SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the fiscal year ended
For the transition period from ___________ to __________
Date of event requiring this shell company report ______________
Commission file number
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(Translation of Registrant's Name into English)
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
Thompson Hine LLP
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.
|Title of each class||Trading Symbol(s)||Name of each exchange on which registered|
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act. None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act. None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: Common Units
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such reporting requirements for the past 90 days.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. :
|Large Accelerated Filer ☐||Non-Accelerated Filer ☐||Emerging Growth Company |
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15
U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ¨
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
by the International Accounting Standards Board ☐
If "Other" has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.
☐ Item 17 ☐ Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers||3|
|Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable||4|
|Item 3. Key Information||4|
|Item 4. Information on the Partnership||42|
|Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments||74|
|Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects||74|
|Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees||89|
|Item 7. Major Unitholders and Related Party Transaction||95|
|Item 8. Financial Information||101|
|Item 9. The Offer and Listing||102|
|Item 10. Additional Information||102|
|Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risks||115|
|Item 12. Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities||116|
|Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies||116|
|Item 14. Material Modifications to the Rights of Unitholders and Use of Proceeds||116|
|Item 15. Controls and Procedures||116|
|Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert||116|
|Item 16B. Code of Ethics||117|
|Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services||117|
|Item 16D. Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees||117|
|Item 16E. Purchases of Units by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers||117|
|Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant||117|
|Item 16G. Corporate Governance||117|
|Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosures||118|
|Item 16I. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections||118|
|Item 17. Financial Statements||118|
|Item 18. Financial Statements||118|
|Item 19. Exhibits||118|
This Annual Report should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in this report.
Statements included in this annual report which are not historical facts (including our statements concerning plans and objectives of management for future operations or economic performance, or assumptions related thereto) are forward-looking statements. In addition, we and our representatives may from time to time make other oral or written statements which are also forward-looking statements. Such statements include, in particular, statements about our plans, strategies, business prospects, changes and trends in our business, and the markets in which we operate as described in this annual report. In some cases, you can identify the forward-looking statements by the use of words such as “may,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “forecast,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “propose,” “potential,” “continue” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology.
Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places and include statements with respect to, among other things:
|•||our ability to pay quarterly cash distributions on our common units;|
|•||our future financial condition or results of operations and our future revenues and expenses;|
|•||future levels of operating surplus and levels of distributions, as well as our future cash distribution policy;|
|•||our current and future business and growth strategies and other plans and objectives for future operations;|
|•||our ability to take delivery of, integrate into our fleet, and employ additional vessels, whether secondhand, as the fleets acquired in the Navios Maritime Containers L.P. (“Navios Containers”) and the Navios Maritime Acquisition Corporation (“Navios Acquisition”) mergers and the 36-vessel drybulk fleet acquisition from Navios Maritime Holdings Inc. (“Navios Holdings”), or any newbuildings we may order in the future;|
|•||future charter hire rates and vessel values;|
|•||the repayment of debt;|
|•||our ability to access debt and equity markets;|
|•||planned capital expenditures and availability of capital resources to fund capital expenditures;|
|•||future supply of, and demand for, liquid and dry cargo commodities;|
|•||volatility in interest rates, including Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”);|
our ability to maintain long-term relationships with major commodity traders, oil majors, operators and liner companies;
|•||our ability to leverage the scale, experience, reputation and relationships of our managers, namely Navios Shipmanagement Inc. (the “Manager”), and Navios Tankers Management Inc. (“Tankers Manager” and together with the Manager, the “Managers”) and our affiliates, including Navios Holdings;|
|•||our continued ability to enter into long-term, fixed-rate time charters;|
|•||our ability to maximize the use of our vessels, including the re-deployment or disposition of vessels no longer under long-term time charters;|
|•||timely purchases and deliveries of newbuilding vessels;|
|•||future purchase prices of newbuildings and secondhand vessels;|
|•||our ability to compete successfully for future chartering and newbuilding opportunities;|
|•||our future financial condition or results of operations and our future revenues and expenses, including revenues from any profit sharing arrangements, and required levels of reserves;|
|•||potential liability and costs due to environmental, safety and other incidents involving our vessels;|
|•||our track record, and past and future performance, in safety, environmental and regulatory matters;|
|•||our anticipated incremental general and administrative expenses as a publicly traded limited partnership and our expenses under the management agreements, (the “Management Agreements”) with the Managers and the administrative services agreement (the “Administrative Services Agreement”) with the Manager and for reimbursements for fees and costs of our general partner;|
|•||estimated future maintenance and replacement capital expenditures;|
|•||future sales of our common units in the public market;|
|•||the cyclical nature of the international shipping industry;|
|•||fluctuations in charter rates for tanker vessels, dry bulk carriers and containerships (“Dry Cargo”);|
|•||the number of newbuildings currently under construction;|
|•||changes in the market values of our vessels and the vessels for which we have purchase options;|
|•||an inability to expand relationships with existing customers and obtain new customers;|
|•||the loss of any customer or charter or vessel;|
|•||the aging of our fleet and resultant increases in operations costs;|
|•||damage to our vessels;|
|•||global economic outlook and growth and changes in general economic and business conditions;|
|•||domestic and international political conditions, including wars, pandemics, terrorism and piracy;|
|•||public health threats;|
|•||increases in costs and expenses, including but not limited to: crew wages, insurance, provisions, port expenses, lube oil, bunkers, repairs, maintenance and general and administrative expenses;|
|•||the adequacy of our insurance arrangements and our ability to obtain insurance and required certifications;|
|•||the expected cost of, and our ability to comply with, governmental regulations and maritime self-regulatory organization standards, as well as standard regulations imposed by our charterers applicable to our business;|
|•||the changes to the regulatory requirements applicable to the shipping industry, including, without limitation, stricter requirements adopted by international organizations, such as the International Maritime Organization (the “IMO”) and the European Union (sometimes referred to as “EU”), or by individual countries or charterers and actions taken by regulatory authorities and governing such areas as safety and environmental compliance;|
|•||the anticipated taxation of our partnership and our unitholders;|
|•||expected demand in the shipping sectors in which we operate in general and the demand for our Drybulk, Container and Tanker vessels in particular;|
|•||our ability to retain key executive officers;|
|•||customers' increasing emphasis on environmental and safety concerns;|
|•||changes in the availability and costs of funding due to conditions in the bank market, capital markets and other factors; and|
|•||other factors detailed from time to time in our periodic reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).|
These and other forward-looking statements are made based upon management's current plans, expectations, estimates, assumptions and beliefs concerning future events impacting us and therefore involve a number of risks and uncertainties, including those set forth below, as well as those risks discussed in “Item 3. Key Information”.
The risks and assumptions are inherently subject to significant uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control and many of which have been and many further be, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Ukrainian/Russian conflict and the impact they have had on the global economy. We caution that forward-looking statements are not guarantees and that actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements.
We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement or statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which such statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all of these factors. Further, we cannot assess the impact of each such factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to be materially different from those contained in any forward-looking statement.
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
B. Capitalization and indebtedness.
C. Reasons for the offer and use of proceeds.
D. Risk factors
Risks Relating to Our Business and our Industry
|·||Our growth depends on continued growth in demand for drybulk commodities, liquid cargo, finished or semi-finished goods, and the shipping of drybulk cargoes, containers, as well as crude oil, petroleum products and other liquid cargoes.|
|·||The cyclical nature of the international shipping industry may lead to decreases in charter rates and lower vessel values. Charter hire rates have significantly declined from historically high levels recently, are volatile and may remain depressed or reach low levels or decrease in the future, which may adversely affect our earnings, revenue and our profitability.|
|·||A decrease in the level of China's imports of raw materials, exports of goods, or a decrease in trade globally could have a material adverse impact on our charterers' business and, in turn, could cause a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.|
|·||Any decrease in shipments of crude oil from the Arabian Gulf or the Atlantic basin may adversely affect our financial performance.|
|·||Increasing energy self-sufficiency in the United States could lead to a decrease in imports of oil to that country, which to date has been one of the largest importers of oil worldwide.|
|·||An increase in trade protectionism and the unraveling of multilateral trade agreements could have a material adverse impact on our charterers' business and, in turn, could cause a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.|
|·||We are focused on employing vessels on long-term charters and we may have difficulties in doing so if a more active short-term or spot market develops.|
|·||While we favor longer term charters for all the tanker, dry bulk and container vessels we own or control, we may from time to time have to rely on chartering our vessels in the spot market either because our charter ended during a period of weak demand or we need to reposition a vessel out of a geographically or seasonally disadvantaged position. Additionally some of the longer term charters we have are indexed to spot rates. Spot market rates for tanker, dry bulk and container vessels are highly volatile and may decrease in the future, which may materially adversely affect our earnings in the event that our vessels are chartered in the spot market or those that may be chartered under index linked charters.|
Our growth depends on our ability to expand relationships with existing customers and obtain new customers, for which we will face substantial competition from new entrants and established companies with significant resources.
|·||As we expand our business, we may have difficulty managing our growth, which could increase expenses.|
|·||We may be unable to make or realize expected benefits from acquisitions, and implementing our growth strategy through acquisitions may harm our business, financial condition and operating results.|
|·||Delays in deliveries of secondhand vessels, our decision to cancel an order for purchase of a vessel or our inability to otherwise complete the acquisitions of additional vessels for our fleet, could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.|
|·||If we purchase any newbuilding vessels, delays, cancellations or non-completion of deliveries of newbuilding vessels could harm our operating results.|
|·||The loss of a customer, charter or vessel could result in a loss of revenues and cash flow in the event we are unable to replace such customer, charter or vessel.|
|·||The aging of our vessels may result in increased operating costs in the future, which could adversely affect our earnings.|
|·||A number of third party owners have ordered so-called “eco-type” vessel designs or have retrofitted scrubbers to remove sulfur from exhaust gases, which may offer substantial bunker savings as compared to older designs or vessels without exhaust gas scrubbers. Increased demand for and supply of “eco-type” or scrubber retrofitted vessels could reduce demand for our vessels that are not classified as such and expose us to lower vessel utilization and/or decreased charter rates.|
|·||Our vessels may be subject to unbudgeted periods of off-hire, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.|
|·||Vessels may suffer damage and we may face unexpected drydocking costs, which could affect our cash flow and financial condition.|
|·||The market value of our vessels may fluctuate significantly, which could cause us to breach covenants in our financing arrangements, resulting in the foreclosure of certain of our vessels, limit the amount of funds that we can borrow and adversely affect our ability to purchase new vessels and our operating results. Depressed vessel values could also cause us to incur impairment charges. If vessel values are low at a time when we are attempting to dispose of a vessel, we could incur a loss.|
|·||We must make substantial capital expenditures to maintain the operating capacity of our fleet, which will reduce our cash available for distribution. In addition, each quarter our board of directors is required to deduct estimated maintenance and replacement capital expenditures from operating surplus, which may result in less or no cash available to unitholders than if actual maintenance and replacement capital expenditures were deducted.|
|·||We may be subject to litigation that, if not resolved in our favor or not sufficiently insured against, could have a material adverse effect on us.|
|·||Because we generate all of our revenues in U.S. dollars but incur a portion of our expenses in other currencies, exchange rate fluctuations could cause us to suffer exchange rate losses thereby increasing expenses and reducing income.|
|·||Security breaches and disruptions to our information technology infrastructure could interfere with our operations and expose us to liability which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.|
|·||We may not have adequate insurance to compensate us if we lose our vessels or to compensate third parties.|
|·||Our growth depends on continued growth in demand for crude oil, refined petroleum products (clean and dirty) and bulk liquid chemicals and the continued demand for seaborne transportation of such cargoes.|
|·||Increasing growth of electric vehicles and other measures intended to reduce CO2 emissions could lead to a decrease in trading and the movement of crude oil and petroleum products worldwide.|
|·||We conduct a substantial amount of business in China. The legal system in China has inherent uncertainties that could limit the legal protections available to us and could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.|
|·||An oversupply of vessel capacity may depress rates, which may affect our ability to operate our vessels profitably.|
|·||Fuel price fluctuations may have an adverse effect on our profits.|
|·||If we expand the size of our fleet in the future, we generally will be required to make significant installment payments for acquisitions of vessels even prior to their delivery and generation of revenue. Depending on whether we finance our expenditures through cash from operations or by issuing debt or equity securities, our ability to make cash distributions to unitholders, to the extent we are making distributions, may be diminished or our financial leverage could increase or our unitholders could be diluted.|
|·||We are subject to various laws, regulations, and international conventions, particularly environmental and safety laws, that could require significant expenditures both to maintain compliance with such laws and to pay for any uninsured environmental liabilities, including any resulting from a spill or other environmental incident.|
|·||Climate change and government laws and regulations related to climate change could negatively impact our financial condition.|
|·||We are subject to vessel security regulations and we incur costs to comply with adopted regulations. We may be subject to costs to comply with similar regulations that may be adopted in the future in response to terrorism.|
|·||Changing laws and evolving reporting requirements could have an adverse effect on our business, including the pending SEC Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) disclosure rules in the U.S. and European Union..|
|·||Our international activities increase the compliance risks associated with economic and trade sanctions imposed by the United States, the EU, the UK and other jurisdictions/authorities.|
|·||We could be materially adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and anti-corruption laws in other applicable jurisdictions.|
|·||The operation of ocean-going vessels entails the possibility of marine disasters including damage or destruction of the vessel due to accident, the loss of a vessel due to piracy or terrorism, damage or destruction of cargo and similar events that may cause a loss of revenue from affected vessels and damage our business reputation, which may in turn lead to loss of business.|
|·||Maritime claimants could arrest or attach one or more of our vessels, which could interrupt our cash flow.|
|·||The smuggling of drugs or other contraband onto our vessels may lead to governmental claims against us.|
|·||A failure to pass inspection by classification societies could result in one or more vessels being unemployable unless and until they pass inspection, resulting in a loss of revenues from such vessels for that period and a corresponding decrease in operating cash flows.|
|·||Disruptions in global financial markets, terrorist attacks, regional armed conflicts, general political unrest, economic crisis, the emergence of a pandemic crisis and the resulting governmental action could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.|
|·||Our financial and operating performance may be adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and related governmental responses..|
|·||Governments could requisition our vessels during a period of war or emergency, resulting in a loss of earnings.|
Risks Relating to Our Indebtedness
|·||The market value of our vessels may fluctuate significantly, which could cause us to breach covenants in our credit facilities and certain financial liabilities and result in foreclosure on our mortgaged vessels.|
|·||We may be unable to obtain additional financing and our debt levels may limit our ability to do so and pursue other business opportunities, and our interest rates under our financing arrangements may fluctuate and may impact our operations.|
|·||We are exposed to volatility in interest rates, including SOFR.|
|·||Our financing arrangements contain restrictive covenants, which may limit our business and financing activities and may prevent us from paying distributions to unitholders, if our board of directors determines to do so again in the future.|
Risks Relating to Our Units
|·||Our board of directors may not declare cash distributions in the foreseeable future.|
|·||Any dividend payments on our common units would be declared in U.S. dollars, and any unit holder whose principal currency is not the U.S. dollar would be subject to risks of exchange rate fluctuations.|
|·||The New York Stock Exchange may delist our securities from trading on its exchange, which could limit your ability to trade our securities and subject us to additional trading restrictions.|
|·||The price of our common units may be volatile.|
|·||Increases in interest rates may cause the market price of our common units to decline.|
|·||Substantial future issuance and sale of our common units in the public market, including through our continuous offering sales program, could cause the price of our common units to fall, and would dilute your ownership interests.|
|·||Unitholders may be liable for repayment of distributions.|
|·||Common unitholders have limited voting rights and our partnership agreement restricts the voting rights of common unitholders owning more than 4.9% of our common units.|
Risks Relating to Our Organizational Structure, Taxes and Other Legal Matters
|·||Navios Holdings and their affiliates may compete with us.|
|·||We are a holding company and we depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us in order to satisfy our financial obligations and to make distributions.|
|·||We depend on the Managers to assist us in operating and expanding our business.|
|·||The loss of key members of our senior management team could disrupt the management of our business.|
The Managers may be unable to attract and retain qualified, skilled employees or crew necessary to operate our vessels and business or may have to pay increased costs for its employees and crew and other vessel operating costs.
|·||We may be subject to taxes, which may reduce our cash available for distribution to our unitholders.|
|·||U.S. tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company,” which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. unitholders.|
|·||We may have to pay tax on U.S.-source income, which would reduce our earnings.|
|·||Actions taken by holders of our common units could result in our (and certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries) being treated as a “controlled foreign corporation,” which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to certain U.S. holders.|
|·||You may be subject to income tax in one or more non-U.S. countries, including Greece, as a result of owning our common units if, under the laws of any such country, we are considered to be carrying on business there. Such laws may require you to file a tax return with and pay taxes to those countries.|
|·||We have been organized as a limited partnership under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, which does not have a well-developed body of partnership law; as a result, unitholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests than would unitholders of a similarly organized limited partnership in the United States.|
|·||Because we are organized under the laws of the Marshall Islands and our business is operated primarily from our office in Monaco, it may be difficult to serve us with legal process or enforce judgments against us, our directors or our management.|
|·||We rely on the master limited partnership (“MLP”) structure and its appeal to investors for accessing debt and equity markets to finance our growth and repay or refinance our debt. The depressed trading price of our common units may affect our ability to access capital markets and, as a result, our ability to pay distributions or repay our debt.|
|·||Our partnership agreement limits our general partners and our directors fiduciary duties to our unitholders and restricts the remedies available to unitholders for actions taken by our general partner or our directors.|
|·||Our general partner has a limited call right that may require unitholders to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price.|
|·||Our general partner may transfer its general partner interest to, and the control of our general partner may be transferred to a third party without common unitholder consent.|
|·||Our partnership agreement contains provisions that may have the effect of discouraging a person or group from attempting to remove our current management or our general partner, and even if our public unitholders are dissatisfied, they will need a qualified majority to remove our general partner|
|·||Unitholders may not have limited liability if a court finds that unitholder action constitutes control of our business.|
|·||We can borrow money to pay distributions, it would reduce the amount of credit available to operate our business.|
|·||Our management will have broad discretion with respect to the use of the proceeds resulting from the issuance of common units whether under a continuous offering program or a secondary offering.|
|·||Our general partner and its affiliates, including Navios Holdings, own a significant interest in us and may have conflicts of interest and limited fiduciary and contractual duties, which may permit them to favor their own interests to the detriment of unitholders.|
|·||Our officers face conflicts of interest and conflicts in the allocation of their time to our business.|
|·||Fees and cost reimbursements, which the Managers determines for services provided to us, represent significant percentage of our revenues, are payable regardless of profitability and reduce our cash available for distributions.|
Risks Relating to Our Business and our Industry
Our growth depends on continued growth in demand for dry bulk commodities, liquid cargo, finished or semi-finished goods, and the shipping of drybulk cargoes, containers as well as crude oil, petroleum products and other liquid cargoes.
Our growth strategy focuses on expansion in the Dry Cargo, container and tanker shipping sectors. Accordingly, our growth depends on continued growth in world and regional demand for dry and liquid bulk commodities, finished or semi-finished goods and the shipping of containers, dry and liquid cargoes, which could be negatively affected by a number of factors, such as declines in prices for dry or liquid bulk commodities or containerized cargoes, or general political, social and economic conditions.
We anticipate that the future demand for our drybulk carriers, container and tanker vessels and their charter rates will be dependent upon demand for imported commodities, economic growth in the emerging markets, including the Asia Pacific region, India and Brazil. In past years, China and India have had two of the world’s fastest growing economies in terms of gross domestic product and have been the main driving force behind increases in marine drybulk and tanker trades and the demand for drybulk vessels and tankers. The Asia Pacific and Indian economies have also been significant suppliers of manufactured goods currently shipped by container to the developed markets of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”) and worldwide. If economic growth declines in China, Japan, India and other countries in the Asia Pacific region, we may face decreases in demand of such drybulk, tanker and container shipping trades. For example, recent slowdowns of the Chinese economy have adversely affected demand for bulk carriers and, as a result, spot and period rates, as well as asset values, are currently at levels below their peaks in the fall of 2021. Global economic conditions, while somewhat more stable than in the immediate aftermath of the financial crisis, remain uncertain with respect to long-term economic growth. In particular, the uncertainty surrounding the future of the Eurozone; the economic prospects of the United States (sometimes referred to as the “U.S.”); the future economic growth of China, Brazil, India, and other emerging markets; the current armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine; and changing oil production and consumption patterns due to pandemics, war, efficiencies, environmental concerns, new technologies and government policy changes are all expected to affect demand for drybulk carriers, container vessels, and product and crude tankers going-forward.
The past global financial crisis, the continuing U.S. shale production expansion and the effects of COVID-19 have intensified the unpredictability of tanker rates. Furthermore, the extension of refinery capacity in China, India and particularly the Middle East through 2022 and 2023 is expected to exceed the immediate consumption in these areas, and an increase in exports of refined oil products is expected as a result. Changes in product trading patterns due to the implementation of the IMO 2020 sulfur reduction rules and closure of refineries due to the pandemic should increase trade in refined oil products. Changes in crude and product trading patterns due to the armed conflict between Russia and the Ukraine may remain long after the conflict is resolved and sanctions are removed, which should increase ton miles and therefore the demand for such vessels.
If oil demand grows in the future, it is expected to come primarily from emerging markets which have been historically volatile, such as China and India, and a slowdown in these countries’ economies may severely affect global oil demand growth, and may result in protracted, reduced consumption of oil products and a decreased demand for our vessels and lower charter rates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to make cash distributions.
Should the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) significantly reduce oil production or should there be significant declines in non-OPEC oil production, that may result in a protracted period of reduced oil shipments and a decreased demand for our vessels and lower charter rates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to make cash distributions.
While containership rates have fallen from their all time highs in the beginning of 2022 due to governments’ removal of pandemic related restrictions on travel and business, and the reduction or elimination of supply chain disruptions, there is no guarantee that they will remain at levels that are still elevated above pre-pandemic rates and could return to levels at or below their long term averages.
A slowdown in the economies of the U.S. or the EU, or certain other Asian countries may also adversely affect economic growth in the Asia Pacific region and India. A decline in demand for commodities transported in drybulk carriers, tankers and/or containerships, or an increase in supply of drybulk vessels, tankers or containerships could cause a further decline in charter rates,which could materially adversely affect our cashflows, profitability and our results of operations and financial condition.
The cyclical nature of the international shipping industry may lead to decreases in charter rates and lower vessel values. Charter hire rates have significantly declined from historically high levels recently, are volatile and may remain depressed or reach low levels or decrease in the future, which may adversely affect our earnings, revenue, profitability and ability to pay distributions.
The drybulk shipping industry is cyclical with attendant volatility in charter hire rates and profitability. The degree of charter hire rate volatility among different types of drybulk vessels has varied widely, and charter hire rates for drybulk vessels have declined significantly from historically high levels. For example, in the past time charter and spot market rates for drybulk vessels have declined below operating costs of vessels. The Baltic Dry Index, or BDI, an index published by the Baltic Exchange Limited of shipping rates for 26 key drybulk routes, fell 97% from a peak of 11,793 in May 2008 to a low of 290 in February 2016. While the BDI showed improvement since then, in the last two years it has ranged from a low of 530 in February 2023 to a high of 5,650 in October 2021, and at 1,535 on March 17, 2023 it remains at low levels compared to historical highs and there can be no assurance that the drybulk charter market will not decline further.
The ocean-going container shipping industry is both cyclical and volatile in terms of charter rates, profitability and, consequently, vessel values. According to industry data, containership charter rates peaked in 2005, with the Containership Timecharter Rate Index (a $/day per twenty-foot equivalent units (“TEU”) weighted average of 6-12 month time charter rates of Panamax and smaller vessels (1993=100)) reaching 172 points in March and April 2005, and generally stayed above 100 points until the middle of 2008, when the effects of the economic crisis began to affect global container trade, driving the Containership Timecharter Rate Index to a 10-year low of 32 points in the period from November 2009 to January 2010. As of the end of January 2020, the Containership Timecharter Rate Index stood at 61 points, hit a bottom of 41 points as of the end of June 2020 and then rose to an all time high of 434 as of the beginning of April 2022. Since then the Containership Timecharter Rate Index has fallen to 95 at the end of February 2023. Current container charter rates are at rates that are above pre-pandemic levels but there is no guarantee that they will remain elevated and could return to average or below average levels when they fall.
Charter rates in the crude oil, product and chemical tanker sectors have significantly declined from historically high levels in 2008 and may remain depressed or decline further. For example, the Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) declined from a high of 2,347 in July 2008 to 453 in mid-April 2009, which represents a decline of approximately 81%. Since January 2021, it has traded between a low of 492 and a high of 2,496; as of March 17, 2023, it stood at 1,579. The Baltic Exchange Clean Tanker Index (BCTI) fell from 1,509 in the early summer of 2008 to 345 in April 2009, or an approximate 77% decline. It has traded between a low of 432 and a high of 2,143 since January 2021 and stood at 1,070 as of March 17, 2023. Tanker charter rates for VLCCs, LR1s and MR2s experienced the lowest annual average time charter earnings on record in 2021, although current rates are higher than those recorded lows. Of note is that Chinese imports of crude oil have steadily increased from three million barrels per day in 2008 to a record 13 million barrels per day in June 2020 and stood at 11.4 million barrels per day in December 2022. Additionally, since the U.S. removed its ban at the end of 2015, U.S. crude oil exports increased by over 900% from 0.4 million barrels per day to a record 4.1 million barrels per day in October 2022; and averaged 3.5 MBPD in January 2023. The U.S. has steadily increased its total petroleum product exports by about 500% to a record 6.3 million barrels per day in June 2022 from one million barrels per day in January 2006. Exports remained elevated in November 2022 at 5.9 million barrels per day.
If the drybulk, tanker or container shipping industries, which have been highly cyclical and volatile, are depressed in the future when our charters expire or when we are otherwise seeking new charters, we may be forced to re-charter our vessels at reduced or even unprofitable rates, or we may not be able to re-charter them at all and/or we may be forced to scrap them, which may reduce or eliminate our earnings, make our earnings volatile, affect our ability to generate cash flows and maintain liquidity. However, the drybulk, tanker and containership rate cycles have peaked and have fallen to low points at different times, which may mitigate overall cash flow reductions. We cannot give any assurance that we will be able to successfully charter our vessels in the future or renew our existing charters at rates sufficient to allow us to operate our business profitably, to meet our obligations, including payment of debt service to our lenders, or to pay dividends to our unitholders. Our ability to re-charter our vessels upon the expiration or termination of their current charters, or on vessels that we may acquire in the future, as well as, the charter rates payable under any replacement charters will depend upon, among other things, economic conditions in the sectors in which our vessels operate at that time, changes in the supply and demand for vessel capacity and changes in the supply and demand for the transportation of commodities or manufactured goods.
Additionally, if the spot market rates or short-term time charter rates become significantly lower than the time charter equivalent rates that some of our charterers are obligated to pay us under our existing charters, the charterers may have incentive to default under that charter or attempt to renegotiate the charter. If our charterers fail to pay their obligations, we would have to attempt to re-charter our vessels at lower charter rates, which would affect our ability to comply with our loan covenants and operate our vessels profitably. If we are not able to comply with our loan covenants and our lenders choose to accelerate our indebtedness and foreclose their liens, we could be required to sell vessels in our fleet and our ability to continue to conduct our business would be impaired.
Fluctuations in charter rates result from changes in the supply and demand for vessel capacity and changes in the supply and demand for the major commodities and finished goods carried by water internationally. Because the factors affecting the supply and demand for vessels are outside of our control and are unpredictable, the nature, timing, direction and degree of changes in charter rates are also unpredictable.
Furthermore, a significant decrease in charter rates would cause asset values to decline, and we may have to record an impairment charge in our consolidated financial statements which could adversely affect our financial results. Because the market value of our vessels may fluctuate significantly, we may also incur losses when we sell vessels, which may adversely affect our earnings. If we sell vessels at a time when vessel prices have fallen and before we have recorded an impairment adjustment to our financial statements, the sale may be at less than the vessel's carrying amount in our financial statements, resulting in a loss and a reduction in earnings.
Factors that influence demand for vessels capacity include:
|•||global and regional economic and political conditions, including armed conflicts, wars and terrorist activities (including piracy), embargoes and strikes;|
|•||global or local health related issues including disease outbreaks or pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic;|
|•||disruptions and developments in international trade, including the effects of currency exchange rate changes and any differences in supply and demand between regions;|
|•||changes in seaborne and other transportation patterns;|
|•||supply and demand for energy resources, drybulk products, commodities, semi-finished and finished consumer and industrial products;|
|•||changes in the exploration or production of energy resources, commodities, semi-finished and finished consumer and industrial products;|
|•||supply and demand for products shipped in containers;|
|•||supply and demand for commodities shipped in Dry Cargo vessels;|
|•||supply and demand of liquid cargoes, including petroleum and petroleum products;|
|•||changes in global production of raw materials, semi-finished or finished goods and products transported by containerships;|
|•||changes in oil production and refining capacity and regional availability of petroleum refining capacity;|
|•||the distance drybulk, liquid cargo or containers are to be moved by sea, including changes in the distances over which cargo is transported due to geographic changes where commodities are produced, manufactured, refined or used or due to sanctions or restrictions due to geopolitical issues, embargoes, wars or other conflicts;|
|•||fuel prices for the bunker fuel used aboard ships;|
|•||whether the vessel is equipped with scrubbers or not;|
|•||natural or man-made disasters that affect the ability of our vessels to use certain waterways;|
|•||waiting days in ports or port congestion generally due to any causes;|
|•||the globalization of manufacturing and all developments in international trade;|
|•||carrier alliances, vessel sharing or container slot sharing that seek to allocate container ship capacity on routes;|
|•||any weather events affecting production or consumption or movements at sea and crop yields;|
|•||political, environmental and other regulatory developments, including but not limited to governmental macroeconomic policy changes (including the application of stimulus programs or withdrawal of same), import and export restrictions, including sanctions, trade wars, central bank policies and pollution conventions or protocols, including any limits on CO2 emissions or the consumption of carbon based fuels due to climate change agreements or protocols;|
|•||political developments, including changes to trade policies and or trade wars, including the provision or removal of economic stimulus measures meant to counteract the effects of sudden market disruptions due to conflicts, wars, banking, financial, economic or health crises;|
|•||domestic and foreign tax policies;|
|•||armed conflicts and terrorist activities;|
|•||competition from alternative sources of energy and/or governmental policies encouraging the use of such alternatives (including the replacement of fossil fuels, such as coal or oil, with renewables for industrial or consumer use);|
|•||international sanctions, embargoes, strikes and nationalizations; and|
|•||technical advances in ship design and construction.|
The supply of vessel capacity has generally been influenced by, among other factors:
|•||the number of vessels that are out of service (including any held in quarantine or waiting for crew changes due to health related or other restrictions or those vessels impounded or restricted from movement due to any war, lockout, lack of insurance or other political measure), namely those that are laid-up, drydocked, awaiting or undergoing repairs or otherwise not available or prevented from being available for hire;|
|•||the scrapping rate of older vessels;|
|•||the availability of finance or lack thereof for ordering newbuildings or for facilitating ship sale and purchase transactions;|
|•||port and canal traffic and congestion, including canal improvements that can affect employment of ships designed for older canals or closure or blockage due to accidents, war or any other reason;|
|•||the number of shipyards and ability of shipyards to deliver vessels;|
|•||the number of newbuilding deliveries;|
|•||the number of vessels that are used for storage or as floating storage offloading service vessels;|
|•||the conversion of tankers to drybulk cargo and the reverse conversion;|
|•||the phasing out of single-hull tankers due to legislation and environmental concerns;|
|•||national or international regulations that may effectively cause reductions in the carrying capacity of vessels or early obsolescence of tonnage;|
|•||changes in environmental and other regulations and standards (including IMO rules requiring a reduction in the use of high sulfur fuels, the fitting of additional ballast water treatment systems and rules intended to reduce CO2 emissions) that limit the profitability, operations or useful lives of vessels;|
|•||the price of steel, fuel and other raw materials; and|
|•||the economics of slow steaming.|
In addition to the prevailing and anticipated charter rates, factors that affect the rate of newbuilding, scrapping and laying-up include newbuilding prices, secondhand vessel values in relation to newbuilding and scrap prices, costs of bunkers and other operating costs, costs associated with classification society surveys, normal maintenance and insurance coverage costs, the efficiency and age profile of the existing drybulk, tanker and container fleets in the market and government and industry regulation of maritime transportation practices, particularly environmental protection laws and regulations. These and other factors influencing the supply of and demand for shipping capacity are outside of our control, and we may not be able to correctly assess the nature, timing and degree of changes in industry conditions.
Historically, the drybulk, tanker and containership markets have been volatile as a result of the many conditions and factors that can affect the price, supply and demand for tanker capacity. The consequences of any future global economic crisis may further reduce demand for transportation of dry and liquid commodities over long distances and supply of ships that carry those dry and liquid commodities and finished goods, which may materially affect our future revenues, profitability and cash flows. In addition, public health threats, such as the coronavirus, influenza and other highly communicable diseases or viruses, outbreaks of which have from time to time occurred in various parts of the world in which we operate, including China, could adversely impact our operations, and the operations of our customers. Armed conflicts, wars and insurrections could also adversely impact our operations and the operations of our customers. We anticipate that the future demand for our vessels will be dependent upon economic growth in all of the world's economies, particularly China and India, seasonal and regional changes in demand, changes in the capacity of the global dry, tanker and container fleets and the sources and supply of drybulk, liquid or containerized cargo to be transported by sea.
A decrease in the level of China's imports of raw materials, exports of goods, or a decrease in trade globally could have a material adverse impact on our charterers' business and, in turn, could cause a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
China imports significant quantities of raw materials, and exports significant amounts of finished or semi-finished goods. For example, in 2022, China imported 1.093 billion tons of iron ore by sea out of a total of 1.479 billion tons shipped globally, accounting for about 74% of the global seaborne iron ore trade. While it accounted for approximately 19% of seaborne coal movements of coal in 2022 according to current estimates (234 million tons imported compared to 1.224 billion tons of seaborne coal traded globally), and 23% of all crude oil shipped globally in 2022 (453 million tons imported compared to 1.967 billion tons of seaborne crude oil traded globally). Our drybulk vessels, tankers and containerships are deployed by our charterers on routes involving trade in and out of emerging markets, and our charterers' revenue may be derived from the shipment of goods within the Asia Pacific region and to or from various overseas export markets. Any reduction in or hindrance to China-based importers or exporters could have a material adverse effect on the growth rate of China's imports and exports and on our charterers' business. For instance, the government of China has implemented economic policies aimed at reducing pollution, increasing consumption of domestically produced Chinese coal and Chinese-made goods, or promoting the export of Chinese coal or increasing consumption of natural gas or banning imports of coal or other commodities from certain countries to China or increasing the production of electricity from renewable resources or changing any policy to promote domestic consumption which decreases imports or exports of raw materials or finished goods.
This may have the effect of (i) reducing the demand for imported raw materials and may, in turn, result in a decrease in demand for drybulk or tanker shipping, and (ii) reducing the supply of goods available for export and may, in turn, result in a decrease of demand for drybulk, tanker or container shipping. Additionally, though in China there is an increasing level of autonomy and a gradual shift in emphasis to a “market economy” and enterprise reform, many of the reforms, particularly some limited price reforms that result in the prices for certain commodities being principally determined by market forces, are unprecedented or experimental and may be subject to revision, change, reversal or abolition. The level of imports to and exports from China could be adversely affected by changes to these economic reforms by the Chinese government, as well as by changes in political, economic and social conditions or other relevant policies of the Chinese government. The conflict between Ukraine and Russia and any sanctions resulting therefrom, the pandemic and ongoing global trade war between the U.S. and China may contribute to an economic slowdown in China.
In recent years, China has been one of the world's fastest growing economies in terms of gross domestic product, which has had a significant impact on shipping demand. However, if China's growth in gross domestic product declines and other countries in the Asia Pacific region experience slower or negative economic growth in the future, this may negatively affect the fragile recovery of the economies of the United States and the European Union, and thus, may negatively impact the shipping industry. For example, the possibility of the introduction of impediments (including any sanctions) to trade with or within the European Union member countries in response to wars, conflicts or increasing terrorist activities, and the possibility of market reforms to float the Chinese renminbi, either of which development could weaken the euro against the Chinese renminbi, could adversely affect consumer demand in the European Union. Moreover, the revaluation of the renminbi may negatively impact the United States' demand for imported goods, many of which are shipped from China. Political events such as a global trade war or any moves by either China, the United States or the European Union to levy additional tariffs on imported goods as part of protectionist measures or otherwise, could decrease shipping demand. Such weak economic conditions or protectionist measures could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
China has enacted a tax for non-resident international transportation enterprises engaged in the provision of services of passengers or cargo, among other items, in and out of China using their own, chartered or leased vessels, including any stevedore, warehousing and other services connected with the transportation. The regulation broadens the range of international transportation companies which may find themselves liable for Chinese enterprise income tax on profits generated from international transportation services passing through Chinese ports. This tax or similar regulations by China may reduce our operating results and may also result in an increase in the cost of goods exported from China and the risks associated with exporting goods from China, as well as a decrease in the quantity of goods to be shipped from or through China, which would have an adverse impact on our charterers' business, operating results and financial condition and could thereby affect their ability to make timely charter hire payments to us and to renew and increase the number of their time charters with us.
Similarly, an extension or expansion of the current worldwide pandemic, or withdrawals or changes to economic stimulus packages or initiations or endings to local lockdowns or quarantines by China or other nations to combat the pandemic may reduce our operating results and may also result in an increase in the cost of goods exported from China and the risks associated with exporting goods from China, as well as a decrease in the quantity of goods including petroleum products and manufactured products to be shipped from or through China or imports of commodities including iron ore, coal, grain and crude oil to China, which would have an adverse impact on our charterers' business, operating results and financial condition and could thereby affect their ability to make timely charter hire payments to us and to renew and increase the number of their time charters with us.
Any sanctions levied against Russia or any other country involved in a conflict that affect or begin to affect China or other nations involved in commodity or manufactured goods trades which have the effect of raising prices for such goods or causing economic downturns due to such price rises which would have an adverse impact on our charterers' business, operating results and financial condition and could thereby affect their ability to make timely charter hire payments to us and to renew and increase the number of their time charters with us.
For a description of the economic and trade sanctions and other compliance requirements under which we operate please see “Item 4. Information on the Partnership – B. Business Overview - Economic Sanctions and Compliance”.
Any decrease in shipments of crude oil from the Arabian Gulf or the Atlantic basin may adversely affect our financial performance.
The demand for VLCC oil tankers derives primarily from demand for Arabian Gulf and Atlantic basin (West Africa, United States, Brazil, North Sea, Guyana and other) crude oils, which, in turn, primarily depend on the economies of the world’s industrial countries and competition from alternative energy sources. A wide range of economic, social and other factors can significantly affect the strength of the world’s industrial economies and their demand for Arabian Gulf and Atlantic basin crude oil.
Among the factors that could lead to a decrease in demand for exported Arabian Gulf and Atlantic basin crude oil are:
|•||increased use of existing and future crude oil pipelines in the Arabian Gulf or Atlantic basin regions;|
|•||increased demand for crude oil in the Arabian Gulf or Atlantic basin regions;|
|•||a decision by OPEC or other petroleum exporters to increase their crude oil prices or to further decrease or limit their crude oil production;|
|•||any increase in refining of crude into petroleum products for domestic consumption or export;|
|•||armed conflict or acts of piracy in the Arabian Gulf or Atlantic basin including West Africa and political or armed conflicts or sanctions anywhere that affect demand for crude oil from these regions or other factors;|
|•||economic and pandemic related crises that decrease oil demand generally;|
|•||changes to oil production in other regions, such as the United States, Russia and Latin America, including those production changes caused by war, conflict or sanctions; and|
|•||the development and the relative costs of nuclear power, natural gas, coal, renewables and other alternative sources of energy.|
Any significant decrease in shipments of crude oil from the Arabian Gulf or Atlantic basin may materially adversely affect our financial performance.
Increasing energy self-sufficiency in the United States could lead to a decrease in imports of oil to that country, which to date has been one of the largest importers of oil worldwide.
According to the 2023 Annual Energy Outlook published in March 2023 by the US Energy Information Agency (“EIA”): Although domestic consumption of petroleum and other liquids does not increase through 2040 across most cases, U.S. petroleum and other liquids production remains high because of increased exports of finished products in response to growing international demand. In all cases, the EIA projected that the United States will remain a net exporter of petroleum products through 2050. Crude oil imports remain relatively flat in the Reference case but vary widely in the side cases. This wide range in imports is mainly due to the tradeoff between domestic production and imports. In the Low Oil and Gas Supply case, crude oil imports increase significantly, partially to account for falling domestic crude oil production. The opposite occurs in the High Oil and Gas Supply case, in which increased domestic production balances lower crude oil imports. Similarly in the annual World Energy Outlook (October 2022), the International Energy Agency (“IEA”) forecast that U.S. crude oil output will expand by 3.9 million barrels per day (“MBPD”) to 20.7 MBPD by 2030 from 16.8 MBPD in 2021 in their Stated Policies Scenario (STEPS) while Saudi Arabia increases production by about 2.5 MBPD by 2030 (from 11.0 to 13.5 MBPD), making the U.S. the world’s largest oil producer from now until 2030 ahead of both Saudi Arabia and Russia. Brazil and Guyana will increase oil net exports by 3.0 MBPD by 2030 adding to Atlantic Basin supply. Russian production will fall by 2.1 MBPD while other Middle Eastern countries produce an additional 3.5 MBPD to 2030. Global oil demand surpasses 2019 levels by 2023 and increases to 102 MBPD in 2030, with China, India and Southeast Asia together accounting for more than 60% of the increase in global demand while demand in advanced economies falls by 3 MBPD to 2030 which will continue the trend of shipping more Atlantic Basin oil to China, India and Other Asian countries.
In recent years the share of total U.S. consumption met by net imports, including both crude oil and products (excluding biofuels), has been decreasing since peaking at over 68% in 2008 according to BP’s 2022 Statistical Review and stood at 45% for 2021. EIA statistics for 2020 show that U.S. crude oil imports fell 14% to an average of 5.9 MBPD under the 7.3 MBPD for 2019 but rose slightly in 2021 to 6.1 MBPD (4%) and in 2022 to 6.3 MBPD (3%), and the average imports are still below the June 2005 peak of 10.8 MBPD. EIA statistics note that U.S. crude oil exports have risen steadily since the ban on exports was lifted in 2015 reaching an all-time high of 4.1 MBPD in October 2022 and stood at 3.5 MBPD in January 2023, which was a very significant increase over the most recent low of 9,100 barrels per day exported in 2002 on average. A slowdown in oil imports to or exports from the United States, one of the most important oil trading nations worldwide, may result in decreased demand for our vessels and lower charter rates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to make cash distributions.
An increase in trade protectionism and the unraveling of multilateral trade agreements could have a material adverse impact on our charterers' business and, in turn, could cause a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our operations expose us to the risk that increased trade protectionism will adversely affect our business. In past years, government leaders have declared that their countries may turn to trade barriers to protect or revive their domestic industries in the face of foreign imports, thereby depressing the demand for shipping. Concerns regarding terrorist threats from groups in Europe and the refugee crisis or any investment legislation that favors domestic production or production from friendly nations may advance protectionist policies and may negatively impact globalization and global economic growth, which could disrupt financial markets, and may lead to weaker consumer demand in the European Union, the United States, and other parts of the world which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Deteriorations in the global economy have caused, and may continue to cause, decreases in worldwide demand for dry and liquid cargoes and certain goods shipped in containerized form.
Uncertainty has been created about the future relationship between the United States, China, Russia and other importing and exporting countries, including with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. Protectionist developments, or the perception that they may occur, may have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions, and may significantly reduce global trade. Restrictions on imports, including in the form of tariffs, could have a major impact on global trade and demand for shipping. Specifically, increasing trade protectionism in the markets that our charterers serve may cause an increase in (i) the cost of goods exported from exporting countries, (ii) the length of time required to deliver goods from exporting countries, the costs of such delivery and (iv) the risks associated with exporting or importing goods. These factors may result in a decrease in the quantity of goods to be shipped and the distances those goods travel. Protectionist developments, or the perception they may occur, may have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions, and may significantly reduce global trade, including trade between the United States and China or between Russia and other countries. These developments would have an adverse impact on our charterers' business, operating results and financial condition. This could, in turn, affect our charterers' ability to make timely charter hire payments to us and impair our ability to renew charters and grow our business. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
We are focused on employing vessels on long-term charters and we may have difficulties in doing so if a more active short-term or spot market develops.
One of our principal strategies is to enter into long-term charters, although we believe it is impractical to determine the typical charter length for vessels in our sectors due to factors such as market dynamics, charter strategy and the private nature of charter agreements. If a market for long-term time charters in the sectors in which we operate does not develop, we may have increased difficulty entering into long-term time charters upon expiration or early termination of the time charters for our vessels. As a result, our revenues and cash flows may become more volatile. In addition, an active short-term or spot charter market may require us to enter into charters based on changing market prices or indices, as opposed to contracts based on fixed rates, which could result in a decrease in our revenues and cash flows, including cash available for distribution to unitholders, if we enter into charters during periods when the market price for shipping dry or liquid cargoes or containerships is depressed or these markets become depressed during the period of any adjustable rate charter.
While we favor longer term charters for all the tanker, dry bulk and container vessels we own or control, we may from time to time have to rely on chartering our vessels in the spot market either because our charter ended during a period of weak demand or we need to reposition a vessel out of a geographically or seasonally disadvantaged position. Additionally some of the longer term charters we have are indexed to spot rates. Spot market rates for tanker, dry bulk and container vessels are highly volatile and may decrease in the future, which may materially adversely affect our earnings in the event that our vessels are chartered in the spot market or those that may be chartered under index linked charters.
We may deploy at least some of our product tankers, chemical tankers and Very Large Crude Carriers (“VLCCs”) in the spot market directly or in pools. Although spot chartering is common in the product, chemical and VLCC sectors, product tankers, chemical tankers and VLCC charter hire rates are highly volatile and may fluctuate significantly based upon demand for seaborne transportation of crude oil and oil products and chemicals, as well as tanker supply. World oil demand is influenced by many factors, including international economic activity (including reactions to any economic or health crises or conflicts); geographic changes in oil production, weather and seasonal demand, processing, and consumption; oil price levels; inventory policies of the major oil and oil trading companies; and strategic inventory policies of countries such as the United States and China.
We may deploy our dry bulk vessels on term charters either at fixed rates or rates that vary with an index of spot voyages such as those published by the Baltic Exchange. Some of these charters have the ability to fix rates for succeeding quarters or for longer durations into the future and we have exercised those options when we believe it is advantageous to do so to maximize earnings or to defend against a perceived market weakness. If we do not fix rates going forward or the index charter does not have an ability to do so or a long term charter ends during a period of market weakness, we may be exposed to volatile spot rates that can be lower than the rates in the existing term charters on our other dry bulk vessels which may materially adversely affect our earnings.
The container ship market generally favors longer term charters so that liner companies can establish set schedules for deliveries of containerized cargoes and we may deploy our container vessels on longer term charters at fixed rates or in some instances at rates linked to a spot index such as the Contex. Should term charters on our container vessels end during periods of market weakness, we may be exposed to charters of shorter duration or charters linked to a spot index, which would expose our container ships to volatile spot rates that can be lower than the existing rates in the term charters on our other container ships, which may materially adversely affect our earnings.
The successful operation of our vessels in the spot charter market depends upon, among other things, obtaining profitable spot charters and minimizing, to the extent possible, time spent waiting for charters and time spent traveling unladen to pick up cargo. Furthermore, as charter rates for spot charters are fixed for a single voyage that may last up to several weeks, during periods in which spot charter rates are rising, we will generally experience delays in realizing the benefits from such increases. The spot market is highly volatile, and, in the past, there have been periods when spot rates have declined below the operating cost of vessels.
Currently, spot charter hire rates are above operating costs for all tanker, dry bulk and container vessel sizes and there is no assurance that the crude oil, product and chemical tanker charter market will rise over the next several months or will not decline. A decrease in spot rates may decrease the revenues and cash flow we derive from vessels employed in pools or on index linked charters. Such volatility in pool or index linked charters may be mitigated by any minimum rate due to us that we negotiate with our charterers.
Additionally, if the spot market rates or short-term time charter rates become significantly lower than the time charter equivalent rates that some of our charterers are obligated to pay us under our existing charters, the charterers may have incentive to default under that charter or attempt to renegotiate the charter. If our charterers fail to pay their obligations, we would have to attempt to re-charter our vessels at lower charter rates, which would affect our ability to comply with our loan covenants and operate our vessels profitably. If we are not able to comply with our loan covenants and our lenders choose to accelerate our indebtedness and foreclose their liens, we could be required to sell vessels in our fleet and our ability to continue to conduct our business would be impaired.
Certain of our tanker, dry bulk and container vessels are contractually committed to time charters. We are not permitted to unilaterally terminate the charter agreements of these vessels due to upswings in industry cycles, when spot market voyages might be more profitable. We may also decide to sell a vessel in the future. In such a case, should we sell a vessel that is committed to a long-term charter, we may not be able to realize the full charter free fair market value of the vessel during a period when spot market charters are more profitable than the charter agreement under which the vessel operates. We may re-charter our vessels on long term charters or charter them in the spot market or place them in pools upon expiration or termination of the vessels’ current charters.
Our growth depends on our ability to expand relationships with existing customers, obtain new customers and enter new shipping sectors, for which we will face substantial competition from new entrants and established companies with significant resources.
Long-term time charters have the potential to provide income at pre-determined rates over more extended periods of time. However, the process for obtaining longer term time charters is highly competitive and generally involves a lengthy, intensive and continuous screening and vetting process and the submission of competitive bids that often extends for several months. In addition to the quality, age and suitability of the vessel, longer term shipping contracts tend to be awarded based upon a variety of other factors relating to the vessel operator, including:
|•||the operator's environmental, health and safety record and acceptability to charterers;|
|•||the acceptability of the vessel due to its history;|
|•||compliance with the IMO or carbon intensity rules or standards and the heightened industry standards that have been set by some energy companies;|
|•||shipping industry relationships, reputation for customer service, technical and operating expertise;|
|•||shipping experience and quality of ship operations, including cost-effectiveness;|
|•||quality, experience and technical capability of crews;|
|•||the ability to finance vessels at competitive rates and overall financial stability;|
|•||relationships with shipyards and the ability to obtain suitable berths;|
construction management experience, including the ability to procure on-time delivery of new vessels according to
|•||willingness to accept operational risks pursuant to the charter, such as allowing termination of the charter for force majeure events; and|
|•||competitiveness of the bid in terms of overall price.|
It is likely that we will face substantial competition for long-term charter business from a number of experienced companies. We may not be able to compete profitably as we expand our business into new geographic regions or provide new services. New markets may require different skills, knowledge or strategies than we use in our current markets. Many of these competitors have significantly greater financial resources than we do. It is also likely that we will face increased numbers of competitors entering into our transportation sectors, including in the tanker, containership and drybulk sectors. Many of these competitors have strong reputations and extensive resources and experience. Increased competition may cause greater price competition, especially for long-term charters, as well as for the acquisition of high-quality secondhand vessels and newbuilding vessels. Further, since the charter rate is generally considered to be one of the principal factors in a charterer's decision to charter a vessel, the rates offered by our competitors can place downward pressure on rates throughout the charter market.
Additionally, the consolidation among liner companies and the creation of alliances among liner companies have increased their negotiation power and oil companies facing declining fossil fuel use in the developed world may decrease the number of long term charters that they hold. However, participation in three shipping sectors should mitigate some of the volatility inherent in a focus on one particular market and allow us access to long term charter deals or asset purchases when single market competitors maybe constrained.
As a result of these factors, we may be unable to expand our relationships with existing customers or obtain new customers for long-term charters on a profitable basis, if at all. However, even if we are successful in employing our vessels under longer term charters, our vessels will not be available for trading in the spot market during an upturn in the Dry Cargo, tanker or container market cycles, when spot trading may be more profitable. If we cannot successfully employ our vessels in profitable time charters our results of operations and financial condition, as well as operating cash flow could be adversely affected.
As we expand our business, we may have difficulty managing our growth, which could increase expenses.
We intend to continue growing our fleet, either through purchases, ordering newbuilt vessels, the increase of the number of chartered-in vessels or through the acquisitions of businesses, as is the case with the acquisitions of Navios Containers’ and Navios Acquisition’s fleets or through the acquisitions of assets, as is the case with the acquisition of 36-vessel drybulk fleet from Navios Holdings. The addition of vessels to our fleet or the acquisition of new businesses will impose significant additional responsibilities on our management. We will also have to increase our customer base to provide continued employment for the new vessels. Our growth will depend on our success in locating and acquiring suitable vessels, identifying and entering into shipbuilding contracts at acceptable prices and consummating acquisitions or joint ventures, integrating any acquired business successfully with our existing operations, enhancing our customer base, managing our expansion, and obtaining required financing.
During periods in which charter rates are high, vessel values are generally high as well, and it may be difficult to consummate ship acquisitions or potentially enter into shipbuilding contracts at favorable prices. During periods in which charter rates are low and employment is scarce, vessel values are low and any vessel acquired without time charter attached will automatically incur additional expenses to operate, insure, maintain and finance the vessel thereby significantly increasing the acquisition cost. In addition, any vessel acquisition may not be profitable at or after the time of acquisition and may not generate cash flows sufficient to justify the investment. We may not be successful in executing any future growth plans and we cannot give any assurance that we will not incur significant expenses and losses in connection with such growth efforts.
Growing any business by acquisition presents numerous risks such as undisclosed liabilities and obligations, difficulty in obtaining additional qualified personnel, continuing to meet technical and safety performance standards, managing relationships with customers and suppliers, dealing with potential delays in deliveries of newbuilding vessels, and integrating newly acquired operations into existing infrastructures. We may not be successful in executing our growth plans. We may incur significant expenses and losses in connection therewith or our acquisitions may not perform as expected, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We may be unable to make or realize expected benefits from acquisitions, and implementing our growth strategy through acquisitions may harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
Our growth strategy depends, in part, on a gradual expansion of our fleet. Any acquisition of a vessel or a fleet may not be profitable to us at or after the time we acquire it and may not generate cash flow sufficient to justify our investment. We may also fail to realize anticipated benefits of our growth, such as new customer relationships, cost-savings or cash flow enhancements, or we may be unable to hire, train or retain qualified shore and seafaring personnel to manage and operate our growing business and fleet.
Our growth strategy could decrease our liquidity by using a significant portion of our available cash or borrowing capacity to finance acquisitions. To the extent that we incur additional debt to finance acquisitions, it could significantly increase our interest expense or financial leverage. We may also incur other significant charges, such as impairment of goodwill or other intangible assets, asset devaluation or restructuring charges.
Additionally, the marine transportation and logistics industries are capital intensive, traditionally using substantial amounts of indebtedness to finance vessel acquisitions, capital expenditures and working capital needs. If we finance the purchase of our vessels through the issuance of debt securities, it could result in:
• default and foreclosure on our assets if our operating cash flow after a business combination or asset acquisition were insufficient to pay our debt obligations;
• acceleration of our obligations to repay the indebtedness even if we have made all principal and interest payments when due if the debt security contained covenants that required the maintenance of certain financial ratios or reserves and any such covenant were breached without a waiver or renegotiation of that covenant;
• our immediate payment of all principal and accrued interest, if any, if the debt security was payable on demand; and
• our inability to obtain additional financing, if necessary, if the debt security contained covenants restricting our ability to obtain additional financing while such security was outstanding.
In addition, our business plan and strategy is predicated on buying vessels at what we believe is near the low end of the cycle in what has typically been a cyclical industry. However, charter rates and vessel asset values may sink lower, and shipping costs or vessel asset values may not increase in the near-term or at all.
Delays in deliveries of secondhand vessels, our decision to cancel an order for purchase of a vessel or our inability to otherwise complete the acquisitions of additional vessels for our fleet, could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We expect to purchase secondhand vessels from time to time. The delivery of these vessels could be delayed, not completed or cancelled, which would delay or eliminate our expected receipt of revenues from the employment of these vessels. The seller could fail to deliver these vessels to us as agreed, or we could cancel a purchase contract because the seller has not met its obligations. The ability and willingness of each of our counterparties to perform its obligations under a contract with us will depend upon a number of factors that are beyond our control and may include, among other things, general economic conditions, the state of the capital markets, the condition of the dry and container shipping industry and charter hire rates.
If the delivery of any vessel is materially delayed or cancelled, especially if we have committed the vessel to a charter for which we become responsible for substantial liquidated damages to the customer as a result of the delay or cancellation, we could sustain significant losses and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If we purchase any newbuilding vessels, delays, cancellations or non-completion of deliveries of newbuilding vessels could harm our operating results.
If we purchase any newbuilding vessels, the shipbuilder could fail to deliver the newbuilding vessel as agreed. In addition, under charters that are related to a newbuilding, delays in our delivery of the newbuilding to our customer could result in liquidated damages payable to a customer, and for prolonged delays, the customer may terminate the charter and, in addition to the resulting loss of revenues, we may be responsible for additional, substantial liquidated damages. We do not derive any revenue from a vessel until after its delivery and will be required to pay substantial sums as progress payments during construction of a newbuilding. While we expect to have refund guarantees from financial institutions with respect to such progress payments in the event the vessel is not delivered by the shipyard or is otherwise not accepted by us, there is the potential that we may not be able to collect all portion of such refund guarantees, in which case we would lose the amounts of monies we have advanced to the shipyards for such progress payments.
The completion and delivery of newbuildings could be delayed, cancelled or otherwise not completed because of:
• quality or engineering problems;
• changes in governmental regulations or maritime self-regulatory organization standards;
• work stoppages or other labor disturbances at the shipyard;
• bankruptcy or other financial crisis of the shipbuilder;
• a backlog of orders at the shipyard;
• epidemics, pandemics, natural or man-made disasters;
• political, economic or military disturbances;
• weather interference or catastrophic event, such as a major earthquake or fire;
• requests for changes to the original vessel specifications;
• shortages of or delays in the receipt of necessary construction materials, such as steel;
• shortages of or delays in the receipt of necessary component machinery or equipment;
• inability to finance the construction or conversion of the vessels; or
• inability to obtain requisite permits or approvals.
If delivery of a vessel is materially delayed, it could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition and our ability to make cash distributions.
The loss of a customer, charter or vessel could result in a loss of revenues and cash flow in the event we are unable to replace such customer, charter or vessel.
Payments to us by our charterers under time charters are and will be our main source of operating cash flow. Weaknesses in demand for our shipping services, increased operating costs due to changes in environmental or other regulations and the oversupply of vessels increase the likelihood of one or more of our customers being unable or unwilling to pay us contracted charter rates or going bankrupt.
For the year ended December 31, 2022, no customer accounted for 10.0% or more of our total revenues. For the year ended December 31, 2021, Singapore Marine Pte. Ltd (“Singapore Marine”) represented approximately 14.5% of our total revenues. For the year ended December 31, 2020, Hyundai Merchant Marine Co. (“HMM”), Singapore Marine, and Cargill International S.A. (“Cargill”), represented approximately 23.4%, 19.5% and 11.4%, respectively, of our total revenues. The charterers in the containership sector consist of a limited number of liner companies and the charterers in the tanker sector consist of a limited number of oil companies and oil traders. The combination of any surplus of vessel capacity, the expected entry into service of new technologically advanced vessels, and the expected increase in the size of the world dry bulk, tanker and container fleets over the next few years may make it difficult to secure substitute employment for any of our vessels if our counterparties fail to perform their obligations under the currently arranged time charters, and any new charter arrangements we are able to secure may be at lower rates. Furthermore, the surplus of capacity available at lower charter rates and lack of demand for our customers could negatively affect our charterers' willingness to perform their obligations under our time charters, which in many cases provide for charter rates significantly above current market rates. The number of leading liner companies which are part of our client base may continue to shrink and we may depend on an even more limited number of customers to generate a substantial portion of our revenues. The cessation of business with these liner companies or their failure to fulfill their obligations under the time charters for our containerships could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
We could lose a customer or the benefits of our time charter arrangements for many different reasons, including if the customer is unable or unwilling to make charter hire or other payments to us because of a deterioration in its financial condition, disagreements with us or if the charterer exercises certain termination rights or otherwise. Our customers may go bankrupt or fail to perform their obligations under the contracts, they may delay payments or suspend payments altogether, they may terminate the contracts prior to the agreed-upon expiration date or they may attempt to renegotiate the terms of the contracts. If any of these customers terminates its charters, chooses not to re-charter our ships after charters expire or is unable to perform under its charters and we are not able to find replacement charters on similar terms or are unable to re-charter our ships at all, we will suffer a loss of revenues that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to make distributions to our unitholders, as we will not receive any revenues from such a vessel while it is un-chartered, but we will be required to pay expenses necessary to maintain and insure the vessel and service any indebtedness on it. Accordingly we may have to grant concessions to our charterers in the form of lower charter rates for the remaining duration of the relevant charter or part thereof, or to agree to re-charter vessels coming off charter at reduced rates compared to the charter then ended.
For example, in 2016, HMM faced financial difficulties and developed a restructuring plan, which included restructuring agreements for five of our containerships. In addition, Navios Partners has filed claims for lost revenues in connection with the 2016 filing by Hanjin Shipping Co. (“Hanjin”) for rehabilitation, which was later followed by entry into liquidation in 2017. The Company had fully provided for these amounts in its books.
All of our drybulk time charters are scheduled to expire on dates ranging from April 2023 to March 2028. All of our tanker time charters are scheduled to expire on dates ranging from April 2023 to February 2031. All of our containerships are scheduled to expire on dates ranging from April 2023 to December 2036.
If, upon expiration or termination of these or other contracts, long-term recharter rates are lower than existing rates, particularly considering that we intend to enter into long-term charters, or if we are unable to obtain replacement charters, our earnings, cash flow and our ability to make cash distributions to our unitholders could be materially adversely affected.
The loss of any of our charterers, time charters or vessels, or a decline in payments under our time charters, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
The aging of our vessels may result in increased operating costs in the future, which could adversely affect our earnings.
As of March 13, 2023, the vessels in our fleet had an average age of approximately 9.5 years, basis fully delivered fleet, when drybulk and tanker vessels have an expected life of approximately 25 years and containerships have an expected life of approximately 30 years and we may acquire older vessels in the future. Older vessels are typically more costly to maintain than more recently constructed vessels due to improvements in engine technology. As our fleet ages, we will incur increased costs. In some instances, charterers prefer newer vessels that are more fuel efficient than older vessels. Cargo insurance rates also increase with the age of a vessel, making older vessels less desirable to charterers as well. Therefore, as vessels age it can be more difficult to employ them on profitable time charters, particularly during periods of decreased demand in the charter market. Accordingly, we may find it difficult to continue to find profitable employment for our vessels as they age. Governmental regulations, safety or other equipment standards related to the age of the vessels may require expenditures for alterations or the addition of new equipment to our vessels and may restrict the type of activities in which these vessels may engage. Older vessels may require longer and more expensive dry-dockings, resulting in more off-hire days and reduced revenue. We cannot assure you that as our vessels age, market conditions will justify those expenditures or enable us to operate our vessels profitably during the remainder of their useful lives. If we sell vessels, we may have to sell them at a loss, and if charterers no longer charter our vessels due to their age, it could materially adversely affect our earnings.
A number of third party owners have ordered so-called “eco-type” vessel designs or have retrofitted scrubbers to remove sulfur from exhaust gases, which may offer substantial bunker savings as compared to older designs or vessels without exhaust gas scrubbers. Increased demand for and supply of “eco-type” or scrubber retrofitted vessels could reduce demand for our vessels that are not classified as such and expose us to lower vessel utilization and/or decreased charter rates.
New eco-type vessel designs or scrubber retrofits purport to offer material bunker savings compared to older designs, including certain of our vessels. Fitting scrubbers will allow a ship to consume high sulfur fuel oil (“HSFO”) which, to date, has been cheaper than the low sulfur fuel oil (“LSFO”) that ships without scrubbers must consume to comply with the IMO 2020 low sulfur emission requirements. Depending on the magnitude of the difference in prices between LSFO and HSFO, such savings could result in a substantial reduction of bunker cost for charterers compared to such vessels of our fleet which may not have scrubbers. As the supply of such “eco-type” or scrubber retrofitted vessels increases, if the differential between the cost of HSFO and LSFO remains high, or if charterers prefer such vessels over our vessels that are not classified as such, this may reduce demand for our non-”eco-type”, non-scrubber retrofitted vessels, impair our ability to re-charter such vessels at competitive rates and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
Our vessels may be subject to unbudgeted periods of off-hire, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Under the terms of the charter agreements under which our vessels operate, when a vessel is “off-hire,” or not available for service or otherwise deficient in its condition or performance, the charterer generally is not required to pay the hire rate, and we will be responsible for all costs (including the cost of bunker fuel) unless the charterer is responsible for the circumstances giving rise to the lack of availability.
As we do not maintain off-hire insurance except in cases of loss of hire up to a limited number of days due to war or piracy events any extended off-hire period could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
For more information on “off-hire” see “Item 4. Information on the Partnership - B. Business Overview – Off-hire.”
Vessels may suffer damage and we may face unexpected drydocking costs, which could affect our cash flow and financial condition.
If our owned vessels suffer damage, they may need to be repaired at a drydocking facility. The costs of drydock repairs are unpredictable and can be substantial. We may have to pay drydocking costs that insurance does not cover. The loss of earnings while these vessels are being repaired and repositioned, as well as the actual cost of these repairs, could decrease our revenues and earnings substantially, particularly if a number of vessels are damaged or drydocked at the same time. Under the terms of the Management Agreements with the Managers, the costs of drydocking repairs are not included in the daily management fee, but are be reimbursed at cost upon occurrence.
In addition, we often purchase secondhand vessels that, unlike newbuilt vessels, typically do not carry warranties as to their condition, and our vessel inspections would not normally provide us with as much knowledge of a vessel's condition as we would possess if it had been built for us and operated by us during its life. Repairs and maintenance costs for secondhand vessels are difficult to predict and may be substantially higher than for vessels we have operated since they were built. These costs could decrease our cash flows, liquidity and our ability to pay dividends to our unitholders.
The market value of our vessels may fluctuate significantly, which could cause us to breach covenants in our financing arrangements, resulting in the foreclosure of certain of our vessels, limit the amount of funds that we can borrow and adversely affect our ability to purchase new vessels and our operating results. Depressed vessel values could also cause us to incur impairment charges. If vessel values are low at a time when we are attempting to dispose of a vessel, we could incur a loss.
The factors that influence vessel values include:
|•||the number of newbuilding deliveries;|
|•||prevailing economic conditions in the markets in which drybulk, tanker or containerships operate, including all economic, conflict or pandemic related crises;|
|•||reduced demand for drybulk, tanker or containerships, including as a result of a substantial or extended decline in world trade or energy use;|
|•||the number of vessels scrapped or otherwise removed from the total fleet;|
|•||competition from other shipping companies;|
|•||sophistication and condition of the vessels;|
|•||supply and demand for vessels;|
|•||technological advances since the vessel was constructed;|
|•||whether the vessel is equipped with scrubbers or not;|
|•||changes in environmental and other regulations, including carbon intensity rules, that may limit the useful life of vessels;|
|•||changes in global dry or liquid cargo commodity supply or sources and destinations of containerized cargoes;|
|•||types, sizes and age of vessels;|
|•||advances in efficiency, such as the introduction of remote or autonomous vessels;|
|•||the development of an increase in use of other modes of transportation;|
|•||where the ship was built and as-built specification;|
|•||lifetime maintenance record;|
|•||the cost of vessel acquisitions including the cost of new buildings;|
|•||governmental or other regulations (including the application of any IMO rules, including those regarding any reduction in CO2 emissions or carbon intensity);|
|•||prevailing level of charter rates;|
|•||the availability of financing, or lack thereof, for ordering newbuildings or for facilitating ship sale and purchase transactions;|
|•||general economic and market conditions affecting the shipping industry; and|
|•||the cost of retrofitting or modifying existing ships to respond to technological advances in vessel design or equipment, changes in applicable environmental or other regulations or standards, or otherwise.|
If the book value of a vessel is impaired due to unfavorable market conditions, or a vessel is sold at a price below its book value, we would incur a loss. If a charter expires or is terminated, we may be unable to re-charter the vessel at an acceptable rate and, rather than continue to incur costs to maintain the vessel, may seek to dispose it. Our inability to dispose of a vessel at a reasonable price could result in a loss on her sale and could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
If the market value of our vessels decreases, we may breach some of the covenants contained in the financing agreements relating to our indebtedness at the time. Our financing arrangements contain covenants including maximum total net liabilities over total net assets (effective in general after delivery of the vessels), minimum net worth and loan to value ratio covenants. As of December 31, 2022, Navios Partners was in compliance with the financial covenants and/or the prepayments and/or the cure provisions, as applicable, in each of its credit facilities and certain financial liabilities. If we breach any such covenants in the future and we are unable to remedy the relevant breach, our lenders could accelerate or require us to prepay a portion of our debt and foreclose on our vessels. In addition, if the book value of a vessel is impaired due to unfavorable market conditions, we would incur a loss that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, as vessels grow older, they generally decline in value. We will review our vessels for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable.
We review certain indicators of potential impairment, such as undiscounted projected operating cash flows expected from the future operation of the vessels, which can be volatile for vessels employed on short-term charters or in the spot market. Any impairment charges incurred as a result of declines in charter rates would negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if we sell any vessel at a time when vessel prices have fallen and before we have recorded an impairment adjustment to our financial statements, the sale may be at less than the vessel’s carrying amount on our financial statements, resulting in a loss and a reduction in earnings. Conversely, if vessel values are elevated at a time when we wish to acquire additional vessels, the cost of acquisition may increase and this could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We must make substantial capital expenditures to maintain the operating capacity of our fleet, which will reduce our cash available for distribution. In addition, each quarter our board of directors is required to deduct estimated maintenance and replacement capital expenditures from operating surplus, which may result in less or no cash available to unitholders than if actual maintenance and replacement capital expenditures were deducted.
We must make substantial capital expenditures to maintain and replace, over the long term, the operating capacity of our fleet. We generally expect to finance these maintenance capital expenditures with cash balances or financing arrangements. These maintenance and replacement capital expenditures include capital expenditures associated with drydocking a vessel, modifying an existing vessel or acquiring a new vessel to the extent these expenditures are incurred to maintain the operating capacity of our fleet. These expenditures could increase as a result of changes in the cost of our labor and materials, the cost of suitable replacement vessels, customer/market requirements, increases in the size of our fleet, the length of charters, governmental regulations and maritime self-regulatory organization standards relating to safety, security or the environment, competitive standards, and the age of our ships. In addition, we will need to make substantial capital expenditures to acquire vessels in accordance with our growth strategy. The inability to replace the vessels in our fleet upon the expiration of their useful lives could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
Our significant maintenance and replacement capital expenditures, including without limitation the vessel operating expenses paid to the Managers pursuant to the Management Agreements, to maintain and replace, over the long-term, the operating capacity of our fleet, as well as to comply with environmental and safety regulations, may reduce or eliminate the amount of cash we have available for distribution to our unitholders. Our partnership agreement requires our board of directors to deduct estimated, rather than actual, maintenance and replacement capital expenditures from operating surplus each quarter in an effort to reduce fluctuations in operating surplus. The amount of estimated capital expenditures deducted from operating surplus is subject to review and change by the Conflicts Committee of our board of directors at least once a year. If our board of directors underestimates the appropriate level of estimated maintenance and replacement capital expenditures, we may have less, if any, cash available for distribution in future periods when actual capital expenditures begin to exceed previous estimates.
For detailed information on the amount of vessel operating expenses owed under the Management Agreements, please see the section entitled, “Item 5.Operating and Financial Review and Prospects - A. Operating results – Vessel operating expenses”.
We may be subject to litigation that, if not resolved in our favor or not sufficiently insured against, could have a material adverse effect on us.
We have been and may be, from time to time, involved in various litigation matters. These matters may include, among other things, contract disputes, personal injury claims, environmental claims or proceedings, potential costs due to environmental damage and vessel collisions, and other tort claims, employment matters, governmental claims for taxes or duties, and other litigation that arises in the ordinary course of our business. We cannot predict with certainty the outcome or effect of any claim or other litigation matter, and the ultimate outcome of any litigation or the potential costs to resolve them may have a material adverse effect on us. Insurance may not be applicable or sufficient in all cases and/or insurers may not remain solvent which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
Because we generate all of our revenues in U.S. dollars but incur a portion of our expenses in other currencies, exchange rate fluctuations could cause us to suffer exchange rate losses thereby increasing expenses and reducing income.
We engage in worldwide commerce with a variety of entities. Although our operations may expose us to certain levels of foreign currency risk, our transactions are at present predominantly U.S. dollar-denominated. Transactions in currencies other than the functional currency are translated at the exchange rate in effect on the date of each transaction. Expenses incurred in foreign currencies against which the U.S. dollar falls in value can increase thereby decreasing our income or vice versa if the U.S. dollar increases in value. For example, as of December 31, 2022, the value of the U.S. dollar as compared to the Euro increased by approximately 6.2% compared with the respective value as of December 31, 2021. A greater percentage of our transactions and expenses in the future may be denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.
Security breaches and disruptions to our information technology infrastructure could interfere with our operations and expose us to liability which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
In the ordinary course of business, we rely on information technology networks and systems to process, transmit, and store electronic information, and to manage or support a variety of business processes and activities.
Additionally, we collect and store certain data, including proprietary business information and customer and employee data, and may have access to other confidential information in the ordinary course of our business. Despite our cybersecurity measures, which includes active monitoring, training, reporting and other activities designed to protect and secure our data, our information technology networks and infrastructure may be vulnerable to damage, disruptions, or shutdowns due to attack by hackers or breaches, employee error or malfeasance, data leakage, power outages, computer viruses and malware, telecommunication or utility failures, systems failures, natural disasters, or other catastrophic events. Any such events could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability or penalties under privacy or other laws, disruption in operations, and damage to our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
In addition, some of our technology networks and systems are managed by third-party service providers (including cloud-service providers) for a variety of reasons, and such providers also may have access to proprietary business information and customer and employee data, and may have access to confidential information on the conduct of our business. Like us, these third-party providers are subject to risks imposed by data breaches and disruptions to their technology infrastructure. A cyber-attack could defeat one or more of our third-party service providers' security measures, allowing an attacker access to proprietary information from our company including our employees', customers' and suppliers' data. Most recently, the Russia/Ukraine conflict has been accompanied by cyber-attacks, including other countries in the region, which could adversely affect our operations. Any such security breach or disruption to our third-party service providers could result in a disruption in operations and damage to our reputation and liability claims, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
We may not have adequate insurance to compensate us if we lose our vessels or to compensate third parties.
There are a number of risks associated with the operation of ocean-going vessels, including mechanical failure, collision, fire, human error, war, terrorism, piracy, loss of life, contact with floating objects, property loss, cargo loss or damage and business interruption due to political circumstances in foreign countries, hostilities and labor strikes. Any of these events may result in loss of revenues, increased costs and decreased cash flows. In addition, the operation of any vessel is subject to the inherent possibility of marine disaster, including oil spills and other environmental mishaps, and the associated liabilities.
There are also liabilities arising from owning and operating vessels in international trade. We procure insurance for our fleet in relation to risks commonly insured against by vessel owners and operators. Our current insurance includes (i) hull and machinery and war risk insurance covering damage to our vessels' hulls and machinery from, among other things, collisions and contact with fixed and floating objects, (ii) war risks insurance covering losses associated with the outbreak or escalation of hostilities and (iii) protection and indemnity insurance (which includes environmental damage) covering, among other things, third-party and crew liabilities such as expenses resulting from the injury or death of crew members, passengers and other third parties, the loss or damage to cargo, third-party claims arising from collisions with other vessels, damage to other third-party property and pollution arising from oil or other substances, and salvage, towing and other related costs, including wreck removal.
We do not currently maintain strike or off-hire insurance, which would cover the loss of revenue during extended vessel off-hire periods, such as those that occur during an unscheduled drydocking due to damage to the vessel from accidents except in cases of loss of hire up to a limited number of days due to war or a piracy event.
Other events that may lead to off-hire periods include natural or man-made disasters that result in the closure of certain waterways and prevent vessels from entering or leaving certain ports. Accordingly, any extended vessel off-hire, due to an accident or otherwise, could have a material adverse effect on our business and our ability to pay distributions to our unitholders.
We can give no assurance that we are adequately insured against all risks or that our insurers will pay a particular claim. Even if our insurance coverage is adequate to cover our losses, we may not be able to obtain a timely replacement vessel in the event of a vessel loss. Under the terms of our financing arrangements, we are subject to restrictions on the use of any proceeds we may receive from claims under our insurance policies.
Because we obtain some of our insurance through protection and indemnity associations, we may also be subject to calls, or premiums, in amounts based not only on our own claim records, but also the claim records of all other members of the protection and indemnity associations. There is no cap on our liability exposure for such calls or premiums payable to our protection and indemnity association. Our payment of these calls could result in significant expenses to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, we cannot assure you that we will be able to renew our insurance policies on the same or commercially reasonable terms, or at all, in the future. For example, more stringent environmental regulations have led in the past to increased costs for, and in the future may result in the lack of availability of, protection and indemnity insurance against risks of environmental damage or pollution. Any uninsured or underinsured loss could harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. In addition, our insurance may be voidable by the insurers as a result of certain of our actions, such as our vessels failing to maintain certification with applicable maritime self-regulatory organizations. Further, we cannot assure you that our insurance policies will cover all losses that we incur, or that disputes over insurance claims will not arise with our insurance carriers. Any claims covered by insurance would be subject to deductibles, and since it is possible that a large number of claims may be brought, the aggregate amount of these deductibles could be material. In addition, our insurance policies are subject to limitations and exclusions, which may increase our costs or lower our revenues, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. A catastrophic oil spill or marine disaster could exceed our insurance coverage, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to make distributions to our unitholders. Any uninsured or underinsured loss could harm our business and financial condition. In addition, the insurance may be voidable by the insurers as a result of certain actions, such as vessels failing to maintain required certification.
Our charterers may in the future engage in legally permitted trading in locations or with persons which may still be subject to restrictions due to sanctions or boycott. However, no vessels in our fleet have called on ports in sanctioned countries or in countries designated as state sponsors of terrorism by the U.S. State Department like Iran or Syria. Our insurers may be contractually or by operation of law prohibited from honoring our insurance contract for such trading on such locations or countries or trading with such persons, which could result in reduced insurance coverage for losses incurred by the related vessels. Changes in the insurance markets attributable to the risk of terrorism in certain locations around the world could make it difficult for us to obtain certain types of coverage. In addition, the insurance that may be available to us may be significantly more expensive than our existing coverage. Furthermore, our insurers and we may be prohibited from posting or otherwise be unable to post security in respect of any incident in such locations or countries or as a result of trading with such persons, resulting in the loss of use of the relevant vessel and negative publicity for our Company which could negatively impact our business, results of operations, cash flows and unit price.
Our growth depends on continued growth in demand for crude oil, refined petroleum products (clean and dirty) and bulk liquid chemicals and the continued demand for seaborne transportation of such cargoes.
Our growth strategy depends in part on expansion in the crude oil, product and chemical tanker sectors. Accordingly, our growth depends on continued growth in world and regional demand for crude oil, refined petroleum (clean and dirty) products and bulk liquid chemicals and the transportation of such cargoes by sea, which could be negatively affected by a number of factors, including:
|•||the economic and financial developments globally, including actual and projected global economic growth;|
|•||fluctuations in the actual or projected price of crude oil, refined petroleum products or bulk liquid chemicals;|
|•||refining or production capacity and its geographical location;|
|•||increases in the production of oil in areas linked by pipelines to consuming areas, the extension of existing, or the development of new, pipeline systems in markets we may serve, or the conversion of existing non-oil pipelines to oil pipelines in those markets;|
|•||decreases in the consumption of oil due to increases in its price relative to other energy sources, other factors making consumption of oil less attractive or energy conservation measures or pollution reduction measures or those intended to reduce global warming;|
|•||availability of new, alternative energy sources; and|
|•||negative or deteriorating global or regional economic or political conditions or health conditions (including changes to trade policies, decreases or withdrawals of stimulus measures meant to counteract the effect of economic or health or other crises), wars or other conflicts and any resulting sanctions), particularly in oil-consuming or producing regions, which could reduce energy consumption or its growth or affect trading patterns negatively.|
The refining and chemical industries may respond to any economic downturn and demand weakness by reducing operating rates, partially or completely reducing crude oil production, closing refineries or bulk liquid chemical production facilities and by reducing or cancelling certain investment expansion plans, including plans for additional crude oil production, refining or finished product or chemical production capacity. Continued reduced demand for crude, refined petroleum products and bulk liquid chemicals and the shipping of such cargoes or the increased availability of pipelines used to transport crude, refined petroleum products, and bulk liquid chemicals would have a material adverse effect on our future growth and could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Increasing growth of electric vehicles and other measures intended to reduce CO2 emissions could lead to a decrease in trading and the movement of coal, crude oil and petroleum products worldwide.
The IEA noted in its Global EV Outlook 2022 (published May 2022) that total electric cars registered worldwide grew from about 17,000 in 2010 to 16.5 million at the end of 2021. Electric car sales in 2021 were 6.6 million (almost double sales in 2020) and that represented nearly 10% of global car sales in 2021 which was nearly four times the market in 2019. IEA forecasts are for all electric vehicles (“EVs”) to grow from 18 million in 2021 to about 200 million by 2030 under currently stated government policies, which the IEA forecasts would reduce worldwide demand for oil products by about 3.4 million barrels per day in 2030. IEA stated that EV operations in 2020 avoided the consumption of 0.5 million barrels per day of oil products. According to the OECD, there were about 1 billion cars registered in 2015 and there will be about 1.7 billion cars registered by 2030 and 2.4 billion by 2050.
In the World Energy Outlook 2022, published in October 2022, the IEA states that current governmental pledges to reduce emissions will cover about 36% of the gap in emissions reductions that need to be closed by 2030 to get to Net Zero Emissions by 2050 and keep a 1.5 degree C path within reach (the rise of global mean surface temperatures above pre-industrial levels). While the gap has narrowed since the IEA’s prior report, the IEA stated that this shows the need not only to implement existing pledges but also to raise the overall level of ambition. Closing the gap between current practice and net zero emissions will depend on the world’s ability to scale up resilient clean energy supply chains, which has clear implications for the need for investment in traditional elements of supply. In all of the IEA’s scenarios, the largest contribution to reducing emissions is replacing coal-fired generation with renewable energy sources.
A growth in EVs or a speed up in climate goals aimed to reduce CO2 and other emissions or a slowdown in imports or exports of coal, crude or petroleum products worldwide may result in decreased demand for our vessels and lower charter rates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to make cash distributions.
We conduct a substantial amount of business in China. The legal system in China has inherent uncertainties that could limit the legal protections available to us and could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Many of our vessels regularly call to ports in China and we may enter into sale and leaseback transactions with Chinese financial institutions. Although our charters and sale and leaseback agreements are governed by English law, we may have difficulties enforcing a judgment rendered by an English court (or other non-Chinese court) in China. Such charters and any additional agreements that we enter into with Chinese counterparties, may be subject to new regulations in China that may require us to incur new or additional compliance or other administrative costs and pay new taxes or other fees to the Chinese government. Changes in laws and regulations, including with regards to tax matters, and their implementation by local authorities could affect our vessels chartered to Chinese customers as well as our vessels calling to Chinese ports and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
An oversupply of vessel capacity may depress charter rates, which may affect our ability to operate our vessels profitably.
The market supply of drybulk carriers has been increasing as a result of the delivery of numerous newbuilding orders over the last few years. Newbuildings have been delivered in significant numbers over the last few years and, as of March 2023, newbuilding orders had been placed for an aggregate of about 7% of the existing global drybulk fleet, with deliveries expected during the next three years. That 7% is an all-time low since records began in January 1996, but there is no guarantee that the orderbook will continue at these low levels in the future. While vessel supply will continue to be affected by the delivery of new vessels and the removal of vessels from the global fleet, either through scrapping or accidental losses, an over-supply of drybulk carrier capacity could exacerbate decreases in charter rates or prolong the period during which low charter rates prevail which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to pay dividends.
From 2005 through 2010, the containership orderbook was at historically high levels as a percentage of the in-water fleet reaching a high of 61% in November 2007, according to industry data. Since that time, deliveries of previously ordered containerships increased substantially and ordering momentum slowed somewhat with the total orderbook declining as a percentage of the existing fleet to an all-time low of 8% as of October 2020, but has since increased to 29% as of March 2023. The orderbook remains significantly skewed towards vessels over 8,000 TEU. An oversupply of large newbuilding vessel and/or re-chartered containership capacity entering the market, combined with any decline in the demand for containerships, may prolong or further depress current charter rates and may decrease our ability to charter our containerships when we are seeking new or replacement charters other than for unprofitable or reduced rates, or we may not be able to charter our containerships at all.
Similarly the market supply of tankers has been increasing as a result of the delivery of numerous newbuilding orders over the last few years; however the percentage of the total tanker fleet on order as a percent of the total fleet declined from 20% at the start of 2016 to 4% at the beginning of March 2023. From 2004 through 2010, the tanker orderbook was at historically high levels as a percentage of the in-water fleet reaching a high of 48% in September 2008, according to industry data. Since that time, deliveries of previously ordered tankers increased substantially and ordering momentum slowed with the total orderbook declining as a percentage of the existing fleet to an all-time low of 4% in March 2023. An oversupply of newbuilding vessels entering the market, combined with any decline in the demand for crude or product tankers, may prolong or further depress current charter rates and may decrease our ability to charter our tankers when we are seeking new or replacement charters other than for unprofitable or reduced rates, or we may not be able to charter our tankers at all.
Fuel price fluctuations may have an adverse effect on our profits.
The cost of fuel is a significant factor in negotiating charter rates and can affect us in both direct and indirect ways. This cost will be borne by us when our vessels are not employed or are employed on voyage charters or contracts of affreightment so an increase in the price of fuel beyond our expectations may adversely affect our profitability. Even where the cost of fuel is borne by the charterer, which is the case with all of our existing time charters that cost may affect the level of charter rates that charterers are prepared to pay. Rising costs of fuel for any reason or as occurred following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 will make our older and less fuel efficient vessels less competitive compared to the more fuel efficient newer vessels or compared with vessels which can utilize less expensive fuel and may reduce their charter hire, limit their employment opportunities and force us to employ them at a discount compared to the charter rates commanded by more fuel efficient vessels or not at all.
Falling costs of fuel may lead our charterers to abandon slow steaming, thereby releasing additional capacity into the market and exerting downward pressure on charter rates or may lead our charterers to employ older, less fuel efficient vessels which may drive down charter rates and make it more difficult for us to secure employment for our newer vessels.
The price and supply of fuel is unpredictable and fluctuates based on events outside our control, including geo-political developments, supply and demand for oil, actions by members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and other oil and gas producers, economic or other sanctions levied against oil and gas producing countries, war and unrest generally and in oil producing countries and regions, regional production patterns and environmental concerns and regulations.
If we expand the size of our fleet in the future, we generally will be required to make significant installment payments for acquisitions of vessels even prior to their delivery and generation of revenue. Depending on whether we finance our expenditures through cash from operations or by issuing debt or equity securities, our ability to make cash distributions to unitholders, to the extent we are making distributions, may be diminished or our financial leverage could increase or our unitholders could be diluted.
The actual cost of a vessel varies significantly depending on the market price, the size and specifications of the vessel, governmental regulations and maritime self-regulatory organization standards. If we purchase additional vessels in the future, we generally will be required to make installment payments prior to their delivery. If we finance these acquisition costs by issuing debt or equity securities, we will increase the aggregate amount of interest payments or distributions, to the extent we are making distributions, prior to generating cash from the operation of the vessel.
To fund the remaining portion of these and other capital expenditures, we will be required to use cash from operations or raise capital through the sale of debt or additional equity securities. Use of cash from operations may reduce or eliminate cash available for distributions to unitholders. Our ability to obtain bank financing or to access the capital markets for future offerings may be limited by our financial condition at the time of any such financing or offering as well as by adverse market conditions resulting from, among other things, general economic conditions and contingencies and uncertainties that are beyond our control. Our failure to obtain the funds for necessary future capital expenditures could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and on our ability to make cash distributions. Even if we successfully obtain necessary funds, the terms of such financings could limit our ability to pay cash distributions to unitholders. In addition, incurring additional debt may significantly increase our interest expense and financial leverage, and issuing additional preferred and common equity securities may result in significant unitholder dilution and would increase the aggregate amount of cash required to make distributions to our common unitholders, to the extent we are making distributions, which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to make cash distributions to all of our unitholders.
We are subject to various laws, regulations, and international conventions, particularly environmental and safety laws, that could require significant expenditures both to maintain compliance with such laws and to pay for any uninsured environmental liabilities, including any resulting from a spill or other environmental incident.
Vessel owners and operators are subject to government regulation in the form of international conventions, and national, state, and local laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which their vessels operate, in international waters, as well as in the country or countries where their vessels are registered. Such laws and regulations include those governing the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, ship recycling, the cleanup of oil spills and other contamination, air emissions, discharges of operational and other wastes into the water, and ballast water management. In particular, ballast water management requirements will likely result in compliance costs relating to the installation of equipment on our vessels to treat ballast water before it is discharged and other additional ballast water management and reporting requirements. Investments in ballast water treatment may have a material adverse effect on our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position.
Port State regulation significantly affects the operation of vessels, as it commonly is more stringent than international rules and standards. This is the case particularly in the United States and, increasingly, in Europe. Non-compliances with such laws and regulations can give rise to civil or criminal liability, and/or vessel delays and detentions in the jurisdictions in which we operate.
Our vessels are subject to scheduled and unscheduled inspections by regulatory and enforcement authorities, as well as private maritime industry entities. This includes inspections by Port State Control authorities, including the U.S. Coast Guard, harbor masters or equivalent entities, classification societies, flag Administrations (country in which the vessel is registered), charterers, and terminal operators. Certain of these entities require vessel owners to obtain permits, licenses, and certificates for the operation of their vessels. Failure to maintain necessary permits or approvals could limit our ability to do business, result in the imposition of substantial penalties which could increase the cost of doing business, or require a vessel owner to incur substantial costs or temporarily suspend operation of one or more of its vessels. Failure to maintain necessary permits or approvals could result in the imposition of substantial penalties or require a vessel owner to incur substantial costs or temporarily suspend operation of one or more of its vessels.
Heightened levels of environmental and quality concerns among insurance underwriters, regulators, and charterers continue to lead to greater inspection and safety requirements on all vessels and may accelerate the scrapping of older vessels throughout the industry. Increasing environmental concerns and regulations have created a demand for vessels that conform to stricter environmental standards. Vessel owners are required to maintain operating standards for all vessels that will emphasize operational safety, quality maintenance, continuous training of officers and crews, and compliance with U.S. and international regulations.
The legal requirements and maritime industry standards to which we and our vessels are subject are set forth below, along with the risks associated therewith. We may be required to make substantial capital and other expenditures to ensure that we remain in compliance with these requirements and standards, as well as with standards imposed by our customers, including costs for ship modifications and changes in operating procedures. We also maintain insurance coverage against pollution liability risks for all of our vessels in the amount of $1.0 billion in the aggregate for any one event. The insured risks include penalties and fines, as well as civil liabilities and expenses resulting from accidental pollution. However, this insurance coverage is subject to exclusions, deductibles, and other terms and conditions. In addition, claims relating to pollution incidents for international or knowing violations of U.S. environmental laws or the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships may be considered by our protection and indemnity associations on a discretionary basis only. If any liabilities or expenses fall within an exclusion from coverage, or if damages from a catastrophic incident exceed the aggregate liability of $1.0 billion for any one event, our cash flow, profitability and financial position could be adversely impacted.
Because international conventions, laws, regulations, and other requirements are often revised, we cannot predict the ultimate cost of compliance or the impact on the fair market price or useful life of our vessels. Nor can we assure that our vessels will be able to attain and maintain certifications of compliance with various regulatory requirements.
Similarly, governmental regulation of the shipping industry, particularly in the areas of safety and environmental requirements, is expected to become stricter in the future. We believe that the heightened environmental, quality, and security concerns of insurance underwriters, regulators, and charterers will lead to additional requirements, including enhanced risk assessment and security requirements, greater inspection and safety requirements, and heightened due diligence obligations. We also may be required to take certain of our vessels out of service for extended periods of time to address changing legal requirements, which would result in lost revenue. In the future, market conditions may not justify these expenditures or enable us to operate our vessels, particularly older vessels, profitably during the remainder of their economic lives. This could lead to significant asset write-downs.
Specific examples of expected changes that could have a significant, and potentially material, impact on our business include:
|•||Limitations on sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides emissions from ships could cause increased demand and higher prices for low sulfur fuel due to supply constraints, as well as significant cost increases due to the implementation of measures including fuel switching, vessel modifications such as adding distillate fuel storage capacity, or installation of exhaust gas cleaning systems or scrubbers;|
|•||Environmental requirements can affect the resale value or useful lives of our vessels, require a reduction in cargo capacity, vessel modifications or operational changes or restrictions, lead to decreased availability of, or more costly insurance coverage for, environmental matters or result in the denial of access to certain jurisdictional waters or ports.|
|•||Under local and national laws, as well as international treaties and conventions, we could incur material liabilities, including cleanup obligations and claims for natural resource damages, personal injury and/or property damages in the event that there is a release of oil or other hazardous materials from our vessels or otherwise in connection with our operations.|
Climate change and government laws and regulations related to climate change could negatively impact our financial condition.
We are and will be, directly and indirectly, subject to the effects of climate change and may, directly or indirectly, be affected by local and national laws, as well as international treaties and conventions, and implementing regulations related to climate change. Any passage of climate control treaties, legislation, or other regulatory initiatives by the IMO, the European Union, the United States or other countries where we operate that restrict emissions of greenhouse gases (“GHGs”) could require us to make significant financial expenditures that we cannot predict with certainty at this time. This could include, for example, the adoption of regulatory frameworks to reduce GHG emissions, such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen oxides. The climate change efforts undertaken to date are detailed below.
We cannot predict with any degree of certainty what effect, if any, possible climate change and legal requirements relating to climate change will have on our operations. However, we believe that climate change, including the possible increases in severe weather events, and legal requirements relating to climate change may affect, directly or indirectly, (i) the cost of the vessels we may acquire in the future, (ii) our ability to continue to operate as we have in the past, (iii) the cost of operating our vessels, and (iv) insurance premiums and deductibles, and the availability of insurance coverage. As a result, our financial condition could be materially impacted by climate change and related legal requirements.
We are subject to vessel security regulations and we incur costs to comply with adopted regulations. We may be subject to costs to comply with similar regulations that may be adopted in the future in response to terrorism.
We are subject to local and national laws, including in the United States, as well as international treaties and conventions, intended to enhance and ensure vessel security. The Managers have and will continue to implement the various security measures addressed by all applicable laws and will take measures for our vessels or vessels that we charter to attain compliance with all applicable security requirements within the prescribed time periods. Although we do not believe that these additional requirements will have a material financial impact on our operations, there can be no assurance that there will not be an interruption in operations to bring vessels into compliance with the applicable requirements and any such interruption could cause a decrease in charter revenues. Furthermore, additional security measures could be required in the future that could have significant financial impact on us.
Changing laws and evolving reporting requirements could have an adverse effect on our business, including the pending SEC Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) disclosure rules in the U.S. and European Union.
Changing laws, regulations and standards relating to reporting requirements, including the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), GHG and additional climate disclosure rules proposed by the SEC in March 2022 and expected to be finalized in 2023, along with other anticipated ESG reporting rules which are expected in 2023, may create additional compliance requirements for us. We may receive pressure from investors, lenders and other market participants, who are focused on climate change, to prioritize sustainable energy practices, reduce our carbon footprint and promote sustainability. To maintain high standards of corporate governance and public disclosure, we have invested in, and intend to continue to invest in, reasonably necessary resources to comply with evolving standards.
Companies that do not adapt to, or comply with, investor, lender, or other industry shareholder expectations and standards which are evolving, or which are perceived to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for ESG issues, regardless of whether there is a legal requirement to do so, may suffer from reputational damage and the business, financial condition, and/or stock price of such a accompany could be materially and adversely affected.
Our international activities increase the compliance risks associated with economic and trade sanctions imposed by the United States, the EU, the UK and other jurisdictions/authorities.
Our international operations and activities could expose us to risks associated with trade and economic sanctions, prohibitions or other restrictions imposed by the United States or other governments or organizations, including the United Nations, the EU (and its member countries) and the UK.
Under economic and trade sanctions laws, governments may seek to impose or modify existing prohibitions/restrictions on business practices and activities, which require modifications to compliance programs, which may increase compliance costs, and, in the event of a violation, may subject us to fines and other penalties and result in us being excluded or restricted in our access to international banking and finance markets. Action may also be taken against individuals if they act in a manner which breaches sanctions applicable to them. Considering U.S., EU and UK sanctions (the latter because the law of England & Wales frequently governs relations with our contractual counterparts and applies to our UK based insurers and reinsurers) and the nature of our business, there is a constant sanctions-related risk for us due to the worldwide trade of our vessels and the wide-ranging nationality of our counterparties. We seek to reduce the risk of violating economic sanctions and ensure our compliance with all applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations by the implementation of our corporate Economic Sanctions Compliance Policy and Procedures which we seek to diligently follow.
Although we intend to maintain such Economic Sanctions Compliance Policy and Procedures, there can be no assurance that we will be in compliance in the future, particularly as the scope of certain laws and regulations may be unclear and may be subject to changing interpretations by relevant authorities, and the underlying laws and regulations may change. Moreover, despite, for example, relevant provisions in charter parties forbidding the use of our vessels in trade that would or may violate economic sanctions, our charterers may nevertheless violate applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations and those violations could in turn negatively affect our reputation with any breaches imputed to us.
We continually monitor developments in the United States, the EU, UK and other jurisdictions that maintain economic sanctions against various countries and regions including, Iran, Russia, Crimea, Venezuela, and other sanctions targets, including guidance on the implementation and enforcement of such sanctions programs. Expansion of sanctions programs, embargoes and other restrictions in the future (including additional designations of countries and persons subject to sanctions), or modifications in how existing sanctions are interpreted or enforced, could prevent our vessels from calling in ports in sanctioned countries, being chartered to certain parties or for certain trade, or could restrict the cargoes carried onboard our vessels.
In addition, given our relationship with Navios Holdings (listed on the NYSE) we cannot give any assurance that an adverse finding against them by a governmental, legal, or other authority, with respect to sanctions matters, or any future matter related to regulatory compliance by Navios Holdings, would not have a material adverse impact on our business, reputation or the market price of our securities.
If any of the risks described herein materializes, it could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
For a description of the economic and trade sanctions and other compliance requirements under which we operate please see “Item 4. Information on the Partnership – B. Business Overview - Economic Sanctions and Compliance”
We could be materially adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and anti-corruption laws in other applicable jurisdictions.
As an international shipping company, we may operate in countries known to have a reputation for corruption. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (the “FCPA”) and other anti-corruption laws and regulations in applicable jurisdictions generally prohibit companies registered with the SEC and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Under the FCPA, U.S. companies may be held liable for some actions taken by strategic or local partners or representatives.
Legislation in other countries includes the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 (the “U.K. Bribery Act”) which is broader in scope than the FCPA because it does not contain an exception for facilitation payments. We and our customers may be subject to these and similar anti-corruption laws in other applicable jurisdictions. Failure to comply with legal requirements could expose us to civil and/or criminal penalties, including fines, prosecution and significant reputational damage, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business and the results of operations, including our relationships with our customers, and our financial results. Compliance with the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act and other applicable anti-corruption laws and related regulations and policies impose potentially significant costs and operational burdens on us. Moreover, the compliance and monitoring mechanisms that we have in place including our Code of Ethics and our anti-bribery and anti-corruption policy, may not adequately prevent or detect all possible violations under applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption legislation.
The operation of ocean-going vessels entails the possibility of marine disasters including damage or destruction of the vessel due to accident, the loss of a vessel due to piracy or terrorism, damage or destruction of cargo and similar events that may cause a loss of revenue from affected vessels and damage our business reputation, which may in turn lead to loss of business.
The operation of ocean-going vessels in international trade is inherently risky. The ownership and operation of ocean-going vessels in international trade is affected by a number of inherent risks, including mechanical failure, personal injury, vessel and cargo loss or damage, business interruption due to political conditions in foreign countries, unexpected port closures, hostilities, piracy, terrorism, labor strikes and/or boycotts, adverse weather conditions and catastrophic marine disaster, including environmental accidents and collisions. All of these risks could result in liability, loss of revenues, increased costs and loss of reputation.
The operation of drybulk carriers has certain unique risks. With a drybulk carrier, the cargo itself and its interaction with the vessel can be an operational risk. By their nature, certain drybulk cargoes are often heavy, dense, easily shifted, and may react badly to water exposure. In addition, drybulk carriers are often subjected to battering treatment during unloading operations with grabs, jackhammers (to pry encrusted cargoes out of the hold), and small bulldozers. This treatment may cause damage to the vessel. Vessels damaged due to harsh treatment during unloading procedures may be more susceptible to breach at sea. Hull breaches in drybulk carriers may lead to the flooding of the vessels' holds. For example, if a drybulk carrier suffers flooding in its forward holds, the bulk cargo may become so dense and waterlogged that its pressure may buckle the vessel's bulkheads leading to the loss of a vessel. Damage and loss could also arise as a consequence of a failure in the services required to support the industry, for example, due to inadequate dredging. We have procedures and policies in place to ameliorate these risks, including a robust inspection system.
In addition, increased operational risks arise as a consequence of the complex nature of the crude oil, product and chemical tanker industry, the nature of services required to support the industry, including maintenance and repair services, and the mechanical complexity of the tankers themselves. Compared to other types of vessels, tankers are exposed to a higher risk of damage and loss by fire, whether ignited by a terrorist attack, collision or other cause, due to the high flammability and high volume of the oil transported in tankers. Damage and loss could also arise as a consequence of a failure in the services required to support the industry, for example, due to inadequate dredging. Inherent risks also arise due to the nature of the product transported by our vessels. Any damage to, or accident involving, our vessels while carrying crude oil could give rise to environmental damage or lead to other adverse consequences. Each of these inherent risks may also result in death or injury to persons, loss of revenues or property, higher insurance rates, damage to our customer relationships, delay or rerouting.
Similarly, the operation of containerships has certain unique risks. Containerized cargoes, which can be high value manufactured goods, dangerous cargoes or smaller quantity commodities, are sealed and locked in containers at the factory or port of origin. Some dangerous cargoes are either mis-declared or not declared at all posing a risk to the ship and other containerized cargo. Certain containerized cargoes are often loaded above the weather deck of a containership and although lashed in place in those above deck stacks, are subject to storms and heavy weather which may cause a container or group of containers to damage the containership if they fall or get thrown overboard. In additional the cargo in each container can be improperly stowed causing the cargo to shift or to self ignite or explode, which may damage the vessel. Certain containers are built with refrigeration units which are powered by electrical generators onboard the containership. Should those refrigeration units fail, they could cause damage to the containership due to fires caused by electrical faults or by raising the temperature of a cargo that needed to be kept below a certain threshold. Other cargo can be carried uncontainerized in so-called “flat racks” generally above the weather deck, which can pose a risk to the vessel or other cargo in a storm or if improperly stowed on the flat rack. Any loss of cargo, which may be covered by insurance, does expose the shipowner to potential monetary and reputational costs. Damage and loss could also arise as a consequence of a collision or grounding or a failure in the services required to support the industry, for example, due to inadequate dredging or icing in the harbors. We have procedures and policies in place to ameliorate these risks, including a robust inspection system during each cargo operation.
Any of these circumstances or events could substantially increase our costs. For example, the costs of replacing a vessel or cleaning up environmental damage could substantially lower our revenues by taking vessels out of operation permanently or for periods of time. Furthermore, the involvement of our vessels in a disaster or delays in delivery, damage or the loss of cargo may harm our reputation as a safe and reliable vessel operator and cause us to lose business. Our vessels could be arrested by maritime claimants, which could result in the interruption of business and decrease revenue and lower profitability.
Some of these inherent risks could result in significant damage, such as marine disaster or environmental incidents, and any resulting legal proceedings may be complex, lengthy, costly and, if decided against us, any of these proceedings or other proceedings involving similar claims or claims for substantial damages may harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial position. In addition, the legal systems and law enforcement mechanisms in certain countries in which we operate may expose us to risk and uncertainty. Further, we may be required to devote substantial time and cost defending these proceedings, which could divert attention from management of our business. Acts of piracy have historically affected ocean-going vessels trading in certain regions of the world, such as the South China Sea and the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia. Piracy continues to occur in the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia and increasingly in the Gulf of Guinea. Other areas where piracy has affected shipping include the Indian Ocean, the Strait of Malacca, the Arabian Sea, and the Mozambique Channel.
Acts of piracy are a material risk to the shipping industry. Our vessels regularly travel through regions where pirates are active. In January 2014, the Nave Atropos, a vessel currently owned by us, came under attack from a pirate action group in international waters off the coast of Yemen and in February 2016, the Nave Jupiter, a vessel also currently owned by us, came under attack from pirate action groups on her way out from her loading terminal about 50 nautical miles off Bayelsa, Nigeria. In both instances, the crew and the on-board security team successfully implemented the counter piracy action plan and standard operating procedures to deter the attack with no consequences to the vessels or their crew. In December 2019, the Nave Constellation was boarded by armed pirates whilst sailing from Bonny, Nigeria. 19 crewmembers were taken as hostages and were released after 18 days of captivity. Piracy attacks have resulted in certain regions being characterized by insurers as “war risk” zones or Joint War Committee “war and strikes” listed areas.
Premiums payable for insurance coverage could increase significantly and insurance coverage may be more difficult to obtain. Crew costs, including those due to employing onboard security guards, could increase in such circumstances. While the use of security guards is intended to deter and prevent the hijacking of our vessels, it could also increase our risk of liability for death or injury to persons or damage to personal property. In addition, while we believe the charterer remains liable for charter payments when a vessel is seized by pirates, the charterer may dispute this and withhold charter hire until the vessel is released. Although we insure against these losses to the extent practicable, the risk remains of uninsured losses which could significantly affect our business. Costs are incurred in taking additional security measures in accordance with Best Management Practices to Deter Piracy, notably those contained in the BMP5 industry standard. A number of flag states have signed the 2009 New York Declaration, which expresses commitment to Best Management Practices in relation to piracy and calls for compliance with them as an essential part of compliance with the ISPS Code. A charterer may also claim that a vessel seized by pirates was not “on-hire” for a certain number of days and it is therefore entitled to cancel the charter party, a claim that we would dispute. We may not be adequately insured to cover losses from these incidents, which could have a material adverse effect on us, our results of operations, financial condition and ability to pay dividends. In addition, detention hijacking as a result of an act of piracy against our vessels, an increase in cost, or unavailability of insurance for our vessels, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels could adversely affect our business and operations.
The total loss or damage of any of our vessels or cargoes could harm our reputation as a safe and reliable vessel owner and operator. Any extended vessel off-hire, due to an accident or otherwise, or strikes, could have a materially adverse effect on our business. If we are unable to adequately maintain or safeguard our vessels, we may be unable to prevent any such damage, costs, or loss that could negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and ability to pay distributions.
Maritime claimants could arrest or attach one or more of our vessels, which could interrupt our cash flow.
Crew members, tort claimants, claimants for breach of certain maritime contracts, vessel mortgages, suppliers of goods and services to a vessel, shippers or receivers of cargo, and other parties may be entitled to a maritime lien against a vessel for unsatisfied debts, claims or damages, including, in some jurisdictions, for debts incurred by previous owners. In many jurisdictions, a maritime lien holder may enforce its lien by arresting a vessel. The arrest or attachment of one or more of our vessels, if such arrest or attachment is not timely discharged, could cause us to default on a charter or breach covenants in certain of our credit facilities and certain financial liabilities, could interrupt our cash flow and require us to pay large sums of money to have the arrest or attachment lifted. Any of these occurrences could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
In addition, in some jurisdictions, such as South Africa, under the “sister ship” theory of liability, a claimant may arrest both the vessel which is subject to the claimant's maritime lien and any “associated” vessel, which is any vessel owned or controlled by the same owner. Claimants could try to assert “sister ship” liability against one vessel in our fleet for claims relating to another vessel in the fleet.
The smuggling of drugs or other contraband onto our vessels may lead to governmental claims against us.
Our vessels may call in ports where smugglers may attempt to hide drugs and other contraband on vessels, with or without the knowledge of crew members. To the extent our vessels are found with contraband, whether inside or attached to the hull of our vessel and whether with or without the knowledge of any of our crew, we may face reputational damage and governmental or other regulatory claims or penalties, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our unitholders. Under some jurisdictions, vessels used for the conveyance of illegal drugs could result in forfeiture of the vessel to the government of such jurisdiction.
A failure to pass inspection by classification societies could result in one or more vessels being unemployable unless and until they pass inspection, resulting in a loss of revenues from such vessels for that period and a corresponding decrease in operating cash flows.
The hull and machinery of every commercial vessel must be inspected and approved by a classification society authorized by its country of registry. The classification society certifies that a vessel has been built and maintained, is safe and seaworthy in accordance with the applicable rules and regulations of the country of registry of the vessel and with SOLAS (as defined below). Our owned fleet is currently classed by American Bureau of Shipping, Nippon Kaiji Kiokai, Bureau Veritas, DNVGL, and Lloyd's Register.
A vessel must undergo an annual survey, an intermediate survey and a special survey. In lieu of a special survey, a vessel's machinery may be on a continuous survey cycle, under which the machinery would be surveyed periodically over a five-year period. Our vessels are on special survey cycles for hull inspection and continuous survey cycles for machinery inspection. Every vessel is also required to be drydocked every two to three years for inspection of the underwater parts of such vessel.
If vessel fails any annual survey, intermediate survey or special survey, the vessel may be unable to trade between ports and, therefore, would be unemployable, potentially causing a negative impact on our revenues due to the loss of revenues from such vessel until she is able to trade again. Further, if any vessel fails a classification survey and the condition giving rise to the failure is not cured within a reasonable time, the vessel may lose coverage under various insurance programs, including hull and machinery insurance and/or protection and indemnity insurance, which would result in a breach of relevant covenants under our financing arrangements. Failure to maintain the class of one or more of our vessels could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations, as well as our cash flows.
Disruptions in global financial markets, terrorist attacks, regional armed conflicts, general political unrest, economic crisis, the emergence of a pandemic crisis and the resulting governmental action could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
The global economy remains relatively weak, especially when compared to the period prior to the 2008-2009 financial crisis. The current global recovery is proceeding at varying speeds across regions and is still subject to downside economic risks stemming from factors like terrorist attacks in certain parts of the world and the continuing response of the United States and other countries to these attacks, the threat of future terrorist attacks, the continuing refugee crisis in the European Union, the war in and the general political unrest in Ukraine, the continuing war in Syria and the presence of terrorist organizations in the Middle East, conflicts and turmoil in Yemen, Iraq, Afghanistan and Iran, political tension, continuing concerns related to Brexit, concerns regarding epidemics and pandemics, including the effects of COVID-19, and other viral outbreaks or conflicts in the Asia Pacific Region have all led to increased volatility in global credit and equity markets and continue to cause uncertainty and volatility in the world financial markets, which may in turn affect our business, results of operations and financial conditions.
Furthermore, our operations may be adversely affected by changing or adverse political and governmental conditions in the countries where our vessels are flagged or registered and in the regions where we otherwise engage in business. Any disruption caused by these factors may interfere with the operation of our vessels, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our operations may also be adversely affected by expropriation of vessels, taxes, regulation, tariffs, trade embargoes, economic sanctions or a disruption of or limit to trading activities, or other adverse events or circumstances in or affecting the countries and regions where we operate or where we may operate in the future. Adverse economic, political, social or other developments can decrease demand and prospects for growth in the shipping industry and thereby could reduce revenue significantly.
In addition, global financial markets and economic conditions have been severely disrupted and volatile in recent years and remain subject to significant vulnerabilities, such as the deterioration of fiscal balances and the rapid accumulation of public debt, continued deleveraging in the banking sector and a limited supply of credit. Credit markets as well as the debt and equity capital markets were exceedingly distressed during 2008 and 2009 and have been volatile since that time. The resulting uncertainty and volatility in the global financial markets may accordingly affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. These uncertainties, as well as future hostilities or other political instability in regions where our vessels trade, could also affect trade volumes and patterns and adversely affect our operations, and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows and cash available for distributions to our unitholders and repurchases of common units.
Specifically, these issues, along with the re-pricing of credit risk and the difficulties currently experienced by financial institutions, have made, and will likely continue to make, it difficult to obtain financing. As a result of the disruptions in the credit markets and higher capital requirements, many lenders have increased margins on lending rates, enacted tighter lending standards, required more restrictive terms (including higher collateral ratios for advances, shorter maturities and smaller loan amounts), or have refused to refinance existing debt at all. Furthermore, certain banks that have historically been significant lenders to the shipping industry have reduced or ceased lending activities in the shipping industry. Additional tightening of capital requirements and the resulting policies adopted by lenders, could further reduce lending activities. We may experience difficulties obtaining financing commitments or be unable to fully draw on the capacity under our committed term loans in the future, if our lenders are unwilling to extend financing to us or unable to meet their funding obligations due to their own liquidity, capital or solvency issues. We may experience higher interest rates due to governments’ efforts to fight inflation or other reasons which, due to floating rate obligations in some of our financial facilities, may cause our costs to rise which may in turn affect our business, results of operations and financial conditions or may make refinancing or new financing facilities difficult to obtain. We cannot be certain that financing will be available on acceptable terms or at all. If financing is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to meet our future obligations as they come due. Our failure to obtain such funds could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our unitholders. In the absence of available financing, we also may be unable to take advantage of business opportunities or respond to competitive pressures.
Our financial and operating performance may be adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and related governmental responses.
Since 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic and its variants, have resulted in numerous actions taken by governments and governmental agencies including but not limited to travel restrictions, hygiene measures, including quarantines which the coronavirus or other epidemics or pandemics could potentially result in delayed deliveries of our vessels under construction, disrupt our operations and significantly affect global markets, affecting the demand for our services, global demand for goods shipped in containerships, tankers and dry bulk vessels as well as the price of international freights and hires. If the effects of the coronavirus persist, we may be unable to charter our vessels at the rates or for the length of time we currently expect. The effects of the coronavirus remain uncertain, and should customers be under financial pressure this could negatively affect our charterers' willingness to perform their obligations under our time charters. The loss or termination of any of our time charters or a decline in payments under our time charters, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our unitholders and repurchases of common units.
China, European countries and the United States have previously adopted stringent measures to contain the spread of the virus. Any prolonged measure, or the reimplementation of previously lifted measures, may affect our normal operations and those of our Manager. All these measures have further affected the process of construction and repair of vessels, as well as the presence of workers in shipyards and, of administrative personnel in their offices, which could exceed previously calculated repair periods, causing our vessels to remain off-hire for longer periods than planned. We may face increased costs operating our vessels due to travel restrictions and quarantine requirements, which can among other issues delay crew changes or which may cause us to incur off hire to effect such changes. Possible delays due to quarantine of our vessels caused by COVID-19 infection of our crew or other COVID-19 related disruptions may lead to the termination of charters leaving our vessels without employment. Any prolonged restrictive measures in order to control the novel coronavirus or other adverse global public health developments may have a material and adverse effect on our business operations and demand for our vessels generally. Furthermore, the global recession caused by the pandemic could be prolonged and could also severely affect financing institutions. If any such impact on the financial system is not addressed, we may find it difficult to finance loans that are maturing or to obtain financing for new projects, thus materially affecting our financial position.
The extent of the COVID-19 outbreak’s effect on our operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including the duration, spread and intensity of the outbreak, any resurgence or mutation of the virus, the availability of vaccines and their global deployment, the development of effective treatments, the imposition of effective public safety and other protective measures and the public’s response to such measures. There continues to be a high level of uncertainty relating to how the pandemic will evolve, how governments and consumers will react and progress on the approval and distribution of vaccines, all of which are uncertain and difficult to predict considering the rapidly evolving landscape. As a result, the ultimate severity of the COVID-19 outbreak is uncertain at this time and therefore we cannot predict the impact it may have on our future operations, which impact could be material and adverse, particularly if the pandemic continues to evolve into a severe worldwide health crisis.
At present, it is not possible to ascertain the overall impact of COVID-19 on our business. However, the occurrence of any of the foregoing events or other epidemics or an increase in the severity or duration of the COVID-19 or other epidemics could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition, value of our vessels, and ability to pay dividends.
Governments could requisition our vessels during a period of war or emergency, resulting in a loss of earnings.
A government of the jurisdiction where one or more of our vessels are registered could requisition one or more of our vessels for title or for hire. Requisition for title occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and becomes its owner, while requisition for hire occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and effectively becomes its charterer at dictated charter rates. Generally, requisitions occur during periods of war or emergency, although governments may elect to requisition vessels in other circumstances. Although we may be entitled to compensation in the event of a requisition of one or more of our vessels the amount and timing of payment would be uncertain. Government requisition of one or more of our vessels may cause us to breach covenants in certain of our credit facilities and certain financial liabilities, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
Risks Relating to Our Indebtedness
The market value of our vessels may fluctuate significantly, which could cause us to breach covenants in our credit facilities and certain financial liabilities and result in foreclosure on our mortgaged vessels.
If the market value of our owned vessels decreases, we may be required to record additional impairment charges in our consolidated financial statements that, among other things, could cause us to breach covenants contained in our credit facilities and certain financial liabilities, which could adversely affect our financial results. If we breach the covenants in our credit facilities and certain financial liabilities and are unable to remedy any relevant breach, our lenders could accelerate our debt and foreclose on the collateral, including our vessels. Any loss of vessels would significantly decrease our ability to generate positive cash flow from operations and therefore service our debt.
We may be unable to obtain additional financing and our debt levels may limit our ability to do so and pursue other business opportunities, and our interest rates under our financing arrangements may fluctuate and may impact our operations.
As of December 31, 2022, the total borrowings amounted to $1,959.0 million. We have the ability to incur additional debt, subject to limitations in our financing arrangements. Our level of debt could have important consequences to us, including the following:
|•||our ability to obtain additional financing, if necessary, for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other purposes may be impaired or such financing may not be available on favorable terms;|
|•||we may need to use a substantial portion of our cash from operations to make principal and interest payments on our debt, reducing the funds that would otherwise be available for operations, future business opportunities, distributions to unitholders;|
|•||our debt level could make us more vulnerable than our competitors with less debt to competitive pressures or a downturn in our business or the economy generally; and|
|•||our debt level may limit our flexibility in responding to changing business and economic conditions.|
Our ability to borrow against the ships in our existing fleet and any ships we may acquire in the future largely depends on the existence of time charter employment of the ship and on the value of the ships, which in turn depends in part on charter hire rates and the creditworthiness of our charterers. The actual or perceived credit quality of our charterers, any defaults by them, any decline in the market value of our fleet and a lack of long-term employment of our ships may materially affect our ability to obtain the additional capital resources that we will require to purchase additional vessels or may significantly increase our costs of obtaining such capital. Our inability to obtain additional financing or committing to financing on unattractive terms could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
Our ability to service our debt depends upon, among other things, our future financial and operating performance, which will be affected by prevailing economic conditions and financial, business, regulatory and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. Our ability to service debt under our financing arrangements also will depend on market interest rates, since the interest rates applicable to our borrowings will fluctuate with the SOFR or the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”). We do not currently hedge against increases in such rates and, accordingly, significant increases in such rate would require increased debt levels and reduce distributable cash. We may not be able to refinance all or part of our maturing debt on favorable terms, or at all.
If our operating income is not sufficient to service our current or future indebtedness, we will be forced to take actions such as reducing or discontinuing distributions, reducing or delaying our business activities, acquisitions, investments or capital expenditures, selling assets, restructuring or refinancing our debt, or seeking additional equity capital or bankruptcy protection. We may not be able to effect any of these remedies on satisfactory terms, or at all.
We are exposed to volatility in interest rates, including SOFR.
The publication of LIBOR is expected to be discontinued in mid-2023. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York now publishes the SOFR based on overnight U.S. Treasury repurchase agreement transactions.
Loans advanced under our financing arrangements are, currently, advanced at a floating rate based on SOFR. Interest rates, which after a long period of relative stability at historically low levels, have been increasing and have been volatile in the past, which can affect the amount of interest payable on our debt, and which, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our earnings and cash flow. SOFR rates were at historically low levels for an extended period of time and may continue to increase from these low levels.
We do not currently have any interest rate swap arrangements as we have fixed interest rate financings. In the past, however, we have entered into interest rate swaps and may do so again in the future. Our financial condition could be materially adversely affected as a result of not entering into interest rate hedging arrangements to hedge our interest rate exposure if the interest rates applicable to our financing arrangements (and any other financing arrangements we may enter into in the future) increases. Even if we enter into interest rate swaps or other derivative instruments for purposes of managing our interest rate, our hedging strategies may not be effective or have the desired impact on our financial conditions or results of operations as we may not effectively manage our interest rate exposure and may incur substantial losses, which could result in higher than market interest rates and charges against our income.
Our credit facilities and certain financial liabilities contain restrictive covenants, which may limit our business and financing activities and may prevent us from paying distributions to unitholders, if our board of directors determines to do so again in the future.
As of December 31, 2022, the outstanding balance under Navios Partners' total borrowings, net of deferred finance costs, was $1,945.4 million.
The operating and financial restrictions and covenants in our credit facilities and certain financial liabilities and any future credit facilities and financial liabilities could adversely affect our ability to finance future operations or capital needs to engage, expand or pursue our business activities and reduce cash available for distribution on our common units. For example, our credit facilities and certain financial liabilities require the consent of our lenders or limit our ability to (among other things):
• incur or guarantee indebtedness;
• charge, pledge or encumber the vessels;
• merge or consolidate;
• change the flag, class or commercial and technical management of our vessels;
• make cash distributions;
• make new investments; and
• sell or change the ownership or control of our vessels.
Our financing arrangements also require us to comply with the International Safety Management Code (the “ISM Code”), and the ISPS Code and to maintain valid safety management certificates and documents of compliance at all times.
The Company’s credit facilities and certain financial liabilities also require compliance with a number of financial covenants, including: (i) maintain a required security ranging over 105% to 140%; (ii) minimum free consolidated liquidity in an amount equal to $500 per owned vessel and a number of vessels as defined in the Company’s credit facilities and financial liabilities; (iii) maintain a ratio of EBITDA to interest expense of at least 2.00:1.00; (iv) maintain a ratio of total liabilities or total debt to total assets (as defined in the Company’s credit facilities and financial liabilities) ranging from less than 0.75 to 0.80; and (v) maintain a minimum net worth ranging from $30.0 million to $135.0 million.
It is an event of default under the credit facilities and certain financial liabilities if such covenants are not complied with in accordance with the terms and subject to the prepayments or cure provisions of the facilities.
In addition, our credit facilities and certain financial liabilities prohibit the payment of distributions if we are not in compliance with certain financial covenants or upon the occurrence of an event of default.
Events of default under our credit facilities and certain financial liabilities include, among other things, the following:
|•||failure to pay any principal, interest, fees, expenses or other amounts when due;|
|•||failure to observe any other agreement, security instrument, obligation or covenant beyond specified cure periods in certain cases;|
|•||default under other indebtedness;|
|•||an event of insolvency or bankruptcy;|
|•||material adverse change in the financial position or prospects of us or our general partner;|
|•||failure of any representation or warranty to be materially correct; and|
|•||failure of Navios Holdings, Angeliki Frangou, or their affiliates (as defined in the financing agreements) to own at least 5% of us.|
Our ability to comply with the covenants and restrictions that are contained in our credit facilities and certain financial liabilities and any other debt instruments we may enter into in the future may be affected by events beyond our control, including prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions. If market or other economic conditions deteriorate, our ability to comply with these covenants may be impaired. If we are in breach of any of the restrictions, covenants, ratios or tests in our credit facilities and certain financial liabilities, especially if we trigger a cross default currently contained in certain of our loan agreements, a significant portion of our obligations may become immediately due and payable, and our lenders' commitment to make further loans to us may terminate. We may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient funds to make these accelerated payments. In addition, our obligations under our credit facilities are secured by certain of our vessels, and if we are unable to repay borrowings under such credit facilities, lenders could seek to foreclose on those vessels. We anticipate that any subsequent refinancing of our current debt or any new debt will have similar restrictions.
Risks Relating to Our Units
Our board of directors may not declare cash distributions in the foreseeable future.
The declaration and payment of cash distributions, if any, will always be subject to the discretion of our board of directors, restrictions contained in our financing arrangements and the requirements of Marshall Islands law. The timing and amount of any cash distributions declared will depend on, among other things, our earnings, financial condition and cash requirements and availability, our ability to obtain debt and equity financing on acceptable terms as contemplated by our growth strategy, the terms of our outstanding indebtedness and the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us.
The Dry Cargo and tankers sector of the shipping industry is highly volatile, and we cannot predict with certainty the amount of cash, if any, that will be available for distribution as cash distributions in any period. Also, there may be a high degree of variability from period to period in the amount of cash that is available for the payment of cash distributions.
We may not have sufficient cash available to pay quarterly distributions or to maintain or increase distributions following the establishment of cash reserves and payment of fees and expenses. In February 2016, we announced that our board of directors decided to suspend the quarterly cash distributions to our unitholders, including the distribution for the quarter ended December 31, 2015, in order to conserve cash and improve our liquidity. In March 2018, our board of directors determined to reinstate a distribution and any continued distribution will be at the discretion of our board of directors. The amount of cash we can distribute on our common units depends principally upon the amount of cash we generate from our operations, which may fluctuate based on numerous factors including, those set forth elsewhere in this section.
The actual amount of cash we will have available for distribution also will depend on other factors, some of which are beyond our control, such as the level of capital expenditures we make (including those associated with maintaining vessels, building new vessels, acquiring existing vessels and complying with regulations), our debt service requirements and restrictions on distributions contained in our debt instruments, interest rate fluctuations, the cost of acquisitions, if any, fluctuations in our working capital needs, our ability to make working capital borrowings, and the amount of any cash reserves, including reserves for future maintenance and replacement capital expenditures, working capital and other matters, established by our board of directors in its discretion.
In addition, the amount of cash we generate from our operations may differ materially from our profit or loss for the period, which will be affected by non-cash items. As a result of this and the other factors mentioned above, we may make cash distributions during periods when we record losses and may not make cash distributions during periods when we record net income.
Any dividend payments on our common units would be declared in U.S. dollars, and any unit holder whose principal currency is not the U.S. dollar would be subject to risks of exchange rate fluctuations.
Our common units, and any cash dividends or other distributions to be declared in respect of them, if any, will be denominated in U.S. dollars. Unitholders whose principal currency is not the U.S. dollar will be exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk. Any depreciation of the U.S. dollar in relation to such foreign currency will reduce the value of such unitholders' units and any appreciation of the U.S. dollar will increase the value in foreign currency terms. In addition, we will not offer our unitholders the option to elect to receive dividends, if any, in any other currency. Consequently, unitholders may be required to arrange their own foreign currency exchange, either through a brokerage house or otherwise, which could incur additional commissions or expenses.
The New York Stock Exchange may delist our securities from trading on its exchange, which could limit your ability to trade our securities and subject us to additional trading restrictions.
Our securities are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”), a national securities exchange. The NYSE minimum listing standards, require that we meet certain requirements relating to stockholders' equity, number of round-lot holders, market capitalization, aggregate market value of publicly held shares and distribution requirements.
If NYSE delists our securities from trading on its exchange, we could face significant material adverse consequences, including limited availability of market quotations for our securities, limited amount of news and analyst coverage for us, decreased ability for us to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future, limited liquidity for our unitholders and the loss of our tax exemption under Section 883 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), loss of preferential capital gain tax rates for certain dividends received by certain non-corporate U.S. holders, and loss of “mark-to-market” election by U.S. holders in the event we are treated as a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”).
The price of our common units may be volatile.
The price of our common units may be volatile and may fluctuate due to various factors including:
• actual or anticipated fluctuations in quarterly and annual results;
• fluctuations in the seaborne transportation industry, including fluctuations in the containership market;
• our making of distributions;
• mergers and strategic alliances in the shipping industry;
• changes in governmental regulations or maritime self-regulatory organization standards;
• shortfalls in our operating results from levels forecasted by securities analysts;
• announcements concerning us or our competitors;
• general economic conditions, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russian/Ukrainian conflict;
• terrorist acts;
• future sales of our common units or other securities;
• investors' perceptions of us and the international container shipping industry;
• the general state of the securities markets; and
• other developments affecting us, our industry or our competitors.
The shipping industry has been highly unpredictable and volatile. Securities markets worldwide are experiencing significant price and volume fluctuations. The market price for our securities may also be volatile. This market volatility, as well as general economic, market or political conditions, could reduce the market price of our securities in spite of our operating performance. Consequently, you may not be able to sell our securities at prices equal to or greater than those at which you pay or paid.
Increases in interest rates may cause the market price of our common units to decline.
An increase in interest rates may cause a corresponding decline in demand for equity investments in general and in particular for yield-based equity investments such as our common units. Any such increase in interest rates or reduction in demand for our common units resulting from other relatively more attractive investment opportunities may cause the trading price of our common units to decline. In addition, our interest expense will increase, since initially our debt will bear interest at a floating rate, subject to any interest rate swaps we may enter into the future.
Substantial future issuance and sale of our common units in the public market, including through our continuous offering sales program, could cause the price of our common units to fall, and would dilute your ownership interests.
In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional common units or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common units, including convertible debt. We have in the past entered into Continuous Offering Program Sales Agreement and performed equity raises. Whether we choose to effect future sales under continuous offering programs or through secondary offerings, will depend upon a variety of factors, including, among others, market conditions and the trading price of our common units relative to other sources of capital.
We cannot predict the size of future issuances or sales of our common units, including those made pursuant to the continuous offering program sales agreement or in connection with future acquisitions or capital activities, or the effect, if any, that such issuances or sales may have on the market price of our common units. The issuance and sale of substantial amounts of common units, including issuance and sales pursuant to the continuous offering program sales agreement, or announcement that such issuance and sales may occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common units, and decrease unitholders' proportionate ownership interest in us.
Unitholders may be liable for repayment of distributions.
Under some circumstances, unitholders may have to repay amounts wrongfully returned or distributed to them. Under the Marshall Islands Act, we may not make a distribution to unitholders if the distribution would cause our liabilities to exceed the fair value of our assets. Marshall Islands law provides that for a period of three years from the date of the impermissible distribution, limited partners who received the distribution and who knew at the time of the distribution that it violated Marshall Islands law will be liable to the limited partnership for the distribution amount.
Assignees who become substituted limited partners are liable for the obligations of the assignor to make contributions to the partnership that are known to the assignee at the time it became a limited partner and for unknown obligations if the liabilities could be determined from the partnership agreement. Liabilities to partners on account of their partnership interest and liabilities that are non-recourse to the partnership are not counted for purposes of determining whether a distribution is permitted.
Common unitholders have limited voting rights and our partnership agreement restricts the voting rights of common unitholders owning more than 4.9% of our common units.
Holders of our common units have only limited voting rights on matters affecting our business. We hold a meeting of the limited partners every year to elect one or more members of our board of directors and to vote on any other matters that are properly brought before the meeting. Common unitholders may only elect four of the seven members of our board of directors. The elected directors are elected on a staggered basis and serve for three year terms. Our general partner in its sole discretion has the right to appoint the remaining three directors and to set the terms for which those directors will serve. The partnership agreement also contains provisions limiting the ability of unitholders to call meetings or to acquire information about our operations, as well as other provisions limiting the unitholders' ability to influence the manner or direction of management. Unitholders will have no right to elect our general partner and our general partner may not be removed except by a vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding units, including any units owned by our general partner and its affiliates, voting together as a single class.
Our partnership agreement further restricts common unitholders' voting rights by providing that if any person or group owns beneficially more than 4.9% of the common units then outstanding, any such common units owned by that person or group in excess of 4.9% may not be voted on any matter and will not be considered to be outstanding when sending notices of a meeting of unitholders, calculating required votes, except for purposes of nominating a person for election to our board, determining the presence of a quorum or for other similar purposes, unless required by law. The voting rights of any such common unitholders in excess of 4.9% will effectively be redistributed pro rata among the other common unitholders holding less than 4.9% of the voting power of all classes of units entitled to vote. Our general partner, its affiliates and persons who acquired common units with the prior approval of our board of directors will not be subject to this 4.9% limitation except with respect to voting their common units in the election of the elected independent directors.
Risks Relating to Our Organizational Structure, Taxes and Other Legal Matters
In addition to the following risk factors, you should read the sections entitled “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” and “Non-United States Tax Considerations” of this Annual Report for a more complete discussion of the expected material U.S. federal and non-U.S. income tax considerations relating to us and the ownership and disposition of common units.
Navios Holdings and their affiliates may compete with us.
Navios Partners has entered into an omnibus agreement with Navios Holdings (the “Omnibus Agreement”) in connection with the closing of Navios Partners’ initial public offering “IPO” governing, among other things, Navios Holdings and its controlled affiliates (other than us, our general partner and our subsidiaries) generally agreed not to acquire or own Panamax or Capesize drybulk carriers under time charters of three or more years without the consent of an independent committee of Navios Holdings. The Omnibus Agreement, however, contains significant exceptions that allow Navios Holdings or any of its controlled affiliates to compete with us under specified circumstances which could harm our business.
We are a holding company and we depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us in order to satisfy our financial obligations and to make distributions.
We are a holding company and our subsidiaries conduct all of our operations and own all of our operating assets, including our ships. We have no significant assets other than the equity interests in our subsidiaries. As a result, our ability to pay our obligations and to make distributions depends entirely on our subsidiaries and their ability to distribute funds to us. The ability of a subsidiary to make these distributions could be affected by a claim or other action by a third party, including a creditor, or by the law of their respective jurisdiction of incorporation which regulates the payment of distributions. If we are unable to obtain funds from our subsidiaries, our Board of Directors may not exercise its discretion not to declare or make distributions.
We depend on the Managers to assist us in operating and expanding our business.
Pursuant to the Management Agreements between Navios Partners and the Manager, Navios Containers and the Manager, and Navios Acquisition and the Tankers Manager, the Managers provides to us significant commercial and technical management services (including the commercial and technical management of our vessels, vessel maintenance and crewing, purchasing and insurance and shipyard supervision). In addition, pursuant to the Administrative Services Agreement between us and the Manager, the Manager provides us administrative, financial and other support services. Our operational success and ability to execute our growth strategy will depend significantly upon the Managers' satisfactory performance of these services. Our business will be harmed if the Managers fails to perform these services satisfactorily, if the Managers cancel either of these agreements, or if the Managers stop providing these services to us.
Our ability to enter into new charters and expand our customer relationships will depend largely on the Managers and their reputation and relationships in the shipping industry. If the Managers suffers material damage to its reputation or relationships, it may harm our ability to:
• renew existing charters upon their expiration;
• obtain new charters;
• successfully interact with shipyards during periods of shipyard construction constraints;
• obtain financing on commercially acceptable terms; or
• maintain satisfactory relationships with suppliers and other third parties.
If our ability to do any of the things described above is impaired, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to make cash distributions and repurchases of common units.
The loss of key members of our senior management team could disrupt the management of our business.
We believe that our success depends on the continued contributions of the members of our senior management team, including our Chairwoman and Chief Executive Officer. The loss of the services of our Chairwoman and Chief Executive Officer or one of our other executive officers or senior management members could impair our ability to identify and secure new charter contracts, to maintain good customer relations and to otherwise manage our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance and our ability to compete.
The Managers may be unable to attract and retain qualified, skilled