10-Q 1 nrix-20240229.htm 10-Q nrix-20240229
000154959511-302024Q1false35200015495952023-12-012024-02-2900015495952024-04-01xbrli:shares00015495952024-02-29iso4217:USD00015495952023-11-30iso4217:USDxbrli:shares00015495952022-12-012023-02-280001549595us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-11-300001549595us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-11-300001549595us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-11-300001549595us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-11-3000015495952022-11-300001549595us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-02-280001549595us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-02-280001549595us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-02-280001549595us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-02-2800015495952023-02-280001549595us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595us-gaap:CommonStockMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2024-02-290001549595nrix:EquityDistributionAgreementMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-08-310001549595nrix:AtTheMarketOfferingsMembernrix:EquityDistributionAgreementMembersrt:MaximumMembernrix:PiperSandlerAndCoMember2021-08-310001549595nrix:AtTheMarketOfferingsMembernrix:EquityDistributionAgreementMembernrix:PiperSandlerAndCoMember2024-02-29xbrli:pure0001549595nrix:AtTheMarketOfferingsMembernrix:EquityDistributionAgreementMembernrix:PiperSandlerAndCoMember2022-06-012022-06-300001549595nrix:AtTheMarketOfferingsMembernrix:EquityDistributionAgreementMembernrix:PiperSandlerAndCoMember2022-06-300001549595nrix:AtTheMarketOfferingsMembernrix:EquityDistributionAgreementMembersrt:MaximumMembernrix:PiperSandlerAndCoMember2024-02-290001549595nrix:PreFundedWarrantsMembernrix:RegisteredDirectOfferingsMember2022-07-310001549595nrix:PreFundedWarrantsMembernrix:RegisteredDirectOfferingsMember2022-07-012022-07-310001549595nrix:GileadAgreementMember2019-06-012019-06-300001549595nrix:GileadAgreementMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2024-02-012024-03-310001549595srt:ScenarioForecastMembernrix:GileadAgreementMember2024-03-012024-05-310001549595nrix:LicenseRevenueMembernrix:GileadAgreementMember2023-04-012023-04-300001549595nrix:GileadAgreementMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595srt:MaximumMembernrix:GileadAgreementMember2024-02-290001549595nrix:GileadAgreementMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595nrix:GileadAgreementMember2024-02-290001549595nrix:GileadAgreementMember2023-11-300001549595nrix:SanofiAgreementMember2021-01-012021-01-310001549595srt:MinimumMembernrix:SanofiAgreementMember2022-07-012022-07-310001549595srt:MaximumMembernrix:SanofiAgreementMember2022-07-012022-07-310001549595us-gaap:SubsequentEventMembernrix:SanofiAgreementMember2024-03-012024-03-310001549595nrix:SanofiAgreementMember2019-12-012019-12-310001549595nrix:SanofiAgreementMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595nrix:SanofiAgreementMember2023-09-012023-11-300001549595srt:MaximumMembernrix:SanofiAgreementMember2024-02-290001549595nrix:SanofiAgreementMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595nrix:SanofiAgreementMember2024-02-290001549595nrix:SanofiAgreementMember2023-11-300001549595nrix:PfizerMember2023-09-012023-09-300001549595nrix:PfizerMember2023-09-300001549595nrix:PfizerMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595nrix:PfizerMember2024-02-290001549595nrix:PfizerMember2023-11-300001549595nrix:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2024-02-290001549595nrix:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:SoftwareAndSoftwareDevelopmentCostsMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:SoftwareAndSoftwareDevelopmentCostsMember2023-11-300001549595nrix:SoftwareInProgressMember2024-02-290001549595nrix:SoftwareInProgressMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:OtherLongTermInvestmentsMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:OtherLongTermInvestmentsMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2023-11-30nrix:securityutr:sqft00015495952021-07-3100015495952022-03-3100015495952023-08-3100015495952023-08-012023-08-31nrix:option0001549595nrix:PreFundedWarrantsMember2022-07-310001549595nrix:PreFundedWarrantsMember2022-07-012022-07-310001549595nrix:PreFundedWarrantsMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:StockCompensationPlanMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:StockCompensationPlanMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2024-02-290001549595us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2023-11-300001549595nrix:PreFundedWarrantsMember2023-11-300001549595us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMembernrix:StockPlansAndEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMembernrix:StockPlansAndEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMembernrix:StockPlansAndEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMembernrix:StockPlansAndEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595nrix:StockPlansAndEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595nrix:StockPlansAndEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595nrix:OptionEarlyExercisedSubjectToVestingMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595nrix:OptionEarlyExercisedSubjectToVestingMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595us-gaap:TrustForBenefitOfEmployeesMembersrt:ChiefFinancialOfficerMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595us-gaap:TrustForBenefitOfEmployeesMembersrt:ChiefFinancialOfficerMember2022-12-012023-02-280001549595us-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2024-03-310001549595nrix:ChristineRingMember2023-12-012024-02-290001549595nrix:ChristineRingMember2024-02-29
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
______________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
______________________________________________________________________
(Mark One)
xQUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended February 29, 2024
OR
oTRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                 to                
Commission File Number: 001-39398
______________________________________________________________________
NURIX THERAPEUTICS, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Delaware27-0838048
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1700 Owens Street, Suite 205
San Francisco, CA
94158
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (415) 660-5320
______________________________________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading
Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per shareNRIXNasdaq Global Market
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated fileroAccelerated filero
Non-accelerated filerxSmaller reporting companyx
Emerging growth companyo
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No x
As of April 1, 2024, the Registrant had 49,150,794 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.


SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q other than statements of historical fact, including statements concerning our business strategy and plans, future operating results and financial position, as well as our objectives and expectations for our future operations, are forward-looking statements.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by such terminology as “believe,” “may,” “will,” “potentially,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “would,” “project,” “plan,” “expect” and similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:
the timing and conduct of our clinical trial programs for our lead drug candidates NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607 and other drug candidates, including statements regarding the timing of data and anticipated announcements, the selection of new development candidates and the initiation of clinical trials;
the timing of, and our ability to obtain, marketing approvals for our lead drug candidates NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607 and other drug candidates;
our plans to pursue research and development of other drug candidates;
the timing of investigational new drug application (IND) submissions for our drug candidates;
the potential advantages of our DELigase platform, our drug candidates and Degrader-Antibody Conjugates (DACs);
the extent to which our scientific approach, our DELigase platform, protein degradation, antibody-drug conjugation, and DACs may potentially address a broad range of diseases;
the potential benefits of our arrangements with Gilead Sciences, Inc., Sanofi S.A. and Seagen Inc. (now a part of Pfizer Inc.);
the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our drug candidates;
the potential receipt of revenue from future sales of our drug candidates;
the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of our drug candidates;
our estimates regarding the potential market opportunity for our drug candidates;
our sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and strategy;
our ability to establish and maintain arrangements for the manufacturing of our drug candidates;
the expected impact of global business, political and macroeconomic conditions, including inflation, increasing interest rates and volatile market conditions, uncertainty with respect to the federal budget and debt ceiling and potential government shutdowns related thereto, cybersecurity events, instability in the global banking system, and global events, including regional conflicts around the world, on our business, clinical trials, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations;
the potential achievement of milestones and receipt of royalty payments under our collaborations;
our ability to enter into additional collaborations with third parties;
our intellectual property position;
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
the impact of government laws and regulations; and
our competitive position.
We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, prospects, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. We disclaim any intention or obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements for any reason or to conform such statements to actual results or revised expectations, except as required by law.


Risk Factors Summary
Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including those risks discussed at-length below. These risks include, among others, the following:
We have incurred significant losses since our inception. We expect to incur losses over at least the next several years and may never achieve or maintain profitability.
We have never generated revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.
We will need substantial additional funding. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our research or product development programs or future commercialization efforts.
Current and future legislation may increase the difficulty and cost for us, and any collaborators, to obtain marketing approval of and commercialize our drug candidates and affect the prices we, or they, may obtain.
We are early in our development efforts. Our lead drug candidates, NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607, are in the early stages of clinical development. If we are unable to advance our drug candidates through clinical development, develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize our drug candidates or experience significant delays in doing so, our business may be materially harmed.
Our limited operating history may make it difficult to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.
If serious adverse events, undesirable side effects or unexpected characteristics are identified during the development of any drug candidates we may develop, we may need to abandon or limit our further clinical development of those drug candidates.
The results of preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials may not be predictive of future results. Initial success in clinical trials may not be indicative of results obtained when these trials are completed or in later-stage trials.
If we decide to seek Orphan Drug Designation or other designations from regulators for any of our current or future drug candidates, we may be unsuccessful or may be unable to maintain the benefits associated with these designations, including the potential for supplemental market exclusivity associated with an Orphan Drug Designation.
If any of our drug candidates are not considered to be a new active substance or are deemed to fall within the “global marketing authorization” of an existing medicinal product or if pediatric studies are not adequately completed, this may result in lack of regulatory data protection or failure to obtain an extension to existing regulatory data protection.
We face substantial competition in an environment of rapid technological change, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.
We expect to depend on collaborations with third parties for the research, development and commercialization of certain of the drug candidates we may develop. If any such collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to capitalize on the market potential of those drug candidates.
We rely on third-party contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs) for the manufacture of both drug substance and finished drug product for our drug candidates for preclinical and clinical testing and expect to continue to do so for any future clinical trials and commercialization. This reliance on third parties may increase the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our drug candidates or products or such quantities at an acceptable cost or quality, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.
If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent protection for our technology, our current drug candidates and any future drug candidates that we may develop, or if the scope of the patent protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, our competitors and other third parties could develop and commercialize technology and drug candidates similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize our technology and drug candidates may be impaired, and we may not be able to compete effectively in our market.
We may not identify relevant third-party patents or may incorrectly interpret the relevance, scope or expiration of a third-party patent, and third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on our business.


Unfavorable global economic conditions could adversely affect our business, financial condition, stock price and results of operations.
If we fail to attract and retain management and other key personnel, we may be unable to continue to successfully develop our current and any future drug candidates, commercialize our drug candidates or otherwise implement our business plan.
Even if we are able to commercialize any drug candidates, the products may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations, third-party reimbursement practices or healthcare reform initiatives, which would harm our business.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page


PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
NURIX THERAPEUTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
(unaudited)
February 29,
2024
November 30,
2023
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$49,813 $54,627 
Marketable securities, current194,180 233,281 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets6,976 7,595 
Total current assets250,969 295,503 
Marketable securities, non‑current10,292 7,421 
Operating lease right-of-use assets29,299 31,142 
Property and equipment, net17,871 16,808 
Restricted cash901 901 
Other assets3,342 3,823 
Total assets$312,674 $355,598 
Liabilities and stockholdersʼ equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$5,918 $6,401 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities28,318 24,970 
Operating lease liabilities, current7,310 7,489 
Deferred revenue, current46,077 48,098 
Total current liabilities87,623 86,958 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion21,846 23,125 
Deferred revenue, net of current portion34,457 45,022 
Total liabilities143,926 155,105 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 6)
Stockholdersʼ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value— 10,000,000 shares authorized as of February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023; no shares issued and outstanding as of February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023
  
Common stock, $0.001 par value— 500,000,000 shares authorized as of February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023; 49,136,954 and 48,718,552 shares issued and outstanding as of February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023, respectively
49 49 
Additional paid-in capital755,767 746,299 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(350)(655)
Accumulated deficit(586,718)(545,200)
Total stockholdersʼ equity168,748 200,493 
Total liabilities and stockholdersʼ equity$312,674 $355,598 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
1

NURIX THERAPEUTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended
February 29, 2024February 28, 2023
Revenue:
Collaboration revenue$16,585 $12,685 
Total revenue16,585 12,685 
Operating expenses:
Research and development50,005 45,816 
General and administrative11,799 9,821 
Total operating expenses61,804 55,637 
Loss from operations(45,219)(42,952)
Interest and other income, net3,791 2,219 
Loss before income taxes(41,428)(40,733)
Provision for income taxes90  
Net loss$(41,518)$(40,733)
Net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.76)$(0.75)
Weighted-average number of shares outstanding, basic and diluted54,903,40754,028,238
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
2

NURIX THERAPEUTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended
February 29, 2024February 28, 2023
Net loss$(41,518)$(40,733)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
Unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale marketable securities305 1,072 
Total comprehensive loss$(41,213)$(39,661)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
3

NURIX THERAPEUTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands, except share amounts)
(unaudited)
Common stockAdditional
paid-in
capital
Accumulated
other
comprehensive
income (loss)
Accumulated
deficit
Total
stockholders’
equity
Shares Amount
Balance as of November 30, 202247,172,299$47 $709,220 $(4,319)$(401,252)$303,696 
Exercise of stock options8,768— 28 — — 28 
Vesting of restricted stock units98,571— — — — — 
Vesting of early exercised stock options— 31 — — 31 
Issuance under employee stock purchase plan165,215— 1,453 — — 1,453 
Stock-based compensation— 8,505 — — 8,505 
Unrealized gain on available-for-sale marketable securities— — 1,072 — 1,072 
Net loss— — — (40,733)(40,733)
Balance as of February 28, 202347,444,853$47 $719,237 $(3,247)$(441,985)$274,052 

Common stockAdditional
paid-in
capital
Accumulated
other
comprehensive
income (loss)
Accumulated
deficit
Total
stockholders’
equity
SharesAmount
Balance as of November 30, 202348,718,552$49 $746,299 $(655)$(545,200)$200,493 
Exercise of stock options75,362— 355 — — 355 
Vesting of restricted stock units171,030— — — — — 
Vesting of early exercised stock options— 21 — — 21 
Repurchase of unvested early exercised stock(1,548)— — — — — 
Issuance under employee stock purchase plan173,558— 1,269 — — 1,269 
Stock-based compensation— 7,823 — — 7,823 
Unrealized gain on available-for-sale marketable securities— — 305 — 305 
Net loss— — — (41,518)(41,518)
Balance as of February 29, 202449,136,954$49 $755,767 $(350)$(586,718)$168,748 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
4

NURIX THERAPEUTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended
February 29, 2024February 28, 2023
Cash flows from operating activities
Net loss$(41,518)$(40,733)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:  
Depreciation and amortization2,045 1,752 
Stock-based compensation7,822 8,481 
Net amortization (accretion) of premium (discount) on marketable securities(1,930)(818)
Loss on disposal of property and equipment 56 
Amortization of operating lease right-of-use assets1,843 1,428 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:  
Prepaid expenses and other assets1,168 (1,627)
Accounts payable(930)400 
Deferred revenue(12,586)(9,184)
Operating lease liabilities(1,458)(1,302)
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities3,593 (6,905)
Net cash used in operating activities(41,951)(48,452)
Cash flows from investing activities  
Purchases of marketable securities(54,803)(22,642)
Maturities of marketable securities93,200 40,987 
Purchases of property and equipment(2,884)(2,277)
Net cash provided by investing activities35,513 16,068 
Cash flows from financing activities  
Proceeds from exercise of stock options355 28 
Proceeds from issuance under employee stock purchase plan1,269 1,453 
Net cash provided by financing activities1,624 1,481 
Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(4,814)(30,903)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period55,528 65,375 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$50,714 $34,472 
Supplemental disclosures of non-cash investing and financing activities:
Additions to property and equipment included in accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current liabilities$855 $1,434 
Capitalized stock-based compensation related to internal-use software development$1 $24 
Vesting of early exercised stock options$21 $31 
Repurchase of unvested early exercised stock options included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities$15 $ 

Three Months Ended
February 29, 2024February 28, 2023
Reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash:
Cash and cash equivalents$49,813 $33,571 
Restricted cash901 901 
Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$50,714 $34,472 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
5

NURIX THERAPEUTICS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
1. Organization
Description of Business
Nurix Therapeutics, Inc. (the Company) was incorporated in the state of Delaware on August 27, 2009, and is headquartered in San Francisco, California. The Company is a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of innovative small molecules and antibody therapies based on the modulation of cellular protein levels as a novel treatment approach for cancer, inflammatory conditions and other challenging diseases. Leveraging the Company’s expertise in E3 ligases together with its proprietary DNA-encoded libraries, the Company has built DELigase, an integrated discovery platform to identify and advance novel drug candidates targeting E3 ligases, a broad class of enzymes that can modulate proteins within the cell. The Company’s drug discovery approach is to either harness or inhibit the natural function of E3 ligases within the ubiquitin-proteasome system to selectively decrease or increase cellular protein levels. The Company’s wholly owned, clinical stage pipeline includes targeted protein degraders of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, a B-cell signaling protein, and inhibitors of Casitas B-lineage lymphoma proto-oncogene B, an E3 ligase that regulates activation of multiple immune cell types including T cells and NK cells. The Company’s partnered drug discovery pipeline consists of multiple programs under collaboration agreements with Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Gilead), Sanofi S.A. (Sanofi) and Seagen Inc. (now a part of Pfizer Inc. (Pfizer)), within which the Company retains certain options for co-development, co-commercialization and profit sharing in the United States for multiple drug candidates.
Equity Distribution Agreement
In August 2021, the Company filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), which was amended in February 2023. This shelf registration statement, which includes a base prospectus, allows the Company at any time to offer and sell up to $450.0 million of the Company’s registered common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, subscriptions rights and or units or any combination of securities described in the prospectus in one or more offerings. In addition, in August 2021, the Company entered into an Equity Distribution Agreement with Piper Sandler & Co. (Piper Sandler) pursuant to which, from time to time, the Company may offer and sell through Piper Sandler up to $150.0 million of the common stock registered under the shelf registration statement pursuant to one or more “at the market” offerings.
The Company is not required to sell any shares at any time during the term of the Equity Distribution Agreement. The Company agreed to pay Piper Sandler a commission of 3% of the gross sales price of any shares sold pursuant to the Equity Distribution Agreement. In June 2022, the Company issued and sold 2,000,000 shares of common stock under the Equity Distribution Agreement at a price of $10.0001 per share of common stock for net proceeds of $19.3 million, after deducting offering commissions and expenses paid by the Company. As of February 29, 2024, the Company had $130.0 million of common stock remaining available for sale under the Equity Distribution Agreement.
Registered Direct Offerings
In July 2022, the Company entered into separate securities purchase agreements with certain purchasers to issue and sell pre‑funded warrants to purchase an aggregate of 6,814,920 shares of the Company’s common stock in registered direct offerings (RDOs) at a price of $13.939 per pre-funded warrant. Net proceeds from the RDOs were $94.8 million, after deducting offering expenses of $0.2 million. Refer to Note 7 for more information regarding the pre-funded warrants issued in the RDOs.
Liquidity and Management Plans
The Company’s operations have historically been financed through the issuance of common stock, redeemable convertible preferred stock and pre-funded warrants and proceeds received under the Company’s collaboration and license agreements. Since inception, the Company has generally incurred significant losses and negative net cash flows from operations. The Company does not expect its existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities to be sufficient to fund the completion of its clinical trials through commercialization and will need substantial additional funding to support its continuing operations and pursue its long-term business plan. The Company anticipates incurring additional losses until such time, if ever, that it can generate significant sales of its drug candidates currently in development.
6

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As of February 29, 2024, the Company had cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities of $244.0 million and an accumulated deficit of $586.7 million. Management believes that its cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities are sufficient to continue operating activities for at least 12 months following the issuance date of these condensed consolidated financial statements. Future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including the timing and extent of spending on research and development and payments the Company may receive under its collaboration agreements with Sanofi, Gilead and Pfizer or future collaboration agreements, if any. There can be no assurance that, in the event the Company requires additional financing, such financing will be available at terms acceptable to the Company if at all. If additional capital is not available, failure to generate sufficient cash flows from operations, raise additional capital and reduce discretionary spending could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to achieve its intended business objectives. Management considered whether there are conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern and evaluated the funds necessary to maintain operations. If the Company is unable to obtain additional funding, management will be required to implement plans that are within the Company’s control, which may include the delay or scaling back of certain research and development programs, to maintain liquidity and operations. Based on the Company’s current forecast of future operating results and management’s plans to improve liquidity, the Company has concluded that its cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities are sufficient to continue operating activities for at least 12 months following the issuance date of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP) and applicable rules and regulations of the SEC regarding interim financial reporting. The Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual financial statements and reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments of a normal and recurring nature that are necessary for the fair statement of the Company’s financial position as of and for the three months ended February 29, 2024. The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of November 30, 2023, was derived from the audited annual financial statements as of that date. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted from these interim financial statements. These interim financial statements and related disclosures have been prepared with the presumption that users of the interim financial statements have read or have access to the audited annual financial statements for the preceding fiscal year. Accordingly, these financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited annual financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended November 30, 2023, as filed with the SEC on February 15, 2024. These interim results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full fiscal year or any future interim period.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates its estimates, including those related to the useful lives of long-lived assets, the measurement of stock-based compensation, accruals for research and development activities, income taxes and revenue recognition. The Company also makes certain commencement date estimates for its leases, including the incremental borrowing rate, the expected lease term and the fair value of the leased asset. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on other relevant assumptions that are reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could materially differ from those estimates. Refer to Note 3 for more information regarding the estimates related to revenue recognition.
7

Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. The Company’s marketable securities consist of debt securities issued by highly rated corporate entities, the U.S. federal government or state and local governments. The Company’s exposure to any individual corporate entity is limited by policy. Deposits may, at times, exceed federally insured limits. The Company invests its cash equivalents in highly rated money market funds. During the periods presented, the Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits of cash, cash equivalents or marketable securities.
Other Risks and Uncertainties
The Company is subject to a number of risks similar to other clinical stage biopharmaceutical companies, including, but not limited to, changes in any of the following areas that the Company believes could have a material adverse effect on its future financial position or results of operations: risks related to the successful discovery and development of its drug candidates, ability to raise additional capital, development of new technological innovations by its competitors and delay or inability to obtain drug substance and finished drug product from the Company’s third-party contract manufacturers necessary for the Company’s drug candidates, protection of intellectual property rights, litigation or claims against the Company based on intellectual property rights and regulatory clearance and market acceptance for any of the Company’s products candidates for which the Company receives marketing approval.
Moreover, the Company is subject to risks and uncertainties as a result of global business, political and macroeconomic events and conditions, including increasing financial market volatility and uncertainty, inflation, increasing interest rates, uncertainty with respect to the federal budget and debt ceiling and potential government shutdowns related thereto, potential instability in the global banking system, cybersecurity events, the impact of war or military conflict, including regional conflicts around the world, and public health pandemics. The extent to which business, political and macroeconomic factors, including increasing financial market volatility and uncertainty, will impact the Company’s business will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The extent to which the increasing financial market volatility and uncertainty may directly or indirectly impact the Company’s financial statements is highly uncertain and subject to change.
The Company relies on single source manufacturers and suppliers for the supply of its drug candidates. Disruption from these manufacturers or suppliers would have a negative impact on the Company’s business, financial position and results of operations.
Leases
The Company determines if an arrangement contains a lease and the classification of the lease at inception. An arrangement contains a lease if there is an identified asset and if the Company controls the use of the identified asset throughout the period of use. The evaluation of whether the lease is an operating or a finance lease requires judgments in determining the fair value of the leased asset. Lease right-of-use (ROU) assets and lease liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at the commencement date. ROU assets also include any initial direct costs incurred and any lease payments made on or before the lease commencement date, less any lease incentives received. The Company uses its incremental borrowing rate, if an implicit rate is not readily available, and the information available at the date of lease commencement in determining its lease liabilities. The Company’s incremental borrowing rate is based on the rate of interest that the Company would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term, an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment, and the determination of the rate requires the Company to make certain assumptions and judgements, including on its synthetic credit rating. Leases may include options to extend or early terminate the lease term. If the Company, using judgement, is reasonably certain that an option will be exercised, then the option will be included in the calculation of the lease term. The Company elected to combine lease and non-lease components for all underlying assets groups, and not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities for short-term leases. A short-term lease is a lease that, at the commencement date, has a lease term of 12 months or less and does not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise. Lease expense for operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company does not have any finance leases.
8

Revenue Recognition
The Company recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To recognize revenue from a contract with a customer, the Company performs the following five steps:
(i)identify the contract(s) with a customer;
(ii)identify the performance obligations in the contract;
(iii)determine the transaction price;
(iv)allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
(v)recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies a performance obligation.
At contract inception, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract, whether each promised good or service is distinct, and determines those that are performance obligations. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when or as the performance obligation is satisfied.
The Company enters into collaboration agreements under which it may obtain upfront payments, milestone payments, royalty payments and other fees. Promises under these arrangements may include research licenses, research services, including selection campaign research services for certain replacement targets, the obligation to share information during the research and the participation of alliance managers and in joint research committees, joint patent committees and joint steering committees. The Company assesses these promises within the context of the agreements to determine the performance obligations.
Exclusive license rights: If a license to the Company’s intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other promises identified in the arrangement, the Company recognizes revenue from nonrefundable, upfront payments allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the customer and the customer is able to use and benefit from the license and the underlying intellectual property. If the license is the predominant promise, and it is determined that the license represents functional intellectual property, revenue is recognized at the point in time when control of the license is transferred. If it is determined that the license does not represent functional intellectual property, revenue is recognized over time using an appropriate method of measuring progress.
Research and collaboration licenses: Collaboration agreements may include research licenses and research and development services to be performed by the Company. For research licenses that are bundled with other promises, the Company utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring proportional performance for purposes of recognizing revenue from non-refundable, upfront payments. The Company evaluates the measure of proportional performance each reporting period and, if necessary, adjusts the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.
Milestone payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes research, development or regulatory milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price. The Company uses the most likely amount method for research, development and regulatory milestone payments. Under the most likely amount method, an entity considers the single most likely amount in a range of possible consideration amounts. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone amount is included in the transaction price.
Sales-based milestones and royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based milestone or royalty payments based on the level of sales, and in which the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the sales-based milestone or royalties relate to, the Company recognizes revenue in the period in which the sales-based milestone is achieved and in the period in which the sales associated with the royalty occur. To date, the Company has not recognized any sales-based milestone or royalty revenue resulting from its collaboration arrangements.
9

Customer options: Customer options, such as options granted to allow a licensee to extend a license or research term, to select additional research targets or to choose to research, develop and commercialize licensed compounds are evaluated at contract inception to determine whether those options provide a material right (i.e., an optional good or service offered for free or at a discount) to the customer. If the customer options represent a material right, the material right is treated as a separate performance obligation at the outset of the arrangement. The Company allocates the transaction price to material rights based on the standalone selling price. As a practical alternative to estimating the standalone selling price of a material right when the underlying goods or services are both (i) similar to the original goods or services in the contract and (ii) provided in accordance with the terms of the original contract, the Company allocates the total amount of consideration expected to be received from the customer to the total goods or services expected to be provided to the customer. Amounts allocated to any material right are recognized as revenue when or as the related future goods or services are transferred or when the option expires. If the option does not provide a material right, then the option is considered a marketing offer, which would be accounted for as a separate contract upon exercise.
Deferred revenue, which is a contract liability, represents net amounts received by the Company for which the related revenues have not been recognized because one or more of the revenue recognition criteria have not been met. The current portion of deferred revenue represents the amount to be recognized within one year from the balance sheet date based on the estimated performance period of the underlying performance obligation. The non-current portion of deferred revenue represents amounts to be recognized after one year through the end of the performance period of the performance obligation.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In November 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standard Update (ASU) No. 2023‑07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280)—Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures (ASU 2023-07), which is intended to improve reportable segment disclosure requirements, primarily through enhanced disclosures about significant segment expenses. ASU 2023-07 should be applied on a retrospective basis. ASU 2023-07 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of this new guidance on its disclosures.
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09—Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures (ASU 2023-09), which is intended to enhance the transparency and decision usefulness of income tax disclosures, primarily by amending disclosure requirements for the effective tax rate reconciliation and income taxes paid. ASU 2023-09 should be applied on a prospective basis, and retrospective application is permitted. ASU 2023-09 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of this new guidance on its disclosures.
3. Collaboration Agreements
Gilead
In June 2019, the Company entered into a global strategic collaboration agreement with Gilead (as subsequently amended, the Gilead Agreement) to discover, develop and commercialize a pipeline of targeted protein degradation drugs for patients with cancer and other challenging diseases using the Company’s DELigase platform to identify novel agents that utilize E3 ligases to induce degradation of five specified drug targets. In August 2019 and September 2022, the Company and Gilead entered into the First Amendment and the Second Amendment, respectively, to the Gilead Agreement to clarify certain language of the Gilead Agreement. These amendments had no impact on revenue recognition. In February and March 2024, as part of the existing collaboration agreement, Gilead elected to extend the five-year initial research term by two years for certain drug targets (Gilead Research Term Extension). The Gilead Research Term Extension triggered a $15.0 million payment that the Company expects to receive in the second quarter of fiscal year 2024.
10

Under the Gilead Agreement, Gilead has the option to license drug candidates directed to up to five targets resulting from the collaboration and is responsible for the clinical development and commercialization of drug candidates resulting from the collaboration. The Company retains the option to co-develop and co-promote, under a profit share structure, up to two drug candidates in the United States, provided that the Company may only exercise such option once per licensed product and Gilead retains the right to veto the Company’s option selection for any one drug candidate of its choice. The collaboration excludes the Company’s current internal protein degradation programs for which the Company retains all rights, and also excludes the Company’s future internal programs, provided that the Company has distinguished future programs as excluded from the scope of the collaboration. In March 2023, Gilead exercised the option, which did not represent a material right at contract inception, since it was not offered for free or at a discount, to exclusively license one target (Gilead License Option Exercise), the first development candidate resulting from the Gilead Agreement. Pursuant to the Gilead Agreement, the Company received a license option exercise payment of $20.0 million in April 2023 for the Gilead License Option Exercise. The license to the functional intellectual property and all goods and services related to the Gilead License Option Exercise were transferred during the second quarter of fiscal year 2023.
Over time, Gilead may elect to replace the initial drug targets with other drug targets. For drug targets that are subject to the collaboration, the Company is obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to undertake a research program in accordance with a research plan agreed to by the parties and established on a target-by-target basis. The Company has primary responsibility under the Gilead Agreement for performing preclinical research activities (including target validation, drug discovery, identification or synthesis) pursuant to a research plan. Each party will bear its own costs in the conduct of research activities. Gilead will be responsible for any development, commercialization and manufacturing activities, unless the Company exercises its co-development and co-promotion option. For those programs that the Company exercises its option to co-develop and co-promote, the Company and Gilead will split U.S. development costs as well as U.S. profits and losses evenly, and the Company will be eligible to receive royalties on net ex-U.S. sales and reduced milestone payments.
Upon signing the Gilead Agreement, Gilead paid the Company an upfront payment of $45.0 million plus $3.0 million in additional fees. In addition, from the signing of the Gilead Agreement to February 29, 2024, the Company has received payments of $47.0 million for research milestones and additional payments and $20.0 million for a license option exercise payment. As of February 29, 2024, the Company is eligible to receive up to approximately $1.8 billion in total additional payments based on certain additional fees, payments and the successful completion of certain preclinical, clinical, development and sales milestones. The Company also is eligible to receive mid-single digit to low tens percentage tiered royalties on annual net sales from any commercial products directed to the optioned collaboration targets, subject to certain reductions and excluding sales in the United States of any products for which the Company exercises its option to co-develop and co-promote, for which the parties share profits and losses evenly.
Subject to earlier expiration in certain circumstances, the Gilead Agreement expires on a licensed product-by-licensed product and country-by-country basis upon the later of (1) the expiration of the last to expire patent with a valid claim covering the applicable licensed product in the applicable country, (2) the expiration of any regulatory exclusivity for the applicable licensed product in the applicable country or (3) ten years after the first commercial sale of the applicable licensed product in the applicable country covered by the Gilead Agreement, provided that the term for any profit-shared licensed product in the United States will expire upon the expiration or termination of the applicable profit-share term as set forth in an applicable profit-share agreement to be negotiated upon the Company’s exercise of its option to co-develop and co-promote such licensed product. If Gilead does not exercise an option to license a drug candidate, then the Gilead Agreement will terminate at the end of the last to expire option period.
The Company identified the following promises in the Gilead Agreement: (1) the research licenses, (2) the research services, including selection campaign research services for certain replacement targets, (3) the obligation to share information during the research term and (4) the participation in the joint research committee and joint steering committee. The Company determined that the research licenses, the obligation to share information and the participation in joint committees are not capable of being distinct from the research services due to the specialized nature of the research services to be provided by the Company, and, accordingly, the promises identified were combined as one single performance obligation. The Company also concluded that, at the inception of the Gilead Agreement, Gilead’s options to obtain an exclusive development, manufacturing and commercialization license for each collaboration target, to extend the five-year research term and to perform selection campaign research services for certain replacement targets do not represent material rights and are not considered performance obligations because they do not contain a significant and incremental discount. The Company concluded that Gilead’s target reservation right is not a performance obligation as it does not require any specific action from the Company and it is rather an exclusivity right and an attribute of other performance obligations in the Gilead Agreement, such as the research licenses.
11

In order to determine the transaction price, the Company evaluated all the payments to be received during the duration of the contract. Certain milestone payments and additional fees were considered variable consideration, which were not included in the transaction price based on the most likely amount method as of February 29, 2024. The Company re-evaluates the transaction price in each reporting period and as uncertain events are resolved or other changes in circumstances occur. The Company determined that the transaction price at the inception of the Gilead Agreement consisted of the upfront payment of $45.0 million and $3.0 million in additional fees. Upon the achievement of research milestones and additional fees related to target reservations, $47.0 million in variable consideration was added to the transaction price, and a cumulative effect was recorded as revenue in the period the transaction price increased. The transaction price is recognized as collaboration revenue using the cost-based input method over the estimated research term of five years. The contract term was determined to be the five-year initial research term which represents the estimated timing of completion of the identified deliverables. Additionally, the Company considered the impact of Gilead terminating the Gilead Agreement prior to the completion of the research services during the initial five-year research term and determined that there were significant economic costs to Gilead for doing so, and as such, did not adjust the contract term. The Gilead Research Term Extension, which has a term of two years and did not represent a material right at the inception of the Gilead Agreement, because it does not contain a significant and incremental discount, will be accounted for as a separate contract commencing in June 2024.
Using the cost-based input method, which the Company determined most faithfully depicts the transfer of its performance obligation to Gilead, the Company recognizes revenue based on actual costs incurred as a percentage of total estimated costs as the Company completes its performance obligation under the contract. Costs consist primarily of internal full-time employee (FTE) and third-party contract costs related to the Gilead Agreement. The cumulative effect of revisions to estimated costs to complete the Company’s performance obligation is recorded in the period in which changes are identified and amounts can be reasonably estimated. Total estimated costs are primarily driven by the number of estimated FTEs, which requires significant management judgment.
For the three months ended February 29, 2024, the Company recognized collaboration revenue related to the Gilead Agreement of $4.6 million, all of which was included in deferred revenue as of November 30, 2023. For the three months ended February 28, 2023, the Company recognized collaboration revenue related to the Gilead Agreement of $7.4 million, of which $2.8 million was included in deferred revenue as of November 30, 2022, and $4.1 million was related to activities satisfied in previous periods. As of February 29, 2024, deferred revenue related to the Gilead Agreement was $5.3 million, all of which was current. As of November 30, 2023, deferred revenue related to the Gilead Agreement was $10.0 million, all of which was current.
Sanofi
In December 2019, the Company entered into a strategic collaboration with Genzyme Corporation, a subsidiary of Sanofi, which became effective in January 2020 (as subsequently expanded and amended, the Sanofi Agreement), to discover, develop and commercialize a pipeline of targeted protein degradation drugs for patients with challenging diseases in multiple therapeutic areas using the Company’s DELigase platform to identify small molecules designed to induce degradation of three specified initial drug targets. In January 2021, as part of the existing Sanofi Agreement, Sanofi paid the Company $22.0 million to exercise its option to expand the number of targets in the Sanofi Agreement from three to a total of five targets.
In January 2021, the Company and Sanofi entered into the First Amendment to the Sanofi Agreement to modify the research term on all targets (the First Sanofi Amendment). In December 2021, the Company and Sanofi entered into the Second Amendment to the Sanofi Agreement to extend the substitution deadline on certain targets. In July 2022, the Company and Sanofi entered into the Third Amendment to the Sanofi Agreement to further extend the substitution deadline on certain targets. The extensions of the substitution deadline had no impact on revenue recognition. Also in July 2022, Sanofi elected to replace certain drug targets, and the substitution extended the research term of those targets by one year to 5.25 years and increased overall forecasted costs, which had an immaterial impact on revenue recognition. In August 2022 and November 2023, the Company and Sanofi entered into the Fourth Amendment and Fifth Amendment, respectively, to the Sanofi Agreement to modify the research plan for certain targets, which had no impact on revenue recognition. In March 2024, the Company and Sanofi entered into the Sixth Amendment to the Sanofi Agreement to extend the research term for the collaboration target STAT6 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 6), a key drug target in type 2 inflammation, by two years (the Sixth Sanofi Amendment), which is expected to increase overall forecasted costs and have an impact on revenue recognition.
12

Under the Sanofi Agreement, Sanofi has exclusive rights and is responsible for the clinical development, commercialization and manufacture of drug candidates resulting from the collaboration while the Company retains the option to co-develop, co-promote and co-commercialize all drug candidates in the United States directed to up to two targets, one of which must be selected from a list of targets designated at the execution of the Sanofi Agreement or any replacement of such targets, and one of which must be selected from targets identified by Sanofi as part of their January 2021 expansion. The Company’s right to exercise its option to co-develop, co-promote and co-commercialize a given target is dependent on its ability to demonstrate, within a given timeframe, that it has sufficient cash resources and personnel to commercialize the product. The collaboration excludes the Company’s current internal protein degradation programs for which it retains all rights, and also excludes future internal programs, provided that the Company distinguished future programs as excluded from the scope of the collaboration.
For drug targets that are subject to the collaboration, the Company has primary responsibility for conducting preclinical research activities (including target validation, drug discovery, identification or synthesis) in accordance with the applicable research plan agreed to by the parties and established on a target-by-target basis. The Company is obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to identify relevant target binders and targeted protein degraders in order to identify development candidates. Subject to certain exceptions, each party will bear its own costs in the conduct of such research. Sanofi will be responsible for any development and commercialization activities unless the Company exercises its co-development and co-promotion option. For those programs that the Company exercises its option to co-develop, co-promote and co-commercialize, the Company will be responsible for a portion of the U.S. development costs, and the parties will split U.S. profits and losses evenly and the Company will be eligible to receive royalties on ex-U.S. net sales and reduced milestone payments on such optioned products.
Upon signing the Sanofi Agreement, Sanofi paid the Company an upfront payment of $55.0 million. Subsequently, in January 2021, Sanofi paid the Company an additional $22.0 million to exercise its option to expand the number of targets beyond the initial targets included in the collaboration. In addition, from the signing of the Sanofi Agreement to February 29, 2024, the Company has received payments of $11.0 million for research milestones. Additionally, the Company achieved a research milestone in February 2024 and received a payment of $2.0 million in the second quarter of fiscal year 2024. As of February 29, 2024, the Company is eligible to receive up to approximately $2.4 billion in total additional payments based on certain additional fees, payments and the successful completion of certain research development, regulatory and sales milestones, as well as mid-single digit to low teen percentage tiered royalties on annual net sales of any commercial products that may result from the collaboration, subject to certain reductions and excluding sales in the United States of any products for which the Company exercises its option to co-develop and co-promote, for which the parties share profits and losses evenly.
Subject to earlier expiration in certain circumstances, the Sanofi Agreement expires on a licensed product-by-licensed product or profit-shared licensed product-by-profit-shared licensed product basis and country-by-country basis upon on the later of (1) the expiration of the last-to-expire patent with a valid claim covering the applicable licensed product in the applicable country, (2) the expiration of any regulatory exclusivity for the applicable licensed product in the applicable country or (3) ten years after the first commercial sale of the applicable licensed product in the applicable country covered by the Sanofi Agreement.
The Company identified the following promises in the Sanofi Agreement: (1) the research licenses, (2) the research services, (3) the obligation to share information during the research term and (4) the participation of alliance managers in the joint research committee and joint patent committee. The Company determined that the research licenses, the obligation to share information and the participation in the joint committees are not capable of being distinct from the research services due to the specialized nature of the research services to be provided by the Company, and, accordingly, the promises identified were combined as one single performance obligation. The Company also determined that Sanofi’s exclusive right to add up to two additional targets constitutes a material right as it represents a significant and incremental discount that Sanofi would not have received without entering into the Sanofi Agreement. The option to extend the license term does not represent a material right because it does not contain a significant and incremental discount.
13

In order to determine the transaction price, the Company evaluated all the payments to be received during the duration of the contract. Certain milestone payments and additional fees were considered variable consideration, which were not included in the transaction price based on the most likely amount method as of February 29, 2024. The Company re-evaluates the transaction price in each reporting period and as uncertain events are resolved or other changes in circumstances occur. At the inception of the Sanofi Agreement, the Company determined that the transaction price consisted of the upfront payment of $55.0 million for three initial drug targets and $22.0 million for two additional targets. Subsequently, upon the achievement of research milestones, $13.0 million in variable consideration was added to the transaction price, which includes $2.0 million added during the three months ended February 29, 2024, and a cumulative effect was recorded as revenue in the period the transaction price increased. Revenue is recognized using the cost-based input method over the research term of 4.25 years, the revised research period that was agreed to in January 2021 in the First Sanofi Amendment for certain targets, and 5.25 years, the revised research period due to the target substitutions in July 2022, for certain other targets. The research period for STAT6 will be extended as part of the Sixth Sanofi Amendment in the second quarter of fiscal year 2024 and a cumulative effect is expected to be recorded.
Using the cost-based input method, which the Company determined most faithfully depicts the transfer of its performance obligation to Sanofi, the Company recognizes revenue based on actual costs incurred as a percentage of total estimated costs as the Company completes its performance obligation under the contract. Costs consist primarily of internal FTE and third-party contract costs related to the Sanofi Agreement. The cumulative effect of revisions to estimated costs to complete the Company’s performance obligation is recorded in the period in which changes are identified and amounts can be reasonably estimated. Total estimated costs are primarily driven by the number of estimated FTEs, which requires significant management judgment.
For the three months ended February 29, 2024, the Company recognized collaboration revenue related to the Sanofi Agreement of $8.3 million, of which $6.8 million was included in deferred revenue as of November 30, 2023, and $1.3 million was related to activities satisfied in previous periods. For the three months ended February 28, 2023, the Company recognized collaboration revenue related to the Sanofi Agreement of $5.3 million, of which $4.9 million was included in deferred revenue as of November 30, 2022 and $0.4 million was related to activities satisfied in previous periods. As of February 29, 2024, deferred revenue related to the Sanofi Agreement was $22.5 million, of which $21.5 million was included as deferred revenue, current, and included $2.0 million in contract assets representing the unbilled amount related to the research milestone achieved in February 2024. As of November 30, 2023, deferred revenue related to the Sanofi Agreement was $24.9 million, of which $20.3 million was included as deferred revenue, current, and included $4.0 million in contract assets representing the unbilled amount related to the research milestone achieved in November 2023.
Pfizer
In September 2023, the Company entered into a strategic collaboration with Seagen Inc. (now a part of Pfizer Inc.) (the Pfizer Agreement) to develop a suite of targeted protein degraders against multiple targets nominated by Pfizer that are suitable for antibody conjugation. Pfizer will be responsible for conjugating these degraders to antibodies to make Degrader-Antibody Conjugates (DACs), a new class of medicines for use in cancer treatment, and advancing these DAC drug candidates through preclinical and clinical development and commercialization.
Under the Pfizer Agreement, Pfizer has the option to obtain exclusive licenses to develop and commercialize certain degraders, while the Company retains an option for U.S. profit sharing and co-promotion on two products arising from the collaboration. The collaboration excludes the Company’s current internal protein degradation programs for which the Company retains all rights, and also excludes the Company’s future internal programs, provided that the Company has distinguished future programs as excluded from the scope of the collaboration.
For the targets nominated by Pfizer under the collaboration, the Company shall use commercially reasonable efforts to identify, synthesize, characterize and deliver targeted protein degraders that selectively bind to and degrade such targets. Development of licensed degraders, with the exception of licensed products for which the Company exercises its profit-share options, will be at Pfizer’s sole cost and expense. For the profit-share products, the parties will share net profits and net losses and global development costs, and the Company will be eligible to receive royalty and milestone payments on such optioned products.
Under the terms of the Pfizer Agreement, the Company received an upfront payment of $60.0 million. The Company is eligible to receive up to approximately $3.4 billion in contingent payments based on specified research, development, regulatory and commercial milestones across multiple programs, and is eligible for mid-single to low double digit percentage tiered royalties on future sales.
Subject to the exceptions described in the Pfizer Agreement, the Pfizer Agreement expires upon the first to occur of (1) the expiration of the last-to-expire option exercise period under the Pfizer Agreement if no such option has been exercised prior to such expiration and (2) the expiration of the last-to-expire royalty term under the Pfizer Agreement.
14

The Company identified the following promises in the Pfizer Agreement: (1) the research licenses, (2) the research services, (3) the participation of a gatekeeper and an alliance managers and the participation in various joint committees, and (4) the obligation to share information during the research term. The Company determined that the research licenses, the participation in the joint committees and the obligation to share information are not capable of being distinct from the research services, and, accordingly, the identified promises were combined as one single performance obligation. The Company also determined that, at the inception of the Pfizer Agreement, Pfizer’s options to obtain an exclusive development, manufacturing and commercialization license for each collaboration target and to extend the four-year research term do not represent material rights and are not considered performance obligations because they do not contain a significant and incremental discount. Additionally, Pfizer’s target reservation right is not a performance obligation as it is an exclusivity right and an attribute of other performance obligations in the Pfizer Agreement, such as the research licenses, and does not require any specific actions from the Company.
In order to determine the transaction price, the Company evaluated all the payments to be received during the duration of the contract. Milestone payments and additional fees were considered variable consideration, which were not included in the transaction price based on the most likely amount method as of February 29, 2024. The Company re-evaluates the transaction price in each reporting period and as uncertain events are resolved or other changes in circumstances occur. The Company determined that the transaction price at the inception of the Pfizer Agreement consisted of the upfront payment of $60.0 million. The Company has not yet achieved any research milestones and no variable consideration has been added to the transaction price. The transaction price is recognized as collaboration revenue using the cost-based input method over the estimated research term of four years, which represents the estimated period to complete the identified deliverables. Additionally, the Company considered the impact of Pfizer terminating the Pfizer Agreement prior to the completion of the research services during the initial four-year research term and determined that there were significant economic costs to Pfizer for doing so, and as such, did not adjust the contract term.
Using the cost-based input method, which the Company determined most faithfully depicts the transfer of its performance obligation to Pfizer, the Company recognizes revenue based on actual costs incurred as a percentage of total estimated costs as the Company completes its performance obligation under the contract. Costs consist primarily of internal FTE and third-party contract costs related to the Pfizer Agreement. The cumulative effect of revisions to estimated costs to complete the Company’s performance obligation is recorded in the period in which changes are identified and amounts can be reasonably estimated. Total estimated costs are primarily driven by the number of estimated FTEs, which requires significant management judgment.
For the three months ended February 29, 2024, the Company recognized collaboration revenue related to the Pfizer Agreement of $3.7 million, all of which was included in deferred revenue as of November 30, 2023. As of February 29, 2024, deferred revenue related to the Pfizer Agreement was $54.7 million, of which $21.2 million was included as deferred revenue, current. As of November 30, 2023, deferred revenue related to the Pfizer Agreement was $58.3 million, of which $17.9 million was included as deferred revenue, current.
4. Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet Components
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment, net, consisted of the following (in thousands):
February 29,
2024
November 30,
2023
Laboratory equipment$34,994 $32,239 
Leasehold improvements3,238 3,238 
Computer equipment938 938 
Furniture and fixtures996 652 
Software5,403 5,403 
Software in progress596 587 
Total property and equipment, gross46,165 43,057 
Less: Accumulated depreciation and amortization(28,294)(26,249)
Total property and equipment, net$17,871 $16,808 
15

Accrued Expenses and Other Current Liabilities
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities consisted of the following (in thousands):
February 29,
2024
November 30,
2023
Accrued compensation$16,763 $15,303 
Accrued clinical, contract research and lab supplies8,583 7,131 
Accrued professional services1,809 1,755 
Accrued taxes427 30 
Other736 751 
Total accrued expenses and other current liabilities$28,318 $24,970 
5. Fair Value Measurements
In accordance with the authoritative guidance on fair value measurements and disclosures under U.S. GAAP, the Company discloses and recognizes the fair value of its assets and liabilities using a hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to valuations based upon unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to valuations based upon unobservable inputs that are significant to the valuation (Level 3 measurements). The guidance establishes three levels of the fair value hierarchy as follows:
Level 1—Inputs that reflect unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date;
Level 2—Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability either directly or indirectly, including inputs in markets that are not considered to be active; and
Level 3—Inputs that are unobservable.
Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires management to make judgments and considers factors specific to the asset or liability.
The following tables present the Company’s investments, which consist of cash equivalents and available-for-sale marketable securities, that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023 (in thousands):
February 29, 2024LevelAmortized
cost
Unrealized
gain
Unrealized
loss
Estimated
fair value
Money market fundsLevel 1$32,152 $ $ $32,152 
U.S. treasury securitiesLevel 1144,595 21 (39)144,577 
Corporate debt securitiesLevel 23,485  (12)3,473 
U.S. government agency securitiesLevel 249,384 4 (266)49,122 
Long-term marketable securities:   
U.S. government agency securitiesLevel 210,350  (58)10,292 
Total$239,966 $25 $(375)$239,616 
Included in cash and cash equivalents$35,144 $ $ $35,144 
Included in marketable securities, current$194,472 $25 $(317)$194,180 
Included in marketable securities, non-current$10,350 $ $(58)$10,292 
16

November 30, 2023LevelAmortized
cost
Unrealized
gain
Unrealized
loss
Estimated
fair value
Money market fundsLevel 1$44,187 $ $ $44,187 
U.S. treasury securitiesLevel 1160,991 61 (29)161,023 
Corporate debt securitiesLevel 23,487  (56)3,431 
U.S. government agency securitiesLevel 269,389 5 (567)68,827 
Long-term marketable securities:   
U.S. government agency securitiesLevel 27,490  (69)7,421 
Total$285,544 $66 $(721)$284,889 
Included in cash and cash equivalents$44,187 $ $ $44,187 
Included in marketable securities, current$233,867 $66 $(652)$233,281 
Included in marketable securities, non-current$7,490 $ $(69)$7,421 
The accrued interest receivable related to the Company’s marketable securities was $0.8 million as of both February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023 and was included in prepaid expenses and other current assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheet. Long-term marketable securities held by the Company generally mature within two years from the balance sheet date.
The Company classifies its money market funds and U.S. treasury securities, which are valued based on quoted market prices in active markets with no valuation adjustment, as Level 1 assets within the fair value hierarchy.
The Company classifies its marketable securities in corporate debt securities, U.S. government agency securities, corporate commercial paper and foreign government securities as Level 2 assets within the fair value hierarchy. The fair values of these marketable securities are estimated by taking into consideration valuations obtained from third-party pricing services. The pricing services utilize industry standard valuation models, including both income- and market-based approaches, for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly, to estimate fair value. These inputs include reported trades of and broker/dealer quotes on the same or similar securities, issuer credit spreads, benchmark securities, prepayment/default projections based on historical data and other observable inputs. There were no transfers of financial instruments between valuation levels during the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023.
As of February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023, the unrealized losses for available-for-sale securities were non-credit related, and the Company does not intend to sell the securities that were in an unrealized loss position, nor will it be required to sell those securities before recovery of their amortized cost basis, which may be maturity. As of February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023, no allowance for credit losses for the Company’s marketable securities was recorded. During the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023, the Company did not recognize any impairment losses related to marketable securities.
6. Commitments and Contingencies
Legal Proceedings
From time to time, the Company may be involved in legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business. The Company accrues a liability for such matters when it is probable that future expenditures will be made and that such expenditures can be reasonably estimated. Significant judgment is required to determine both probability and the estimated amount. Legal fees and other costs associated with such actions are expensed as incurred. As of February 29, 2024, the Company was not a party to any material legal proceedings.
Indemnifications
In the ordinary course of business, the Company often includes standard indemnification provisions in its arrangements with its partners, suppliers and vendors, among others. Pursuant to these provisions, the Company may be obligated to indemnify such parties for losses or claims suffered or incurred in connection with its service, breach of representations or covenants, intellectual property infringement or other claims made against such parties. These provisions may limit the time within which an indemnification claim can be made. It is not possible to determine the maximum potential amount under these indemnification obligations due to the limited history of prior indemnification claims and the unique facts and circumstances involved in each particular agreement. The Company has not incurred any material costs as a result of such indemnifications and has not accrued any liabilities related to such obligations in these condensed consolidated financial statements as management believes such liability is immaterial.
17

In addition, the Company has entered into indemnification agreements with directors and certain officers and employees that will require the Company, among other things, to indemnify them against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors, officers or employees. No demands have been made upon the Company to provide indemnification under such agreements, and thus, there are no claims that the Company is aware of that could have a material effect on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make under these indemnification agreements is not specified in the agreements. However, the Company currently has directors’ and officers’ insurance that reduces its exposure and may enable the Company to recover a portion of any future amounts paid.
Operating Leases
The Company leases office and laboratory facilities totaling approximately 57,902 square feet within the same building in San Francisco, California under several lease agreements. The terms of these lease agreements expire in April 2025. The Company has an option to renew these leases for an additional two years, and the renewal term has not been included in the lease term used to calculate the ROU asset and lease liability as it is not reasonably certain that the Company will exercise the option.
In July 2021, the Company entered into a lease agreement for the lease of approximately 19,320 square feet of office space in a different building in San Francisco, California. The lease commenced in December 2021 and will expire in June 2024, unless terminated earlier.
In March 2022, the Company entered into a lease agreement for the lease of approximately 46,434 square feet of office space in The Woodlands, Texas. In August 2023, the lease agreement was amended to increase the square footage of the leased premise to 50,094 square feet. The amendment had no impact on the accounting for the lease. The Company has an option to renew for two additional terms of five years each, and the renewal terms have not been included in the lease term used to calculate the ROU asset and lease liability as it is not reasonably certain that the Company will exercise the option. The lease commenced in September 2023 when the underlying assets became available for use and will expire in March 2035.
The Company is required to pay base rent plus its proportionate share of operating expenses, as defined in the applicable lease agreement on all of its leases. Variable lease payments related to operating expenses including utilities, maintenance costs and real estate taxes were $1.5 million and $1.2 million for the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023, respectively.
Operating lease expenses, excluding variable lease payments, were $2.3 million and $1.5 million for the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023, respectively. Short-term lease expense was not material for the periods presented.
Other information related to leases were as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
February 29, 2024February 28, 2023
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:
Cash flows from operating leases$1,918 $1,388 
7. Common Stock
The Company’s Restated Certificate of Incorporation authorizes the Company to issue up to 500,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, as of February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023. Holders of common stock are entitled to dividends when and if declared by the Company’s board of directors, subject to the prior rights of the holders of shares of preferred stock. The holder of each share of common stock is entitled to one vote. As of February 29, 2024, no dividends have been declared.
In July 2022, the Company issued pre-funded warrants to purchase an aggregate of 6,814,920 shares of the Company’s common stock in RDOs at a price of $13.939 per pre-funded warrant. The pre-funded warrants were immediately exercisable, have an exercise price of $0.001 and may be exercised at any time after the date of issuance. A holder of pre-funded warrants may not exercise the warrant if the holder, together with its affiliates, would beneficially own more than 9.99% of the number of shares of the Company’s common stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to such exercise. A holder of the pre-funded warrants may increase or decrease this percentage not in excess of 19.99% by providing at least 61 days’ prior notice to the Company. As of February 29, 2024, there were pre-funded warrants to purchase an aggregate of 6,097,560 shares of the Company's common stock that remained available for exercise.
18

The pre-funded warrants were classified as a component of permanent equity in the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheet as they are freestanding financial instruments that are immediately exercisable, do not embody an obligation for the Company to repurchase its own shares and permit the holders to receive a fixed number of shares of common stock upon exercise. All of the shares underlying the pre-funded warrants have been included in the weighted-average number of shares of common stock used to calculate net loss per share attributable to common stockholders because the shares may be issued for little or no consideration, are fully vested and are exercisable after the original issuance date of the pre-funded warrants.
Common stock reserved for future issuance, on an as-if converted basis, as of February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023, consists of the following:
February 29,
2024
November 30,
2023
Options to purchase common stock issued and outstanding9,931,1188,340,968
Restricted stock units issued and outstanding2,268,2071,246,031
Shares available for future equity grants705,6071,614,035
Shares available for issuance under employee stock purchase plan1,843,9081,530,281
Pre-funded warrants issued and outstanding6,097,5606,097,560
Total common stock reserved for future issuance20,846,40018,828,875
8. Stock-Based Compensation
Equity Incentive Plans
The Company’s 2020 Equity Incentive Plan (the 2020 Plan) serves as the successor to the Company’s 2012 Equity Incentive Plan (together with the 2020 Plan, the Stock Plans) and provides for the granting of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, restricted stock units (RSUs), performance awards and stock bonus awards to employees, directors, consultants, independent contractors and advisors of the Company.
Option activity under the Stock Plans is set forth below:
Number of
options
outstanding
Weighted-
average
exercise
price
Balances as of November 30, 20238,340,968$17.17 
Options granted1,948,9298.73 
Options exercised(75,362)4.71 
Options forfeited(283,417)17.64 
Balances as of February 29, 20249,931,118$15.59 
RSU activity under the Stock Plans is set forth below:
Number of RSUs Weighted-average grant date fair value
Balances as of November 30, 20231,246,031$12.58 
RSUs granted1,335,3438.73 
RSUs vested(171,030)14.87 
RSUs forfeited(142,137)12.06 
Balances as of February 29, 20242,268,207$10.17 
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
Under the Company’s 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the ESPP), eligible employees are entitled to purchase shares of common stock with accumulated payroll deductions. During the three months ended February 29, 2024, the Company issued 173,558 shares of common stock pursuant to the ESPP at a weighted-average price of $7.31 per share.
19

Stock-Based Compensation
Stock-based compensation expense related to the Stock Plans and the ESPP that is included in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations is as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
February 29, 2024February 28, 2023
Research and development$3,827 $5,154 
General and administrative3,995 3,327 
Total stock-based compensation$7,822 $8,481 
As of February 29, 2024, the total compensation cost related to stock-based awards not yet recognized was $65.3 million, which is expected to be amortized on a straight-line basis over the weighted-average remaining vesting period of approximately 2.3 years.
9. Defined Contribution Plan
The Company sponsors a defined-contribution savings plan under Section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the 401(k) Plan), which provides for the Company to make discretionary matching or discretionary annual contributions to the 401(k) Plan, for its employees. Substantially all of the Company’s employees are eligible to participate in the 401(k) Plan. Employees may contribute a percentage of their annual compensation to the plan, subject to statutory limitations. The Company has made contributions to the 401(k) Plan and recorded contribution expense of $0.4 million and $0.6 million during the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023, respectively.
10. Income Taxes
For the three months ended February 29, 2024, the Company recorded an income tax provision of $90,000. For the three months ended February 28, 2023, the Company did not record any current income tax expense or provision. Deferred income taxes reflect the net tax effects of loss and credit carryforwards and temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes. Realization of the deferred tax assets is dependent upon future taxable income, the amount, if any, and timing of which are uncertain. The Company has generated losses since inception and has established a valuation allowance to offset deferred tax assets as of February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023 due to the uncertainty of realizing future tax benefits from its net operating loss carryforwards and other deferred tax assets.
The Company files income tax returns in the United States and in various states. In January 2019, the California Franchise Tax Board (FTB) initiated an examination of the Company’s California tax return for tax years ending in 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018. During the year ended November 30, 2021, the FTB issued proposed audit assessments related to revenue sourcing and R&D credits. The Company did not agree with the FTB’s assessments and challenged the assessments. Pursuant to a measurement analysis, the Company has not recorded an unrecognized tax benefit related to the FTB’s sourcing position. The Company maintains an unrecognized tax benefit related to its California R&D credits for all years. All of the Company’s tax years will remain open for examination by the federal and state authorities for three and four years, respectively, from the date of the utilization of any net operating losses.
20

11. Net Loss Per Share
The following table sets forth the computation of the Company’s basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, which excludes shares which are legally outstanding but subject to repurchase by the Company (in thousands, except share and per share data):
Three Months Ended
February 29, 2024February 28, 2023
Numerator:
Net loss$(41,518)$(40,733)
Denominator:
Weighted-average number of shares outstanding, basic and diluted(1)
54,903,40754,028,238
Net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.76)$(0.75)
(1)
The shares underlying the pre-funded warrants to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock have been included in the calculation of the weighted-average number of shares outstanding, basic and diluted, for the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023.
The following potentially dilutive securities were excluded from the computation of the diluted net loss per share of common stock for the periods presented because their effect would have been anti-dilutive:
February 29,February 28,
20242023
Options to purchase common stock issued and outstanding9,931,1189,535,402
Options early exercised subject to vesting1,14417,069
Restricted stock units issued and outstanding2,268,2071,595,025
Shares expected to be purchased under employee stock purchase plan111,236103,194
Total12,311,70511,250,690
12. Related Party Transactions
The Company’s Chief Financial Officer is a trustee for the multiple employer welfare association that facilitates the acquisition and administration of the Company’s healthcare plans. Expenses related to the healthcare plan premiums were $1.1 million for both the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023. As of February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023, the amount recorded in accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current liabilities in connection with this healthcare plan provider was not material.
13. Subsequent Events
Refer to Note 3 for more information on the Company's collaborations with Gilead and Sanofi under the Gilead Agreement and the Sanofi Agreement, respectively.
In March 2024, the Company entered into a second amendment (the "Second Amendment") to the Lease Agreement (the “Lease Agreement”), dated as of June 21, 2021, by and between the Company and ARE-San Francisco No. 19 LLC (the “Lessor”), as amended by the First Amendment to Lease Agreement, dated June 28, 2023, by and between the Company and Lessor. The Second Amendment extends the lease of approximately 19,320 square feet of office space in San Francisco, California by approximately ten months. The minimum rent payable by the Company under the Second Amendment will be approximately $0.1 million per month. The Company will also be required to pay its proportionate share of operating expenses, as defined in the Lease Agreement.
21

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with (1) the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10‑Q and (2) the audited financial statements and related notes and management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal year ended November 30, 2023 included in our Annual Report on Form 10‑K filed on February 15, 2024. As discussed in the section titled “Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements,” the following discussion and analysis contains forward looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” in Part II, Item 1A of this Quarterly Report on Form 10‑Q.
Overview
We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of innovative small molecules and antibody therapies based on the modulation of cellular protein levels as a novel treatment approach for cancer, inflammatory conditions and other challenging diseases. Leveraging our extensive expertise in E3 ligases together with our proprietary DNA-encoded libraries, we have built DELigase, an integrated discovery platform to identify and advance novel drug candidates targeting E3 ligases, a broad class of enzymes that can modulate proteins within the cell. Our drug discovery approach is to either harness or inhibit the natural function of E3 ligases within the ubiquitin-proteasome system to selectively decrease or increase cellular protein levels. Our wholly owned, clinical stage pipeline includes targeted protein degraders of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), a B-cell signaling protein, and inhibitors of Casitas B-lineage lymphoma proto-oncogene B (CBL-B), an E3 ligase that regulates activation of multiple immune cell types including T cells and NK cells. Our partnered drug discovery pipeline consists of multiple programs under collaboration agreements with Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Gilead), Sanofi S.A. (Sanofi) and Seagen Inc. (now a part of Pfizer Inc. (Pfizer)), within which we retain certain options for co-development, co-commercialization and profit sharing in the United States for multiple drug candidates.
Targeted Protein Degradation
Our portfolio of targeted protein degraders of BTK, a B‑cell signaling protein, comprises NX‑5948, an orally bioavailable BTK degrader for the treatment of relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies and potentially autoimmune diseases, and NX‑2127, an orally bioavailable BTK degrader that also degrades cereblon neosubstrates IKZF1 (Ikaros) and IKZF3 (Aiolos) for the treatment of relapsed or refractory B‑cell malignancies.
NX-5948: We are currently treating patients in a Phase 1a/1b dose-escalation and cohort expansion study in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies. In January 2024, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Fast Track designation for NX-5948 for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) after at least two lines of therapy, including a BTK inhibitor (BTKi) and a B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) inhibitor.
NX‑2127: We are currently treating patients in a Phase 1a/1b dose-escalation and cohort expansion study of NX-2127 in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies. We have initiated Phase 1b expansion cohorts for patients with relapsed CLL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). In March 2024, the FDA lifted the partial clinical hold on the U.S. Phase 1a/1b study evaluating NX-2127 in adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell malignancies. We plan to reinitiate enrollment with the new chirally controlled drug substance in a standard dose escalation study within the current Phase 1a/1b trial.
Targeted Protein Elevation
Our targeted protein elevation program includes NX-1607, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CBL-B, an E3 ligase that regulates the activation of multiple immune cell types including T cells and NK cells. NX-1607 is targeted for immuno-oncology indications.
We are currently treating patients in a Phase 1a/1b dose-escalation and cohort expansion study of NX-1607 in patients with a range of oncology indications. This study also includes a cohort within the Phase 1a dose escalation study testing NX-1607 in combination with paclitaxel, a taxane chemotherapy commonly used across a range of relapsed and refractory solid tumor indications. NX-1607 was awarded an Innovative Passport from the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency to accelerate time to market and facilitate patient access to novel drugs to treat serious and life-threatening diseases.
22

Drug Discovery Pipeline
In addition to our clinical stage drug candidates, we are extending our protein modulation portfolio, both on our own and with partners by developing new targeted protein degraders and ligase inhibitors for a number of targets for which we believe the protein modulation modality can be clinically advantageous over existing therapies. These existing and future programs may have the potential to address diseases with significant unmet need, including cancer, autoimmunity, inflammation, and other challenging diseases.
We have entered into several revenue generating collaborations with large biopharmaceutical companies, including with Gilead, Sanofi and Seagen (now a part of Pfizer), to leverage our DELigase platform for drug discovery. These collaborations allow us to further advance our future pipeline with multiple currently identified targets included in these collaborations. In aggregate, we have received $413.0 million in non-dilutive financing from our collaborators to date, and as of February 29, 2024, we are eligible to receive up to $7.6 billion in potential future fees and milestone payments, as well as royalties on future product sales. We retain certain options for co-development, co-commercialization and profit sharing in the United States for multiple drug candidates, pursuant to these collaborations.
Collaborations Agreements
Gilead
In June 2019, we entered into a global strategic collaboration agreement with Gilead (as subsequently amended, the Gilead Agreement) to discover, develop and commercialize a pipeline of targeted protein degradation drugs for patients with cancer and other challenging diseases using our DELigase platform to identify novel agents that utilize E3 ligases to induce degradation of five specified drug targets. In August 2019 and September 2022, we and Gilead entered into the First Amendment and the Second Amendment, respectively, to the Gilead Agreement to clarify certain language of the Gilead Agreement. These amendments had no impact on revenue recognition. In February and March 2024, as part of the existing collaboration agreement, Gilead elected to extend the five-year initial research term by two years for certain drug targets (Gilead Research Term Extension). The Gilead Research Term Extension triggered a $15.0 million payment that we expect to receive in the second quarter of fiscal year 2024.
Under the Gilead Agreement, Gilead has the option to license drug candidates directed to up to five targets resulting from the collaboration and is responsible for the clinical development and commercialization of drug candidates resulting from the collaboration. We retain the option to co-develop and co-promote, under a profit share structure, up to two drug candidates in the United States, provided that we may only exercise such option once per licensed product and Gilead retains the right to veto our option selection for any one drug candidate of its choice. The collaboration excludes our current internal protein degradation programs for which we retain all rights, and also excludes our future internal programs, provided that we have distinguished future programs as excluded from the scope of the collaboration. In March 2023, Gilead exercised the option, which did not represent a material right at contract inception, since it was not offered for free or at a discount, to exclusively license one target (Gilead License Option Exercise), the first development candidate resulting from the Gilead Agreement. Pursuant to the Gilead Agreement, we received a license option exercise payment of $20.0 million in April 2023 for the Gilead License Option Exercise. The license to the functional intellectual property and all goods and services related to the Gilead License Option Exercise were transferred during the second quarter of fiscal year 2023.
Over time, Gilead may elect to replace the initial drug targets with other drug targets. For drug targets that are subject to the collaboration, we are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to undertake a research program in accordance with a research plan agreed to by the parties and established on a target-by-target basis. We have primary responsibility under the Gilead Agreement for performing preclinical research activities (including target validation, drug discovery, identification or synthesis) pursuant to a research plan. Each party will bear its own costs in the conduct of research activities. Gilead will be responsible for any development, commercialization and manufacturing activities, unless we exercise our co-development and co-promotion option. For those programs that we exercise our option to co-develop and co-promote, we and Gilead will split U.S. development costs as well as U.S. profits and losses evenly, and we will be eligible to receive royalties on net ex-U.S. sales and reduced milestone payments.
Upon signing the Gilead Agreement, Gilead paid us an upfront payment of $45.0 million, plus $3.0 million in additional fees. In addition, from the signing of the Gilead Agreement to February 29, 2024, we have received payments of $47.0 million for research milestones and additional payments and $20.0 million for a license option exercise payment. As of February 29, 2024, we are eligible to receive up to approximately $1.8 billion in total additional payments based on certain additional fees, payments and the successful completion of certain preclinical, clinical, development and sales milestones. We also are eligible to receive mid-single digit to low tens percentage tiered royalties on annual net sales from any commercial products directed to the optioned collaboration targets, subject to certain reductions and excluding sales in the United States of any products for which we exercise our option to co-develop and co-promote, for which the parties share profits and losses evenly.
23

Subject to earlier expiration in certain circumstances, the Gilead Agreement expires on a licensed product-by-licensed product and country-by-country basis upon the later of (1) the expiration of the last to expire patent with a valid claim covering the applicable licensed product in the applicable country, (2) the expiration of any regulatory exclusivity for the applicable licensed product in the applicable country or (3) ten years after the first commercial sale of the applicable licensed product in the applicable country covered by the Gilead Agreement, provided that the term for any profit-shared licensed product in the United States will expire upon the expiration or termination of the applicable profit-share term as set forth in an applicable profit-share agreement to be negotiated upon our exercise of our option to co-develop and co-promote such licensed product. If Gilead does not exercise an option to license a drug candidate, then the Gilead Agreement will terminate at the end of the last to expire option period.
We recognized collaboration revenue from the Gilead Agreement of $4.6 million and $7.4 million during the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023, respectively. As of February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023, there was $5.3 million and $10.0 million, respectively, of deferred revenue related to payments received by us under the Gilead Agreement.
Sanofi
In December 2019, we entered into a strategic collaboration with Genzyme Corporation, a subsidiary of Sanofi, which became effective in January 2020 (as subsequently expanded and amended, the Sanofi Agreement), to discover, develop and commercialize a pipeline of targeted protein degradation drugs for patients with challenging diseases in multiple therapeutic areas using our DELigase platform to identify small molecules designed to induce degradation of three specified initial drug targets. In January 2021, as part of the existing Sanofi Agreement, Sanofi paid us $22.0 million to exercise its option to expand the number of targets in the Sanofi Agreement from three to a total of five targets.
In January 2021, we and Sanofi entered into the First Amendment to the Sanofi Agreement to modify the research term on all targets. In December 2021, we and Sanofi entered into the Second Amendment to the Sanofi Agreement to extend the substitution deadline on certain targets. In July 2022, we and Sanofi entered into the Third Amendment to the Sanofi Agreement to further extend the substitution deadline on certain targets. The extensions of the substitution deadline had no impact on revenue recognition. Also in July 2022, Sanofi elected to replace certain drug targets, and the substitution extended the research term of those targets by one year to 5.25 years and increased overall forecasted costs, which had an immaterial impact on revenue recognition. In August 2022 and November 2023, we and Sanofi entered into the Fourth Amendment and Fifth Amendment, respectively, to the Sanofi Agreement to modify the research plan for certain targets, which had no impact on revenue recognition. In March 2024, we and Sanofi entered into the Sixth Amendment to the Sanofi Agreement to extend the research term for the collaboration target STAT6 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 6), a key drug target in type 2 inflammation, by two years, which is expected to increase overall forecasted costs and have an impact on revenue recognition.
Under the Sanofi Agreement, Sanofi has exclusive rights and is responsible for the clinical development, commercialization and manufacture of drug candidates resulting from the collaboration while we retain the option to co-develop, co-promote and co-commercialize all drug candidates in the United States directed to up to two targets, one of which must be selected from a list of targets designated at the execution of the Sanofi Agreement or any replacement of such targets, and one of which must be selected from targets identified by Sanofi as part of their January 2021 expansion. Our right to exercise our option to co-develop, co-promote and co-commercialize a given target is dependent on our ability to demonstrate, within a given timeframe, that we have sufficient cash resources and personnel to commercialize the product. The collaboration excludes our current internal protein degradation programs for which we retain all rights, and also excludes our future internal programs, provided that we distinguished future programs as excluded from the scope of the collaboration.
For drug targets that are subject to the collaboration, we have primary responsibility for conducting preclinical research activities (including target validation, drug discovery, identification or synthesis) in accordance with the applicable research plan agreed to by the parties and established on a target-by-target basis. We are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to identify relevant target binders and targeted protein degraders in order to identify development candidates. Subject to certain exceptions, each party will bear its own costs in the conduct of such research. Sanofi will be responsible for any development and commercialization activities unless we exercise our co-development and co-promotion option. For those programs that we exercise our option to co-develop, co-promote and co-commercialize, we will be responsible for a portion of the U.S. development costs, and the parties will split U.S. profits and losses evenly, and we will be eligible to receive royalties on ex-U.S. net sales and reduced milestone payments on such optioned products.
24

Upon signing the Sanofi Agreement, Sanofi paid us an upfront payment of $55.0 million. Subsequently, in January 2021, Sanofi paid us an additional $22.0 million to exercise its option to expand the number of targets beyond the initial targets included in the collaboration. In addition, from the signing of the Sanofi Agreement to February 29, 2024, we received payments of $11.0 million for research milestones. Additionally, we achieved a research milestone in February 2024 and received a payment of $2.0 million in the second quarter of fiscal year 2024. As of February 29, 2024, we are eligible to receive up to approximately $2.4 billion in total additional payments based on certain additional fees, payments and the successful completion of certain research development, regulatory and sales milestones, as well as mid-single digit to low teen percentage tiered royalties on annual net sales of any commercial products that may result from the collaboration, subject to certain reductions and excluding sales in the United States of any products for which we exercise our option to co-develop and co-promote, for which the parties share profits and losses evenly.
Subject to earlier expiration in certain circumstances, the Sanofi Agreement expires on a licensed product-by-licensed product or profit-shared licensed product-by-profit-shared licensed product basis and country-by-country basis upon on the later of (1) the expiration of the last-to-expire patent with a valid claim covering the applicable licensed product in the applicable country, (2) the expiration of any regulatory exclusivity for the applicable licensed product in the applicable country or (3) ten years after the first commercial sale of the applicable licensed product in the applicable country covered by the Sanofi Agreement.
We recognized collaboration revenue from the Sanofi Agreement of $8.3 million and $5.3 million during the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023, respectively. As of February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023, there was $22.5 million and $24.9 million, respectively, of deferred revenue related to payments received by us under the Sanofi Agreement.
Pfizer
In September 2023, we entered into a strategic collaboration with Seagen Inc. (now a part of Pfizer Inc.) (the Pfizer Agreement) to develop a suite of targeted protein degraders against multiple targets nominated by Pfizer that are suitable for antibody conjugation. Pfizer will be responsible for conjugating these degraders to antibodies to make Degrader-Antibody Conjugates (DACs), a new class of medicines for use in cancer treatment, and advancing these DAC drug candidates through preclinical and clinical development and commercialization.
Under the Pfizer Agreement, Pfizer has the option to obtain exclusive licenses to develop and commercialize certain degraders, while we retain an option for U.S. profit sharing and co-promotion on two products arising from the collaboration. The collaboration excludes our current internal protein degradation programs for which we retain all rights, and also excludes our future internal programs, provided that we have distinguished future programs as excluded from the scope of the collaboration.
For the targets nominated by Pfizer under the collaboration, we shall use commercially reasonable efforts to identify, synthesize, characterize and deliver targeted protein degraders that selectively bind to and degrade such targets. Development of licensed degraders, with the exception of licensed products for which we exercised our profit-share options, will be at Pfizer’s sole cost and expense. For the profit-share products, the parties will share net profits and net losses and global development costs, and we will be eligible to receive royalty and milestone payments on such optioned products.
Under the terms of the Pfizer Agreement, we received an upfront payment of $60.0 million. We are eligible to receive up to approximately $3.4 billion in contingent payments based on specified research, development, regulatory and commercial milestones across multiple programs, and are eligible for mid-single to low double digit percentage tiered royalties on future sales.
Subject to the exceptions described in the Pfizer Agreement, the Pfizer Agreement expires upon the first to occur of (1) the expiration of the last-to-expire option exercise period under the Pfizer Agreement if no such option has been exercised prior to such expiration and (2) the expiration of the last-to-expire royalty term under the Pfizer Agreement.
We recognized collaboration revenue from the Pfizer Agreement of $3.7 million during the three months ended February 29, 2024. As of February 29, 2024 and November 30, 2023, there was $54.7 million and $58.3 million, respectively, of deferred revenue related to payments received by us under the Pfizer Agreement.
25

Financial Overview
Since the commencement of our operations, we have devoted substantially all of our resources to conducting research and development activities, establishing and maintaining our intellectual property portfolio, establishing our corporate infrastructure, raising capital and providing general and administrative support for these operations. We have funded our operations to date primarily from proceeds received under collaboration and license agreements with Celgene Corporation, Gilead, Sanofi and Pfizer and the issuance and sale of common stock, redeemable convertible preferred stock and pre-funded warrants. We do not expect to generate product revenue unless and until we successfully develop and obtain approval for the commercialization of a drug candidate, and we cannot assure you that we will ever generate significant revenue or profits.
Since inception, we have generally incurred significant losses and negative cash flows from operations. During the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023, we incurred net losses of $41.5 million and $40.7 million, respectively. As of February 29, 2024, we had an accumulated deficit of $586.7 million. These losses have resulted primarily from costs incurred in connection with research and development activities and general and administrative costs associated with our operations.
We do not expect to generate any revenue from commercial product sales unless and until we successfully complete development and obtain regulatory approval for one or more of our drug candidates, which we expect will take a number of years, if ever. We expect our expenses will increase substantially as we advance our drug candidates through preclinical and clinical development; enter advanced clinical development and scale up external manufacturing capabilities to supply clinical trials; apply our DELigase platform to advance additional drug candidates and expand the capabilities of our platform; seek marketing approvals for any drug candidates that successfully complete clinical trials; ultimately establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure and scale up external manufacturing capabilities to commercialize any products for which we may obtain marketing approval; expand, maintain and protect our intellectual property portfolio; and hire additional clinical, regulatory, manufacturing, quality assurance and scientific personnel. Furthermore, we expect to continue incurring costs associated with operating as a public company, including significant legal, accounting, insurance, investor relations and other administrative and professional services expenses.
Our net losses and cash flows may fluctuate significantly from period to period, depending on, among other things, variations in the level of expense related to the ongoing development of our drug candidates, our DELigase platform or future development programs; the delay, addition or termination of clinical trials; and the execution of any additional collaboration, licensing or similar arrangements, and the timing of payments we may make or receive under such arrangements.
As of February 29, 2024, we had $254.3 million in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. We expect that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities are sufficient to fund our operations for at least the next 12 months. See the section titled “—Liquidity and Capital Resources” for more information. To finance our operations beyond that point, we will need to raise substantial additional capital to complete the development and commercialization of our drug candidates. Until such time as we can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, we expect to finance our operations through a combination of public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements and other marketing and distribution arrangements. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.
Impact of Current Global Business, Political and Macroeconomic Conditions
Uncertainty in the global business, political and macroeconomic environments present significant risks to our business. We are subject to continuing risks and uncertainties, including increasing financial market volatility and uncertainty, inflation, increasing interest rates, uncertainty with respect to the federal budget and debt ceiling and potential government shutdowns related thereto, instability in the global banking system, cybersecurity events, the impact of war or military conflict, including regional conflicts around the world, and public health pandemics. We are closely monitoring the impact of these factors on all aspects of our business, including the impacts on our clinical trial patients, employees, partner, suppliers, and vendors.
The ultimate extent of the impact of global economic conditions on our business remains highly uncertain and will depend on future developments and factors that continue to evolve. Most of these developments and factors are outside of our control and could exist for an extended period of time. As a result, we are subject to continuing risks and uncertainties and continue to closely monitor the impact of the current conditions on our business. For more information regarding these risks and uncertainties, see the section titled “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
26

Components of Results of Operations
Collaboration Revenue
We have no products approved for commercial sale and to date have not generated any revenue from the sale of products and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of products in the near future.
Our revenue to date has been generated from payments received pursuant to collaboration and license arrangements with strategic partners. Collaboration revenue consists of revenue received from upfront, milestone and contingent payments received from our collaborators. We recognize revenue from upfront payments over the contract term using the cost-based input method. The material right to the two additional targets under the Sanofi Agreement was accounted for using the practical alternative and the expected consideration to be received on the options was included for revenue allocation. We expect to continue recognizing revenue from upfront payments related to our collaboration agreements using the cost-based input method in the foreseeable future.
In addition to receiving upfront payments, we may also be entitled to milestones and other contingent payments upon achieving predefined objectives. If a milestone is considered probable of being reached, and if it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone amount would also be included in the transaction price.
We expect that any collaboration revenue we generate from our current collaboration and license agreements, and from any future collaboration partners, will fluctuate in the future as a result of the timing and amount of upfront, milestones and other collaboration agreement payments and other factors.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for the discovery and development of our drug candidates. We expense both internal and external research and development expenses to operations in the periods in which they are incurred. Nonrefundable advance payments for goods or services to be received in future periods for use in research and development activities are deferred and capitalized. The capitalized amounts are then expensed as the related goods are delivered and as services are performed. We track the external research and development costs incurred for each of our drug candidates.
Internal research and development costs include:
payroll and personnel expenses, including benefits, stock-based compensation and travel expenses, for our research and development functions; and
depreciation of research and development equipment, allocated overhead and facilities-related expenses.
External research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for the development of our drug candidates and may include:
fees paid to third parties such as consultants, contractors and contract research organizations to conduct our clinical trials, discovery programs and preclinical studies;
costs to acquire, develop and manufacture supplies for clinical trials and preclinical studies, including fees paid to third parties such as contract manufacturing organizations; and
expenses related to laboratory supplies and services.
We expect our research and development expenses to increase for the foreseeable future as we conduct clinical trials for our drug candidates, continue to invest in research and development activities for discovery programs and preclinical studies, pursue regulatory approval of our drug candidates and expand our drug candidate pipeline. The process of conducting the necessary preclinical and clinical research to obtain regulatory approval is costly and time-consuming. To the extent that our drug candidates advance to and continue to advance through clinical trials, our expenses will continue increasing substantially and may become more variable. The actual probability of success for our drug candidates may be affected by a variety of factors, including the safety and efficacy of our drug candidates, investment in our clinical programs, the ability of collaborators to successfully develop our licensed drug candidates, manufacturing capability, competition with other products and commercial viability. As a result of these variables, we are unable to determine when and to what extent we will generate revenue from the commercialization and sale of our drug candidates. We may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for any of our drug candidates.
27

General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of payroll and personnel expenses, including benefits and stock-based compensation, facilities-related expenses and professional fees for legal, consulting and audit and tax services. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase for the foreseeable future as we continue to improve our infrastructure, operate as a public company and support our research and development activities. This may include expenses related to compliance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and listing standards applicable to companies listed on a national securities exchange, additional insurance, investor relations activities and other administrative and professional services.
Interest and Other Income, Net
Interest and other income, net primarily consists of interest earned on our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. We expect interest income to vary each reporting period depending on our average bank deposit, money market fund and marketable securities balances during the period and market interest rates.
Provision for Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes primarily consists of reserves for unrecognized tax benefits and state taxes. We have generated NOLs since inception and have established a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty surrounding the realization of such assets.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our condensed consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP). The preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements, as well as the reported revenue generated and expenses incurred during the reporting periods. Our estimates are based on our historical experience and on other relevant assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Our critical accounting policies and more significant areas involving management’s judgments and estimates used in preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements are discussed in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended November 30, 2023. There have been no significant changes to these policies for the three months ended February 29, 2024.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies—Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements” to our condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for more information.
28

Results of Operations
Comparison of the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023
Our results of operations for the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023 are summarized as follows (in thousands):
Three Months EndedChange
February 29, 2024February 28, 2023
Revenue:
Collaboration revenue$16,585 $12,685 $3,900 
Total revenue16,585 12,685 3,900 
Operating expenses:
Research and development50,005 45,816 4,189 
General and administrative11,799 9,821 1,978 
Total operating expenses61,804 55,637 6,167 
Loss from operations(45,219)(42,952)(2,267)
Interest and other income, net3,791 2,219 1,572 
Loss before income taxes(41,428)(40,733)(695)
Provision for income taxes90 — 90 
Net loss$(41,518)$(40,733)$(785)
Collaboration Revenue
Our collaboration revenue for the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023 is summarized as follows (in thousands):
Three Months EndedChange
February 29, 2024February 28, 2023
Gilead$4,616 $7,358 $(2,742)
Sanofi8,312 5,327 2,985 
Pfizer3,657 — 3,657 
Total collaboration revenue$16,585 $12,685 $3,900 
Our collaboration revenue increased by $3.9 million during the three months ended February 29, 2024 compared to the three months ended February 28, 2023 primarily due to the recognition of revenue from our collaboration with Pfizer that was entered into in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2023, and increased effort resulting in a higher percentage of completion of performance obligation under our collaboration with Sanofi in the current period. The increase in revenue under our collaboration with Sanofi was also due to the achievement of a research milestone that resulted in the cumulative catch up in revenue for activities satisfied in previous periods. The decrease in revenue under our collaboration with Gilead was primarily due to a decrease in activity as we approach the end of the initial five year research term.
29

Research and Development Expenses
Our research and development expenses for the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023 are summarized as follows (in thousands):
Three Months EndedChange
February 29, 2024February 28, 2023
Compensation and related personnel costs$19,684 $20,150 $(466)
Stock-based compensation3,827 5,179 (1,352)
Supplies and contract research10,895 9,424 1,471 
Preclinical activities284 206 78 
Contract manufacturing2,445 1,444 1,001 
Clinical costs5,468 3,230 2,238 
Facility and other costs7,402 6,183 1,219 
Total research and development expenses$50,005 $45,816 $4,189 
Our research and development expenses increased by $4.2 million during the three months ended February 29, 2024 compared to the three months ended February 28, 2023. There was an increase in clinical costs and contract manufacturing costs as we continued our clinical trial programs and ongoing patient enrollment and an increase in supplies to support our collaboration with Pfizer. There was also an increase in facility and other costs primarily driven by our lease in The Woodlands, Texas. There was a decrease in non-cash stock-based compensation expense primarily due to the cancellation of incentive stock options and restricted stock units (RSUs).
General and Administrative Expenses
Our general and administrative expenses increased by $2.0 million during the three months ended February 29, 2024 compared to the three months ended February 28, 2023. There was an increase in non-cash stock-based compensation expense primarily driven by the increased issuance of RSUs and incentive stock options and an increase in professional service costs and other costs.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity
In July 2020, we closed our initial public offering (IPO) and issued 12,550,000 shares of our common stock (including the exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase an additional 1,550,000 shares of common stock in August 2020) at a price to the public of $19.00 per share for net proceeds of $218.1 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $16.7 million and expenses of $3.6 million.
In March 2021, we completed a follow-on offering and issued 5,175,000 shares of our common stock (including the exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase an additional 675,000 shares of common stock) at a price to the public of $31.00 per share for net proceeds of $150.2 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $9.6 million and expenses of $0.6 million.
In August 2021, we entered into an Equity Distribution Agreement with Piper Sandler & Co. (Piper Sandler) pursuant to which, from time to time, we may offer and sell through Piper Sandler up to $150.0 million of the common stock registered under our shelf registration statement on Form S-3 pursuant to one or more “at the market” offerings. We are not required to sell any shares at any time during the term of the Equity Distribution Agreement. We agreed to pay Piper Sandler a commission of 3% of the gross sales price of any shares sold pursuant to the Equity Distribution Agreement. In June 2022, we issued and sold 2,000,000 shares of common stock under the Equity Distribution Agreement at a price of $10.0001 per share of common stock for net proceeds of approximately $19.3 million after deducting offering commissions and expenses paid by us (the June 2022 ATM Offering). As of February 29, 2024, we had $130.0 million of common stock remaining available for sale under the Equity Distribution Agreement.
30

In July 2022, we entered into separate securities purchase agreements with certain purchasers to issue and sell pre‑funded warrants to purchase an aggregate of 6,814,920 shares of our common stock in registered direct offerings (RDOs) at a price of $13.939 per pre-funded warrant. Net proceeds from the RDOs were approximately $94.8 million, after deducting offering expenses of $0.2 million. The pre-funded warrants were immediately exercisable, have an exercise price of $0.001 and may be exercised at any time after the date of issuance. A holder of the pre-funded warrants may not exercise the warrant if the holder, together with its affiliates, would beneficially own more than 9.99% of the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to such exercise. A holder of the pre-funded warrants may increase or decrease this percentage not in excess of 19.99% by providing us at least 61 days’ prior notice. As of February 29, 2024, a total of 6,097,560 pre-funded warrants remained available for exercise.
Funding Requirements
As of February 29, 2024, our operations have primarily been funded through the net proceeds from equity offerings of $650.5 million and proceeds from collaborations of $413.0 million. We do not have any products approved for sale, and we have not generated any revenue from product sales. As of February 29, 2024, we had $254.3 million in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities.
We expect that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities are sufficient to meet our cash requirements and continue operating activities, including the clinical trials of our drug candidates NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607 and the expansion of our intellectual property portfolio and infrastructure, for at least the next 12 months. We will need substantial additional funding to support our continuing operations and pursue our long-term business plan. We may seek to raise any necessary additional capital through a combination of public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements and other marketing and distribution arrangements. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development and commercialization of our drug candidates and the extent to which we may enter into additional collaborations with third parties to participate in their development and commercialization, we are unable to estimate the amounts of increased capital outlays and operating expenditures associated with our current and anticipated preclinical studies and clinical trials.
In the long term, our ability to support our working capital and capital expenditure requirements will depend on many factors, including the following:
the progress, costs and results of our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trials for our lead drug candidates NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607, and any future clinical development of such drug candidates;
the scope, progress, costs and results of preclinical and clinical development for our other drug candidates and development programs;
the number and development requirements of other drug candidates that we pursue;
the scope of, and costs associated with, future advancements to our DELigase platform;
the success of our collaborations with Gilead, Sanofi, Pfizer and any other collaborations we may establish;
the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our drug candidates;
the costs and timing of future commercialization activities, including product manufacturing, marketing, sales and distribution, for any of our drug candidates for which we receive marketing approval;
the revenue, if any, received from commercial sales of our drug candidates for which we receive marketing approval;
the costs and timing of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending any intellectual property-related claims; and
our ability to establish additional collaboration arrangements with other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies on favorable terms, if at all, for the development or commercialization of our drug candidates.
We considered whether there are conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern and evaluated the funds necessary to maintain operations. If we are unable to obtain additional funding, we will be required to implement plans that are within our control, which may include the delay or scaling back of certain research and development programs, to maintain liquidity and operations. Additionally, we may be required to obtain funds through arrangements with others that may require us to relinquish rights to certain of our technologies or products that we would otherwise seek to develop or commercialize ourselves, or cease operations. If we do raise additional capital through public or private equity or convertible debt offerings, the ownership interest of our existing stockholders will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect our stockholders’ rights. If we raise additional capital through debt financing, we may be subject to covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends.
31

Our contractual obligations mostly consist of our operating lease obligations for facilities in San Francisco, California and The Woodlands, Texas. Our total operating lease commitments as of February 29, 2024, were approximately $40.5 million, of which $7.5 million is expected to be paid within the next 12 months. In addition, we enter into agreements in the normal course of business with contract research organizations for clinical trials and with vendors for preclinical studies and other services and products for operating purposes, which are generally cancelable upon written notice.
We did not have during the periods presented, and we do not currently have, any commitments or obligations, including contingent obligations, arising from arrangements with unconsolidated entities or persons that have or are reasonably likely to have a material current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, cash requirements or capital resources.
Cash flows
Our cash flows for the three months ended February 29, 2024 and February 28, 2023 are summarized as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
February 29, 2024February 28, 2023
Cash used in operating activities$(41,951)$(48,452)
Cash provided by investing activities35,513 16,068 
Cash provided by financing activities1,624 1,481 
Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$(4,814)$(30,903)
Operating activities
Net cash used in operating activities was $42.0 million for the three months ended February 29, 2024 and consisted of a net loss of $41.5 million and an increase in net assets of $10.2 million, offset by non-cash adjustments of $9.8 million. The increase in net assets consisted of a decrease in deferred revenue of $12.6 million, which included an increase in contract assets of $2.0 million related to the achievement of a milestone under the Sanofi Agreement, as we increased effort in our programs and recognized revenue, a decrease in operating lease liabilities of $1.5 million due to lease payments made during the period and a decrease in accounts payable of $0.9 million from payments to vendors, offset by an increase in accrued expenses and other liabilities of $3.6 million primarily due to the accrual of compensation and other related personnel costs and a decrease in prepaid and other assets of $1.2 million primarily due to the recognition of expenses for prepaid services. Non-cash adjustments primarily consisted of stock-based compensation expenses of $7.8 million, depreciation and amortization expenses of $2.0 million, amortization of operating lease right-of-use (ROU) assets of $1.8 million and net accretion of discount on marketable securities of $1.9 million.
Net cash used in operating activities was $48.5 million for the three months ended February 28, 2023 and consisted of a net loss of $40.7 million and an increase in net assets of $18.6 million, offset by non-cash adjustments of $10.9 million. The increase in net assets consisted of a decrease in deferred revenue of $9.2 million as we increased effort in our programs and recognized revenue, a decrease in accrued expenses and other liabilities of $6.9 million primarily related to the payment of annual incentive compensation, an increase in prepaid expenses and other assets of $1.6 million primarily related to reimbursement receivables for landlord-owned improvements and a decrease in operating lease liabilities of $1.3 million due to lease payments made during the period. Non-cash adjustments primarily consisted of stock-based compensation expenses of $8.5 million, depreciation and amortization expenses of $1.8 million and amortization of operating lease ROU assets of $1.4 million.
Investing activities
Net cash provided by investing activities was $35.5 million for the three months ended February 29, 2024 and consisted of the maturity of marketable securities of $93.2 million, offset by the purchase of marketable securities of $54.8 million and the purchase of property and equipment of $2.9 million.
Net cash provided by investing activities was $16.1 million for the three months ended February 28, 2023 and consisted of the maturity of marketable securities of $41.0 million, offset by the purchase of marketable securities of $22.6 million and the purchase of property and equipment of $2.3 million.
Financing activities
Net cash provided by financing activities was $1.6 million for the three months ended February 29, 2024 and consisted primarily of proceeds from the issuance of common stock under our Employee Stock Purchase Plan (ESPP).
32

Net cash provided by financing activities was $1.5 million for the three months ended February 28, 2023 and consisted primarily of proceeds from the issuance of common stock under our ESPP.
33

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
As a “smaller reporting company” as defined by Item 10 of Regulation S-K, we are not required to provide this information.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, with the participation of our President and Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, our principal executive officer and principal accounting and financial officer, respectively, have evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act) as of February 29, 2024.
Disclosure controls and procedures are controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our reports filed or submitted under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our reports filed under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management, including our President and Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Based on their evaluation, the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of February 29, 2024.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rule 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act that occurred during the three months ended February 29, 2024, that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
34

PART II – OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we may be involved in legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not presently a party to any legal proceedings that, in the opinion of management, would have a material adverse effect on our business or condensed consolidated financial statements. Regardless of outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us due to defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources, negative publicity and reputational harm and other factors.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making your decision to invest in shares of our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes and the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” We cannot assure you that any of the events described below will not occur. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of or that we deem immaterial may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital
We have incurred significant losses since our inception. We expect to incur losses over at least the next several years and may never achieve or maintain profitability.
Our net loss was $143.9 million for the fiscal year ended November 30, 2023, and $41.5 million for the three months ended February 29, 2024. As of February 29, 2024, we had an accumulated deficit of $586.7 million. To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and have financed our operations primarily through our collaborations and sales of our equity interests. We are in the early stages of development of our drug candidates. Our lead drug candidates, NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607, are in the early stages of clinical development. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for at least the next several years. We anticipate that our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements will increase substantially if and as we:
increase enrollment in and further development of our Phase 1 clinical trials of our drug candidates NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607;
submit investigational new drug applications (INDs) and initiate clinical trials of our other drug candidates;
enter advanced clinical development and scale up external manufacturing capabilities to supply clinical trials;
expand the capabilities of our DELigase platform and apply our DELigase platform to advance additional drug candidates into preclinical and clinical development;
conduct process development for manufacturing of our drug candidates;
seek marketing approvals for any drug candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;
prepare for negotiations with the pricing authorities and submission to the health technology appraisal (HTA) bodies;
ultimately establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure and scale up external manufacturing capabilities to commercialize any drug candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval;
expand, maintain and protect our intellectual property portfolio;
hire additional clinical, regulatory, manufacturing, quality assurance and scientific personnel; and
add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel to support our research, product development and future commercialization efforts and support our operations as a public company.
Our expenses could increase beyond our expectations if we are required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA) or other regulatory authorities to perform trials in addition to those we currently expect, or if there are any delays in establishing appropriate manufacturing arrangements for or in completing our planned clinical trials or the development of any of our drug candidates.
35

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with pharmaceutical product development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of increased expenses we will incur or when, if ever, we will be able to achieve profitability. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would depress the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business, maintain our research and development efforts, diversify our product offerings or even continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company could also cause you to lose all or part of your investment.
We have never generated revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.
We are in the early stages of clinical development of our drug candidates NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607. We expect that it will be many years, if ever, before we have a drug candidate ready for commercialization. We may never succeed in these activities and, even if we do, may never generate revenues that are significant enough to achieve profitability. To become and remain profitable, we must succeed in developing, obtaining marketing approval for and commercializing products that generate significant revenue. This will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including completing preclinical testing and clinical trials of our drug candidates, discovering additional drug candidates, establishing and maintaining arrangements with third parties for the manufacture of clinical supplies of our drug candidates, obtaining marketing approval for our drug candidates and manufacturing, marketing, selling and obtaining reimbursement for any products for which we may obtain marketing approval.
If one or more of the drug candidates that we develop is approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with commercializing any approved drug candidate. Even if we are able to generate revenues from the sale of any approved products, we may not become profitable and may need to obtain additional funding to continue operations.
We will need substantial additional funding. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our research or product development programs or future commercialization efforts.
We expect our expenses to increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we conduct our Phase 1 clinical trials of NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607, grow our pipeline of drug candidates, expand the breadth of our DELigase platform, continue research and development and initiate additional clinical trials of and potentially seek marketing approval for our lead programs and other drug candidates. In addition, if we obtain marketing approval for any of our drug candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product manufacturing, marketing, reimbursement and sales and distribution. Furthermore, we expect to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on attractive terms, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our research, product development programs or any future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market drug candidates that we otherwise would prefer to develop and market ourselves.
We had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $254.3 million as of February 29, 2024. We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements through at least the next 12 months. However, our future capital requirements and the period for which we expect our existing resources to support our operations may vary significantly from what we expect, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:
the progress, costs and results of our Phase 1 clinical trials for NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607 and any future clinical development of such drug candidates;
the scope, progress, costs and results of preclinical and clinical development for our other drug candidates and development programs;
the number and development requirements of other drug candidates that we pursue;
the scope of, and costs associated with, future advancements to our DELigase platform;
the success of our collaborations with Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Gilead), Sanofi S.A. (Sanofi) and Seagen Inc. (now a part of Pfizer Inc. (Pfizer)) and any other collaborations we may establish;
the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our drug candidates;
the costs and timing of future commercialization activities, including product manufacturing, marketing, sales and distribution, for any of our drug candidates for which we receive marketing approval;
36

the revenue, if any, received from commercial sales of our drug candidates for which we receive marketing approval;
the costs and timing of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending any intellectual property-related claims; and
our ability to establish additional collaboration arrangements with other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies on favorable terms, if at all, for the development or commercialization of our drug candidates.
We will need to raise substantial additional capital to complete the development and commercialization of our drug candidates. In addition, our drug candidates, if approved, may not achieve commercial success. Our commercial revenues, if any, will be derived from sales of products that we do not expect to be commercially available for many years, if at all. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funds to achieve our business objectives. Adequate additional funds may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.
Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or drug candidates.
Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial revenue from product sales, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances and marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements. Although we may receive potential future milestone payments under our collaborations with Gilead, Sanofi and Pfizer, we do not currently have any committed external source of funds. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a holder of common stock. Debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making acquisitions or capital expenditures or declaring dividends.
If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our intellectual property, technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or drug candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us.
Our limited operating history may make it difficult to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.
We commenced operations in 2009, and our operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, conducting discovery and research activities, filing patent applications, identifying potential drug candidates, undertaking preclinical studies, establishing arrangements with third parties for the manufacture of initial quantities of our drug candidates and conducting early-stage clinical trials. Our lead drug candidates are in the early stages of clinical development and their risk of failure is high. We have not yet demonstrated our ability to successfully: complete any clinical trials, including large-scale, pivotal clinical trials; obtain marketing approvals; manufacture a commercial-scale product or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf; or conduct market access, sales, marketing and distribution activities necessary for successful product commercialization. Consequently, any predictions you make about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history.
In addition, as an early-stage business, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known and unknown factors. We will need to transition at some point from a company with a research and development focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities. We may not be successful in such a transition.
We expect our financial condition and results of operations to continue to fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Accordingly, you should not rely upon the results of any quarterly or annual periods as indications of future operating performance.
37

Risks Related to the Discovery and Development of Our Drug Candidates
We are early in our development efforts. Our lead drug candidates, NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607, are in the early stages of clinical development. If we are unable to advance our drug candidates through clinical development, develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize our drug candidates or experience significant delays in doing so, our business may be materially harmed.
We are early in our development efforts. Our lead drug candidates, NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607, are in the early stages of clinical development and their risk of failure is high. We have invested substantially all of our efforts and financial resources in building our DELigase platform, in the identification and preclinical development of our current drug candidates and in the preparation for and initiation of Phase 1 clinical trials for our lead drug candidates. Our ability to generate revenue from product sales, which we do not expect will occur for many years, if ever, will depend heavily on the successful development and eventual commercialization of one or more of our drug candidates. The success of our drug candidates will depend on several factors, including the following:
sufficiency of our financial and other resources;
successful completion of preclinical studies;
successful submission of INDs or Clinical Trial Applications and initiation of clinical trials;
successful patient enrollment in, and completion of, clinical trials;
receipt and related terms of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;
obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for our drug candidates as well as obtaining relevant exclusivity extensions (due to the conduct of pediatric studies);
making arrangements with third-party manufacturers, or establishing manufacturing capabilities, for both clinical and commercial supplies of our drug candidates;
achieving desirable therapeutic properties for our drug candidates’ intended indications;
establishing sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and launching commercial sales of our products, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others;
acceptance of our products, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;
obtaining and maintaining third-party coverage and adequate reimbursement;
establishing a continued acceptable safety profile of our drug candidates and maintaining such a profile following approval; and
effectively competing with other therapies.
If we do not successfully achieve one or more of these factors in a timely manner, or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates, which could materially harm our business. Moreover, if we do not receive regulatory approvals, we may not be able to continue our operations.
In addition, we filed for and received an Innovation Passport designation for NX-1607 in the United Kingdom (UK) in February 2022. The Innovation Passport is the mandated entry point to the Innovative Licensing and Access Pathway (ILAP) in the UK to facilitate approval of and market access to an innovative medicine. Grant of the Innovation Passport paves the way for enhanced engagement with key stakeholders such as the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), health technology agencies in the UK such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) or the Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) and NHS England. However, although the goal of ILAP and the Innovation Passport is to reduce the time to market and enable earlier patient access, they do not accelerate conduct of clinical trials or mean that the regulatory requirements are less stringent, nor do they ensure that any NX-1607 marketing authorization application (MAA) will be approved or that any approval will be granted within any particular timeframe. Despite receiving an Innovation Passport designation, we may decide to delay or forego the commercialization of NX-1607 in the UK or the development may otherwise not proceed.
38

One of our approaches to the discovery and development of drug candidates based on our targeted protein degradation platform is unproven, which makes it difficult to predict the time, cost of development and likelihood of successfully developing any products.
Treating diseases using targeted protein degradation is a new treatment modality. Our future success depends on the successful development of this novel therapeutic approach. Very few small molecule drug candidates designed to control cellular protein levels, such as our BTK degraders, have been tested in humans, none have been approved in the United States or Europe, and the data underlying the feasibility of developing these therapeutic products is both preliminary and limited. Discovery and development of targeted protein degraders that harness ligases to degrade protein targets have been impeded largely by the complexities and limited understanding of the functions, biochemistry and structural biology of E3 ligases as well as by challenges of engineering compounds that promote protein-protein interactions.
We believe that our targeted protein degrader drug candidates may offer an improved therapeutic approach by removing the disease-causing proteins instead of simply inhibiting their activities. However, the scientific research that forms the basis of our efforts to develop our targeted protein degrader drug candidates is ongoing and the scientific evidence to support the feasibility of developing targeted protein degrader-based therapeutic treatments is both preliminary and limited. Further, certain patients have shown inherent (primary) resistance to approved BTK inhibitors and other patients have developed acquired (secondary) resistance to these inhibitors. Both NX-5948 and NX-2127 degrade BTK with mutations that confer resistance to currently marketed BTK inhibitors, and we believe that preliminary data from our ongoing Phase 1 trials of NX-5948 and NX-2127 may provide evidence of clinical benefit to patients with such resistance mutations. However, any inherent primary or acquired secondary resistance to our BTK degraders in patients would prevent or diminish their clinical benefit.
We are in the early stages of clinical development of NX-5948 and NX-2127 and we currently have limited safety data of NX-5948 and NX-2127 in humans. Although some of our drug candidates have produced observable results in animal studies, these drug candidates may not demonstrate the same chemical and pharmacological properties in humans, and may interact with human biological systems in unforeseen, ineffective or harmful ways. As such, there may be adverse effects from treatment with any of our current or future drug candidates that we cannot predict at this time.
Additionally, the regulatory approval process for novel drug candidates such as ours can be more expensive and take longer than for other, better-known or extensively-studied drug candidates. Although other companies are also developing therapeutics based on targeted protein degradation, no regulatory authority has granted approval for any such therapeutic. As a result of these factors, it is more difficult for us to predict the time and cost of targeted protein degrader drug candidate development, and we cannot predict whether targeted protein degradation will result in the development and marketing approval of any products. Any development problems we experience in the future related to any of our targeted protein degrader research programs may cause significant delays or unanticipated costs or may prevent the development of a commercially viable product. Advancing our targeted protein degrader drug candidates creates significant challenges for us, including:
educating medical personnel regarding the potential efficacy and safety benefits, as well as the challenges, of incorporating our drug candidates, if approved, into treatment regimens; and
establishing the sales and marketing capabilities to gain market acceptance, if approved.
Any of these factors may prevent us from completing our preclinical studies or any clinical trials that we may initiate, or from commercializing any targeted protein degrader drug candidates we may develop on a timely or profitable basis, if at all.
Drug development is a lengthy and expensive process, with an uncertain outcome. We may incur unexpected costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of our drug candidates.
Our lead drug candidates are in the early stages of clinical development and their risk of failure is high. We are unable to predict when or if any of our drug candidates will prove effective or safe in humans or will receive marketing approval. Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of any drug candidate, we must conduct extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our drug candidates in humans. Before we can commence clinical trials for a drug candidate, we must complete extensive preclinical testing and studies that support our planned INDs in the United States or similar applications in other jurisdictions. We cannot be certain of the timely completion or outcome of our preclinical testing and studies and cannot predict if the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States will accept our proposed clinical programs or if the outcome of our preclinical testing and studies ultimately will support the further development of our programs.
39

Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is uncertain as to the outcome. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing. Clinical trials may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we or any future collaborators may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or preclinical studies. We will be required to demonstrate with substantial evidence through adequate and well-controlled clinical trials that our drug candidates are safe and effective for use in treating specific conditions in order to obtain marketing approvals for their commercial sale. Success in preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials does not mean that any future larger registration clinical trials will be successful because drug candidates in later-stage clinical trials may fail to demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the FDA and non-U.S. regulatory authorities despite having progressed through preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials. Drug candidates that have shown promising results in preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials may still suffer significant setbacks in subsequent larger registration clinical trials. Additionally, the outcome of preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later-stage clinical trials.
We may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials, that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize our drug candidates, including:
we may experience delays in reaching, or may fail to reach, a consensus with regulators on trial design;
the supply or quality of our drug candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our drug candidates may be insufficient or inadequate, including as a result of delays in the testing, validation, manufacturing and delivery of drug candidates to the clinical sites by us or by third parties with whom we have contracted to perform certain of those functions;
we may experience delays in reaching, or may fail to reach, agreement on acceptable clinical trial contracts or clinical trial protocols with prospective trial sites;
regulators or institutional review boards (IRBs) may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial or conduct a clinical trial at a prospective trial site;
we may receive feedback from regulatory authorities that requires us to modify the design of our clinical trials;
we may face delays under human tissue act legislation and restrictions across various jurisdictions;
we may experience difficulty in designing clinical trials and in selecting endpoints for diseases that have not been well-studied and for which the natural history and course of the disease is poorly understood;
the selection of certain clinical endpoints may require prolonged periods of clinical observation or analysis of the resulting data;
the number of patients required for clinical trials of our drug candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate or participants may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;
our drug candidates may have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics, causing us or our investigators, regulators or IRBs to suspend or terminate the trials;
we may have to suspend or terminate clinical trials of our drug candidates for various reasons, including a partial or full clinical hold based on a finding that our drug candidates have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics, or that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks;
our third-party contractors may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;
regulators or IRBs may require that we or our investigators suspend or terminate clinical trials for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements;
clinical trials of our drug candidates may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon product development programs;
the cost of clinical trials of our drug candidates may be greater than we anticipate;
the supply or quality of our drug candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our drug candidates may be insufficient or inadequate;
regulators may revise the requirements for approving our drug candidates, or such requirements may not be as we anticipate;
any future collaborators that conduct clinical trials may face any of the above issues and may also conduct clinical trials in ways they view as advantageous to them but that are suboptimal for us; and
40

disruptions caused by macroeconomic, political and market conditions, including supply chain disruptions, may increase the likelihood that we encounter such difficulties or delays in initiating, enrolling, conducting or completing our planned and ongoing clinical trials.
In some instances, there can be significant variability in safety and efficacy results between different clinical trials of the same drug candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in trial protocols, differences in size and type of the patient populations, differences in and adherence to the dosing regimen and other trial protocols and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants. We do not know whether any clinical trials we may conduct will demonstrate consistent or adequate safety and efficacy sufficient to obtain marketing approval for our drug candidates.
If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of our drug candidates beyond those that we currently contemplate, if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of our drug candidates or other testing, if the results of these trials or tests are not positive or are only modestly positive or if there are safety concerns, we may:
be delayed in obtaining marketing approval for our drug candidates;
not obtain marketing approval at all;
obtain approval for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired;
obtain approval with labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings;
be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements or changes in the way the product is administered; or
have the product removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval.
Our product development costs also will increase if we experience delays in preclinical studies or clinical trials or in obtaining marketing approvals. We do not know whether any of our preclinical studies or clinical trials will begin as planned, will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, or at all. Significant preclinical study or clinical trial delays also could shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our drug candidates, or could allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do and impair our ability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates, which may harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Further, cancer therapies sometimes are characterized as first-line, second-line or third-line, and the FDA often approves new therapies initially only for third-line or later use, meaning for use after two or more other treatments have failed. When cancer is detected early enough, first-line therapy, usually chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, targeted therapy or a combination of these, is sometimes adequate to cure the cancer or prolong life without a cure. Second- and third-line therapies are administered to patients when prior therapy was ineffective. Our current and planned clinical trials for our drug candidates NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607 are and will be with patients who have received one or more prior treatments. Subsequently, for those drug candidates that prove to be sufficiently beneficial, if any, we may seek approval potentially as a first-line therapy, but any drug candidates we develop, even if approved, may not be approved for first-line therapy, and, prior to any such approvals, we may have to conduct additional clinical trials.
If serious adverse events, undesirable side effects or unexpected characteristics are identified during the development of any drug candidates we may develop, we may need to abandon or limit our further clinical development of those drug candidates.
We have recently begun to evaluate our lead drug candidates in human clinical trials, and there have been very few clinical trials to date involving small molecule drug candidates designed to control cellular protein levels through targeted protein degradation. It is impossible to predict when or if any drug candidates we may develop will prove safe in humans. There is a limited safety data set for the effects of NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607 in animals and we only recently have begun to test the safety of our drug candidates in humans. There can be no assurance that our current drug candidates or any future drug candidate will not cause undesirable side effects. Unforeseen side effects from our drug candidates could arise at any time during preclinical or clinical development.
A potential risk in any protein modulation product is that healthy proteins or proteins not targeted for modulation will be modulated or that the modulation of the targeted protein in itself could cause adverse events, undesirable side effects or unexpected characteristics. It is possible that healthy proteins or proteins not targeted for modulation could be modulated by our drug candidates in any of our current or future preclinical studies or clinical trials. There also is the potential risk of delayed adverse events following treatment with our drug candidates.
41

If any drug candidates we develop are associated with serious adverse events or undesirable side effects, or have characteristics that are unexpected, including in preclinical studies, we may need to abandon their development or limit development to certain uses or subpopulations in which the adverse events, undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective, any of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. For example, increased bleeding risk and cardiac arrhythmia such as atrial fibrillation have been reported side effects of approved BTK inhibitors. Furthermore, NX-1607 could activate the immune response to unsafe levels and may have the potential to induce hypercytokinemia, or cytokine storm, which is the overstimulation of immune cells and subsequent overproduction of their activating compounds. Many drug candidates that initially showed promise in early-stage testing for treating cancer or other diseases later have been found to cause side effects that prevented further clinical development of the drug candidates or limited their competitiveness in the market.
The results of preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials may not be predictive of future results. Initial success in clinical trials may not be indicative of results obtained when these trials are completed or in later-stage trials.
The results of preclinical studies may not be predictive of the results of clinical trials, and the results of any early-stage clinical trials we commence may not be predictive of the results of the later-stage clinical trials. In addition, initial success in clinical trials may not be indicative of results obtained when such trials are completed. In particular, the small number of patients in our planned early clinical trials may make the results of these trials less predictive of the outcomes of later clinical trials. For example, even if successful, the results of our initial clinical trials for NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607 may not be predictive of the results of further clinical trials of these drug candidates or any of our other drug candidates. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data often are susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their drug candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials nonetheless have failed to obtain marketing approval of their products. Our future clinical trials may not ultimately be successful or support further clinical development of any of our drug candidates. There is a high failure rate for drug candidates proceeding through clinical trials. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in clinical development even after achieving encouraging results in earlier studies and clinical trials. Any such setbacks in our clinical development could materially harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Interim top-line and preliminary data from our planned clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.
From time to time, we may publish interim top-line or preliminary data from our planned clinical trials. Interim data from clinical trials that we may complete are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more patient data become available. Preliminary or top-line data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, interim and preliminary data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available. Adverse differences between preliminary or interim data and final data could significantly harm our reputation, business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
If we experience delays or difficulties in enrolling patients in clinical trials, our receipt of necessary marketing approvals could be delayed or prevented.
We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials for our drug candidates if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials as required by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside of the United States. In particular, we are currently conducting Phase 1 clinical trials for each of our lead drug candidates: NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607. We cannot predict how difficult it will be to enroll patients for these trials. Therefore, our ability to identify and enroll eligible patients for our NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607 clinical trials may be limited or may result in slower enrollment than we anticipate. In addition, some of our competitors have ongoing clinical trials for drug candidates that treat the same indications as our drug candidates, and patients who otherwise would be eligible for our planned clinical trials instead may enroll in clinical trials of our competitors’ drug candidates. Moreover, the size of the relevant patient populations for the diseases that our lead drug candidates target is small, and as more companies begin to focus attention and resources on drug candidates to treat the same indications as our drug candidates, we may experience delays or be unable to successfully recruit and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients in our clinical trials. Patient enrollment is affected by other factors including:
the severity of the disease under investigation;
the size of the patient population and process for identifying patients;
the availability and efficacy of approved medications for the disease under investigation;
42

the eligibility criteria for the trial in question;
the perceived risks and benefits of the drug candidates under study;
the efforts to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;
physicians’ attitudes and practices with respect to clinical trial enrollment;
the burden on patients due to inconvenient procedures;
the ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment; and
the proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients.
Our inability to enroll a sufficient number of patients for our current or planned clinical trials would result in significant delays and could require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether. Enrollment delays in our current or planned clinical trials may result in increased development costs for our drug candidates, which would cause the value of our company to decline and limit our ability to obtain additional financing.
We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular drug candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on drug candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.
Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, we focus on research programs and drug candidates that we identify for specific indications. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other drug candidates or for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development programs and drug candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable products. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular drug candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that drug candidate through collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such drug candidate.
The manufacture of drugs is complex, and we and our third-party manufacturers are early in our manufacturing efforts.
We have established manufacturing relationships with a limited number of suppliers to manufacture raw materials and the drug substance of any drug candidate for which we are currently pursuing, or may in the future pursue, preclinical or clinical development. Our systems for complying with current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs), manufacturing process development with our third-party manufacturers and scale-up are at an early stage. The actual cost to manufacture and process our drug candidates could be greater than we expect and could materially and adversely affect the commercial viability of our drug candidates. We or any of our third-party manufacturers may encounter difficulties in production, including contamination, equipment failure, improper installation or operation of equipment, vendor or operator error, inconsistency in yields, variability in product characteristics and difficulties in scaling the production process. Even minor deviations from normal manufacturing processes could result in reduced production yields, product defects and other supply disruptions. If we or any of our third-party manufacturers encounter such difficulties, our ability to provide supply of our current or future drug candidates for clinical trials, our ability to obtain marketing approval or our ability to provide supply of our drug candidates for patients, if approved, could be delayed or stopped. For example, in October 2023, following our communication to the FDA of our intention to transition to an improved manufacturing process for NX-2127, the FDA placed a partial clinical hold on our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial evaluating NX-2127. We actively engaged in discussions with FDA as part of our efforts to lift the partial clinical hold, and in March 2024, the FDA lifted the partial clinical hold. There can be no assurance that we can address any issues resulting in any future partial or full clinical hold in a timely manner or at all, and we may incur additional expenses in connection with our efforts to address a partial or full clinical hold or advance our clinical programs.
We may not be successful in our efforts to identify or discover additional potential drug candidates.
A key element of our strategy is to apply our DELigase platform to address a broad array of targets and new therapeutic areas. The therapeutic discovery activities we are conducting may not be successful in identifying drug candidates that are useful in treating hematologic cancers, immune-mediated diseases or any other diseases. Our research programs initially may show promise in identifying potential drug candidates, yet fail to yield drug candidates for clinical development for a number of reasons, including:
the research methodology used may not be successful in identifying potential drug candidates;
43

potential drug candidates may, on further study, be shown to have harmful side effects or other characteristics that indicate that they are unlikely to be drugs that will receive marketing approval or achieve market acceptance; or
potential drug candidates may not be effective in treating their targeted diseases.
Research programs to identify new drug candidates require substantial technical, financial and human resources. We may choose to focus our efforts and resources on a potential drug candidate that ultimately proves to be unsuccessful. If we are unable to identify suitable drug candidates for preclinical and clinical development, we will not be able to obtain revenues from the sale of products in future periods, which likely would result in significant harm to our financial position and adversely impact our stock price.
We may not be successful in our efforts to expand the breadth of our DELigase platform.
A key element of our strategy is to expand the capabilities of our DELigase platform and leverage our platform to discover, develop and potentially commercialize additional drug candidates beyond our current portfolio to target diseases in a wide range of organ systems and tissues and treat various disease states. These enhancements require substantial technical, financial and human resources, and may not result in the discovery or development of additional drug candidates or therapies. We may pursue what we believe is a promising opportunity to leverage our platform only to discover that certain of our risk or resource allocation decisions were incorrect or insufficient, or that individual products or our science in general has technology or biology risks that were previously unknown or underappreciated. Our strategy of pursuing the value of our DELigase platform over a long time horizon and across a broad array of human diseases may not be effective. In the event material decisions in any of these areas turn out to be incorrect or sub-optimal, we may experience a material adverse impact on our business and ability to fund our operations and we may never realize what we believe is the potential of our DELigase platform.
We face substantial competition in an environment of rapid technological change, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.
The development and commercialization of new drug products is highly competitive. Moreover, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, intense competition and a strong emphasis on proprietary products. We face and will continue to face competition from third parties that use protein modulation, antibody therapy, adoptive cell therapy, inhibitory nucleic acid, gene editing or gene therapy development platforms and from companies focused on more traditional therapeutic modalities, such as small molecule inhibitors. The competition is likely to come from multiple sources, including major pharmaceutical, specialty pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private research institutions that conduct research, seek patent protection and establish collaborative arrangements for research, development, manufacturing and commercialization.
We are aware of a number of biotechnology companies focused on developing small molecules that degrade target proteins or inhibit E3 ligases, including, but not limited to, Accutar Biotechnology Inc., Arvinas, Inc., BeiGene, Ltd., BioTheryX, Inc., C4 Therapeutics, Inc., Cullgen Inc., Foghorn Therapeutics Inc., HotSpot Therapeutics, Inc., Kymera Therapeutics, Inc. and Monte Rosa Therapeutics, all of which currently are in preclinical or clinical development. In addition, certain large pharmaceutical companies have disclosed investments in this field, including AbbVie Inc., Amgen Inc., AstraZeneca plc, Bayer AG, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Genentech, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc and Novartis International AG. Furthermore, we are aware of multiple other BTK degrader programs in clinical development, including programs from AbbVie Inc., Accutar Biotechnology, Inc., BeiGene, Ltd, Haisco Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd. and Ubix Therapeutics, Inc.
44

Many of our current or potential competitors, either alone or with their collaboration partners, have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved products than we do. Further, mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller or early-stage companies also may prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. All of these competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient or are less expensive than any products we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could prevent us from obtaining the orphan designation in the European Union (EU) and/or in the UK and result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market. In addition, our ability to compete may be affected in many cases by insurers or other third-party payors seeking to encourage the use of generic products. There are generic products currently on the market for certain of the indications that we are pursuing, and additional products are expected to become available on a generic basis over the coming years. If our drug candidates are approved, we expect that they will be priced at a significant premium over competitive generic products.
If we do not achieve our projected development goals in the time frames we expect and announce, the commercialization of our products may be delayed and, as a result, our stock price may decline.
From time to time, we estimate the timing of the anticipated accomplishment of various scientific, clinical, regulatory and other product development goals, which we sometimes refer to as milestones. These milestones may include the commencement or completion of scientific studies and clinical trials and the submission of regulatory filings and may be associated with payments from third-party collaborators such as Gilead, Sanofi or Pfizer. From time to time, we may publicly announce the expected timing of some of these milestones. All of these milestones are and will be based on numerous assumptions. The actual timing of these milestones can vary dramatically compared to our estimates, in some cases for reasons beyond our control. If we do not meet these milestones as publicly announced, or at all, our revenue may be lower than expected, the commercialization of our products may be delayed or never achieved and, as a result, our stock price may decline.
Our estimated market opportunities for our drug candidates are subject to numerous uncertainties and may prove to be inaccurate. If we have overestimated the size of our market opportunities, our future growth may be limited.
Our estimated addressable markets and market opportunities for our drug candidates are based on a variety of inputs, including data published by third parties, our own market insights and internal market intelligence and internally generated data and assumptions. We have not independently verified any third-party information and cannot be assured of its accuracy or completeness. Market opportunity estimates, whether obtained or derived from third-party sources or developed internally, are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may prove inaccurate. Although we believe our market opportunity estimates are reasonable, such information is inherently imprecise. In addition, our assumptions and estimates of market opportunities are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including but not limited to those described in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. If this third-party or internally generated data prove to be inaccurate or if we make errors in our assumptions based on that data, our actual market may be more limited than we estimate it to be. In addition, these inaccuracies or errors may cause us to misallocate capital and other critical business resources, which could harm our business.
45

Risks Related to Dependence on Third Parties
We expect to depend on collaborations with third parties for the research, development and commercialization of certain of the drug candidates we may develop. If any such collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to capitalize on the market potential of those drug candidates.
We have sought third-party collaborators for the research, development and commercialization of some of our targeted protein degrader programs. For example, in June 2019 we entered into a collaboration with Gilead; in December 2019 we entered into a collaboration with Sanofi, which was subsequently expanded and amended in January 2021; and in September 2023 we entered into a collaboration with Seagen Inc. (now a part of Pfizer). Each of the foregoing collaborations requires us to conduct certain research activities. Our likely collaborators for any other collaboration arrangements include large and mid-size pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies and universities. These and any future arrangements with third parties limit our control over the amount and timing of resources that our collaborators dedicate to the development or commercialization of any drug candidates we may seek to develop with them. Our ability to generate revenues from these arrangements will depend on our collaborators’ abilities to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements. We cannot predict the success of any collaboration that we enter into.
Collaborations involving our research programs or any drug candidates we may develop, including our collaborations with Gilead, Sanofi and Pfizer, pose risks to us, including:
Collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to collaborations with us.
Collaborators may not pursue development and commercialization of any drug candidates we may develop or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in the collaborator’s strategic focus or available funding or external factors such as an acquisition or business combination that diverts resources or creates competing priorities.
Gilead and Sanofi have broad option rights to select up to five targets each, and Pfizer has option rights to multiple targets, for exclusive targeted protein degrader development, so long as not excluded by us under the terms of each collaboration, and may select targets we are considering but have not taken sufficient action to exclude under each collaboration.
Collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a drug candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a drug candidate for clinical testing.
Collaborators could develop independently, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our products or drug candidates if the collaborators believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than ours.
Collaborators with marketing and distribution rights to one or more products may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of such product or products.
Collaborators may not properly obtain, maintain, enforce or defend our intellectual property or proprietary rights or may use our proprietary information in such a way that could jeopardize or invalidate our proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation. For example, Gilead, Sanofi and Pfizer have the first right to enforce or defend certain intellectual property rights under the applicable collaboration arrangement with respect to particular licensed programs, and although we may have the right to assume the enforcement and defense of such intellectual property rights if the collaborator does not, our ability to do so may be compromised by their actions.
Disputes may arise between the collaborators and us that result in the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our products or drug candidates or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources.
We may lose certain valuable rights under circumstances identified in our collaborations, including if we undergo a change of control. For example, Sanofi may terminate its agreement with us if we undergo a change of control.
Collaborations may be terminated and, if terminated, may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable drug candidates. For example, each of Gilead, Sanofi and Pfizer can terminate its agreement with us in its entirety or with respect to a specific target for convenience upon written notice or in connection with a material breach of the agreement by us that remains uncured for a specified period of time.
46

Collaboration agreements may not lead to development or commercialization of drug candidates in the most efficient manner, or at all. For instance, if a present or future collaborator of ours were to be involved in a business combination, the continued pursuit and emphasis on our product development or commercialization program under such collaboration could be delayed, diminished or terminated.
If our collaborations do not result in the successful development and commercialization of products, or if one of our collaborators terminates its agreement with us, we may not receive any future research funding or milestone or royalty payments under the collaboration. If we do not receive the funding we expect under these agreements, our development of drug candidates could be delayed, and we may need additional resources to develop drug candidates. In addition, if one of our collaborators terminates its agreement with us, we may find it more difficult to find a suitable replacement collaborator or attract new collaborators, and our development programs may be delayed or the perception of us in the business and financial communities could be adversely affected. Moreover, all of the risks relating to product development, marketing approval and commercialization described in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q apply to the activities of our collaborators.
We may in the future decide to collaborate with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies for the development and potential commercialization of any drug candidates we may develop. These relationships may require us to incur non-recurring and other charges, increase our near- and long-term expenditures, issue securities that dilute the ownership interest of our existing stockholders, or disrupt our management and business. In addition, we could face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborators, and the negotiation process is time-consuming and complex. Our ability to reach a definitive collaboration agreement will depend upon, among other things, our assessment of the proposed collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of several factors. If we license rights to any drug candidates we or our collaborators may develop, we may not be able to realize the benefit of such transactions if we are unable to successfully integrate them with our existing operations and company culture.
We may seek to establish additional collaborations. If we are not able to establish collaborations on commercially reasonable terms, we may have to alter our development and commercialization plans.
We plan to continue to selectively pursue collaborations with leading biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies with development and commercial expertise and capabilities. We face significant competition in attracting appropriate collaborators to advance the development of any drug candidates for which we may seek a collaboration. Whether we reach a definitive agreement for a collaboration will depend upon, among other things, our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors. Those factors may include the design or results of preclinical studies and clinical trials, the likelihood of approval by the FDA or other regulatory authorities, the potential market for the subject drug candidate, the costs and complexities of manufacturing and delivering such drug candidate to patients, the potential of competing products, uncertainty with respect to our ownership of technology (which can exist if there is a challenge to such ownership without regard to the merits of the challenge), the terms of any existing collaboration agreements and industry and market conditions generally. The collaborator also may have the opportunity to collaborate on other drug candidates or technologies for similar indications and will have to evaluate whether such a collaboration could be more attractive than one with us.
Collaborations are complex and time-consuming to negotiate, document and execute. In addition, consolidation among large pharmaceutical companies has reduced the number of potential future collaborators, and we may not be able to locate a suitable collaborator. Any collaboration we enter into may limit our ability to enter into future agreements on particular terms or covering similar target indications with other potential collaborators.
We may not be able to negotiate collaborations on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to do so, we may have to curtail the development of the drug candidate for which we are seeking to collaborate, reduce or delay its development program or one or more of our other development programs, delay its potential commercialization or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to increase our expenditures to fund development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If we do not have sufficient funds, we may not be able to further develop our drug candidates or bring them to market and generate revenue from product sales, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
47

We rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet deadlines for completing such trials.
We rely on third-party contract research organizations (CROs) to conduct our Phase 1 clinical trial programs for NX-5948, NX-2127 and NX-1607 and we will rely on third-party CROs to conduct any clinical trials for other drug candidates. Agreements with these CROs might terminate for a variety of reasons, including for such CRO’s failure to perform. Entry into alternative arrangements, if necessary, could significantly delay our product development activities.
Our reliance on these CROs for research and development activities will reduce our control over these activities but will not relieve us of our responsibilities. For example, we will remain responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols in the applicable IND. Moreover, the FDA and other foreign regulators such as the EMA and the MHRA require compliance with good clinical practice standards, commonly referred to as GCPs, for conducting, recording and reporting the results of clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the rights, integrity and confidentiality of trial participants are protected.
If these CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or conduct our clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or our stated protocols, we will not be able to obtain, or may be delayed in obtaining, marketing approvals for our drug candidates and will not be able to, or may be delayed in our efforts to, successfully commercialize our drug candidates.
We rely on third-party contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs) for the manufacture of both drug substance and finished drug product for our drug candidates for preclinical and clinical testing and expect to continue to do so for any future clinical trials and commercialization. This reliance on third parties may increase the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our drug candidates or products or such quantities at an acceptable cost or quality, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.
We do not own or operate, and currently have no plans to establish, any manufacturing facilities. We rely on and expect to continue to rely on third-party contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs) for both drug substance and finished drug product. This reliance on CMOs, particularly where one CMO is the sole source of the drug substance or finished drug product, may increase the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our drug candidates or products or such quantities at an acceptable cost or quality, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.
We may be unable to establish agreements with CMOs or to do so on acceptable terms. Even if we are able to establish agreements with CMOs, reliance on them entails additional risks, including:
reliance on the CMO for regulatory, compliance and quality assurance;
the possible breach of the manufacturing agreement by the CMO;
the possible misappropriation of our proprietary information, including our trade secrets and know-how; and
the possible termination or nonrenewal of the agreement by the CMO at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us.
We have only limited technology transfer agreements in place with respect to our drug candidates, and these arrangements do not extend to commercial supply. We acquire many key materials on a purchase order basis. As a result, we do not have long-term committed arrangements with respect to our drug candidates and other materials. If we receive marketing approval for any of our drug candidates, we will need to establish an agreement for commercial manufacture with a third party.
The CMOs we retain may not be able to comply with cGMP regulations or similar regulatory requirements outside of the United States. Our failure, or the failure of our CMOs, to comply with applicable regulations could result in sanctions or other adverse regulatory actions, including untitled or warning letters, clinical holds, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, failure to approve pending applications, license revocation, seizures or recalls of drug candidates or products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our products.
48

The facilities used by our contract manufacturers to manufacture our drug candidates must be approved by the FDA or the EMA or other national or international regulatory agencies pursuant to inspections that will be conducted after we submit our new drug application (NDA) to the FDA or our MAA to the EMA or other regulatory authority. We do not have complete control over all aspects of the manufacturing process of, and are dependent on, our contract manufacturing partners for compliance with cGMP regulations for manufacturing both active drug substances and finished drug products. Third-party manufacturers may not be able to comply with cGMP regulations or similar regulatory requirements outside of the United States. If our contract manufacturers cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to our specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA, the EMA or comparable foreign regulatory bodies, they will not be able to secure and/or maintain approval for their manufacturing facilities. In addition, we do not have complete control over the ability of our contract manufacturers to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and qualified personnel. If the FDA, the EMA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority does not approve these facilities for the manufacture of our drug candidates or if such regulatory authority withdraws any such approval in the future, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, which would significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain marketing approval for or market our drug candidates, if approved.
Our drug candidates and any products that we may develop may compete with other drug candidates and products for access to suitable manufacturing facilities. As a result, we may not obtain access to these facilities on a priority basis or at all. There are a limited number of manufacturers that operate under cGMP regulations and that might be capable of manufacturing for us.
Any performance failure on the part of our existing or future manufacturers could delay clinical development or marketing approval or could result in withdrawal of marketing approval. We do not currently have arrangements in place for redundant supply or a second source for bulk drug substance. If our current CMOs cannot perform as agreed, we may be required to replace such manufacturers. Although we believe that there are several potential alternative manufacturers who could manufacture our drug candidates, we may incur added costs and delays in identifying and qualifying any such replacement manufacturer or may not be able to reach agreement with any alternative manufacturer.
Our current and anticipated future dependence upon others for the manufacture of our drug candidates or products may adversely affect our future profit margins and our ability to commercialize any products that receive marketing approval on a timely and competitive basis.
Some of our suppliers may experience disruption to their respective supply chain due to the effects of macroeconomic conditions, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.
We obtain certain chemical or biological intermediates in the synthesis of our drug candidates and natural health products (NHPs) for toxicology testing in countries affected by macroeconomic events and conditions, including inflation, increasing interest rates, uncertainty with respect to the federal budget and debt ceiling and potential government shutdowns related thereto, increasing financial market volatility and uncertainty, the impact of war or military conflict, including regional conflicts around the world, and public health pandemics. If we are unable to obtain these chemical or biological intermediates or NHPs in sufficient quantity and in a timely manner due to disruptions in the global supply chain caused by macroeconomic events and conditions, the development, testing and clinical trials of that drug candidate may be delayed or infeasible, and regulatory approval or commercial launch of any resulting product may be delayed or not obtained, which could significantly harm our business.
Our CMOs may be unable to successfully scale-up manufacturing of our drug candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, which would delay or prevent us from developing our drug candidates and commercializing approved products, if any.
In order to conduct clinical trials of our drug candidates, we will need to manufacture our drug candidates in large quantities. Quality issues may arise during scale-up activities. Our reliance on a limited number of CMOs, the complexity of drug manufacturing and the difficulty of scaling up a manufacturing process could cause the delay of clinical trials, regulatory submissions, required approvals or commercialization of our drug candidates, cause us to incur higher costs and prevent us from commercializing our drug candidates successfully. Furthermore, if our CMOs fail to deliver the required commercial quality and quantities of materials on a timely basis and at commercially reasonable prices, and we are unable to secure one or more replacement CMOs capable of production in a timely manner at a substantially equivalent cost, then testing and clinical trials of that drug candidate may be delayed or infeasible, and regulatory approval or commercial launch of any resulting product may be delayed or not obtained, which could significantly harm our business.
49

Risks Related to the Commercialization of Our Drug Candidates
Even if any of our drug candidates receive marketing approval, a drug candidate may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.
If any of our drug candidates receive marketing approval, they may nonetheless fail to gain sufficient market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community. For example, ibrutinib is a well-established current treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and doctors may continue to rely on this and other treatments. If our drug candidates do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance, we may not generate sufficient revenue from product sales and we may not become profitable. The degree of market acceptance of our drug candidates, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including:
the efficacy and potential advantages compared to alternative treatments;
the prevalence and severity of any side effects, in particular compared to alternative treatments;
our ability to offer our products for sale at competitive prices;
the convenience and ease of administration compared to alternative treatments;
the willingness of the target patient population to try new therapies and of physicians to prescribe these therapies;
the strength of our marketing, sales and distribution support;
the availability of third-party payor coverage and adequate reimbursement;
the ability to secure a positive HTA recommendation for the product to be prescribed and reimbursed under the national health system;
the timing of any marketing approval in relation to other product approvals; and
any restrictions on the use of our products together with other medications.
If we are unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities, we may not be successful in commercializing our drug candidates if and when they are approved.
We do not have a sales or marketing infrastructure and have no experience in the sale, marketing or distribution of biopharmaceutical products. To achieve commercial success for any product for which we obtain marketing approval, we will need to establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, either by ourselves or through collaboration or other arrangements with third parties.
We currently expect that we may build our own focused, specialized sales and marketing organization to support the commercialization in the United States of drug candidates for which we receive marketing approval and which can be commercialized with such capabilities. There are risks involved with establishing our own sales and marketing capabilities. For example, recruiting and training a sales force is expensive and time-consuming and could delay any product launch. If the commercial launch of a drug candidate for which we recruit a sales force and establish marketing capabilities is delayed or does not occur for any reason, we would have incurred these commercialization expenses prematurely or unnecessarily. These efforts may be costly, and our investment would be lost if we cannot retain or reposition our sales and marketing personnel.
Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize our products on our own include:
our inability to recruit, train and retain adequate numbers of effective sales, marketing, reimbursement, customer service, medical affairs and other support personnel;
the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines; and
unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent sales and marketing organization.
If we are unable to establish our own sales and marketing capabilities or enter into arrangements with third parties to perform these services, our revenue from product sales and our profitability, if any, are likely to be lower than if we ourselves were to market and sell any products that we develop. In addition, we may not be successful in entering into arrangements with third parties to market and sell our drug candidates or may be unable to do so on terms that are acceptable to us. Any of these third parties may fail to devote the necessary resources and attention to sell and market our products effectively. If we do not establish sales and marketing capabilities successfully, either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we will not be successful in commercializing our drug candidates.
50

Even if we are able to commercialize any drug candidates, the products may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations, third-party reimbursement practices or healthcare reform initiatives, which would harm our business.
The regulations that govern marketing approvals, pricing, coverage and reimbursement for new drug products vary widely from country to country. Current and future legislation may significantly change the approval requirements in ways that could involve additional costs and cause delays in obtaining approvals. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a drug before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing or product licensing approval is granted. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our drug candidate to other available therapies. In some foreign markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. As a result, we might obtain marketing approval for a drug candidate in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay our commercial launch of the product, possibly for lengthy time periods, and negatively impact the revenues, if any, we are able to generate from the sale of the product in that country. Adverse pricing limitations may hinder our ability to recoup our investment in one or more drug candidates, even if our drug candidates obtain marketing approval.
Our ability to commercialize any drug candidates successfully also will depend in part on the extent to which coverage and adequate reimbursement for these products and related treatments will be available from government healthcare programs, private health insurers, national health technology assessment authorities in Europe and other organizations, and if reimbursement and coverage is available, the level of reimbursement and coverage. Government authorities and third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which medications they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. A key focus in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Government authorities and third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications, as well as mandating a system of manufacturer rebates to government payors. Increasingly, government authorities and third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. Coverage and reimbursement may not be available for any product that we commercialize and, even if these are available, the level of reimbursement may not be sufficient to cover our costs. Reimbursement may affect the demand for, or the price of, any drug candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. Obtaining and maintaining adequate reimbursement for our products may be difficult. We may be required to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies to justify coverage and reimbursement or the level of reimbursement relative to other therapies. If coverage and adequate reimbursement are not available or reimbursement is available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any drug candidate for which we obtain marketing approval.
There may be significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs, and coverage may be more limited than the purposes for which the drug is approved by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside of the United States. Moreover, eligibility for coverage and reimbursement does not imply that a drug will be paid for in all cases, across the entire eligible patient population, as a first-line treatment or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, intellectual property, manufacture, sale and distribution expenses. Interim reimbursement levels for new drugs, if applicable, also may not be sufficient to cover our costs and may not be made permanent. Reimbursement rates may vary according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower cost drugs, may take into account comparative cost-effectiveness, particularly in European jurisdictions, and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for drugs may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or private payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies. Our inability to promptly obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement rates from both government-funded and private payors for any approved products that we develop could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize products and our overall financial condition.
Product liability lawsuits against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and to limit commercialization of any products that we may develop.
We face an inherent risk of product liability exposure related to the testing of our drug candidates in human clinical trials and will face an even greater risk if we commercially sell any products that we may develop. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against claims that our drug candidates or products caused injuries, we will incur substantial liabilities. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:
decreased demand for any drug candidates or products that we may develop;
termination of clinical trials;
51

withdrawal of marketing approval, recall, restriction on the approval or a “black box” warning or contraindication for an approved drug;
withdrawal of clinical trial participants;
significant costs to defend the related litigation;
substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;
loss of revenue;
injury to our reputation and significant negative media attention;
reduced resources of our management to pursue our business strategy; and
the inability to commercialize any products that we may develop.
Although we maintain product liability insurance coverage, it may not be adequate to cover all liabilities that we may incur. We anticipate that we will need to increase our product liability insurance coverage as we initiate our clinical trials, as we expand our clinical trials and if we commence commercialization of our drug candidates. Insurance coverage is increasingly expensive. We may not be able to maintain or increase our insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in an amount adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent protection for our technology, our current drug candidates and any future drug candidates that we may develop, or if the scope of the patent protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, our competitors and other third parties could develop and commercialize technology and drug candidates similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize our technology and drug candidates may be impaired, and we may not be able to compete effectively in our market.
Our commercial success depends, in large part, on our ability to obtain and maintain patent and other intellectual property and proprietary protection in the United States and other countries with respect to our current drug candidates, future drug candidates that we may develop and proprietary technology. We seek to protect our proprietary position by filing patent applications in the United States and abroad related to our novel technologies and drug candidates. If we are unable to obtain or maintain patent protection with respect to our proprietary drug candidates and technology or do not otherwise adequately protect our intellectual property, competitors and other third parties may be able to use our drug candidates and technologies and erode or negate any competitive advantage that we may have, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Any disclosure to or misappropriation by third parties of our confidential proprietary information could enable competitors and other third parties to quickly duplicate or surpass our technological achievements, thus eroding our competitive position in our market. Moreover, the patent applications we own, co-own or license may fail to result in issued patents that cover our current and future drug candidates in the United States or in other foreign countries. Our patent applications cannot be enforced against third parties practicing the technology claimed in such applications unless, and until, a patent issues from such applications, and then only to the extent the issued claims cover the technology. If the patent applications we hold with respect to our development programs and drug candidates fail to issue, if their breadth or strength of protection is threatened or if they fail to provide meaningful exclusivity for our current and future drug candidates, it could have a material adverse effect on our ability to commercialize our drug candidates and our business.
To protect our proprietary positions, we file patent applications in the United States and other countries related to our novel technologies and drug candidates that are important to our business. The patent application and prosecution process is expensive, complex and time-consuming, and we may not be able to file and prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications in all potential jurisdictions at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. It is also possible that we will fail to identify patentable aspects of our research and development output before it is too late to obtain patent protection. It is possible that defects of form in the preparation or filing of our patents or patent applications may exist, or may arise in the future, such as with respect to proper priority claims, inventorship, claim scope or patent term adjustments, and it is possible that we may be unable to correct such defects. If any current or future licensors or licensees are not fully cooperative or disagree with us as to the prosecution, maintenance or enforcement of any patent rights, such patent rights could be compromised and we might not be able to prevent third parties from making, using and selling competing products. If there are material defects in the form or preparation of our patents or patent applications, such patents or applications may be invalid and unenforceable. Moreover, our competitors and other third parties may independently develop equivalent knowledge, methods and know-how, or design around our claimed subject matter. Any of these outcomes could impair our ability to prevent competition from third parties.
52

Method of use patents protect the use of a product for the specified method. This type of patent does not prevent a competitor from making and marketing a product that is identical to our therapeutics for an indication that is outside the scope of the patented method. Moreover, even if competitors do not actively promote their product for our targeted indications, clinicians may prescribe these products “off-label.” Although off-label prescriptions may infringe or contribute to the infringement of method of use patents, the practice is common and such infringement is difficult to prevent or prosecute. Consequently, the types of claims in issued patents of our patent portfolio may fail to afford strong protection against third-party infringement.
The patent position of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies generally is highly uncertain, involves complex legal and factual questions and has in recent years been the subject of much litigation, resulting in court decisions, including U.S. Supreme Court decisions, which have increased uncertainties as to the ability to enforce patent rights in the future. In addition, the protections offered by laws of different countries vary and the laws of foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. For example, European patent law and jurisprudence restricts the patentability of methods of treatment of the human body more than U.S. patent law does. No consistent policy regarding the breadth of claims allowed in biotechnology and pharmaceutical patents has emerged to date in the United States or in many foreign jurisdictions. In addition, the determination of patent rights with respect to pharmaceutical compounds and technologies commonly involves complex legal and factual questions, which have in recent years been the subject of much litigation. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability and commercial value of our patent rights, whether owned or in-licensed, are highly uncertain.
We may not be aware of all third-party intellectual property rights potentially relating to our current and future drug candidates or their intended uses, and as a result the impact of such third-party intellectual property rights upon the patentability of our own patents and patent applications, as well as the impact of such third-party intellectual property upon our freedom to operate, is highly uncertain. Publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions typically are not published until 18 months after filing, or in some cases not at all. Therefore, we cannot know with certainty whether we or our licensors were the first to make the inventions claimed in our patents or pending patent applications, or that we or our licensors were the first inventors to file for patent protection of such inventions. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability and commercial value of our patent rights are highly uncertain. Our pending and future patent applications, whether owned or in-licensed, may not result in patents being issued that protect our technology or drug candidates, in whole or in part, or that effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive technologies and products. Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of the patent laws in the United States and other countries may diminish the value of our patents or narrow the scope of our patent protection. Moreover, we may be subject to third-party challenges in patent offices in the United States and abroad. Even issued patents may later be found invalid or unenforceable or may be modified or revoked in proceedings instituted by third parties before various patent offices or in courts. For example, our pending patent applications may be subject to third-party submissions of prior art to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) challenging the validity of one or more claims of our owned or licensed pending patent applications, precluding the granting of a patent based on one of our owned or licensed pending patent applications or we may become involved in opposition, derivation, reexamination, inter partes review, post-grant review or other post-grant proceedings, in the United States or elsewhere, challenging our or our licensors’ patent rights or the patent rights of others. An adverse determination in any such challenge could reduce the scope of, or invalidate, our patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our technology or drug candidates and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize products without infringing third-party patent rights, which could significantly harm our business and results of operations. Such challenges may result in loss of patent rights or exclusivity, or in patent claims being narrowed, invalidated or held unenforceable, in whole or in part, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and drug candidates, or limit the duration of the patent protection of our technology and drug candidates. Such proceedings also may result in substantial cost and require significant time from our scientific personnel and management, even if the eventual outcome is favorable to us. In addition, any threat to the breadth or strength of protection provided by our patents and patent applications could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to license, develop or commercialize current or future drug candidates.
53

Even if our patent applications issue as patents and are unchallenged, they may not issue in a form that will provide us with any meaningful protection against competing products or processes sufficient to achieve our business objectives, prevent competitors and other third parties from competing with us or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Our competitors and other third parties may be able to design around or circumvent our patents, should they issue, by developing similar or alternative technologies or products in a non-infringing manner. Our competitors and other third parties may seek approval to market their own products similar to or otherwise competitive with our products. In these circumstances, we may need to defend and/or assert our patents, including by filing lawsuits alleging patent infringement. In any of these types of proceedings, a court or other agency with jurisdiction may find our patents invalid and/or unenforceable. If the patent protection provided by the patents and patent applications we own or license is not sufficiently broad and strong to impede such competition, our ability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates could be negatively affected and companies may be dissuaded from collaborating with us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new drug candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. As a result, our patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours. The degree of future protection for our proprietary rights is uncertain. Only limited protection may be available and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep any competitive advantage. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Changes in patent law in the United States and in non-U.S. jurisdictions could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our drug candidates.
As is the case with other biopharmaceutical companies, our success is heavily dependent on intellectual property, particularly patents. Obtaining and enforcing patents in the biopharmaceutical industry involves both technological and legal complexity, and therefore is costly, time-consuming and inherently uncertain. Past or future patent reform legislation in the United States and other countries could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of patent applications and the enforcement or defense of issued patents, may diminish the value of our patents or narrow the scope of our patent protection and may affect the scope, strength and enforceability of our patent rights or the nature of proceedings that may be brought by or against us related to our patent rights.
Additionally, recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings have narrowed the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances and weakened the rights of patent owners in certain situations. In addition to increasing uncertainty with regard to our ability to obtain patents in the future, this combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the value of patents once obtained. Depending on decisions and actions by the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Supreme Court, the U.S. courts, the USPTO and the relevant law-making bodies in other countries, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that would weaken our ability to obtain new patents or to enforce our existing patents and patents that we might obtain in the future. Any of the foregoing, including any similar adverse changes in the patent laws of other jurisdictions, could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Even if we are able to obtain patent protection for our drug candidates, the life of such protection is limited, and third parties could develop and commercialize products and technologies similar or identical to ours and compete directly against us after the expiration of our patent rights and our ability to successfully commercialize any product or technology would be materially adversely affected.
The life of a patent and the protection it affords is limited. For example, in the United States, if all maintenance fees are timely paid, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years from its earliest U.S. non-provisional filing date. Even if we successfully obtain patent protection for an approved drug candidate, it may face competition from generic or biosimilar medications. Manufacturers of generic or biosimilar drugs may challenge the scope, validity or enforceability of our patents in court or before a patent office, and we may not be successful in enforcing or defending those intellectual property rights and, as a result, may not be able to develop or market the relevant product exclusively, which would materially adversely affect any potential sales of that product.
54

Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new drug candidates, patents protecting such drug candidates might expire before or shortly after such drug candidates are commercialized. As a result, our patents and patent applications may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours. Upon issuance in the United States, the term of a patent can be increased by patent term adjustment based on certain delays caused by the USPTO, but this increase can be reduced or eliminated based on certain delays caused by the patent applicant during patent prosecution. The term of a U.S. patent may also be shortened if the patent is terminally disclaimed over an earlier-filed patent. A patent term extension (“PTE”) based on regulatory delay may be available in the United States. However, only a single patent can be extended for each marketing approval, and any patent can be extended only once, for a single product. Laws governing extensions analogous to PTEs in foreign jurisdictions vary widely, as do laws governing the ability to obtain multiple patents from a single patent family. Additionally, we may not receive an extension if we fail to exercise due diligence during the testing phase or regulatory review process, apply within applicable deadlines, fail to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents or otherwise fail to satisfy applicable requirements. If we are unable to obtain PTE or restoration, or the term of any such extension is less than we request, the period during which we will have the right to exclusively market our therapeutic will be shorter and our competitors may obtain approval of competing products following our patent expiration and may take advantage of our investment in development and clinical trials by referencing our clinical and preclinical data to launch their product earlier than might otherwise be the case, and our revenue could be reduced, possibly materially. Upon the expiration of patents that may issue from our pending patent applications, we will not be able to assert such patent rights against potential competitors and other third parties, which would materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We may need to license intellectual property from third parties, such licenses may not be available or may not be available on commercially reasonable terms and we may not be successful in obtaining or maintaining necessary rights to our drug candidates through acquisitions and in-licenses.
A third party may hold intellectual property, including patent rights, that are important or necessary to the development of our drug candidates. It may be necessary for us to use the patented or proprietary technology of a third party to commercialize our own technology or drug candidates, in which case we would be required to obtain a license from such third party. Because our development programs may in the future require the use of proprietary rights held by third parties, the growth of our business may depend in part on our ability to acquire, in-license, or use these third-party proprietary rights. A license to such intellectual property may not be available or may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We may be unable to acquire or in-license any compositions, methods of use, processes or other third-party intellectual property rights from third parties that we identify as necessary for our drug candidates.
The licensing and acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights is a competitive practice, and companies that may be more established, or have greater resources than we do, also may be pursuing strategies to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights that we may consider necessary or attractive in order to commercialize our drug candidates. More established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their larger size and cash resources or greater clinical development and commercialization capabilities. In addition, companies that perceive us to be a competitor may be unwilling to assign or license rights to us. We also may be unable to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights on terms that would allow us to make an appropriate return on our investment or at all. We may not be able to successfully complete such negotiations and ultimately acquire the rights to the intellectual property surrounding the additional drug candidates we may seek to acquire. If we are unable to successfully obtain rights to required third-party intellectual property rights or maintain the existing intellectual property rights we have, we may have to abandon development of the relevant program or drug candidate, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
We may not identify relevant third-party patents or may incorrectly interpret the relevance, scope or expiration of a third-party patent, and third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our commercial success depends, in part, upon our ability, and the ability of our collaborators to develop, manufacture, market and sell our drug candidates and future drug candidates and use our proprietary technologies without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property and other proprietary rights of third parties.
55

Numerous third-party U.S. and non-U.S. issued patents exist in the area of biotechnology, including in the area of targeted protein degraders and including patents owned or controlled by our competitors. There is considerable and complex intellectual property litigation in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, as well as administrative proceedings for challenging patents, including interference, reexamination and inter partes review proceedings before the USPTO and oppositions and other comparable proceedings in foreign jurisdictions. We may in the future become party to, or be threatened with, adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our drug candidates, future drug candidates and technology, including interference, derivation, reexamination or inter partes review proceedings before the USPTO. Our competitors or other third parties may assert infringement claims against us based on existing patents or patents that may be granted in the future and claims may also come from competitors or other third parties against whom our own patent portfolio may have no deterrent effect. The outcome of intellectual property litigation is subject to uncertainties that cannot be adequately quantified in advance. Other parties may allege that our drug candidates or the use of our technologies infringe patent claims or other intellectual property rights held by them or that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization.
As we continue to develop and, if approved, commercialize our current and future drug candidates, competitors or other third parties may claim that our technology infringes, misappropriates or otherwise violates their intellectual property rights. There are and may in the future be additional U.S. and foreign-issued patents and pending patent applications owned by third parties in the fields in which we are pursuing drug candidates. For example, we are aware of a patent owned by a third party with a claim that covers many potential targeted protein degraders. This patent may be alleged to cover one or more of our targeted protein degrader drug candidates, including our NX-5948 and NX-2127 drug candidates. While we believe that we have valid defenses against any assertion of such patent against us, such defenses may be unsuccessful. If we are unsuccessful and any of our targeted protein degrader drug candidates is found to infringe this patent, we could be required to obtain a license to such patent or forced to permanently cease developing, manufacturing, marketing and commercializing the infringing targeted protein degrader drug candidate. We may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms or at all, and even if we were able to obtain a license, it could be non-exclusive, thereby giving the licensor and other third parties the right to use the same technologies licensed to us, and it could require us to make substantial licensing, royalty and other payments. We also could be forced, including by court order, to permanently cease developing, manufacturing, marketing and commercializing the drug candidate. In addition, we could be found liable for significant monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees, if we are found to have willingly infringed any such patent. Even if we were ultimately to prevail, any litigation could require us to divert substantial financial and management resources that we would otherwise be able to devote to our business.
Moreover, as the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries expand and more patents are issued, the risk increases that our drug candidates may give rise to claims of infringement of the patent rights of others. There may be third-party patents of which we are currently unaware with claims to materials, formulations, methods of manufacture or methods for treatment related to the use or manufacture of our drug candidates or we may incorrectly conclude that a third-party patent is invalid, unenforceable or not infringed by our activities. Because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending patent applications that may later result in issued patents that our drug candidates may infringe. In addition, third parties may obtain patents in the future and claim that use of our technologies infringes upon these patents.
Patent and other types of the intellectual property litigation can involve complex factual and legal questions, and their outcome is uncertain. If we are found, or believe there is a risk we may be found, by a court of competent jurisdiction to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate a third party’s intellectual property rights, we could be required or may choose to obtain a license from such third party to continue developing and marketing our products and technology. In addition, we could be found liable for monetary damages, which could be significant, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees if we are found to have willfully infringed a patent or other intellectual property right. A finding of infringement could prevent us from producing or commercializing our drug candidates or future drug candidates or force us to cease some of our business operations, which could materially harm our business. Alternatively, we may need to redesign our infringing products, which may be impossible or require substantial time and monetary expenditure, including due to any additional or separate regulatory approval to which the redesigned products may be subject by regulatory authorities, and any redesigned products may be of inferior quality or performance. If we lose a foreign patent lawsuit alleging our infringement of a competitor’s patents, we could be prevented from marketing our therapeutics in one or more foreign countries and/or be required to pay monetary damages for infringement or royalties in order to continue marketing. Claims that we have misappropriated the confidential information, trade secrets or other intellectual property of third parties could have a similar negative impact on our business. Any of these outcomes would have a material adverse effect on our business.
56

Further, we do not know which processes we will use for commercial manufacture of our future products, or which technologies owned or controlled by third parties may prove important or essential to those processes. Many companies have filed, and continue to file, patent applications related to novel protein modulation therapies that target disease-causing proteins and many companies have filed and continue to file patent applications related to ACT. Some of these patent applications have already been allowed or issued and others may issue in the future. Because this area is competitive and of strong interest to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, there likely will be additional patent applications filed and additional patents granted in the future, as well as additional research and development programs expected in the future. If a patent holder believes the manufacture, use, sale, offer for sale or importation of one of our drug candidates or future products infringes its patent, the patent holder may sue us even if we have licensed other patent protection for our technology. Moreover, we may face patent infringement claims from non-practicing entities that have no relevant product revenue and against whom our licensed patent portfolio may therefore have no deterrent effect.
It is also possible that we have failed to identify all relevant third-party patents or applications. Patent searching is imperfect due to differences in terminology among patents, incomplete databases and the difficulty in assessing the meaning of patent claims. We may fail to identify relevant patents or patent applications or may identify pending patent applications of potential interest but incorrectly predict the likelihood that such patent applications may issue with claims of relevance to our technology. For example, we may incorrectly determine that our drug candidates are not covered by a third-party patent or may incorrectly predict whether a third-party’s pending application will issue with claims of relevant scope.
In addition, we may be unaware of one or more issued patents that would be infringed by the manufacture, sale, importation or use of a current or future drug candidate, or we may incorrectly conclude that a third-party patent is invalid, unenforceable or not infringed by our activities. Our competitors in both the United States and abroad, many of which have substantially greater resources and have made substantial investments in patent portfolios and competing technologies, may have applied for or obtained or may in the future apply for and obtain, patents that will prevent, limit or otherwise interfere with our ability to make, use and sell our therapeutics. We do not always conduct independent reviews of pending patent applications of and patents issued to third parties.
Furthermore, because patent applications can take many years to issue, may be confidential for 18 months or more after filing and can be revised before issuance, there may be applications now pending that we are not aware of that may later result in issued patents that may be infringed by the manufacture, use, sale or importation of our drug candidates or future products. Additionally, pending patent applications that have been published can, subject to certain limitations, later be amended in a manner that could cover our technologies, our future products or the manufacture or use of our future products. As such, there may be applications of others now pending or recently revived patents of which we are unaware. These patent applications may later result in issued patents, or the revival of previously abandoned patents, that will prevent, limit or otherwise interfere with our ability to make, use or sell our products.
Third parties may assert infringement claims against us based on existing intellectual property rights and intellectual property rights that may be granted in the future. If we were to challenge the validity of an issued U.S. patent in court, such as an issued U.S. patent of potential relevance to some of our drug candidates or future drug candidates or manufacture or methods of use, we would need to overcome a statutory presumption of validity that attaches to every U.S. patent. This burden is a high one and in order to prevail, we would have to present clear and convincing evidence as to the invalidity of the patent’s claims. Even if we believe third-party intellectual property claims are without merit, there is no assurance that a court would find in our favor on questions of infringement, validity or enforceability by invalidating the claims of any such U.S. patent or finding that our drug candidates or technology did not infringe any such claims.
We may choose to challenge the enforceability or validity of claims in a third party’s U.S. patent by requesting that the USPTO review the patent claims in an ex-parte re-exam, inter partes review or post-grant review proceedings. These proceedings are expensive and may consume our time or other resources. We may choose to challenge a third party’s patent in patent opposition proceedings in the European Patent Office (EPO) or other foreign patent office. The costs of these opposition proceedings could be substantial and may consume our time or other resources. If we fail to obtain a favorable result at the USPTO, EPO or other patent office then we may be exposed to litigation by a third party alleging that the patent may be infringed by our drug candidates or proprietary technologies.
57

Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may be time-consuming, cause us to incur significant expenses and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities and ongoing business operations. If we are unable to avoid infringing the patent rights of others, we may be required to seek a license, defend an infringement action or challenge the validity of the patents in court, or redesign our future products or processes. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing or distribution activities. Unlike some of our larger competitors and other third parties, we may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation or administrative proceedings, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure. Uncertainties resulting from the litigation of patent litigation and other proceedings could delay our research and development efforts, adversely affect our ability to raise additional funds and could limit our ability to continue our operations. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We may be subject to claims by third parties asserting that we or our employees, consultants, contractors or advisors have misappropriated, wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets or other intellectual property, or claiming ownership of what we regard as our own intellectual property.
We may hire and employ individuals who were previously employed at, or may have previously provided or may be currently providing consulting services to, universities as well as other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. We have received confidential and proprietary information from collaborators, prospective licensees and other third parties. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants and advisors do not improperly use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that these individuals or we have inadvertently or otherwise improperly used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such individual’s former employer. We also may in the future be subject to claims that we have caused such individual to breach the terms of his or her non-competition or non-solicitation agreement or from former employers or other third parties claiming to have an ownership interest in our patents or other intellectual property. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. We may not be successful in defending these claims, and if we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights, such as exclusive ownership of, or right to use, valuable intellectual property. In addition, we may lose personnel as a result of such claims and any such litigation or the threat thereof may adversely affect our ability to hire employees or contract with independent contractors. A loss of key personnel or their work product could hamper or prevent our ability to commercialize our drug candidates, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. Even if we are successful, litigation could result in substantial cost and reputational loss and distract our management and other employees from their regular responsibilities.
In addition, although it is our policy to require our employees, consultants and contractors who may be involved in the development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who in fact develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. Moreover, even when we obtain agreements assigning intellectual property to us, such assignment agreements may not be self-executing or may be breached, and we may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property. Furthermore, individuals executing agreements with us may have preexisting or competing obligations to a third party, such as an academic institution, and thus an agreement with us may be ineffective in perfecting ownership of inventions developed by that individual. In addition, we or our licensors may in the future be subject to claims by former employees, consultants or other third parties asserting an ownership right in our owned or licensed patents or patent applications. An adverse determination in any such litigation or proceeding may result in loss of exclusivity or freedom to operate or in patent claims being narrowed, invalidated or held unenforceable, in whole or in part, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar technology and therapeutics, without payment to us, or could limit the duration of the patent protection covering our technology and drug candidates. Such challenges may also result in our inability to develop, manufacture or commercialize our drug candidates without infringing third-party patent rights. In addition, if the breadth or strength of protection provided by our owned or licensed patents and patent applications is threatened, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to license, develop or commercialize current or future drug candidates. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
58

We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents, the patents of our licensors, or other intellectual property, which could be expensive, time-consuming and unsuccessful.
Competitors or other third parties may infringe our patents, the patents of our licensors or other intellectual property. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims, which, regardless of merit, can be expensive, time-consuming, unpredictable and divert the time and attention of our management and scientific personnel. Any claims we assert against perceived infringers could provoke those parties to assert counterclaims against us alleging that we infringe their patents or other intellectual property. In addition, in a patent infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours or our licensors is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, construe the patent’s claims narrowly or refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology in question. Grounds for a validity challenge could include an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, including lack of novelty, obviousness, written description, non-enablement or failure to claim patent-eligible subject matter. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could include an allegation that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld information material to patentability from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. Third parties also may raise similar claims before administrative bodies in the United States or abroad, even outside the context of litigation. Such mechanisms include reexamination, post-grant review, inter partes review, interference proceedings, derivation proceedings and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions. Such proceedings could result in the revocation or cancellation of or amendment to our patents in such a way that they no longer cover our drug candidates or prevent third parties from competing with our drug candidates. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability is unpredictable. With respect to the validity question, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art, of which the patent examiner and we or our licensing partners were unaware during prosecution. In any patent infringement proceeding, there is a risk that a court will decide that a patent of ours is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part. If a third party were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability, we could lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on our drug candidates. There is also a risk that, even if the validity of such patents is upheld, the court will construe the patent’s claims narrowly or decide that we do not have the right to stop the other party from using the invention at issue on the grounds that our patent claims do not cover the invention, or decide that the other party’s use of our future patented technology falls under the safe harbor to patent infringement under 35 U.S.C. §271(e)(1). An adverse result in any litigation or proceeding involving our patents or patent applications may put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated, held unenforceable or interpreted narrowly. An adverse outcome in a litigation or proceeding involving our patents could limit our ability to assert our patents against those parties or other competitors and may curtail or preclude our ability to exclude third parties from making and selling similar or competitive products. Any of these occurrences could adversely affect our competitive business position, business prospects and financial condition. Similarly, if we assert trademark infringement claims, a court may determine that the marks we have asserted are invalid or unenforceable, or that the party against whom we have asserted trademark infringement has superior rights to the marks in question. In this case, we could ultimately be forced to cease use of such trademarks.
Even if we successfully assert our patents or other intellectual property rights, a court may not award remedies that sufficiently compensate us for our losses. For example, the court may decide not to grant an injunction against further infringing activity and instead award only monetary damages, which may or may not be an adequate remedy. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during litigation. The impact of public announcements of the results of hearings related to such awards on the price of our common stock may be uncertain. If securities analysts or investors perceive such results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Moreover, there can be no assurance that we will have sufficient financial or other resources to file and pursue such infringement claims, which typically last for years before they are concluded. Some of our competitors or other third parties may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources and more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios. Even if we ultimately prevail in such claims, the monetary cost of such litigation and the diversion of the attention of our management and scientific personnel for significant periods of time during such litigation could outweigh any benefit we receive as a result of the proceedings. In addition, the uncertainties associated with litigation could compromise our ability to raise the funds necessary to continue our clinical trials, continue our internal research programs, in-license needed technology or other drug candidates, or enter into development partnerships that would help us bring our drug candidates to market. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing, misappropriating or successfully challenging our intellectual property rights. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
59

We may not be able to pursue or guarantee protection of our intellectual property rights in jurisdictions outside the United States.
Patents are of national or regional effect. Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on drug candidates, research programs and technology in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and our intellectual property rights in some countries outside the United States could be less extensive than those in the United States. In some cases, we may not be able to obtain patent protection for certain technology and drug candidates outside the United States. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as federal and state laws in the United States, even in jurisdictions where we do pursue patent protection. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States, even in jurisdictions where we do pursue patent protection, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in and into the United States or other jurisdictions. Competitors or other third parties may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not pursued and obtained patent protection to develop their own products and, further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection, but enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our drug candidates and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.
Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, may not favor the enforcement of patents, trade secrets and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biotechnology products, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents, if pursued and obtained, or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.
Many countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of such patent. If we or any of our licensors is forced to grant a license to third parties with respect to any patents relevant to our business, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.
In Europe, beginning June 1, 2023, European applications and patents may be subject to the jurisdiction of the Unified Patent Court (UPC). Also, European applications will have the option, upon grant of a patent, of becoming a Unitary Patent which will be subject to the jurisdiction of the UPC. This will be a significant change in European patent practice. As the UPC is a new court system, there is no precedent for the court, increasing the uncertainty of any litigation. As a single court system can invalidate a European patent, we, where applicable, may opt out of the UPC, and as such, each European patent would need to be challenged in each individual country.
Obtaining and maintaining patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, documentary, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent offices, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.
Periodic maintenance, renewal and annuity fees and various other government fees on any issued patent and/or patent application are due to be paid to the USPTO and patent offices in foreign countries in several stages over the lifetime of the patent and/or patent application. The USPTO and patent offices in various foreign countries require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar requirements during the patent application process and throughout the life of a granted patent. Although an inadvertent lapse can in many cases be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of a patent or patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Non-compliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include, but are not limited to, failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, non-payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. In such an event, our competitors or other third parties might be able to enter the market, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and competitive position.
60

We may become subject to claims challenging the inventorship or ownership of our patents and other intellectual property.
We may be subject to claims that former employees, collaborators or other third parties have an interest in our patents or other intellectual property as an inventor or co-inventor. The failure to name the proper inventors on a patent application can result in the patents issuing thereon being unenforceable. Inventorship disputes may arise from conflicting views regarding the contributions of different individuals named as inventors, the effects of foreign laws where foreign nationals are involved in the development of the subject matter of the patent, conflicting obligations of third parties involved in developing our drug candidates or as a result of questions regarding co-ownership of potential joint inventions. Litigation may be necessary to resolve these and other claims challenging inventorship or ownership. Alternatively, or additionally, we may enter into agreements to clarify the scope of our rights in such intellectual property. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights, such as exclusive ownership of, or right to use, valuable intellectual property. Such an outcome could have a material adverse effect on our business. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.
In addition, while it is our policy to require our employees and contractors who may be involved in the conception or development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who, in fact, conceives or develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. The assignment of intellectual property rights may not be self-executing, or the assignment agreements may be breached, and we may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims that they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property. Such claims could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.
In addition to seeking patents for some of our technology and drug candidates, we also rely on trade secrets, including unpatented know-how, technology and other proprietary information, and confidentiality agreements to maintain our competitive position. Any disclosure, either intentional or unintentional, by our employees, the employees of third parties with whom we share our facilities or third-party consultants and vendors that we engage to perform research, clinical trials or manufacturing activities, or misappropriation by third parties (such as through a cybersecurity breach) of our trade secrets or proprietary information could enable competitors to duplicate or surpass our technological achievements, thus eroding our competitive position in our market.
Trade secrets can be difficult to protect. We seek to protect our trade secrets, proprietary technology and processes, in part, by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to them, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, CROs, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants. We also seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our data and trade secrets by maintaining physical security of our premises and physical and electronic security of our information technology systems; however, such systems and security measures may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. We cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that may have or had access to our trade secrets or proprietary technology and processes and even in cases we have, we cannot be certain that our trade secrets and other confidential proprietary information will not be disclosed or used in an unauthorized manner by third parties. Monitoring unauthorized uses and disclosures of our intellectual property is difficult, and we do not know whether the steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property will be effective. Furthermore, despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is expensive, time-consuming and difficult to prove and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts inside and outside of the United States may be less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. As a result, we could lose our trade secrets and third parties could use our trade secrets to compete with our drug candidates and technology.
Moreover, our competitors or other third parties may independently develop knowledge, methods and know-how equivalent to our trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor or other third parties, we would have no right to prevent them, or those to whom they communicate it, from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor or other third parties, our competitive position would be harmed.
61

Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats.
The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations and may not adequately protect our business or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. For example:
others may be able to make products that are similar to any drug candidates we may develop or utilize similar technology but that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we own or license now or in the future, or may develop drug candidates for the diseases our drug candidates seek to treat that do not infringe on our intellectual property rights, but which perform better or are more successful than our drug candidates;
drug candidates utilizing issued patents and other intellectual property that we hold may prove to be ineffective for their intended treatment or we may not obtain regulatory approval for such drug candidates;
we, or our current or future license partners or collaborators, might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the issued patent or pending patent application that we own or license now or in the future;
we, or our current or future license partners or collaborators, might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our or their inventions;
others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our owned or licensed intellectual property rights;
it is possible that our pending owned patent applications or those that we may own or license in the future will not lead to issued patents;
we cannot predict the scope of protection of any patent issuing based on our patent applications, including whether the patent applications that we own will result in issued patents with claims directed to our drug candidates or uses thereof in the United States or in other foreign countries;
the claims of any current patents or patent issuing based on patent applications that we own may not provide protection against competitors or any competitive advantages or may be challenged by third parties;
issued patents that we may hold rights to in the future may be held invalid or unenforceable, including as a result of legal challenges by our competitors;
our competitors might conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets;
we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;
there may be significant pressure on the U.S. government and international governmental bodies to limit the scope of patent protection both inside and outside the United States for disease treatments that prove successful, as a matter of public policy regarding worldwide health concerns;
countries other than the United States may have patent laws less favorable to patentees than those upheld by U.S. courts, allowing foreign competitors a better opportunity to create, develop and market competing drug candidates;
we may need to initiate litigation or administrative proceedings to enforce and/or defend our patent rights which will be costly whether we win or lose;
if we enforce and/or defend our patent rights, a court may not hold that our patents are valid, enforceable and infringed;
we may choose not to file a patent application in order to maintain certain trade secrets or know-how, and a third party may subsequently file a patent application covering such intellectual property;
we may fail to adequately protect and police our trademarks and trade secrets; and
the patents of others may have an adverse effect on our business, including if others obtain patents claiming subject matter similar to or improving subject matter that is covered by our patent applications.
Should any of these events occur, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
62

Risks Related to Regulatory Approval and Marketing of Our Drug Candidates
The regulatory approval process of the FDA and other national or European regulators is lengthy, time-consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain marketing approval for our drug candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.
The time required to obtain approval by the FDA and other national or European regulators is unpredictable but typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. In addition, approval policies, regulations or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a drug candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions. We have not obtained marketing approval for any drug candidate, and it is possible that none of our existing drug candidates, or any drug candidates we may seek to develop in the future, will ever obtain marketing approval.
Our drug candidates could be delayed or fail to receive marketing approval for many reasons, including the following:
the FDA may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;
the FDA may disagree with the design or implementation of our planned clinical trials;
data collected from clinical trials of our drug candidates may not be sufficient to support the submission of an NDA to the FDA or other submissions necessary to obtain marketing approval in the United States;
we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA that a drug candidate is safe and effective for its proposed indication;
the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA for approval;
we may be unable to demonstrate that our drug candidates’ clinical and other benefits outweigh their safety risks;
the FDA may find deficiencies with or fail to approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; and
the approval policies or regulations of the FDA may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.
This lengthy approval process, as well as the unpredictability of future clinical trial results, may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market any of our drug candidates, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. The FDA has substantial discretion in the approval process, and in determining when or whether regulatory approval will be obtained for any of our drug candidates. Even if we believe the data collected from clinical trials of our drug candidates are promising, such data may not be sufficient to support approval by the FDA.
In addition, even if we were to obtain approval, regulatory authorities may approve any of our drug candidates for fewer or more limited indications than we request, or they may impose significant limitations in the form of narrow indications, warnings or a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS). In addition, regulatory authorities may not approve the price we intend to charge for our products, may require precautions or contra-indications with respect to conditions of use, may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials, or may approve a drug candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that drug candidate. Any of the foregoing scenarios could materially harm the commercial prospects for our drug candidates.
63

We have received Fast Track designation for NX-5948 and may seek Fast Track designation for other drug candidates in the future. Fast Track designation may not lead to faster development or regulatory review or approval process, and it does not increase the likelihood that our drug candidates will receive marketing approval.
In January 2024, the FDA granted Fast Track designation for NX-5948 in the United States for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma after at least two lines of therapy, including a BTK inhibitory and a B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitor. As part of our business strategy, we may also seek Fast Track designation for other of our drug candidates. Programs with Fast Track designation may be eligible for more frequent interactions with the FDA, and, if relevant criteria are met, eligibility for Accelerated Approval and Priority Review. Fast Track designation applies to the drug candidate and the specific indication for which it is being studied. The FDA has broad discretion whether or not to grant this designation, so even if we believe a particular drug candidate is eligible for this designation, we cannot guarantee that the FDA would decide to grant it. If a drug candidate receives Fast Track designation but does not continue to meet the criteria for Fast Track designation, or if our clinical trials are delayed, suspended or terminated, or put on clinical hold due to unexpected adverse events or issues with clinical supply, we will not receive the benefits associated with the Fast Track program.
Furthermore, Fast Track designation does not change the standards for approval. The receipt of Fast Track designation for a drug candidate may not result in a faster development, regulatory review or approval process compared to drug candidates considered for approval under conventional FDA procedures and does not assure ultimate approval by the FDA. In addition, even if any drug candidate qualifies for FastTrack designation, the FDA may later decide that the drug candidate no longer meets the conditions for qualification or that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened. Fast Track designation alone does not guarantee qualification for FDA Priority Review.
Under FDA policies, a drug candidate is eligible for Priority Review, or review within a six-month time frame from the time a complete NDA is accepted for filing, if the drug candidate provides a significant improvement compared to marketed drugs in the treatment, diagnosis or prevention of a disease. The FDA determines whether a drug qualifies for Priority Review after an NDA for such drug is submitted to the FDA. Therefore, until we submit NDAs for our drug candidates, we cannot be assured that they will be granted Priority Review. Even if Priority Review is granted for one of our drug candidates, the FDA does not always meet its six-month goal date for Priority Review, and the review process may be extended if the FDA requests additional information or clarification.
We may submit an NDA for our drug candidates under the Accelerated Approval pathway. If we are unable to obtain approval of our drug candidates through the Accelerated Approval Program in the United States, we may be required to conduct additional nonclinical and clinical studies and trials beyond those that we currently contemplate, which could increase the expense of obtaining, reduce the likelihood of obtaining and/or delay the timing of obtaining, necessary marketing approval. Even if we receive approval from the FDA through the Accelerated Approval Program, if our confirmatory postmarketing trial does not verify clinical benefit, or if we do not comply with rigorous postmarketing requirements, the FDA may seek to withdraw the approval.
We may submit an NDA for one or more of our drug candidates seeking approval through the Accelerated Approval Pathway. For any approval to market a drug product, we must provide the FDA and foreign regulatory agencies with clinical data that adequately demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the product for the indication applied for in the NDA or other respective regulatory filings. The Accelerated Approval Program is one of several approaches used by the FDA to make prescription drugs more rapidly available for the treatment of serious or life-threatening diseases. Section 506(c) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) provides that the FDA may grant Accelerated Approval to “a product for a serious or life-threatening condition upon a determination that the product has an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit, or on a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality, that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit, taking into account the severity, rarity, or prevalence of the condition and the availability or lack of alternative treatments.” Approval through the Accelerated Approval Program is subject, however, to the requirement that the applicant conduct additional postmarketing clinical trials to verify and describe the drug’s clinical benefit, where there is uncertainty as to the relationship of the surrogate endpoint to the clinical benefit, or of the observed clinical endpoint to ultimate outcome. Typically, clinical benefit is verified when postmarketing clinical trials show that the drug provides a clinically meaningful positive therapeutic effect, that is, an effect on how a patient feels, functions, or survives. The FDA may require that these studies be underway prior to Accelerated Approval pursuant to the Food and Drug Omnibus Reform Act of 2022. If such confirmatory trials fail to confirm the drug’s clinical profile or risks and benefits, the FDA may withdraw its approval of the drug.
64

The FDA has broad discretion with regard to approval through the Accelerated Approval Program, and even if we believe that the Accelerated Approval Program is appropriate for one of our drug candidates, we cannot assure you that the FDA will ultimately agree. The FDA may also change its policies with respect to Accelerated Approval over time. For example, in March 2023, the FDA announced the availability of draft guidance on “Clinical Trial Considerations to Support Accelerated Approval of Oncology Therapeutics,” in which the agency outlined, and invited public comment on, its “preferred approach” of randomized controlled trials, including those that provide for longer term follow-up that could fulfill a postmarketing requirement to verify clinical benefit. In that draft guidance, the FDA acknowledged that historically, single-arm trial designs and response endpoints have most commonly been used in oncology but noted that such trials have limitations. Furthermore, even if we do obtain approval through the Accelerated Approval Program, we may not experience a faster development process, review or approval compared to conventional FDA procedures.
Even if the FDA reviews an NDA seeking Accelerated Approval, there can be no assurance that approval will be granted on a timely basis, or at all. The FDA may disagree that the design of, or results from, our studies support Accelerated Approval. Additionally, the FDA could require us to conduct further studies or trials prior to granting approval of any type, including by determining that approval through the Accelerated Approval Program is not appropriate and that our clinical trials may not be used to support approval through the conventional pathway. We might not be able to fulfill the FDA’s requirements in a timely manner, which would cause delays, or approval might not be granted because our submission is deemed incomplete by the FDA. There also can be no assurance that after subsequent FDA feedback we will continue to pursue approval through the Accelerated Approval Program. A failure to obtain approval through the Accelerated Approval Program could result in a longer time period to obtain approval of our drug candidates, could increase the cost of their development, could delay our ability to commercialize our products and could significantly harm our financial position and competitive position in the marketplace.
Even if we receive approval for one or more of our drug candidates through the Accelerated Approval Program, we will be subject to rigorous postmarketing requirements, including the completion of one or more confirmatory postmarketing trials as the FDA may require, to verify the clinical benefit of the product, and submission to the FDA of all promotional materials prior to their dissemination. The FDA could seek to withdraw the approval for multiple reasons, including if we fail to conduct any required confirmatory postmarketing trial with due diligence, our confirmatory postmarketing trial does not confirm the predicted clinical benefit, other evidence shows that the product is not safe or effective under the conditions of use, or we disseminate promotional materials that are found by the FDA to be false and misleading.
Moreover, Congress is considering potential changes to the Accelerated Approval Program that could impact our ability to obtain Accelerated Approval, or increase the burdens associated with postmarketing requirements in the event we do obtain Accelerated Approval. In particular, the FDA must specify certain conditions for required postapproval studies for products that receive Accelerated Approval, which may include enrollment targets and milestones, including the target date for study completion, by the time the drug is approved. The FDA may also require postapproval studies to be underway at the time of Accelerated Approval or within a specified time period following Accelerated Approval for such drugs, and must explain any instances where it does not require such studies.
Any delay in obtaining, or inability to obtain, approval through the Accelerated Approval Program, or any issues in maintaining approval granted under the Accelerated Approval Program, would delay or prevent commercialization of our products, and would materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We, as a company, have limited experience in filing for and obtaining regulatory approval to initiate a clinical trial, and we do not have experience completing any cl