded SK hynix proceedings may be reduced by the aggregate amount of legal expenses excluded by the Company as a result of TRGP’s payment of these expenses under the TRGP Agreement, plus the premium amount due to TRGP under the terms of the amended TRGP Agreement at the time of any such recovery. The Company believes that the SK hynix License Agreement falls outside the scope of the TRGP Agreement (see below SK hynix Litigation).

Litigation and Patent Reexaminations

The Company owns numerous patents and continues to seek to grow and strengthen its patent portfolio, which covers various aspects of the Company’s innovations and includes various claim scopes. The Company plans to pursue avenues to monetize its intellectual property portfolio, in which it would generate revenue by selling or licensing its technology, and it intends to vigorously enforce its patent rights against alleged infringers of such rights. The Company dedicates substantial resources to protecting and enforcing its intellectual property rights, including with patent infringement proceedings it files against third parties and defense of its patents against challenges made by way of reexamination and review proceedings at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) and Patent Trial and Appeal Board (“PTAB”). The Company expects these activities to continue for the foreseeable future, with no guarantee that any ongoing or future patent protection or litigation activities will be successful, or that the Company will be able to monetize its intellectual property portfolio. The Company is also subject to litigation based on claims that it has infringed on the intellectual property rights of others.

Any litigation, regardless of its outcome, is inherently uncertain, involves a significant dedication of resources, including time and capital, and diverts management’s attention from other activities of the Company. As a result, any current or future infringement claims or patent challenges by or against third parties, whether or not eventually decided in the Company’s favor or settled, could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, the outcome of pending or future litigation and related patent reviews and reexaminations, as well as any delay in their resolution, could affect the Company’s ability to continue to sell its products, protect against competition in the current and expected markets for its products or license or otherwise monetize its intellectual property rights in the future.

Google Litigation

On December 4, 2009, the Company filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Google, Inc. (“Google”) in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California (the “Northern District Court”), seeking damages and injunctive relief based on Google’s alleged infringement of the Company’s U.S. Patent No. 7,619,912 (the “‘912 patent”), which relates generally to technologies to implement rank multiplication. In February 2010, Google answered the Company’s complaint and asserted counterclaims against the Company seeking a declaration that the patent is invalid and not infringed, and claiming that the Company committed fraud, negligent misrepresentation and breach of contract based on the Company’s activities in the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (“JEDEC”) standard-setting organization. The counterclaim seeks unspecified compensatory damages. Accruals have not been recorded for loss contingencies related to Google’s counterclaim because it is not probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount of any such loss cannot be reasonably estimated. In October 2010, Google requested and was later granted an Inter Partes Reexamination of the ‘912 patent by the USPTO. The reexamination proceedings are described below. In connection with the reexamination request, the Northern District Court granted the Company’s and Google’s joint request to stay the ‘912 patent infringement lawsuit against Google until the completion of the reexamination proceedings. On January 31, 2019, the PTAB, in response to Google’s rehearing request, denied rehearing of the PTAB’s previous decision upholding the validity of claims in Netlist’s ‘912 patent. On April 16, 2019, Google filed an appeal to this decision. On June 15, 2020, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit affirmed the PTAB’s previous decision upholding the validity of claims in Netlist’s ‘912 patent. The Google litigation is now resuming with issuance of the ‘912 reexamination certificate and the scheduling of a Markman hearing for March 9, 2022.

Inphi Litigation

On September 22, 2009, the Company filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Inphi Corporation (“Inphi”) in the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California (the “Central District Court”). The complaint, as amended,

14


alleges that Inphi is contributorily infringing and actively inducing the infringement of U.S. patents owned by the Company, including the ‘912 patent, U.S. Patent No. 7,532,537 (the “‘537 patent”), which relates generally to memory modules with load isolation and memory domain translation capabilities, and U.S. Patent No. 7,636,274 (the “‘274 patent”), which is related to the ‘537 patent and relates generally to load isolation and memory domain translation technologies. The Company is seeking damages and injunctive relief based on Inphi’s use of the Company’s patented technology. Inphi denied infringement and claimed that the three patents are invalid. In June 2010, Inphi requested and was later granted Inter Partes Reexaminations of the ‘912, ‘537 and ‘274 patents by the USPTO. The reexamination proceedings are described below (except for the reexamination proceeding related to the ‘537 patent, which have concluded with the confirmation of all of the claims of such patent). In connection with the reexamination requests, Inphi filed a motion to stay the patent infringement lawsuit with the Central District Court until completion of the reexamination proceedings, which was granted. On April 16, 2019, Inphi filed an appeal to the PTAB’s January 31, 2019 decision upholding the validity of claims in Netlist’s ‘912 patent. On June 15, 2020, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit affirmed the PTAB’s previous decision upholding the validity of claims in Netlist’s ‘912 patent.

SK hynix Litigation

On September 1, 2016, the Company filed legal proceedings for patent infringement against SK hynix in the ITC (the “First ITC Action”) and the Central District Court. These proceedings are based on the alleged infringement by SK hynix’s registered dual in-line memory module (“RDIMM”) and LRDIMM enterprise memory products of six of the Company’s U.S. patents. On October 31, 2017, the Company filed additional legal proceedings for patent infringement against SK hynix in the ITC (the “Second ITC Action”) based on the alleged infringement by SK hynix’s RDIMM and LRDIMM products of two additional U.S. patents owned by the Company. In all of the ITC proceedings, the Company has requested exclusion orders that direct U.S. Customs and Border Protection to stop allegedly infringing SK hynix RDIMM and LRDIMM products from entering the United States. In the Central District Court proceedings, the Company is primarily seeking damages. The First and Second ITC Actions are no longer pending and the parallel Central District Court infringement proceedings are currently stayed pending further order of the court.

On March 17, 2020, Netlist filed legal proceedings alleging patent infringement against SK hynix in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas based on the infringement of Netlist U.S. Patent No. 9,858,218 and U.S. Patent No. 10,474,595 by SK hynix RDIMM and LRDIMM memory products. The case was assigned to the Hon. Alan D. Albright and is Case No. 6:20-cv-00194-ADA. The Markman hearing in this case occurred on March 4, 2021 and the trial was scheduled for July 6, 2021. Case No. 6:20-cv-00194-ADA was dismissed on April 20, 2021 following Netlist’s settlement with SK hynix set forth below.

On June 15, 2020, Netlist filed a second round of legal proceedings alleging patent infringement against SK hynix in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas based on the infringement of Netlist U.S. Patent No. 10,217,523 by SK hynix LRDIMM memory products. The case was assigned to the Hon. Alan D. Albright and is Case No. 6:20-cv-00525-ADA. The Markman hearing in this case occurred on March 4, 2021 and the trial was scheduled for July 6, 2021. Case No. 6:20-cv-00525-ADA was dismissed on April 20, 2021 following Netlist’s settlement with SK hynix set forth below.

On April 5, 2021, Netlist entered into a Strategic Product Supply and License Agreement (the “License Agreement”) and Product Purchase and Supply Agreement with SK hynix. Both agreements have a term of 5 years. Under the License Agreement, (a) Netlist has granted to SK hynix fully paid, worldwide, non-exclusive, non-assignable licenses to certain of its patents covering memory technologies and (b) SK hynix has granted to Netlist fully paid, worldwide, non-exclusive, non-assignable licenses to its patent portfolio. In addition, the License Agreement provides for the settlement of all pending intellectual property proceedings between Netlist and SK hynix with the settlement fee of $40 million payable to us by SK hynix, and the parties have agreed to collaborate on certain technology development activities.

Other Contingent Obligations

In the ordinary course of its business, the Company has made certain indemnities, commitments and guarantees pursuant to which it may be required to make payments in relation to certain transactions. These include, among others:

15


(i) intellectual property indemnities to the Company’s customers and licensees in connection with the use, sale and/or license of Company products; (ii) indemnities to vendors and service providers pertaining to claims based on the Company’s negligence or willful misconduct; (iii) indemnities involving the accuracy of representations and warranties in certain contracts; (iv) indemnities to directors and officers of the Company to the maximum extent permitted under the laws of the State of Delaware; (v) indemnities to TRGP, SVIC and SVB pertaining to all obligations, demands, claims, and liabilities claimed or asserted by any other party in connection with transactions contemplated by the applicable investment or loan documents, as applicable; and (vi) indemnities or other claims related to certain real estate leases, under which the Company may be required to indemnify property owners for environmental and other liabilities or may face other claims arising from the Company’s use of the applicable premises. The duration of these indemnities, commitments and guarantees varies and, in certain cases, may be indefinite. The majority of these indemnities, commitments and guarantees do not provide for any limitation of the maximum potential for future payments the Company could be obligated to make. Historically, the Company has not been obligated to make significant payments as a result of these obligations, and no liabilities have been recorded for these indemnities, commitments and guarantees in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets.

Note 8—Stockholders’ Equity

Serial Preferred Stock

The Company’s authorized capital stock includes 10,000,000 shares of serial preferred stock, with a par value of $0.001 per share. No shares of preferred stock were outstanding as of April 3, 2021 or January 2, 2021.

On April 17, 2017, the Company entered into a rights agreement (as amended from time to time, the “Rights Agreement”) with Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as rights agent. In connection with the adoption of the Rights Agreement and pursuant to its terms, the Company’s board of directors authorized and declared a dividend of one right (each, a “Right”) for each outstanding share of the Company’s common stock to stockholders of record at the close of business on May 18, 2017 (the “Record Date”), and authorized the issuance of one Right for each share of the Company’s common stock issued by the Company (except as otherwise provided in the Rights Agreement) between the Record Date and the Distribution Date (as defined below).

Each Right entitles the registered holder, subject to the terms of the Rights Agreement, to purchase from the Company, when exercisable and subject to adjustment, one unit consisting of one one-thousandth of a share (a “Unit”) of Series A Preferred Stock of the Company (the “Preferred Stock”), at a purchase price of $6.56 per Unit, subject to adjustment. Subject to the provisions of the Rights Agreement, including certain exceptions specified therein, a distribution date for the Rights (the “Distribution Date”) will occur upon the earlier of (i) 10 business days following a public announcement that a person or group of affiliated or associated persons (an “Acquiring Person”) has acquired or otherwise obtained beneficial ownership of 15% or more of the then-outstanding shares of the Company’s common stock, and (ii) 10 business days (or such later date as may be determined by the Company’s board of directors) following the commencement of a tender offer or exchange offer that would result in a person or group becoming an Acquiring Person. The Rights are not exercisable until the Distribution Date and, unless earlier redeemed or exchanged by the Company pursuant to the terms of the Rights Agreement (as amended on April 16, 2018, April 16, 2019 and August 14, 2020) will expire on the close of business on April 17, 2024.

In connection with the adoption of the Rights Agreement, the Company’s board of directors approved a Certificate of Designation of the Series A Preferred Stock (the “Certificate of Designation”) designating 1,000,000 shares of its serial preferred stock as Series A Preferred Stock and setting forth the rights, preferences and limitations of the Preferred Stock. The Company filed the Certificate of Designation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on April 17, 2017.

2019 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreement

On June 24, 2019, the Company entered into a purchase agreement (the “2019 Purchase Agreement”) with Lincoln Park Capital Fund, LLC (“Lincoln Park”), pursuant to which the Company has the right to sell to Lincoln Park up to an aggregate of $10 million in shares of its common stock subject to the conditions and limitations set forth in the

16


2019 Purchase Agreement. As consideration for entering into the 2019 Purchase Agreement, the Company issued to Lincoln Park 818,420 shares of its common stock as initial commitment shares in a noncash transaction on June 24, 2019 and will issue up to 818,420 additional shares of its common stock as additional commitment shares on a pro rata basis in connection with any additional purchases. The Company will not receive any cash proceeds from the issuance of these additional commitment shares.

Pursuant to the 2019 Purchase Agreement, on any business day and as often as every other business day over the 36-month term of the 2019 Purchase Agreement, the Company has the right, from time to time, at its sole discretion and subject to certain conditions, to direct Lincoln Park to purchase up to 400,000 shares of its common stock, with such amount increasing as the closing sale price of its common stock increases; provided Lincoln Park’s obligation under any single such purchase will not exceed $1.0 million, unless the Company and Lincoln Park mutually agree to increase the maximum amount of such single regular purchase. If the Company directs Lincoln Park to purchase the maximum number of shares of common stock it then may sell in a regular purchase, then in addition to such regular purchase, and subject to certain conditions and limitations in the 2019 Purchase Agreement, the Company may direct Lincoln Park to purchase an additional amount of common stock that may not exceed the lesser of (i) 300% of the number of shares purchased pursuant to the corresponding regular purchase or (ii) 30% of the total number of shares of its common stock traded during a specified period on the applicable purchase date as set forth in the 2019 Purchase Agreement. Under certain circumstances and in accordance with the 2019 Purchase Agreement, the Company may direct Lincoln Park to purchase shares in multiple accelerated purchases on the same trading day.

The Company controls the timing and amount of any sales of its common stock to Lincoln Park. There is no upper limit on the price per share that Lincoln Park must pay for the Company’s common stock under the 2019 Purchase Agreement, but in no event will shares be sold to Lincoln Park on a day the closing price is less than the floor price specified in the 2019 Purchase Agreement. In all instances, the Company may not sell shares of its common stock to Lincoln Park under the 2019 Purchase Agreement if that would result in Lincoln Park beneficially owning more than 9.99% of its common stock.

The 2019 Purchase Agreement does not limit the Company’s ability to raise capital from other sources at the Company’s sole discretion, except that, subject to certain exceptions, the Company may not enter into any Variable Rate Transaction (as defined in the Purchase Agreement, including the issuance of any floating conversion rate or variable priced equity-like securities) during the 36 months after the date of the 2019 Purchase Agreement. The Company has the right to terminate the 2019 Purchase Agreement at any time, at no cost to the Company.

During the three months ended April 3, 2021, Lincoln Park purchased an aggregate of 1,669,429 shares of the Company’s common stock for a net purchase price of $1.6 million under the 2019 Purchase Agreement. In connection with the purchases, the Company issued to Lincoln Park an aggregate of 129,468 shares of its common stock as additional commitment shares in noncash transactions.

2020 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreement

On March 5, 2020, the Company entered into a purchase agreement (the “2020 Purchase Agreement”) with Lincoln Park, pursuant to which the Company had the right to sell to Lincoln Park up to an aggregate of $20 million in shares of its common stock over the 36-month term of the 2020 Purchase Agreement subject to the conditions and limitations set forth in the 2020 Purchase Agreement. As consideration for entering into the 2020 Purchase Agreement, the Company issued to Lincoln Park 1,529,052 shares of its common stock as initial commitment shares in a noncash transaction on March 6, 2020 and would issue up to 917,431 additional shares of its common stock as additional commitment shares on a pro rata basis in connection with any additional purchases. The Company would not receive any cash proceeds from the issuance of these additional commitment shares.

Pursuant to the 2020 Purchase Agreement, on any business day and as often as every other business day over the 36-month term of the 2020 Purchase Agreement, the Company had the right, from time to time, at its sole discretion and subject to certain conditions, to direct Lincoln Park to purchase up to 400,000 shares of its common stock, with such amount increasing as the closing sale price of its common stock increases; provided Lincoln Park’s obligation under any single such purchase would not exceed $1.0 million, unless the Company and Lincoln Park mutually agreed to increase

17


the maximum amount of such single regular purchase. If the Company directed Lincoln Park to purchase the maximum number of shares of common stock it then might sell in a regular purchase, then in addition to such regular purchase, and subject to certain conditions and limitations in the 2020 Purchase Agreement, the Company might direct Lincoln Park to purchase an additional amount of common stock that might not exceed the lesser of (i) 300% of the number of shares purchased pursuant to the corresponding regular purchase or (ii) 30% of the total number of shares of its common stock traded during a specified period on the applicable purchase date as set forth in the 2020 Purchase Agreement. Under certain circumstances and in accordance with the 2020 Purchase Agreement, the Company might direct Lincoln Park to purchase shares in multiple accelerated purchases on the same trading day.

The Company controlled the timing and amount of any sales of its common stock to Lincoln Park. There was no upper limit on the price per share that Lincoln Park must pay for the Company’s common stock under the 2020 Purchase Agreement, but in no event would shares be sold to Lincoln Park on a day the closing price was less than the floor price specified in the 2020 Purchase Agreement. In all instances, the Company might not sell shares of its common stock to Lincoln Park under the 2020 Purchase Agreement if that would result in Lincoln Park beneficially owning more than 9.99% of its common stock.

The 2020 Purchase Agreement did not limit the Company’s ability to raise capital from other sources at the Company’s sole discretion, except that, subject to certain exceptions, the Company might not enter into any Variable Rate Transaction (as defined in the 2020 Purchase Agreement, including the issuance of any floating conversion rate or variable priced equity-like securities) during the 36 months after the date of the 2020 Purchase Agreement. The Company had the right to terminate the 2020 Purchase Agreement at any time, at no cost to the Company.

During the three months ended April 3, 2021, Lincoln Park purchased an aggregate of 9,544,595 shares of the Company’s common stock for a net purchase price of $7.8 million under the 2020 Purchase Agreement. In connection with the purchases, during the three months ended April 3, 2021, the Company issued to Lincoln Park an aggregate of 356,843 shares of its common stock as additional commitment shares in noncash transactions. In February 2021, the Company completed the sales under the 2020 Purchase Agreement.

Warrants

Warrant activity for the three months ended April 3, 2021 is as follows:

Weighted

Number of

Average

Shares

Exercise

    

(in thousands)

    

Price

Outstanding as of January 2, 2021

13,911

$

0.59

Granted

Exercised

(6,579)

0.63

Expired

Outstanding as of April 3, 2021

7,332

0.56

During the three months ended April 3, 2021, the Company issued (i) 6,078,754 shares of its common stock upon the exercise of 6,078,754 of its warrants for total cash proceeds of $4.0 million and (ii) 429,496 shares of its common stock upon the cashless exercise of 500,000 of its warrants.

Note 9—Stock-Based Awards

As of April 3, 2021, the Company had 982,822 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under its Amended and Restated 2006 Incentive Plan (“Amended 2006 Plan”). Stock options granted under the Amended 2006 Plan generally vest at a rate of at least 25% per year over four years and expire 10 years from the grant date. RSUs granted for employees and consultants generally vest semi-annually from the grant date over a four-year term, and RSUs granted for independent directors fully-vest on the grant date.

18


Stock Options

The following table summarizes the activity related to stock options during the three months ended April 3, 2021:

Weighted-

Number of

Average

Shares

Exercise

(in thousands)

    

Price

Outstanding as of January 2, 2021

7,519

$

1.12

Granted

1,760

0.76

Exercised

(476)

0.79

Expired or forfeited

(540)

2.17

Outstanding as of April 3, 2021

8,263

0.99

Restricted Stock Units

The following table summarizes the activity related to RSUs during the nine months ended April 3, 2021:

Weighted-

Average

Number of

Grant-Date

Shares

Fair Value

(in thousands)

per Share

Outstanding as of January 2, 2021

3,037

$

0.53

Granted

100

0.72

Vested

(501)

0.54

Forfeited

Outstanding as of April 3, 2021

2,636

0.53

Stock-Based Compensation

The following table summarizes the stock-based compensation expense by line item in the condensed consolidated statements of operations (in thousands):

    

Three Months Ended

April 3,

March 28,

2021

2020

Cost of sales

$

3

$

3

Research and development

110

47

Selling, general and administrative

225

156

Total

$

338

$

206

As of April 3, 2021, the Company had approximately $2.8 million, net of estimated forfeitures, of unearned stock-based compensation, which it expects to recognize over a weighted-average period of approximately 2.9 years.

19


Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Note About Forward-Looking Statements

This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) and other parts of this report include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are statements other than historical facts and often address future events or our future performance. Words such as "anticipate," "estimate," "expect," "project," "intend," "may," “will,” “might,” "plan," "predict," "believe," "should," “could” and similar words or expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

Forward-looking statements contained in this MD&A include statements about, among other things: 

specific and overall impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our financial condition and results of operations;
our beliefs regarding the market and demand for our products or the component products we resell;
our ability to develop and launch new products that are attractive to the market and stimulate customer demand for these products;
our plans relating to our intellectual property, including our goals of monetizing, licensing, expanding and defending our patent portfolio;
our expectations and strategies regarding outstanding legal proceedings and patent reexaminations relating to our intellectual property portfolio;
our expectations with respect to any strategic partnerships or other similar relationships we may pursue;
the competitive landscape of our industry;
general market, economic and political conditions;
our business strategies and objectives;
our expectations regarding our future operations and financial position, including revenues, costs and prospects, and our liquidity and capital resources, including cash flows, sufficiency of cash resources, efforts to reduce expenses and the potential for future financings;
our ability to remediate any material weakness and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting; and
the impact of the above factors and other future events on the market price and trading volume of our common stock.

All forward-looking statements reflect management’s present assumptions, expectations and beliefs regarding future events and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in or implied by any forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include those described under “Risk Factors” in Part II, Item 1A of this report. In light of these risks and uncertainties, our forward-looking statements should not be relied on as predictions of future events. Additionally, many of these risks and uncertainties are currently elevated by and may or will continue to be elevated by the COVID-19 pandemic. All forward-looking statements reflect our assumptions, expectations and beliefs only as of the date they are made, and except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements for any reason.

The following MD&A should be read in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in Part I, Item 1 of this report, as well as our Annual Report on Form 10-K for our fiscal year ended January 2, 2021 (the “2020 Annual Report”) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). All information presented herein is based on our fiscal calendar, and references to particular years, quarters, months or periods refer to our fiscal years ended in January or December and the associated quarters, months and periods of those fiscal years. Each of the terms the “Company,” “Netlist,” “we,” “us,” or “our” as used herein refers collectively to Netlist, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise stated.

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Overview

We provide high-performance modular memory subsystems to customers in diverse industries that require enterprise and storage class memory solutions to empower critical business decisions. We have a history of introducing disruptive new products, such as one of the first load reduced dual in-line memory modules ("LRDIMM") based on our distributed buffer architecture, which has been adopted by the industry for DDR4 LRDIMM. We were also one of the first to bring NAND flash memory ("NAND flash") to the memory channel with our NVvault non-volatile dual in-line memory modules ("NVDIMM") using software-intensive controllers and merging dynamic random access memory integrated circuits (“DRAM ICs” or "DRAM") and NAND flash to solve data bottleneck and data retention challenges encountered in high-performance computing environments. We also offer storage class memory products called HybriDIMM to address the growing need for real-time analytics in Big Data applications, in-memory databases, high performance computing and advanced data storage solutions. We are continuously developing and improving upon the HybriDIMM product while exploring opportunities with strategic partners. Our NVMe SSD portfolio provides industry-leading performance offered in multiple capacities and form factors.

Due to the ground-breaking product development of our engineering teams, we have built a robust portfolio of over 130 issued and pending U.S. and foreign patents, many seminal, in the areas of hybrid memory, storage class memory, rank multiplication and load reduction. Since our inception, we have dedicated substantial resources to the development, protection and enforcement of technology innovations we believe are essential to our business. Our early pioneering work in these areas has been broadly adopted in industry-standard registered dual in-line memory modules (“RDIMM”), LRDIMM and in NVDIMM. Our objective is to continue to innovate in our field and invest further in our intellectual property portfolio, with the goal of monetizing our intellectual property through a combination of product sales and licensing, royalty or other revenue-producing arrangements, which may result from joint development or similar partnerships or defense of our patents through enforcement actions against parties we believe are infringing them.

We also resell SSD, NAND flash, DRAM products and other component products to end-customers that are not reached in the distribution models of the component manufacturers, including storage customers, appliance customers, system builders and cloud and datacenter customers.

During the first quarter of 2021, we recorded net sales of $14.9 million, gross profit of $1.5 million and net loss of $4.0 million. We have historically financed our operations primarily with proceeds from issuances of equity and debt securities and cash receipts from revenues. We have also funded our operations with a revolving line of credit and term loans under a bank credit facility. See “Recent Developments” and “Liquidity and Capital Resources” below for more information.

Recent Developments

SK hynix License Agreement and Supply Agreement

On April 5, 2021, we entered into a Strategic Product Supply and License Agreement (the “License Agreement”) and Product Purchase and Supply Agreement with SK hynix, Inc., a South Korean memory semiconductor supplier (“SK hynix”). Both agreements have a term of 5 years. Under the License Agreement, (a) we have granted to SK hynix fully paid, worldwide, non-exclusive, non-assignable licenses to certain of our patents covering memory technologies and (b) SK hynix has granted to us fully paid, worldwide, non-exclusive, non-assignable licenses to its patent portfolio. In addition, the License Agreement provides for the settlement of all pending intellectual property proceedings between us and SK hynix with the settlement fee of $40 million payable to us by SK hynix, and the parties have agreed to collaborate on certain technology development activities.

Amendment to SVB Credit Agreement

On April 9, 2021, we entered into an amendment to a credit agreement dated October 31, 2009 with Silicon Valley Bank (“SVB”) (as the same may from time to time be amended, modified, supplemented or restated, the “SVB Credit Agreement”) to accrue interest on advances at a per annum rate equal to the greater of 2.25% above the Wall Street Journal prime rate (“Prime Rate”) or 5.50% and to extend the maturity date to December 30, 2021. The amount

21


available for borrowing may be increased to $7.0 million and the maturity date will be extended to April 29, 2022 upon our request, if we meet certain conditions.

2019 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreement

On June 24, 2019, we entered into a purchase agreement (the “2019 Purchase Agreement”) with Lincoln Park Capital Fund, LLC (“Lincoln Park”), pursuant to which we have the right to sell to Lincoln Park up to an aggregate of $10 million in shares of our common stock over the 36-month term of the Purchase Agreement subject to the conditions and limitations set forth in the 2019 Purchase Agreement. During the first quarter of 2021, Lincoln Park purchased an aggregate of 1,669,429 shares of our common stock for a net purchase price of $1.6 million under the 2019 Purchase Agreement. In connection with the purchases, during the first quarter of 2021, we issued to Lincoln Park an aggregate of 129,468 shares of our common stock as commitment shares in noncash transactions.

2020 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreement

On March 5, 2020, we entered into another purchase agreement (the “2020 Purchase Agreement”) with Lincoln Park, pursuant to which we have the right to sell to Lincoln Park up to an aggregate of $20 million in shares of our common stock over the 36-month term of the 2020 Purchase Agreement subject to the conditions and limitations set forth in the 2020 Purchase Agreement. During the first quarter of 2021, Lincoln Park purchased an aggregate of 9,544,595 shares of our common stock for a net purchase price of $7.8 million under the 2020 Purchase Agreement. In connection with the purchases, during the first quarter of 2021, we issued to Lincoln Park an aggregate of 356,843 shares of our common stock as commitment shares in noncash transactions. In February 2021, we completed the sales under the 2020 Purchase Agreement.

Paycheck Protection Program Loan

On April 23, 2020, we entered into an unsecured promissory note with a principal amount of $0.6 million through Hanmi Bank under the Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”) (“PPP Loan”) administered by the Small Business Administration (“SBA”) and established as part of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”). The PPP Loan bore interest at 1.0% per annum and would mature in April 2022 with the first six months of interest and principal payments deferred. The amount borrowed under the PPP Loan was eligible for forgiveness if we would meet certain conditions. In May 2021, the full amounts outstanding under the PPP Loan was forgiven.

Economic Conditions, Challenges and Risks

Our performance, financial condition and prospects are affected by a number of factors and are exposed to a number of risks and uncertainties. We operate in a competitive and rapidly evolving industry in which new risks emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all of the risks we may face, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor or combination of factors could cause actual results to differ from our expectations. See the discussion of certain risks that we face under “Risk Factors” in Part II, Item 1A of this report.

Impact of COVID-19 on our Business

The impact of the coronavirus disease (“COVID-19”) pandemic will have on our consolidated results of operations is uncertain. Although we initially observed demand increases in our products, we anticipate that the global health crisis caused by COVID-19 may negatively impact business activity across the globe. We will continue to actively monitor the situation and may take further actions altering our business operations that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, suppliers, and stakeholders, or as required by federal, state, or local authorities. It is not clear what the potential effects of such alterations or modifications may have on our business, consolidated results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.

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Results of Operations

Net Sales and Gross Profit

Net sales, cost of sales and gross profit for the three months ended April 3, 2021 and March 28, 2020 were as follows (dollars in thousands):

Three Months Ended

April 3,

March 28,

%

    

2021

    

2020

    

Change

Net sales

$

14,897

$

14,631

2%

Cost of sales

13,396

12,522

7%

Gross profit

$

1,501

$

2,109

(29)%

Gross margin

10%

14%

Net Sales

Net sales include resales of certain component products, including SSDs and DRAM products, and sales of our high-performance memory subsystems.

Net sales increased by $0.3 million during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the same quarter of 2020 primarily as a result of a $1.1 million increase in sales of other small outline dual in-line memory module (“SODIMM”) and RDIMM products, partially offset by a $0.6 million overall decrease in sales of NAND flash products (including a $0.7 million decrease in resales of NAND flash products and a $0.1 million increase in Netlist’s SSD products), a $0.2 million decrease in sales of our very low profile memory subsystem products and a $0.1 million increase in sales discount. Net sales in all periods presented were impacted by the change in the product mix and fluctuating customer concentrations.

Gross Profit and Gross Margin

Gross profit decreased during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the same quarter of 2020 due primarily to lower gross profits on the sales of SODIMM and RDIMM products and sales of enterprise SSD products. Gross margin (or gross profit as a percentage of net sales) fluctuates based on the change in our product mix over periods and the relative cost of the factory.

Operating Expenses

Operating expenses for the three months ended April 3, 2021 and March 28, 2020 were as follows (dollars in thousands):

Three Months Ended

April 3,

March 28,

%

    

2021

    

2020

    

Change

Research and development

$

1,124

$

654

72%

Percentage of net sales

8%

4%

Intellectual property legal fees

$

2,287

$

625

266%

Percentage of net sales

15%

4%

Selling, general and administrative

$

1,957

$

2,221

(12)%

Percentage of net sales

13%

15%

Research and Development

Research and development expenses increased during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the same quarter of 2020 due primarily to an increase in employee headcount and overhead.

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Intellectual Property Legal Fees

Intellectual property legal fees consist of legal fees incurred for patent filings, protection and enforcement. Although we expect intellectual property legal fees to generally increase over time as we continue to protect, defend and enforce and seek to expand our patent portfolio, these increases may not be linear but may occur in lump sums depending on the due dates of patent filings and their associated fees and the arrangements we may make with our legal advisors in connection with enforcement proceedings, which may include fee arrangements or contingent fee arrangements in which we would pay these legal advisors on a scaled percentage of any negotiated fees, settlements or judgments awarded to us based on if, how and when the fees, settlements or judgments are obtained. See Note 7 to the condensed consolidated financial statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this report for further discussion.

Pursuant to the terms of the TRGP Agreement, the legal expenses we incurred for our first action against SK hynix at the ITC and our U.S. district court proceedings that were paid directly by TRGP were excluded in their entirety from our financial statements. As of January 2, 2021, accumulated deficit excluded $1.7 million and $10.2 million of such legal expenses incurred in 2018 and 2017, respectively. No further legal expenses will be paid by TRGP under this agreement. TPGP did not fund the legal expenses incurred for our second ITC action and our proceedings in international courts as well as other District Court proceedings. We believe that the SK hynix License Agreement falls outside the scope of the TRGP Agreement.

Intellectual property legal fees increased during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the same quarter of 2020 due primarily to higher legal expenses incurred to defend our patent portfolio internationally.

Selling, General and Administrative

Selling, general and administrative expenses slightly decreased during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the same quarter of 2020 due primarily to a decrease in outside services.

Other Expense, Net

Other expense, net for the three months ended April 3, 2021 and March 28, 2020 was as follows (dollars in thousands):

Three Months Ended

April 3,

March 28,

%

    

2021

    

2020

    

Change

Interest expense, net

$

(147)

$

(148)

Other expense, net

(2)

(3)

Total other expense, net

$

(149)

$

(151)

(1)%

Interest expense, net, consists primarily of interest expense on the $15 million secured convertible note issued to Samsung Venture Investment Co. (“SVIC”) (“SVIC Note”) in November 2015 and a revolving line of credit under the SVB Credit Agreement, along with the accretion of debt discounts and amortization of debt issuance costs on the SVIC Note. During the first quarter of 2021, other expense was consistent compared with the same quarter of 2020.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our primary sources of cash are historically proceeds from issuances of equity and debt securities and receipts from revenues. In addition, as a result of our entry into the SK hynix License Agreement, we plan to use the settlement fee received to support our operations. We have also funded our operations with a revolving line of credit under a bank credit facility, a funding arrangement for costs associated with certain of our legal proceedings against SK hynix and, to a lesser extent, equipment leasing arrangements.

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The following tables present selected financial information as of April 3, 2021 and January 2, 2021 and for the first three months of 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):

April 3,

January 2,

    

2021

    

2021

Cash and cash equivalents

$

21,616

$

13,326

Convertible promissory note and accrued interest, net

16,438

16,310

Total PPP Loan and accrued interest

643

641

Working capital

6,925

(2,726)

Three Months Ended

April 3,

March 28,

    

2021

    

2020

Net cash used in operating activities

$

(4,291)

$

(4,380)

Net cash used in investing activities

(41)

(12)

Net cash provided by financing activities

14,322

1,289

During the three months ended April 3, 2021, net cash used in operating activities was primarily a result of net loss of $4.0 million and non-cash adjustments to net loss of $0.6 million, offset by net cash outflows from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $0.9 million driven predominantly by an increase in inventories due to higher purchases to support increased sales, partially offset by an increase in accounts payable. Net cash provided by financing activities during the three months ended April 3, 2021 primarily consisted of $9.4 million in net proceeds from issuance of common stock under the 2020 and 2019 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreements, $4.0 million in proceeds from exercise of warrants, $0.4 million in proceeds from exercise of stock options and a $1.0 million in net borrowings under the SVB Credit Agreement, partially offset by $0.3 million in payments of taxes related to net share settlement of equity awards.

During the three months ended March 28, 2020, net cash used in operating activities was primarily a result of a net loss of $1.5 million, adjusted for non-cash charges of $0.5 million, offset by net cash outflows from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $3.3 million driven predominantly by increases in accounts receivable due to higher sales and in inventories due to higher purchases to support increased sales, partially offset by an increase in accounts payable. Net cash provided by financing activities during the three months ended March 28, 2020 primarily consisted of $1.5 million in net borrowings under the SVB Credit Agreement, partially offset by $0.1 million in payments of note payable to finance insurance policies.

Capital Resources

2019 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreement

On June 24, 2019, we entered into the 2019 Purchase Agreement with Lincoln Park, pursuant to which we have the right to sell to Lincoln Park up to an aggregate of $10 million in shares of our common stock over the 36-month term of the 2019 Purchase Agreement subject to the conditions and limitations set forth in the 2019 Purchase Agreement. As of April 3, 2021, an aggregate of $2.0 million in shares of our common stock was available for purchases over the remaining term under the 2019 Purchase Agreement.

2020 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreement

On March 5, 2020, we entered into the 2020 Purchase Agreement with Lincoln Park, pursuant to which we had the right to sell to Lincoln Park up to an aggregate of $20 million in shares of our common stock over the 36-month term of the 2020 Purchase Agreement subject to the conditions and limitations set forth in the 2020 Purchase Agreement. In February 2021, we completed the sales under the 2020 Purchase Agreement.

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SVB Credit Agreement

On October 31, 2009, we entered into the SVB Credit Agreement, which provides for a revolving line of credit of up to $5.0 million. The borrowing base is limited to 85% of eligible accounts receivable, subject to certain adjustments as set forth in the SVB Credit Agreement. As of April 3, 2021, the borrowings under the SVB Credit Agreement bear interest at the Prime Rate plus 2.75% per annum and mature on April 30, 2021.

As of April 3, 2021, the outstanding borrowings under the SVB Credit Agreement were $4.6 million with additional borrowing availability of $0.4 million. During the three months ended April 3, 2021, we made net borrowings of $1.0 million under the SVB Credit Agreement.

Paycheck Protection Program Loan

On April 23, 2020, we entered into the PPP Loan with a principal amount of $0.6 million through Hanmi Bank under the PPP administered by the SBA and established as part of the CARES Act. The PPP Loan bore interest at 1.0% per annum and would mature in April 2022 with the first six months of interest and principal payments deferred. The amount borrowed under the PPP Loan was eligible for forgiveness if we would meet certain conditions. In May 2021, the full amounts outstanding under the PPP Loan was forgiven.

Sufficiency of Cash Balances and Potential Sources of Additional Capital

We believe our existing balance of cash and cash equivalents together with cash receipts from revenues, the settlement fee received under the SK hynix License Agreement, borrowing availability under the SVB Credit Agreement, the equity financing available under the 2019 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreement, funds raised through other future debt and equity offerings and taking into account cash expected to be used in our operations, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for at least the next 12 months.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditure or capital resources that is material to investors.

Critical Accounting Policies and Use of Estimates

The preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of net sales and expenses during the reporting period. By their nature, these estimates and assumptions are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty. We base our estimates and assumptions on our historical experience, knowledge of current conditions and our beliefs of what could occur in the future considering available information. We review our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Actual results may differ from our estimates, which may result in material adverse effects on our consolidated operating results and financial position.

Our critical accounting policies and estimates are discussed in Note 2 to the condensed consolidated financial statements in this report and in the notes to consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of our 2020 Annual Report and in the MD&A in our 2020 Annual Report. There have been no significant changes to our critical accounting policies since our 2020 Annual Report.

Item 3. 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

Not applicable.

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Item 4. 

Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports we file or submit under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.

Our management conducted an evaluation, with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) promulgated under the Exchange Act) as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on this evaluation, due to the elimination of our audit committee in August 2020, our principal executive officer and our principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of April 3, 2021.

Notwithstanding the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, we have concluded that the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-Q fairly present, in all material respects, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented in conformity with U.S. GAAP.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the quarter ended April 3, 2021 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Remediation Initiatives

In an effort to remediate the identified material weakness and enhance our internal controls, we continue to maintain our financial reporting process we followed to prepare consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP for audit committee meetings on a quarterly and annual basis. Our Chief Executive Officer and sole director will oversee the process to ensure all required disclosures are made in our consolidated financial statements on a quarterly and annual basis.

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PART II. — OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. 

Legal Proceedings

The information under “Litigation and Patent Reexaminations” in Note 7 to the condensed consolidated financial statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this report is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

Summary of Risk Factors

The risk factors summarized and detailed below could materially harm our business, operating results, financial condition, impair our future growth prospects and/or cause the price of our common stock to decline. These are not all of the risks we face and other factors not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also affect our business if they occur. In assessing these risks, you should also review the other information contained in this report, including our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes, and the other filings we make with the SEC. Material risks that may affect our business, operating results and financial condition include, but are not necessarily limited to, those relating to the following:

Risks Related to Our Business, Operations and Industry

We face risks related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the related protective public health measures;
We have historically incurred losses and may continue to incur losses;
The vast majority of our revenues in recent periods have been generated from resales of component products, including products sourced from Samsung, and any decline in these product resales could significantly harm our performance;
We are subject to risks relating to our focus on developing our HybriDIMM and NVvault products for our target customer markets;
Sales to a small number of customers have historically represented a significant portion of our net product sales, and the loss of, or a significant reduction in sales to, any one of these customers could materially harm our business;
We are subject to risks of disruption in the supply of component products;
Our customers require that our products undergo a lengthy and expensive qualification process without any assurance of sales;
If we are unable to timely and cost-effectively develop new or enhanced products that achieve customer and market acceptance or technologies we can monetize, our revenues and prospects could be materially harmed;
We face intense competition in our industry, and we may not be able to compete successfully in our target markets;
Our operating results may be adversely impacted by worldwide economic and political uncertainties and specific conditions in the markets we address and in which we or our strategic partners or competitors do business, including ongoing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the cyclical nature of and volatility in the memory market and semiconductor industry;
Our lack of a significant backlog of unfilled orders and the difficulty inherent in estimating customer demand makes it difficult to forecast our short-term requirements, and any failure to optimally calibrate our production capacity and inventory levels to meet customer demand could adversely affect our revenues, gross margins and earnings;
Declines in our average sale prices, driven by volatile prices for components and other factors, may result in declines in our revenues and gross profit;
Our manufacturing operations involve significant risks;

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We depend on third parties to design and manufacture components for our products and the component products we resell, which exposes us to risks;
If our products or the component products we resell do not meet quality standards or are defective or used in defective systems, we may be subject to quality holds, warranty claims, recalls or liability claims;
If a standardized memory solution that addresses the demands of our customers is developed, our net product sales and market share may decline;
Our indemnification obligations for the infringement by our products of the rights of others could require us to pay substantial damages;
We depend on certain key employees, and our business could be harmed if we lose the services of any of these employees or are unable to attract and retain other qualified personnel;
We rely on our internal and third-party sales representatives to market and sell our products and the component products we resell, and any failure by these representatives to perform as expected could reduce our sales;
Our operations could be disrupted by power outages, natural disasters or other factors;
Difficulties with our global information technology systems, including any unauthorized access, could harm our business;
If we do not effectively manage any future growth we may experience, our resources, systems and controls may be strained and our results of operations may suffer; and
If we acquire businesses or technologies or pursue other strategic transactions or relationships in the future, these transactions could disrupt our business and harm our operating results and financial condition.

Risks Related to Laws and Regulations

We are exposed to additional business, regulatory, political, operational, financial and economic risks related to our international sales and operations;
Our failure to comply with environmental and other applicable laws and regulations could subject us to significant fines and liabilities or cause us to incur significant costs;
Regulations related to “conflict minerals” may cause us to incur additional expenses and could limit the supply and increase the cost of certain metals used in manufacturing our products;
We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to remediate the material weakness, or if we identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect our business; and
We are required to comply with certain provisions of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended that place significant demands on our resources.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property and Litigation

We may be unsuccessful in monetizing our intellectual property portfolio;
We are and expect to continue to be involved in other legal and administrative proceedings to enforce or protect our intellectual property rights and to defend against claims that we infringe the intellectual property rights of others;
If our proprietary rights are not protected, our customers or our competitors might gain access to our proprietary designs, processes and technologies, which could adversely affect our operating results; and
We may become involved in non-patent related litigation and administrative proceedings that may materially adversely affect us.

Risks Related to Capitalization and Financial Markets

We may not have sufficient working capital to fund our planned operations, and, as a result, we may need to raise additional capital in the future, which may not be available when needed, on acceptable terms or at all;

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The price and trading volume of our common stock has and may continue to fluctuate significantly;
We have incurred a material amount of indebtedness to fund our operations, the terms of which have required us to pledge substantially all of our assets as security. Our level of indebtedness and the terms of such indebtedness could adversely affect our operations and liquidity;
There is a limited market for our common shares, and the trading price of our common shares is subject to volatility;
Future issuances of our common stock or rights to purchase our common stock, including pursuant to our equity incentive plans, could result in additional dilution to the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause the price of our common stock to decline;
Sales of our common stock, or the perception that such sales could occur, could cause the market price of our stock to drop significantly, regardless of the state of our business;
Chun K. Hong has significant control over all corporate decisions that may not be in the best interest of our other stockholders;
Anti-takeover provisions under our charter documents and Delaware law, as well as our rights agreement, could delay or prevent a change of control and could also limit the market price of our common stock; and
We do not currently intend to pay dividends on our common stock, and any return to investors is expected to result, if at all, only from potential increases in the price of our common stock.

Risks Related to Our Business, Operations and Industry

We face risks related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the related protective public health measures.

COVID-19 has spread globally and has resulted in authorities imposing, and businesses and individuals implementing, numerous unprecedented measures to try to contain the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place/stay-at-home and social distancing orders, and shutdowns. These measures have impacted and may further impact our workforce and operations, the operations of our customers, and those of our respective vendors, suppliers, and partners. The ultimate impact and efficacy of government measures and potential future measures is currently unknown. In addition, the continued spread of COVID-19, or the occurrence of other epidemics could result in a widespread health crisis that could adversely affect the economies and financial markets of many countries, resulting in an economic downturn that could affect demand for our products and further adversely impact our results of operations.

There are numerous uncertainties associated with the coronavirus outbreak, including the number of individuals who will become infected, whether a vaccine or cure that mitigates the effect of the virus will be synthesized, and, if so, when such vaccine or cure will be ready to be used, and the extent of the protective and preventative measures that have been put in place by both governmental entities and other businesses and those that may be put in place in the future. Any or all of the foregoing uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position and/or cash flows.

We have historically incurred losses and may continue to incur losses.

Since the inception of our business in 2000, we have only experienced one fiscal year (2006) with profitable results. In order to regain profitability, or to achieve and sustain positive cash flows from operations, we must reduce operating expenses and/or increase our revenues and gross margins. Although we have in the past engaged in a series of cost reduction actions, such expense reductions alone will not make us profitable or allow us to sustain profitability if it is achieved, and eliminating or reducing strategic initiatives could limit our opportunities and prospects. Our ability to achieve profitability will depend on increased revenue growth from, among other things, increased demand for our product offerings and our ability to monetize our intellectual property. We may not be successful in any of these pursuits, and we may never achieve profitability or sustain profitability if achieved.

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The vast majority of our revenues in recent periods have been generated from resales of component products, including products sourced from Samsung, and any decline in these product resales could significantly harm our performance.

The vast majority of our revenues in recent periods have been generated from resales of component products, including SSDs, NAND flash and DRAM products. We resell these component products to end-customers that are not reached in the distribution models of the component manufacturers, including storage customers, appliance customers, system builders and cloud and datacenter customers.

These component product resales are subject to a number of risks. For example, demand for these products could decline at any time for a number of reasons, including, among others, changing customer requirements or preferences, product obsolescence, introduction of more advanced or otherwise superior competing products by our competitors, the ability of our customers to obtain these products or substitute products from alternate sources (including from the manufacturer directly), customers reducing their need for these products generally, or the other risk factors described in this report. We have no long-term agreements or other commitments with respect to sales of these or any of the other products we sell. As a result, any decrease in demand for these products from us would reduce our sale levels and could materially adversely impact our revenues. Additionally, opportunistic purchases of products for resale, when coupled a decrease in demand, may cause us to write off excess inventory which would adversely affect our operating performance.

We may experience supply shortages at any time and for a variety of reasons, including, among others, spikes in customer demand that cannot be satisfied, any problems that arise with Samsung’s or SK hynix’s manufacturing operations or facilities that cause disruptions or delays, including from the recent COVID-19 pandemic, or any failure to comply with the terms of the agreements regarding the supply of these products. If we choose, or if we are forced, to seek to supply the component products we resell from other suppliers, we may not be able to identify other suppliers that are available and able to produce the particular components with the specific product specifications and in the quantities our customers require, or we may not be able to make arrangements with any other suppliers in a timely manner to avoid delays in satisfying customer orders. Further, even if we are able to make arrangements with other suppliers for sufficient component products to replace any undersupply from Samsung or SK hynix, we may not be able to make these arrangements on financial and other terms comparable to those we have negotiated with Samsung or SK hynix. As a result, any inability to obtain sufficient component products from Samsung or SK hynix could increase our cost of sales for component product resales if we are forced to pay higher prices to obtain the products from other suppliers. Moreover, all of our supply arrangements for these component products and any arrangements we may establish with other suppliers, are subject to the other supply and manufacturing risks discussed elsewhere in these risk factors.

Increased reliance on product resales also has a substantial impact on our results of operations. Because the cost of the component products we purchase for resale is added to our cost of sales for these products, our gross margin on resales of component products is significantly lower than our gross margin on sales of our own memory subsystem products. As a result, increased resales of component products as a percentage of our total product sales have a significant negative impact on our gross margin and gross profit. This gross margin and gross profit differential between memory product sales and component product resales would be amplified if our costs to purchase component products were to increase. The occurrence of any one or more of these risks could cause our performance to materially suffer.

We are subject to risks relating to our focus on developing our HybriDIMM and NVvault products for our target customer markets.

We have historically derived revenues from sales of our high-performance modular memory subsystems to original equipment manufacturers (“OEM”) in the server, high-performance computing and communications markets. Although we expect these memory subsystems to continue to account for a portion of our revenues, we have experienced declines in sales of these products in recent periods, and these declines could continue or intensify in the future. We believe market acceptance of these products or derivative products that incorporate our core memory subsystem technology is critical to our success, and any continued decline in sales of these products could have a material adverse impact on our performance and long-term prospects.

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We have invested significant research and development time and capital in the design of application-specific integrated circuits (“ASIC”) and hybrid devices, including our NVvault family of products and our next-generation HybriDIMM memory subsystem. These products are subject to significant risks, including:

we are dependent on a limited number of suppliers for the SSDs, DRAM ICs, NAND flash and ASIC devices that are essential to the functionality of these products, and in the past, we have experienced supply chain disruptions and shortages of SSDs, DRAM and NAND flash required to create these products as a result of issues that are specific to our suppliers or the industry as a whole;
HybriDIMM and some of our other next-generation products may require additional time including the services and attention of key employees who have competing demands on their available time and may require capital investment to bring the products to market;
our development and commercialization strategies for these products;
we are required to demonstrate the quality and reliability of our products to and qualify them with our customers before purchases are made, which requires investments of time and resources in significant and unpredictable amounts prior to the receipt of any revenues from these customers; and
our NVvault products or other new products, such as HybriDIMM, may contain currently undiscovered flaws, the correction of which could result in increased costs and time to market.

These and other risks associated with our memory subsystem products could impair our ability to obtain customer or market acceptance of these products or obtain such acceptance in a timely manner, which would reduce our achievable revenues from these products and limit our ability to recoup our investments in developing these technologies.

Additionally, if the demand for servers deteriorates, if the demand for our products to be incorporated in servers continues to decline, or if demand for our products deteriorates because customers in our other target markets change their requirements or preferences or otherwise reduce their need for these types of products generally, our operating results would be adversely affected, and we would be forced to diversify our product portfolio and our target customer markets in order to try to replace revenues lost from the further decreases in product sales. We may not be able to achieve this diversification, and any inability to do so may adversely affect our business, operating performance and prospects.

Sales to a small number of customers have historically represented a significant portion of our net product sales, and the loss of, or a significant reduction in sales to, any one of these customers could materially harm our business.

Our target markets are characterized by a limited number of large companies, and consolidation in one or more of these markets may further increase this concentration. As a result, sales to small numbers of customers have historically represented a substantial portion of our net product sales, and we expect this concentration to continue. Additionally, the composition of major customers and their respective contributions to our net product sales have fluctuated and will likely continue to fluctuate from period to period as our existing and prospective customers progress through the life cycle of the products they produce and sell and experience resulting fluctuations in their product demand. We believe our performance depends in significant part on our ability to establish and maintain relationships with and effect substantial sales to our large customers.

We do not have long-term agreements with any of our customers and, as result, any or all of them could decide at any time to decrease, delay or discontinue their purchase of our products or the component products we resell. In addition, the prices customers pay for products are subject to fluctuations, and large or key customers may exert pressure on us to make concessions in the prices at which we sell products to them. Further, we may not be able to sell some of our products developed for one customer to a different customer because our products are often customized to address specific customer requirements, and even if we are able to sell these products to another customer, our margin on these products may be reduced. Additionally, although customers are generally allowed only limited rights of return after purchasing our products or the component products we resell, we may determine that it is in our best interest to accept returns from certain large or key customers even if we are not contractually obligated to accept them in order to maintain good relations with these customers. Any returns beyond our expectations could negatively impact our operating results.

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Moreover, because a few customers often account for a substantial portion of our net product sales, the failure of any one of these customers to pay on a timely basis would negatively impact our cash flows. As a result, our net product sales and operating results could be materially adversely affected by the loss of any of our customers, particularly our large or key customers, a decrease in product sales to any of our customers, including as a result of normal fluctuations in demand or other factors, reductions in the prices at which we sell products to any of our customers, including as a result of price concessions or general declines in average sale prices, or difficulties collecting payments from any of our customers.

Our ability to maintain or increase our product sales to our key customers depends on a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include our customers’ continued sales of servers and other computing systems that incorporate our memory subsystems, our customers’ continued incorporation of our products or the component products we resell into their systems, and our customers’ sales activity and business results. Because of these and other factors, sales to these customers may not continue and the amount of such sales may not reach or exceed historical levels in any future period.

We are subject to risks of disruption in the supply of component products.

Our ability to fulfill customer orders for or produce qualification samples of our memory subsystem products, as well as orders for the component products we resell, is dependent on a sufficient supply of SSDs, FPGAs, ASICs, DRAM ICs and NAND flash, which are essential components of our memory subsystems. We have no long-term supply contracts for any of these component products. Further, there are a relatively small number of suppliers of these components, and we typically purchase from only a subset of these suppliers. As a result, our inventory purchases have historically been concentrated in a small number of suppliers, including an affiliate of Samsung, from which we obtained a large portion of our component products purchased for resale and our total inventory purchases in 2017 and 2019. We also use consumables and other components, including PCBs, to manufacture our memory subsystems, which we sometimes procure from single or limited sources to take advantage of volume pricing discounts.

From time to time, shortages in SSDs, DRAM ICs and NAND flash have required some suppliers to limit the supply of these components. In the past, we have experienced supply chain disruptions and shortages of SSDs, DRAM and NAND flash required to create certain of our memory subsystem products, and we have been forced to procure the component products we resell from other suppliers to the extent sufficient product is not available from Samsung to meet customer demand or in the event of other Samsung supply issues. We are continually working to secure adequate supplies of the components necessary to fill customers’ orders in a timely manner. If we are unable to obtain a sufficient supply of SSDs, DRAM ICs, NAND flash or other essential components, as a result of a natural disaster, political unrest military conflict, medical epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, economic instability, equipment failure or other cause, to avoid interruptions or failures in the delivery of our products as required by our customers or the delivery of these components to customers to whom we resell them directly, these customers may reduce future orders for these products or not purchase these products from us at all, which could cause our net product sales to decline and harm our operating results. In addition, our reputation could be harmed due to failures to meet our customers’ demands and, even assuming we are successful in resolving supply chain disruptions, we may not be able to replace any lost business and we may lose market share to our competitors. Further, if our suppliers are unable to produce qualification samples of our products on a timely basis or at all, we could experience delays in the qualification process with existing or prospective customers, which could have a significant impact on our ability to sell our products. Moreover, if we are not able to obtain these components in the amounts needed on a timely basis and at commercially reasonable prices, we may not be able to develop or introduce new products, we may experience significant increases in our cost of sales if we are forced to procure components from alternative suppliers and are not able to negotiate favorable terms with these suppliers, or we may be forced to cease our sales of products dependent on the components or resales of the components we sell to customers directly.

Our dependence on a small number of suppliers and the lack of any guaranteed sources for the essential components of our products and the components we resell expose us to several risks, including the inability to obtain an adequate supply of these components, increases in their costs, delivery delays and poor quality. Additionally, our customers qualify certain of the components provided by our suppliers for use in their systems. If one of our suppliers experiences quality control or other problems, it may be disqualified by one or more of our customers. This would

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disrupt our supplies of these components, and would also reduce the number of suppliers available to us and may require that we qualify a new supplier, which we may not be able to do.

Declines in customer demand for our products in recent periods have caused us to reduce our purchases of SSDs, DRAM ICs and NAND flash for use as components in our products. Such declines or other fluctuations could continue in the future. If we fail to maintain sufficient purchase levels with some suppliers, our ability to obtain supplies of these raw materials may be impaired due to the practice of some suppliers of allocating their products to customers with the highest regular demand.

Frequent technology changes and the introduction of next-generation versions of component products may also result in the obsolescence of our inventory on-hand, which could involve significant time and costs to replace, reduce our net product sales and gross margin and adversely affect our operating performance and financial condition.

Our customers require that our products undergo a lengthy and expensive qualification process without any assurance of sales.

Our prospective customers generally test and evaluate our memory subsystems before purchasing our products and integrating them into their systems. This extensive qualification process involves rigorous reliability testing and evaluation of our products, which may continue for nine months or longer and is often subject to delays. In addition to qualification of specific products, some of our customers may also require us to undergo a technology qualification if our product designs incorporate innovative technologies that the customer has not previously encountered. Such technology qualifications often take substantially longer than product qualifications and can take over a year to complete. Even after our products are qualified with existing or new customers, the customer may take several months to begin purchasing the product or may decide not to purchase the product at all, as qualification does not ensure product sales. As a result, we could receive no or limited revenues from a customer even after our investment of time and resources in the qualification process with this customer, which could adversely affect our operating results.

Even after successful qualification and sales of our products to a customer, because the qualification process is both product-specific and platform-specific, our existing customers sometimes require us to re-qualify our products or to qualify our new products for use in new platforms or applications. For example, as our OEM customers transition from prior generation architectures to current generation architectures, we must design and qualify new products for use by these customers. Our net product sales to these customers can decline significantly during this re-qualification process.

Likewise, changes in our products, our manufacturing facilities, our production processes or our component suppliers may require a new qualification process. For example, if our memory, SSDs, NAND flash and DRAM component suppliers discontinue production of these components, it may be necessary for us to design and qualify new products for our customers. As a result, some customers may require us, or we may decide, to purchase an estimated quantity of discontinued memory components necessary to ensure a steady supply of existing products until products with new components can be qualified. Purchases of this nature may affect our liquidity. Additionally, our forecasts of quantities required during the transition may be incorrect, which could adversely impact our results of operations through lost revenue opportunities or charges related to excess and obsolete inventory.

We must devote substantial resources, including design, engineering, sales, marketing and management efforts, to qualify our products with prospective customers in anticipation of sales. Significant delays or other difficulties in the qualification process could result in an inability to keep pace with rapid technology change or new competitive products. If we experience delays or do not succeed in qualifying a product with an existing or prospective customer, we would not be able to sell that product to that customer, which may result in excess and obsolete inventory that we may not be able to sell to another customer and could reduce our net product sales and customer base, any of which could materially harm our operating results and business.

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If we are unable to timely and cost-effectively develop new or enhanced products that achieve customer and market acceptance or technologies we can monetize, our revenues and prospects could be materially harmed.

Our industry is characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards and rapid product obsolescence. As a result, continuous development of new technology, processes and product innovations is necessary in order to be successful. We believe the continued and timely development of new products and technologies and improvement of existing products and technologies are critical to our business and prospects for growth.

In order to develop and introduce new or enhanced products and technologies, we need to:

retain and continue to attract new engineers with expertise in memory subsystems and our key technology competencies;
identify and adjust to the changing requirements and preferences of our existing and potential future customers and markets;
identify and adapt to emerging technological trends and evolving industry standards in our markets;
continue to develop and enhance our design tools, manufacturing processes and other technologies on which we rely to produce new products or product enhancements;
design and introduce cost-effective, innovative and performance-enhancing features that differentiate our products and technologies from those of our competitors;
secure licenses to enable us to use any technologies, processes or other rights essential to the manufacture or use of any new products or product enhancements we may develop, which licenses may not be available when needed, on acceptable terms or at all;
maintain or develop new relationships with suppliers of components required for any new or enhanced products and technologies;
qualify any new or enhanced products for use in our customers’ products; and
develop and maintain effective commercialization and marketing strategies.

We may not be successful at any of these activities. As a result, we may not be able to successfully develop new or enhanced products or technology or we may experience delays in this process. Failures or delays in product development and introduction could result in the loss of, or delays in generating, net products sales or other revenues and the loss of key customer relationships. Even if we develop new or enhanced products or technologies, they may not meet our customers’ requirements, gain market acceptance or attract monetization opportunities, as our product and technology development efforts are inherently risky due to the challenges of foreseeing changes or developments in technology, predicting changes in customer requirements or preferences or anticipating the adoption of new industry standards. Moreover, we have invested significant resources in our product and technology development efforts, which would be lost if we fail to generate revenues from these efforts. If any if these risks occur, our revenues, prospects and reputation could be materially adversely affected.

We face intense competition in our industry, and we may not be able to compete successfully in our target markets.

Our products are primarily targeted to OEMs in the server, high-performance computing and communications markets. In addition, we resell certain component products to storage customers, appliance customers, system builders and cloud and datacenter customers. These markets are intensely competitive, as numerous companies vie for business opportunities at a limited number of large OEMs and other customers. We face competition from DRAM suppliers, memory module providers and logic suppliers for many of our products, including NVvault and HybriDIMM. We also face competition from the manufacturers and distributors of the component products we resell to customers, as these manufacturers and distributors could decide at any time to sell these component products to these customers directly. Additionally, if and to the extent we enter new markets or pursue licensing arrangements to monetize our technologies and intellectual property portfolio, we may face competition from a large number of competitors that produce solutions utilizing similar or competing technologies.

Some of our customers and suppliers may have proprietary products or technologies that are competitive with our products or the components we resell to them or could develop internal solutions or enter into strategic relationships

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with, or acquire, other high-density memory module or component providers. Any of these actions could reduce our customers’ demand for our products or the component products we resell. Additionally, some of our significant suppliers could choose to sell component products to customers directly, which would adversely affect our ability to resell these products, or may choose to manufacture competitive memory subsystem products themselves or reduce our supply of essential components of our products, which could adversely affect our ability to manufacture and sell our memory subsystems.

We believe our ability to compete in our current target markets and potential future markets will depend in part on our ability to successfully and timely develop, introduce and sell at attractive prices new and enhanced products or technologies and otherwise respond to changing market requirements, which we may not be able to do faster and better than our competitors. Moreover, many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technical, marketing, distribution and other resources, broader product lines, lower cost structures, greater brand recognition, more influence on industry standards, more extensive or established patent portfolios and longer standing relationships with customers and suppliers. We may not be able to compete effectively against any of these organizations. If we are unable to compete effectively, then our market position and prospects could deteriorate and our revenues could decline.

Our operating results may be adversely impacted by worldwide economic and political uncertainties and specific conditions in the markets we address and in which we or our strategic partners or competitors do business, including ongoing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the cyclical nature of and volatility in the memory market and semiconductor industry.

Changes in domestic and global economic and political conditions make it difficult for our customers, our vendors and us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities, and these conditions have caused and could continue to cause U.S. and foreign businesses to slow or decrease spending on our products and the products we resell.

In addition, sales of our products and the products we resell are dependent on demand by customers in our target markets. These markets are characterized by wide fluctuations in product supply and demand and have been cyclical in the past, which may result in substantial period-to-period fluctuations in our operating results. In addition, these markets have in the past experienced significant downturns, often connected with or in anticipation of maturing product cycles, reductions in technology spending and declines in general economic conditions. During these downturns, product demand diminishes, production capacity exceeds demand, inventory levels increase and average sale prices decline, all of which would materially adversely impact our business and operating results. In addition, because many of our costs and operating expenses are relatively fixed, if we are unable to control our expenses adequately in response to reduced product demand and sales, our gross margins and cash flows would be negatively impacted. Further, such a downturn could decrease the perceived value of our intellectual property portfolio and reduce our ability to pursue our intellectual property monetization objectives.

During challenging economic times, our customers may face challenges gaining timely access to sufficient credit, which could impair their ability to make timely payments to us. This may negatively affect our liquidity and cash flows and require us to increase our allowance for doubtful accounts. Furthermore, our vendors may face similar issues gaining access to credit, which may limit their ability to supply components or provide trade credit to us.

We cannot predict the timing, strength or duration of any economic slowdown or subsequent economic recovery, either generally or in our customer markets. If the economy or markets in which we operate experience such a slowdown, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The combination of our lengthy sales cycle coupled with any challenging macroeconomic conditions could compound the negative impact of any such downturn on the results of our operations.

Our lack of a significant backlog of unfilled orders and the difficulty inherent in estimating customer demand makes it difficult to forecast our short-term requirements, and any failure to optimally calibrate our production capacity and inventory levels to meet customer demand could adversely affect our revenues, gross margins and earnings.

We make significant decisions regarding the levels of business we will seek and accept, production schedules, component procurement, personnel needs and other resource requirements based on our estimates of customer demand.

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We do not have long-term agreements with any of our customers. Instead, our product sales are made primarily pursuant to stand-alone purchase orders that we often receive no more than two weeks in advance of the desired delivery date and that may be rescheduled or cancelled on relatively short notice. The short-term nature of the commitments by many of our customers and our customers’ ability to cancel or defer purchase orders for any reason reduces our backlog of firm orders and our ability to accurately estimate future customer requirements for our products or the component products we resell. These facts, combined with the short turnaround times that apply to most orders, makes it difficult to predict our production and inventory needs and allocate production capacity and capital for inventory purchases effectively. As a result, we attempt to forecast the demand for the components needed to manufacture our products and to resell to customers directly, but any such forecasts could turn out to be wrong. Further, lead times for components vary significantly and depend on various factors, such as the specific supplier and the demand and supply for a component at any given time.

Our production expense and component purchase levels are to a large extent fixed in the short term. As a result, we may be unable to adjust spending on a timely basis to compensate for any unexpected shortfall in customer orders. If we overestimate customer demand, we may have excess component or finished goods inventory, which may not be able to be used in other products or resold and may become obsolete before any such use or resale. If there is a subsequent decline in the prices of components, the value of our inventory would fall and we may be required to write-down the value of our component inventory, which may result in a significant increase in our cost of sales and decrease in our gross margin. In the past, we have had to write-down inventory due to obsolescence, excess quantities and declines in market value below our costs. As a result, any significant shortfall of customer orders in relation to our expectations could hurt our operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

Conversely, any rapid increases in demand by our customers could strain our resources. If we underestimate customer demand, we may not have sufficient inventory of necessary components on hand to meet that demand and we may need to try to procure additional quantities, which may not be available or may only be available at high prices or on otherwise unfavorable terms. We also may not have sufficient manufacturing capacity at any given time to meet any demands for rapid increases in production of our memory subsystem products. Any shortages of inventory or manufacturing capacity could lead to delays in the delivery of products, which may force us to forego sales opportunities, reduce our net product sales and damage our customer relationships.

In addition, if our product demand forecasts are wrong, we may understate or overstate the provision required for excess and obsolete inventory. If our inventories are determined to be overvalued, we would be required to recognize additional expense in our cost of sales at the time of the determination. Conversely, if our inventories are determined to be undervalued, we may have over-reported our costs of sales in previous periods and would be required to recognize additional gross profit at the time the inventories are sold.

Declines in our average sale prices, driven by volatile prices for components and other factors, may result in declines in our revenues and gross profit.

Our industry has historically been characterized by declines in average sale prices. If sale price declines are not offset by corresponding decreases in costs or increases in sales volume or sales of products with higher margins, these sale price declines could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.

The prices customers pay for the products we sell can fluctuate due to many factors, including, among others, competitive conditions in our key customer markets, changes in customer requirements or preferences, volatility in the market prices for SSDs, DRAM ICs, NAND flash and other component products, and changes in manufacturing efficiencies or capacities. Market prices for component products have historically constituted a substantial portion of the total cost of our memory subsystems and in recent periods have constituted the vast majority of the cost of resales of these products to customers directly. As a result, fluctuations in the prices for these component products, due to overcapacity in worldwide supply or increased manufacturing efficiencies, implementation of new manufacturing processes or expansion of manufacturing capacity by component suppliers, among other factors, significantly impact our costs to sell our products or component products.

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Once our prices with a customer are negotiated, we are generally unable to revise pricing with that customer until our next regularly scheduled price adjustment. As a result, if market prices for essential components increase, we generally cannot pass the price increases through to our customers for products purchased under an existing purchase order. Consequently, we are exposed to the risks associated with the volatility of prices for these components and our cost of sales could increase and our gross margins could decrease in the event of sudden price increases. Alternatively, if there are declines in the prices of these components, we may be required to reduce our selling prices for subsequent purchase orders, which may result in a decline in our net product sales.

Our manufacturing operations involve significant risks.

We maintain a manufacturing facility in the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”) at which we produce most of our products. These manufacturing activities require significant resources to maintain. For instance, we must continuously review and improve our manufacturing processes in order to maintain satisfactory manufacturing yields and product performance, try to lower our costs and otherwise remain competitive. As we manufacture new and more complex products, the risk of encountering delays, difficulties or higher costs increases. In addition, the start-up costs associated with implementing new manufacturing technologies, methods and processes, including the purchase of new equipment and any resulting manufacturing delays and inefficiencies, could negatively impact our results of operations.

Additionally, we could experience a prolonged disruption, material malfunction, interruption or other loss of operations at our manufacturing facility for any number of reasons, including the occurrence of a contagious disease or illness, such as COVID-19, or catastrophic weather events, or we may need to add manufacturing capacity to satisfy any increased demand for our products. Under these circumstances, we may be forced to rely on third parties for our manufacturing needs, which could increase our manufacturing costs, decrease our gross margin, decrease our control over manufacturing processes, limit our ability to satisfy customer requirements and demand and delay new product development until we could secure a relationship with a third-party manufacturer, which we may not be able to do in a timely manner, on acceptable terms or at all. If any of these risks occur, our operations, performance and customer relationships could be severely harmed.

We also may need to expand our existing manufacturing facility or establish a new facility in the future. Any need to expand or replace our manufacturing facility would be expensive and time-consuming and could also subject us to factory audits by our customers that could themselves result in delays, unexpected costs or customer losses if we cannot meet the standards of any such audits. Further, we may not be able to replace or increase our manufacturing capacity at all. The occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We depend on third parties to design and manufacture components for our products and the component products we resell, which exposes us to risks.

Components that are used in our products, as well as all of the component products we resell, are designed and manufactured by third parties. In addition, some of our memory subsystem products rely on significantly customized components. The ability and willingness of third parties to enter into these engagements with us and perform in accordance with these engagements is largely outside our control. If one or more of our design or manufacturing partners experiences a manufacturing disruption for any number of factors including labor disruptions, catastrophic weather events and the occurrence of a contagious disease or illness, such as COVID-19, fails to dedicate adequate resources to the production of the components we use in our products or the components we resell, experiences financial instability or otherwise fails to perform its obligations to us in a timely manner or at satisfactory quality levels, our ability to bring products to market or deliver products to our customers, as well as our reputation, could suffer and our business and prospects could be materially harmed. In the event of any failure by our component manufacturers, we may have no readily available alternative source of supply for these components, since, in our experience, the lead time needed to establish a relationship with a new design or manufacturing partner is substantial, and the time for our OEM customers to re-qualify our products with components from a new vendor is also significant. Additionally, even if an alternative manufacturer is available, we may not be able to engage the manufacturer on acceptable terms, which could result in increased costs, timing requirements or other adverse changes. Further, we may not be able to redesign the customized components used in our products to be manufactured by a new manufacturer, in which case we could infringe on the

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intellectual property of our current design or manufacturing partner when we manufacture the products with a new design or manufacturing partner. Such an occurrence could force us to stop selling certain of our products or could expose us to lawsuits, license payments or other liabilities.

Our dependence on third-party manufacturers exposes us to many other risks, including, among others: reduced control over delivery schedules, quality, manufacturing yields and costs; the potential lack of adequate capacity during periods of excess demand; limited warranties on products supplied to us; and potential infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property or the intellectual property of others. We are dependent on our manufacturing partners to manufacture components with acceptable quality and manufacturing yields, to deliver these components to us on a timely basis and at an acceptable cost and to allocate a portion of their manufacturing capacity sufficient to meet our needs. However, these component manufacturers may not be able to achieve these tasks. Additionally, our manufacturing partners may not continue to devote adequate resources to produce our products or the component products we resell, or continue to advance the process design technologies on which the customer qualifications of our products are based. Any of these risks could limit our ability to meet customer demand and materially adversely affect our business and operating results.

If our products or the component products we resell do not meet quality standards or are defective or used in defective systems, we may be subject to quality holds, warranty claims, recalls or liability claims.

Our customers require our products and the component products we resell to meet strict quality standards. If the products fail to meet these standards, our customers may discontinue purchases from us until we are able to resolve the quality issues that are causing these failures, which we may not be able to do. These “quality holds” can be costly and time-consuming to resolve. In addition, if the products we sell are defectively manufactured, contain defective components or are used in defective or malfunctioning systems, we could be subject to warranty and product liability claims, product recalls, safety alerts or advisory notices.

Although we generally attempt to contractually limit our exposure to incidental and consequential damages, if these contract provisions are not enforced or if liabilities arise that are not effectively limited, we could incur substantial costs in defending or settling product liability claims. While we currently have product liability insurance, it may not provide coverage under certain circumstances and it may not be adequate to satisfy claims made against us. We also may be unable to maintain insurance in the future at satisfactory rates or in adequate amounts.

Warranty and product liability claims, product “quality holds,” product recalls, safety alerts or advisory notices, regardless of their coverage by insurance or their ultimate outcome, could have a material adverse effect on our business, performance and financial condition, as well as our ability to attract and retain customers.

If a standardized memory solution that addresses the demands of our customers is developed, our net product sales and market share may decline.

Many of our memory subsystems are specifically designed for our OEM customers’ high-performance systems. In a drive to reduce costs and assure supply of their memory module demand, our OEM customers may endeavor to design JEDEC standard DRAM modules into their new products. Although we also manufacture JEDEC modules, this trend could reduce the demand for our higher-priced customized memory solutions, which would have a negative impact on our operating results. In addition, the adoption of a JEDEC standard module instead of a previously custom module might allow new competitors to participate in a share of our customers’ memory module business that previously belonged to us.

If our OEM customers were to adopt JEDEC standard modules, our future business may be limited to identifying the next generation of high-performance memory demands of OEM customers and developing solutions that address these demands. Until fully implemented, any next generation of products may constitute a significantly smaller market, which could reduce our revenues and harm our competitive position.

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Our indemnification obligations for the infringement by our products of the rights of others could require us to pay substantial damages.

As is common in our industry, we have a number of agreements in which we have agreed to defend, indemnify and hold harmless our customers and suppliers from damages and costs that may arise from the infringement by our products of third-party patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights. The scope of these indemnities varies, the duration of these indemnities is generally perpetual after execution of an agreement, and the maximum potential amount of future payments we could be required to make under these indemnities is often unlimited. Any indemnification claims by customers could require us to incur significant legal fees and could potentially result in our payment of substantial damages, and our insurance generally would not cover these fees or damages. As a result, the occurrence of any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We depend on certain key employees, and our business could be harmed if we lose the services of any of these employees or are unable to attract and retain other qualified personnel.

To date, we have been highly dependent on the experience, relationships and technical knowledge of certain key employees. We believe our future success will be dependent on our ability to retain the services of these key employees, develop their successors and properly manage the transition of their roles should departures occur. The loss of these key employees or their inability to continue to provide their services could delay the development and introduction of new or enhanced products or technologies, negatively impact our ability to sell our existing products, limit our ability to pursue our other business goals and strategies and otherwise harm our business. We do not have employment agreements with any of our employees other than Chun K. Hong, our President, Chief Executive Officer and sole member of our board of directors, and as a result most of our employees may terminate their employment with us at any time. We maintain “Key Man” life insurance on Mr. Hong, but we do not carry “Key Man” life insurance on any of our other employees.

Our future success also depends on our ability to attract, retain and motivate highly skilled engineering, manufacturing and other technical and sales personnel. Competition for these personnel is intense. We may not be successful in attracting new engineers or other technical personnel or in retaining or motivating our existing personnel. If we are unable to hire and retain personnel with the skills necessary to keep pace with the evolving technologies in our markets, our ability to continue to provide our existing products and to develop new or enhanced products and technologies would be negatively impacted, which could harm our business. In addition, a general shortage of experienced engineers or other technical personnel could lead to increased recruiting, relocation and compensation costs to attract new recruits, which may increase our operating expenses or make these hires more difficult or impossible if increased recruiting costs exceed our resources.

A significant portion of our workforce consists of contract personnel. We invest considerable time and expense to train these contract personnel; however, they typically may terminate their relationships with us at any time. As a result, we may experience high turnover rates in this contract personnel workforce, which may require us to expend additional resources to attract, train and retain replacements. Additionally, if we convert any of these contract personnel to permanent employees, we may have to pay finder’s fees to the contract agency. These risks associated with our contract personnel workforce may involve increased costs or delays or failures in meeting customer requirements or developing new or enhanced products or technologies, any of which could materially adversely affect our business and operating performance.

We are also subject to employment laws and regulations, including the changing regulatory landscape. For example, in California, State Assembly Bill 5 (“AB5”), which went into effect in January 2020, codifies a test to determine whether a worker is an employee under California law. AB5 provides a mechanism for determining whether workers of a hiring entity are employees or independent contractors, but AB5 does not result in any immediate change in how workers are classified. If the State of California, cities or municipalities, or workers disagree with how a hiring entity classifies workers, AB5 sets forth the test for evaluating their classification. The legal and other costs associated with any misclassification of our personnel can be substantial and could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

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We rely on our internal and third-party sales representatives to market and sell our products and the component products we resell, and any failure by these representatives to perform as expected could reduce our sales.

We primarily market and sell our products and the component products we resell through a direct sales force and a network of independent sales representatives. We have expended significant resources to build our internal sales and marketing function, but compared to many of our competitors, we have relatively little experience creating a sales and marketing platform and developing a team to implement it. We may be unsuccessful in these efforts.

Our sales representatives generally may terminate their relationships with us at any time. As a result, our performance depends in part on our ability to retain existing and attract additional sales representatives that will be able to effectively market and support our products or the component products we resell, especially in markets in which we have not previously distributed these products. Our efforts to attract, train and retain these sales representatives to be knowledgeable about our industry, products and technologies are costly and time-consuming. If these efforts fail, our investments in these sales representatives may not produce the expected or any benefits and our ability to market and sell our products or the component products we resell may be limited, which could materially harm our financial condition and operating results. Further, our reliance on independent sales representatives subjects us to risks, as we have very little control over their activities and they are generally free to market and sell other, potentially competing, products. As a result, these independent sales representatives could devote insufficient time or resources to marketing our products or the component products we resell, could market them in an ineffective manner or could otherwise be unsuccessful in selling adequate quantities of these products.

Our operations could be disrupted by power outages, natural disasters or other factors.

Due to the geographic concentration of our manufacturing operations in our PRC facility and our small number of component suppliers, including Samsung for many of the component products we resell, a disruption resulting from equipment or power failures, quality control issues, human errors, government intervention or natural disasters, including earthquakes and floods, could require significant costs to repair and could interrupt or interfere with product manufacture and sale and cause significant delays in product shipments, which could harm our customer relationships, financial condition and results of operations. In the past, our PRC facility has suffered water damage as a result of heavy rains and floods, which forced us to temporarily halt manufacturing at the facility while necessary repairs or equipment replacements were made. This incident caused us to incur additional expenses because we were forced to shift our manufacturing activities to a third-party facility in the PRC to mitigate the disruption in product shipments to our customers. If manufacturing at the PRC facility is disrupted for similar or other reasons in the future, we may again be subject to increased expenses in order to engage a third-party manufacturer, or, if we are not able to secure alternative manufacturing capabilities, our ability to sell products and our relationships with our customers could be materially harmed. Additionally, we may be forced to bear significant costs in order to repair any damage to our manufacturing equipment and facility. Any of these outcomes could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Difficulties with our global information technology systems, including any unauthorized access, could harm our business.

We store key data about our business, including certain customer data, information about our and our customer’s intellectual property and other proprietary information, on our global information technology systems. Any failure or malfunctioning of our global information technology systems, errors or misuse by system users, difficulties migrating stand-alone systems to our centralized systems or inadequacy of the systems in addressing the needs of our operations could disrupt our ability to timely and accurately manufacture and ship products, divert management’s and key employees’ attention from other business matters and involve significant costs and other resources to repair or otherwise resolve, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any such event could also disrupt our ability to timely and accurately process, report and evaluate key operating metrics and key components of our results of operations, financial position and cash flows and could adversely affect our ability to complete other important business processes, such as maintenance of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting.

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While our information technology systems include security measures designed to prevent unauthorized access, employee error, employee malfeasance or other causes, including intentional misconduct by computer hackers, could circumvent these measures and result in unauthorized access to these systems. Because the techniques used to gain unauthorized access to information technology systems evolve frequently and often are not recognized until successful, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures in a timely manner. Any security breach could require significant resources to correct, if correction is possible, and could result in disruption to our business, misappropriation or loss of data, loss of confidence in us by our customers, damage to our reputation and legal liability. Further, any failure to implement appropriate security measures to protect our information or any breach or other failure of our systems that results in unauthorized access, manipulation, disclosure or loss of this information could result in our violation of any U.S. or foreign data protection laws that are applicable to us, including the California Consumer Privacy Act which went into effect in January 2020. These laws and their interpretation and application are constantly evolving, and they could be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our current practices or they could become more stringent over time. Efforts to comply with applicable data protection laws or any new interpretations of their application could involve significant time and substantial costs or require us to change our business practices and compliance procedures, and any failures to so comply could subject us to substantial civil or criminal fines or sanctions. Any of these outcomes could have a material negative impact on our business, performance and prospects.

If we do not effectively manage any future growth we may experience, our resources, systems and controls may be strained and our results of operations may suffer.

Any future growth we may experience could strain our resources, management, information and telecommunication systems and operating and financial controls. To manage future growth effectively, including any expansion of volume in our manufacturing facility in the PRC, we must be able to improve and expand our systems and controls, which we may not be able to do in a timely or cost-effective manner. In addition, our management team has relatively limited experience managing a rapidly growing business. As a result, they may not be able to manage any future growth we may experience. A failure to manage any growth we may experience or improve or expand our existing systems and controls, or unexpected difficulties in doing so, could harm our business and results of operations.

If we acquire businesses or technologies or pursue other strategic transactions or relationships in the future, these transactions could disrupt our business and harm our operating results and financial condition.

From time to time, we evaluate opportunities to acquire businesses or technologies or pursue other strategic transactions or relationships, including collaboration or joint development arrangements, that might complement our current product offerings or enhance our intellectual property portfolio or technical capabilities. We have no experience acquiring other businesses or technologies.

Acquisitions and other strategic transactions or relationships entail a number of risks that could adversely affect our business and operating results, including, among others:

difficulties integrating the operations, technologies or products of acquired companies or working with third parties with which we may partner on joint development or collaboration relationships;
the diversion of management’s time and attention from the daily operations of our business;
insufficient increases in revenues to offset increased expenses associated with an acquisition or strategic transaction or relationship;
difficulties retaining business relationships with our existing suppliers and customers or the suppliers and customers of an acquired company;
overestimation of potential synergies or other benefits, or a delay in realizing these synergies or other benefits;
entering markets in which we have no or limited experience and in which competitors have stronger market positions;
the potential loss of our key employees or an acquired company;
exposure to contingent liabilities of an acquired company;

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depletion of cash resources to fund an acquisition or other strategic transaction or establish a strategic relationship, or dilution of existing stockholders or increased leverage relative to our earnings or to our equity capitalization if we issue debt or equity securities for these purposes;